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  1. The disorders induced by iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews present knowledge on the etiology, pathophysiology, complications, prevention, and therapy of the disorders induced by iodine deficiency. The recommended dietary allowances of iodine are 100 micrograms/day for adults and adolescents, 60-100 micrograms/day for children aged 1 to 10 years, and 35-40 micrograms/day in infants aged less than 1 year. When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute a hindrance to the development of the affected populations, are grouped under the general heading of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). At least one billion people are at risk of IDD. Iodine deficiency, therefore, constitutes one of the most common preventable causes of mental deficiency in the world today. Most of the affected populations live in mountainous areas in preindustrialized countries, but 50 to 100 million people are still at risk in Europe. The most important target groups to the effects of iodine deficiency from a public health point of view are pregnant mothers, fetuses, neonates, and young infants because the main complication of IDD, i.e., brain damage resulting in irreversible mental retardation, is the consequence of thyroid failure occurring during pregnancy, fetal, and early postnatal life. The main cause of endemic goiter and cretinism is an insufficient dietary supply of iodine. The additional role of naturally occurring goitrogens has been documented in the case of certain foods (milk, cassava, millet, nuts) and bacterial and chemical water pollutants. The mechanism by which the thyroid gland adapts to an insufficient iodine supply is to increase the trapping of iodide as well as the subsequent

  2. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  3. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlargement of the thyroid (goiter – see Goiter brochure ), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ) and to mental retardation in infants and ... when lying down, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. HYPOTHYROIDISM – As the body’s iodine levels fall, hypothyroidism may ...

  4. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  5. Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency impairs hippocampal myelinated growth in lactational rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Min, Hui; Song, Binbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency causes neurological deficits and impairments of brain function in offspring. Hypothyroxinemia is prevalent in developing and developed countries alike. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits remains less well known. Given that the myelin plays an important role in learning and memory function, we hypothesize that hippocampal myelinated growth may be impaired in rat offspring exposed to hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency. To test this hypothesis, the female Wistar rats were used and four experimental groups were prepared: (1) control; (2) maternal mild iodine deficiency diet inducing hypothyroxinemia; (3) hypothyroidism induced by maternal severe iodine deficiency diet; (4) hypothyroidism induced by maternal methimazole water. The rats were fed the diet from 3 months before pregnancy to the end of lactation. Our results showed that the physiological changes occuring in the hippocampal myelin were altered in the mild iodine deficiency group as indicated by the results of immunofluorescence of myelin basic proteins on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Moreover, hypothyroxinemia reduced the expressions of oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 and myelin-related proteins in the treatments on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Our data suggested that hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency may impair myelinated growth of the offspring.

  6. Iodine deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace mineral, required for the production of thyroid hormone. Iodine deficiency may result in goiter, hypothyroidism, miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, infant and neonatal mortality, and impaired growth. Adequate thyroid hormone is critically important for normal growth and neurodevelopment in fetal life, infancy and childhood. The population iodine status is most commonly assessed using median urinary iodine concentration values, but goiter prevalence (determined by palpation or by ultrasound), serum thyroglobulin levels, and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone values can also be used. Universal salt iodization programs have been the mainstay of public health efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency worldwide. However, in some regions targeted fortification of foods such as bread has been used to combat iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation may be required in areas where dietary fortification is not feasible or where it is not sufficient for vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. Although international public health efforts over the past several decades have been highly effective, nearly one third of children worldwide remain at risk for iodine deficiency, and iodine deficiency is considered the leading preventable cause of preventable intellectual deficits.

  7. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels.

  8. Iodine deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1995-01-18

    Iodine is a trace element present in the human body in minute amounts (15-20 mg in adults, i.e. 0.0285 x 10(-3)% of body weight). The only confirmed function of iodine is to constitute an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine or T4 and triiodothyronine, T3 (1). In thyroxine, iodine is 60% by weight. Thyroid hormones, in turn, play a decisive role in the metabolism of all cells of the organism (2) and in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially of the brain (3). Brain development in humans occurs from fetal life up to the third postnatal year (4). Consequently, a deficit in iodine and/or in thyroid hormones occurring during this critical period of life will result not only in the slowing down of the metabolic activities of all the cells of the organism but also in irreversible alterations in the development of the brain. The clinical consequence will be mental retardation (5). When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur (Table 1), including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute an hindrance to the development of the affected population, are grouped under the general heading of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, IDD (6). Broad geographic areas exist in which the population is affected by IDD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Is iodine deficiency still relevant?].

    PubMed

    Gärtner, R

    2007-02-22

    In Germany, iodine deficiency and its consequences is still a problem, although it is of less importance than it was twenty years ago. In accordance with the WHO definition, Germany still belongs among those countries with mild iodine deficiency and too low an intake of iodine. As a result groups at particular risk, such as pregnant and nursing women, must still receive iodine supplementation, since, in the absence of supplemental iodine,the amount of iodine in the mother's milk continues to be below average throughout Germany. Both in private households and in the food industry, the aim is to increase the use of iodized salt to more than go%. This entails no risk of an iodine overdose. The current average daily uptake of iodine of approximately 120 micrograms is responsible neither for the development or progression of an autoimmune disease nor a functional disorder of the thyroid gland.

  11. Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, F.; Bürgi, H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary. PMID:2670299

  12. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is generally recognized as the most commonly preventable cause of mental retardation and the most common cause of endocrinopathy (goiter and primary hypothyroidism). Iodine deficiency becomes particularly critical in pregnancy due to the consequences for neurological damage during fetal development as well as during lactation. The safety of therapeutic doses of iodine above the established safe upper limit of 1 mg is evident in the lack of toxicity in the Japanese population that consumes 25 times the median intake of iodine consumption in the United States. Japan's population suffers no demonstrable increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis or hypothyroidism. Studies using 3.0- to 6.0-mg doses to effectively treat fibrocystic breast disease may reveal an important role for iodine in maintaining normal breast tissue architecture and function. Iodine may also have important antioxidant functions in breast tissue and other tissues that concentrate iodine via the sodium iodide symporter.

  13. Iodine deficiency and excess coexist in china and induce thyroid dysfunction and disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Gao, Yanhui; Meng, Fangang; Liu, Shoujun; Fan, Zhipeng; Wu, Junhua; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the salt iodization, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have not been sustainably eliminated in China. There are coastal areas with low iodized salt coverage rates (iodine nutrition is inadequate) and other areas with excessive amounts of iodine in the drinking water. This study aimed to clarify the association of iodine deficiencies resulting from a low coverage rate of iodized salt, excess iodine intake from drinking water with thyroid function and disease in adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults in different iodine nutrition areas in three provinces in China. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was 15.52%, 8.66% and 22.17% in the iodine excess, sufficient and deficient groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 20.09%, 10.41%, and 2.25% in the excess, sufficient and deficient iodine groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism in the iodine deficient group was higher than that in the iodine excess group ([Formula: see text] = 9.302, p = 0.002) and iodine sufficient group ([Formula: see text] = 7.553, p = 0.006). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was significantly correlated with excess iodine intake (β = 1.764,P = 0.001) and deficient iodine intake (β = -1.219, P = 0.028). Thyroid nodules are more likely to be present in the iodine excess and deficient areas than in the iodine sufficient areas. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism are more likely to be prevalent in the iodine deficient areas than in the iodine excess or sufficient areas. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more likely to be prevalent in the high iodine intake areas than in the iodine deficient or sufficient areas. Median TSH may be deemed as an alternative indicator for monitoring the iodine nutrition status of the adult population in iodine excess and deficient areas.

  14. Developmental hypothyroxinaemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency delays hippocampal axonal growth in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Dong, J; Min, H; Song, B; Teng, W; Xi, Q; Chen, J

    2013-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Thyroid hormones are important for central nervous system development. Mild maternal iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinaemia causes neurological deficits and mental retardation of the foetus. However, the detailed mechanism underlying these deficits is still largely unknown. Given that the growth-associated protein of 43 kDa (GAP-43), semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)/collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) pathway are essential for axonal development, we hypothesise that hippocampal axonal growth-related proteins may be impaired, which may contribute to hippocampal axonal growth delay in rat offspring exposed to maternal hypothyroxinaemia. To test this hypothesis, maternal hypothyroxinaemia models were established in Wistar rats using a mild ID diet. Besides a negative control group, two maternal hypothyroidism models were created with either a severe ID diet or methimazole in the water. Our results showed that maternal hypothyroxinaemia exposure delayed offspring axonal growth on gestational day 19, postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14 and PN21. Consistent with this, the mean intensity of hippocampal CRMP2 and Tau1 immunofluorescence axonal protein was reduced in the mild ID group. Moreover, maternal hypothyroxinaemia disrupted expressions of GAP-43 and Sema3A. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of GSK3β and CRMP2 was also affected in the treated offspring, implying a potential mechanism by which hypothyroxinaemia-exposure affects neurodevelopment. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that maternal hypothyroxinaemia may impair axonal growth of the offspring. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  15. Iodine Deficiency and Excess Coexist in China and Induce Thyroid Dysfunction and Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fangang; Liu, Shoujun; Fan, Zhipeng; Wu, Junhua; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    Background In spite of the salt iodization, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have not been sustainably eliminated in China. There are coastal areas with low iodized salt coverage rates (iodine nutrition is inadequate) and other areas with excessive amounts of iodine in the drinking water. Objective This study aimed to clarify the association of iodine deficiencies resulting from a low coverage rate of iodized salt, excess iodine intake from drinking water with thyroid function and disease in adults. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults in different iodine nutrition areas in three provinces in China. Results The prevalence of thyroid nodules was 15.52%, 8.66% and 22.17% in the iodine excess, sufficient and deficient groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 20.09%, 10.41%, and 2.25% in the excess, sufficient and deficient iodine groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism in the iodine deficient group was higher than that in the iodine excess group ( = 9.302, p = 0.002) and iodine sufficient group ( = 7.553, p = 0.006). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was significantly correlated with excess iodine intake (β = 1.764,P = 0.001) and deficient iodine intake (β = −1.219, P = 0.028). Conclusions Thyroid nodules are more likely to be present in the iodine excess and deficient areas than in the iodine sufficient areas. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism are more likely to be prevalent in the iodine deficient areas than in the iodine excess or sufficient areas. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more likely to be prevalent in the high iodine intake areas than in the iodine deficient or sufficient areas. Median TSH may be deemed as an alternative indicator for monitoring the iodine nutrition status of the adult population in iodine excess and deficient areas. PMID:25375854

  16. The changing epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-04-03

    Globally, about 2 thousand million people are affected by iodine deficiency. Although endemic goitre is the most visible sign of iodine deficiency, its most devastating consequence is brain damage causing mental retardation in children. The relationship between iodine deficiency and brain damage was not clearly established until the 1980s when the term iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which encompass a spectrum of conditions caused by iodine deficiency, was introduced. This paradigm shift in the understanding of the clinical consequences of iodine deficiency led to a change in iodine deficiency assessment. The median urinary iodine excretion level has been recommended as the preferred indicator for monitoring population iodine deficiency status since 2001. The 2007 WHO urinary iodine data in schoolchildren from 130 countries revealed that iodine intake is still insufficient in 47 countries. Furthermore, about one-third of countries lack national estimates of the prevalence of iodine deficiency. The picture that has emerged from available data worldwide over the past two decades is that IDDs are not confined to remote, mountainous areas in developing countries, but are a global public health problem that affects most countries, including developed countries and island nations. The recognition of the universality of iodine deficiency highlights the need to develop and apply new strategies to establish and maintain sustainable IDD elimination and strengthen regular monitoring programmes.

  17. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  18. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  19. Oxidative stress increased in pregnant women with iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Zendy Evelyn Olivo; Rufino, Sergio Cuellar; Tlaxcalteco, Esteban Hernández; Trejo, Cirenia Hernández; Campos, Raúl Martínez; Meza, Mónica Navarro; Rodríguez, Rocío Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2014-03-01

    Iodine is an essential element trace for the synthesis of maternal thyroid hormones needed to support normal fetal development; it also acts as an antioxidant directly or induce antioxidant enzymes indirectly. Iodine deficiency and oxidative stress are associated with pregnancy complications. This study aimed to assess the urinary iodine concentration and its relationship with the antioxidant and oxidative stress status during gestation. Pregnant women were consecutively recruited from an obstetric clinic during all gestation trimesters, and urinary iodine concentration, antioxidant, and oxidative stress were determined. Results showed that 70 % of pregnant women have optimal iodine levels (150-200 μg/L), while approximately 30 % showed mild iodine deficiency (50-99 μg/L). Oxidative stress was significantly higher, and the antioxidant status was also compromised as evidenced by decreased total antioxidant status and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in pregnant women with mild iodine deficiency than pregnant women with optimal iodine levels. Significant positive correlations were noted between optimal iodine levels and total antioxidant status. Oxidative stress was significantly correlated with mild iodine deficiency. However, no significant correlation was found between iodine levels and SOD and catalase activities. In conclusion, for the first time, these data suggest a correlation between iodine levels and the antioxidant status during pregnancy.

  20. [Iodine deficiency in infancy - a risk for cognitive development].

    PubMed

    Remer, T; Johner, S A; Gärtner, R; Thamm, M; Kriener, E

    2010-08-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy seriously influences fetal brain development and in the worst case induces cretinism. Recent studies have shown that even a mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and during the first years of life adversely affects brain development. The World Health Organisation (WHO) considers iodine deficiency as the most common preventable cause of early childhood mental deficiency. In this context, the insufficient production of the four iodine atoms containing thyroxine seems to play a causal role, i. e., due to the iodine substrate deficiency the neuronally particularly relevant free-thyroxine level falls. Due to the very limited iodine storage capacity, the infantile thyroid is eminently dependent on an adequate and steady iodine supply. In the first month of life, when milk is the only energy- and nutrient provider, infants fed a commercial formula regularly have a sufficient iodine supply. However, breastfed infants, who depend on maternal iodine status, frequently show an inadequate iodine intake. Furthermore, iodine intake is critical when complementary food (CF) is introduced. Especially homemade CF is poor in iodine, but also commercial CFs are only partly fortified. A simultaneous inadequate iodine supply of the breastfeeding mother and the preferential use of mostly iodine-poor organic milk cannot ensure an adequate iodine supply of the infant. In terms of an improvement of nutrient supply, especially concerning an unhindered brain development, the corresponding German reference value for iodine intake of infants until age 4 month should be raised from currently 40 microg/d to at least 60 microg/d (WHO-reference: 90 microg/d). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  1. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina; Hulthén, Lena; Nyström Filipsson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps in knowledge, determine necessary future steps, highlight landmarks in Scandinavian iodine research and consider ongoing studies in Scandinavian countries with high international impact. Historically, iodine deficiency disorders such as goiter were common in Norway and Sweden, but not in Denmark. Different strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine. The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children, adolescents and young women. Monitoring a population's iodine status and dietary iodine sources is necessary to secure iodine nutrition in Scandinavia. Ongoing studies in Scandinavia will contribute significantly to the knowledge about the effects of mild to moderate iodine deficiency.

  2. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rosie C; Rose, Meredith C; Skeaff, Sheila A; Gray, Andrew R; Morgan, Kirstie M D; Ruffman, Ted

    2009-11-01

    The effects of severe iodine deficiency during critical periods of brain development are well documented. There is little known about the consequences of milder forms of iodine deficiency on neurodevelopment. The objective was to determine whether supplementing mildly iodine-deficient children with iodine improves cognition. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 184 children aged 10-13 y in Dunedin, New Zealand. Children were randomly assigned to receive a daily tablet containing either 150 microg I or placebo for 28 wk. Biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary data were collected from each child at baseline and after 28 wk. Cognitive performance was assessed through 4 subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. At baseline, children were mildly iodine deficient [median urinary iodine concentration (UIC): 63 microg/L; thyroglobulin concentration: 16.4 microg/L]. After 28 wk, iodine status improved in the supplemented group (UIC: 145 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 8.5 microg/L), whereas the placebo group remained iodine deficient (UIC: 81 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 11.6 microg/L). Iodine supplementation significantly improved scores for 2 of the 4 cognitive subtests [picture concepts (P = 0.023) and matrix reasoning (P = 0.040)] but not for letter-number sequencing (P = 0.480) or symbol search (P = 0.608). The overall cognitive score of the iodine-supplemented group was 0.19 SDs higher than that of the placebo group (P = 0.011). Iodine supplementation improved perceptual reasoning in mildly iodine-deficient children and suggests that mild iodine deficiency could prevent children from attaining their full intellectual potential. The trial was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Register as ACTRN12608000222347.

  3. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tim; Plumb, Emma; Callaghan, James; Jackson, Michael; Michaelis, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Iodine-deficient goitre was common in some parts of the UK prior to the introduction of salt iodisation. Many contemporary salt preparations do not contain much iodine, and there are renewed concerns about the iodine status of the population. We present a boy with severe allergy who developed goitre and significant thyroid dysfunction in association with an iodine-deficient 'food-restricted' diet. The case highlights the importance of a comprehensive nutritional assessment in all children on multiple food restrictions.

  4. [Analytical aspects of the semiquantitative determination of urinary iodine using ferroin: value of rapid screening for iodine deficiency or excess].

    PubMed

    Plantin-Carrenard, E; Cattan, F; Aurengo, A; Dumérat, B; Foglietti, M-J; Beaudeux, J-L

    2004-01-01

    Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodine disorders induced biological and/to clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction. Inappropriate iodine intake (by default or by excess) is worrying in terms of public health in France regarding the iodine deficiency and the frequency of iatrogen iodine overloads. Urinary iodine determination which generally implicates the use of a cerimetric method, is an useful tool to evaluate iodine intakes. In this study, we described the analytical aspects of a semiquantitative method of urinary iodine using a redox indicator, ferroin. This method allows the screening of iodine excess or deficiency in a short time (< 3 hours) with a good specificity and sensitivity. Since this assay does not require specific apparatus, it could be easily developed in clinical chemistry laboratories for the detection of inappropriate iodine intakes, and could be useful for prevention programs of iodine deficiency. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  5. Iodine deficiency, more than cretinism and goiter.

    PubMed

    Verheesen, R H; Schweitzer, C M

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports of the World Health Organization show iodine deficiency to be a worldwide occurring health problem. As iodine status is based on median urinary iodine excretion, even in countries regarded as iodine sufficient, a considerable part of the population may be iodine deficient. Iodine is a key element in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and as a consequence, severe iodine deficiency results in hypothyroidism, goiter, and cretinism with the well known biochemical alterations. However, it is also known that iodine deficiency may give rise to clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism without abnormality of thyroid hormone values. This led us to the hypothesis that iodine deficiency may give rise to subtle impairment of thyroid function leading to clinical syndromes resembling hypothyroidism or diseases that have been associated with the occurrence of hypothyroidism. We describe several clinical conditions possibly linked to iodine deficiency, a connection that has not been made thus far. In this paper we will focus on the relationship between iodine deficiency and obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), psychiatric disorders, fibromyalgia, and malignancies.

  6. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency: Salt iodisation and iodine status.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Maria; de Benoist, Bruno; Rogers, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Universal salt iodisation (USI) and iodine supplementation are highly effective strategies for preventing and controlling iodine deficiency. USI is now implemented in nearly all countries worldwide, and two-thirds of the world's population is covered by iodised salt. The number of countries with iodine deficiency as a national public health problem has decreased from 110 in 1993 to 47 in 2007. Still one-third of households lack access to adequately iodised salt. Iodine deficiency remains a major threat to the health and development of populations around the world, particularly in children and pregnant women in low-income countries. Data on iodine status are available from 130 countries and approximately one-third of the global population is estimated to have a low iodine intake based on urinary iodine (UI) concentrations. Insufficient control of iodine fortification levels has led to excessive iodine intakes in 34 countries. The challenges ahead lie in ensuring higher coverage of adequately iodised salt, strengthening regular monitoring of salt iodisation and iodine status in the population, together with targeted interventions for vulnerable population groups. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iodine deficiency in Danish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Sørensen, Louise Kolding; Krejbjerg, Anne; Møller, Margrethe; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Maternal iodine requirements increase during pregnancy. Studies performed before the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification of salt in Denmark in 2000 showed that pregnant women with no intake of iodine-containing supplements were moderately iodine-deficient and showed signs of thyroidal stress. We investigated the intake of iodine-containing supplements and urinary iodine excretion in Danish pregnant women after the introduction of iodine fortification of salt. We conducted a cross-sectional study between June and August 2012 in an area of Denmark where iodine deficiency had previously been moderate. Pregnant women coming to Aalborg University Hospital for obstetric ultrasound were recruited consecutively. Participants filled in a questionnaire and handed in a spot urine sample for measurement of iodine and creatinine. Among the pregnant women included (n = 245) 84.1% reported an intake of iodine-containing supplements, and compared with those not taking iodine supplements the median urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in this group: 109 g/l (25th-75th percentile: 66-191 µg/l). On the other hand, the median urinary iodine concentration was considerably below the recommended level, even for the non-pregnant state in pregnant women with no iodine supplement intake: 68 µg/l (35-93 µg/l), p < 0.001. The majority of pregnant women took iodine-containing supplements, but the subgroup of non-users was still iodine-deficient after the introduction of iodine fortification of salt. Iodine supplement intake during pregnancy in Denmark should be officially recommended. The study was supported by a grant from Musikforlæggerne Agnes og Knut Mørks Fond and from Speciallæge Heinrich Kopps Legat. not relevant.

  8. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  9. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt.

  10. Iodine deficiency disorders in the iodine-replete environment.

    PubMed

    Nyenwe, Ebenezer A; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute significant public health problems in parts of the world with poor iodine nutrition, but have been eradicated in North America and other regions. We herein report 3 cases of IDD, which occurred in women living in iodine-replete environments. The clinical presentation, biochemical findings, and radiological features of the patients were analyzed and presented in 3 case reports. The radiological features are illustrated in sonographic and scintigraphic images. A literature review and discussion, which highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, ancillary investigations, and rational treatment of iodine deficiency goiter and hypothyroidism are provided. All 3 patients were young women, aged 24 to 38 years, who had goiter. Two of them presented with goitrous hypothyroidism. Radioactive iodine scintigraphy showed a characteristic finding of diffusely increased uptake (in the absence of clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism). This scintigraphic pattern was found to be pathognomonic. Dietary iodine supplementation alone resulted in complete remission of IDD in the subjects, including the 2 patients with hypothyroidism. IDD can occur in iodine-replete environments. A high index of suspicion is needed to recognize these cases. It is pertinent that the correct diagnosis be made to avoid unwarranted life-long thyroxine therapy in patients presenting with goiter and hypothyroidism, which is easily treatable with iodized salt. These cases underscore the need for considering iodine deficiency in the etiologic diagnosis of goiter and hypothyroidism, even in iodine-sufficient regions.

  11. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  12. Acquired hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency in an American child.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Merrian J; Post, Ernest M

    2014-11-01

    Acquired hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency is rarely reported in iodine-replete environments. The case of a 9-year-old patient with severe acquired hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is presented. His deficiency occurred because of a restrictive diet used to control eosinophilic esophagitis. Hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency were quickly corrected with a kelp supplement.

  13. [Nutritive correction and iodine deficiency in children].

    PubMed

    Shilina, N M; Pozdniakov, A L

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that deficiency of calcium and iodine--essential food components needed for children's valuable growth and development--is observed presently in children of different age. Considering this fact, the "Danone" company together with Institute of Nutrition (Russia) has developed a special formula, including calcium, iodine and vitamin D, for dairy products "Rastishka". The use of these products facilitates both reducing the risk of the above mentioned microelement deficiency and children's growth and development.

  14. Promotion of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced thyroid tumors by iodine deficiency in F344/NCr rats.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, M; Ward, J M

    1984-07-01

    Six-week-old male F344 rats were each given an injection once iv of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [(MNU) CAS: 684-93-5] at a dose of 41.2 mg/kg body weight. Two weeks later, groups of rats were placed on iodine-deficient (ID) or iodine-adequate (IA) diets and then sacrificed at 20 and 33 weeks. Other groups received ID or IA diets without MNU. For localizing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin, sections of pituitary glands were stained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique with the use of anti-rat TSH or prolactin antibody. At 20 weeks, rats receiving MNU and ID diets had a 100% incidence of diffuse follicular goiter and multiple follicular adenomas of the thyroid. Focal proliferative thyroid follicular lesions including focal hyperplasias and adenomas per square centimeter of thyroid gland were significantly increased in rats given MNU and ID diets in comparison with rats given MNU and IA diets. At 33 weeks, all MNU rats on ID diets had a significantly increased incidence of thyroid carcinoma of the follicular or papillary types and diffuse pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and vacuolar degeneration. Rats fed ID diets without MNU had diffuse follicular goiter but no tumors at any time period. MNU given alone in rats fed IA diets induced a 10% incidence of single thyroid adenomas at 20 weeks and 70% at 33 weeks and a 10% incidence of thyroid carcinoma at 33 weeks. Tumors induced in other organs by MNU were not affected by the ID diets. Thus this experiment provided evidence that ID diets are potent promoters of thyroid tumors in this system, but the ID diet itself without carcinogen was not carcinogenic under the conditions of the study.

  15. Involvement of mTOR and Regulation by AMPK in Early Iodine Deficiency-Induced Thyroid Microvascular Activation.

    PubMed

    Craps, J; Joris, V; De Jongh, B; Sonveaux, P; Horman, S; Lengelé, B; Bertrand, L; Many, M-C; Colin, I M; Gérard, A-C

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) induces TSH-independent microvascular activation in the thyroid via the reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. We hypothesized the additional involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a positive regulator of this pathway and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a negative feedback regulator to explain the transient nature of ID-induced microvascular changes under nonmalignant conditions. mTOR and AMPK involvement was investigated using an in vitro model (human thyrocytes in primary cultures) and 2 murine models of goitrogenesis (normal NMRI and RET-PTC mice [a papillary thyroid cancer model]). In NMRI mice, ID had no effect on the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), a downstream target of mTOR. However, rapamycin inhibited ID-induced thyroid blood flow and VEGF protein expression. In the RET-PTC model, ID strongly increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K, whereas rapamycin completely inhibited the ID-induced increase in p70S6K phosphorylation, thyroid blood flow, and VEGF-A expression. In vitro, although ID increased p70S6K phosphorylation, the ID-stimulated hypoxia-inducible factor/VEGF pathway was inhibited by rapamycin. Activation of AMPK by metformin inhibited ID effects both in vivo and in vitro. In AMPK-α1 knockout mice, the ID-induced increase in thyroid blood flow and VEGF-A protein expression persisted throughout the treatment, whereas both parameters returned to control values in wild-type mice after 4 days of ID. In conclusion, mTOR is required for early ID-induced thyroid microvascular activation. AMPK negatively regulates this pathway, which may account for the transient nature of ID-induced TSH-independent vascular effects under benign conditions.

  16. Endemic goitre--iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, B A

    1991-10-01

    Endemic goitre occurs when the prevalence of thyroid enlargement in the population of an area exceeds 10%. With few exceptions its cause is iodine deficiency superimposed on other goitrogenic factors normally present and responsible for sporadic goitre. Iodine deficiency causes significant health problems and so, the term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) has been introduced. The earliest sign of IDD is goitre, but these disorders also include cretinism, neonatal hypothyroidism and congenital defects, as well as retardation of mental and physical development etc. IDD are a worldwide problem: WHO estimates that substantially more than 800 million people are at risk and more than 190 millions suffer from IDD; over 3 million people have cretinism and in the largest and worst affected areas many millions suffer from mental and physical developmental defects. IDD can be totally eliminated by prophylaxis using iodine administered in salt, oil or some other vehicle. Problems over preventing iodine deficiency relate to difficulties in the handling and distribution of the iodized vehicle in some parts of the world and on the political will to introduce preventive schemes. In only a very few areas does the presence of goitrogenic agents in the environment cause endemic goitre despite adequate iodine supply. In a limited number of places excessive iodine from seaweed used as staple food results in endemic goitre.

  17. Urinary iodine as an iodine deficiency test in lung transplant recipients in order to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Stanjek-Cichoracka, Anita; Żegleń, Sławomir; Woźniak-Grygiel, Elżbieta; Laszewska, Anna; Sindera, Piotr; Wojarski, Jacek; Ochman, Marek; Karolak, Wojtek; Zembala, Marian

    2014-10-07

    In Poland, lung transplantation (LTx) as a routine method began in 2004, and since then, the Silesian Center for Heart Disease in Zabrze 85 LTx has performed (54 single-lung transplantations, 30 double-lung transplantations, and 1 heart-lung) transplantation. The recommendation to take vitamin supplements (without specific indication of the iodine content) does not apply to another iodine prophylaxis in patients after lung transplantation, excluding patients with known thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid gland function based on hormones and urinary iodine (UI) concentration in patients after LTx. UI analysis was performed in 19 lung recipients (12 men and 7 women; mean age: 46.2 ± 12.47 years, BMI: 21 ± 2.25) and compared to TSH, free T3, and free T4. Sufficient UI was observed only in 2 (9%) samples. In 12 samples (54.5%), mild iodine deficiency was recorded, in 4 samples (18.2%) moderate iodine deficiency was noted, and in 3 (13.6%) severe iodine deficiency was found. No correlation between BMI and UI, as well as hormones concentration, was observed. No correlation was revealed when analyzed samples were divided by patient sex. Although thyroid gland hormones were in the normal range, we found moderate, mild, and severe iodine deficiency in the majority of analyzed samples. Measurements of urinary iodine in lung transplant recipients should accompany thyroid hormone measurements as an iodine deficiency test and in order to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

  18. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, H; Krebs, M; Kautzky-Willer, A; Bancher-Todesca, D; Sager, M; Gessl, A

    2015-03-01

    In Austria, iodine deficiency has been considered to be eliminated owing to table salt fortification with iodine, but whether this also applies to pregnant women is unclear. Even mild iodine deficiency during gestation may lead to neurocognitive sequelae in the offspring. This is a cross-sectional investigation of urinary iodine excretion in 246 pregnant women (first trimester n=2, second trimester n=53, third trimester n=191, gestational diabetes mellitus n=115, no gestational diabetes mellitus n=131). The iodine content of morning spot urine samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pregnant women in the Vienna area had a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 87 μg/l. Only 13.8% of the cohort were in the recommended range of 150-249 μg/l, whereas 21.5% had a UIC of 0-49 μg/l, 40.2% had a UIC of 50-99 μg/l and 19.5% had a UIC of 100-149 μg/l. In all, 4.9% had a UIC over 250 μg/l. A total of 137 women of foreign origin had a significantly higher iodine excretion compared with Austrian-born women. Maternal or gestational age had no influence on UIC. Although 79 women on iodine supplementation had a significantly higher iodine concentration compared with women without iodine supplementation (97.3 vs 80.1 μg/l, P=0,006), their UIC was below the recommended range, indicating that doses of 100-150 μg per day are not sufficient to normalize iodine excretion. Sodium and iodine concentrations in the urine were tightly correlated (R=0.539, n=61), suggesting that low intake of iodized salt might contribute to insufficient iodine supply. This study shows that pregnant women in the Vienna area have a potentially clinically significant iodine deficiency and that currently recommended doses of iodine supplementation may not be sufficient.

  19. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, thyroglobulin and newborn thyrotropin. In nearly all iodine-deficient countries, the best strategy to control IDD is salt iodization, one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When salt iodization is not possible, iodine supplements can be targeted to vulnerable groups. Introduction of iodized salt to regions of chronic IDD may transiently increase the incidence of thyroid disorders, and programs should include monitoring for both iodine deficiency and excess. Although more data on the epidemiology of thyroid disorders caused by differences in iodine intake are needed, overall, the relatively small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency.

  20. Ensuring Effective Prevention of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Völzke, Henry; Caron, Philippe; Dahl, Lisbeth; de Castro, João J; Erlund, Iris; Gaberšček, Simona; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Ittermann, Till; Ivanova, Ludmila; Karanfilski, Borislav; Khattak, Rehman M; Kusić, Zvonko; Laurberg, Peter; Lazarus, John H; Markou, Kostas B; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Nagy, Endre V; Peeters, Robin P; Pīrāgs, Valdis; Podoba, Ján; Rayman, Margaret P; Rochau, Ursula; Siebert, Uwe; Smyth, Peter P; Thuesen, Betina H; Troen, Aron; Vila, Lluís; Vitti, Paolo; Zamrazil, Vaclav; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    Programs initiated to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) may not remain effective due to changes in government policies, commercial factors, and human behavior that may affect the efficacy of IDD prevention programs in unpredictable directions. Monitoring and outcome studies are needed to optimize the effectiveness of IDD prevention. Although the need for monitoring is compelling, the current reality in Europe is less than optimal. Regular and systematic monitoring surveys have only been established in a few countries, and comparability across the studies is hampered by the lack of centralized standardization procedures. In addition, data on outcomes and the cost of achieving them are needed in order to provide evidence of the beneficial effects of IDD prevention in countries with mild iodine deficiency. Monitoring studies can be optimized by including centralized standardization procedures that improve the comparison between studies. No study of iodine consumption can replace the direct measurement of health outcomes and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of the program. It is particularly important that health economic evaluation should be conducted in mildly iodine-deficient areas and that it should include populations from regions with different environmental, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds.

  1. Consensus statement on iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    But, Betty; Chan, C W; Chan, Fredriech; Chan, K W; Cheng, Anna W F; Cheung, Patrick; Choi, K L; Chow, C B; Chow, Francis C C; Eastman, Creswell; Fok, T F; Fung, L M; Gomes, Cynthia; Huen, K F; Ip, T P; Kung, Annie W C; Lam, Karen S L; Lam, Y Y; Lao, Terence; Lee, C Y; Lee, K F; Leung, Jenny; Leung, N K; Li, Dominic; Li, June; Lo, K W; Lo, Louis; Ng, K L; Siu, S C; Tam, Sidney; Tan, Kathryn C B; Tiu, S C; Tse, H Y; Tse, Winnie; Wong, Gary; Wong, Shell; Wong, William; Yeung, Vincent T F; Young, Rosie; Yu, C M; Yu, Richard

    2003-12-01

    This article reviews the available data on the study of iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong and to discuss the approach towards preventing such disorders in Hong Kong. The importance of iodine and iodine deficiency disorders is described, and the available data on the dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine concentration in different populations of Hong Kong are summarised and discussed. Dietary iodine insufficiency among pregnant women in Hong Kong is associated with maternal goitrogenesis and hypothyroxinaemia as well as neonatal hypothyroidism. Borderline iodine deficiency exists in the expectant mothers in Hong Kong. Women of reproductive age, and pregnant and lactating women should be made aware and educated to have an adequate iodine intake, such as iodised salt, as an interim measure. A steering group involving all stakeholders should be formed to advise on the strategy of ensuring adequate iodine intake, including universal iodisation of salt in Hong Kong. Continuous surveillance of iodine status in the Hong Kong population is necessary.

  2. A comparative study on the effects of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on thyroid oxidative stress in iodine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianshu; Shi, Rui; Qi, Tengche; Yin, Huisi; Mei, Lan; Han, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on treating iodine deficiency-induced goiter from the perspective of oxidative stress and to measure selenium values in Chinese herbs. One hundred twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups after inducing iodine-deficiency goiter: normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), iodine excess group (IE), and herbs with iodine excess group (HIE). The activities of oxidative enzymes and levels of oxidative products were measured using biochemical tests. The expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the thyroid was detected by immunohistochemistry and the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs were measured by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The herbs with iodine excess were tested to contain rich selenium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PRDX5 increased markedly, and the values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-HNE decreased significantly in the HIE group. In conclusion, compared with excess iodine, herbs with excess iodine damaged thyroid follicular cells less, which may be related to the increase of antioxidant capacity and rich selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs.

  3. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  4. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-01-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:7820714

  5. The effects of iodine deficiency on thyroid hormone deiodination.

    PubMed

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus; Escobar del Rey, Francisco; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella

    2005-08-01

    Iodine deficiency induces multiple intrathyroidal autoregulatory changes leading to an increased triiodothyronine (T(3)) production and secretion, at the expense of thyroxine (T(4)). It is characterized by low serum T(4), normal or slightly elevated T(3), and as a consequence of the latter, normal thyrotropin (TSH). Tissues are also hypothyroxinemic, but their T(3) concentrations are mostly normal and ensure clinical euthyroidism, except for those that depend to a high degree on local generation from T(4) by extrathyroidal mechanisms involving the iodothyronine deiodinases isoenzymes. Thus, unless iodine deficiency is so severe and chronic that intrathyroidal and extrathyroidal mechanisms are no longer sufficient to maintain a normal T(3) in most tissues, individuals are clinically and biochemically euthyroid, but some tissues may be selectively hypothyroid (i.e., the brain). In adults both the intrathyroidal and the extrathyroidal mechanisms reacting to the iodine deficiency are fully operative even when the latter is mild. They contribute jointly to the maintenance of elevated or normal T(3) in those tissues deriving most of it from the plasma, until iodine deficiency becomes very severe. Those depending to a large extent from local generation from T(4), mostly by an interplay between type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) and type 3 (D3), may already be T(3)-deficient (and hypothyroid) with mild iodine deficiency. Therefore, thyroid status of the iodine-deficient individual not only depends on the degree of iodine shortage, but is mostly tissue-specific, and is difficult to define for the individual as a whole: elevated, normal, and low concentrations of T(3) are found simultaneously in different tissues of the same animal, even with severe deficiencies. Most effects of iodine deficiency are reversed in the adults with an adequate iodine prophylaxis, but the absence of T(4) during early fetal life leads to irreversible brain damage (neurologic cretinism). Thyroid

  6. Iodine Deficiency in School Children in Aligarh District, India.

    PubMed

    Aslami, Ahmad Nadeem; Ansari, Mohammed A; Khalique, N; Kapil, Umesh

    2016-08-08

    We carried out this study to assess iodine deficiency disorders among school children of 6-12 years age group in Aligarh district of India. The prevalence of goiter was 5.2%. Median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 150 ug/L; 22.5% of students had biochemical iodine deficiency. 50.4% households were consuming adequately iodized salt.

  7. Developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency leads to HFS-induced LTD in rat hippocampal CA1 region: involvement of AMPA receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Song, Binbin; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Min, Hui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Hypothyroidism induced by severe iodine deficiency (ID) during developmental period seriously damages the central nervous system function. In addition to developmental hypothyroidism induced by severe ID, developmental hypothyroxinemia induced by mild ID is potentially damaging for neurodevelopment and learning and memory in children. Wistar rats were treated with iodine-deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) during pregnancy and lactation to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism in the present study. Pups were weaned on postnatal day (PN) 21 and used for electrophysiological recordings on PN80. It is generally accepted that long-term depression (LTD) is induced at low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in hippocampal CA1 region. Surprisingly, we observed developmental hypothyroxinemia as well as developmental hypothyroidism led to high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced LTD in hippocampal CA1 region. The abnormal HFS-induced LTD suggests not only developmental hypothyroidism but also developmental hypothyroxinemia impairs learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms responsible for the HFS-induced LTD, the phosphorylation status of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) was investigated. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia as well as developmental hypothyroidism decreased the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) at serine 831 and serine 845 in hippocampal CA1 region. Neither developmental hypothyroxinemia nor developmental hypothyroidism altered the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) at serine 880. Increased levels of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) were also observed in hippocampal CA1 regions of pups subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased levels of PP1 caused by developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism may account for the dephosphorylation of GluR1 at serine 831 and

  8. Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted?

    PubMed

    Gallego, Gisselle; Goodall, Stephen; Eastman, Creswell J

    2010-04-19

    Recent research has confirmed that Australian children and pregnant women are mildly iodine deficient. A considerable proportion of the pregnant population is moderately to severely iodine deficient. Even subclinical hypothyroidism in the mother, occurring as a consequence of iodine deficiency, can cause irreversible brain damage in the fetus, making it essential to avoid iodine deficiency in pregnancy. The proposal of Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) - Mandatory Iodine Fortification for Australia (P1003) - has been implemented. FSANZ openly admits P1003 is inadequate for covering the needs of pregnant women. Therefore, health professionals and the public must be properly informed about the limitations of this proposal. Views differ about the most effective measures to prevent iodine deficiency in Australia. We propose that women planning a pregnancy, and pregnant and lactating women should be advised to take an iodine supplement. Women with pre-existing thyroid disease should exercise caution and seek medical advice before taking a supplement.

  9. Iodine deficiency status amongst school children in Pauri, Uttarakhand.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, R M; Prakash, S; Sareen, N; Bhadoria, A S

    2014-07-01

    To assess the iodine deficiency status amongst school age children in district Pauri, Uttarakhand. 2067 children (age of 6-12 years) were included. Clinical examination of thyroid gland of each child was conducted. On-the-spot urine and salt samples were collected from children. Total Goitre Rate was found to be 16.8% and median Urinary Iodine Concentration level was 115 µg/L. Only 40.4% of salt samples had e 15 ppm of iodine. There is a mild degree of iodine deficiency in school age children in district Pauri. There is a need of strengthening the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program.

  10. Toxoplasmosis and iodine deficiency in Angora goats.

    PubMed

    Slosárková, S; Literák, I; Skrivánek, M; Svobodová, V; Suchý, P; Herzig, I

    1999-02-25

    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in two goat herds in the Czech Republic. The 1996 outbreak in the herd of Angora goats was associated with abortions and births of weak kids. No apparent signs of toxoplasmosis were observed in the herd of White Short-Haired (WSH) goats reared under similar conditions. Seroprevalences of 60% and 66% tested by complement fixation and indirect fluorescent antibody tests, respectively, were found in the herd of Angora goats during the outbreak of clinical toxoplasmosis. Significantly lower values were recorded in this herd in years 1994 and 1997 and in the herd of WSH goats between years 1994-1996. Iodine deficiency was also demonstrated in the herd of Angora goats in 1996. Goitre was detected by clinical examination in 39% of animals and mean urinary iodine concentration was 8.0+/-4.65 microg per 11. This concentration rose significantly to 15.7+/-5.02 microg per 11 in the subsequent year. Effects of iodine deficiency on clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis in Angora goats were discussed.

  11. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  12. A review on the metabolic disorders of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is in the crucial parts of two hormones of T4 and T3 produced by the thyroid glands which are essential for all the aspects of human metabolisms. It is demonstrated that iodine deficiency can be considered as sole cause of many thyroid abnormalities including mental disorders. Iodine deficiency of sufficient degree to cause hypothyroidism during fetus life and early infancy will be accompanied with brain abnormality possibly to the stage of mental retardation. The iodine deficiency among subjects in their early stage of childhood is not as severe as those in their fetus or infancy. In adult subjects the sever iodine deficiency can be also associated with mental disorders due to the direct side effects of hypothyroidism occurred by lack of iodine. The clinical manifestation of iodine deficiency show itself with psychological disorders in adult subjects. The status of iodine within blood can be evaluated through measurement of urinary iodine level and the low urinary concentration is an indicative of hypothyroidism. Mental retardation and brain damage due to iodine deficiency can be prevented if iodine supplementation prescribed duly on time.

  13. Prevalence of iodine deficiency in Europe in 2010.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M B; Andersson, M

    2011-04-01

    The adverse effects of iodine deficiency (ID) intellectual impairment, damaged reproduction, goiter and hypo- and hyperthyroidism are well known and easily corrected with salt iodization, but they continue to impair health and socioeconomic development, with more than two billion people at risk worldwide. During the major global expansion of salt iodization over the past four decades, much of Europe has remained iodine deficient. Although every European country endorsed the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency at the 1992 World Health Assembly, control of iodine deficiency has received low priority in much of Europe. However, there has been recent progress in the region and the number of children with low iodine intakes has decreased by ca. 30% since 2003. This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Europe in 2010, based on a systematic review to update the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System (VMNIS) database. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Severe Hypothyroidism From Iodine Deficiency Associated With Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Golekoh, Marjorie C; Cole, Conrad R; Jones, Nana-Hawa Yayah

    2016-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition is crucial for supply of nutrients in children who cannot tolerate a full enteral diet. In the United States, it is not standard of care to give iodine to children dependent on parenteral nutrition, hence iodine is not routinely included in the micronutrient package. Herein, we present a case of a boy with hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency after prolonged exclusive use of parenteral nutrition. Our case highlights the importance of screening for iodine deficiency and administering timely iodine supplementation in these at-risk children to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism.

  15. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42%) and 180 females (58%). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p < 0.001). Only about 3% of the children had a median UIC less than 50 μg/L. The prevalence of total goiter rate (TGR) among the sample of schoolchildren in Jazan was 11%, with significant variations between rural and urban populations and by gender. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI) and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of

  16. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed Ali; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Khalafalla, Husam Eldin Elsawi; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Zaid, Abdel Naser Shaaban; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-11-20

    The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6-13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42%) and 180 females (58%). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100-300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p < 0.001). Only about 3% of the children had a median UIC less than 50 μg/L. The prevalence of total goiter rate (TGR) among the sample of schoolchildren in Jazan was 11%, with significant variations between rural and urban populations and by gender. The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI) and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced

  17. Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    2001-04-01

    This editorial reviews the impact of iodine deficiency (1) on thyroid function in pregnant women and neonates and (2) on the neurointellectual development of infants and children. All degrees of iodine deficiency (mild: iodine intake of 50-99 microg/day, moderate: 20-49 microg/day, and severe: <20 microg/day) affect thyroid function of the mother and the neonate as well as the mental development of the child. The damage increases with the degree of the deficiency, with overt endemic cretinism as the severest consequence. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during early pregnancy is a key factor in the development of the neurological damage in the cretin. Selenium deficiency combined with iodine deficiency partly prevents the neurological damage but precipitates severe hypothyroidism in cretins. Iodine deficiency results in a global loss of 10-15 IQ points at a population level and constitutes the world's greatest single cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation.

  18. Increased oxidative stress parameters in children with moderate iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kurku, Huseyin; Gencer, Ali; Pirgon, Ozgur; Buyukinan, Muammer; Aslan, Nagehan

    2016-10-01

    Iodine is a part of thyroid hormones and has been reported to act directly as an antioxidant or induce indirectly antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to assess the urinary iodine concentration and its relationship between the antioxidant and oxidative stress capacity in healthy school-aged children. In total, 196 students from five primary schools, randomly selected between 9 and 12 years (mean age: 10.2±1.2 years), were enrolled in the study. Urinary iodine levels were measured by spectrophotometry with the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) were analysed from urine samples. The ratio of TOS to TAS was regarded as an oxidative stress index (OSI), an indicator of the degree of oxidative status. Fifty-four percentage (107) of the children had iodine deficiency (ID) and the majority of them (30%) had mild ID. There was no severe-ID child in the population (<20 μg/L). Urine TAS levels were significantly lower in the moderate-ID group than in the mild-ID group (6.5±4.1 vs. 11.3±4.1 mmol, p<0.001) and the iodine-sufficient group (11.0±5.3 μmol, p<0.001). TOS levels and OSI were found higher in the moderate-ID group than in the mild-ID group (4.8±2.1 vs. 3.7±2.1 μmol, p<0.001) and the iodine-sufficient group (4.8±2.1 vs. 3.4±2.5 mmol, p<0.001). In the moderate-ID group, low urine iodine levels exhibited significant negative correlations with OSI (r=-0.660) and TOS (r=-0.248) and a positive correlation with TAS (r=0.475). We found that children with moderate ID were exposed to more oxidative burden than children with mild ID or iodine sufficiency. Increased systemic oxidative stress induced by moderate ID could cause development of ID-related complications and diseases. Iodine supplementation could have a beneficial role in the prevention of oxidative stress.

  19. Teratology Public Affairs Committee Position Paper: Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Obican, Sarah G.; Jahnke, Gloria D.; Soldin, Offie P.; Scialli, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms. PMID:22903940

  20. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  1. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  2. Iodine Storage and Metabolism of Mild to Moderate Iodine-Deficient Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Lu, Li; Shan, Ling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2017-06-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in neurodevelopmental disorders in children, while the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency (MMID) are uncertain. The concentration of iodine in the thyroid is the most accurate indicator of iodine nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate whether the iodine stores in the thyroid cover the needs of the mother and the fetus in iodine-sufficient and MMID conditions by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. One hundred four-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into MMID (low iodine intake [L]) and normal (normal iodine intake [N]) groups. The rats were fed for the next three months, and after pregnancy they were further divided into two subgroups, respectively: low iodine pregnancy (LP) and low iodine pregnancy with iodine supplement (LP+), and normal iodine intake pregnancy (NP) and normal iodine intake pregnancy with iodine supplement (NP+). The iodine intake of pregnant rats in the NP+ and LP+ groups was twice as much as in the NP and LP groups. The rats were sacrificed on gestational day 15 and postnatal day 7. The iodine concentration in the thyroid of the maternal and newborn rats, maternal serum, placenta, and amniotic fluid were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The concentration of iodine in the thyroid of the N group was significantly higher than that in the L group before pregnancy. The concentration of iodine in the maternal thyroids of the LP group decreased during pregnancy, whereas that of the NP group did not change significantly. There was no significant difference in the iodine concentration in the thyroid of mothers and offspring between the NP and NP+ groups, but it was significant between LP and LP+ groups. The concentration of iodine in amniotic fluid was significantly different between the four groups. There is sufficient iodine storage in the thyroid of maternal rats with normal iodine intake during pregnancy, and there is no need for

  3. Current iodine nutrition status and awareness of iodine deficiency in tuguegarao, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Jeong, Jee-Yeong; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3 µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy.

  4. Current Iodine Nutrition Status and Awareness of Iodine Deficiency in Tuguegarao, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S.; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M.; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3 µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy. PMID:25374598

  5. [Hygienic assessment of iodine deficiency in the Khabarovsk Territory].

    PubMed

    Driutskaia, S M; Riabkova, V A

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is one of the most common non-communicable human diseases. The Khabarovsk Territory is among the regions affected by this condition. A complex evaluation was made of the content of iodine in the environment (water, soil), foodstuffs, and the population in the Khabarovsk Territory. By keeping in mind its great extent from north to south, Khabarovsk Territory has been divided into three areas: northern, central, and southern, by taking into account their climatic, soil, and environmental conditions. The population of the northern area of the Territory was found to be at the highest risk of iodine deficiency since the content of iodine in the foodstuffs, water, and soil was the least. The native population of the Amyr Region is more resistant to iodine deficiency than non-indigenous groups. The children of the Territory are at higher risk for iodine deficiency-associated conditions. A comprehensive study of the levels of iodine in the foodstuffs, environmental objects, and population has revealed that the Khabarovsk Territory is endemic in iodine deficiency, and its population has mild to moderate iodine deficiency.

  6. Current global iodine status and progress over the last decade towards the elimination of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Takkouche, Bahi; Egli, Ines; Allen, Henrietta E.; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate worldwide iodine nutrition and monitor country progress towards sustained elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on urinary iodine (UI) and total goitre prevalence (TGP) in school-age children from 1993-2003 compiled in the WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency were analysed. The median UI was used to classify countries according to the public health significance of their iodine nutrition status. Estimates of the global and regional populations with insufficient iodine intake were based on the proportion of each country's population with UI below 100 microg/l. TGP was computed for trend analysis over 10 years. FINDINGS: UI data were available for 92.1% of the world's school-age children. Iodine deficiency is still a public health problem in 54 countries. A total of 36.5% (285 million) school-age children were estimated to have an insufficient iodine intake, ranging from 10.1% in the WHO Region of the Americas to 59.9% in the European Region. Extrapolating this prevalence to the general population generated an estimate of nearly two billion individuals with insufficient iodine intake. Iodine intake was more than adequate, or excessive, in 29 countries. Global TGP in the general population was 15.8%. CONCLUSION: Forty-three countries have reached optimal iodine nutrition. Strengthened UI monitoring is required to ensure that salt iodization is having the desired impact, to identify at-risk populations and to ensure sustainable prevention and control of iodine deficiency. Efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency should be maintained and expanded. PMID:16175826

  7. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for

  8. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Charoensiriwatana, Wiyada; Srijantr, Pongsant; Teeyapant, Punthip; Wongvilairattana, Jintana

    2010-12-20

    Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for Iodine Deficiency Endemic Areas at the

  9. Iodine Deficiency and the Brain: Effects and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Redman, Kahla; Ruffman, Ted; Fitzgerald, Penelope; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-12-09

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient needed in human diets. As iodine is an integral component of thyroid hormone, it mediates the effects of thyroid hormone on brain development. Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent and preventable cause of mental impairment in the world. The exact mechanism through which iodine influences the brain is unclear, but is generally thought to begin with genetic expression. Many brain structures and systems appear to be affected with iodine deficiency, including areas such as the hippocampus, microstructures such as myelin, and neurotransmitters. The clearest evidence comes from the studies examining cognition in the cases of iodine deprivation or interventions involving iodine supplementation. Nevertheless, there are many inconsistencies and gaps in the literature of iodine deficiency, especially over the lifespan. This paper summarizes the literature on this topic, suggests a causal mechanism for iodine's effect on the brain, and indicates areas for the future research (e.g., using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI to examine how iodine supplementation facilitates cognitive functioning).

  10. Iodine-deficient vegetarians: a hypothetical perchlorate-susceptible population?

    PubMed

    Fields, Cheryl; Dourson, Michael; Borak, Jonathan

    2005-06-01

    Recent risk assessments of environmental perchlorate have been subject to much debate. A particular concern is whether appropriate susceptible sub-populations have been identified. Iodine-deficient pregnant women, especially vegetarians, have been proposed as such a potential susceptible sub-population, but there is no evidence of iodine deficiency in the US population and the adequacy of iodine nutrition has not been studied in US vegetarians. To understand the possibility that US vegetarians might be iodine deficient, we reviewed the prevalence, demography, and lifestyle characteristics of US vegetarians as well as the world literature on iodine nutrition in vegetarians. Our findings indicate that strict vegetarians and vegans, who comprise probably less than 0.1% of the US population, have higher education, higher incomes, and healthier lifestyles than the general population. Field studies indicate that vegetarian diets need not lead to iodine deficiency and vegans may suffer excess iodine intake. It is remains uncertain whether there are iodine-deficient vegans or pregnant women in the US. Of more general concern is whether the 10-fold default uncertainty factor is needed for intraspecies (i.e., within human) variability to protect such hypothetical susceptible sub-populations.

  11. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: the thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mary E; Hedge, Joan M; Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tietge, Joseph; Zoeller, R Thomas; Crofton, Kevin M; Jarrett, Jeffrey M; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for brain development, and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the extent of neurological impairments associated with low-level TH disruption. This study examined the dose-response characteristics of marginal iodine deficiency (ID) on parameters of thyroid function and neurodevelopment. Diets deficient in iodine were prepared by adding 975, 200, 125, 25, or 0 µg/kg potassium iodate to the base casein diet to produce five nominal iodine levels ranging from ample (Diet 1: 1000 μg iodine/kg chow, D1) to deficient (Diet 5: 25 µg iodine/kg chow, D5). Female Long Evans rats were maintained on these diets beginning 7 weeks prior to breeding until the end of lactation. Dams were sacrificed on gestational days 16 and 20, or when pups were weaned on postnatal day (PN) 21. Fetal tissue was harvested from the dams, and pups were sacrificed on PN14 and PN21. Blood, thyroid gland, and brain were collected for analysis of iodine, TH, and TH precursors and metabolites. Serum and thyroid gland iodine and TH were reduced in animals receiving two diets that were most deficient in iodine. T4 was reduced in the fetal brain but was not altered in the neonatal brain. Neurobehavior, assessed by acoustic startle, water maze learning, and fear conditioning, was unchanged in adult offspring, but excitatory synaptic transmission was impaired in the dentate gyrus in animals receiving two diets that were most deficient in iodine. A 15% reduction in cortical T4 in the fetal brain was sufficient to induce permanent reductions in synaptic function in adults. These findings have implications for regulation of TH-disrupting chemicals and suggest that standard behavioral assays do not readily detect neurotoxicity induced by modest developmental TH disruption.

  12. [Iodine deficiency in pregnancy--a continuing public health problem].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    Iodine prophylaxis in Poland started in 1997 and is based on mandatory iodzation of household salt with 20-40 mg KI/ 1 kg, supplementation of bottle fed infants with iodized formulas with 10,0 microg KI/100 ml, and a voluntary supplementation of pregnant and breast feeding women with additional 100-150 microg of iodine/ day. Last evaluation of efficacy of the iodine prophylaxis performed in 2003 by WHO and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders allocated Poland within the group of the European countries with sufficient iodine supplementation on the population level. However according to data of the Institute of Mather and Chield in Poland, around 50 % of pregnant women only is additionally supplemented with iodine. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy even as a moderate iodine deficiency, creates a risk of mental retardation, perinatal complication like low and very low births weigt of neonates with increased perinatal mortality rate and late consequences in adult life: metabolic syndrom and type 2 diabetes. Another limitation of the actual model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland, it is too high consumption of natrum chloride (over 5,0 g of household salt/day/ capita). It is around 50% over WHO recommendation. Intensive preventive program against hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and some neoplasmatic diseases includes limitation of natrum chloride consumption- as one of the risk factors. Therefore new scope of the National Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency will include: a special prorgramme for the iodization of animal food according to european standard, increased rate of pregnant women additionally supplemented with iodine, strengthening public awarness on necessary increase of milk consumption especially in pregnancy and in children and continouse monitoring system of biologic effects and technologic quality of the model of iodine prophylaxis.

  13. Iodine deficiency among goiter patients in rural South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Chuot, Chep C; Galukande, Moses; Ibingira, Charles; Kisa, Nicholas; Fualal, Jane Odubu

    2014-10-23

    It is estimated that 2.2 billion or approximately 30% of the world's population live in iodine-deficient areas. In a 2005 study households consuming iodized salt in South Sudan increased from 40% to 73%. Despite this achievement, there are still many goiter cases in rural South Sudan and iodine deficiency remains as a major public health problem in this part of sub Saharan Africa.The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency among rural Southern Sudan goiter patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three South Sudan counties, adults with goiter were from three centers following a mobilization campaign that lasted 4 weeks for free medical care. They were clinically evaluated and completed interviewer administered questionnaires to determine their age, gender, diet, family history, drug history, and medical history. Urine samples were then taken for urinary iodine levels. The outcome was iodine deficiency measured as urinary iodine less than 100 μg per/ L. Multiple logistic regression was used to establish the factors associated with iodine deficiency in South Sudan. Ethical approval was obtained. A total of 286 goitre patients were recruited. The mean age was 38 years (SD 9), 262(92%) were females (F: M ratio 11:1), and 257(90%) were rural- peasants, 25% (20/286) had moderate to severe iodine deficiency. 174(62%) consumed non-iodized salts. Iodine deficiency is highly prevalent among rural South Sudan communities and a likely cause for goiters. Rural poor women are highly vulnerable.

  14. Iodine deficiency and excess in children: worldwide status in 2013.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Assessing iodine nutrition at the population level is usually done by measuring the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and, in some countries, by estimating household coverage of adequately iodized salt (HHIS). Using these indicators, the objective of this review is to assess global and national iodine status in 2013. The most recent data on HHIS were obtained from the United Nations Children's Fund. The most recent data on UICs were obtained from the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Global Network and the World Health Organization (WHO). Median UIC was used to classify national iodine status based on the current WHO classification system, with the following modification: the "adequate (100 to 199 μg/L)" and "more than adequate (200 to 299 μg/L)" categories of median UIC in school-aged children were combined into a single category of "adequate" iodine intake (100 to 299 μg/L). Over the past decade, the number of countries that are iodine deficient has fallen from 54 to 30. The number iodine-sufficient countries has increased from 67 to 112, while the number with excessive iodine intake has increased from 5 to 10. In most countries with excess intake, this is due to overiodization of salt and/or poor monitoring of salt iodization. Out of 128 countries with HHIS data, at least 90% of households in 37 countries consume adequately iodized salt, but in 39 countries, coverage rates are below 50%. Overall, about 70% of households worldwide have access to iodized salt. There has been substantial recent progress in the global effort to control iodine deficiency. However, iodized salt programs need to be carefully monitored to ensure adequate iodine intake while avoiding iodine excess.

  15. The story of iodine deficiency: An international challenge in nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Hetzel, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for the growth and development of up to 800 million people living in iodine deficient environments throughout the world. The effects on growth and development, called the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), comprise goiter, stillbirths and miscarriages, neonatal and juvenile thyroid deficiency, dwarfism, mental defects, deaf mutism, and spastic weakness and paralysis, as well as lesser degrees of loss of physical and mental function. All these effects are due to inadequate thyroid hormone production because iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormone. In the West, IDD has been largely eliminated by the addition of iodine to the diet through iodized salt or through changes in food distribution and technology. IDD still persists in certain areas of Europe where these dietary changes have not occurred. In the Third World, IDD is a major problem in many countries with large populations, such as China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Zaire. In these and other Third World countries, IDD is a significant barrier to social and economic progress which can be removed by correction of the deficiency. This book shows that elimination of iodine deficiency is feasible within the next decade, only requiring a modest financial and technical effort from the West. Part 1 reviews IDD in man and animals. Part 2 discusses the control of iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, and considers action at the national and international level. Part 3 presents a global review of the status of IDD control. There is a brief conclusion on the way forward to successful control programs.

  16. [Sanitary and technological solutions of the elimination of iodine deficiency by iodination of drinking water].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Kir'ianova, L F; Mikhaĭlova, R I; Sevost'ianova, E M; Ryzhova, I N; Alekseeva, A B; Nedachin, A E

    2001-01-01

    Comprehensive studies of the sanitary standards provided research evidence for the maximum allowable concentrations of iodine in the drinking water by taking into account its daily allowances dose and the formation of transformation by-products due to iodine disinfection, drinking water preservation, and iodine deficiency prevention in the endemic areas. Techniques of water iodination have been devised and tested in the experimental and industrial setting, including those for packaging drinking water, as well as those by using portable water purifiers based on highly effective iodine-selective adsorptive compounds which make it possible to solve the task of administering iodine dosages into the water (with allowances born in mind), under domestic conditions as well.

  17. [Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for iodine deficiency in infants and children of the french North department].

    PubMed

    Pouessel, G; Bouarfa, K; Soudan, B; Sauvage, J; Gottrand, F; Turck, D

    2003-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is responsible for a higher mortality and morbidity in neonates and infants. It has not yet disappeared in European countries, especially in Southern and Eastern Europe. The present study aimed at evaluating the status of iodine nutrition of infants living in the North department (France) and at studying risk factors for iodine deficiency. The study was conducted in primary health care centres in 160 healthy infants aged ten days to six years (mean +/- SD: 17.7 +/- 2.5 months). Data included: familial thyroid disease history, type of feeding at inclusion, timing of introduction of complementary foods, nutritional status (weight, height, head and arm circumference), as well as maternal education level and family socio-economical status. Iodine status was assessed by urinary iodine excretion. Urinary iodine concentration ranged from 4 to 1042 microg/l (median +/- SD: 195,5 +/- 21,6 microg/l). Thirty-eight (24%) of 160 children were iodine deficient (urinary iodine < 100 microg/l): mild iodine deficiency (50-99 microg/l: 17%), moderate iodine deficiency (20-49 microg/l: 5%), severe iodine deficiency (<20 microg/l: 2%). No relationship was found between iodine status and age, sex, geographic origin of the children, as well as social and occupational group of the parents. Breast-feeding did not prevent from iodine deficiency. Iodine status did not differ between the cow's milk fed group and the group that was not fed cow's milk. Formula feeding was associated with iodine deficiency (p = 0,02). Prevalence of severe iodine deficiency was very low in this population. However, iodine status was not optimal.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of iodine deficiency among schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Gür, Emel; Ercan, Oya; Can, Günay; Akkuş, Semra; Güzelöz, Sima; Ciftcili, Serdar; Arvas, Ahmet; Iltera, Ozdemir

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of iodine deficiency among schoolchildren and the risk factors influencing it. One thousand five hundred and seventy-three schoolchildren were chosen from 14 schools in seven different regions in Istanbul. After all data relating to sociodemographic factors and the use of iodized salt were recorded, iodine contents of urine samples were determined by the Sandell Kolthoff reaction. Chi-squared and multiple regression analysis were used for the investigation of the correlation between iodine deficiency and risk factors. The prevalence of goitre (> or = 2 grade) was 1.9 per cent. The median urine iodine level was in the normal range (10.5 microg/dl). In 46.2 per cent of the students the urine iodine levels were below 10 microg/dl and 13.9 per cent of the students had urine iodine levels below 5 microg/dl. The prevalence of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger (< or = 10 years) children, in children with less educated mothers and fathers, and with poorer and more crowded families (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). The rate of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in females than in males and also higher in children who lived on the European side of Istanbul than on the Anatolian side of Istanbul (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). The rate of use of iodized salt was 44.4 per cent and the iodine deficiency rate was not affected by the use of iodized salt (p > 0.05). Although the median urine iodine level was in the normal range, in 46.2 per cent of the students urine iodine levels were low (< 10 microg/dl). As there seems to be no effect from the use of iodized salt in iodine deficiency, the use of a more stable potassium iodate for the fortification of salt may be required.

  19. Iodine deficiency, thyroid function and hearing deficit: a review.

    PubMed

    Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Mackenzie, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency affects an estimated 241 million school-aged children in the world. Little is known about iodine deficiency in relation to auditory function, except for the fact that deaf-mutism is one of the features of cretinism. In the present review, we documented the scientific knowledge on the role of iodine and hypothyroidism in the auditory system. We found that ear development and hearing function depend on thyroid hormones. Multiple pathways are involved in this, including both inner ear morphology as well as neurological processes. Conductive as well as sensorineural hearing loss is found in studies with animals that were rendered hypothyroidic. In humans, auditory impairment is reported frequently in relation to hypothyroidism, ranging from mild disturbances to severe handicap. Auditory impairment has been related more explicitly to congenital hypothyroidism than to acquired hypothyroidism. The critical period for thyroid function-related hearing maturation is the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Although only a limited number of studies have directly investigated the relationship between iodine deficiency and auditory function, most studies point toward an association. However, evidence from good randomised controlled trials is lacking. Inclusion of auditory outcomes in iodine supplementation studies is therefore to be recommended, especially for trials in pregnancy. Hearing deficit is an invisible abnormality, but has major consequences for educational and social skills if not detected. In view of this, auditory impairment should be mapped in iodine-deficient areas in order to realistically estimate the magnitude of the problem.

  20. Iodine deficiency amongst pregnant women in South-West England.

    PubMed

    Knight, Bridget A; Shields, Beverley M; He, Xuemei; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; Sturley, Rachel; Vaidya, Bijay

    2017-03-01

    Iodine deficiency in pregnancy may impair foetal neurological development. The UK population is generally thought to be iodine sufficient; however, recent studies have questioned this assumption. Our study aimed to explore the prevalence of iodine deficiency in a cohort of pregnant mothers from South-West England. Urine samples were obtained from 308 women participating in a study of breech presentation in late pregnancy. They had no known thyroid disease and a singleton pregnancy at 36-38 weeks' gestation. Samples were analysed for urinary iodine concentrations (UIC). Baseline data included age, parity, smoking status, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) at booking, prenatal vitamin use and a dietary questionnaire. There was no difference in median UIC between women with (n = 156) or without (n = 152) a breech presentation (P = 0·3), so subsequent analyses were carried out as a combined group. Participants had a mean (SD) age 31(5) years, median (IQR) BMI 24·4 (22·0, 28·3) kg/m(2) ; 42% were primiparous, 10% smoked during pregnancy, and 35% took iodine-containing vitamins. Ninety-six per cent were Caucasian. Median (IQR) UIC was 88·0 (54·3, 157·5) μg/l, which is consistent with iodine deficiency by WHO criteria. A total of 224/308 (73%) of women had UIC values <150 μg/l. Increasing milk intake was associated with higher UIC (P = 0·02). There was no difference in median (IQR) UIC between those women who took iodine-containing vitamins (n = 108) and those who did not (n = 200): 88 (54, 168) vs 88 (54, 150) μg/l, P = 0·7. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is common in South-West England. Measures to develop optimum prevention and treatment strategies are urgently needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Eliminating Iodine Deficiency in China: Achievements, Challenges and Global Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dianjun; Codling, Karen; Chang, Suying; Zhang, Shubin; Shen, Hongmei; Su, Xiaohui; Chen, Zupei; Scherpbier, Robert W.; Yan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of iodine deficiency through salt iodization has been recognized as a global success story, and China stands at the forefront of this achievement with one of the most successful programs in the world. High level political commitment, national mandatory legislation, a state-managed edible salt industry and a complex and highly sophisticated surveillance system have facilitated the success of the program. Challenges have arisen however, including: (i) concern that adequate iodine status in pregnant women cannot be achieved without causing above adequate iodine intakes in children; (ii) declining iodine intake as a result of reductions in salt consumption and increased consumption of processed foods, which may not be made with iodized salt; (iii) the existence of areas with high iodine content in the water; and (iv) declines in household use of iodized salt due to concerns about excess iodine intake and thyroid disease. This article reviews the achievements and challenges of the Chinese Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Elimination Program and reflects on lessons learned and implications for other national salt iodization programs. PMID:28379180

  2. Eliminating Iodine Deficiency in China: Achievements, Challenges and Global Implications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dianjun; Codling, Karen; Chang, Suying; Zhang, Shubin; Shen, Hongmei; Su, Xiaohui; Chen, Zupei; Scherpbier, Robert W; Yan, Jun

    2017-04-05

    The prevention of iodine deficiency through salt iodization has been recognized as a global success story, and China stands at the forefront of this achievement with one of the most successful programs in the world. High level political commitment, national mandatory legislation, a state-managed edible salt industry and a complex and highly sophisticated surveillance system have facilitated the success of the program. Challenges have arisen however, including: (i) concern that adequate iodine status in pregnant women cannot be achieved without causing above adequate iodine intakes in children; (ii) declining iodine intake as a result of reductions in salt consumption and increased consumption of processed foods, which may not be made with iodized salt; (iii) the existence of areas with high iodine content in the water; and (iv) declines in household use of iodized salt due to concerns about excess iodine intake and thyroid disease. This article reviews the achievements and challenges of the Chinese Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Elimination Program and reflects on lessons learned and implications for other national salt iodization programs.

  3. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women residing in an area with adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Enrico; Fumarola, Angela; Calvanese, Anna; Piccirilli, Francesca; Tommasi, Valentina; Cugini, Pietro; Ulisse, Salvatore; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; D'Armiento, Massimino

    2008-05-01

    To prevent iodine deficiency disorders, the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders established that for a given population median urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) must be 100-199 microg/L in clinically healthy subjects and 150-249 microg/L in clinically healthy pregnant women. We evaluated whether in the urban area of Rome, Italy, where a salt iodination program (30 mg/kg) was introduced since 2005, an increased demand of iodine during pregnancy is guaranteed. During 2006, 51 pregnant women at first trimester of a physiologic gestation were consecutively enrolled on presentation to evaluate UIC in morning spot urine samples. As controls, 100 age-matched clinically healthy non-pregnant women were evaluated. The median UICs were 182 microg/L (range 85-340 microg/L) and 74 microg/L (range 17-243 microg/L), respectively, in the control and pregnant groups. This difference was highly significant (P < 0.001). In particular, the UIC was found to be lower than adequate in 4% of control women compared with 92% of pregnant women. This difference of occurrences was highly significant (P < 0.001). This observational study demonstrated that, despite the adequate supplementation of iodine intake, most pregnant women appear not to be protected against iodine deficiency. If confirmed in larger case studies, this finding claims the attention of relevant professionals to monitor iodine nutrition during gestation, assuming that ordinary supplementation of iodine intake seems to be sufficient only in non-gestational conditions.

  4. Iodine status in pregnant women and their newborns: are our babies at risk of iodine deficiency?

    PubMed

    Travers, Cheryl A; Guttikonda, Kamala; Norton, Carol A; Lewis, Peter R; Mollart, Lyndall J; Wiley, Veronica; Wilcken, Bridget; Eastman, Creswell J; Boyages, Steven C

    2006-06-19

    To determine whether pregnant women and their newborns show evidence of iodine deficiency, and to examine the correlation between maternal urine iodine concentration (UIC) and newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. A cross-sectional study. Hospital antenatal care services (March-May 2004) and private obstetrician clinics (June 2004) in the Central Coast area of New South Wales. 815 pregnant women (> or = 28 weeks' gestation) and 824 newborns. World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders criteria for assessing severity of iodine deficiency (recommended levels: < 20% of urine samples in a population with UIC < 50 microg/L; and < 3% of newborns with whole-blood TSH level > 5 mIU/L). The median UIC for pregnant women was 85 microg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Almost 17% of pregnant women had a UIC < 50 microg/L, and 18 newborns (2.2%) had TSH values > 5 mIU/L. There was no statistically significant linear correlation between neonatal whole-blood TSH level and maternal UIC (r = - 0.03; P = 0.4). Mothers with a UIC < 50 microg/L were 2.6 times (relative risk = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.49-4.73; P = 0.01) more likely to have a baby with a TSH level > 5 mIU/L. The pregnant women surveyed were mildly iodine deficient. TSH values for their newborns were mostly within acceptable limits. Ongoing surveillance of the iodine status of NSW communities to establish trends over time is recommended.

  5. Combating iodine deficiency: lessons from China, Indonesia, and Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chor-ching

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated the factors contributing to a successful and sustainable elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders, drawing from salt fortification experiences in China, Indonesia, and Madagascar. Government officials, salt farmers, salt producers, and wholesalers were interviewed to collect data during field visits. Analyses used in the study include simple correlation, and wherever data permit, regression. The study found that measures crucial for combating iodine deficiency include raising public awareness of the disorders, ensuring easy access to iodated salt, promoting compliance in the salt industry, and monitoring and enforcement. Factors that ensure a reliable supply of iodated salt are equally important as those that create the demand for it. Governments must ensure that surveillance and enforcement mechanisms are functioning right from the time that salt iodation is made compulsory. For sustainability during later years, the adequacy of iodine in iodated salt must be monitored, and incentives must be modified as needed to increase compliance rates in the salt industry. Once national coverage of iodated salt reaches over 90%, the government can concentrate on fine-tuning and targeting resources at areas with a low consumption of iodated salt. Elimination of micronutrient deficiencies has a long-term impact on public health; moreover, poorer segments of the population, who are more vulnerable to such deficiencies, have more to gain from fortification programs. Thus, lessons from the successful elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders are valuable for future similar micronutrient activities.

  6. Thyroglobulin as a Biomarker of Iodine Deficiency: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Feei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroglobulin, produced exclusively by the thyroid gland, has been proposed to be a more sensitive biomarker of iodine status than thyrotropin or the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine. However, evidence on the usefulness of thyroglobulin (Tg) to assess iodine status has not been extensively reviewed, particularly in pregnant women and adults. Summary: An electronic literature search was conducted using the Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, PubMed, and Medline to locate relevant studies on Tg as a biomarker of iodine status. Since urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the recommended method to assess iodine status in populations, only studies that clearly reported both Tg and UIC were included. For the purpose of this review, a median Tg <13 μg/L and a median UIC ≥100 μg/L (UIC ≥150 μg/L for pregnant women) were used to indicate adequate iodine status. We excluded studies conducted in subjects with either known thyroid disease or those with thyroglobulin antibodies. The search strategy and selection criteria yielded 34 articles of which nine were intervention studies. The majority of studies (six of eight) reported that iodine-deficient pregnant women had a median Tg ≥13 μg/L. However, large observational studies of pregnant women, including women with adequate and inadequate iodine status, as well as well-designed intervention trials that include both Tg and UIC, are needed. In adults, the results were equivocal because iodine-deficient adults were reported to have median Tg values of either <13 or ≥13 μg/L. Only studies in school-aged children showed that iodine-sufficient children typically had a median Tg <13 μg/L. Some of the inconsistent results may be partially explained by the use of different methodological assays and failure to assess assay accuracy using a certified reference material. Conclusions: These data suggest that Tg does hold promise as a biomarker of iodine deficiency. However, it is associated

  7. [Study on the iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders status in pasturing areas of Tibet-a non-epidemic area of iodine deficiency disorders in serious iodine deficiency district].

    PubMed

    DU, Dan; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Shu-Hua; Nima, Cangjue; Danzeng, Sangbu; Zhuang, Guang-Xiu

    2010-08-01

    To explore the status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders in the pasturing areas and agricultural regions in Tibet. 30 families were selected respectively in pastoral Dangxiong county and agricultural Qushui county of Lasa. Drinking water and edible salt were collected for testing the iodine contents. In each type of the following populations including children aged 8 - 10, women of child-bearing age and male adults, 50 subjects were randomly sampled to examine their urinary iodine contents. Among them, 50 children and 50 women were randomly selected for goiter examination by palpation. Water iodine content was less than 2 µg/L, both in pasturing area and in agricultural areas. There was no iodized salt used in the families of pasturing areas, while 90% people consumed iodized salt in agricultural areas. The median of urinary iodine in pasturing area was 50.2 µg/L, significantly lower than that of agricultural area (193.2 µg/L). However, the goiter rate of children and women in pasturing area was significantly lower than that in agricultural area. Although iodine intake of populations in pasturing area of Tibet was severely deficient, there was no epidemic of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. This phenomenon noticed by the researchers deserved further investigation.

  8. Determination of urinary iodine excretion to assess iodine deficiency level and iodine intake in primary school children, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bezabih, Belay; Assefa, Yihun; Yismaw, Gizachew; Mulu, Andargachew

    2007-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem all over the world, particularly among preschool children and pregnant women in low-income countries like Ethiopia and it is known to be the most common cause of preventable brain damage. to determine urinary iodine concentration and to assess the level of iodine deficiency disorders. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 386 randomly selected primary school children to determine urinary iodine concentrations as to assess level of iodine deficiency and iodine in take in Bahir Dar town. Median urinary iodine excretion was 58.8 mg/L (12.89 mg/L to 564.5 mg/L) which indicated the presence of mild iodine deficiency. Eighty seven percent of the children had urinary iodine excretion of below 100 mg/L and the intake of iodine was below 150 mg/day. Mild iodine deficiency disorder was found in Bahir Dar primary school children, Iodine intake was also found insufficient. Therefore, use of salt ionization should be advocated and strengthened.

  9. Consequences of iodine deficiency and excess in pregnant women: an overview of current knowns and unknowns.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Lazarus, John H; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-09-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during development results in maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and associated serious adverse health effects, including cretinism and growth retardation. Universal salt iodization is the first-line strategy for the elimination of severe iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation is recommended for vulnerable groups in severely iodine-deficient regions where salt iodization is infeasible or insufficient. A recent clinical trial has informed best practices for iodine supplementation of severely iodine-deficient lactating mothers. Because of successful programs of universal salt iodization in formerly severely iodine-deficient regions around the world, public health concern has shifted toward mild to moderate iodine deficiency, which remains prevalent in many regions, especially among pregnant women. Observational studies have shown associations between both mild maternal iodine deficiency and mild maternal thyroid hypofunction and decreased child cognition. Iodine supplementation has been shown to improve indexes of maternal thyroid function, even in marginally iodine-deficient areas. However, no data are yet available from randomized controlled trials in regions of mild to moderate iodine insufficiency on the relation between maternal iodine supplementation and neurobehavioral development in the offspring; thus, the long-term benefits and safety of such supplementation are uncertain. Although it is clear that excessive iodine intake can cause alterations in thyroid function in susceptible individuals, safe upper limits for iodine intake in pregnancy have not been well defined. Well-designed, prospective, randomized controlled trials that examine the effects of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid function and infant neurobehavioral development in mildly to moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women are urgently needed. In addition, clinical data on the effects of iodine excess in pregnant and lactating women are needed to inform

  10. Thyroidectomy in iodine induced thyrotoxic storm.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Scholz, G H; Lamesch, P; Paschke, R

    1999-01-01

    Between January 1996 and September 1997 we treated 4 patients with iodine-induced thyrotoxic storm (2 females, 2 men; age 54-77 years). Iodine contamination was due to iodine-containing contrast media in 3 patients and iodine-containing disinfectant in 1 patient. Thyroid storm with tachycardia, hypertension, sweating, tremor, weight loss and coma occured 3-10 weeks after iodine contamination. These symptoms were accompanied by raised fT4- and fT3-values. All 4 patients were initially treated with antithyroid drugs for 7 days, whereas 2 patients with coronary artery disease, demonstrated by coronary angio-graphy, were treated with antithyroid drugs for 2 weeks. Because of unsuccessful antithyroid drug treatment, all 4 patients underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. There were no perioperative complications. We conclude that early thyroidectomy is the appropriate treatment for iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis even in patients with severe accompanying diseases.

  11. The effect of maternal iodine status on infant outcomes in an iodine-deficient Indian population.

    PubMed

    Menon, Kavitha C; Skeaff, Sheila A; Thomson, Christine D; Gray, Andrew R; Ferguson, Elaine L; Zodpey, Sanjay; Saraf, Abhay; Das, Prabir Kumar; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2011-12-01

    An adequate intake of iodine during pregnancy is essential for the synthesis of maternal thyroid hormones needed to support normal fetal development. This study aimed to assess the iodine status of pregnant tribal Indian women and their infants and to determine the impact of maternal iodine status on infant growth and behavior. A prospective, observational study was undertaken to assess the iodine status of tribal pregnant Indian women living in Ramtek, northeast of Nagpur, India. Pregnant women were recruited at 13-22 weeks gestation (n=220), visited a second time at 33-37 weeks gestation (n=183), and again visited at 2-4 weeks postpartum with their infants. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including household salt, blood, and urine samples were obtained from pregnant women. Urine samples, anthropometric, and neonatal behavioral data were collected from infants. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) at recruitment (mean gestation=17.5 weeks) of mothers was 106 μg/L, which declined to 71 μg/L at the second visit (mean gestation=34.5 weeks) similar to the postpartum MUIC of 69 μg/L, indicating that these women were iodine deficient. Infant (mean age=2.5 weeks) MUIC was 168 μg/L. Median maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT(4)) concentrations at first and second visits were 1.71 and 1.79 mIU/L and 14.4 and 15.4 pmol/L, respectively; 20.0% of women at first visit had TSH >97.5th percentile and 1.4% had FT(4) <2.5th percentile. Salt iodine concentration was a significant predictor of maternal UIC (p<0.001), and postpartum maternal UIC was a significant predictor of infant UIC (p<0.001). For every pmol/L increase in maternal FT(4) concentration at first visit, both infant weight-for-age Z-score and length-for-age Z-score increased by 0.05 units. There was no relationship between maternal UIC, FT(4), or TSH at first visit and neonatal behavior. Despite three quarters of the women in this study

  12. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  13. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development, upregulate caveolin-1, and downregulate synaptotagmin-1 in the rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zhong, Jiapeng; Wei, Wei; Gong, Jian; Dong, Jing; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Adequate thyroid hormone is critical for cerebellar development. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency during gestation and postnatal period results in permanent impairments of cerebellar development with an unclear mechanism. In the present study, we implicate cerebellar caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1, the two important molecules involved in neuronal development, in developmental iodine deficiency, and in developmental hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Nissl staining and the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1 in cerebella were assessed on PN28 and PN42. The results show that the numbers of Purkinje cells were reduced in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. The upregulation of caveolin-1 and the downregulation of synaptotagmin-1 were observed in both iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. These findings may implicate decreases in the number of Purkinje cells and the alterations in the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1 in the impairments of cerebellar development induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.

  14. Monitoring and effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy: still an unsolved problem?

    PubMed

    Pearce, E N

    2013-05-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone affects many metabolic processes in the body, including maturation of the central nervous system. In early pregnancy, the fetus is dependent on maternal thyroid hormone for normal brain development. If iodine deficiency leads to inadequate production of thyroid hormone during pregnancy, irreversible brain damage can result in the fetus. Therefore, achieving adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy is an important public health objective. Although there have been tremendous gains over the last several decades in our understanding of the effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy and how to combat them, a number of questions remain about how best to monitor the iodine status of pregnant populations, the effects of mild to moderate iodine deficiency on maternal and child outcomes, the safe upper limit of daily iodine intake in pregnant women and the risks and benefits of iodine supplementation for mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women.

  15. Perinatal iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism increase cell apoptosis and alter doublecortin and reelin protein expressions in rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zhong, Jiapeng; Xu, Hongde; Wei, Wei; Dong, Jing; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Gong, Jian; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2012-05-01

    Adequate thyroid hormone is critical for cerebellar development. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency during the perinatal period results in permanent impairments of cerebellar development with an unclear mechanism. In the present study we investigated effects of perinatal iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism on cerebellar cell apoptosis, doublecortin (Dcx) and reelin. Apoptosis is an essential part of neural development. Dcx and reelin are two important molecules involved in neuronal migration, structure, and development in cerebellum. Two developmental rat models were created by administering dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 until postnatal day (PND) 28. TUNEL assay and protein levels of Dcx and reelin in cerebella were assessed on PND14, 21 and 28. Apoptotic cells were increased in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. Dcx protein levels in the cerebella of iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats were significantly downregulated on PND14. Interestingly, iodine deficiency and PTU treatment upregulated the levels of Dcx protein on PND21 and 28. Reelin expressions in iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats were significantly decreased on PND14 and 21. On PND28, reelin expressions of three treated groups were still lower than control group, although without significant difference. These findings may implicate alterations in cell apoptosis and levels of Dcx and reelin in the impairments of cerebellar development induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism reduce phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the rat entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Hou, Yi; Dong, Jing; Xu, Hongde; Gong, Jian; Chen, Jie

    2010-12-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄). Iodine deficiency leads to inadequate thyroid hormone. Hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency during gestation and postnatal period leads to cognitive deficits in learning and memory. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits is unclear. Calcium-dependent calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) known as a potential memory molecule regulates important neuronal functions including learning and memory. Recent studies have shown that hypothyroidism alters phosphorylation of CaMKII in hippocampus or even in sympathetic ganglia of rats. Though the entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important functional structure within the neuronal network responsible for learning and memory, little is known about the effect of hypothyroidism on phosphorylation of CaMKII in the EC. Here, we report that iodine deficiency and propylthiouracil treatment through gestation and lactation reduce phosphorylation of CaMKII in the EC of pups. The increase of calcineurin, as well as reduction of neurogranin and calmodulin, may account for the reduced phosphorylation of CaMKII induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. These findings in the EC may contribute to understanding the mechanisms that underlie impairment of learning and memory induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.

  17. The comparison of thyroxine versus thyroxine plus oral iodine in the treatment of congenital hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Köroğlu, Şenol; Baştuğ, Osman; Daar, Ghaniya; Yıkılmaz, Ali; Elmalı, Ferhan

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is one of the most important causes of congenital hypothyroidism. In addition to thyroid hormone replacement, iodine supplementation is also given to newborns with congenital hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency. We aimed to determine whether it is beneficial to administer iodine supplementation in addition to the L-thyroxine (L-T4) treatment of newborns with congenital hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency. Of 51 newborns, 26 who were diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency were treated with L-T4. The remaining 25 cases were given L-T4 plus 100 μg/day of oral iodine. Free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid volume, urine iodine and breast milk iodine levels were measured in the first and third months of treatment, and the data were compared between the two groups. First- and third-month values of fT3, fT4, TSH, TG and thyroid volume for both groups were statistically similar. There was no significant difference between the two groups in respect to falling levels of fT3 and TSH, the rate of increase of fT4 levels or the shrinkage rate of thyroid volume. In this study, the addition of oral iodine to L-T4 treatment provided no benefit compared to treatment with L-T4 alone. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Elimination of Mental Defect Due to Iodine Deficiency by the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, Basil S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of iodine deficiency across the lifespan, with special reference to mental defect; discusses the magnitude of the problem; describes available iodine technology to control iodine deficiency disorders (IDD); and notes the status of national IDD control programs, to assess the likelihood of eliminating IDD by the year…

  19. Elimination of Mental Defect Due to Iodine Deficiency by the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, Basil S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of iodine deficiency across the lifespan, with special reference to mental defect; discusses the magnitude of the problem; describes available iodine technology to control iodine deficiency disorders (IDD); and notes the status of national IDD control programs, to assess the likelihood of eliminating IDD by the year…

  20. Relationship between urinary iodine and goiter prevalence: results of the Chinese national iodine deficiency disorders survey.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Liu, S J; Su, X H; Zhang, S B; Ji, X H

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, Yu Zhiheng proposed the "U-curve" regularity between urinary iodine (UI) and goiter prevalence (GP). However, along with the adjustment of salt iodine and iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), and surveys followed, some defects were found in the research. As a result, it is time to test and enrich the theory as a series of large sample survey data from China would be helpful. To test and enrich the theory of "U-curve" relationship between UI and GP. Based on the Chinese national IDD surveys (1999, 2002, 2005), the High Water Iodine survey of 2005, and the High Risk endemias survey of 2007, this article analyzed the relationship between UI and GP. The UI was grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard, self-defined (5 microg/l), and Yu Zhiheng's level, separately, the GP was calculated for population with different UI level, the tendency curve was drawn and the fitting curve model was estimated by SPSS. For the 2005 Chinese national survey and 2005 High Water Iodine survey, we finally got the fitting curves and corresponding UI reference limits. The UI and GP formed a "U curve" relationship. It varied with some reasons and fell into an accurate U shape step by step. For High Water Iodine endemias survey, the relationship changed to "power curve". Regarding the WHO recommended GP<5%, the UI range of school-age children in normal district should be 110-315 microg/l, whereas, in high water iodine district should be <80 microg/l.

  1. Treatment with Iodine in Pregnant Rats with Marginal Iodine Deficiency Improves Cell Migration in the Developing Brain of the Progeny.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Zhai, Xiaodan; Liu, Yuhui; Li, Jing; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2016-05-01

    Marginal iodine deficiency is a common health problem in pregnant women. Epidemiological and animal studies had shown that marginally maternal iodine deficiency could cause the mild changes of maternal thyroid function, eventually lead to a negative effect on neurodevelopment. But the underlying mechanisms responsible for the neurological impairment remain unclear. The aim of this study is to explore whether marginally maternal iodine deficiency could produce subtle changes in cell migration and cognitive function of offspring, and the optimal time of giving intervention to minimize the adverse effects. In the present study, we established a marginal iodine deficiency model, and iodine supplement was performed on pre-pregnancy (PP), G13 (gestation day 13), and postnatal day 0 (P0). Our data showed that there were changes in the cytoarchitecture and the percentage of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the cerebral cortex in marginal iodine deficiency rats. The Reelin expression was significantly lower, but Tenascin-C was higher in the cerebral cortex of marginal iodine deficiency group on P7 than the normal group, respectively. When iodine supplement, especially before G13 could reverse the abnormal expression of the two proteins involved in cell migration, which was consistent with the results of Morris Water Maze test. The three intervention groups had shorter escape latencies than the marginal iodine deficiency rats. The earlier that iodine is supplied, the better behavior performance would reach. Our findings suggested that iodine supplement in early stage of pregnancy could improve the cell migration of cerebral cortex and neurodevelopment of offspring.

  2. [Iodine deficiency in the world and in the Czech Republic--current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Zamrazil, V; Bílek, R; Cerovská, J; Dvoráková, M; Nemecek, J

    2010-12-01

    Iodopenia is importance world-wide problem--the cause of spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The "simple" way for its compensation is iodine supplementation--preferably by iodinization of salt: in the Czech Republic prevalence of IDD was very high in the past. The complex program for compensation of iodine deficiency realized in the CR includes improvement of salt iodization, supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, fortification of products for babies' nutrition and increasing use of iodinized salt in general population incl. food industry. Thus CR is country with compensated iodine deficiency according to criteria WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. In future, however, systematic interest should be focused on optimalization of iodine saturation, esp. in pregnant women and evaluation of possible risk of supranormal iodine intake (impairment of thyroid function, activation of thyroid autoimmunity). Taking in account, the changes of nutrition and life style systematic monitoring of quality of iodine supplementation seems to be essential.

  3. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended.

  4. Iodine deficiency in the U.K.: an overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2013-05-01

    This review describes historical iodine deficiency in the U.K., gives current information on dietary sources of iodine and summarises recent evidence of iodine deficiency and its association with child neurodevelopment. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones that are needed for brain development, particularly during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable brain damage worldwide and is associated with impaired cognitive function. Despite a global focus on the elimination of iodine deficiency, iodine is a largely overlooked nutrient in the U.K., a situation we have endeavoured to address through a series of studies. Although the U.K. has been considered iodine-sufficient for many years, there is now concern that iodine deficiency may be prevalent, particularly in pregnant women and women of childbearing age; indeed we found mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Surrey. As the major dietary source of iodine in the U.K. is milk and dairy produce, it is relevant to note that we have found the iodine concentration of organic milk to be over 40% lower than that of conventional milk. In contrast to many countries, iodised table salt is unlikely to contribute to U.K. iodine intake as we have shown that its availability is low in grocery stores. This situation is of concern as the level of U.K. iodine deficiency is such that it is associated with adverse effects on offspring neurological development; we demonstrated a higher risk of low IQ and poorer reading-accuracy scores in U.K. children born to mothers who were iodine-deficient during pregnancy. Given our findings and those of others, iodine status in the U.K. population should be monitored, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as pregnant women and children.

  5. Iodine deficiency disorders in school age children in Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chander, Sushil; Kapil, Umesh; Jain, Vandana; Sareen, Neha

    2013-09-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder is a major public health problem in Himachal Pradesh. A study was conducted in district Kullu to assess the prevalence of IDD in school age children. Clinical examination of the thyroid of 1986 children was conducted. On the spot urine and salt samples were collected. The Total Goiter Rate was found to be 23.4% and median urinary iodine excretion was 175 ug/L. The population is possibly in transition phase from iodine deficient to iodine sufficient nutrition.

  6. Iodine, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum levels in children aged between 6 and 12 years in the rural area with iodine deficiency and in the city center without iodine deficiency in Hatay

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Tanju; Savaş, Nazan; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Sangün, Özlem; Aydın, Zeki; Mustafa, Didin; Öztürk, Oktay Hasan; Mısırlıoğlu, Seher; Öktem, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Thyroid diseases related with iodine deficiency are observed commonly in our country and in the world. In this study, we aimed to investigate iodine deficiency in urine and selenium, zinc, copper or molybdenum deficiency which may accompany this in children aged between 6 and 12 years in two schools in the province of Hatay (endemic goitre region). Material and Methods: This study is a case-control field-study in which students aged between 6 and 12 years were included. One hundred fourteen subjects from the village of Tanışma related to the center of our province and 100 subjects from the city center of Hatay (Antakya) were included in the study. Iodine, selenium, zinc, copper and molybdenum levels were measured in the urine samples of the students included in the study. Results: Iodine deficiency was found with a severe (5%), moderate (18.4%) and mild degree (43%), respectively in the village of Tanışma. Mild iodine deficiency (7%) was found in the center of Hatay. No moderate and severe iodine deficiency was found in the control group. A significant difference was found between the groups in terms of urine iodine excretion (p<0.001). A significant correlation was found between the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and molybdenum (p<0.05). A moderately positive correlation was found between iodine and selenium (p<0.001). A moderately positive correlation was found between iodine and zinc levels (p<0.001) and a weak correlation was found between iodine and molybdenum (p<0.01). No significant correlation was found between iodine level and copper level (p>0.05). Conclusions: Selenium and zinc deficiency may accompany iodine deficiency. Selenium and zinc deficiency should be considered in individuals who are found to have iodine deficiency especially in endemic goitre regions. PMID:26078645

  7. Symposium on 'Geographical and geological influences on nutrition': Iodine deficiency in industrialised countries.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is not only a problem in developing regions; it also affects many industrialised countries. Globally, two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and approximately 50% of continental Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. Iodine intakes in other industrialised countries, including the USA and Australia, have fallen in recent years. Iodine deficiency has reappeared in Australia, as a result of declining iodine residues in milk products because of decreased iodophor use by the dairy industry. In the USA, although the general population is iodine sufficient, it is uncertain whether iodine intakes are adequate in pregnancy, which has led to calls for iodine supplementation. The few available data suggest that pregnant women in the Republic of Ireland and the UK are now mildly iodine deficient, possibly as a result of reduced use of iodophors by the dairy industry, as observed in Australia. Representative data on iodine status in children and pregnant women in the UK are urgently needed to inform health policy. In most industrialised countries the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is carefully-monitored salt iodisation. However, because approximately 90% of salt consumption in industrialised countries is from purchased processed foods, the iodisation of household salt only will not supply adequate iodine. Thus, in order to successfully control iodine deficiency in industrialised countries it is critical that the food industry use iodised salt. The current push to reduce salt consumption to prevent chronic diseases and the policy of salt iodisation to eliminate iodine deficiency do not conflict; iodisation methods can fortify salt to provide recommended iodine intakes even if per capita salt intakes are reduced to <5 g/d.

  8. Role of medical resource level in iodine deficiency disorder.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Liang, Zhen; Luo, Yong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) refer to a series of diseases caused by the human body's insufficient iodine intake. Edible salt became iodized in China in 1996, which yielded remarkable results. We have known that IDDs is associated with iodine in the human body, but it is not clear whether IDDs is related to medical resource level. We collected the number of IDDs cases and an index for the level of medical resource from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government in China. All data came from the China Statistical Yearbook of Health and Family Planning issued in 2013 by the Peking Union Medical College Publishing House. Data standardization and linear regression analysis were used. The results showed that IDDs correlated with the number of beds in medical and health institutions, number of medical health personnel, number of medical and health institutions, total health expenditure, average health expenditure per capita, medical insurance for urban resident and new rural cooperative medical rural residents (P < 0.01). In a multiple linear regression, IDDs was most significantly associated with the number of beds in hospitals, the number of rural health personnel, the number of basic medical and health institutions and government health expenditure for these institutions. Based on the experimental data, we concluded that IDDs had a positive connection with the medical resource level, and basic and rural areas had a more significant association with IDDs. This analysis provides new and explicit ideas for iodine prevention and control work in China.

  9. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy: a national cross-sectional survey in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Konrade, Ilze; Kalere, Ieva; Strele, Ieva; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Jekabsone, Anna; Tetere, Elina; Veisa, Vija; Gavars, Didzis; Rezeberga, Dace; Pīrāgs, Valdis; Lejnieks, Aivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2015-11-01

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction, which results in inadequate fetal brain development. In the absence of a universal salt iodization programme, we conducted a nationwide survey of iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Latvia. A countrywide twenty-cluster survey, with at least twenty women per cluster. Participants completed a questionnaire on dietary habits concerning iodine intake (n 739). Thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and thyroperoxidase antibodies) was measured (n 550). Urinary iodine was measured using the ammonium persulfate method (n 696). The survey was performed in all regions of Latvia during the spring and autumn seasons in 2013. Pregnant women (n 829). The median creatinine (Cr)-standardized urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 80·8 (interquartile range (IQR) 46·1-130·6) µg/g Cr or 69·4 (IQR 53·9-92·6) µg/l during pregnancy, and 81% of pregnant women had UIC levels below the WHO recommended range of 150-250 µg/g Cr. The UIC was lowest during the first trimester of pregnancy, 56·0 (IQR 36·4-100·6) µg/g Cr, reaching higher concentrations of 87·5 (IQR 46·4-141·7) µg/g Cr and 86·9 (IQR 53·8-140·6) µg/g Cr in the second and third trimesters, respectively. Women taking supplements containing ≥150 µg iodine (6·8% of respondents) had non-significantly higher UIC than did women without supplementation (96·2 v. 80·3 µg/g Cr, respectively, P=NS). Thyroperoxidase antibody concentration did not correlate significantly with UIC: Spearman's ρ=-0·012, P=0·78. The median UIC indicates iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Latvia. Iodine supplementation (150 µg daily) and regular UIC monitoring should be suggested to overcome iodine deficiency and to reach the recommended levels without inducing autoimmune processes.

  10. Parameters of thyroid function throughout and after pregnancy in an iodine-deficient population.

    PubMed

    Costeira, Maria José; Oliveira, Pedro; Ares, Susana; Roque, Susana; de Escobar, Gabriella Morreale; Palha, Joana Almeida

    2010-09-01

    The thyroid hormone milieu is of crucial importance for the developing fetus. Pregnancy induces physiological changes in thyroid homeostasis that are influenced by the iodine status. However, longitudinal studies addressing thyroid function during pregnancy and after delivery are still lacking in mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient populations. Here we characterize the serum parameters of thyroid function throughout pregnancy, and until 1 year after delivery, in a population of pregnant women whom we have previously reported to be iodine deficient (median urinary iodine levels below 75 microg/L). One hundred eighteen pregnant women were studied. Clinical data were recorded and serum was collected. Serum total and free thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine-binding globulin, and thyroglobulin were measured. Mean total T(4) ranged from 159 at the start of gestation to 127 nmol/L at 1 year after delivery, free T(4) from 14.2 to 17.8 pmol/L, total T(3) from 2.4 to 2.1 nmol/L, free T(3) from 6.7 pmol/L to 6.4 pmol/L, thyroid-stimulating hormone from 1.2 to 1.4 mIU/L, T(4)-binding globulin from 62.0 to 26.9 mg/L, and thyroglobulin from 11 to 10 microg/L. The pregnant women in this study had an absence of the usual free T(4) spike and a smaller than expected increment in total T(4), described during pregnancy in iodine-sufficient populations. A greater number of women had subclinical hypothyroidism compared with iodine-sufficient populations. This hormonal profile, most likely due to iodine insufficiency, may result in inadequate thyroid hormone supply to the developing fetus. We conclude that care should be taken when reviewing the results of thyroid hormone tests in iodine-insufficient populations and when no gestation-specific reference values have been established. In addition, we recommend iodine supplementation in our population and populations with similar iodine status, particularly during pregnancy and lactation.

  11. Maternal marginal iodine deficiency affects the expression of relative proteins during brain development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhui; Zhang, Le; Li, Jing; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2013-04-01

    Marginal iodine deficiency is a major health problem in pregnant women, but its impact on nerve and intelligence development in offspring has been rarely reported. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal marginal iodine deficiency on nerve and cognitive development in offspring and the related mechanisms. Marginal iodine-deficient rats were given 3  μg iodine per day, while normal control rats were given 4  μg iodine daily. Western blot was used to detect the amounts of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the hippocampus of each group. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure c-jun and c-fos expression in the hippocampal CA1 region. Finally, the water maze method was used to measure spatial performance. Free thyroxine (FT₄) levels in marginal iodine-deficient rats decreased by about 30%. Seven days after birth, EGR1 and BDNF protein levels significantly decreased in the hippocampus of marginal iodine deficiency rats compared with the normal control group. In addition, c-jun and c-fos expression in the hippocampus of 40-day-old rats was decreased in marginal iodine-deficient rats, compared with control. The spatial learning and memory ability of 40-day-old marginal iodine-deficient rats had a downward trend compared with the normal control group. FT₄ significantly decreased after pregnancy in rats with marginal iodine deficiency, affecting the expression of related proteins in the brain of offspring.

  12. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional status of school children in an endemic area of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) after one year of iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pongpaew, P; Tungtrongchitr, R; Phonrat, B; Supawan, V; Schelp, F P; Intarakhao, C; Mahaweerawat, U; Saowakontha, S

    1998-03-01

    To improve the health and nutritional status of school children in an area of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) by means of different iodine fortifications in salt, fish sauce and drinking water, anthropometric assessment for nutritional measurement, including hematological status, were performed. There was a significant difference in the weight and height of the children from the four schools investigated, before and after supplementation in each school. The prevalence of anemia (as indicated by hematological measurement) and iodine deficiency (as indicated by urinary iodine concentration in the children from the four schools) were assessed and compared before and after iodine supplementation; a decrease in prevalence was found in all school children, however, serum ferritin did not change before and after supplementation.

  14. [Distribution iodine deficiency diseases in coastal areas depending on geochemical conditions].

    PubMed

    Kiku, P F; Andryukov, B G

    2014-01-01

    In the Primorsky Krai there was performed a population ecological and hygienic analysis of the relationship between the content of chemical elements in the soil and thyroid morbidity in the population of the region. The assessment of the prevalence of iodine deficiency and iodine deficiency diseases was carried out on the basis of the impact of the priority environmental toxic (strontium, nickel, cadmium, lead, arsenic, tin) and essential (nickel, iron, germanium, molybdenum, zinc, selenium) trace elements on the level of iodine deficiency diseases. The level of thyroid pathology in the territory of Primorye was established to be the highest one in areas characterized by the severe iodine deficiency (Northwest geochemical zones), where the structure of thyroid diseases is presented mainly by diffuse nontoxic goiter. Thyroid diseases associated with iodine deficiency in the population of different age groups are the result of multiple and combined imbalance of trace elements, which causes a relative (secondary) iodine deficiency. Thyroid disease in Primorye are environmentally caused diseases of technogenic origin, they are a consequence of the relative iodine deficiency, when on the background of normal iodine supply an imbalance of zinc, iron, cobalt, manganese with excess of such toxic trace elements as lead, strontium, nickel and chromium takes place. Thyroid pathology associated with iodine deficiency, along with other environmentally dependent diseases can be considered as a marker of ecological environment trouble.

  15. [Hygienic characteristics of the population's morbidity rate associated with iodine deficiency in the Republic of Mordovia].

    PubMed

    Blinov, D S; Chemova, N N; Balykova, O P; Liapina, S A; Chugunova, L A

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are presented the results of research on naturally conditioned insufficiency of trace elements, particularly iodine, in the Republic of Mordovia. Iodine deficiency disorders are referred to the most common non-infectious human pathology. According to WHO data, about two billion people on Earth live in conditions of in iodine deficiency. In the Russian Federation there are no areas in which the population would not be at risk for the development of iodine deficiency disorders. To these regions and the Republic of Mordovia is referred. The prevalence of diseases caused by iodine deficiency among the urban population accounted for 100-150, among rural--130-350. In some regions of endemic goiter rate reaches 800. Analysis of the morbidity rate of the population in the Republic of Mordovia, associated with the iodine deficiency, shows that in the structure of diseases related to micronutrient deficiency, by 2013 diffuse goiter plays a leading role, beingfollowed by a multi-node (endemic) goiter onward thyroiditis, subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Thus, the analysis of indices of new cases of diseases associated with the iodine deficiency, allows to make the conclusion that diffuse goiter is the most significant pathology. In the structure of diseases related to the micronutrient deficiency, out of the most frequently detected iodine deficiency disorders, the greatest fraction are diffuse and multinodular goiter. The study was conducted with the support of the project, performed in the framework of the basic part of the State assignment (project 2859) and a RHSF grant.

  16. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Pandav, C S; Mallik, A; Anand, K; Pandav, S; Karmarkar, M G

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) are an important cause of mental handicap and poor educability of children. Though Delhi does not lie in the classical Himalayan goitre belt, it has been shown that IDD was endemic in Delhi. Studies of school children in Delhi reported a total goitre rate of 55% which indicates severe endemicity. The sale of uniodized salt has been banned in Delhi since July 1989. This study was done five years later to assess the impact of this measure on IDD prevalence in Delhi. A cross-sectional study was done among class VI students studying in government schools of Delhi. A complete list of government middle schools in Delhi was obtained and 30 were selected on the basis of 'probability proportion to size'. A sample size of 1200 was decided based on an expected prevalence of 50% with 5% error and design effect of three. All children in class VI of each school were clinically examined by a trained doctor for the presence of goitre and casual urine samples were collected in capped plastic tubes. The urinary iodine estimation was done by the wet ashing method. The total goitre rate was 20.5%. If the results were limited to children in the age group of 10-12 years it was 19.7%. The urinary iodine was less than the recommended 100 micrograms/L of urine in 23.6% of the children; 7.6% had no iodine in the urine. It is possible that some children could have substituted water in place of urine. The median urinary iodine level was 198 micrograms/L of urine. The study showed that IDD continues to be prevalent in mild endemic proportions. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the IDD rates have declined in the last few years. However, it continues to be an important public health problem in Delhi. It is essential to monitor the iodine content of salt on a regular basis. IDD control activities should be strengthened in Delhi and repeat surveys should be done every 3-5 years to monitor the progress achieved in eliminating IDD.

  17. The impact of iodine supplementation and bread fortification on urinary iodine concentrations in a mildly iodine deficient population of pregnant women in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can have significant effects on fetal development and future cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to characterise the iodine status of South Australian women during pregnancy and relate it to the use of iodine-containing multivitamins. The impact of fortification of bread with iodized salt was also assessed. Women (n = 196) were recruited prospectively at the beginning of pregnancy and urine collected at 12, 18, 30, 36 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. The use of a multivitamin supplement was recorded at each visit. Spot urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were assessed. Median UICs were within the mildly deficient range in women not taking supplements (<90 μg/L). Among the women taking iodine-containing multivitamins UICs were within WHO recommendations (150–249 μg/L) for sufficiency and showed an increasing trend through gestation. The fortification of bread with iodized salt increased the median UIC from 68 μg/L to 84 μg/L (p = .011) which was still in the deficient range. Pregnant women in this region of Australia were unlikely to reach recommended iodine levels without an iodine supplement, even after the mandatory iodine supplementation of bread was instituted in October 2009. PMID:23497409

  18. Iodine deficiency in northern Paris area: impact on fetal thyroid mensuration.

    PubMed

    Luton, Dominique; Alberti, Corinne; Vuillard, Edith; Ducarme, Guillaume; Oury, Jean François; Guibourdenche, Jean

    2011-02-16

    Iodine is essential for normal fetal and neonatal development. We studied the prevalence and impact on fetal thyroid development of iodine deficiency in pregnant women in the northern part of the Paris conurbation. 110 patients underwent several determinations of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and of serum FT4, FT3, and TSH. Fetal thyroid gland size was assessed using ultrasonography. We found evidence of widespread iodine deficiency (mean UIE, 49.8 µg/L [standard deviation, 2.11]). Iodine deficiency did not correlate significantly with maternal thyroid parameters but showed a significant negative correlation with fetal thyroid gland size (rho = 0.25, P = 0.02). Iodine deficiency during pregnancy is still a problem in our geographical area and affects the fetal thyroid gland. Clinical Trials.gov NCT00162539.

  19. The status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Kibatu; Nibret, Endalkachew; Gedefaw, Molla

    2014-04-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 and July 2012. One school containing 750 children aged between 6 and 18 years was randomly selected. Two hundred students from this school were selected by systematic random sampling. Physical examination was made according to WHO goiter classification system; 50 salt samples from households to which the sampled children belonged were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits and titration; a casual urine sample (5 ml) was taken from 30 children to measure urinary iodine spectrophotometrically, and 5 ml venous blood sample were collected from 37 children to measure thyroid relevant blood constituents using ELISA. The total goiter prevalence was 39.5%; 60% of the salt samples contained no iodine. The median urinary iodine concentration ranged from 20.54 - 62.2 (39.9 µg/L). School children who were assessed for thyroid hormones showed 18.92% elevated and 27.03% suppressed TSH levels. The study demonstrated that iodine deficiency is still a severe public health problem in Metekel Zone. There is a need to further strengthen the existing controlling and monitoring system in order to achieve proper elimination of IDDs in the community.

  20. Work of the Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, and the model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (PCCIDD) was established in 1991 in Krakow at the Chair and Dept. of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, following the example of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) in Charlottesville, USA. The PCCIDD co-operates with the European Co-ordinating Centre in Pisa, Italy. The PCCIDD comprises a group of experts in endocrinology, iodine prophylaxis, the technology of salt and food iodisation, and Polish representatives of several organisations: WHO, UNICEF, the Polish Consumers Federation, and the Spokesman for Children's Rights. The strategic goal of the Polish Council is to solve the problem of iodine deficiency in Poland realising the Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency financed by the Ministry of Health. The Polish model of iodine prophylaxis contains obligatory iodisation of household salt (20-40 mg KI/1 kg) and neonates' formula (10 μg/100 mL of milk), and additional supplementation for pregnant and breastfeeding women with 150-200 μg of iodine as pharmacotherapy. The model is very effective: endemic goitre in schoolchildren has been eradicated, the prevalence of goitre in pregnant women has fallen from 80% to 19%, the frequency of transient hypothyroidism in neonates has dropped from 2.0% to 0.16%, and the observed increase of incidence rate of thyroid cancer in women over 40 years old has diminished markedly. In 2008, a WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nutrition was designated at the Department of Endocrinology, UJCM in Krakow. The main goal of the WHOCC is to sustain effective iodine prophylaxis in Poland in the light of the latest WHO recommendations on the necessary reduction of daily salt intake as a risk factor for hypertension and arteriosclerosis. Therefore, additional standardised carriers of iodine (milk, mineral water) have been introduced into the food market.

  1. [Impact of the actions for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Terry-Berro, C Blanca; Quintana-Jardines, Ibrahim; de la Paz-Luna, Maytell; García, Julieta; Fernández-Bohórquez, Raúl; Silvera-Téllez, Denise; Díaz-Fuentes, Yoandry; Ferret-Martínez, Ana; Reyes-Fernández, Denia

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Sustainable Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Program through determination of urinary iodine and goiter prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Cuban school children aged 6 to 11 years old in 2011-2012. A stratified multistage sample was used in which the levels of iodine excretion in urine (urinary iodine) and the presence of goiter were determined. The median urinary iodine was 176.3 µg/L; 7.6% of the students showed some deficiency of iodine, only 2.2% were below 50 µg/L (severe deficiency), and 15.3% had urinary iodine above 300 µg/L. The percentage of school children with optimal iodine nutrition was 43.5%, this category showed a significantly higher frequency (p=0.03) in the mountain areas (52.5%). Goiter prevalence was 17.6% which corresponds to a mild endemic. However, in the mountain area the prevalence was 32.6% (severe endemic). The comprehensive analysis of the impact of iodine deficiency control measures assessed by urinary iodine excretion and goiter prevalence reflects that it is no longer a population health problem in urban and rural areas of Cuba, attributable to a proper process of salt iodization. Nevertheless, high goiter prevalence is still observed in the mountain area of Cuba.

  2. Thyroid dysfunction in newborns and infants living in an iodine-deficient area.

    PubMed

    Rybakowa, M; Ratajczak, R; Tylek, D

    1993-01-01

    The region of Southern Poland is known as an iodine-deficient area. Iodine prophylaxis was discontinued in 1980/81. This fact was discovered as a result of the introduction of newborn mass screening for congenital hypothyroidism in 1985. In view of the large number of newly detected cases of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD), we compared the neonatal populations of the Cracow and Nowy Sacz provinces. The prevalence of IDD was revealed as eight times higher in Nowy Sacz than in Cracow. The iodine urine excretion rates in those two provinces were similar. The paper discusses the cause of the discrepancy in IDD incidence. The final results show that the iodine deficiency detected in the Cracow and Nowy Sacz provinces is of moderate degree. Salt iodination in the region of southern Poland needs a new approach even before the year 2000, as planned in the WHO program.

  3. Consequences of iodine deficiency and excess in pregnant women: an overview of current knowns and unknowns12

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, John H; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during development results in maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and associated serious adverse health effects, including cretinism and growth retardation. Universal salt iodization is the first-line strategy for the elimination of severe iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation is recommended for vulnerable groups in severely iodine-deficient regions where salt iodization is infeasible or insufficient. A recent clinical trial has informed best practices for iodine supplementation of severely iodine-deficient lactating mothers. Because of successful programs of universal salt iodization in formerly severely iodine-deficient regions around the world, public health concern has shifted toward mild to moderate iodine deficiency, which remains prevalent in many regions, especially among pregnant women. Observational studies have shown associations between both mild maternal iodine deficiency and mild maternal thyroid hypofunction and decreased child cognition. Iodine supplementation has been shown to improve indexes of maternal thyroid function, even in marginally iodine-deficient areas. However, no data are yet available from randomized controlled trials in regions of mild to moderate iodine insufficiency on the relation between maternal iodine supplementation and neurobehavioral development in the offspring; thus, the long-term benefits and safety of such supplementation are uncertain. Although it is clear that excessive iodine intake can cause alterations in thyroid function in susceptible individuals, safe upper limits for iodine intake in pregnancy have not been well defined. Well-designed, prospective, randomized controlled trials that examine the effects of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid function and infant neurobehavioral development in mildly to moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women are urgently needed. In addition, clinical data on the effects of iodine excess in pregnant and lactating women are needed to inform

  4. Iodine deficiency: Physiological, clinical and epidemiological features, and pre-analytical considerations.

    PubMed

    Doggui, Radhouene; El Atia, Jalila

    2015-02-01

    Low dietary intake is associated with severe pathologies (especially goiter and cretinism) that affect life quality. Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem worldwide. In fact, 246 million school-aged children have insufficient iodine intake (data from 2012). Extrapoling this value to general population leads to the estimation that 1.9 billion people have insufficient iodine intake. So, it is crucial to interpret correctly data from iodine status survey. The World Health Organization recommends urinary iodine as the main indicator for the assessment of iodine status in epidemiological surveys. To improve the result, some considerations can be taken into account by the biologist, epidemiologist or public health physician for the realization of epidemiological surveys. After a reminder about the physiological and physiopathological feature of iodine, a description of some useful parameters was made to improve the exploration of iodine status in epidemiological surveys.

  5. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 μg/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P<0·001). In adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  6. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during the first half of gestation in an iodine deficient area with endemic cretinism and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Vermiglio, F; Lo Presti, V P; Scaffidi Argentina, G; Finocchiaro, M D; Gullo, D; Squatrito, S; Trimarchi, F

    1995-04-01

    Iodine deficiency is well known as the cause of several disorders such as endemic goitre and cretinism, along with a wide spectrum of psychoneurological development disorders including endemic mental deficiency and endemic cognitive deficiency, which are generally correlated to damage to the fetus. Such damage is, by inference, deemed a consequence either directly of iodine deficiency or of insufficient availability of thyroxine at the feto-placental unit level. Early pregnancy represents the crucial period for neurogenesis in the embryo. Several experimental studies have emphasized the direct role of maternal T4 in neurological embryogenesis, before the onset of fetal thyroid function and, therefore, its protective role in fetal thyroid failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether iodine deficiency may influence thyroid status of pregnant women throughout the first half of pregnancy. Thyroid function tests including total and free T4 and T3, TBG and TSH along with urinary iodine excretion were measured in the serum of pregnant women from an iodine deficient endemic goitre area in north-eastern Sicily, at 8, 13 and 20 weeks of gestation. The times of sampling were chosen to correspond approximately to a period prior to, coincident with and after the onset of fetal thyroid function, respectively. The longitudinal study was undertaken in 16 euthyroid pregnant women from the iodine deficient area in which major iodine deficiency disorders such as endemic cretinism and endemic cognitive deficiency in schoolchildren still persist (area A) and in 7 age matched volunteer pregnant women from a marginally iodine sufficient area (area B). Hormones and TBG were measured using commercial kits. Urinary iodine was measured by an automated method. The divergent changes in serum T4 and TBG with pregnancy progression induced a progressive TBG desaturation by T4 during the whole study period (from 22 to 17% in area A, ANOVA two-way F = 18.9, P < 0.0001; from 33 to 20

  7. [Effectiveness of the program "School Milk" for the prevention of iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Danilenko, A L; Kamilov, F Kh; Mamtsev, A N; Kozlov, V N; Ponomarev, E E

    2015-01-01

    Republic of Bashkortostan refers to iodine-deficient regions of Russia. The incidence of endemic multinodular goiter in 2012 in the Republic amounted to 33.2 per 100 thousand of the population. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of group iodine prophylaxis of schoolchildren through the use of iodized milk. The study included 181 children of primary school (pre-pubertal) age (8-10 years), it has been carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO and the International Council for Control of iodine deficiency disorders using a unified system of identification of iodine deficiency states. Level of physical development was assessed according to anthropometric measurements, which were conducted by centile distribution tables according to age and sex, and the individual assessment of physical development was determined by the level of feature by its position in a number of centile. Assessment of iodine deficiency was carried out by determining levels of iodine excretion in a single urine sample. Iodine concentration in urine was determined by ceric ion-arsenious acid method. Frequency of iodine deficiency varying degrees before the iodine prophylaxis among urban children was 57.0%, among rural-92.3%. Urban junior schoolchildren showed severe iodine deficiency in 12.7% and moderate one in 16.4% of the cases, while in the countryside their prevalence was higher--27.4 and 35.2%, respectively. It was revealed that the number of children whose body growth values are within the average values is 36% in urban children, and 48.4% in rural areas. It should be noted that the low and very low body height predominate in rural students, it makes up 16.1% (while in the town it makes-up 2.3%). Iodine prophylaxis contributed to a significant reduction of iodine deficiency in children. In the town the median urinary iodine exceeded 100 mg/L and amounted to 159.4 mg/L. After iodine prophylaxis 82.5% of urban children and 72.1% of rural showed normal

  8. Hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency in an infant requiring total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Clarridge, Katherine Elizabeth; Conway, Erin E; Bucuvalas, John

    2014-09-01

    While iodine deficiency remains a relatively rare cause of thyroid dysfunction in the United States, little is known about iodine status and deficiency in children requiring parenteral nutrition (PN). This population may be at an elevated risk of thyroid dysregulation and neurodevelopmental sequelae due to low concentrations in typical PN formulations. Furthermore, with the widespread practice of switching from iodine-based antiseptics to chlorhexadine, previous inadvertent sources of iodine are being eliminated as well. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. [Elimination of iodine deficiency: a challenge for the end of the century].

    PubMed

    Noguera Zelaya, A

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review some essential elements that should be considered in the development of national and regional strategies for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorders. Another objective is to analyze the current status of this deficiency, the criteria and parameters for evaluating the progress of control programs, and the political, legal, and institutional issues that must be borne in mind in order to reach the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in the present decade.

  10. Lebanese children are iodine deficient and urinary sodium and fluoride excretion are weak positive predictors of urinary iodine.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Francis, Sirine; El Mallah, Carla; Shatila, Dareen; Merhi, Karina; Hlais, Sani; Zimmermann, Michael; Obeid, Omar

    2017-03-01

    To assess iodine and fluoride status among Lebanese children. A nationally representative cross-sectional study of 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren was conducted using multistage cluster sampling. Spot urine samples were collected from 1403 children, and urinary iodine, fluoride, creatinine and sodium levels were measured. Salt samples from markets (n = 30) were tested for iodine concentration by titration. Median urinary iodine concentration was 66.0 µg/l, indicating mild deficiency, and almost 75 % of Lebanese children had a urinary iodine concentration (UIC) <100 µg/l. UIC was higher among children from private schools and in areas of higher socioeconomic status. Most salt samples were fortified at levels far below the legislated requirement, and 56 % of samples contained less than 15 ppm iodine. Fluoride-to-creatinine ratio (F/Cr) was 0.250 (0.159-0.448) mg/g. There were weak positive correlations between UIC and urinary sodium (r (2) = 0.039, P value <0.001) and UIC and urinary fluoride (r (2) = 0.009, P value <0.001). Lebanese elementary school children are iodine deficient due to inadequately iodized salt. The weak correlation between UIC and urinary sodium suggests most dietary iodine does not come from iodized salt. The poor correlation between UIC and urinary fluoride suggests that fluoride intake is not affecting iodine metabolism. Efforts are needed in Lebanon to improve industry compliance with salt fortification through improved monitoring and enforcement of legislation.

  11. In Vivo Evaluation of Transdermal Iodide Microemulsion for Treating Iodine Deficiency Using Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Alayoubi, Alaadin; Sullivan, Ryan D; Lou, Hao; Patel, Hemlata; Mandrell, Timothy; Helms, Richard; Almoazen, Hassan

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the transdermal efficiency of iodide microemulsion in treating iodine deficiency using rats as an animal model. Animals were fed either iodine-deficient diet (20 μg/kg iodide) or control diet (200 μg/kg iodide) over a 17-month period. At month 14, iodide microemulsion was applied topically in iodine-deficient group and physiological evaluations of thyroid gland functions were characterized by monitoring the thyroid hormones (T3, T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), iodide ion excretion in urine, and the overall rat body weights in both groups. Moreover, morphological evaluations of thyroid gland before and after treatment were performed by ultrasound imaging and through histological assessment. Prior to microemulsion treatment, the levels of T3, T4, and TSH in iodine-deficient group were statistically significant as compared to that in the control group. The levels of T3 and T4 increased while TSH level decreased significantly in iodine-deficient group within the first 4 weeks of treatment. After treatment, iodide concentration in urine increased significantly. There was no statistical difference in weight between the two groups. Ultrasound imaging and histological evaluations showed evidence of hyperplasia in iodine-deficient group. Topical iodide microemulsion has shown a promising potential as a novel delivery system to treat iodine deficiency.

  12. Are weaning infants at risk of iodine deficiency even in countries with established iodized salt programs?.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Because iodine deficiency (ID) during infancy can irreversibly impair neurodevelopment and increase mortality, it is critical that dietary iodine is adequate in this vulnerable group. Lactating mothers consuming iodized salt can transfer adequate iodine to the infant via breast milk, but during the weaning period, infants are at risk for ID for several reasons: (1) requirements per kg bodyweight for iodine and thyroid hormone during infancy are higher than at any other time in the life cycle; (2) experts recommend no extra salt (iodized or not) be given to infants during the first year; (3) cow's milk (a major source of dietary iodine in many countries) is also not recommended for infants during the first year; and (4) iron deficiency, a common disorder during infancy, can impair iodine metabolism and reduce thyroid hormone production. For many weaning infants in industrialized countries, iodine fortified into commercial infant foods becomes important. This has recently been demonstrated in Switzerland, where a long-standing iodized salt program provides adequate iodine to pregnant women and school-age children, but new national data suggest weaning infants not receiving iodine-containing commercial baby foods have inadequate iodine intakes. Thus, even in countries with effective iodized salt programs, infants may be at risk of ID during weaning and may need additional dietary and/or supplemental sources of iodine. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Developmental iodine deficiency delays the maturation of newborn granule neurons associated with downregulation of p35 in postnatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Yi; Xu, Hongde; Dong, Jing; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the role of p35 in the maturation of hippocampal granule neurons in offspring caused by developmental iodine deficiency. Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil-adulterated water (5 ppm) to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day 28. The protein levels of p35, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, β-catenin, and N-cadherin were assessed on postnatal day 14, 21, and 28. Dendritic morphogenesis of newborn granule neurons in dentate gyrus was examined. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency and PTU treatment delayed the maturation of hippocampal granule neurons in the offspring and decreased the percentage of Dcx-positive neurons that expressed β-catenin on postnatal day 21 and 28. In addition, downregulation of p35 was observed in dentate gyrus of hypothyroid groups. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency and PTU treatment could delay the maturation of newborn granule neurons in dentate gyrus, and this deficit may be attributed to the downregulation of p35. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  14. The new emergence of iodine deficiency in the UK: consequences for child neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Bath, Sarah C

    2015-11-01

    Adequate iodine intake is important during pregnancy as it is a component of the thyroid hormones that are crucial for fetal brain and neurological development. While randomized controlled trials in severe iodine deficiency have shown that iodine deficiency in pregnancy causes impaired offspring cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild/mild-to-moderate deficiency. The United Kingdom is now classified as mildly iodine deficient by the World Health Organization, based on a 2011 national study of 14-15-year-old schoolgirls. As pregnancy is the most critical time for brain development, we evaluated iodine status in pregnant women in Surrey (n = 100) and Oxford (n = 230). The median urinary iodine concentration was 85.3 μg/L in Surrey women, considerably lower than the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders cut-off of 150 μg/L. Oxford women had similarly low status. We investigated whether that level of iodine deficiency was associated with adverse child cognitive effects using stored samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. In adjusted analyses, we found a significant association between low maternal iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) such that children had an approximately 60% greater risk of being in the bottom quartile of scores for verbal intelligence quotient, reading accuracy and comprehension. UK women who might become pregnant should ensure they have adequate iodine status to avoid compromising their children's brain development.

  15. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding; Perrild, Hans; Knudsen, Nils; Weber, Tom; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg/l) were measured. Predictors of iodine supplement use were examined by multivariate logistic regression models. The pregnant women from Eastern Denmark had a median age of 30 years and the median gestational week at which they were included in the study was week 19. The majority took iodine-containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p < 0.001). Predictors of not using iodine supplement in Eastern and Western Denmark were short maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity. The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification may be recommended to improve the iodine status in pregnant Danish women. none. not relevant.

  16. Iodine deficiency and associated factors among school children: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Sintayehu; Wubshet, Mamo; Woldie, Haile; Tariku, Amare

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a public health problem in the world. It is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage worldwide. Though 12 million school age children are at risk of developing iodine deficiency, there is a scarcity of literature showing the magnitude of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of iodine deficiency among school children in Robe District, southeast Ethiopia. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 422 children. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with iodine deficiency. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a P-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 393 school children participated in the study. The median urinary iodine level was 78 μg/l. About 57 and 43.5 % of the children were found with low urinary iodine level and goiter, respectively. Only 29 % of the households utilized adequately iodized salt. The result of the multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of iodine deficiency were higher among female [AOR = 2.23; 95 % CI: 1.54, 3.55] and older (10-12 years) [AOR = 2.21; 95 % CI: 1.44, 3.42] children. In this community, the prevalence of goiter and low urine iodine level is high. Thus, iodine deficiency exists as severe public health problem. In addition, there is a low utilization of iodized salt in the setting. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify efforts in the implementation of iodized salt. Moreover, attention should be given to school children to address ID.

  17. Eliminating iodine deficiency disorders--the role of the International Council in the global partnership.

    PubMed Central

    Hetzel, Basil S.

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most common preventable cause of brain damage. WHO estimates that some 2.2 billion people are at risk from iodine deficiency in 130 countries. A programme of universal salt iodization was established in 1994 with the aim of eliminating the problem by 2000. This paper reports progress in this field, with particular reference to the primarily scientific role of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, a nongovernmental organization founded in 1986. It is now a multidisciplinary network of 600 professionals in 100 countries. PMID:12077619

  18. Control of iodine-deficiency disorders following universal salt iodization in Shenzhen, China, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Peng, Chaoqiong; Huang, Haixiong; Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Jianping; Mao, Lisha; Luo, Ruorong; Xiao, Yunjun

    2013-09-01

    Since universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in Shenzhen, China, in 1996, evaluation of the time trend of USI to indicate the control of iodine-deficiency disorders has not been performed. To assess the time trend of median urinary iodine and total goiter rates from 1997 to 2011. Probability-proportionate-to-size sampling was employed in the surveillance of iodine-deficiency disorders, for which schoolchildren aged 8 to 10 years were randomly selected from five districts of the city during each iodine-deficiency disorders survey. Urinary iodine content and thyroid size were measured by ammonium persulfate oxidation and B ultrasound, respectively. The coverage of iodized salt increased from 73.2% in 1997 to more than 90% in 2011. The median urinary iodine of children aged 8 to 10 years varied between 207.1 and 278.8 microg/L; these levels were above the urinary iodine level in 1995. The proportion of urine samples with iodine content above 300 microg/L was 45.6% in 1997 and decreased to 20.8% in 2011, indicating excessive consumption of iodine by the children. The goiter rate among children dropped from 10.8% in 1997 to 1.3% in 2011; both values were lower than the goiter rate in 1995, indicating that the spread of endemic goiter was under control. Preliminary elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders was achieved by USI in Shenzhen. Nevertheless, some problems still existed, such as over-iodization. To clarify the causes of excessive urinary iodine content, the various sources of iodine from the diet need to be investigated in the future.

  19. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy: the effect on neurodevelopment in the child.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, Sheila A

    2011-02-01

    Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T(4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T(3), generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T(4) (fT(4)), is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby's requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT(4)) results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child.

  20. Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: The Effect on Neurodevelopment in the Child

    PubMed Central

    Skeaff, Sheila A.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3), necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T3, generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T4 (fT4), is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby’s requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT4) results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child. PMID:22254096

  1. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  2. A review: Radiographic iodinated contrast media-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Y; Rhee, Connie M; Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E; Brent, Gregory A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed.

  3. [Prevalence of iodine deficiency and related factors in 4 year-old schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Serra-Prat, Mateu; Díaz, Eva; Verde, Yolanda; Gost, Jordi; Serra, Eugènia; Puig Domingo, Manel

    2003-03-01

    Iodine deficiency in early years of life can cause important disorders in body growth and development. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in 4 year-old schoolchildren from the town of Mataró (Barcelona, Spain) and to know the factors associated with this nutritional deficiency. A population-based cross-sectional study was designed, which included all 4 year-old schoolchildren of this town. A physicians team performed a basic physical examination and collected urine samples for iodine determination. Parents were asked to answer a nutritional habits questionnaire. Eight hundred and sixty urine samples were obtained from 987 participants. Mean urinary iodine levels were 214.1 g/l (SD = 103.3 g/l) and the median was 189.0 g/l. Prevalence of iodine deficiency was 7.8% at a 100 g/l cut-off point and 1.2% at a 50 g/l cut-off point. Statistical differences in the prevalence of iodine deficiency were observed between ethnic groups: while natives had a prevalence of 7.0%, in Magrebins it was 18.4%, Subsaharians 20.0% and other ethnical groups 14.3% (p = 0.016). Schoolchildren in Mataró have adequate urinary iodine levels according to WHO recommendations with a relatively low prevalence of iodine deficiency. However, even after adjustments for the knowledge of the existence of iodized salt, iodine deficiency correlates with the child's ethnic origin (native or immigrant).

  4. Factors affecting sustainable iodine deficiency elimination in Pakistan: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Rehman Mehmood; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a considerable challenge worldwide, even after decades of efforts to address the problem. The aim of this review is to present the current situation in historically iodine-deficient Pakistan regarding iodine nutritional status and place it in a global perspective. We collected relevant articles from online bibliographic databases and websites of concerned organizations that addressed prevalence of goiter/iodine deficiency and barriers to sustainable control. We divided the studies into pre- and post-1994, a landmark year when Pakistan formally adopted the universal salt iodization (USI) programme. Overall, 56 studies reported goiter/iodine deficiency prevalence in Pakistan. Before 1994, six studies (30%) reported a goiter prevalence ≥70%, while nine studies (45%) reported a goiter prevalence between 30% and 70%. Only five studies (25%) found a goiter prevalence less than 30%, of which only two studies reported prevalence <10%. From 1994 onwards, 15 studies (41.7%) reported a goiter/iodine deficiency (ID) prevalence ≥50%, of which seven studies reported prevalence ≥70%, while three studies (8.3%) found a goiter prevalence of 30%-49%, nine studies (25%) found a goiter prevalence of 10%-29%, and five studies (13.9%) reported prevalence of <10%. Four studies (11.1%) reported lower goiter prevalence but higher prevalence of iodine deficiency. The efforts in the past two decades resulted in up to a 50% decline in iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Variable remaining factors and the recent results, however, indicate that this decline may be non-uniform and even over-estimated. Coordinated and regionally adopted efforts for eradication of IDD from all stakeholders should be pursued. Policy makers should take steps to protect future generations and alert concerned organizations about the importance of careful assessments and estimates of iodine nutritional status. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P< 0·001). In the adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required.

  6. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development, up-regulate caveolin-1 and down-regulate synaptophysin in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gong, J; Dong, J; Wang, Y; Xu, H; Wei, W; Zhong, J; Liu, W; Xi, Q; Chen, J

    2010-02-01

    Developmental iodine deficiency leads to inadequate thyroid hormone, which damages the hippocampus. In the present study, we implicate hippocampal caveolin-1 and synaptophysin in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were established: pregnant rats were administered either an iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU)-adulterated (5 p.p.m. or 15 p.p.m.) drinking water from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN) 28. Nissl staining and the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptophysin in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28 and PN42. The results obtained show that surviving cells in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats were lower than in controls. Up-regulation of caveolin-1 and down-regulation of synaptophysin were observed in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. Our findings implicate decreases in the number of surviving cells and alterations in the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptophysin in the impairments in neural development induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.

  7. Iodine-induced hypothyroidism in full-term infants with congenital heart disease: more common than currently appreciated?

    PubMed

    Thaker, V V; Leung, A M; Braverman, L E; Brown, R S; Levine, B

    2014-10-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyroid hormone is critical for normal neurocognitive development in young infants, and even transient hypothyroidism can cause adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Both iodine deficiency and excess can cause hypothyroidism. Although iodine-induced hypothyroidism is well recognized in premature infants, full-term neonates have received less attention. Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) are commonly exposed to excess iodine from administration of iodinated contrast agents during cardiac catheterization as well as topical application of iodine-containing antiseptics and dressings; hence, this is a vulnerable population. We report three cases of iodine-induced hypothyroidism in full-term neonates with CHD after cardiac angiography and topical application of iodine-containing antiseptics and dressings in the operative setting. Three neonates with CHD and normal thyroid function at birth developed hypothyroidism after exposure to excess iodine. Two of these infants had transient hypothyroidism, and one had severe hypothyroidism requiring ongoing thyroid replacement therapy. All infants were asymptomatic, with hypothyroidism detected incidentally in the inpatient setting due to repeat newborn screening mandated by the long duration of hospitalization in these infants. Iodine-induced hypothyroidism may be under-recognized in infants with CHD exposed to excess iodine. Systematic monitoring of thyroid function should be considered to avoid potential long-term adverse neurodevelopmental effects of even transient thyroid dysfunction in this susceptible population.

  8. Iodine nutritional status in pregnant women of two historically different iodine-deficient areas of Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Vila, Lluis; Serra-Prat, Mateu; de Castro, Alfonso; Palomera, Elisabet; Casamitjana, Roser; Legaz, Gustavo; Barrionuevo, Celia; Muñoz, José A; García, Ana J; Lal-Trehan, Sanjay; García, Amparo; Durán, Josep; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2011-10-01

    Catalonia (Spain) has a historically worse situation of mild iodine deficiency in the Pyrenees Mountains compared with the coastal region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current iodine status in pregnant women living in these two areas. An epidemiologic prospective survey included 267 consecutive pregnancies in the Catalan mountains (n = 139) and coast (n = 128) studied during the first trimester; an additional subset of 135 women from the initial cohort was available for evaluation in the third trimester. Urinary iodine (UI) was measured, and questionnaires to determine iodized salt and sea fish consumption and potassium iodide supplementation were administered. The median UI in the first trimester was 163 μg/L for the entire cohort, with differences between mountain and coastal regions (209 versus 142 μg/L, P = 0.007). The highest prevalence of iodized salt consumption was in the mountain area (58% versus 36.4%, P < 0.001). For the entire group, a higher median UI was found in iodized salt consumers compared with non-consumers (193 versus 134 μg/L, P < 0.001). In the third trimester, an increase of median UI was seen in those to whom iodine supplements were given during pregnancy (190 versus 154 μg/L, P = 0.015). A reversal in the historically iodine-deficient situation was observed in the Catalan Pyrenees compared with the coastal area, with a globally acceptable iodine status in pregnant women of the two geographic locations. Iodized salt consumption seems to have contributed to maintaining an acceptable iodine status in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair spatial memory in adolescent rat hippocampus: involvement of CaMKII, calmodulin and calcineurin.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Hou, Yi; Xu, Hongde; Gong, Jian; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), calmodulin and calcineurin are implicated in the impaired spatial memory in adolescent rats following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Then, the spatial memory to a water maze test was studied in pups before PN42. After testing periods, the latency to platform and the number of error in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). Total and phosphorylated CaMKII, calmodulin, and calcineurin in the hippocampus were detected with both the immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Without going through water maze test, iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups showed significantly lower CaMKII and calmodulin and significantly higher calcineurin than the controls in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions (P < 0.05). After trials of water maze task, however, CaMKII and calmodulin were up-regulated and calcineurin was down-regulated in control group (P < 0.05), but not in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups. Data indicate that hippocampal CaMKII, calmodulin, and calcineurin are involved in the impaired spatial memory induced by developmental ID and hypothyroidism.

  10. Assessment of iodine and non-iodine deficiency hypothyroidism in women of reproductive ages in the sub-Himalayan plains of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Ray, Arabinda; Biswas, Utpal; Mukherjee, Ashoke; Sarker, Krishna Chandra; Samajdar, Kausik; Mukherjee, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    Indian women of reproductive age groups commonly suffer from hypothyroidism which may be due to iodine or non iodine deficiency causes. This study was undertaken with a view to ascertain the leading cause of hypothyroidism in women of reproductive age group residing in the sub-Himalayan plain areas of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Serum TSH, T4, T3 and Urinary Iodine Excretion (UIE) levels were measured in 101 non pregnant women. Our results reveal that among 37.62% (n=38) of bio-chemically established hypothyroid women; majority 76.32% (n=29) are suffering from iodine deficiency and the rest 23.68% (n=9) have Hypothyroidism due to other causes. Moreover, iodine deficiency persists among 57.42% (n=58) of the women in our study. We conclude that iodine deficiency disorders are still a major problem in this region and hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is more prevalent than the non iodine deficiency causes. Hence lacunae in the iodine supplementation process needs to be reviewed.

  11. Are breast-fed infants and toddlers in New Zealand at risk of iodine deficiency?

    PubMed

    Skeaff, Sheila A; Ferguson, Elaine L; McKenzie, Joanne E; Valeix, Pierre; Gibson, Rosalind S; Thomson, Christine D

    2005-03-01

    This study assessed the iodine status of New Zealand infants and toddlers and explored factors that might influence their iodine status. A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 6- to 24-mo-old children was conducted in three cities in the South Island of New Zealand. Iodine status was determined by a casual urine sample. Breast-feeding mothers were asked to provide a breast milk sample for iodine determination. Caregivers collected a 3-d weighed diet record from their children to investigate associations between dietary patterns and urinary iodine excretion. The median urinary iodine concentration for the group (n = 230) was 67 microg/L (interquartile range 37-115) with 37% (95% confidence interval 30.5-43.4) of children having a urinary iodine concentration lower than 50 microg/L. When children were classified by current feeding method, those children who were currently formula-fed had a significantly higher median urinary iodine concentration (99 microg/L) than did children who were currently breast-fed (44 microg/L; P < 0.000). The mean iodine concentration in breast milk was 22 microg/L (n = 39). After multivariate analysis using estimates from 3-d diet records, only percentage of energy from infant formula was significantly associated with urinary iodine concentration (P = 0.005). This study found mild iodine deficiency in a group of New Zealand infants and toddlers. Children who consumed infant formula, which is fortified with iodine, had better iodine status than did children who were currently breast-fed because breast milk contained low levels of iodine.

  12. Nutrition, evolution and thyroid hormone levels - a link to iodine deficiency disorders?

    PubMed

    Kopp, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    An increased iodine requirement as a result of significant changes in human nutrition rather than a decreased environmental iodine supply is suggested to represent the main cause of the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The pathomechanism proposed is based on the fact that serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, especially of trijodothyronine (T3), are dependent on the amount of dietary carbohydrate. High-carbohydrate diets are associated with significantly higher serum T3 concentrations, compared with very low-carbohydrate diets. While our Paleolithic ancestors subsisted on a very low carbohydrate/high protein diet, the agricultural revolution about 10,000 years ago brought about a significant increase in dietary carbohydrate. These nutritional changes have increased T3 levels significantly. Higher T3 levels are associated with an enhanced T3 production and an increased iodine requirement. The higher iodine requirement exceeds the availability of iodine from environmental sources in many regions of the world, resulting in the development of IDD.

  13. Iodine deficiency and thyroid cancer trends in three regions of Thailand, 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Mitro, Susanna D; Rozek, Laura S; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Srisukho, Songpol; Sriplung, Hutcha; Meza, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Iodine deficiency may play a role in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis. Because Thailand has region-specific historical iodine deficiency, it is ideal to evaluate the potential impact of recent national iodine supplementation policies on thyroid cancer incidence trends. We examined thyroid cancer trends in Thailand from 1990 to 2009 in three geographically separated populations (Songkhla Province [south], Chiang Mai Province [north], and Khon Kaen Province [northeast]), each with a different historical prevalence of iodine deficiency. We used Joinpoint analysis and age-period-cohort (APC) models to investigate trends in thyroid cancer incidence. Pooled incidence of papillary cancers significantly increased (Males APC: 2.0, p<0.05; Females APC: 7.3 [1990-2001, p<0.05], -2.1 [2001-2009]) and incidence of follicular cancers significantly decreased (Males APC: -5.2, p<0.05; Females APC: -4.3 [1990-1998, p<0.05], 12.3 [1998-2001], -17.0 [2001-2005, p<0.05], 8.2 [2005-2009]) in both males and females between 1990 and 2009. The largest increases in papillary cancer incidence, and the largest decreases in follicular cancer incidence, occurred in historically iodine-deficient regions. Interestingly, the significant histological changes coincided with Thailand's most recent national iodination policy. The thyroid cancer trends in females were better explained by period effects than cohort effects. This study adds to the research indicating that papillary carcinoma incidence increases, and follicular carcinoma incidence decreases, as population-level iodine deficiency declines, and suggests that iodine exposure may affect late stages of thyroid carcinogenesis. However, our findings are limited by the ecological study design and lack of data prior to iodine supplementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Efficiency of iodine and selenium enriched drinking water use to prevent deficiency states in population of the Altai Territory].

    PubMed

    Mantler, N N; Kir'ianova, L F; Saldan, I P; Bekker, V N

    2010-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between the quality of drinking water and human health. The Altai Territory is a biogeochemical province characterized by deficiency of many trace elements, including iodine and selenium. The measures implemented in organized children's collectives to prevent iodine- and selenium-enriched deficiency states, by providing the supply of drinking waters enriched with iodine and selenium, have demonstrated a more marked effect in preventing iodine deficiency states than that of the water corrected only for the iodine composition.

  15. Statistical design considerations applicable to clinical trials of iodine supplementation in pregnant women who may be mildly iodine deficient.

    PubMed

    Troendle, James F

    2016-09-01

    No large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild or moderate iodine deficiency has been completed in which a primary outcome measure was an assessment of the neurobehavioral development of the offspring at age ≥2 y. In this article, I discuss considerations for the design of such a trial in a region of mild iodine deficiency, with a focus on statistical methods and approaches. Exposure and design issues include the ethics of using a placebo, the potential for overexposure to iodine, and the possibility of community randomization. The main scientific goal of the trial is important in determining the follow-up period. If the goal is to determine whether iodine supplementation during pregnancy improves neurobehavioral development in the offspring, then follow-up should continue until a reasonably reliable assessment can be conducted, which might be at age ≥2 y. Once the timing of assessment is decided, the impact of potential loss to follow-up should be considered so that appropriate statistical methods can be incorporated into the design. The minimum sample size can be calculated by using a sample size formula that incorporates noncompliance and assumes that a certain proportion of study participants do not have any outcome observed. To have sufficient power to detect a reasonably modest difference in neurobehavioral development scores using an assessment tool with an SD of 15, a large number of participants (>500/group) is required. The minimum adequate number of participants may be even larger (>1300/group) depending on the magnitude of the difference in outcome between the supplementation and placebo groups, the estimated proportion of the iodine-supplementation group that fails to take the supplement, and the estimated proportion of pregnancies that do not produce outcome measurements. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. The effects of fenvalerate on hepatic and cerebral xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in selenium and/or iodine deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Caglayan, Aydan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Hincal, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Particularly in developing countries, selenium and/or iodine deficiencies are encountered and use of pesticides in agriculture are not well-controlled. Fenvalerate is a pyrethroid insectide used in agriculture and has applications against a wide range of pests. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of fenvalerate on hepatic and cerebral xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in the presence of iodine and/or selenium deficiency on a rat model. Materials and Methods: Iodine and/or selenium deficiency was induced by feeding three-week-old Wistar rats with a diet containing <0.005 mg selenium kg-1, and/or administering 1% sodium perchlorate in drinking water for 7 weeks. Test groups received fenvalerate (100 mg kg-1 BW IP) for the last 7 days. Hepatic and cerebral microsomal aniline hydroxylase (CYP2E1) and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were determined. Besides, hepatic NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD, CYP1A1/1A2) and penthoxyresorufin O-depenthylase (PROD, CYP2B1/2B2), activities were also measured. Results: Fenvalerate had a general inductive effect on the hepatic and cerebral xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities. Moreover, enzyme activities were also altered by iodine and/or selenium deficiency, but the effects seemed to be enzyme- and tissue-specific. Conclusion: The inductive effect of fenvalerate, particularly in high dose exposures, may change the metabolism of several xenobiotics, including drugs, as well as endogenous substrates. The effects may vary depending on the selenium and/or iodine status of individual. PMID:27872699

  17. Intermittent oral administration of potassium iodide solution for the correction of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Todd, C H; Dunn, J T

    1998-06-01

    Iodized salt and iodized oil are the main methods used to prevent iodine deficiency, but sometimes alternative approaches are needed. We tested the efficacy of various regimens for the intermittent administration of potassium iodide in Hwedza, Zimbabwe, an area of known severe iodine deficiency. We divided 304 schoolchildren aged 7-13 y into five equal groups that received iodine as a 10% solution of potassium iodide as follows: 8.7 mg every 2 wk (group A), 29.7 mg every month (group B), 148.2 mg every 3 mo (group C), 382 mg every 6 mo (group D), or 993 mg once (group E). The follow-up period was 13 mo. No adverse effects were encountered with any of these doses. After 6 mo, the median blood spot thyroglobulin concentration had decreased in all groups and had normalized in groups A and B to values found in iodine-sufficient populations. The number of children with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations decreased in groups A-C, but the changes were not significant. Urine iodine concentration generally remained low in all groups but increased in group A. After 13 mo, mean thyroid volume measured by ultrasound had decreased in groups A and B to values comparable with those in iodine-sufficient areas, and was unchanged in the other groups. We conclude that oral potassium iodide is effective for the prophylaxis of iodine deficiency if given as a dose of 30 mg I monthly or 8 mg biweekly.

  18. Influence of iodine deficiency and iodine prophylaxis on thyroid cancer histotypes and incidence in endemic goiter area.

    PubMed

    Huszno, B; Szybiński, Z; Przybylik-Mazurek, E; Stachura, J; Trofimiuk, M; Buziak-Bereza, M; Gołkowski, F; Pantoflinski, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between thyroid cancer histotype and incidence rate (IR) and iodine nutrition level in two endemic goiter areas: the districts of Krakow and Nowy Sacz. The suspension of iodine prophylaxis in Poland in 1980 resulted in increased goiter prevalence in schoolchildren and adults and elevated TSH levels in newborns in the early 1990s. Since 1992 a rise in thyroid cancer IR was observed. Thyroid cancer IR in the Krakow population was 2.22 in 1986; 3.62 in 1995 and 6.02 in 2001; in Nowy Sacz: 1.52; 2.59 and 3.88 respectively. In 1986 papillary/follicular cancer ratio in both areas was about 1.0--the value typical of iodine deficient areas. After restoring the obligatory iodine prophylaxis in 1997, a significant decrease in elevated TSH concentration in newborns and urinary iodine concentration increase in schoolchildren were observed. A relative rise in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer and decrease in follicular cancer, resulting in rise in papillary/follicular thyroid cancer ratio up to 5.9 in 2001 was also observed. Since 1999 no further thyroid cancer IR increase was noted. In conclusion, a significant increase in differentiated thyroid cancer IR was observed in association with the iodine prophylaxis suspension. Changes in thyroid cancer histotypes in 1986-2001 and a significant decrease in incremental rate of differentiated thyroid cancer probably reflect the influence of effective iodine prophylaxis. The significant difference between IR of thyroid cancer incidence in the districts of Krakow and Nowy Sacz may be related to differences in the exposure to radiation after the Chernobyl accident.

  19. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants-complex physiology with a risk of misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Andersen, S; Bjarnadóttir, R I; Carlé, A; Hreidarsson, Ab; Knudsen, N; Ovesen, L; Pedersen, Ib; Rasmussen, Lb

    2007-12-01

    To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Population surveys and research studies. Pregnant women and young infants. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (microg l-1) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (microg per 24 h); 2) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cord blood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine deficiency than in the mother. If the iodine status of pregnant women and small children is not to be misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account.

  20. Neonatal Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Belgium: A Useful Indicator for Detecting Mild Iodine Deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Coucke, Wim; Vanderpas, Jean; Trumpff, Caroline; Fauvart, Maarten; Meulemans, Ann; Marie, Sandrine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; Schoos, Roland; Boemer, François; Vanwynsberghe, Timothy; Philips, Eddy; Eyskens, François; Wuyts, Brigitte; Selimaj, Valbona; Van Overmeire, Bart; Kirkpatrick, Christine; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009–2011 (n = 377713) were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions. PMID:23112844

  1. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-02-20

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150-249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy.

  2. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. PMID:28230748

  3. Post-production Losses in Iodine Concentration of Salt Hamper the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders: A Case Study in Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shawel, Dawit; Hagos, Seifu; Lachat, Carl K.; Kimanya, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine is essential for good function of the thyroid, and its deficiency is of public-health importance in Ethiopia. Iodization of salt is an effective and sustainable strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency in large populations. The effectiveness of salt-iodization programmes depends on the conservation of iodine concentration in salt at various stages of the supply-chain. The overall objective of the study was to assess the loss of iodine in salt from production to consumption and to estimate the proportion of adults, especially pregnant women, at risk of dietary iodine insufficiency. A cross-sectional study was conducted during February-April 2007 in northern Ethiopia. Iodine concentrations of salt samples from producers (n=41), retailers (n=7), and consumers (n=32) were determined using iodiometric titration. A risk assessment was conducted for dietary iodine insufficiency among adults, including pregnant women, using a semi-probabilistic approach. The concentration of iodine in the sampled salts decreased by 57% from the production site to the consumers. The assessment of exposure showed that adults in 63% (n=20) of the households, including 90% (n=29) with pregnant women, were at risk of insufficient iodine intake. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to ensure adequate supply of iodine along the distribution chain. Special attention is needed for the retailers and consumers. At these levels, dissemination of information regarding proper storage and handling of iodized salt is necessary to address the reported loss of iodine from salt. PMID:20635634

  4. Seven deadly sins in confronting endemic iodine deficiency, and how to avoid them.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J T

    1996-04-01

    Iodine deficiency is a problem for almost all countries of the world. Goiter is its most obvious consequence, but others do more damage, particularly effects on the developing brain. In 1990, most countries and international agencies pledged the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency by the year 2000. The technology for the assessment and implementation is sufficient to attain this goal, but translating its potential into success requires careful planning. This article reviews seven major errors that frequently occur in iodine supplementation programs and offers suggestions for their avoidance. They are 1) unreliable assessment of iodine deficiency: the best indicators are urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size (preferably by ultrasound), blood spot thyroglobulin levels, and neonatal TSH determinations; the best group for surveys is schoolchildren; 2) poor iodine supplementation plan: iodized salt is the preferred supplement; its effective application frequently requires extensive changes in salt production and marketing, and poor handling of these changes will endanger the iodization program; other measures include iodized oil, iodized water, and iodine drops; all are occasionally useful, but the long range solution should generally be iodized salt; 3) exclusion of relevant stake-holders: the program should include not only health authorities but other arms of the government as well (education, commerce, agriculture, and standards), the salt industry, health professionals, and the iodine-deficient community itself; 4) inadequate education: an understanding of the effects of iodine deficiency and the means for its correction is essential at all levels, from government to affected population; 5) insufficient monitoring: the best instruments are urinary iodine levels, iodized salt use, and thyroid size, measured in representative groups at regular intervals with public reporting of results; 6) inattention to cost: the expense of iodization must be recognized

  5. Iodine deficiency disorder in children aged 6-12 years of Ambala, Haryana.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, C; Pathak, R; Ahluwalia, S K; Goel, R K D; Devgan, S

    2013-06-08

    We conducted this study to assess the prevalence of goitre among 2700 children (6-12 yr) of district Ambala in Haryana. Children were examined as per standards laid by National iodine deficiency disorder control programme (NIDDCP). Multi stage cluster sampling method was used. Urine and salt samples were also studied for iodine concentration. The overall prevalence of goitre in the studied subjects was 12.6%. The median urinary iodine excretion in the study sample was more than 100 ug/L Iodine content was found to be adequate in 88% of salt samples. We conclude that there was a high prevalence of goitre in young children despite iodine repletion. This calls for identification of factors to strengthen NIDDCP and the need to emphasize use of iodized salt in Haryana.

  6. Status of iodine deficiency among pregnant mothers in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Prakash, Shyam; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Khenduja, Preetika; Nigam, Sukirty; Vijay, Jyoti

    2014-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient needed for the production of thyroid hormones. Pregnant mothers who are deficient in iodine provide less iodine to the fetal thyroid. This results in low production of thyroid hormones by the fetal thyroid, thereby leading to compromised mental and physical development of the fetus. The current study aimed to assess the current status of iodine nutrition among pregnant mothers in Himachal Pradesh, India, a known endemic region for iodine deficiency. Three districts, namely Kangra, Kullu and Solan, were selected. In each district, thirty clusters (villages) were identified by utilizing the population-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each cluster, seventeen pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinics were included. A total of 1711 pregnant mothers (647 from Kangra, 551 from Kullu and 513 from Solan) were studied. Clinical examination of the thyroid of each pregnant mother was conducted. Spot urine samples were collected from ten pregnant mothers in each cluster. Similarly, salt samples were collected from eleven pregnant mothers in each cluster. Total goitre rate was 42·2 % (Kangra), 42·0 % (Kullu) and 19·9 % (Solan). The median urinary iodine concentration was 200 μg/l (Kangra), 149 μg/l (Kullu) and 130 μg/l (Solan). The percentage of pregnant mothers consuming adequately iodized salt (iodine content of 15 ppm and more) was found to be 68·3 % (Kangra), 60·3 % (Kullu) and 48·5 % (Solan). Pregnant mothers in Kullu and Solan districts had iodine deficiency as indicated by a median urinary iodine concentration less than 150 μg/l.

  7. [Solution of Iodine deficiency in the Czech Republic - history and current situation20 years of work of prof. Václav Zamrazil for Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ryšavá, Lydie; Kříž, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by Iodine deficit are preventable. Inter resort Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency (MKJD) at State Institute for Health (SZU) in Prague has been taking effective measures which satisfied requirements of the Principles for sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency ICCD WHO: 96 % of households is using iodized salt, average Iodine content is 25 mg/1 kg of salt. Data from studies show ioduria less 100 mcg/l in only 9 per cent of seniors, 5 % of children 7-10 years, 3 % of children 10-12 years. Under 50 mcg only 1 % of children 10-12 years. Median of iodurias is below 300 mcg/l (seniors 185 mcg/l, children 7-10 years 277 mcg/l, children 10-12 years 252 mcg/l). We satisfy 8 of 10 indicators of Principles for Sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency. Results of screening for congenital hypothyroidism are in keeping with sufficient iodine intake in newborns. Unsatisfactory situation however persist in expectant and breast feeding mothers 16 % [11] 6 % [10] of women included in the respective studies had ioduria below 50 mpg/l. Milk and dairy produce became a rich dietary source of Iodine as cattle feeds are fortified with Iodine. No part of observed human population is exposed Iodine doses higher than 17 mcg/kg. Next target for prevention will be achieving optimal iodine concentration in milk and improvement of iodine saturation of expectant and nursing mothers. Integral part is the monitoring of iodine saturation of population.Key words: dietary exposition - dietary sources of iodine - Inter resort commission for elimination of iodine deficit - iodine deficiency - iodine supply - iodized salt - ioduria.

  8. Early gestation screening of pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency in urban centre in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, K; Nair, S; Khade, C; Rajan, M G R

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age <15 weeks) in urban Vadodara, Gujarat. n = 256 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were selected. The thyroid hormone was estimated by RIA, UIE using simple microplate technique and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration by acid hematin method. Median thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4) and UIE concentrations were 1.88 μIU/ml, 0.83 ng/dl, 10.24 μg/dl and 297.14 mcg/l, respectively. There was a significant correlation between TSH, FT4 and month of gestation. Mean Hb concentration was 9.27 ± 1.09 g/dl. The prevalence of iodine insufficiency (based on UI) was 16.79% and iron deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women.

  9. Assessment of iodine deficiency in school age children in Nainital District, Uttarakhand State.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Prakash, Shyam; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a major public health problem in Uttarakhand. The present study was conducted in district Nainital, Uttarakhand state with an objective to assess the prevalence of IDD in school age children. A total of 2269 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included. Clinical examination of thyroid of all children was undertaken. "On the spot" urine samples were collected from 611 children. Salt samples were collected from the family kitchen for 642 children. The Total Goitre Rate (TGR) was 15.9%. The proportion of children with urinary iodine excretion levels <20, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199 and 200 μg/L and above, was nil, 11.8, 24.9, 38.3 and 25.0 percent, respectively. The median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 125μg/L. About 57.7% of the children were consuming salt with iodine content of 15 ppm and more. Findings of the present study indicates that the population is possibly in transition phase from iodine deficient as revealed by Total Goitre Rate of 15.9% to iodine sufficient as revealed by median urinary iodine excretion level of 125 μg/L. There is a need to further strengthen the existing monitoring system for the quality of iodized salt in the district in order to achieve the elimination of IDD.

  10. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  11. Iodine deficiency and subclinical hypothyroidism are common in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Naehrlich, Lutz; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Bagheri-Behrouzi, Azadeh; Rauh, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Disorders of thyroid function have been inconsistently described in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and in CF transmembrane regulator protein knockout animals. The literature lacks reports on iodine status of CF individuals. We hypothesize, that iodine deficiency is common in CF and account for abnormal thyroid function in CF patients. We investigated 129 children, adolescents, and adults with CF, who were living in the northern part of Bavaria/Germany. Malnutrition and lung function were analyzed. Urinary iodine excretion, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), and ft4 (free thyroxine) were measured and set in relation to population-based, age-adjusted reference ranges. Subclinical hypothyroidism (normal fT4, elevated TSH) was found in 11.6% of subjects, and iodine deficiency in 83.7%. No correlations were found with age, BMI, status of malnutrition, or lung function. Dramatic iodine deficiency was found in our cohort of CF patients. This condition can cause subclinical hypothyroidism; therefore, an individual iodine supplementation program is necessary and should be started immediately. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of iodine deficiency in district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh after 60 years of salt iodization.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Pandey, R M; Kabra, M; Jain, V; Sareen, N; Bhadoria, A S; Vijay, J; Nigam, S; Khenduja, P

    2013-08-01

    District Kangra, Himachal Pradesh(HP), India is a known endemic area for iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) since 1956. The present study was conducted in district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh with the objective to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency in school-age children. A total of 1864 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included. Clinical examination of thyroid of all children was undertaken. 'On the spot' urine samples were collected from 463 children. The salt samples were collected from 327 children. The total goiter prevalence of 15.8% was found. The proportion of children with urinary iodine excretion (UIE) levels <50.0, 50.0-99.9 and ≥ 100 μg/l was 2.2, 14.3 and 83.5%, respectively. The median UIE level was 200 μg/l. About 82.3% of the families were consuming salt with iodine content ≥ 15 ppm. The population in district Kangra is possibly in a transition phase from iodine deficient (as revealed by total goiter rate of 15.8%) to iodine sufficiency (as revealed by median UIE levels of 200 μg/l).

  13. Iodine deficiency and its association with intelligence quotient in schoolchildren from Colima, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Lucatero, Alicia; Avila-Jiménez, Laura; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; Magos, Clementina; Martínez, Homero

    2008-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency, its causes and its association with intelligence quotient (IQ) in Mexican schoolchildren. Cross-sectional analytical study, in which determinations of thyroid gland size, urinary iodine excretion, IQ, iron nutritional status, physical anthropometry, family consumption of goitrogenic foods, type/origin and iodine saturation of salt consumed at home and coliform organisms in drinking water were performed, and the association of each variable with IQ scores was evaluated by multiple regression analyses. Municipality of Cuauhtémoc, in Colima, Mexico (altitude: 600-2700 m above sea level). Sea salt is extracted manually nearby and often used for human consumption. Goitre remains present in the region despite over half a century of mandatory salt iodination in the country. Three hundred and three children, similar proportions of boys and girls, mean age 9.3 years, randomly selected from 19 public elementary schools. Overall goitre rate was 21.4%; low urinary iodine excretion was found in 19.5% of the children, high urinary iodine excretion in 32.0%. IQ scores were transformed into percentile values, with the following categorisation: < or = P5 (low IQ), 48.5%; > P5 to < or = P25 (below average), 24.2%; > P25 to < P75 (average), 18.8%; > or = P75 to < P95 (above average), 3.6%; > or = P95 (high IQ), 4.9%. Ninety-two per cent of the population used iodinated salt, but deficient iodine saturation (<50 ppm) was found in 86.8% of salt samples. The main goitrogenic foods consumed were peanuts (by 31.5% of the sample), cabbage (30.1%), broccoli (27.7%) and cauliflower (25.7%). Median counts of coliform organisms (colony-forming units/100 ml of drinking water) were: 207.5 (well water), 151 (cisterns), 52 (private homes), 25 (elementary schools) and 12 (kindergartens). Moderate iodine deficiency was associated (P < 0.05) with a 4.26 times higher risk of low IQ. There is a perturbing negative impact of these findings on human

  14. Strain differences among rats in response to Remington iodine-deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; Krulich, L.

    1981-08-01

    Male rats of five different strains (Simonsen albino, Wistar, Long-Evans, Holtzman Sprague-Dawley, and Charles River Sprague-Dawley) were tested for their response to the U.S. Biochemical Corp. Remington low iodine diet containing 15-18 microgram I/kg. Measurements made after the diet had been fed for 28-30 days indicated that Simonsen albino and Wistar strains consistently showed the greatest response, based on degree of thyroid enlargement, depletion of thyroidal iodine, reduction in serum T4, and elevation of serum TSH. Long-Evans and Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats responded relatively poorly to the low iodine diet. One experiment included female rats, and the limited data suggested that within a given strain there was no significant sex difference. With more prolonged feeding (84 days), the difference between a rapidly responding strain (Simonsen albino) and a more slowly responding strain (Holtzman Sprague-Dawley) was not so marked. Our results indicate that given sufficient time and a diet sufficiently low in iodine, even a more slowly responding strain will ultimately develop signs of extreme iodine deficiency. However, it is inconvenient and expensive to maintain rats on a Remington low iodine diet for 3 months, and studies on the effect of severe iodine deficiency are much more rapidly performed using a rapidly responding strain such as the Simonsen albino. Our observation that rats of different strains differ markedly in their responses to an iodine-deficient diet suggests that hereditary factors play an important role in this response.

  15. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William A. Hargus, Jr. 5e. TASK NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Briefing Charts presented at Gaseous Electronics Conference; Raleigh, NC; 5 November 2014. PA#14517 14. ABSTRACT Iodine (I2) has been...discussed seriously as a propellant for Hall effect and other electrostatic thrusters as early as 2000. Atomic iodine has a mass of 126.9 amu, but as

  16. Therapy of endocrine disease: Impact of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter N; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E; Dayan, Colin M; Lazarus, John H

    2014-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of severe iodine deficiency are well recognised, the benefits of correcting mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are uncertain. We undertook a systematic review of the impact of iodine supplementation in populations with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. We searched Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published between January 1966 and April 2013, which investigated the effect of iodine supplementation on maternal and newborn thyroid function, infant neurodevelopment and cognitive performance in school-age children. The quality of studies was graded and eligible trials were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and eight observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Controlled trials on infant neurodevelopment were lacking; gestational iodine supplementation reduced maternal thyroid volume and serum thyroglobulin and in some studies prevented a rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. None of the intervention trials recorded an excess frequency of thyroid dysfunction in contrast to observational studies. A pooled analysis of two RCTs which measured cognitive function in school-age children showed modest benefits of iodine supplementation on perceptual reasoning (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.55; 95% CI 0.05, 1.04; P=0.03) and global cognitive index (SMD 0.27; 95% CI 0.10, 0.44; P=0.002) with significant heterogeneity between studies. Iodine supplementation improves some maternal thyroid indices and may benefit aspects of cognitive function in school-age children, even in marginally iodine-deficient areas. Further large prospective controlled studies are urgently required to clarify these findings and quantify the risk/benefits of iodine supplementation in regions previously believed to be iodine sufficient such as the UK.

  17. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia - the life's work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished.

    PubMed

    Podoba, J; Racova, K; Urbankova, H; Srbecky, M

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 - October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women. 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

  18. Iodine status from childhood to adulthood in females living in North-East Italy: Iodine deficiency is still an issue.

    PubMed

    Watutantrige Fernando, Sara; Cavedon, Elisabetta; Nacamulli, Davide; Pozza, Dina; Ermolao, Andrea; Zaccaria, Marco; Girelli, Maria Elisa; Bertazza, Loris; Barollo, Susi; Mian, Caterina

    2016-02-01

    This survey aimed to assess iodine status in a female population at different ages, also investigating their eating habits. We measured urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in: 634 females at puberty and 361 fertile women in 246 of whom were considered also their children (134 daughters and 120 sons). All subjects completed a food frequency questionnaire. Median UIC decreased from childhood to adulthood (median UIC 107, 77 and 55 μg/l in the young girls, females at puberty and fertile women, respectively). Though using iodized salt improved iodine status in all groups, a significantly higher UIC was only noted in females at puberty. Milk consumption significantly increased UIC at all ages. In mother-child (both daughters and sons) pairs, the children's median UIC was nearly twice as high as their mothers' (UIC 115 vs. 57 μg/l). Milk consumption varied significantly: 56% of the mothers and 76% of their children drank milk regularly. The children (both daughters and sons) and mothers who drank milk had UIC ≥100 μg/l in 59 and 34% of cases, respectively, among the pairs who did not drink milk, 44% of the children and 19% of the mothers had UIC ≥100 μg/l. On statistical regression, 3.6% of the variability in the children's UIC depended on that of their mothers. Dietary iodine status declines from childhood to adulthood in females due to different eating habits. A mild iodine deficiency emerged in women of child-bearing age that could have consequences during pregnancy and lactation.

  19. Risk of zinc, iodine and other micronutrient deficiencies among school children in North East Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, R A; Winichagoon, P; Pongcharoen, T; Gowachirapant, S; Boonpraderm, A; Manger, M S; Bailey, K B; Wasantwisut, E; Gibson, R S

    2006-05-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies during childhood can contribute to impairments in growth, immune competence, and mental and physical development, and the coexistence of several such deficiencies can adversely affect the efficacy of single micronutrient interventions. To assess the prevalence of zinc and iodine deficiency and their interrelationships with vitamin A deficiency and anemia and associations with socio-economic status, hemoglobin type, and anthropometry in a cross-sectional study. A total of 10 primary schools in North East Thailand. Non-fasting venipuncture blood samples and casual urine samples were collected from 567 children aged 6-13 years. Anthropometric measures and serum zinc, albumin, C-reactive protein and urinary iodine, are reported here and integrated with published data on vitamin A, anemia, and socio-economic status. Of the children, 57% had low serum zinc and 83% had urinary iodine levels below the 100 microg/l cutoff. Suboptimal serum zinc and urinary iodine concentrations may result from low intakes of zinc and iodized salt. Significant risk factors for low serum zinc were serum retinol <1.05 micromol/l and being male. Those for urinary iodine <100 microg/l were height-for-age score>median and being female. For serum retinol <1.05 micromol/l, risk factors were low hemoglobin, low serum zinc, and <9 years, and for low hemoglobin indicative of anemia risk factors were <9 years, AE hemoglobinopathy, and serum retinol <1.05 micromol/l. Of the children, 60% were at risk of two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies, most commonly suboptimal urinary iodine and low serum zinc. The findings emphasize the need for multimicronutrient interventions in North East Thailand.

  20. Iodine Deficiency and Hypothyroidism From Voluntary Diet Restrictions in the US: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Booms, Stephanie; Hill, Elizabeth; Kulhanek, Leah; Vredeveld, Jennifer; Gregg, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States today, and this is largely due to the effectiveness of iodization in the general food supply. Recent trends among specific populations of children in the United States include adopting food restrictions, such casein-free and gluten-free diets. Although the effect of these types of diets on overall nutrition status and certain micronutrients has been studied in children with autism spectrum disorder, the effect of these limitations on iodine levels in children has not been assessed. We present here 2 cases of iodine deficiency resulting from severe food restriction and associated primary hypothyroidism. In 1 case a classic presentation with a goiter was seen. These children were able to discontinue thyroid hormone treatment once iodine levels were normalized. There were no adverse events or unanticipated outcomes. The occurrence of these cases of iodine deficiency in the United States points to the need for thyroid function testing in children with severe food restrictions, especially those who have limited exposure to dairy, baked goods, and table salt. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Evolution of iodine deficiency disorders control program in India: a journey of 5,000 years.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) has been documented since around 5,000 years. However, geological factors like frequent glaciations, flooding, and changing of course of rivers has led to iodine deficiency in soil. As a result everyone remains at risk of IDD, if optimum intake of iodine is not sustained. Evolution of the IDD control program in India has been a dynamic process. The model of IDD control program in India provides important lessons for successful implementation of a national health program. In formulating National Health Programs; policy environment, scientific inputs, political will, and institutional structure for decision making are necessary but not sufficient. Continuous and dynamic generation of reliable and representative state and national level data, proactive recognition of values of key stakeholders and addressing them through sustained advocacy, development of partnerships among stakeholders, institutional continuity, and mentorship are critical for achieving sustainability of results.

  2. Population Survey of Iodine Deficiency and Environmental Disruptors of Thyroid Function in Young Children in Haiti.

    PubMed

    von Oettingen, Julia E; Brathwaite, Tesha D; Carpenter, Christopher; Bonnell, Ric; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Larco, Philippe; Larco, Nancy Charles; Jean-Baptiste, Eddy; Brown, Rosalind S

    2017-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable neurodevelopmental delay in children worldwide and a possible public health concern in Haiti. To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Haitian young children and its influence by environmental factors. Cross-sectional study, March through June 2015. Community churches in 3 geographical regions in Haiti. 299 healthy Haitian children aged 9 months to 6 years; one-third each enrolled in a coastal, mountainous, and urban region. Urinary iodide, serum thyrotropin (TSH), goiter assessment, and urinary perchlorate and thiocyanate. Mean age was 3.3±1.6 years, with 51% female, median family income USD 30/week, and 16% malnutrition. Median urinary iodide levels were normal in coastal (145 μg/L, interquartile range [IQR] 97 to 241) and urban regions (187 μg/L, IQR 92 to 316), but revealed mild iodine deficiency in a mountainous region (89 μg/L, IQR 56 to 129), P < 0.0001. Grade 1 goiters were palpated in 2 children, but TSH values were normal. Urinary thiocyanate and perchlorate concentrations were not elevated. Predictors of higher urinary iodide included higher urinary thiocyanate and perchlorate, breastfeeding, and not living in a mountainous region. Areas of mild iodine deficiency persist in Haiti's mountainous regions. Exposure to two well-understood environmental thyroid function disruptors is limited.

  3. Iodine deficiency increases apoptosis and decreases synaptotagmin-1 and PSD-95 in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Min, Hui; Song, Binbin; Xi, Qi; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2013-05-01

    Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs the development of the central nervous system with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal apoptosis, synaptotagmin-1, and PSD-95 are involved in the synaptic impairment following developmental ID. Two developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day 6 till postnatal day (PND) 28. Then, the apoptosis in the hippocampus was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and the levels of synaptotagmin-1 and PSD-95 were detected with western blot on PND14, PND21, and PND28. The results showed that apoptosis cells and activity of caspase3 were increased in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treatment rats (P < 0.05, respectively). The iodine-deficient and PTU-treatment pups showed significantly lower level of synaptotagmin-1 and PSD-95 in hippocampus than that of controls (P < 0.05, respectively). Developmental ID resulted in the increase and delay of cell apoptosis and the decrease of synaptotagmin-1 and PSD-95 in the hippocampus, which were implicated in the impairment of brain development.

  4. Iodine in Rivers: Indicator of Geologic Effect on Iodine Deficiency Disorders?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Y.; Stewart, A.

    2003-12-01

    A contrast in goiter prevalence between populations living north and south of the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) in northeastern Pakistan suggests that plate tectonics may be involved. We report ICP-MS measurements of the total dissolved iodine levels in the headwater tributaries of the Indus River draining either side of the MKT. For global geochemical context, we also analyzed samples from the Lena, Yana, Kolyma, Indigirka, and Anadyr in eastern Siberia, the Orinoco in tropical South America, and rivers in western China and Tibet. We find statistically significant difference in iodine concentration between the right bank tributaries of the Indus draining the Karakoram metamorphic complex north of the MKT and the left bank tributaries draining the Kohistan-Ladakh island arc south of the MKT. At least in these rivers, lithology and the tectonic exposure appear to be more important than atmospheric transport and deposition.

  5. Mild iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Europe and its consequences for cognitive and psychomotor development of children: a review.

    PubMed

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2013-07-01

    Despite the introduction of salt iodization programmes as national measures to control iodine deficiency, several European countries are still suffering from mild iodine deficiency (MID). In iodine sufficient or mildly iodine deficient areas, iodine deficiency during pregnancy frequently appears in case the maternal thyroid gland cannot meet the demand for increasing production of thyroid hormones (TH) and its effect may be damaging for the neurodevelopment of the foetus. MID during pregnancy may lead to hypothyroxinaemia in the mother and/or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the foetus, and these conditions have been found to be related to mild and subclinical cognitive and psychomotor deficits in neonates, infants and children. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroxinaemia. However, it needs to be noted that it is difficult to establish a direct link between maternal iodine deficiency and maternal hypothyroxinaemia, as well as between maternal iodine deficiency and elevated neonatal TSH levels at birth. Finally, some studies suggest that iodine supplementation from the first trimester until the end of pregnancy may decrease the risk of cognitive and psychomotor developmental delay in the offspring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  7. Iodine deficiency a persisting problem: assessment of iodine nutrition and evaluation of thyroid nodular pathology in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E C; Freitas, M; Fonseca, C P; Castilho, P; Carreira, I M; Rombeau, J L; Branco, M C

    2017-02-01

    The goal of eliminating iodine deficiency (ID) by the year 2000 has still not been achieved in several countries. More than 2 billion people worldwide (over 260 million school age children) remain ID. In Europe, there are still countries, such as Portugal, without national general population data on iodine nutrition (IN). This study aims at evaluating combined complementary data of the IN of the general population through urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the thyroid histology profile from the inland region of Beira Interior (BI), in Portugal. UIC from a population sample of 214 volunteers (131 females and 83 males), with ages ranging from 8 to 97 years (mean 51.5 years ± SD 20.74 years), from BI was determined; the thyroid histology pattern in BI (6-year period) was evaluated; and the iodine content of the largest surface water reservoir of BI, never previously reported, was measured. Median UIC of 62.6 μg/L was measured. Over 92 % of the population had UIC less than 100 μg/L. From 279 histology reports evaluated, the incidence of the different types of thyroid nodular pathology in BI was established. There were 60 histologic diagnoses of malignancy. The observed ratio of papillary to follicular carcinoma relatively close to 1 and the fairly high percentage of anaplastic carcinomas are characteristic of ID areas. The findings of this first general population study on IN from the inland region of BI, Portugal, document significant ID. This problem, with its serious public health implications, could be corrected by having affordable iodised salt widely and generally available and by promoting a proactive population attitude generated by ample public information and educational programs as to the negative consequences of ID.

  8. A community-based trial for the control of lymphatic filariasis and iodine deficiency using salt fortified with diethylcarbamazine and iodine.

    PubMed

    Freeman, A R; Lammie, P J; Houston, R; LaPointe, M D; Streit, T G; Jooste, P L; Brissau, J M; Lafontant, J G; Addiss, D G

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of salt fortified with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and iodine for elimination of Bancroftian filariasis and iodine deficiency, all consenting residents of Miton, Haiti (n = 1,932) were given salt fortified with 0.25% diethylcarbamazine and 25 ppm of iodine for one year. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria prevalence and intensity, antigenemia, and urinary iodine were measured before and one year after salt distribution began. To measure the effect of DEC-fortified salt on adult worm motility, 15 microfilaria-positive men were examined by ultrasound of the scrotal area. Entomologic surveys were conducted to determine the proportion of W. bancrofti-infected Culex quinquefasciatus. After one year of treatment, the prevalence and intensity of microfilaremia were both reduced by more than 95%, while antigenemia levels were reduced by 60%. The motility of adult worms, as detected by ultrasound, was decreased, but not significantly, by DEC-fortified salt. The proportion of vector mosquitoes carrying infective stage larvae decreased significantly from 2.3% in the nine months before the intervention to 0.2% in the last three-month follow-up period. Iodine deficiency, which had been moderate to severe, was eliminated after one year of iodized salt consumption. The DEC-fortified salt was well accepted by the community and reduced microfilaremia and transmission to low levels in the absence of reported side effects. Based on these results, salt cofortified with DEC and iodine should be considered as a concurrent intervention for lymphatic filariasis and iodine deficiency elimination programs.

  9. Iodine deficiency in a study population of pregnant women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Granfors, Michaela; Andersson, Maria; Stinca, Sara; Åkerud, Helena; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Nyström, Helena Filipsson

    2015-11-01

    Iodine deficiency in utero may impair neurological development of the fetus. In Sweden, iodine nutrition is considered to be adequate in the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate iodine nutrition during pregnancy in Sweden. In this cross-sectional study, the total study population (n = 459) consisted of two cohorts (Värmland County, n = 273, and Uppsala County, n = 186) of pregnant non-smoking women without pre-gestational diabetes mellitus or known thyroid disease before or during pregnancy. Spot urine samples were collected in the third trimester of pregnancy for median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) analysis. The median UIC in the total study population was 98 μg/L (interquartile range 57-148 μg/L). According to WHO/UNICEF/IGN criteria, population-based median UIC during pregnancy should be 150-249 μg/L. Thus, our results indicate insufficient iodine status in the pregnant population of Sweden. There is an urgent need for further assessments in order to optimize iodine nutrition during pregnancy. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Beware of parotitis induced by iodine-containing contrast media.

    PubMed

    Kohat, A K; Jayantee, K; Phadke, R V; Muthu, R; Singh, V; Misra, U K

    2014-01-01

    Carotid stenting is being increasingly used for revascularization of the moderate to severe carotid stenosis and thus its complications are increasingly being recognized. We report a rare complication of induced by iodine contrast in a patient undergoing carotid stenting. s. A 51 year old man after the second stenting developed multiple small infarcts in spite of the distal device. He also had painful parotid swelling which improved within a week. One should be aware of iodine parotitis s in the patients undergoing iodinated contrast study.

  11. [Dietary iodine intake in children and clinical and biochemical features of iodine deficiency in chosen districts of south-east Poland].

    PubMed

    Tylek, D; Rybakowa, M; Sołtysik-Wilk, E; Ratajczak, R; Dłuzniewska, K; Zygmunt, A; Szczepaniak, B

    1992-01-01

    The study on the effects of Czarnobyl accident on thyroid gland function in children (MZ XVII program) revealed a high incidence of goiter in the population of children in district Kraków and Nowy Sacz. Other study on Tarnobrzeg population showed that the frequency of goiter in school children was 67%. The goiter prevalence, urine iodine excretion and iodine food consumption in the same populations were compared. The detailed investigation of iodine intake in children by feeding questionnaire shows a low consumption of iodine. The urine iodine excretion in the population of Kraków-district was low, but higher than in Nowy Sacz-district and nearly normal in Tarnobrzeg. High frequency of goiter in children and of IDD in newborns screened for CH, as well as low urine iodine excretion, together with low iodine intake with food are the markers of iodine deficiency in Kraków and Nowy Sacz districts. The improvement of feeding as well as iodine salt supplementation is necessary. The situation in Tarnobrzeg district looks differently and needs additional study.

  12. Iodine deficiency up-regulates monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression of mouse thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhimei; Zhuo, Xiaohua; Shi, Yanan; Liu, Xin; Yuan, Jihong; Li, Lanying; Sun, Yina

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major factor affecting thyroid auto-regulation, the quantity of iodine may greatly influence the synthesis of thyroid hormones (THs). It has long been believed that TH enters the cell through passive diffusion. Recent studies have suggested that several transporters could facilitate transportation of TH. The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) was identified as a very active and specific TH transporter. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether iodine insufficient affected the expression of MCT8 in the thyroid gland. Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups: control group was fed with standard feed (iodine concentration of 300 µg/kg); while low-iodine (LI) group received iodine-insufficient feed (iodine concentration of 20-40 µg/kg). After 3 months, 10 mice of each group were sacrificed. The remaining 20 mice of each group were kept till 6 months. From the LI group, we randomly selected 15 mice and injected triiodothyronine (T3, 100 µg/kg body weight per day) intraperitoneally for 24, 48 or 72 hours (5 mice for each time-point). Then, all the mice were sacrificed. Mouse serum thyroxine (T4), T3, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The protein content or messenger RNA (mRNA) level of thyroid MCT8 was measured by Western blotting analysis or real time RT-PCR respectively. MCT8 subcellular location in thyroid tissues was probed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. We found that mouse serum T3 and T4 levels decreased and TSH level increased by the end of the third month. Consistent with these findings, there was significant goiter and hypothyroidism in the LI group. Meanwhile, the MCT8 mRNA increased to 1.36-fold of the level in the control group at the 3(rd) month. At 6(th) month, the serum T4 level in LI mice remained at a lower level, and MCT8 mRNA expression continued rising to nearly 1.60-fold compared with the control group. The protein content

  13. Serum thyroglobulin as a biomarker of iodine deficiency in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Krejbjerg, Anne; Bjergved, Lena; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Carlé, Allan; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Banke Rasmussen, Lone; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To clarify which factors may influence the serum Tg level in an adult population and how this may affect Tg as a biomarker of iodine deficiency (ID). Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (C1a: 1997-98, n = 4649) and after (C2: 2004-05, n = 3570) the Danish mandatory iodine fortification (IF) of salt (2000). Additionally, a follow-up study of C1a was performed after IF (C1b: 2008-10, n = 2465). The studies took place in two regions with mild (Copenhagen) and moderate (Aalborg) ID before IF. Serum Tg was measured by immunoradiometric method and investigated as outcome variable in multivariate models. Multiple factors were associated with serum Tg. Some were directly related to iodine intake (cohort, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level and region), and some were likely mediators of iodine intake effects on Tg (thyroid nodularity, thyroid size and autonomy with low TSH). Others were caused by Tg assay interference (Tg-Ab positivity), aggravation of ID (childbirths and smoking) or TSH stimulation of the thyroid. Estimated 24-h urinary iodine excretion was a more sensitive predictor of Tg than UIC. Iodine supplement users had low median Tg values compared with nonusers both before and after IF. Multiple factors should be taken into consideration when evaluating Tg as a marker of ID in adult populations, and the Tg results may depend on the assay used. Still, Tg is a sensitive marker of ID. We suggest including a reference population with known sufficient iodine intake when Tg is used to evaluate ID. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Thyroid function in pregnant women: iodine deficiency after iodine enrichment program.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Sedighe; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Aghili, Rokhsareh; Kashanian, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh

    2013-06-01

    Significant changes in thyroid function occur during pregnancy which can complicate the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Therefore, normative gestational related reference ranges for thyroid hormones tests are required. The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges for free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in Iranian pregnant women. This study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department, Akbarabadi University Hospital. A single blood sample from 584 pregnant women was analyzed for thyroid function. Serum levels of TSH, FT4, FT3, total T4 (TT4), T3 resin uptake (T3RU) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab) were measured. Urinary iodine was determined in some cases. Reference intervals based on 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were calculated. The composition of reference population comprising 584 women included 162 in first trimester and 422 in the third trimester. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles values were used to determine the reference ranges for FT3, FT4, TT4, T3RU and TSH. These values were T3 1.4 and 2.9 pmol/L, FT4 7.1 and 18 pmol/L, TT4 7.2 and 13.5 µg/dL and TSH 0.5 and 3.9 µg/L, respectively. The level of urinary iodine in 80.5% of the subjects was less than normal. Serum levels of thyroid hormones are different in Iranian population that could be due to racial differences or differences in iodine intake.

  15. Iron and iodine deficiencies among under-2 children, adolescent girls, and pregnant women of Bangladesh: association with common diseases.

    PubMed

    Harun-Or-Rashid, M; Khatun, Uh Farida; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Morita, Satoshi; Chowdhury, Nuruddin; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2009-02-01

    We examined the frequency of iron and iodine deficiencies and associations of iron and iodine deficiencies with common diseases among under-2 children, adolescent girls, and pregnant women of Bangladesh. We assayed the blood hemoglobin concentration in 395 under-2 children, 355 adolescent girls, and 263 pregnant women, the urinary iodine concentration of those adolescent girls and pregnant women, and the iodine level of all household salt specimens. The history of common diseases within their previous 2 weeks were also obtained from recall to explore the associations of iron and iodine deficiencies with common diseases. Anemia was found in 49.1% of children, 24.8% of adolescent girls, and 44.4% of pregnant women using defined cut-off values (Hb < 11.0 g/dL for under-2 children and pregnant women; <12.0 g/dL for adolescent girls). Prevalence of iodine deficiencies (urinary iodine <100 microg/L) was 38.4% in adolescent girls and 39.4% in pregnant women, and 39.4% of salt specimens had inadequate iodine (<15 ppm). The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated and adjusted for age, sex, and gestational age to explore the associations of iron and iodine deficiencies with common diseases. The RR of anemia was increased for fever (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3-2.3), ear infection (RR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.3-8.5), skin disease (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.9-2.2), and pneumonia (RR = 3.7, 95% CI = 0.7-19.5). The RR of iodine deficiency was elevated for diarrhea/dysentery (RR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1l-4.4) and eye infection (RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.5-9.4). We concluded that iron and iodine deficiencies are quite high among the Bangladeshi population. Observed associations of iron and iodine deficiencies with common diseases indicated the necessity of eliminating iron and iodine deficiencies from this vulnerable population through strengthening of iron and iodine supplementation, in order to prevent diseases and promote health conditions.

  16. Overweight increases risk of first trimester hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroxinaemia early in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development. Increased body weight has been associated with low thyroxine concentrations in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, morbid maternal obesity is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction. But whether lesser degrees of overweight that are much more common could be a risk factor for hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate if overweight increases risk for thyroid dysfunction, and specifically hypothyroxinaemia, in iodine-deficient pregnant women. We performed a cross-sectional study at first hospital visit among healthy Thai pregnant women. We measured weight and height, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum thyroid hormones and thyroglobulin. Pre-pregnancy weight and relevant dietary factors were determined by questionnaire, and body mass index (BMI) was used to classify weight status. Among 514 women (mean gestational age, 11 weeks) with a median UIC of 111 μg dL(-1) , indicating mild iodine deficiency, 12% had low free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations: 3% had overt hypothyroidism; 7% had subclinical hypothyroidism; and 8% had isolated hypothyroxinaemia. Based on pre-pregnancy BMI, 26% of women were overweight or obese. In a multiple regression model, BMI was a negative predictor of fT4 (β = -0.20, P < 0.001). Compared to normal weight women, the prevalence ratio (95% CI) of a low fT4 in overweight women was 3.64 (2.08-6.37) (P < 0.01). Iodine-deficient pregnant Thai women who are overweight have a 3.6-fold higher risk of hypothyroxinaemia in the first trimester compared to normal weight women. Targeted screening should consider overweight a potential risk factor for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women in iodine-deficient areas. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Some subgroups of reproductive age women in the United States may be at risk for iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Cria G; Herrick, Kirsten; Serdula, Mary K; Sullivan, Kevin M

    2010-08-01

    Consuming an adequate amount of iodine during pregnancy is critical for fetal neurologic development. Even a mild deficiency can impair cognitive ability. Important sources of iodine in the United States include dairy products and iodized salt. Although the U.S. population has traditionally been considered iodine sufficient, median urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) have decreased 50% since the 1970s. We analyzed 2001-2006 NHANES data from urine iodine spot tests for pregnant (n = 326), lactating (n = 53), and nonpregnant, nonlactating (n = 1437) women of reproductive age (15-44 y). We used WHO criteria to define iodine sufficiency (median UIC: 150-249 microg/L among pregnant women; >or=100 microg/L among lactating women; and 100-199 microg/L among nonpregnant, nonlactating women). The iodine status of pregnant women was borderline sufficient (median UIC = 153 microg/L; 95% CI = 105-196), while lactating (115 microg/L; 95% CI = 62-162) and nonpregnant, nonlactating (130 microg/L; 95% CI = 117-140) women were iodine sufficient. Dairy product consumption was an important contributor to iodine status among both pregnant and nonpregnant, nonlactating women, and those who do not consume dairy products may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Although larger samples are needed to confirm these findings, these results raise concerns about the iodine status of pregnant women and women of reproductive age who are not consuming dairy products. Iodine levels among U.S. women should be monitored, particularly among subgroups at risk for iodine deficiency.

  18. Mild iodine deficiency in women after spontaneous abortions living in an iodine-sufficient area of Czech Republic: prevalence and impact on reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Jan; Fait, Tomáš; Bílek, Radovan; Krátký, Jan; Bartáková, Jana; Lukáš, Jindřich; Límanová, Zdeňka; Telička, Zdeněk; Zamrazil, Václav; Potluková, Eliška

    2014-03-01

    Iodine deficiency is associated with thyroid dysfunction and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the status of iodine saturation in women after spontaneous abortion (SpA) residing in an iodine-sufficient area and to evaluate their subsequent reproductive health. Nonrandomized prospective follow-up study. We compared urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in 171 women 2-8 weeks (median 4) after an early SpA with age-matched controls. Women with known thyroid diseases were excluded. We also analysed a relationship of UIC to serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroid ultrasound. Afterwards, we followed the women for a median of 38 months (range 12-47). We used a multivariate regression analysis to assess the influence of iodine status and other thyroid biochemical and ultrasound parameters on their subsequent reproductive health. Women after SpA were almost twice as likely to suffer from mild iodine deficiency and had lower median UIC as compared to age-matched controls [rate 105/181 (58·0%) vs 57/181 (31·5%), P < 0·001, medians UIC 92·00 vs 117·80 mcg/l, P < 0·001]. UIC was not influenced by the use of iodine supplements in the previous pregnancy. We did not find any association neither between UIC and thyroid dysfunction and/or thyroid antibodies, nor between UIC and rates of subsequent successful pregnancies or obstetric complications. More than half of women after SpA residing in an iodine-sufficient area are suffering from mild iodine deficiency. However, it does not seem to have a negative impact on their subsequent reproductive health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Complex strategies for management of child health in districts of endemic iodine deficiency in the Saratov region].

    PubMed

    Eliseev, Yu Yu; Sergeeva, S V; Kleshchina, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is presented an analysis of clusters of the formation of iodine deficiency in schoolchildren of the Saratov region. There is given a hygienic assessment of iodine content in food raw materials and food, grown and produced in the territory of the region. For various groups of food the low content of trace element iodine was shown to be typical. The analysis of the quality and diversity of iodized salt sold in the trading network of the region has been performed. The formation of the mass iodine deficiency states in the Saratov region was shown to bear a longtime character According to the results of urine screening studies of examined children of organized groups an average level of iodine deficiency has been revealed.

  20. Increase in iodine deficiency disorder due to inadequate sustainability of supply of iodized salt in District Solan, Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, R M; Jain, Vandana; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Vijay, Jyoti; Nigam, Sukirty; Khenduja, Preetika

    2013-12-01

    Himachal Pradesh is a known endemic area for iodine deficiency disorders. A study was conducted in district Solan with the objective of assessing the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders in school-age children. Thirty clusters were selected by using the probability-proportionate-to-size cluster sampling methodology. Clinical examination of the thyroid of 1898 children in the age-group of 6-12 years was conducted. Urine and salt samples were collected. The total goiter rate was found to be 15.4%. Median urinary iodine excretion level was 62.5 μg/l. Only 39% of the salt samples had iodine content of ≥15 ppm. Mild iodine deficiency was present in the subjects studied.

  1. [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].

    PubMed

    Muyeseer, Ainiwaer; Zhang, G X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Meng, X H; Liu, Q

    2017-02-06

    were (465.0±27.7), (658.4±28.6) and (423.0±13.2), (548.0±18.8) g, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the NI group ((499.5±21.8), (760.8±33.0) g) (P<0.001). Moreover, the food utilization rate of female rats in the LI and LII groups was (8.7±0.4)% and (6.0±0.58)%, which was lower than that of the NI group ((11.7±3.5)%) (P<0.001); similarly, male rats showed rates of (8.9±1.5)% and (6.9±1.31)%, respectively, which were lower than that of the NI group ((13.7±3.0)%) (P<0.001). After 270 days, the level of T3 in the LI and LII groups were (0.45±0.10) and (0.34±0.15) ng/ml, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of the NI group ((0.91±0.49) ng/ml) (P<0.01). Moreover, the level of T4 were (69.02±27.87) , (53.18±13.53) ng/ml in LI and LII groups, respectively, which was lower than that of the NI group ((76.69±29.42) ng/ml) (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that iodine deficiency induced by a long-term low-iodine diet can cause changes in weight, food intake, and food utilization rate among second filial iodine deficiency rats. More importantly, the iodine content in low-iodine food impacts these parameters.

  2. Incidence of thyroid cancer in the selected areas of iodine deficiency in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Z; Huszno, B; Zemla, B; Bandurska-Stankiewicz, E; Przybylik-Mazurek, E; Nowak, W; Cichon, S; Buziak-Bereza, M; Trofimiuk, M; Szybiński, P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence rate (IR), trend and histotype of the differentiated thyroid cancer in the selected areas with varying iodine deficiency. The study was carried out in three areas: Krakow, (Carpathian endemic goiter area with 1.99 million mixed rural and urban population), Gliwice (Upper Silesia--moderate iodine deficiency area mostly industrial with 4.89 million inhabitants) and Olsztyn (slight iodine deficiency area, mainly rural with 0.77 million inhabitants). Between 1990 and 2001, in the study area 2691 newly diagnosed cases of malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland were registered. In over 80% of patients it was differentiated thyroid cancer: mainly in women over 40 years, with F/M ratio 5.8. The highest percentage of papillary cancer 72.9% was observed in Olsztyn and lowest--50.0%--in Krakow and Nowy Sacz districts. In this period of time incidence rate of differentiated thyroid cancer in women increased in Kraków, Gliwice, and Olsztyn from 1.51 to 9.34 in 1998 1.27 to 5.74 in 1999 and from 2.52 to 11.35 in 2001 respectively. In the youngest (0-20 years) age group no significant increase of IR was observed. Between 1998 and 2001 the dynamics of increase of the thyroid cancer incidence markedly diminished. In conclusion it was hypothesised that an increase in IR of differentiated thyroid cancer in the study area was caused mainly by the suspension of iodine prophylaxis in 1980 and was diminished by the introduction of an obligatory model of iodine prophylaxis in 1996/1997. It was modified in terms of histotype and dynamics of increase by exposure to ionizing radiation. A very specific group at risk on the population level were women aged 20-40 years in the reproductive age exposed to iodine deficiency after suspension of iodine prophylaxis in 1980 and to radiation after the Chernobyl accident in 1986.

  3. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  4. Can desalinated seawater contribute to iodine-deficiency disorders? An observation and hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ovadia, Yaniv S; Gefel, Dov; Aharoni, Dorit; Turkot, Svetlana; Fytlovich, Shlomo; Troen, Aron M

    2016-10-01

    Over 300 million people rely on desalinated seawater and the numbers are growing. Desalination removes iodine from water and could increase the risk of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD). The present study assessed the relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function in an area reliant on desalination. A case-control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2014. Thyroid function was rigorously assessed by clinical examination, ultrasound and blood tests, including serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and autoimmune antibodies. Iodine intake and the contribution made by unfiltered tap water were estimated by FFQ. The contribution of drinking-water to iodine intake was modelled using three iodine concentrations: likely, worst-case and best-case scenario. The setting for the study was a hospital located on the southern Israeli Mediterranean coast. Adult volunteers (n 102), 21-80 years old, prospectively recruited. After screening, seventy-four participants met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-seven were euthyroid controls. Among those with thyroid dysfunction, twenty-nine were classified with non-autoimmune thyroid disease (NATD) after excluding eight cases with autoimmunity. Seventy per cent of all participants had iodine intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 95 µg/d. Participants with NATD were significantly more likely to have probable IDD with intake below the EAR (OR=5·2; 95 % CI 1·8, 15·2) and abnormal serum Tg>40 ng/ml (OR=5·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 20·8). Evidence of prevalent probable IDD in a population reliant on desalinated seawater supports the urgent need to probe the impact of desalinated water on thyroid health in Israel and elsewhere.

  5. Iodine deficiency in Egyptian autistic children and their mothers: relation to disease severity.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Rasha T; Hewedi, Doaa H; Sallam, Mahmoud T

    2013-10-01

    Because autism may be a disease of early fetal brain development, maternal hypothyroxinemia (HT) in early pregnancy secondary to iodine deficiency (ID) may be related to etiology of autism. The aim of the study was to assess the iodine nutritional status in Egyptian autistic children and their mothers and its relationship with disease characteristics. Fifty autistic children and their mothers were studied in comparison to 50 controls. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation, measurement of urinary iodine (UI), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free tetraiodothyronine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) along with measurement of thyroid volume (TV). In addition, electroencephalography (EEG) and intelligence quotient (IQ) assessment were done for all autistic children. Of autistic children and their mothers, 54% and 58%, respectively, were iodine deficient. None of the control children or their mothers was iodine deficient. UI was lower among autistic patients (p <0.001) and their mothers (p <0.001). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score correlated negatively with UI (r = -0.94, p <0.001). Positive correlations were detected between autistic patients and their mothers regarding UI (r = 0.88, p <0.001), fT3 (r = 0.79, p = 0.03), fT4 (r = 0.91, p <0.001) and TSH (r = 0.69, p = 0.04). Autism had a significant risk for association with each of low UI (OR: 9.5, 95% CI: 2.15-33.8, p = 0.02) and intake of noniodized salt (OR: 6.82, 95% CI = 1.36-34.27, p = 0.031). ID is prevalent in Egyptian autistic children and their mothers and was inversely related to disease severity and could be related to its etiology. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and TSH during adaptation to iodine deficiency in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Yasuda, N; Greer, M A; Kutas, M; Greer, S E

    1975-08-01

    We have measured plasma thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and TSH with specific radioimmunoassays in rats during adaptation to severe iodine deficiency after they had previously received regimens supplying various quantities of iodine. Rats were maintained on a high-iodine diet (HID) containing 3 mg iodine/kg or a low-iodine diet (LID) containing 30 mug iodine/kg supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mug iodine/ml of drinking water before swtiching to KID alone. Frequent serial blood samples were obtained up to 3 months, using 6 or more animals for each time interval. In animals originally fed HID, T4 remained at 4-6 mug/100 ml unitl the tenth day of LID, then rapidly decreased to a value of less than 0.4 mug/100 ml at 1 month. TSH was initially 50 muU/ml and increased linearly to 165 muU/ml on day 16. Thence there was a much more rapid rate of rise to 640 muU/ml at 38 days. The rats changed to LID alone after having been fed LID with iodine supplementation underwent similar qualitative hormonal changes. However, the decrease in plasma T4 and the increase in plasma TSH occurred sooner in the rats which had drunk water containing only 0.1 or 0.2 mug iodine/ml than in the previous experiment. Rats which had received 0.4 mug iodine/ml showed a pattern essentially identical to that of the animals which had been fed HID. plasma T3 did not change significantly in any of the experiments, remaining at 60-90 ng/100 ml, although there was a tendency for the values to be somewhat lower after several weeks of LID. There was a highly significant negative correlation of plasma T4 with plasma TSH. There was no significant correlation of plasma T3 with either plasma T4 or plasma TSH. It is concluded that the combined physiologic effect of plasma T4 and T3 concentration is more important in determining TSH secretion through negative feedback effects on the hypothalamus and/or pituitary than is the concentration of plasma T3.

  7. [Iodine-deficiency prophylaxis and the restriction of salt consumption--a 21st century challenge].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Mirosław; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Krystyna; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Traczyk, Iwona; Stoś, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) issued a recommendation (Technical Consultation: Paris 2006, Luxembourg 2007) that salt consumption, as a risk factor for hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, and select cancers, should be restricted. The European Commission looked to adhere to this recommendation by creating the High Level Group on Nutrition and Physical Activity. According to WHO recommendations, a daily allowance of 5 g NaCl (i.e., 2 g Na) for individual salt consumption should not be exceeded. At present, mean individual salt consumption in Poland totals 13.5 g, of which salt used in household constitutes 8.8 g. In some regions of Poland, this number reaches upwards of 15.0 g/person. The Position Paper on Initiatives Aimed at Decreasing Salt Consumption in Poland, developed by an expert group at the National Food and Nutrition Institute, set the course for intervention, including changing recipes for mass-produced food products and large-scale catering, improving oversight by food control agencies, and continuing legislative changes. These interventions should also include education directed towards consumers, food producers, public health professionals, healthcare workers, and media representatives. The Position Paper of the Polish Hypertension Society also sets the course for promoting restricted salt consumption and controlling hypertension on a population level. However, household salt is the main carrier of iodine in the Polish model of iodine prophylaxis. Thus, any interventions also require synchronized action with the Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Current efforts aimed at preventing iodine-deficiency look to increase consumption of other iodine-rich products (e.g., milk, mineral water) with standardized levels of iodine. Once they achieve an iodine concentration of 0.1-0.2 mg, these products can easily supplement any decrease in physiological iodine levels resulting from reduced salt consumption

  8. Iodine-deficiency prophylaxis and the restriction of salt consumption - a 21st century challenge.

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Mirosław; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Krystyna; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Traczyk, Iwona; Stoś, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) issued a recommendation (Technical Consultation: Paris 2006, Luxembourg 2007) that salt consumption, as a risk factor for hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, and select cancers, should be restricted. The European Commission looked to adhere to this recommendation by creating the High Level Group on Nutrition and Physical Activity. According to WHO recommendations, a daily allowance of 5 g NaCl (i.e., 2 g Na) for individual salt consumption should not be exceeded. At present, mean individual salt consumption in Poland totals 13.5 g, of which salt used in household constitutes 8.8 g. In some regions of Poland, this number reaches upwards of 15.0 g/person. The Position Paper on Initiatives Aimed at Decreasing Salt Consumption in Poland, developed by an expert group at the National Food and Nutrition Institute, set the course for intervention, including changing recipes for massproduced food products and large-scale catering, improving oversight by food control agencies, and continuing legislative changes. These interventions should also include education directed towards consumers, food producers, public health professionals, healthcare workers, and media representatives. The Position Paper of the Polish Hypertension Society also sets the course for promoting restricted salt consumption and controlling hypertension on a population level. However, household salt is the main carrier of iodine in the Polish model of iodine prophylaxis. Thus, any interventions also require synchronized action with the Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Current efforts aimed at preventing iodine-deficiency look to increase consumption of other iodine-rich products (e.g., milk, mineral water) with standardized levels of iodine. Once they achieve an iodine concentration of 0.1-0.2 mg, these products can easily supplement any decrease in physiological iodine levels resulting from reduced salt consumption

  9. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

    PubMed Central

    Assey, Vincent D; Peterson, Stefan; Kimboka, Sabas; Ngemera, Daniel; Mgoba, Celestin; Ruhiye, Deusdedit M; Ndossi, Godwin D; Greiner, Ted; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP) and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8) of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0) in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4), n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s) to 12.3% (2004). The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215) μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC <100 μg/L and 35% were ≥ 300 μg/L, indicating low and excess iodine intake, respectively. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive

  10. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development in rat hippocampus: involvement of doublecortin and NCAM-180

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Developmental iodine deficiency results in inadequate thyroid hormone (TH), which damages the hippocampus. Here, we explored the roles of hippocampal doublecortin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-180 in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Methods Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil (PTU)-adulterated water (5 ppm or 15 ppm) to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN) 28. Silver-stained neurons and protein levels of doublecortin and NCAM-180 in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28, and PN42. Results The results show that nerve fibers in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats were injured on PN28 and PN42. Downregulation of doublecortin and upregulation of NCAM-180 were observed in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats from PN14 on. These alterations were irreversible by the restoration of serum TH concentrations on PN42. Conclusion Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair the expression of doublecortin and NCAM-180, leading to nerve fiber malfunction and thus impairments in hippocampal development. PMID:20412599

  11. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development in rat hippocampus: involvement of doublecortin and NCAM-180.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Liu, Wanyang; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Xu, Hongde; Wei, Wei; Zhong, Jiapeng; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2010-04-23

    Developmental iodine deficiency results in inadequate thyroid hormone (TH), which damages the hippocampus. Here, we explored the roles of hippocampal doublecortin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-180 in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil (PTU)-adulterated water (5 ppm or 15 ppm) to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN) 28. Silver-stained neurons and protein levels of doublecortin and NCAM-180 in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28, and PN42. The results show that nerve fibers in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats were injured on PN28 and PN42. Downregulation of doublecortin and upregulation of NCAM-180 were observed in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats from PN14 on. These alterations were irreversible by the restoration of serum TH concentrations on PN42. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair the expression of doublecortin and NCAM-180, leading to nerve fiber malfunction and thus impairments in hippocampal development.

  12. Risk factors for goiter in a previously iodine-deficient region.

    PubMed

    Völzke, H; Schwahn, C; Kohlmann, T; Kramer, A; Robinson, D M; John, U; Meng, W

    2005-10-01

    Little information exists from formerly iodine-deficient areas regarding gender-specific risk factors for goiter and their synergisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate such gender-specific risk factors and their interactions in a large population-based sample. The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) comprised 4310 randomly selected participants, aged 20 - 79 years. SHIP was performed in a previously iodine-deficient region. Data from 3915 participants with no known thyroid disorders were analyzed. Goiter was determined by thyroid ultrasound. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, marital status, education level, urine thiocyanate concentrations, and specifically in women, parity and previous or current use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, were considered as candidate risk factors for multivariable statistical tests. Only two variables, an advanced age and current smoking, were independently associated with an increased risk for goiter in both genders. Analyses further revealed specific risk factor profiles for goiter which were different among men, pre- and postmenopausal women. We conclude that besides previous iodine deficiency, other risk factors for goiter exist which differ between gender. Among the avoidable risk factors, current smoking was strongly associated with the risk of goiter in men and women. These findings should influence activities which are intended to prevent thyroid disease.

  13. [Iodine deficiency and associated factors in infants and preschool children in an urban community in the semiarid region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2008].

    PubMed

    Macedo, Mariana de Souza; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Bonomo, Elido; Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano da; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio da; Sakurai, Emília; Carneiro, Mariângela; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of iodine deficiency in children aged 6 to 71 months in Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 475 children, allocated by stratified probability sampling, were analyzed with respect to the iodine concentrations in the salt consumed by the family and urinary iodine. Iodine deficiency was verified in 34.4% of the children, of which 23.5% showed slight deficiency, 5.9% moderate and 5% serious deficiency. A difference in the distribution of iodine deficiency was observed between the urban and the rural environments (p < 0.001) where average urinary iodine concentrations of 150.8 and 114.3µg/L respectively were found. A greater proportion of iodine deficiency was observed among children where the proportion of iodine in the salt consumed was below the recommended level. Although expressive, iodine deficiency in Novo Cruzeiro is not a public health problem according to World Health Organization (WHO), The limitrophe distribution of the urinary iodine associated with low iodine levels in salt suggests that efforts to control this deficiency are not yet complete.

  14. [A project of the Ministry of Health for iodine prophylaxis in Italy: Salt in food for the prophylaxis of iodine deficiency and the prevention of hypertension].

    PubMed

    Marabelli, R; Guidarelli, L; Copparoni, R

    1998-01-01

    A main goal to achieve in order to reduce the incidence of wrong nutritional habit associated diseases, according to the engagement taken on the FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition 1992 is the eradication of the endemic goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders. Iodine nutritional lack is, in Italy, a heavy public health problem; above 10% of population (about 5 million) has to bear thyroid troubles and in many of the Italian regions such a kind of pathology may involve more than 20% of scholastic population. All these disorders could be completely eradicated by means of a continuous and generalized iodine prophylaxis, as it has already been verified in several European countries. The most effective way to ensure the correct daily intake of iodine is the substitution of the usual cooking salt by iodine enriched salt; salt is in fact eaten by everybody at daily rates ungoverned by economical factors as it is a low cost product. Due to the heavy social relevance of this problem, an educational campaign is going on, from the Italian Ministry of Health "Salt in food for iodine deficiency disorder prophylaxis and hypertension prevention". The purpose is to achieve, by means of a unique message based on salt, a double goal in terms of public health: eradicating endemic goitre and preventing hypertension (reducing the salt global intake to less than 6 g/day).

  15. Economic evaluation of iodine deficiency disorder control program in Sikkim: a cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) are the most common cause of preventable brain damage globally. The strategy of prevention and control of iodine deficiency is based on iodine supplementation. Edible salt iodization and iodized oil injections are the two most commonly used vehicles for iodine supplementation. The objective of the study was to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the two programs of iodine supplementation, i.e., iodized salt program (ISP) and iodized oil program (IOP) against no preventive program (NPP) option. The study was conducted in 1990 in the state of Sikkim in India. The costs were calculated on the assumption of universal coverage of ISP and coverage of IOP among all children aged 0-14 years and women in the age group of 15-44 years. Direct and indirect cost of ISP and direct cost of IOP was computed based on the costs of year 1991. The discount rate taken was 10% and all the costs were converted to the year 2010 using wholesale price index (WPI) data. Consequences in terms of health effects, Social/emotional effects, and resource use were included. The discounted cost of ISP and IOP was Rs. 59,225,964 and Rs. 46,145,491, respectively. In ISP, 64.1% of the total cost was required for salt iodization, 17.6% for monitoring, and 18.3% for communication. In IOP, 50.9% of the costs were required for iodized oil; rest was for syringes and needles, manpower expenses, travel, and communication. Total resource saving was Rs. 95,566,220 for ISP and Rs. 92,177,548 for IOP. Incremental benefit for ISP was Rs. 36,340,256 and Rs. 46,032,057 for IOP. The cost-benefit ratio for ISP was 1.61 and 2.00 for IOP. IOP has a higher cost-benefit ratio for prevention of IDDs than ISP in the state of Sikkim, India.

  16. Neonatal Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Screening as a Monitoring Tool for Iodine Deficiency in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çaylan, Nilgün; Tezel, Başak; Özbaş, Sema; Şahin, Nuran; Aydın, Şirin; Acıcan, Deniz; Keskinkılıç, Bekir

    2016-06-05

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in neonates is recommended as an indicator for presence of iodine deficiency (ID) at a population level and as a monitoring tool in programs of iodine supplementation. The purpose of this study, based on data from the National Newborn Screening Program (NNSP) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in 2014, was to analyze neonatal TSH levels to predict the current status of iodine nutrition in Turkey. According to screening methodology, heel-prick blood samples of newborns were collected on filter paper cards usually on day 3-5 after birth (or shortly before discharge). Results of samples collected >48 h after birth were analyzed. The degree of severity of ID was assessed by using the epidemiologic criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). Elevated TSH levels (>5 mIU/L) were processed and classified according to province, region, birth season, and sampling time. A total of 1,298531 newborns were registered in the NNSP for the CH database. Of those, 1,270311 newborns had screening results collected >48 h after birth and were included in the statistical analyses. The national prevalence of elevated TSH was 7.2%. While the Gaziantep sub-region had the highest TSH elevation rate (15.9%), the Tekirdağ sub-region had the lowest rate (4.0%; p<0.001). Seasonal variations were also significant, and the elevated TSH prevalence rate was highest in winter (7.4%; p<0.001). National CH screening results suggest that Turkey may still be mildly iodine deficient. Nationwide studies should be performed for direct assessment and monitoring of iodine status in vulnerable populations to confirm accuracy of our results.

  17. Increased iodine deficiency in Victoria, Australia: analysis of neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone data, 2001 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ashequr; Savige, Gayle S; Deacon, Nicholas J; Francis, Ivan; Chesters, Janice E

    2010-11-01

    To use neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration data to measure the iodine status of the population of the Australian state of Victoria. Retrospective analysis of the results of 368,552 neonatal heel-prick blood tests for TSH concentration in Victoria in the years 2001-2006. Iodine deficiency as indicated by a mean percentage of neonatal TSH concentrations > 5 mIU/L of over 3% in accordance with World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder criteria; comparison of findings for the nine Department of Human Services health regions in Victoria. The mean percentage of neonatal TSH concentrations > 5 mIU/L ranged from 4.07% in 2001 to 9.65% in 2006, and this increase was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The populations of all nine Victorian health regions showed increasing iodine deficiency over the study period. Metropolitan populations had higher iodine deficiency than non-metropolitan populations, and this difference was also statistically significant (P < 0.05). These results are consistent with urinary iodine excretion research in Victoria. The high percentage of elevated TSH concentrations among newborns is of concern and requires ongoing monitoring. Neonatal TSH assay is part of routine screening in Australia, and thus offers an effective and economical method of monitoring population iodine status.

  18. Surveys in Areas of High Risk of Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess in China, 2012-2014: Current Status and Examination of the Relationship between Urinary Iodine Concentration and Goiter Prevalence in Children Aged 8-10 Years.

    PubMed

    Cui, Si Lu; Liu, Peng; Su, Xiao Hui; Liu, Shou Jun

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate goiter prevalence and iodine nutritional status in areas with high levels of water iodine; to monitor the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in areas at high risk of IDD; and to compare the prevalence of goiter and urine iodine (UI) concentrations between children living in the two areas. Based on surveillance from 2012-2014, we analyzed the concentration of UI and prevalence of goiter in 8-10-year-old children from 12 high-risk IDD provinces, and from 8 provinces and municipalities with excessive water iodine. We calculated goiter prevalence for each UI level according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards and constructed predictive prevalence curves. The goiter prevalence and median UI of children from areas with high water iodine were not optimal, being above the WHO standards (5% and 100-199 μg/L, respectively), whereas those in high-risk areas fell within the standard. UI and goiter prevalence exhibited a U-shaped relationship in high-risk endemic areas and a parabolic relationship in areas of iodine excess. Iodine surplus in high-iodine areas leads to high goiter prevalence and UI. However, in high-risk areas, UI was optimal and goiter prevalence met the national criteria for IDD elimination. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  19. Iodine deficiency and brain development in the first half of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Escobar, Gabriella Morreale; Obregón, María Jesús; del Rey, Francisco Escobar

    2007-12-01

    An inadequate supply of iodine during gestation results in damage to the foetal brain that is irreversible by mid-gestation unless timely interventions can correct the accompanying maternal hypothyroxinemia. Even mild to moderate maternal hypothyroxinemia may result in suboptimal neurodevelopment. This review mainly focuses on iodine and thyroid hormone economy up to mid-gestation, a period during which the mother is the only source for the developing brain of the foetus. The cerebral cortex of the foetus depends on maternal thyroxine (T4) for the production of the 3',3,5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) for nuclear receptor-binding and biological effectiveness. Maternal hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is potentially damaging for foetal brain development. Direct evidence has been obtained from experiments on animals: even a relatively mild and transient hypothyroxinemia during corticogenesis, which takes place mostly before mid-gestation in humans, affects the migration of radial neurons, which settle permanently in heterotopic locations within the cortex and hippocampus. Behavioural defects have also been detected. The conceptus imposes important early changes on maternal thyroid hormone economy that practically doubles the amount of T4 secreted something that requires a concordant increase in the availability of iodine, from 150 to 250-300 microg I day- 1. Women who are unable to increase their production of T4 early in pregnancy constitute a population at risk for having children with neurological disabilities. As a mild to moderate iodine deficiency is still the most widespread cause of maternal hypothyroxinemia, the birth of many children with learning disabilities may be prevented by advising women to take iodine supplements as soon as pregnancy starts, or earlier if possible, in order to ensure that their requirements for iodine are met.

  20. Drug-induced liver injury caused by iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chei Won; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Se Hwan; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shim, Hyun-Ik; Yoon, Jae Woong; Park, Jin Seok; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Jun Mi; Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-06-01

    Iodine-131 is a radioisotope that is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy. However, there is some evidence that iodine-131 can induce liver injury . Here we report a rare case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by iodine-131 in a patient with regional lymph node metastasis after total thyroidectomy. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of general weakness and nausea. Ten weeks earlier she had undergone a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma and had subsequently been prescribed levothyroxine to reduce the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Eight weeks after surgery she underwent iodine-131 ablative therapy at a dose of 100 millicuries, and subsequently presented with acute hepatitis after 10 days. To rule out all possible causative factors, abdominal ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography (on the biliary tree and gall bladder), and a liver biopsy were performed. DILI caused by iodine-131 was suspected. Oral prednisolone was started at 30 mg/day, to which the patient responded well.

  1. Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutrition.

    PubMed

    Remer, T; Neubert, A; Manz, F

    1999-01-01

    Observational studies primarily based on diet questionnaires or food records have reported that vegetarians can have a very low I intake. However, analytically ascertained data on the possible degree of I deficiency with this form of diet is lacking. Six healthy adult volunteers participated in the present controlled experimental diet study carried out in four separate 5 d diet periods. The study diets, normal, protein-rich, lactovegetarian, and repeat of the initial normal diet, were almost isoenergetic and contained no fish, sea food, iodized salt or processed foods fortified with I. During the last 48 h of each diet period two 24 h urine samples were obtained from each subject. I analyses were performed in the urine samples and in representative samples taken from all ingested diets. Urinary I excretion was significantly lower with the lactovegetarian diet (36.6 (SD 8.8) micrograms/d) than with the normal and the protein-rich diets (50.2 (SD 14.0) and 61.0 (SD 8.0) micrograms/d respectively). Accordingly, a markedly reduced I intake was confirmed analytically for the lactovegetarian diet (15.6 micrograms/d v. 35.2 and 44.5 micrograms/d respectively). Our results provide experimental confirmation of literature findings indicating that I supply is higher with non-vegetarian than with vegetarian diets. Specifically, the extremely low intake and urinary output of I as analytically determined for one exemplary vegetarian diet, demonstrate that dietary I may be limiting when strict forms of vegetarian dietary practices (no iodized salt, no I supplements) are followed. The present study is, therefore, the first diet-experiment-based pointer to the potential danger of I deficiency disorders due to strict forms of vegetarian nutrition, especially when fruits and vegetables grown in soils with low I levels are ingested.

  2. Nodular goiter and goiter nodules: Where iodine deficiency falls short of explaining the facts.

    PubMed

    Derwahl, M; Studer, H

    2001-01-01

    While the concept of iodine deficiency (ID) still dominates most discussions about the pathogenesis of multinodular goiter (MNG), the present review focuses on those mechanisms that may cause MNG in the absence of ID. Among the many facets of MNG that cannot simply be explained by ID, are the frequent occurrence of the disease in patients not exposed to ID, the autonomous growth of goiters - often accompanied by subclinical or even overt thyrotoxicosis -, the inverse relationship between goiter size and serum TSH, the multifocal, heterogeneous and nodular growth pattern, the heterogeneity of function with the familiar patchy iodine metabolism on scintiscans, the growth of clonal and polyclonal nodules, the prominent genetic predisposition. Even the notoriously low intrathyroidal iodine concentration - common to endemic as well as to sporadic goiter - is a secondary, rather than a primary event. Thus, the fundamental process of goitrogenesis, is independent from ID but operates through mechanisms innate to the hereditary and acquired heterogeneity among the thyrocytes themselves. In this view, goiter nodules and nodular goiters are true benign neoplasias arising by mechanisms common to all benign endocrine and nonendocrine neoplasms. However, superimposed iodine shortage greatly enhances the incidence of MNG and shifts its clinical appearance toward younger ages by adding one more growth factor - presumably enhanced TSH secretion - to an intrinsically activated growth regulating network.

  3. Iodine treatment in children with subclinical hypothyroidism due to chronic iodine deficiency decreases thyrotropin and C-peptide concentrations and improves the lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Aeberli, Isabelle; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Grimci, Lindita; Bridson, John; Chaouki, Noureddine; Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Jooste, Pieter L

    2009-10-01

    Chronic iodine deficiency (ID) increases thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations and produces a thyroid hormone pattern consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH). ScH may be associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Thus, the study aim was to determine if iodine treatment of children with elevated TSH concentrations due to ID would affect their lipid profile, insulin (C-peptide) levels, and/or subclinical inflammation. In controlled intervention trials of oral iodized oil or iodized salt, 5-14-year-old children from Morocco, Albania, and South Africa with TSH concentrations > or = 2.5 mU/L (n = 262) received 400 mg iodine as oral iodized oil or household distribution of iodized salt containing 25 microg iodine/g salt. At baseline and after 5 or 6 months, urinary iodine (UI) and blood concentrations of total thyroxine, TSH, C-reactive protein (CRP), C-peptide, and lipids were measured. Median (range) UI at baseline was 46 (2-601) microg/L. Compared to the control group, iodine treatment significantly increased UI and total thyroxine and decreased TSH, C-peptide, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The mean low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio fell from 3.3 to 2.4 after iodine treatment (p < 0.001). Iodine treatment had no significant effect on concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or C-reactive protein. Correction of ID-associated ScH improves the insulin and lipid profile and may thereby reduce risk for cardiovascular disease. This previously unrecognized benefit of iodine prophylaxis may be important because ID remains common in rapidly developing countries with increasing rates of obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Neonatal thyrotropin profile as an index for severity of iodine deficiency and surveillance of iodine prophylactic program.

    PubMed

    Rajatanavin, R; Unachak, K; Winichakoon, P; Chailurkit, L O; Vilasdechanon, N; Tananchai, P; Srinawat, S

    1997-08-01

    Neonatal serum thyrotropin (TSH) level has been proposed as an index for the monitoring and surveillance of an iodine prophylactic program. We have determined an effective way to put this idea into practice. During the first phase of our study, neonatal serum TSH levels were obtained from umbilical cord blood of neonates born in Chiangmai and Nan provinces, where several districts were areas of severe iodine deficiency, and were compared with those of neonates born in Bangkok, which was a control area. The median and (95% CI [confidence interval]) of serum TSH level of neonates born in Chiangmai 5.8 (5.7-5.9) microU/mL was significantly higher than in Nan 5.1 (5.0-5.2) microU/mL, and in Bangkok 3.7 (3.7-3.8) microU/mL. Neonatal serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration in Bangkok was higher than in Nan; while the reciprocal was true for neonatal TSH concentration in randomly selected samples (FT4 1.6 [1.6-1.7] ng/dL vs. 1.5 [1.5-1.6] ng/dL and TSH 3.5 [3.3-3.9] microU/mL vs. 5.5 [5.2-5.9] microU/mL, respectively.) When odds ratio of the likelihood of having neonatal TSH level higher than in Bangkok was calculated using 95th percentile value of neonatal TSH level in Bangkok as a cut-off point, the odds ratio of TSH profile in all districts in Chiangmai and Nan were greater than unity. In the second phase of our study, data were collected from 32 district and 10 provincial hospitals. The optimum number of samples in each hospital derived from the first phase of our study was at least 178. Discrepancy between goiter rate and odds ratio of TSH profile was observed, but there was a significant correlation between the two indices (r = 0.67, p < .001). Our study confirmed the practical utility of neonatal TSH profile as a biological index for assessment and monitoring and surveillance of an iodine prophylactic program at a district hospital in a developing country.

  5. Evaluation of endemic goiter prevalence in Bulgarian schoolchildren: results from national strategies for prevention and control of iodine-deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Gatseva, Penka; Vladeva, Stefka; Argirova, Mariana

    2007-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major health problem worldwide. The environment of the Balkan countries, including Bulgaria, is distinguished for its low iodine content. In 1994, the strategies for the prevention and control of iodinedeficiency disorders were actualized in Bulgaria and universal salt iodization and supplementation for the risk population groups (schoolchildren, pregnant women) were introduced. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the iodine prophylaxis in schoolchildren, living in an endemic for goiter area after the introduction of salt iodization in Bulgaria. For this purpose, the goiter prevalence and iodine status in 483 schoolchildren (274 boys and 209 girls) aged between 8 and 15 yr, living in an endemic for goiter area in Bulgaria were evaluated. Despite the normalization of iodine supply, mild iodine deficiency on the basis of goiter prevalence (16.15%) and urinary iodine excretion was found. These data indicate the need for reevaluation of the national strategy for prevention of iodine deficiency.

  6. Neonatal age and point of careTSH testing in the monitoring of iodine deficiency disorders: findings from western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ehrenkranz, Joel; Fualal, Jane; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Clarke, Ian; Alder, Stephen

    2011-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem throughout Africa. Although salt for human consumption is said to contain adequate amounts of iodine in Uganda, iodine intake may not be optimal. We undertook a field study to assess the adequacy of iodine nutrition in western Uganda using on-site measurement methods of neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for monitoring the degree of iodine deficiency during pregnancy. The study design consisted of a prevalence study using the percentage of newborns between the ages of 3 and 7 days with TSH >5 mIU/L, measured with a point-of-care immunochromatographic TSH assay, as a surrogate marker of iodine deficiency. Five districts in western Uganda were selected for study on the basis of a past history of iodine deficiency. One thousand seventy-eight newborns from the five districts were sequentially enrolled in each separate district and tested between July 2007 and January 2008. The prevalence of TSH levels >5 mlU/L ranged from 20% to 32%. Neonates tested on or before the age of 3 days were more likely to have a TSH level >5 mlU/L than those tested beyond the age of three days (28.2% vs. 18.7%, p < 0.001). Assessing neonatal TSH levels in developing countries with a TSH assay method suitable for field use can be successfully used to screen for congenital hypothyroidism and to indirectly assess a population's iodine status. Based on the percentage of neonates with TSH values >5 mIU/L, presumptive iodine deficiency persists in western Uganda. This finding suggests that continued monitoring of iodine nutrition in the area surrounding the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda and Congo is needed. Due to the progressive fall in the percent of TSH values >5 mIU/L from day three to day five of life, we conclude that TSH measurement earlier than day five of life in newborns at risk for iodine deficiency may be misleading. Guidelines for the use of neonatal TSH

  7. Evaluation of Iodine Deficiency in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Aycan, Zehra; Öner, Özgür

    2016-03-05

    To investigate the incidence of iodine deficiency (ID) and its effects on mental function in children referred to the Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children's Training and Research Hospital with a prospective diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study was conducted on 89 children referred in the period from September 2009 to June 2010 with a diagnosis of ADHD. A questionnaire was given to all parents. Conners' rating scales were applied to the parents (CPRS) and teachers (CTRS), and revised Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-R) to the children. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti-thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine levels were measured in all children. Median age was 9.41±1.95 years, and 83.1% of subjects were male. The mean urinary iodine level of the children was 92.56±22.25 μg/L. ID was detected in 71.9% of subjects and all were mild ID. There was no significant relationship between urinary iodine levels with WISC-R subtest scores and CPRS. However, a significant association was found between urinary iodine levels and hyperactivity section of CTRS (p<0.05). Likewise, a significant relationship was found between learning disorder/mental retardation diagnosis and freedom subtest of WISC-R (p<0.05). This study highlights the effects of ID on comprehension, perception, attention, and learning. However, the results need to be supported by new randomized controlled trials.

  8. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Position statement of the working group on disorders related to iodine deficiency and thyroid dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Donnay, Sergio; Arena, Jose; Lucas, Anna; Velasco, Inés; Ares, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Severe and mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation affects thyroid function of the mother and neonate as well as the infant's neuropsychological development. Studies performed in Spain confirm that most women are iodine deficient during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant and breast feeding women and women planning to become pregnant should take iodine supplements. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with reduced educational outcomes in the offspring: 9-year follow-up of the gestational iodine cohort.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Kristen L; Otahal, Petr; Hay, Ian; Burgess, John R

    2013-05-01

    Severe iodine deficiency (ID) during gestation is associated with neurocognitive sequelae. The long-term impact of mild ID, however, has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children born to mothers with urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) <150 μg/L during pregnancy have poorer educational outcomes in primary school than peers whose mothers did not have gestational ID (UIC ≥150 μg/L). This was a longitudinal follow-up (at 9 years old) of the Gestational Iodine Cohort. Pregnancy occurred during a period of mild ID in the population, with the children subsequently growing up in an iodine-replete environment. Participants were children whose mothers attended The Royal Hobart Hospital (Tasmania) antenatal clinics between 1999 and 2001. Australian national curriculum and Tasmanian state curriculum educational assessment data for children in year 3 were analyzed. Children whose mothers had UIC <150 μg/L had reductions of 10.0% in spelling (-41.1 points, 95% confidence interval [CI], -68.0 to -14.3, P = .003), 7.6% in grammar (-30.9 points, 95% CI, -60.2 to -1.7, P = .038), and 5.7% in English-literacy (-0.33 points, 95% CI, -0.63 to -0.03, P = .034) performance compared with children whose mothers' UICs were ≥150 μg/L. These associations remained significant after adjustment for a range of biological factors (maternal age at birth of child, gestational length at time of birth, gestational age at time of urinary iodine collection, birth weight, and sex). Differences in spelling remained significant after further adjustment for socioeconomic factors (maternal occupation and education). This study provides preliminary evidence that even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can have long-term adverse impacts on fetal neurocognition that are not ameliorated by iodine sufficiency during childhood.

  10. The Swiss iodized salt program provides adequate iodine for school children and pregnant women, but weaning infants not receiving iodine-containing complementary foods as well as their mothers are iodine deficient.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Maria; Aeberli, Isabelle; Wüst, Nadja; Piacenza, Alberta M; Bucher, Tamara; Henschen, Isabelle; Haldimann, Max; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-12-01

    If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine fortification of infant formula milk (IFM) and complementary foods (CF) is likely important. The objective of the study was to first confirm that Swiss school children and pregnant women remain iodine sufficient and then to assess iodine status in infancy and the relative contribution of breast milk and IFM/CF to their iodine intakes. We measured urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in national cross-sectional samples of: 1) pregnant women (n=648); 2) school children (n=916); 3) infants at three time points: at 3-4 d after birth and at 6 and 12 months (n=875); and 4) breast-feeding mothers (n=507). We measured breast milk iodine concentrations in the mothers, assessed iodine sources in infant diets, and analyzed iodine content of commercial IFM/CFs (n=22) and salt samples from the school children's households (n=266). Median (m) UICs in pregnant women (162 μg/liter) and school children (120 μg/liter) were sufficient, and 80% of the household salt was adequately iodized (≥15 ppm). However, mUICs in infants not receiving IFM/CF were not sufficient: 1) mUIC in breast-fed infants (82 μg/liter) was lower than in non-breast-fed infants (105 μg/liter) (P<0.001) and 2) mUIC in breast-fed weaning infants not receiving IFM/CF (70 μg/liter) was lower than infants receiving IFM (109 μg/liter) (P<0.01). mUIC was low in lactating mothers (67 μg/liter) and median breast milk iodine concentration was 49 μg/kg. In countries in which iodized salt programs supply sufficient iodine to older children and pregnant women, weaning infants, particularly those not receiving iodine-containing IFM, may be at risk of inadequate iodine intakes.

  11. Thyroid status of iodine deficient newborn infants living in central region of Turkey: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bastug, Osman; Korkmaz, Levent; Halis, Hulya; Memur, Seyma; Korkut, Sabriye; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Gunes, Tamer; Ozturk, Mehmet Adnan; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) during the fetal and neonatal periods can lead to neonatal hypothyroidism. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ID on the thyroid hormone level of newborns living in Turkey. Between 1998 and 2013, 71 newborns with a urinary iodine concentration <100 μg/L were recruited into the study. Data on thyroid volume, free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroglobulin (Tg) were collected from all newborns, and on breast milk iodine from their mothers. Infants who were classified as having congenital hypothyroidism (TSH >40 mU/L and fT4 <8.5 pmol/L) were treated with levothyroxine (n=26, T group), while the remaining infants remained untreated (n=45, UT group). Thyroid hormones were subsequently measured 7-14 days later in a sub-sample of both treated and untreated infants. The average values at the time of admission were as follows [median (min-max)]. fT3: 5.0 (2.8-7.1) pmol/L, fT4: 7.7 (0.13-19.1) pmol/L, TSH: 75 (14-426) mU/L, Tg: 464 (226-1100) ng/mL, urinary iodine concentration (UIC): 30 (0-61) μg/L, breast milk iodine levels: 21 (10-150) μg/L, thyroid ultrasound (USG): 1.10 (0.24-1.95) mL for the T group; and fT3: 5.7 (1.7-12.7) pmol/L, fT4: 16.2 (9.9-33.5) pmol/L, TSH: 5.4 (0.63-41.8) mU/L, Tg: 171 (15-2124) ng/mL, UIC: 39 (0-90) μg/L, breast milk iodine levels: 47 (10-120) μg/L, thyroid USG: 0.75 (0.35-1.72) mL for the UT group. A significant difference was found between groups in respect to fT3, fT4, TSH and Tg levels. No significant difference in thyroid ultrasonography, UIC, and breast milk iodine levels was found between the two groups. The Tg levels of 50 out of 71 patients were measured, 40 (80%) of whom had Tg levels above the normal range (101 ng/mL). In our country, despite the use of iodized salt, congenital hypothyroidism due to ID remains a problem. The Tg level of newborns can be used as a good indicator of ID.

  12. Analysis of epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in Tomsk region from 1998 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilova, Y. G.; Oleynik, O. A.; Yurchenko, E. V.; Zinchuk, S. F.; Sivolobova, T. V.; Rotkank, M. A.; Mazhitova, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present research is the comparative analysis of the epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in the Tomsk region from 1998 to 2014. There were examined 9901 and 15174 children of the school age including within the medical examination of the children’s population in 1998 and 2014 in Tomsk. At all school pupils there were analyzed anamnestic data and carried out anthropometrical measurements, ultrasonography of the thyroid gland was carried out using the portable scanner "Aloka SSD 500" with the linear sensor of 7,5 MHz frequency in the real time, the thyroid volume was evaluated according to Delange (1997). The excretion of inorganic iodine was determined at 264 in 1998 and at 120 children in 2014, respectively, in a one-time portion of urine by the cerium-arsenic method. There was additionally carried out the analysis of results of determination of TSH at 10717 in 1998, and at 15091 in 2014 in a spot of the whole blood at newborn children on the 4-5 day after birth at full-term and on the 7-14 day at prematurely born children. Neonatal TSH in the dried-up samples of capillary blood was determined by the method of the fluorometric immune-ferment analysis with the use of sets of TSH-Neonatal: Delfia, Finland. Statistical processing of the data obtained was carried out with the use of the applied software package pspp. The descriptive analysis included calculation of the median for the quantitative and the calculation of frequencies for qualitative data. The comparative analysis included calculation of distinctions reliability by the Mann-Whitney criterion for independent and to Wilcoxon’s criterion for dependent data. The comparative analysis of epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in Tomsk and the Tomsk region in 1998 and 2014 specifies decreasing the iodine deficiency diseases in the Tomsk region, increasing the iodine provision of the population within 15 years by 27%, decreasing neonatal hyperthyroidism by 1.5 times.

  13. Maternal thyroid function in different conditions of iodine nutrition in pregnant women exposed to mild-moderate iodine deficiency: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Moleti, Mariacarla; Di Bella, Beatrice; Giorgianni, Grazia; Mancuso, Alfredo; De Vivo, Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vermiglio, Francesco

    2011-06-01

    We examined the effect of different conditions of nutritional iodine intake on maternal thyroid function throughout gestation in a cohort of healthy, anti-thyroid antibody-negative women from a mild-moderately iodine-deficient (ID) area. Observational cohort study. The study included 168 women receiving prenatal preparations containing 150 μg of iodine from early pregnancy (150-I group); 105 women who had regularly used (>2 years) iodized salt prior to becoming pregnant (I-salt group); 160 women neither taking iodine supplements nor using iodized salt (no-I group). Maternal TSH, FT3 and FT4 were determined throughout gestation. Mean TSH concentrations were higher among the 150-I women than in the remaining two groups, and in a high proportion of them, TSH values were found to exceed the upper limit for gestational age. Conversely, the prevalence of low free-thyroxine levels in the 150-I women was similar to that observed in the I-salt women and markedly lower than that recorded for the no-I group. The regular use of iodine-containing supplements proved effective in reducing the risk of inappropriately low FT4 levels during pregnancy. The observed TSH increase in 150-I women may be because of a transient stunning effect on the thyroid gland, occurring as a result of the abrupt increase in daily iodine intake. Whilst the importance of gestational iodine supplementation is undisputed, we believe that in mild-moderately ID areas, women considering conception should be advised to take iodine supplementation for several months prior to pregnancy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Dietary sodium and iodine in remote Indigenous Australian communities: will salt-reduction strategies increase risk of iodine deficiency? A cross-sectional analysis and simulation study.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma; Webster, Jacqui; O'Dea, Kerin; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2015-12-30

    deficiency at the population-level. These data add to the global evidence informing salt-reduction strategies and the evidence that these strategies can be synergistically implemented with iodine deficiency elimination programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000694718.

  15. Status of iodine deficiency among children in national capital territory Of Delhi--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2013-08-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder is a public health problem in NCT of Delhi. The present study was conducted in NCT of Delhi to assess the current iodine nutrition status among school age children (6-11 years). Thirty clusters (schools) were selected by utilizing the population proportionate to size (PPS) cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1393 school age children were included. Urine samples were collected and tested for urinary iodine excretion (UIE). The Median UIE was found to be 200 µg/L. The salt samples collected from study subjects revealed that 87% of salt samples had stipulated level of iodine of 15 ppm and more. In order to eliminate IDD, there is a need to sustain the supply of iodized salt and monitor its iodine content regularly.

  16. [The specific features of the prevalence of thyroid malignancies in an iodine-deficiency area].

    PubMed

    Vereshchagin, N N; Nasteka, N L; Koniukhov, V A

    2009-01-01

    The trends in iodine-deficiency morbidity and thyroid malignancy morbidity and mortality in the Orenburg Region have been analyzed over many years. The analysis revealed a significant rise in the incidence of thyroid malignancies with high death rates among the subjects, first registered and died within a year after their diagnosis, in the central geographical zone as compared with the western and eastern ones. There was evidence for rather high morbidity rates among the region's women, with their tendency being noted for an increase.

  17. Screening a coastal population in Southern Italy: iodine deficiency and prevalence of goitre, nutritional aspects and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Valentino, R; Savastano, S; Tommaselli, A P; Di Biase, S; Calvanese, E; Carbone, D; Dorato, M; Orio, F; Lupoli, G; Lombardi, G

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of goitre by means of urinary iodine excretion, palpatory and ultrasonographic thyroid examinations in a heterogeneous population living by the sea. We used a special self-administered questionnaire to evaluate thyroid size, iodine intake, eating habits and cardiovascular risk factors in 600 subjects with a mean age of 45 +/- 17 years: 253 men (42.3%) and 347 women (57.7%). Urinary iodine excretion was low (72.1 +/- 15.7 microg/L; median 71.2) and associated with ultrasonographic evidence of an enlarged thyroid (16%) or structural thyroid abnormalities (30%), thus allowing us to define the Salerno Gulf as a mild-moderate area of endemic goitre. All of the subjects ate a Mediterranean diet, with a mean of two portions of fish/week. The cardiovascular risk factors considered were obesity, cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes, the prevalences of which were in line with those reported in other studies of similar age-matched populations. The moderate intake of fish and the consumption of a Mediterranean diet did not prevent goitre. Iodine deficiency and subsequent goitre endemia are also present at sea level, probably because of a diet based on local products grown on soil with a low iodine content or possible seawater, soil and air environmental pollution that may interfere with the availability of iodine. The assessment of iodine deficiency should therefore involve the entire population and not only subjects living far from the sea.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Ultrarapidly Dissolving Orodispersible Films for Treating and Preventing Iodine Deficiency in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Rustemkyzy, Cholpon; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-11-11

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem that is easily prevented in many countries through having a salt iodization program. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that particular population groups including infants and young children have a sufficient level of daily iodine intake, while also reducing salt consumption in their diet. While many iodine supplements are available, swallowing tablet supplements is physically difficult for young children; thus, there is a need for the development of novel iodine delivery systems for pediatric patients. In this study a novel, ultrarapidly dissolving, nanofiber-based orodispersible film formulation containing iodine which is constructed from nanofibers was manufactured using an electrospinning technique. The potassium iodate (KIO3)-loaded poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) fiber orodispersible films dissolve within seconds on wetting (applying on the tongue) without the need for the consumption of water. The electrospinning process and KIO3 loading did not alter the crystallinity and conformation of PEO. With high loading, KIO3 nanocrystals are present in the fibers. This formulation design allows easy administration of iodine for preventing childhood iodine deficiency. We have also described a novel and easy method for producing and harvesting nanocrystals of inorganic salts that can be potentially adopted for use in other relevant fields.

  19. Restoration of brain growth in fetal sheep after iodized oil administration to pregnant iodine-deficient ewes.

    PubMed

    Potter, B J; Mano, M T; Belling, G B; Martin, D M; Cragg, B G; Chavadej, J; Hetzel, B S

    1984-10-01

    Iodized oil was administered as a single intramuscular injection to pregnant iodine-deficient ewes at 100 days gestation and the subsequent growth of their fetuses compared with that of fetuses of severely iodine-deficient ewes and of iodine-replete ewes, all of which were fed the same low-iodine diet. The administered iodine produced a remarkable improvement in thyroid function and physical appearance of the fetuses, accompanied by an increase in brain growth and to a lesser extent in body growth, which at 140 days was only slightly (but significantly) less than that of the controls. There was restoration of the number of cells (DNA) and myelination (cholesterol/DNA) in the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres which suggests a catch-up of neuroblast development during pregnancy. Histological examination, however, revealed that counts of synapses (density) in the cerebral cortex after iodized oil were still less than those of the control fetal brains. The relevance of these findings to the effects of iodine deficiency on human brain development is discussed.

  20. The changing phenotype of iodine deficiency disorders: a review of thirty-five years of research in north-eastern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Moleti, Mariacarla; Sturniolo, Giacomo; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vermiglio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) still represent a major public health problem, with almost 30% of the world population being exposed to the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency (ID). In Italy, despite a sustained policy of iodine prophylaxis, more than 10% of people is still affected with goiter, and a presumably higher rate of subjects may suffer from minor cognitive deficits due to inadequate iodine supply during antenatal life. This review of systematic observational studies carried out over thirty-five years (1980-2015) in a sentinel ID area in North-eastern Sicily highlights the changing phenotypes of IDD in this region. Over the years profound improvements in nutritional iodine status in North-eastern Sicily has occurred, due to both silent and active iodine prophylaxis. Endemic cretinism, resulting from severe iodine deficiency, has been progressively replaced by less serious deficits of intellectual and cognitive abilities, which nevertheless deserve proper attention.

  1. Prenatal iodine deficiency results in structurally and functionally immature lungs in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Godbole, Madan M; Rao, Geeta; Paul, B N; Mohan, Vishwa; Singh, Preeti; Khare, Drirh; Babu, Satish; Nath, Alok; Singh, P K; Tiwari, Swasti

    2012-05-15

    Maternal hypothyroidism affects postnatal lung structure. High prevalence of hypothyroxinemia (low T4, normal T3) in iodine-deficient pregnant women and associated risk for neuropsychological development along with high infant/neonatal mortality ascribed to respiratory distress prompted us to study the effects of maternal hypothyroxinemia on postnatal lung development. Female Sprague Dawley rats were given a low-iodine diet (LID) with 1% KClO(4) in drinking water for 10 days, to minimize thyroid hormone differences. Half of these rats were continued on iodine-deficient diet; ID (LID with 0.005% KClO(4)) for 3 mo, whereas the rest were switched to an iodine-sufficient diet; IS [LID + potassium iodide (10 μg iodine/20 g of diet + normal drinking water)]. Pups born to ID mothers were compared with age-matched pups from IS mothers at postnatal days 8 (P8) and 16 (P16) (n = 6-8/group). ID pups had normal circulating T3 but significantly low T4 levels (P < 0.05) and concomitantly approximately sixfold higher thyroid hormone receptor-β mRNA in alveolar epithelium. Lung histology revealed larger and irregularly shaped alveoli in ID pups relative to controls. Lung function was assessed at P16 using a double-chambered plethysmograph and observed reduced tidal volume, peak inspiratory and expiratory flow, and dynamic lung compliance in ID pups compared with IS pups. Significant lowering of surfactant protein (SP)-B and SP-C mRNA and protein found in ID pups at P16. ID pups had 16-fold lower matrix metalloproteinase-9 mRNA levels in their alveolar epithelium. In addition, mRNA levels of thyroid transcription factor-1 and SP-D were significantly higher (3-fold) compared with IS pups. At P16, significantly lower levels of SP-B and SP-C found in ID pups may be responsible for immature lung development and reduced lung compliance. Our data suggest that maternal hypothyroxinemia may result in the development of immature lungs that, through respiratory distress, could contribute

  2. Apparent insufficiency of iodine supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Eschler, Deirdre Cocks; Pozharny, Zhenya; Davies, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant woman are at increased risk for iodine deficiency, which may induce thyroid insufficiency and have damaging effects not only on the mother but also the fetus. We hypothesize that iodine supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk for iodine deficiency. Cross-sectional study to assess iodine levels in random urine specimens during pregnancy in New York City. One hundred eighty-two women visited a clinic where free iodine supplementation was offered (150 μg of potassium iodide daily; Group A), and 183 women were seen at a practice at which no supplementation was offered (Group B). Overall, more than one out of two pregnant women in New York City were at risk for iodine deficiency with a spot urinary iodine (UI) level less than 150 μg/L and could be defined as at risk for iodine deficiency. The median urine iodine concentration for the entire group was 152.5 μg/L, but there was considerable variation from 10.9 to 1210 μg/L. The median UI level of the supplemented Group A (169.8 μg/L) was significantly greater than that of Group B (128.4 μg/L; p<0.01). Based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, 38.9% of Group B women were at risk for mild, moderate, or severe iodine deficiency, compared with 22.8% of Group A women. New York City pregnant women were significantly less prone to iodine deficiency when provided with iodine supplementation. Nevertheless, when spot UI levels were used to estimate iodine sufficiency, more than 20% of supplemented women were still at risk for iodine deficiency according to WHO guidelines, suggesting that current supplementation practices remain insufficient.

  3. Iodine deficiency in Belarusian children as a possible factor stimulating the irradiation of the thyroid gland during the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Gembicki, M; Stozharov, A N; Arinchin, A N; Moschik, K V; Petrenko, S; Khmara, I M; Baverstock, K F

    1997-12-01

    Ten years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant catastrophe more than 500 children in Belarus are suffering from thyroid cancer. The major cause of the high incidence of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age appears to be contamination resulting from that catastrophe, mainly with isotopes of radioactive iodine. Another important factor may be iodine deficiency in the environment. A countrywide program for investigation of goiter prevalence and iodine deficiency has been established in the Republic of Belarus with the assistance of the European World Health Organization office. The program will oversee the examination of 11,000 children and adolescents 6 to 18 years of age from 30 schools in urban and rural areas. The results obtained in a group of 824 children and adolescents (the pilot phase) are typical for significant iodine deficiency and moderate goiter endemism. It is clear that the present situation does not completely reflect the situation that existed at the time of the Chernobyl catastrophe. However, data from epidemiologic studies conducted many years before the accident showed high goiter prevalence in the contaminated areas, indicating that the prevalence of iodine deficiency at the time of the catastrophe was similar to the present one or even greater. Such an assumption could lead to a better understanding of the thyroid pathologies that have been observed.

  4. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About the ATA Work of the ATA Leadership & Staff Governance Society Awards Society Committees Clark T. ... Home About the ATA Work of the ATA Leadership & Staff Governance Society Awards Society Committees Clark T. ...

  5. Modelling protection behaviour towards micronutrient deficiencies: Case of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes as health intervention for school-going children

    PubMed Central

    De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Despite successes recorded in combating iodine deficiency, more than 2 billion people are still at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Rural landlocked and mountainous areas of developing countries are the hardest hit, hence the need to explore and advance novel strategies such as biofortification. SUBJECTS/METHODS We evaluated adoption, purchase, and consumption of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes (IBVL) using the theory of protection motivations (PMT) integrated with an economic valuation technique. A total of 1,200 participants from three land-locked locations in East Africa were recruited via multi-stage cluster sampling, and data were collected using two, slightly distinct, questionnaires incorporating PMT constructs. The survey also elicited preferences for iodine biofortified foods when offered at a premium or discount. Determinants of protection motivations and preferences for iodine biofortified foods were assessed using path analysis modelling and two-limit Tobit regression, respectively. RESULTS Knowledge of iodine, iodine-health link, salt iodization, and biofortification was very low, albeit lower at the household level. Iodine and biofortification were not recognized as nutrient and novel approaches, respectively. On the other hand, severity, fear, occupation, knowledge, iodine status, household composition, and self-efficacy predicted the intention to consume biofortified foods at the household level; only vulnerability, self-efficacy, and location were the most crucial elements at the school level. In addition, results demonstrated a positive willingness-to-pay a premium or acceptance of a lesser discount for biofortification. Furthermore, preference towards iodine biofortified foods was a function of protection motivations, severity, vulnerability, fear, response efficacy, response cost, knowledge, iodine status, gender, age. and household head. CONCLUSIONS Results lend support for prevention of iodine deficiency in

  6. Eighteen years of continuously sustained elimination of iodine deficiency in the Islamic Republic of Iran: the vitality of periodic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Delshad, Hossien; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mehran, Ladan; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-04-01

    Two decades ago the Islamic Republic of Iran was among countries most severely affected by iodine deficiency. Iran has since achieved great success in the control and elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) following the national salt iodization program, initiated in 1989. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sustained consumption of iodized salt by Iranian households and the current status of iodine nutrition in all 30 provinces of Iran. Goiters-measured by palpation-and urinary iodine concentration of children were assessed. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 36,000 schoolchildren (18,000 girls and 18,000 boys), aged 8-10 years, were randomly selected, from October 2007 to February 2008, from 30 provinces of the country. Goiter prevalence and urinary iodine excretion in schoolchildren and the iodine content of salt at household, factory, and distribution site levels were measured. The goiter rate in the country was 6.5% (6% grade 1 and 0.5% grade 2), and the weighted goiter rate was 5.7%. The total goiter rate in Hamedan, Zanjan, Kermanshah, Mazandaran, and Gilan provinces was over 10%. The median urinary iodine was 140 μg/L. Urinary iodine levels of 20-50, 50-99, and ≥100 μg/L were noted in 15.3%, 19.8%, and 64.9% of the samples, respectively. In four provinces, the median urinary iodine was lower than 100 μg/L. The mean (±SD) and median salt iodine values were 23.2 (±13.8) and 34.7 ppm, respectively, at the production level, and 32.4 (±14.7) and 32.3 ppm, respectively, at the distribution level. Ninety-eight percent of households consumed iodized salt, 58% of households had appropriate salt storage, and 27% of the household salts contained <20 ppm. Iran has achieved much in the development of universal salt iodization strategy and elimination of IDDs and currently meets all criteria for sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency. However, the lack of adequate iodine nutrition in some provinces

  7. Does a text messaging intervention improve knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding iodine deficiency and iodized salt consumption?

    PubMed

    Mehran, Ladan; Nazeri, Pantea; Delshad, Hossein; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of implementation of a prevention programme via mobile phone text messaging in enhancing knowledge, attitudes and practice concerning iodine deficiency and iodized salt consumption. In a randomized controlled trial, participants were subjected to a brief tele-educational support regarding iodine deficiency and the importance of iodized salt consumption. The intervention group received daily text messages via mobile phone for 6 weeks. Knowledge, attitude and practice scores, urinary iodine concentration and salt iodine content were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks after the intervention. Participants were recruited from health-care centres in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. For the present study 205 females aged ≥18 years were randomly assigned to the intervention (n 95) and control (n 110) groups. A significant difference was found in median knowledge scores between the intervention and control groups at follow-up (P = 0.004). There was also a significant difference in median attitude scores between the intervention and control groups (P = 0.02). The intervention group did not differ significantly in median practice score, urinary iodine concentration and salt iodine content from the control group. Text messaging interventions are effective in improving individuals' knowledge and attitudes regarding preventive health-care topics.

  8. Community monitoring of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in the National Capital Region of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Juhi; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Karmarkar, Madhukar G; Nair, Sirimavo

    2011-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the current status of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) in the National Capital Region of Delhi (NCR Delhi) and evaluate the implementation and impact of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP). Cross-sectional study. School-going children (n 1230) in the age group of 6-12 years were enrolled from thirty primary schools in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Thirty schools were selected using the probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each identified school forty-one children were surveyed. Urine and salt samples were collected and studied for iodine concentration. A total of sixty salt samples from retail level were also collected. Schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. The median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was found to be 198·4 μg/l. The percentage of children with UIE levels of <20·0, 20·0-49·9, 50·0-99·9 and ≥100·0 μg/l was 1·9, 4·3, 9·5 and 84·2%, respectively. The proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt (salt with iodine levels of at least 15 ppm at consumption level) was 88·8%. The assessment of iodine content of salt revealed that only 6·1% of the families were consuming salt with iodine content less than 7 ppm. At retail level 88·3% of salt samples had >15 ppm iodine. Significant progress has been achieved towards elimination of IDD from NCR Delhi. There is a need for further strengthening of the system to monitor the quality of iodized salt provided to the beneficiaries under the universal salt iodization programme and so eliminate IDD from NCR Delhi.

  9. Iodine deficiency is higher in morbid obesity in comparison with late after bariatric surgery and non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Lecube, Albert; Zafon, Carles; Gromaz, Adoración; Fort, José Manuel; Caubet, Enric; Baena, Juan Antonio; Tortosa, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and obesity are worldwide-occurring health problems. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between morbid obesity and iodine status, including subjects who lost weight after bariatric surgery. Ninety morbidly obese women, 90 women with at least 18 months follow-up after bariatric surgery, and 45 healthy non-obese women were recruited. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a spot urinary sample and expressed as the iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Obese women showed a significantly lower UIC in comparison with non-obese women (96.6 (25.8-267.3) vs. 173.3 (47.0-493.6) μg/g; p < 0.001), with a lesser proportion of subjects with adequate iodine status (46.6 vs. 83.3 %, p < 0.001). The mean UIC significantly increased among women who underwent bariatric surgery before the collection of the urinary sample (96.6 (25.8-267.3) vs. 131.9 (62.9-496.4) μg/g; p < 0.001). No difference in UIC was detected between laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Univariate analysis showed that UIC negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.278, p < 0.001) and positively with age (r = 0.206, p = 0.002). Finally, multiple linear regression analyses showed that BMI was independently associated with UIC (beta = -0.312, p < 0.001; R (2) = 0.166). Obesity is an independent risk factor to iodine deficiency, almost in women. Whether more obese population needs to be considered as a vulnerable group and whether bariatric surgery can reverse iodine deficiency still remain to be elucidated.

  10. A practical approach to managing the risks of iodine deficiency in flocks using thyroid - weight: birthweight ratios of lambs.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S O; Grace, N D

    2007-12-01

    To establish a protocol for determining the iodine status of a flock and managing the risks of iodine deficiency, using thyroid-weight:birthweight ratios of newborn lambs and serum iodine concentrations of ewes. Data were collected from iodine supplementation studies in Southland and Rangitikei, of sheep fed exclusively pasture or pasture plus brassica during the latter half of gestation (n=350, or 89 per treatment group). The ewes were supplemented pre-mating or at the time of pregnancy scanning with an injection of long-acting iodised oil. Serum iodine concentrations were measured in ewes prepartum in Rangitikei and postpartum at both locations. The thyroid-weight:birthweight ratios (as g/ kg) in 229 newborn lambs were determined at post-mortem examination and compared between iodine supplemented vs unsupplemented flocks using probit analysis. Samples of pasture and kale were analysed monthly for determination of iodine and selenium. Initial mean serum iodine concentration of all ewes was 41 mug iodine/L. Supplementation increased serum iodine concentrations regardless of forage fed, and concentrations remained high for between 127 and 206 days. The range of thyroid-weight:birthweight ratios in lambs from supplemented ewes was 0.09-0.70 (mean 0.35, standard deviation (SD) 0.147) g/kg. Among lambs from unsupplemented ewes, the range was much wider (0.21-8.5; mean 1.61, SD 1.95 g/kg). About half of those ratios were >0.8 g/kg and clearly indicative of goitre, including 62% from the groups on brassica and 18% from the Rangitikei group fed exclusively pasture. Probit calculations showed that a ratio of 0.40 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.47) g/kg predicted with 35% probability, and a ratio of 0.80 (95% CI=0.70-0.99) g/kg predicted with 90% probability that a lamb came from an unsupplemented flock. Compared to iodine concentrations in forages, thyroid-weight:birthweight ratios more accurately reflected the iodine status of the flock and could be used to identify

  11. Developmental iodine deficiency resulting in hypothyroidism reduces hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are implicated in the impaired learning and memory in lactational and adolescent rat hippocampus following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Methods Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Then, the total and phorsporylated ERK1/2 and total and phorsporylated CREB in the hippocampus were detected with western blot on PN14, PN21, PN28 and PN42. Results The iodine-deficient and hypothyroid pups showed lower serum FT3 and FT4 levels, smaller body size, and delayed eyes opening. The mean number of surviving cells in the hippocampus of the iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats was significantly reduced compared to controls (P < 0.05). Iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups demonstrated significantly lower level of total and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and CREB than the controls on PN14, PN21 and PN28 (P < 0.05, respectively). The reduction of ERK1/2 and CREB was not reversible with the restoration of serum thyroid hormone concentrations on PN42. Conclusions Developmental ID and hypothyroidism down-regulate hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats. PMID:20021662

  12. Developmental iodine deficiency resulting in hypothyroidism reduces hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Hou, Yi; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2009-12-18

    Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are implicated in the impaired learning and memory in lactational and adolescent rat hippocampus following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Then, the total and phorsporylated ERK1/2 and total and phorsporylated CREB in the hippocampus were detected with western blot on PN14, PN21, PN28 and PN42. The iodine-deficient and hypothyroid pups showed lower serum FT3 and FT4 levels, smaller body size, and delayed eyes opening. The mean number of surviving cells in the hippocampus of the iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats was significantly reduced compared to controls (P < 0.05). Iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups demonstrated significantly lower level of total and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and CREB than the controls on PN14, PN21 and PN28 (P < 0.05, respectively). The reduction of ERK1/2 and CREB was not reversible with the restoration of serum thyroid hormone concentrations on PN42. Developmental ID and hypothyroidism down-regulate hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats.

  13. Endemic goitre in the Sudan despite long-standing programmes for the control of iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Medani, Abdel Monim M H; Elnour, Abdelsalam A; Saeed, Amal M

    2011-02-01

    To describe the status of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) in the Sudan more than 25 years after the initiation of IDD control programmes and to explore the causes of endemic goitre in the country. Testing for IDDs was carried out in 6083 schoolchildren 6 to 12 years of age from the capital cities of nine states in different areas of the country using the three indicators recommended by the World Health Organization: the prevalence of goitre, laboratory measurements of urinary iodine concentration in casual urine samples and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels. Serum levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), as well as urinary secretion of thiocyanate, which can affect the transport of iodine into thyrocytes, were also measured. The prevalence of goitre in the different samples ranged from 12.2% to 77.7% and was 38.8% overall. The overall median urinary iodine concentration was 6.55 μg/dl, with the lowest median value having been found in Kosti city (2.7 μg/dl), situated in the centre of the country, and the highest (46.4 μg/dl) in Port Sudan, on the Red Sea coast. The highest mean serum Tg level (66.98 ng/ml) was found in Kosti city, which also had the highest prevalence of goitre. IDDs still constitute a public health problem throughout urban areas in the Sudan and iodine deficiency appears to be the main etiological factor involved.

  14. Hypothesis: dietary iodine intake in the etiology of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hoption Cann, Stephen A

    2006-02-01

    This paper reviews evidence suggesting that iodine deficiency can have deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system, and correspondingly, that a higher iodine intake may benefit cardiovascular function. In recent years, public health bodies have aggressively promoted sodium restriction as a means of reducing hypertension and the risk of cardiovascular disease. These inducements have led to a general decline in iodine intake in many developed countries. For example, a United States national health survey conducted in the early 1970s observed that 1 in 40 individuals had urinary iodine levels suggestive of moderate or greater iodine deficiency; twenty years later, moderate to severe iodine deficiency was observed in 1 in 9 participants. Regional iodine intake has been shown to be associated with the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, where autoimmune hypothyroidism is the more common of the two in regions with moderate to high iodine intake. Both of these thyroid abnormalities have been shown to negatively affect cardiovascular function. Selenium, an important antioxidant in the thyroid and involved in the metabolism of iodine-containing thyroid hormones, may play an interactive role in the development of these thyroid irregularities, and in turn, cardiovascular disease. Iodine and iodine-rich foods have long been used as a treatment for hypertension and cardiovascular disease; yet, modern randomized studies examining the effects of iodine on cardiovascular disease have not been carried out. The time has come for investigations of sodium, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease to also consider the adverse effects that may result from mild or greater iodine deficiency.

  15. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Saudi Arabia: results of a national iodine nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dakheel, M H; Haridi, H K; Al-Bashir, B M; Al-Shingiti, A; Al-Shehri, S; Gassem, M A; Hussein, I

    2016-08-18

    This study aimed at establishing updated data on iodine nutrition among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional cluster survey among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years was conducted during February-April 2012. Children were clinically examined for goitre, urine and household salt samples were collected to estimate urinary iodine concenteration (UIC) and iodine content in salt. The overall goitre prevalence at the national level among 4 016 children was 4.2%. The prevalence was < 5% in all regions of the country except southern region with a prevalence of 12.7%. The median UIC of 2224 samples was 133 μg/L, with 74.3% of the surveyed children with UIC ≥ 100 μg/L. Analysis of salt samples (n = 4242) revealed that 69.8% of households were consuming adequately iodized salt. The findings suggest iodine sufficiency at the national level, however southern region still has a goitre prevalence of mild degree severity and the proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt is still below recommendations.

  16. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in severe iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Ozön, Alev; Yordam, Nurşen

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. It is well known that it has severe consequences such as brain damage, developmental delay, deficits in hearing and learning and lower intellectual attainment. It also has a negative impact on growth. In this study, we aimed to address this issue and we assessed height standard deviation scores of children living in an area of severe iodine deficiency in comparison to those living in a mild iodine deficiency area. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were also analyzed to investigate the mechanisms by which iodine depletion leads to growth failure. Pubertal children in a severe iodine deficient SID area had lower height standard deviation scores (HSDS), IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels than those living in mild iodine deficient MID area. Similar findings could not be elucidated in the prepubertal age group. The major determinants of HSDS were age, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and TSH. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were negatively correlated with T4. These findings suggest that iodine deficiency has a negative impact on growth, as well as IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels. This effect seems to be due to the derangements in thyroid hormone economy arising from iodine depletion. The degree of this impact may be related to the duration of iodine depletion or may be dependent on the developmental stage of the organism at the time of iodine depletion.

  17. Economic evaluation of iodine deficiency disorder control program in Sikkim: a cost effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2012-01-01

    Edible salt iodization and iodized oil injections are the two most commonly used vehicles for iodine supplementation. In year 1989, the state government of Sikkim was planning to implement Iodine Deficiency Disorder control program in state and had following two options to choose from, based on existing knowledge; a) a salt iodization program, b) an iodized oil injection program. No information was available at that point of time on comparative advantages of the above stated two approaches. To identify the most cost-effective alternative for IDD elimination in Sikkim, amongst the following 3 alternatives: a) Iodized salt program (ISP), b) Iodized oil injection program (IOP) to high risk group, c) no preventive program. Study population was the general population of state of Sikkim, India in year 1990. Cost- effective analysis was undertaken comparing 3 alternative programs, targeted towards IDD elimination in state of Sikkim. Identification, measurement and valuation of the costs of ISP and IOP and identification and measurement of the consequences of IDD were done to carry out the cost-effective analysis. Visible goiter person years (VGPY), endemic cretinism, IDD attributable death were used to assess the health consequences/disease burden of IDD. The cost per VGPY, endemic cretinism and IDD attributable death were Rs 76.67, Rs 24,469 and Rs 9,720, respectively for ISP. The cost per VGPY, endemic cretinism and IDD attributable death were Rs 75.82, Rs 19,106 and Rs 7,709, respectively for IOP. The results of the analysis showed that iodized oil program is more cost-effective for prevention of irreversible IDDs than the iodated salt program in state of Sikkim, India.

  18. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  19. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  20. Iron-induced nickel deficiency in pecan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency can occur in horticultural and agronomic crops. This study assesses impact of excessive iron (Fe) on expression of Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Field and greenhouse experiments found Ni deficiency to be inducible by ei...

  1. [Subtotal thyroid resection in severe, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Hintze, G; Lepsien, G; Becker, H D; Köbberling, J

    1985-09-01

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis due to iodine application in high amounts in patients with circumscript or disseminated thyroid autonomy, is complicated by a prolonged course, mainly due to a resistance to conservative therapy with thiourea derivates. We therefore decided to perform an early subtotal thyroidectomy in 24 thyrotoxic patients. This measure is in contrast to the common opinion that surgery should only be performed after normalization of thyroid hormones. In all 24 patients with severe hyperthyroidism, including three patients with thyroid storm, hormone levels decreased within a few days after surgery to normal or subnormal values and the clinical picture of thyrotoxicosis disappeared. In the case of thyroid storm the signs of disorientation normalized within 1-3 days. One patient died five weeks after surgery due to severe concomitant diseases. One patient exhibited transitory respiration distress and another had postoperative hypocalcemia. In 13 patients L-thyroxine replacement became necessary due to subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism. Surgery as a early treatment for thyrotoxicosis should be reserved for patients with severe illness where conservative treatment has been shown to be ineffective. In rare selected cases, when a rapid normalization is required, surgery without preoperative treatment seems to be justified. The effect of surgery was impressive in all our cases and there were only minor perioperative complications.

  2. [An approach to a sanitary and social problem: urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women from a iodine deficient region].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Jorge L; Ortiz, Valeria A; Mayer, Marcos; Demaria, Cecilia I; Nancucheo, Ester; Cresto, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) assay is an effective method to detect reduced iodine intake. UIE was measured in two different samples (morning and evening) from 121 pregnant women, with a turbid-metric method modified by Pino (normal value =150 ugl/1). Furthermore, thyroid function was evaluated in pregnant women with UIE <100 ug/l. From 121 pregnant women, the UIE was normal in 75 with similar morning and evening samples (morning: 305.2 +/- 7.0; evening: 319.2 +/- 8.8; p: NS). The UIE did no showed differences in different trimesters and in morning and evening samples. The UIE was low in 46 women (36.9%), without significant differences between morning and evening (morning: 88.12 +/- 5.07 microg/l; evening: 88.7 +/- 6.2 microg/l; p: NS). Normal or low UIE were not influenced by the age of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women with UIE < 100 ug/l showed impaired thyroid function. Morning and evening study of UIE allowed us to detect a higher number of pregnant women with low iodine intake. This study let us to find thyroid function abnormalities likes a screening method, because in our state there is not a public screening program for gestational hypothyroidism.

  3. Iodine-Rich Herbs and Potassium Iodate Have Different Effects on the Oxidative Stress and Differentiation of TH17 Cells in Iodine-Deficient NOD.H-2(h4) Mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cheng-Han; Qu, Jin-Qiao; Zhou, Xi-Yu; Gao, Tian-Shu

    2017-08-12

    Iodine-rich herbs such as seaweed, kelp, and sea tangle were widely used to treat various types of goiter with good effect and without any adverse side effects in China. When compared with potassium iodate (PI), iodine-rich herbs had a positive effect on the recovery of goiter resulting from iodine deficiency without any obvious harmful effects. In NOD.H-2(h4) mice, an autoimmune thyroiditis-prone model, iodine excess can increase infiltration of lymphocytes and structural damage of the thyroid follicles, hence resulting in thyroiditis. Until now, there has been little research on the comparative effects of PI and iodine-rich herbs on thyroid in an autoimmune thyroiditis-prone model. This study was designed to compare the different effects of iodine-rich herbs and PI on the thyroid gland in iodine-deficient NOD.H-2(h4) mice. Excessive intake of PI cause oxidative injury in the thyroid gland and increase the risk of autoimmune thyroiditis, while iodine-rich herbs cause less oxidative injury, significantly enhancing antioxidant capacity, and inhibit the high differentiation of Th17 cells in the thyroid glands of NOD.H-2(h4) mice.

  4. Maternal Overt Hypothyroidism and Neurobehavioral Outcome of Neonates: A Cohort Study from an Iodine-deficient Area of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Charoo, Bashir A; Sofi, Riyaz Ahmad; Ahmed, Asif; Bhat, Javeed Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    To study the relation between maternal overt hypothyroidism and neurodevelopmental outcome of neonates in iodine-deficient region of Northern India (Kashmir Valley). Prospective cohort study. Endocrinology department of a tertiary-care hospital. 82 hypothyroid pregnant women were enrolled and followed up till delivery. The neonates born to this group represented the case neonates. 51 euthyroid healthy pregnant women were selected as control group. The neonates born to these mothers served as controls. Early neonatal behavioral assessment at 3-4 weeks of age. The mean TSH and free T4 in neonates of mothers with well controlled hypothyroidism was significantly different from those born to mothers with poorly controlled hypothyroidism and controls in 1st trimester, but the difference was statistically insignificant for 2nd and 3rd trimester values. Overt maternal hypothyroidism in iodine-deficient area constitutes a risk factor for an abnormal neurobehavioral development of affected child.

  5. Hypothyroidism following developmental iodine deficiency reduces hippocampal neurogranin, CaMK II and calmodulin and elevates calcineurin in lactational rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2010-11-01

    Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal neurogranin, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), calmodulin (CaM) and calcineurin (CaN) are implicated in the brain impairment in lactational rat hippocampus following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 21. Then, the neurogranin, CaMKII, CaM and CaN in the hippocampus were detected with immunohistochemistry and western blotting on PN14 and PN21. The iodine-deficient and hypothyroid pups showed significantly lower level of neurogranin, CaMKII and CaM and significantly increased CaN in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions than the controls on PN14 and PN21 (P<0.05, respectively). Data indicate that, in lactational rats, hippocampal neurogranin, CaMKII, CaM and CaN are involved in the brain impairment by developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of iodine-deficiency disorders on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wolka, Eskinder; Shiferaw, Solomon; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of iodine deficiency on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. School-based comparative cross-sectional study. Primary school in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. A sample population of 270 children with goitre and 264 without goitre. All students in each class were examined for the presence of goitre and classified based on WHO recommendations. Among children with goitre, a higher proportion (54·8 %) was female and the proportion increased with age. The odds of scoring low on school performance was higher among children whose fathers were illiterate (adjusted OR = 1·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 3·5) and those who were absent for more than 5 d in the last academic year (adjusted OR = 1·5; 95 % CI 1·1, 2·3). Goitre was significantly associated with low academic achievement (adjusted OR = 1·8; 95 % CI 1·2, 2·5). The study showed that the presence of goitre has a negative effect on academic achievement even after accounting for parental education and absenteeism from school. Awareness of endemic goitre and its impact on school performance, and an emphasis on prevention and control by concerned bodies, are recommended to alleviate the problem.

  7. Current prevalence of goiter determined by ultrasonography and associated risk factors in a formerly iodine-deficient area of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Mustafa; Erem, Cihangir; Deger, Orhan; Topbas, Murat; Ersoz, Halil Onder; Can, Emine

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of goiter and related risk factors in an adult population in a formerly iodine-deficient area of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 2,500 subjects (1,270 women and 1,230 men, aged over 20 years) by multistage sampling. Blood and urine specimens were collected for the assessment of thyroid function. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG) was performed to measure thyroid volume and evaluate nodules. The overall goiter prevalence was 26.5 % (28.4 % in women, 24.5 % in men, P < 0.05). Median thyroid volume was 15.59 mL (13.65 mL in women, 17.96 mL in men, P < 0.0001). Median urinary iodine was 122.79 μg/L. USG revealed thyroid nodules in 35.2 % of the subjects (38.4 % in women, 31.8 % in men, P < 0.005). Age group analysis revealed the lowest rate in the 20-29-year age group (12.5 %), which increased with age, reaching the highest level (38.4 %) in the 70+ years age group. The prevalence of goiter was negatively correlated with education level and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and positive family history. According to occupation, goiter prevalence was highest in farmers (35.3 %) and housewives (32.2 %). Despite a normal range of current urinary iodine excretion levels, prevalence of goiter in this adult population in a formerly iodine-deficient province of Turkey remained high, even about 10 years after salt iodine supplementation program introduction. In addition, the goiter prevalence was higher for female gender, advanced age, positive family history of goiter, low education level, and high BMI.

  8. A Paleolithic-type diet results in iodine deficiency: a 2-year randomized trial in postmenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Manousou, S; Stål, M; Larsson, C; Mellberg, C; Lindahl, B; Eggertsen, R; Hulthén, L; Olsson, T; Ryberg, M; Sandberg, S; Nyström, H F

    2017-09-13

    Different diets are used for weight loss. A Paleolithic-type diet (PD) has beneficial metabolic effects, but two of the largest iodine sources, table salt and dairy products, are excluded. The objectives of this study were to compare 24-h urinary iodine concentration (24-UIC) in subjects on PD with 24-UIC in subjects on a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) and to study if PD results in a higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (ID), than NNR diet. A 2-year prospective randomized trial in a tertiary referral center where healthy postmenopausal overweight or obese women were randomized to either PD (n=35) or NNR diet (n=35). Dietary iodine intake, 24-UIC, 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-UIE), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Completeness of urine sampling was monitored by para-aminobenzoic acid and salt intake by urinary sodium. At baseline, median 24-UIC (71.0 μg/l) and 24-UIE (134.0 μg/d) were similar in the PD and NNR groups. After 6 months, 24-UIC had decreased to 36.0 μg/l (P=0.001) and 24-UIE to 77.0 μg/d (P=0.001) in the PD group; in the NNR group, levels were unaltered. FT4, TSH and FT3 were similar in both groups, except for FT3 at 6 months being lower in PD than in NNR group. A PD results in a higher risk of developing ID, than a diet according to the NNR. Therefore, we suggest iodine supplementation should be considered when on a PD.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.134.

  9. [An epidemiological survey of the prevalence of thyroid diseases in mild iodine deficiency city after salt iodization].

    PubMed

    Peng, Nian-chun; Shi, Li-xin; Zhang, Qiao; Xu, Shu-jing; Li, Hong; Zhang, Miao; Zhang, Song; Zhuang, Hui-jun; Gong, Ming-xian; Wang, Rui; Wu, Dan-rong; Hu, Ying; Liu, Lu

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the current status of iodine nutrition and the prevalence of thyroid diseases in Guiyang, a mild iodine deficiency city practiced salt iodization for 25 years. A representative sample of 1509 adults aged 20 years old or above in Guiyang, selected by a multistage stratified sampling method, participated in the study. After an overnight fasting, serum thyroid hormones, serum thyroid autoantibodies, and urine iodine were measured. B-mode ultrasonography of the thyroid was performed in the population. Meanwhile, urine iodine of 80 children aged 8 - 10 years old in the same community were measured after an overnight fasting. The median of 8-10 years old children's urinary iodine was 228.7 µg/L. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, overt hyperthyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 1.79%, 14.12%, 1.52% and 1.06% respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was significantly higher than overt hypothyroidism (P < 0.05) and was significantly higher in female than that in male (P < 0.05). The prevalence of positive thyroid peroxidase antibody, positive thyroglobulin antibody and autoimmune thyroiditis was 14.38%, 13.59% and 4.44% respectively, which were significantly higher in female than that in male (all P values < 0.05). The prevalence of diffuse goiter and nodular goiter was 0.86% and 0.20% respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05). After 25 years of salt iodization, the iodine nutrition in Guiyang is more than adequate with high prevalence of overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis.

  10. Maternal marginal iodine deficiency limits dendritic growth of cerebellar purkinje cells in rat offspring by NF-κB signaling and MAP1B.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ye; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yi; Min, Hui; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) during early pregnancy had an adverse effect on children's psychomotor and motor function. It is worth noting that maternal marginal ID tends to be a common public health problem. Whether marginal ID potentially had adverse effects on the development of cerebellum and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, our aim was to study the effects of marginal ID on the dendritic growth in filial cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) and the underlying mechanism. In the present study, we established Wistar rat models by feeding dam rats with a diet deficient in iodine and deionized water supplemented with potassium iodide. We examined the total dendritic length using immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis was conducted to investigate the activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B). Our results showed that marginal ID reduced the total dendritic length of cerebellar PCs, slightly down-regulated the activity of NF-κB signaling and decreased MAP1B in cerebellar PCs on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14, and PN21. Our study may support the hypothesis that decreased T4 induced by marginal ID limits PCs dendritic growth, which may involve in the disturbance of NF-κB signaling and MAP1B on the cerebellum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1241-1251, 2017.

  11. The influence of iodine deficiency on the cognitive performance of school children in Saki, south-west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojule, A C; Osotimehin, B O

    1998-01-01

    The influence of inadequate iodine intake on the thyroid status and cognitive performance of school children in Saki, a town within the goitre belt of South-western Nigeria with known environmental iodine deficiency, was assessed. One hundred and ninety-seven (197) study subjects from Saki and seventy (70) appropriately matched control subjects from Moniya, near Ibadan, the Oyo State capital were recruited into the study. The subjects were apparently healthy primary school pupils between the ages of 10 and 14 years and had been resident in the respective locality for at least two (2) years. After establishing the presence of goitre, blood was collected for thyroid function tests by venepuncture from each pupil. The cognitive function tests, Draw-A-Person (DAP) test and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) were administered simultaneously to all the pupils in the class. Urine samples were collected for urinary iodine estimation. The mean urinary iodine concentration was significantly lower in Saki than in Moniya (134.81 +/- 69.86 vs 220.00 +/- 69.00 ug/L, P < 0.01). The total goitre rates (TGR) and the visible goitre rates (VGR) were 15.2% and 1.5% for Saki, and 8.6% and 4.3% for Moniya, respectively. The mean plasma total T4 was significantly lower in Saki pupils (97.55 +/- 26.64 nmol/L vs 122.52 +/- 26.51 nmol/L P < 0.05). The TSH level was higher in Saki pupils than in Moniya pupils (4.72 +/- 1.38 mU/L vs 4.26 +/- 1.28 mU/L), but the difference was not statistically significant. Scores on intelligence function tests (DAP and SPM) were lower for Saki pupils when compared with Moniya pupils, though the differences were not statistically significant. These results show that there is a mild but significant iodine deficiency disorder problem in Saki. However, the children in Saki still maintained euthyroidism and the mild degree of iodine deficiency did not seem to have adversely affected their cognitive performance.

  12. Marginal Iodine Deficiency Affects Dendritic Spine Development by Disturbing the Function of Rac1 Signaling Pathway on Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Min, Hui; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Ye; Shan, Zhongyan; Xi, Qi; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID)-induced thyroid hormone (TH) insufficient during development leads to impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. Marginal ID has been defined as subtle insufficiency of TH, characterized as low thyroxine (T4) levels, whether marginal ID potentially had adverse effects on the development of hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we established Wistar rat models with ID diet during pregnancy and lactation. The effects of marginal ID on long-term potentiation (LTP) were investigated in the hippocampal CA1 region. To study the development of dendritic spines in pyramidal cells, Golgi-Cox staining was conducted on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14, PN21, and PN28. The activation of Rac1 signaling pathway, which is essential for dendritic spine development by regulating actin cytoskeleton, was also investigated. Our results showed that marginal ID slightly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Besides, the density of dendritic spines during the critical period of rat postnatal development was mildly decreased, and we found no significant change of spine morphology in marginal ID group. We also observed decreased activation of the Rac1 signaling pathway in pups subjected to maternal marginal ID. Our study may support the hypothesis that decreased T4 induced by marginal ID results in slight impairments of LTP and leads to mild damage of dendritic spine development, which may be due to abnormal regulation of Rac1 signaling pathway on cytoskeleton.

  13. Combating iodine and iron deficiencies through the double fortification of fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine.

    PubMed

    Chavasit, Visith; Nopburabutr, Preeyacha; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2003-06-01

    Two iodine and seven iron compounds were tested for use in the fortification of pure fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine for cooking as a means to combat iodine and iron deficiencies. Ferrous sulfate, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ferric ammonium citrate, and ferrous lactate were combined with potassium iodide with no effect on sensory quality. Product shelf-life testing revealed that no iron or iodine losses occurred during a three-month storage period. Although the color of most products darkened, the color was not significantly different from that of nonfortified products after two to three months. Sensory home-use tests revealed that the fortified products were acceptable to highly acceptable, with only 1.2% to 8.2% of the dishes cooked using the fortified products being reported as discolored. The cost of fortification was minimal, at 0.13 to 2.73 baht per bottle (750 ml) (42 baht = US$1). Consequently, these products show a potential for inclusion in national programs for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies in Asian countries where fish sauce and its products are routinely consumed.

  14. Defective neuromotor and cognitive ability in iodine-deficient schoolchildren of an endemic goiter region in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Vermiglio, F; Sidoti, M; Finocchiaro, M D; Battiato, S; Lo Presti, V P; Benvenga, S; Trimarchi, F

    1990-02-01

    Visual perceptual integrative motor ability was investigated in 719 6- to 12-yr-old, presumably normal, primary schoolchildren living in 2 iodine-deficient endemic goiter areas in Sicily, identified on the basis of the presence (area A) or absence (area B) of endemic cretinism, by administrating the Bender Gestalt test. All of these clinically euthyroid schoolchildren were also examined neurologically by an investigator unaware of the result of the Bender test. Ninety-nine (13.76%) schoolchildren were found to be defective by the Bender test; this prevalence was significantly higher than that (3.0%) found in an iodine-sufficient goiter-free control area (area C) lying at sea level (chi 2 = 36.25; P less than 0.000001). No difference in the prevalence of Bender abnormalities was apparent if the children were divided according to the area of provenience (area A, 14.4%; area B, 13.1%). A high percentage of children falling in the lower range of normality was found in both area A (15.5%) and area B (19.0%); this was significantly higher than that in area C (3.8%; chi 2 = 77.55; P less than 0.000001). Neuromuscular and neurosensorial abnormalities, including increased tendon reflexes, clonus of the foot, Babinski sign, minor disturbances in balance, and gait, and minor defects in hearing and speech, were apparent in 19.3% (area A) and 18.5% (area B) of the children. These disorders were significantly more frequent in defective children identified by the Bender test (33.3%) than in normal children (15.3%; (chi 2 = 17.29; P less than 0.00005). The general intellectual aptitude in Bender deficient subjects was evaluated by the Terman Merrill test and was found to be impaired in 95%, thus confirming the existence of an endemic cognitive deficiency (ECD), distinct from the endemic mental deficiency previously found in other endemic goiter, iodine-deficient areas. ECD seems to be epidemiologically independent of the existence of endemic cretinism. Further clinical auxological

  15. Assessing the status of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and associated factors in Wolaita and Dawro Zones School Adolescents, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Abebe, Yemane Gebremariam; Gelaye, Amha Admasie; Mekonen, Tefera Chane

    2017-04-18

    Iodine deficiency is the major preventable cause of irreversible mental retardation in the world. Ethiopia is a country with high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders which continue to affect a large number of the country's population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder in Wolaita and Dawuro zones. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in high school and preparatory students in Wolaita and Dawuro zones between April and May 2012. Data were collected from 718 school adolescents using pre-tested questionnaire through systematic random sampling technique. Data were entered and cleaned using Epi-info version 3.5.3 and then transported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and Multivariable logistic regression were done and the cut off value set was P < 0.05 as this is considered as statistically significant. The overall prevalence (total goiter rate) of goiter in study area was 351 (48.9%). Students with Grade-1 goiter were 265 (36.9%) while with Grade-2 goiter was 86 (11.9%). Females were by a long way vulnerable for goiter and accounts 60.9% with Pearson correlation coefficient 0.300, P value 0.0001. Generally, the occurrence of goiter in the study area was found to have statistical significant association with sex of respondents (being female) [AOR = 3.526; 95% CI (2.55-4.87)], climatic condition of resident (temperate climate) [AOR = 0.617; 95% CI (0.404-0.943)], frequency of iodized salt use [AOR = 0.484; 95% CI (0.317-0.739)] and consumption of cassava [AOR = 4.184; 95% CI (2.6-6.707)]. In general, the study revealed that iodine deficiency disorder was a serious public health concern. Nearly half of adolescent students in Wolaita and Dawuro zones were affected by goiter. Therefore, emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population level, particularly at females is mandatory. Nutrition education along with adequate Universal Salt Iodization program is urgently

  16. Goiter prevalence and urinary iodide excretion in a formerly iodine-deficient region after introduction of statutory lodization of common salt.

    PubMed

    Heinisch, Martin; Kumnig, Gerhild; Asböck, Doris; Mikosch, Peter; Gallowitsch, Hans-Júrgen; Kresnik, Ewald; Gomez, Iris; Unterweger, Oliver; Lind, Peter

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this epidemiologic study was to determine the volume of the thyroid gland as well as urinary iodine excretion in dependence on age and gender in a population from an area of low natural iodine supply now receiving iodine prophylaxis. In 430 persons from three communities in the province of Carinthia, Austria, we determined thyroid volume via sonography as well as urinary iodide excretion. As in numerous other European countries, natural iodine supply is insufficient in Austria. Therefore, to reduce goiter incidence, iodization of common salt with 10 mg potassium iodide (KI) per kilogram of NaCl was made mandatory in Austria in 1963 by federal law. In 1990, the amount of iodine addition was increased to 20 mg KI per kilogram of NaCl. Our results show that mean urinary iodide excretion in the persons investigated was altogether satisfactory (males: 163.7 microg of iodine per gram of creatinine; females: 183.3 microg of iodine per gram of creatinine). Goiter prevalence was 34.3% in women and 21.3% in men. An increase in goiter occurrence with age was noted in both genders. The increase in goiter prevalence was particularly obvious in the age group older than 40, i.e., among those participants who had spent at least a certain span of their lives in an area of iodine deficiency. Thus, the most likely reason for the persistently high goiter prevalence is not current iodine deficit but rather the high number of goiters that had developed previously at the time of iodine deficiency and were unable to undergo regression in spite of today's comparatively good iodine supply situation.

  17. A mechanism for biologically induced iodine emissions from sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Blaszczak-Boxe, C. S.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, ultimately accumulating in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest that iodine is released to the atmosphere via three possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea ice, from where it is released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, the results nevertheless show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e. I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during

  18. Hair Iodine for Human Iodine Status Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Prejac, Juraj; Višnjević, Vjeran; Skalnaya, Margarita G.; Mimica, Ninoslav; Drmić, Stipe; Skalny, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, human iodine deficiency is, after iron, the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine, which reflects very recent iodine exposure; a long-term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. Methods: We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The hair iodine median was 0.499 μg/g, and was 0.482 and 0.508 μg/g for men and women respectively, suggesting no sex-related difference. We studied hair iodine uptake by analyzing the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy, and excess. We estimated overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration was below 0.1–0.15 μg/g. Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.1–2.0 μg/g where the deposition of iodine in the hair was linearly increasing (R2=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0 μg/g and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Conclusion: Hair appears to be a valuable and robust biological indicator tissue for assessing long-term iodine status. We propose that an adequate iodine status corresponds with hair iodine uptake saturation of 0.565–0.739 μg/g (55–65%). PMID:24446669

  19. The effect of thyroxine, 3, 5-dimethyl-3'isopropyl-L-thyronine and iodized oil on fetal brain development in the iodine-deficient sheep.

    PubMed

    Mano, M T; Potter, B J; Belling, G B; Martin, D M; Gragg, B G; Chavadej, J; Hetzel, B S

    1989-07-01

    Studies have been carried out to investigate the role of maternal and fetal thyroid function in the effects of iodine deficiency on fetal brain development in sheep. Iodine deficiency was established with an especially prepared low-iodine diet of maize and pea pollard. The iodine-deficient sheep were mated and the end of the second trimester of pregnancy (100 days gestation) were divided into groups which received either a sc injection of T4 or 3,5-dimethyl-3-isopropyl-L-thyromine or an injection of iodized oil. AT 140 days gestation (10 days prior to parturition) comparison of the fetuses delivered by hysterotomy revealed that the retarded fetal brain development observed in iodine deficiency was greatly improved by T4 and by iodized oil. However, T4 and iodized oil failed to correct the reduction in the number and the increase in the length of synaptic appositions which were observed in the fetal cerebral cortex after iodine deficiency. In addition, the histological appearance of the fetal thyroid gland and the levels of plasma thyroid hormones were restored to normal. The administration of 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine had no effect on the retarded fetal brain and body development of the iodine-deficient fetuses. The lack of response may be due to the ability of 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine to cross the ovine placenta as no reduction in the abnormally elevated fetal plasma TSH observed in spite of a fall in maternal plasma TSH and apparent restoration of maternal thyroid function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Prevalence of thyroid nodules in an occupationally radiation exposed group: a cross sectional study in an area with mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Trerotoli, Paolo; Ciampolillo, Anna; Marinelli, Giuseppe; Giorgino, Riccardo; Serio, Gabriella

    2005-07-07

    Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer occur more frequently in people exposed to radiation for therapeutic purposes, and to nuclear fallout. Furthermore, it is known that a moderate degree of iodine deficiency may be responsible for an increased prevalence of thyroid nodules, while it is suspected that radiation exposure could induce changes in thyroid autoimmunity. The iodine intake of people resident in Bari, S. Italy, is mildly deficient, which could be presumed to cause a higher prevalence of thyroid pathology. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in a population occupationally exposed to radiation, in an area of mild iodine deficiency. A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in radiation exposed workers, compared with a stratified sample of non exposed workers. After giving written consent to participate in the study, all the recruited subjects (304 exposed and 419 non exposed volunteers) were interviewed to fill in an anamnestic questionnaire, and underwent a physical examination, ultrasound thyroid scan, serum determinations of fT3, fT4 and TSH, fine needle aspiration biopsy. The sample was subdivided into one group exposed to a determined quantity of radiation (detected by counter), one group exposed to an undetectable quantity of radiation, and the non exposed control group. The prevalence of thyroid nodules < 1 cm in diameter, defined as incidentalomas, in the exposed group with detected doses, was 11.28% in males and 9.68% in females, while in the exposed group with undetectable dose the prevalence was 10.39% in males and 16.67% in females. In the non exposed group the prevalence of incidentalomas was 9.34% in males and 13.20% in females. These prevalences were not statistically different when analysed by a multiple test comparison with the bootstrap method and stratification for sex. Instead, the prevalence of thyroid nodules > 1 cm in diameter resulted statistically different in

  1. Thyroid hormone synthesis: a potential target of a Chinese herbal formula Haizao Yuhu Decoction acting on iodine-deficient goiter

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xia; Yan, Chen; Guo, Xiaodong; Guo, Qiuyan; Liu, Zhenli; Song, Zhiqian; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Haizao Yuhu Decoction (HYD), a famous multi-component herbal formula, has been widely used to treat various thyroid-related diseases, including iodine-deficient goiter. Herb pair Thallus Sargassi Pallidi (HZ) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC), one of the so-called “eighteen antagonistic medicaments”, contains in HYD. To explore pharmacological mechanisms of HYD acting on iodine-deficient goiter and to provide evidence for potential roles of herb pair HZ and GC in HYD, our genome-wide microarray detection and network analysis identified a list of goiter-related genes, mainly involved into the alterations in hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid/gonad/growth axes. Then, the disease genes-drug genes interaction network illustrated the links between HYD regulating genes and goiter-related genes, and identified the candidate targets of HYD acting on goiter. Functionally, these candidate targets were closely correlated with thyroid hormone synthesis. Moreover, the potential regulating genes of herb pair HZ and GC were revealed to be crucial components in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis. The prediction results were all verified by following experiments based on goiter rats. Collectively, this integrative study combining microarray gene expression profiling, network analysis and experimental validations offers the convincing evidence that HYD may alleviate iodine-deficient goiter via regulating thyroid hormone synthesis, and explains the necessity of herb pair HZ and GC in HYD. Our work provides a novel and powerful means to clarify the mechanisms of action for multi-component drugs such as herbal formulae in a holistic way, which may improve drug development and applications. PMID:27384475

  2. Iodine-deficiency disorders in the Aseer region, south-western Saudi Arabia: 20 years after the national survey and universal salt iodization.

    PubMed

    Abbag, Fuad I; Abu-Eshy, Saeed A; Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Al-Fifi, Suliman A; El-Wadie, Hussein; Abdallah, Samy M; Musa, Mustafa G; Devansan, Charles S; Patel, Ayuub

    2015-10-01

    To study (i) the current prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders among schoolchildren in south-western Saudi Arabia after universal salt iodization and (ii) the iodine content of table salts and water. Cross-sectional study on a stratified proportional allocation sample of children. Thyroid gland enlargement was assessed clinically and by ultrasound scanning. Urine, table salt and water samples were taken to measure iodine content. Settings The Aseer region, south-western Saudi Arabia. Schoolchildren aged 8-10 years. The study included 3046 schoolchildren. The total goitre rate amounted to 24·0 %. Prevalence of enlarged thyroid by ultrasound was 22·7 %. The median urinary iodine concentration of the study sample amounted to 17·0 µg/l. The iodine content of table salt ranged from 0 to 112 mg/kg; 22·5 % of the table salt samples were below the recommended iodine content (15 mg/kg) set by WHO. The total goitre rate increased significantly from 19·8 % among children using table salt with iodine content ≥15 mg/kg to reach 48·5 % among children using table salt with 0 mg iodine/kg. Analysis of water samples taken from schools showed that the majority of water samples (78·8 %) had an iodine content of 0 µg/l. The study documented that 18 years after the national study, and after more than a decade of universal salt iodization in Saudi Arabia, the problem of iodine-deficiency disorders is still endemic in the Aseer region. Efforts should focus on fostering advocacy and communication and ensuring the availability of adequately iodized salt.

  3. Influence of iodine supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in severe iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ozön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Yordam, Nurşen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. In addition to severe consequences such as brain damage, developmental delay, deficits in hearing and learning, it also has a negative impact on growth. The negative impact of severe iodine deficiency (SID) on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) was shown previously. In this study we aimed to analyze the impact of iodine supplementation on growth and growth factors of children with SID. One hundred and four children (63 boys and 41 girls) aged 5-15 years participated in the study. Height standard deviation scores (HSDS), and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were assessed both before and six months after a single dose of iodized oil. Serum levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were also analysed to investigate the mechanisms by which alterations of iodine status may influence growth. Pubertal children had lower HSDS six months after iodine supplementation, while that of prepubertal children remained unchanged. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels decreased significantly and FT4 levels were suppressed six months after the supplementation, while TSH was normalized. These findings suggest a negative impact of iodine supplementation on growth factors in the short-term, which may be a direct effect of iodine repletion or an indirect effect caused by alterations in thyroid function. It may also be related to the method of supplementation used. Further studies are necessary to resolve these issues, as well as to examine the impact of iodine supplementation on growth in the long-term.

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Thyroid Related Hormones among Pregnant Women Residing in an Iodine Deficient Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Shan; Hussain, Zaib

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement. Thyroid gland in women undergoes functional changes during pregnancy. A few studies have described such changes in pregnant women residing in iodine deficient areas. Objective. To document these changes in pregnant women residing in Lahore, a low iodine intake urban area of Pakistan. Patients and Methods. In 254 pregnant women, data of FT4, FT3, and TSH during the first and subsequent trimesters were obtained and compared with those of 110 nonpregnant women. These hormones were determined in serum by radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques using commercial kits. Results. Compared to nonpregnant women mean FT4 level was decreased, and FT3 and TSH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in pregnant women. A negative correlation of FT4 with TSH was observed in all three trimesters. Serum FT3 was positively correlated with TSH only during the third trimester. As a function of gestation time, FT4 levels progressively decreased, and FT3 and TSH levels increased significantly (one-way ANOVA F = 108.2, 17.3, and 44.8, resp.; all P < 0.05) exhibiting thyroid gland adaptations. Conclusion. Pregnancy is associated with significant alterations in thyroid function due to low iodine intake in women residing in study area. The compensated thyroid function poses a risk of thyroid failure in a number of pregnant women.

  5. Iodine deficiency and thyroid nodular pathology--epidemiological and cancer characteristics in different populations: Portugal and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Santos, José Eduardo Carvalho; Kalk, William John; Freitas, Miguel; Marques Carreira, Isabel; Castelo Branco, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence and pathology pattern of iodine deficiency (ID) related disorders are influenced by the dietary iodine intake: low iodine leads to thyroid nodular enlargement, to an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer, an increase in anaplastic carcinomas and to an alteration in the papillary to follicular neoplasia ratio. This study aims at highlighting the effects of ID by comparatively evaluating the pattern of thyroid nodular pathology in different populations that, although geographically distant and heterogeneous, both had iodine deficiency at the time of data gathering and are at high altitude: Beira Interior (BI) in Portugal and Johannesburg (JHB) in South Africa. (S.A.) Mandatory salt iodization introduced in S. A. in 1995 has recently been shown to have resulted in the correction of ID. Evaluation of thyroid histology reports over a 6 year period in BI and a 5 year period in the JHB area. Region of BI: 278 patients with histology reports-60 were malignancies (21.2 %): 31 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular cancers (18 follicular carcinomas and 4 Hürthle cell tumours), 3 medullary carcinomas and 4 anaplastic carcinomas. Region of JHB: 136 histology reports- 33 were malignancies (24.3 %): 13 papillary carcinomas, 15 follicular cancers (10 follicular carcinomas and 5 Hürthle cell tumours), 1 medullary carcinoma, 3 anaplastic carcinomas and 1 metastatic carcinoma into the thyroid. There was an overlap in the frequencies of all histology types, of particular relevance in the relatively high anaplastic carcinoma incidences and in the papillary to follicular carcinoma ratios which was close to 1 in both areas- BI area ratio: 1.4 and JHB area ratio: 0.87, with overlapping 95 % CI's, also confirmed by the results of the chi-square calculations. During the study periods evaluated both study areas displayed pathology patterns usually found in ID. Public information regarding the negative consequences of ID combined with the availability of affordable

  6. Low Goiter Rate Associated with Small Average Thyroid Volume in Schoolchildren after the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihua; Sun, Hong; Shang, Li; Zhang, Qinglan; He, Yingxia; Chen, Zhigao; Zhou, Yonglin; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Qingqing; Zhao, Jinkou; Shen, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    After the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI) program in 1996, seven cross-sectional school-based surveys have been conducted to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) among children in eastern China. This study aimed to examine the correlation of total goiter rate (TGR) with average thyroid volume (Tvol) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in Jiangsu province after IDD elimination. Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was applied to select 1,200 children aged 8-10 years old in 30 clusters for each survey in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2011. We measured Tvol using ultrasonography in 8,314 children and measured UIC (4,767 subjects) and salt iodine (10,184 samples) using methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Tvol was used to calculate TGR based on the reference criteria specified for sex and body surface area (BSA). TGR decreased from 55.2% in 1997 to 1.0% in 2009, and geometric means of Tvol decreased from 3.63 mL to 1.33 mL, along with the UIC increasing from 83 μg/L in 1995 to 407 μg/L in 1999, then decreasing to 243 μg/L in 2005, and then increasing to 345 μg/L in 2011. In the low goiter population (TGR < 3.9%), TGR was positively associated with average Tvol (r = 0.99); UIC showed a non-linear association with average Tvol, and UIC > 300 μg/L was associated with a smaller average Tvol in children. After IDD elimination in Jiangsu province in 2001, lower TGR was associated with smaller average Tvol. Average Tvol was more sensitive than TGR in detecting the fluctuation of UIC. A UIC of 300 μg/L may be defined as a critical value for population level iodine status monitoring.

  7. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    PubMed

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  8. Fortification of bread with iodized salt corrected iodine deficiency in school-aged children, but not in their mothers: a national cross-sectional survey in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Avni, Freddy; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-10-01

    In the years 1985-1998, it was noted that mild iodine deficiency (MID) was a public health problem in Belgium. Therefore, an agreement was signed in 2009 between the bakery sector and the Ministry of Health, to fortify bread with iodized salt. We tested the hypothesis that the iodine status of Belgian children improved after the introduction of bread fortified with iodized salt. Since the dietary habits of children and adults may differ, we also investigated whether the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the children in this study reflected the iodine status of their mothers. The study was cross-sectional. In a van, equipped with an ultrasound device, the thyroid volumes (Tvol) of children were measured and household salt samples and urine samples were collected from the children and their mothers. From across Belgium, 60 schools were selected and 1541 children participated in the study. The median UIC in children was 113.1 and 84.4 μg/L among their mothers. The median UIC among children was substantially greater compared to more than 10 years ago (80 μg/L; p<0.001). The median UIC in school-aged children was lower in Wallonia than in Flanders (p<0.001) and was higher in boys than in girls (p<0.001). The percentage of children with goiter was 7.2%. Of the 904 salt samples received, 63.2% did not contain iodine. Fortification of bread with iodized salt corrected iodine deficiency in Belgian children, but not in their mothers. To provide these women with an adequate iodine intake, the use of both iodized salt in bread and iodized instead of noniodized household salt needs to increase. Our findings suggest that the median UIC in children may not be an adequate surrogate of adults' iodine status. Therefore, monitoring iodine status should not be limited to children, but should be extended to women of child-bearing age.

  9. Thyroid malignancy markers on sonography are common in patients with benign thyroid disease and previous iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krejbjerg, Anne; Brilli, Lucia; Pikelis, Arunas; Pedersen, Henrik Baymler; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of benign thyroid nodules on sonography and ultrasound elastography in a population exposed to iodine deficiency. We conducted a prospective systematic evaluation of preoperative thyroid sonography and elastography in patients assigned for surgical excision of benign thyroid nodules. Two experienced sonographers performed all sonographic and elastographic examinations. Thyroid nodules were evaluated by 7 generally accepted sonographic malignancy risk markers and assigned an elasticity score on elastography. The final diagnosis of a benign thyroid nodule was based on histopathologic analysis of resected thyroid gland tissue. We evaluated 232 thyroid nodules in 105 patients (86 women and 19 men). In total, 57% of the examined nodules had 1 or 2 malignancy risk markers present, and 24% did not have any markers present. A solid nodule larger than 15 mm was the most common malignancy risk marker observed (63%), followed by low elasticity (33%), microcalcifications (26%), and hypoechogenicity (15%). In an analysis stratified according to the number of nodules (solitary versus multiple), low elasticity was described more frequently in solitary nodules (61.9% versus 30.4%; P= .004). A large nodular volume was a predictor (P < .05) of microcalcifications and intranodular vascularization, whereas an absent halo sign and a solid nodule were found less frequently in nodules with larger volumes. Our results show that routine preoperative malignancy risk evaluation of presumably benign thyroid nodules is of little value when performed on patients exposed to iodine deficiency. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Attention to the hiding iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women after universal salt iodization: A multi-community study in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y Q; Chen, Z P; Yang, X M; Liu, H; Zhang, J X; Zhong, W; Yao, W; Zhao, J K; Zhang, Z Z; Hua, J L; Li, J S; Yu, X Q; Wang, F R

    2005-06-01

    median iodine content of 135.9 microg/l in the urban and 157.5 microg/l in the rural. The goiter prevalence by palpation was low (2.0%) among all women examined (3367), but higher in pregnant women (2.7%) than in lactating women or other adult women. An effective iodized salt program has brought iodine sufficiency to most of China, but pregnant women in some areas may still risk deficiency and need further supplements. We suggest other countries and international agencies pay more attention to pregnancy, where iodine deficiency has its worst consequences.

  11. [Characteristics of hypothyroidism correction and lipid metabolism disorder in iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M

    2007-01-01

    The serum biochemical indexes (level of triiodthyronine, thyroxin, thyrothropic hormone of adenohypophysis, level of cholesterol, triglycerides) and the level of iodine excretion with urine in rats with hypothyrosis corrected by "Iodid-100" and along with excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions into the organism had been studied. It has been revealed that hypothyrosis has negative influence on lipid metabolism indexes. "Iodid- 100" usage stabilized hormonal and lipid status. Excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions by the organism decreased the effectiveness of iodine containing drugs.

  12. Iodine-Induced Thyrotoxicosis After Ingestion of Kelp-Containing Tea

    PubMed Central

    Müssig, Karsten; Thamer, Claus; Bares, Roland; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Gallwitz, Baptist

    2006-01-01

    Complementary medication is en vogue and an increasing number of patients consume herbal medicine without reporting their use to physicians. We report a case of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism due to the ingestion of a kelp-containing tea. A 39-year-old woman with multinodular goiter presented with typical signs of hyperthyroidism, which was confirmed by endocrine tests. She was not exposed to iodinated radiocontrast media and did not take medications containing iodine, such as amiodarone. However, a detailed medical history revealed that she had been treated for a period of 4 weeks by a Chinese alternative practitioner with a herbal tea containing kelp because of her enlarged thyroid. The consumption of the tea was discontinued and an antithyroid drug therapy was initiated. Physicians should advise patients with underlying thyroid disease to avoid all complementary or alternative medications containing iodine. PMID:16808731

  13. Investigation of laser-induced iodine fluorescence for the measurement of density in compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is an attractive nonintrusive approach for measuring molecular number density in compressible flows although this technique does not produce a signal that is directly related to the number density. Saturation and frequency detuned excitation are explored as means for minimizing the quenching effect using iodine as the molecular system because of its convenient absorption spectrum. Saturation experiments indicate that with available continuous wave laser sources of Gaussian transverse intensity distribution only partial saturation could be achieved in iodine at the pressures of interest in gas dynamics. Using a fluorescence lineshape theory, it is shown that for sufficiently large detuning of a narrow bandwidth laser from a molecular transition, the quenching can be cancelled by collisional broadening over a large range of pressures and temperatures. Experimental data obtained in a Mach 4.3 underexpanded jet of nitrogen seeded with iodine for various single mode argon laser detunings from a strong iodine transition at 5145 A are discussed.

  14. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity. PMID:28225086

  15. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-02-22

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity.

  16. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome. ##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the extent of neurological impairments associated with low...

  17. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the neurological impairments associated with low level TH ...

  18. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the neurological impairments associated with low level TH ...

  19. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome. ##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the extent of neurological impairments associated with low...

  20. Expression of various MHC class II molecules and of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on focal clusters of dendritic cells in iodine deficiency goitres

    PubMed Central

    Dimal, P.; Wilders-Truschnig, M.; Mooij, P.; Leb, G.; Eber, O.; Langsteger, W.; Hebenstreit, J.; Beham, A.; Stiegler, C.; Dohr, G.; Drexhage, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid sections from 18 consecutive euthyroid patients undergoing surgery for iodine deficiency goitre were investigated by means of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, evaluating the expression of MHC class II antigens (HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ, and RFD1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on the formerly described clusters of dendritic cells, as well as on thyrocytes. Eleven of 18 iodine deficiency goitres contained clusters of dendritic cells. These clusters appeared to express only HLA-DR in two cases; in nine of 12 cases they showed a differential expression of class II molecules in the following frequency: HLA-DR>DQ and/or -DP>RFD1. These dendritic cells also were ICAM-1+. In four of 18 iodine deficiency goitres, thyroid epithelial cells showed MHC class II expression in several combinations, but were ICAM-1-. In normal thyroids and in nodular goitres from inhabitants of the endemic area not having an actual iodine deficiency, only sparse clusters of dendritic cells were found; these cells were only HLA-DR+. Follicle lining cells were negative for the MHC class II molecules. In normal thyroids from an area with sufficient iodine supply, no clusters of dendritic cells were seen. The few dendritic cells observed were lying isolated in the interstitium and only positive for HLA-DR and ICAM-1; epithelial cells were negative for the studied markers. These data show clusters of dendritic cells in thyroids of inhabitants of an endemic area. When goitre is accompanied by iodine deficiency at the moment of operation, there appears to be activation of these dendritic cells and of thyroid epithelial cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:8099855

  1. Moderate-to-Severe Iodine Deficiency in the "First 1000 Days" Causes More Thyroid Hypofunction in Infants Than in Pregnant or Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Stinca, Sara; Andersson, Maria; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Chabaa, Laila; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; El Ansari, Nawal; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Weibel, Sandra; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2017-04-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency early in the life cycle-the "first 1000 days"-can cause hypothyroidism and irreversibly impair neuromotor development. However, the relative vulnerability among women and infants during this critical period is unclear, making it difficult for country-based programs with limited resources to prioritize their iodine interventions.Objective: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in women and infants living in an area of moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey in Morocco, we measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total or free thyroxine (TT4 or fT4, respectively) in women of reproductive age (n = 156), pregnant women (n = 245), and lactating women (n = 239) and their young infants (n = 239). We calculated daily iodine intakes and measured iodine concentrations in breast milk and household salt. We compared the incidence of hypothyroidism between the 3 groups of women and with the infants.Results: Women of reproductive age, pregnant women, and lactating women had median (IQR) UICs of 41 (29-63), 32 (17-58), and 35 (19-62) μg/L; and estimated iodine intakes were ∼60%, 22%, and 26% of Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs). The infants' median UIC was 73 (28-157) μg/L, which was greater than for all 3 groups of women (P < 0.001), and their dietary intakes were 27% of the RNI. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was not significantly different between the 4 groups, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was higher in infants (40%) than in the 3 groups of women (11-14%) (P < 0.001). The median breast-milk iodine concentration was 42 (26-81) μg/L. Only 6% of salt samples were adequately iodized to a concentration of ≥15 ppm; 54% were inadequately iodized and 40% contained no measurable iodine.Conclusions: In an area of moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency, the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction is ∼4-fold higher

  2. Iodine revisited.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rose A

    2007-06-01

    Iodine is an antiseptic that has been used in wound care for more than 150 years. Traditional formulations of iodine had serious limitations that were reduced in later products. Much has been written about iodine and opinions on its clinical efficacy are divided. There have been reviews of the chemical properties of iodine, its antimicrobial activity, human physiology, cytotoxicity and its clinical effectiveness, but few have addressed all these aspects. With the recent development of iodine-containing wound care products and the continued publication of laboratory and clinical studies, it seems timely to reassess the evidence relating to the effectiveness of iodine for treating wounds. This literature review attempts to provide an appropriate chemical and physiological background of the characteristics of iodine in order to provide a sound basis for understanding the available microbiological and clinical data. It will show that understanding the factors that contribute to the activity and potential cytotoxicity of iodine are important in evaluating the clinical evidence. Although definitive studies are needed, the sustained delivery of low doses of free iodine offers the potential to inhibit a broad range of microbial species without selecting for resistant strains or inducing cytotoxic effects.

  3. [Benefits and risks of iodine supplementation during pregnancy: a review of observational and experimental studies in mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency areas].

    PubMed

    Patey-Pirra, S; Keriel-Gascou, M; Borson-Chazot, F

    2014-02-01

    The iodine status of the French population has been improved since 1952. As iodine requirements increase during pregnancy, the World Health Organization recommended in 2005 systematic iodine supplementation for pregnant women. Our work tried to assess the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. We reviewed the international literature from 1991 to 2011 and consulted the main references databases. Keywords were combined with boolean operators AND and OR. Selected studies were assessed with Consort grid. Among 226 papers, 99 were original articles. After analysis, 13 studies were included in this review. A favorable trend toward iodine supplementation from pregnancy desire to the end of pregnancy was observed. Iodine supplementation may prevent psychomotor and neuro-intellectual disorders. Iodine status of pregnant women could be improved before pregnancy by more widespread use of iodized salt and iodine-enriched bread in French households. A randomized controlled trial is recommended to confirm the benefit of iodine supplementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyroid iodine content measured by x-ray fluorescence in amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, A.F.; Fragu, P.; Rougier, P.; Laurent, M.F.; Tubiana, M.; Savole, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis (IiT) is characterized by (a) a low radioiodine uptake, increased by exogenous TSH, and (b) a spontaneous evolution towards cure within a few months. An hypothetical pathogenesis of IiT is an initial inflation in the stores of thyroid hormones during iodine excess, followed by their sudden discharge into the circulation. Thyroid iodine content was measured by fluorescent scanning in 10 patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and in various control groups. Results were found to be high at the onset of the disease and to decrease during its course. The data agree with the hypothetical pathogenesis. Furthermore they may permit exclusion of a painless subacute thyroiditis, which is the main differential diagnosis of IiT.

  5. Searching for the most effective thyrotropin (TSH) threshold to rule-out autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in iodine deficient regions.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; D'Aurizio, Federica; Campenni', Alfredo; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena; Baldari, Sergio; Verburg, Frederik Anton; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Ceriani, Luca

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the distribution of thyrotropin (TSH) values in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and to set a TSH threshold above which thyroid scintigraphy would be obviated. Four hundred fifty one patients were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years, TSH levels between 0.40 and 4.0 mIU/L, detection of a single solid or predominantly solid thyroid nodule >10 mm in the longest diameter. Thyroid ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-pertechnetate were performed concurrently in all patients. Among 451 enrolled patients, 173 (38 %) had an autonomously functioning thyroid nodules, of which 137 (79 %) with a normal TSH level. Demographic data and nodules' volume were not significantly different in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and non-functioning nodules, respectively. However, TSH levels were nonetheless significantly lower in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules compared to those with non-functioning nodules (p < 0.001). Adopting a TSH cutoff level at 2.38 mUI/L, all autonomously functioning thyroid nodules were correctly identified (i.e., 100 % sensitivity) with a 100 % negative predictive value. Our study showed a very high prevalence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in mildly iodine-deficient regions and confirmed that serum TSH is not an effective screening test to diagnose an autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Our data add arguments in favor of the first-line use of thyroid scintigraphy to assess thyroid nodules, at least in iodine deficient areas. As all scintigraphically detected autonomously functioning thyroid nodules had a TSH level below 2.38 mUI/L, a thyroid scintigraphy should be omitted when higher TSH values are found in patients carrying a thyroid nodule.

  6. Planar temperature measurement in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1991-01-01

    A laser-induced iodine fluorescence technique that is suitable for the planar measurement of temperature in cold nonreacting compressible air flows is investigated analytically and demonstrated in a known flow field. The technique is based on the temperature dependence of the broadband fluorescence from iodine excited by the 514-nm line of an argon-ion laser. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 245 K were measured in the calibration flow field. This technique makes complete, spatially resolved surveys of temperature practical in highly three-dimensional, low-temperature compressible flows.

  7. Planar temperature measurement in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1991-01-01

    A laser-induced iodine fluorescence technique that is suitable for the planar measurement of temperature in cold nonreacting compressible air flows is investigated analytically and demonstrated in a known flow field. The technique is based on the temperature dependence of the broadband fluorescence from iodine excited by the 514-nm line of an argon-ion laser. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 245 K were measured in the calibration flow field. This technique makes complete, spatially resolved surveys of temperature practical in highly three-dimensional, low-temperature compressible flows.

  8. Modelling of iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking in CANDU fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. J.; Thompson, W. T.; Kleczek, M. R.; Shaheen, K.; Juhas, M.; Iglesias, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC) is a recognized factor for fuel-element failure in the operation of nuclear reactors requiring the implementation of mitigation measures. I-SCC is believed to depend on certain factors such as iodine concentration, oxide layer type and thickness on the fuel sheath, irradiation history, metallurgical parameters related to sheath like texture and microstructure, and the mechanical properties of zirconium alloys. This work details the development of a thermodynamics and mechanistic treatment accounting for the iodine chemistry and kinetics in the fuel-to-sheath gap and its influence on I-SCC phenomena. The governing transport equations for the model are solved with a finite-element technique using the COMSOL Multiphysics® commercial software platform. Based on this analysis, this study also proposes potential remedies for I-SCC.

  9. Diethanolamine induces hepatic choline deficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Gamsky, Elizabeth A; Hicks, Sarah M; Vassallo, Jeffrey D; Mar, Mei-Heng; Zeisel, Steven H

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the present experiments was to test the hypothesis that diethanolamine (DEA), an alkanolamine shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in mice, induces hepatic choline deficiency and to determine whether altered choline homeostasis was causally related to the carcinogenic outcome. To examine this hypothesis, the biochemical and histopathological changes in male B6C3F1 mice made choline deficient by dietary deprivation were first determined. Phosphocholine (PCho), the intracellular storage form of choline was severely depleted, decreasing to about 20% of control values with 2 weeks of dietary choline deficiency. Other metabolites, including choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) also decreased. Hepatic concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) decreased, whereas levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) increased. Despite these biochemical changes, fatty liver, which is often associated with choline deficiency, was not observed in the mice. The dose response, reversibility, and strain-dependence of the effects of DEA on choline metabolites were studied. B6C3F1 mice were dosed dermally with DEA (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg) for 4 weeks (5 days/week). Control animals received either no treatment or dermal application of 95% ethanol (1.8 ml/kg). PCho was most sensitive to DEA treatment, decreasing at dosages of 20 mg/kg and higher and reaching a maximum 50% depletion at 160 mg/kg/day. GPC, choline, and PC also decreased in a dose-dependent manner. At 80 and 160 mg/kg/day, SAM levels decreased while SAH levels increased in liver. A no-observed effect level (NOEL) for DEA-induced changes in choline homeostasis was 10 mg/kg/day. Choline metabolites, SAM and SAH returned to control levels in mice dosed at 160 mg/kg for 4 weeks and allowed a 2-week recovery period prior to necropsy. In a manner similar to dietary choline deficiency, no fatty change was observed in the liver of DEA-treated mice. In C57BL/6 mice, DEA treatment (160 mg

  10. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  11. [Adaptation of thyroid function to excess iodine].

    PubMed

    Aurengo, Andre; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Helyett

    2002-10-26

    NORMALLY: The production of thyroid hormones is normally stable, despite iodine supplies that may vary widely and even on sudden excess iodine. The metabolism of iodine is characterised by adapted thyroid uptake, the requirements varying on the age and physiological status of the individual (pregnancy, breastfeeding) and by insufficient supplies in several areas in France. IN THE CASE OF EXCESS: The mechanisms that permit the thyroid to adapt to a sudden or chronic excess of iodine are immature in the newborn and sometimes deficient in adults, and may lead to iodine-induced dysthyroidism. Thanks to the recent progress made in thyroid physiology, these mechanisms are now better known. PATHOLOGICAL IMPACT: Iodine-induced hyperthyroidisms in a healthy or pathological thyroid are frequent. They are predominantly related to amiodarone. Iodine-related hypothyroidism frequently appears in cases of pre-existing thyroid diseases (asymptomatic autoimmune thyroiditis, for example). They are frequent in the newborn, notably in the premature. The iodine prophylaxis organised in Poland following the Tchernobyl accident led to very few pathological consequences in adults or children.

  12. Uninhibited thyroidal uptake of radioiodine despite iodine excess in amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, W M; Touber, J L; Trip, M D; van Royen, E A

    1986-08-01

    Iodine excess is associated with a low thyroidal radioiodine uptake due to dilution of the radioisotope by the increased stable iodide pool. We studied thyroidal uptake of radioisotopes in cardiac patients with iodine excess due to amiodarone treatment. 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy was performed in 13 patients receiving long term amiodarone therapy. Five patients had a clearly visible thyroid gland, and 8 patients had no or a very faint thyroid image. All patients with positive scans had an increased plasma TSH level, whereas all patients with negative scans had a normal or absent TSH response to TRH. Thyroidal uptake and discharge of 123I were studied in 30 other patients. Group I (n = 11) had normal plasma TSH responses to TRH and no iodine excess, group II (n = 7) had normal TSH responses to TRH and excess iodine from metrizoate angiography in the previous month, group III (n = 7) had normal or decreased TSH responses to TRH while receiving long term amiodarone therapy, and group IV (n = 5) had increased TSH responses to TRH while receiving long term amiodarone therapy. The mean radioiodine uptake value in group I [5.4 +/- 0.8% (+/- SE) at 60 min] was higher than those in group II (2.3 +/- 0.7%; P = 0.009) and group III (0.8 +/- 0.3%; P = 0.0005), but not different from that in group IV (5.3 +/- 1.2%; P = NS). Radioiodine discharge after perchlorate (expressed as a percentage of the 60 min uptake) in group I (10.1 +/- 2.2%) was lower than those in group II (24.9 +/- 10.6%; P = 0.05) and group III (28.8 +/- 5.3%; P less than 0.005), whereas discharge in group IV (58.0 +/- 6.1%) was greater than those in group II (P less than 0.05) and group III (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, 1) thyroid visualization by 99mTc-pertechnetate and thyroid radioiodine uptake during iodine excess are decreased in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients, but preserved in hypothyroid patients. 2) The organification defect induced by iodine excess is greater in iodide-induced

  13. Quantitative measurement of density and velocity in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique for the quantitative measurement of molecular density and velocity at a point or in an entire cross-sectional plane of a compressible flowfield is reported. Iodine molecules, seeded into the flowfield reservoir, are excited by a tunable narrow-bandwidth laser and the resulting spatially-resolved fluorescence is collected by a single- or multiple-element detector. A theoretical model for the iodine laser-induced fluorescence process is essential for quantitative measurements and is developed using a rate-equation approach. Density measurements using laser-induced fluorescence are normally complicated by collisional quenching; however, the theory predicts that the off-resonant fluorescent signal is directly proportional to density. Velocity is directly related to the Doppler shift of the iodine absorption line, determined by monitoring the broadband fluorescent signal as the laser is tuned in frequency. Experiments in a steady supersonic flowfield are compared with numerical calculations to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach for density and velocity measurement and the lack of perturbation to the flowfield by the iodine seeding. Extensions of the current approach to density and velocity measurement in lower Mach number flows, to the measurement of pressure and temperature, and to temporally-resolved measurements are discussed.

  14. [A longitudinal study regarding the gestational changes in iodine nutrition and thyroid function among pregnant women in the iodine deficient areas of Henan province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Zheng, Heming; Li, Xiaofeng; Ying, Huili

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the gestational changes of iodine nutrition and thyroid function and to explore the factors associated with the thyroid function in pregnant women. A longitudinal survey was conducted in 130 pregnant women in Luohe city of Henan province from October 2012 to May 2013. Samples of fasting blood and urine were collected in each trimester to test on thyroid function and urinary iodine. Data regarding social demography and lifestyle behavior were collected through questionnaire in the first trimester. The medians of urinary iodine (MUI) for pregnant women were 238.9, 150.8 and 306.4 µg/L in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively (P < 0.05). With the increase of gestational age, the level of free triiodothyronine (FT3) showed no significant change (P > 0.05) but the level of free thyroxine (FT4) decreased (P < 0.05), with the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) increased and then declined (P < 0.05). A U-shaped curve were seen between iodine nutrition and thyroid function. With the increase of iodine level, the level of TSH first increased and then decreased while the levels of FT3 and FT4 showed the opposite trend. The level of TSH was influenced by factors as education level, history of chronic diseases, history of CT and X-ray examination, and intake of pickled food etc. The level of FT4 was associated with residence (urban or rural), stressful events in the previous year, daily means of transportation, and the hours of sedentariness, working and sleeping. Significant differences were noticed in iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during the three trimesters. It was essential to establish specific reference ranges for different trimesters. Thyroid functions of pregnant women seemed to be associated with iodine level and lifestyle.

  15. Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Ghirri, Paolo; Lunardi, Sara; Boldrini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation. PMID:24448111

  16. Serum thyroglobulin, a biomarker for iodine deficiency, is not associated with increased risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in a large Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Fan, Jin-Hu; Dawsey, Sanford M; Taylor, Philip R; Qiao, You-Lin; Abnet, Christian C

    2011-11-01

    Iodine concentrates in gastric tissue and may act as an antioxidant for the stomach. We previously showed that self-reported goiter was associated with significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and nonsignificantly increased risks of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a prospective case-cohort study in a high-risk population in China. Negatively correlated with iodine levels, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is a more sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency than goiter. Our study aimed to determine whether baseline serum Tg was also associated with development of GNCA, GCA and ESCC in the same cohort, the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. Sera from ∼200 subjects of each case type and 400 noncases were tested for serum Tg concentration using appropriate assays. Tg was modeled as sex- and assay-specific quartiles in Cox regression models adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori status, pepsinogens I/II ratio, family history and commune of residence. In the final combined analysis, participants in the highest quartile of serum Tg, compared to those in the lowest quartile, had adjusted hazard ratios of 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.50-1.52), 1.14 (0.63-2.05) and 0.78 (0.47-1.31) for GNCA, GCA and ESCC, respectively. Using serum Tg, a sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency, we found no association between serum Tg concentrations and risk of these upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers in the study population. Our results do not support the hypothesis that iodine deficiency, as assessed by serum Tg, is associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  17. Toward an ecosocial epidemiological approach to goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders: a case study of India's technocratic program for universal iodization of salt.

    PubMed

    Priya, Ritu; Kotwal, Atul; Qadeer, Imrana

    2009-01-01

    The program of universal salt iodization (USI) was intensified in the 1990s. Unfortunately, a recent World Health Organization review finds that there was a global increase of 31.7 percent in total goiter rate from 1993 to 2003. However, the WHO review places only 1 country as severely, 13 as moderately, and 40 as mildly deficient in populations' iodine nutrition, and places 43 countries at optimal, 24 at high, and 5 at excessive levels of iodine nutrition. Thus, it is imperative to weigh the benefits and risks of intensifying USI further. The WHO review places India in the category of "adequate" iodine nutrition, but in 2005 the Government of India promulgated a universal ban on sale of non-iodized salt, calling iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) a major public health problem. This article attempts to understand these contradictions and weigh the benefits and costs of USI. Based on a review of studies since the 1920s, the authors reconstruct the evolution of IDD control in India. Conceptual and methodological limitations challenge the evidence base and rationale of stricter implementation of USI now. Finding evidence for its negative impact, the authors recommend a reexamination of the USI strategy and propose a safer, people-centered, ecosocial epidemiological approach rather than a universal legal ban.

  18. Are Low Intakes and Deficiencies in Iron, Vitamin A, Zinc, and Iodine of Public Health Concern in Ethiopian, Kenyan, Nigerian, and South African Children and Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Harika, Rajwinder; Faber, Mieke; Samuel, Folake; Mulugeta, Afework; Kimiywe, Judith; Eilander, Ans

    2017-09-01

    To perform a systematic review to evaluate iron, vitamin A, zinc, and iodine status and intakes in children and adolescents (0-19 years) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa. Both national and subnational data published from the year 2005 to 2015 were searched via MEDLINE, Scopus, and national public health websites. For each micronutrient and country, status data from relevant studies and surveys were combined into an average prevalence and weighted by sample size (WAVG). Inadequate intakes were estimated from mean (SD) intakes. This review included 55 surveys and studies, 17 from Ethiopia, 11 from Kenya, 12 from Nigeria, and 16 from South Africa. The WAVG prevalence of anemia ranged from 25% to 53%, iron deficiency from 12% to 29%, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) from 14% to 42%, zinc deficiency from 32% to 63%, and iodine deficiency from 15% to 86% in children aged 0 to 19 years from 4 countries. Generally, children <5 years had higher prevalence of anemia (32%-63%), VAD (15%-35%), and zinc deficiency (35%-63%) compared to children aged 5 to 19 years. Studies with intake data indicated that inadequate intakes ranged from 51% to 99% for zinc, 13% to 100% for iron, and 1% to 100% for vitamin A. Households failing to consume adequately iodized (>15 ppm) salt ranged from 2% in Kenya to 96% in Ethiopia. With large variation within the 4 African countries, our data indicate that anemia and vitamin A, zinc, and iodine deficiencies are problems of public health significance. Effective public health strategies such as dietary diversification and food fortification are needed to improve micronutrient intake in both younger and older children.

  19. The ameliorating effects of vitamin E on hepatic antioxidant system and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in fenvalerate-exposed iodine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Caglayan, Aydan; Hincal, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin E (VE) on hepatic antioxidant system and drug-metabolizing enzymes in fenvalerate (FEN)-exposed iodine-deficient (ID) Wistar rats. ID was produced by perchlorate containing drinking water. VE was introduced by a loading dose of 100 mg/kg/d, i.g. for the first three days in the last week of feeding period; then with a single maintenance dose of 40 mg/kg on the 4th day. During last week, FEN groups (F) received 100 mg/kg/d, i.p. FEN. VE alone did not significantly affect thyroid hormones and antioxidant parameters; however, significantly increased total cytochrome P450 (38%) and cytochrome b5 levels (36%). In all ID groups, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels increased markedly, but remained at control level in vitamin E plus FEN receiving iodine-deficient group (IDVF) group. Glutathione peroxidase activity showed marked increases in F (19%) and FEN-exposed iodine-deficient group (IDF, 48%) groups. FEN treatment significantly increased total cytochrome P450 (28%) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (36%), as well as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (120%), 7-penthoxyresorufin O-deethylase (139%) and glutathione S-transferase (15%) activities and decreased total glutathione concentrations (28%) versus control. Overall results suggest that vitamin E has ameliorating effects on the measured parameters in ID and/or FEN exposure.

  20. Investigation of intelligence quotient and psychomotor development in schoolchildren in areas with different degrees of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhifeng; Liu, Wanyang; Yin, Hongbo; Wang, Ping; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Chen, Jie

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aims to observe the intelligence and psychomotor development of the schoolchildren in iodine deficiency (ID) areas after the adoption of Universal Salt Iodization (USI), and evaluate the effect of the adoption of USI on their intelligence and psychomotor development. 564 schoolchildren (306 males and 258 females, age range from 8 to 13 yrs) from areas with severe, moderate, and mild ID were investigated. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured by Combined Raven's test, second edition. Psychomotor development was examined by Jinyi Psychomotor Test Battery (JPB). We found that the IQ scores of all subjects in the severe and moderate ID areas were 102 +/- 15.6 and 99.5 +/-16.6 respectively, lower than those in the mild ID areas (108 +/- 12.4, p < 0.01). The IQ scores correlated negatively with age (partial r = -0.17; beta = -1.95; p < 0.0001). The total T scores of JPB of all subjects in the severe and moderate ID areas were 316 +/- 42.3 and 330 +/- 47.7 respectively, lower than those in the mild ID areas (342 +/- 48.1, p < 0.05). The total T scores of JPB correlated negatively with age (partial r = -0.15; beta = -4.94; p = 0.0006). We may conclude that after the adoption of USI in the ID areas investigated, USI has probably made a contribution to the partial recovery of intelligence and psychomotor development injured by ID in schoolchildren, and should be strengthened.

  1. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism as combination of different etiologies: an overlooked entity in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Foppiani, Luca; Cascio, Christian; Lo Pinto, Giuliano

    2016-10-01

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis, which raises several diagnostic and therapeutical challenges, is often overlooked. Hyperthyroidism can induce atrial fibrillation, a harmful arrhythmia which can precipitate heart failure and cause stroke. We report the case of an elderly man who was diagnosed with tachyfibrillation secondary to hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hyperfunction was subsequently related both to previous amiodarone therapy (probably mixed form) and the recent use of iodinated contrast medium for computed tomography scan. Thyroid ultrasonography showed a plongeant multinodular goitre. After initial worsening, thyroid function improved slowly but progressively on high-dose thyreostatic therapy combined with steroid therapy; tachyfibrillation caused heart failure and a thrombus in the left atrium, and proved initially resistant to combined antiarrhythmic treatments. Progressive reduction in thyroid hormone levels, together with combined cardiologic therapies, controlled the heart rate, though atrial fibrillation persisted; anticoagulant therapy resolved the atrial thrombus. Alterations in thyroid function are common in amiodarone-treated patients, who therefore require regular hormonal checks. The different forms of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis must be investigated, since they require different therapies, though mixed forms often occur. The superimposition of further iodine excess due to other causes may be catastrophic and cause severe cardiac problems in these patients.

  2. Alterations of thyroid volume and nodular size during and after pregnancy in a severe iodine-deficient area.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Serap B; Ogullar, Sabri; Ural, Ulku Mete; Ilkkilic, Kadir; Metin, Yavuz; Ayaz, Teslime

    2014-11-01

    The effects of pregnancy on thyroid nodules were investigated in a few number of studies. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules, the changes in size, volume and number of nodules during pregnancy and after delivery in pregnant women. This prospective study was performed in a severe iodine-deficient area and included 83 pregnant women (mean age 30·4 ± 5·5 years). We evaluated thyroid hormone levels, ultrasound examination of thyroid and urine iodine concentration (UIE) at each trimester and at 3-month post-partum period (PP). All patients with thyroid nodules >1 cm underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) after the last visit at the PP. Twenty-six women had thyroid nodules on thyroid ultrasonography at the first trimester. The volume of single/dominant nodule showed enlargement during pregnancy and remained at the PP; however, it was not significant (first trimester: 0·83 ± 0·8 ml; second trimester: 0·92 ± 1 ml; third trimester: 0·99 ± 1·2 ml; PP: 0·92 ± 1·2 ml). The maximum diameter of single/dominant nodule in the third trimester of pregnancy (12·6 ± 5·4 mm) was greater than the first trimester (11·9 ± 4·8 mm) (P = 0·002). The number of nodules did not change during pregnancy. The mean TV increased during pregnancy and remained 3 months after delivery (P < 0·001), and the maximum value of TV was reached in the third trimester (14·2 ± 7·9 ml). FNAB results revealed a 6·6% prevalence of malignancy among the nodules. Thyroid nodules were present in 30·1% of pregnant women. While size of the single/dominant thyroid nodule increased significantly during pregnancy, the number of nodules did not change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Long-term outcome of Graves' disease patients treated in a region with iodine deficiency: relapse rate increases in years with thionamides.

    PubMed

    Tütüncü, Neslihan Basçil; Tütüncü, Tanju; Ozgen, Ali; Erbas, Tomris

    2006-06-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease affecting the thyroid gland and eyes and is treated with three therapeutic modalities. This prospective study was designed to find out the outcome of patients with GD treated with thionamides, radioactive iodine (RAI) or surgery in an iodine deficient region. Fifty-six nonsmoking patients (mean age 38.9 +/- 13.7 years) with GD were enrolled and followed for a mean period of four years. They were analyzed with respect to their treatment options and their outcome. Remission rate by thionamides was 74.4% in the first year but decreased to 65.1% in the following four years (p=0.0001). Remission rate achieved in the second year did not predict long-term remission with thionamides. Long-term remission rates for RAI and surgery were 100% during about seven years of follow-up. These remission rates for RAI and surgery were reached in the first year and did not reveal a statistically significant change in the following years. Thyroidectomy, both subtotal and total, was carried out without any complication. Graves' ophthalmopathy emergence and progression were not found to be correlated with the preferred therapeutic modality of thyrotoxicosis. Long-term thionamide therapy offered a relatively low rate of long-term remission in a region with iodine deficiency. Two years of remission achieved by thionamides did not predict long-term remission in patients living in iodine-deficient areas. RAI and thyroidectomy in experienced hands proved to be better therapeutic alternatives that can be carried out safely.

  4. Analysis of the Contribution of Charge Transport in Iodine-125 induced DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ndlebe, Thabisile; Panyutin, Igor; Neumann, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Auger electron emitters, like iodine-125, are the radionuclides of choice for gene-targeted radiotherapy. The highly localized damage they induced in DNA is produced by three mechanisms: direct damage by the emitted Auger electrons, indirect damage by diffusible free radicals produced by Auger electrons travelling in water, and charge neutralization of the residual, highly positively charged, tellurium daughter atom by stripping electrons from covalent bonds of neighboring residues. The purpose of our work was to determine whether these mechanisms proceed through an intermediate energy transfer step along DNA. It was proposed that this intermediate step proceeds through the charge transport mechanism in DNA. Conventional charge transport has been described as either a hopping mechanism initiated by charge injection into DNA and propagated by charge migration along the DNA, or a tunneling mechanism in which charge moves directly from a donor to an acceptor within DNA. Well-known barriers for the hopping mechanism were used to probe the role of charge transport in 125I induced DNA damage. We studied their effect on the distribution of DNA breaks produced by the decay of iodine-125 in samples frozen at −80°C. We found that these barriers had no measurable effect on the iodine-125 breaks distribution. PMID:20041764

  5. Early effects of iodine deficiency on radial glial cells of the hippocampus of the rat fetus. A model of neurological cretinism.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Galán, J R; Pedraza, P; Santacana, M; Escobar del Ray, F; Morreale de Escobar, G; Ruiz-Marcos, A

    1997-01-01

    The most severe brain damage associated with thyroid dysfunction during development is observed in neurological cretins from areas with marked iodine deficiency. The damage is irreversible by birth and related to maternal hypothyroxinemia before mid gestation. However, direct evidence of this etiopathogenic mechanism is lacking. Rats were fed diets with a very low iodine content (LID), or LID supplemented with KI. Other rats were fed the breeding diet with a normal iodine content plus a goitrogen, methimazole (MMI). The concentrations of -thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'triiodo--thyronine (T3) were determined in the brain of 21-d-old fetuses. The proportion of radial glial cell fibers expressing nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was determined in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. T4 and T3 were decreased in the brain of the LID and MMI fetuses, as compared to their respective controls. The number of immature glial cell fibers, expressing nestin, was not affected, but the proportion of mature glial cell fibers, expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein, was significantly decreased by both LID and MMI treatment of the dams. These results show impaired maturation of cells involved in neuronal migration in the hippocampus, a region known to be affected in cretinism, at a stage of development equivalent to mid gestation in humans. The impairment is related to fetal cerebral thyroid hormone deficiency during a period of development when maternal thyroxinemia is believed to play an important role. PMID:9169500

  6. Prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in current, previous, and never smokers in a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rendina, D; De Palma, D; De Filippo, G; De Pascale, F; Muscariello, R; Ippolito, R; Fazio, V; Fiengo, A; Benvenuto, D; Strazzullo, P; Galletti, F

    2015-03-01

    Simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 2 frequent nonmalignant thyroid diseases. Tobacco smoking has detrimental effects on the endocrine system and in particular on thyroid function and morphology. The objective of this cross-sectional study, involving 1800 Caucasian adults from a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency, was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, and the prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid status was evaluated by ultrasonic exploration of the neck, measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine excretion. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of significant nodules was also performed. Smoking habits were evaluated by a specific questionnaire and the calculation of number of pack years. Both current and previous smokers showed an increased risk of simple nodular goiter compared to never smokers after adjustment for potential confounders and known goitrogen factors. Interestingly, the simple nodular goiter risk was similar for never smokers and for previous smokers declaring a time since cessation of smoking for more than 69 months. Smoking habit was not associated to an increased risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.Smoking appears to be an independent risk factor for simple nodular goiter but not for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an area with mild iodine deficiency. A prolonged withdrawal of smoking dramatically reduces the risk of simple nodular goiter occurrence.

  7. Antimicrobial fabric adsorbed iodine produced by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Shoji; Fujiwara, Kunio; Sugo, Takanobu; Suzuki, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    Antimicrobial fabric was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone onto polyolefine nonwoven fabric and subsequent adsorption of iodine. In response of the huge request for the antimicrobial material applied to face masks for swine flu in 2009, operation procedure of continuous radiation-induced graft polymerization apparatus was improved. The improved grafting production per week increased 3.8 times compared to the production by former operation procedure. Shipped antimicrobial fabric had reached 130,000 m2 from June until December, 2009.

  8. Iodine-induced neonatal hypothyroidism secondary to maternal seaweed consumption: a common practice in some Asian cultures to promote breast milk supply.

    PubMed

    Emder, Phillip John; Jack, Michelle Marion

    2011-10-01

    Mild iodine deficiency is a recognised problem in Australia and New Zealand. However, iodine excess can cause hypothyroidism in some infants. We highlight two cases which illustrate the risks of excess dietary iodine intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding. They also describe a cultural practice of consuming seaweed soup to promote breast milk supply. Although most attention recently has been on the inadequacy of iodine in Australian diets, the reverse situation should not be overlooked. Neither feast nor famine is desirable. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. [Iodine deficiency and other potential goitrogens in the persistence of endemic goiter in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salgado, Homero; Castañeda-Limones, Rutila; Lechuga-Martín del Campo, Diana; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; Orozco-López, Maribel; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan; Mendoza, Iván; Magos, Clementina

    2002-01-01

    To measure the frequency of goiter and the presence of potential goitrogens in a sample of school-age children and pregnant women. Cross-sectional study in a purposive sample in three regions, one with known high prevalence of goiter (Huejutla), one with unknown prevalence (Ixmiquilpan) and one with no expected deficiency (Pachuca). Children were sampled from schools and pregnant women from rural reference hospitals. Goiter was evaluated by manual exam and ultrasound. Goiter prevalence in 673 children between 6 and 14 years old was 8% in Pachuca, 9% in Ixmiquilpan, and 14% in Huejutla. In 300 pregnant women, goiter prevalence was 19% in Pachuca, 20% in Ixmiquilpan, and 52% in Huejutla. In 936 interviews on salt consumption, 98% of families consumed table salt, but only 50% of the samples were adequately iodized. Twenty-four percent of families obtained water from wells contaminated with arsenicum and mercury in Pachuca and Ixmiquilpan, and with colibacilli in Ixmiquilpan. Even at the end of the millenium, endemic goiter is still a public health problem in this sample of school-age children and pregnant women. Despite consumption of iodized salt, ingestions of goitrogens may be contributing to the persistence of this problem.

  10. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  11. pH-dependent synthesis of iodine-deficient bismuth oxyiodide microstructures: Visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gongjuan; Zhao, Yan; Li, Yawen; Ma, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingzhe

    2017-09-14

    Bismuth oxyiodides have exhibited high potential for applications in visible-light photocatalytic environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. In this work, a series of iodine-deficient bismuth oxyiodides (Bi4O5I2, Bi7O9I3, Bi5O7I) can be simply prepared through a pH-dependent aqueous procedure with feeding Bi/I ratio of 2:1. The compositions of the Bi-based oxyiodides are closely related to acid-base circumstances, with Bi4O5I2 formed in weakly acidic medium (pH = 5) and Bi7O9I3, Bi5O7I in basic medium (pH = 8 and 11). Morphology differences of nanosheet-assembled Bi4O5I2, Bi7O9I3 architectures and rod-like Bi5O7I microstructures demonstrate different crystalline characters and construction of Bi-based oxyiodide crystals. UV-vis DRS results revealed good visible-light absorptions of Bi4O5I2 and Bi7O9I3 architectures and appropriate band structures for photocatalytic reactions, on comparison to Bi5O7I microrods. Low electrochemical impedance of Bi7O9I3 microflowers with sheet-like units further facilitated the separation of e(-)-h(+) carriers in the degradation process. Accordingly, among the bismuth oxyiodide samples, Bi7O9I3 displayed prominent visible-light degradation performance for colorless bisphenol-A (BPA) due to the direct photoexcitation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Flow Measurements of Translational-Rotational Nonequilibrium Using Laser-Induced Iodine Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, Eric; McDaniel, James C.

    2011-05-01

    A shock wave impingement flow was studied under low temperature, low density conditions in a hypersonic free-jet wind tunnel. A sharp-edged flat plate was placed at zero incidence in the hypersonic core of a free-jet of nitrogen gas at Mach 12; a right circular cylinder mounted in the middle of the plate projected out normal to the plate surface. The oblique shock produced at the plate leading edge impinged on the detached bow shock wave produced by the cylinder. The symmetry plane in the flow was studied using a laser sheet-beam probe from a narrow-bandwidth laser source, which induced fluorescence in iodine molecules seeded in the gas. Fluorescence patterns produced by the sheet-beam were recorded by a charge-coupled device camera as the laser frequency was tuned in increments over a range spanning two distinct absorption lines in the iodine spectrum. The fluorescence intensity-versus-laser excitation frequency data recorded at each pixel was least-squares fitted to a nonequilibrium model of the iodine spectrum to estimate local translational and rotational temperature, velocity, and density. Contour plots of these results are presented at a resolution equal to roughly one mean-free-path of the oncoming flow at the plate leading edge. Profile plots of translational and rotational temperature on the plate are presented.

  13. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in Nodular Goiter Is Associated with Iodine Deficiency in the Follicular Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lijun; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan; Shi, Yaxiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It has been testified that iodine regulates thyroid function by controlling thyroid-restricted genes expression and is closely related to diffuse goiter and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of follicular lumen iodine, the main form of iodine reserve in the body, on thyroid-restricted genes in nodular goiter are poorly understood. In this study, correlations between follicular lumen iodine and the expressions of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), its transcription factors TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were investigated. Patients. In this study, 30 resection specimens clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and 30 normal thyroid specimens from adjacent tissues of nodular goiter are used. Measurement. Western blot immunohistochemistry was performed to assay TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in thyrocytes of nodular goiter as well as in extranodular normal thyroid tissues. Meanwhile, follicular lumen iodine of both nodular goiter and extranodular normal thyroid tissues was detected as well. Results. The TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were significantly higher than those in the controls. The iodine content in nodular goiter was significantly lower than those in control tissues. Conclusion. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 is associated with low follicular lumen iodine content in nodular goiter. PMID:27525008

  14. Iodine Excess as an Environmental Risk Factor for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqian; Kawashima, Akira; Ishido, Yuko; Yoshihara, Aya; Oda, Kenzaburo; Hiroi, Naoki; Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The global effort to prevent iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, such as universal salt iodization, has achieved impressive progress during the last few decades. However, iodine excess, due to extensive environmental iodine exposure in addition to poor monitoring, is currently a more frequent occurrence than iodine deficiency. Iodine excess is a precipitating environmental factor in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. Excessive amounts of iodide have been linked to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and animals, while intrathyroidal depletion of iodine prevents disease in animal strains susceptible to severe thyroiditis. Although the mechanisms by which iodide induces thyroiditis are still unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed: (1) excess iodine induces the production of cytokines and chemokines that can recruit immunocompetent cells to the thyroid; (2) processing excess iodine in thyroid epithelial cells may result in elevated levels of oxidative stress, leading to harmful lipid oxidation and thyroid tissue injuries; and (3) iodine incorporation in the protein chain of thyroglobulin may augment the antigenicity of this molecule. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding excess iodide as an environmental toxicant and relate it to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:25050783

  15. Iodine excess as an environmental risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqian; Kawashima, Akira; Ishido, Yuko; Yoshihara, Aya; Oda, Kenzaburo; Hiroi, Naoki; Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2014-07-21

    The global effort to prevent iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, such as universal salt iodization, has achieved impressive progress during the last few decades. However, iodine excess, due to extensive environmental iodine exposure in addition to poor monitoring, is currently a more frequent occurrence than iodine deficiency. Iodine excess is a precipitating environmental factor in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. Excessive amounts of iodide have been linked to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and animals, while intrathyroidal depletion of iodine prevents disease in animal strains susceptible to severe thyroiditis. Although the mechanisms by which iodide induces thyroiditis are still unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed: (1) excess iodine induces the production of cytokines and chemokines that can recruit immunocompetent cells to the thyroid; (2) processing excess iodine in thyroid epithelial cells may result in elevated levels of oxidative stress, leading to harmful lipid oxidation and thyroid tissue injuries; and (3) iodine incorporation in the protein chain of thyroglobulin may augment the antigenicity of this molecule. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding excess iodide as an environmental toxicant and relate it to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease.

  16. On-Line Nuclear Orientation Studies of Neutron Deficient Tellurium, Iodine and Cesium Isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Timothy Lee

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. On-line nuclear orientation at low temperature has become an important technique for the study of nuclei far from stability, through measurements of nuclear moments and other quantities of spectroscopic interest. The theory of low temperature nuclear orientation and its application to the study of nuclear structure are reviewed. Of particular importance to the on-line measurement, in which a wide range of short-lived nuclei are available for study, is the question of how fast these nuclei can be cooled to the lattice temperature, and thus oriented. To address this, the theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, relevant to the on-line technique, is outlined. In particular, quantitative methods to deal with cases in which the spin -lattice relaxation time is comparable with the isotope half-life have been developed and applied. One of the major current interests in nuclear structure physics is to investigate how the neutron-proton interaction influences the structure of nuclei that are transitional, between well established regions of spherical and deformed nuclei. In such nuclei, intruder excitations, which signal the onset of deformation, are observed low in energy. Using the Daresbury on-line isotope separator, an extensive study of the decay of ^{118 }I to ^{118}Te has been performed using nuclear orientation techniques, combined with gamma - gamma and conversion electron spectroscopy measurements. Interpretation of the results obtained for ^{118}Te within the framework of IBM-2, gives strong evidence for the existence of such an intruder configuration in this nucleus. On-line experiments have also been performed in which a range of neutron-deficient Cs nuclei has been oriented for the first time. In these measurements the hyperfine field of CsFe has been determined as (+)40.8(7) T, and also the Korringa constant for the system ^ {121}Cs^{m}Fe has been measured (using a new

  17. Perforin deficiency attenuates collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Kristin; Knipper, Annika; Tu-Rapp, Hoang; Koczan, Dirk; Kreutzer, Hans-Jürgen; Nizze, Horst; Mix, Eilhard; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Holmdahl, Rikard; Ibrahim, Saleh M

    2005-01-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an approved animal model for rheumatoid arthritis, is thought to be a T cell-dependent disease. There is evidence that CD8+ T cells are a major subset controlling the pathogenesis of CIA. They probably contribute to certain features of disease, namely tissue destruction and synovial hyperplasia. In this study we examined the role of perforin (pfp), a key molecule of the cytotoxic death pathway that is expressed mainly in CD8+ T cells, for the pathogenesis of CIA. We generated DBA/1J mice suffering from mutations of the pfp molecule, DBA/1J-pfp-/-, and studied their susceptibility to arthritis. As a result, pfp-deficient mice showed a reduced incidence (DBA/1J-pfp+/+, 64%; DBA/1J-pfp-/-, 54%), a slightly delayed onset (onset of disease: DBA/1J-pfp+/+, 53 ± 3.6; DBA/1J-pfp-/-, 59 ± 4.9 (mean ± SEM), and milder form of the disease (maximum disease score: DBA/1J-pfp+/+, 7.3 ± 1.1; DBA/1J-pfp-/-, 3.4 ± 1.4 (mean ± SEM); P < 0.05). Concomitantly, peripheral T cell proliferation in response to the specific antigen bovine collagen II was increased in pfp-/- mice compared with pfp+/+ mice, arguing for an impaired killing of autoreactive T cells caused by pfp deficiency. Thus, pfp-mediated cytotoxicity is involved in the initiation of tissue damage in arthritis, but pfp-independent cytotoxic death pathways might also contribute to CIA. PMID:15987490

  18. Excess iodine promotes apoptosis of thyroid follicular epithelial cells by inducing autophagy suppression and is associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengcheng; Wu, Fei; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Zheng, Tingting; Bu, Ling; Mou, Xiao; Zhou, Yuepeng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Shengjun; Xiao, Yichuan

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of the autoimmune thyroid disease Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) has increased in recent years, and increasing evidence supports the contribution of excess iodine intake to thyroid disease. In this study, we examined the status of autophagy and apoptosis in thyroid tissues obtained from patients with HT, and we determined the effects of excessive iodine on the autophagy and apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells (TFCs) in an attempt to elucidate the effects of excess iodine on HT development. Our results showed decreases in the autophagy-related protein LC3B-II, and increases in caspase-3 were observed in thyroid tissues from HT patients. Interestingly, the suppression of autophagy activity in TFCs was induced by excess iodine in vitro, and this process is mediated through transforming growth factor-β1 downregulation and activation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, excess iodine induced autophagy suppression and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis of TFCs, which could be rescued by the activation of autophagy. Taken together, our results demonstrated that excess iodine contributed to autophagy suppression and apoptosis of TFCs, which could be important factors predisposing to increased risk of HT development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive association of the DIO2 (deiodinase type 2) gene with mental retardation in the iodine-deficient areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, T; Zhang, F; Yang, M; Gao, X; Bian, L; Duan, S; Zheng, Z; Gao, J; Wang, H; Li, R; Feng, G; St, C; He, L

    2004-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency is the commonest cause of preventable mental retardation (MR) worldwide. However, in iodine-deficient areas not everyone is affected and familial aggregation is common. This suggests that genetic factors may also contribute. Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role in fetal and early postnatal brain development. The pro-hormone T4 (3,3',5,5'-triiodothyronine) is converted in the brain to its active form, T3, or its inactive metabolite, reverse T3, mainly by the action of deiodinase type 2 (DIO2). Methods: To investigate the potential genetic contribution of the DIO2 gene, we performed a case-control association study using three common SNPs in the gene (rs225014, rs225012, and rs225010) that were in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. Results: Single marker analysis showed a positive association of MR with rs225012 and rs225010. Particularly with rs225012, TT genotype frequency was significantly higher in MR cases than in controls (χ2 = 9.18, p = 0.00246). When we compared the distributions of common haplotypes, we also found significant differences between mental retardation and controls in the haplotype combination of rs225012 and rs225010 (χ2 = 15.04, df 2, global p = 0.000549). This association remained significant after Bonferroni correction (p = 0.0016470). Conclusion: We conclude that allelic variation in the DIO2 gene may affect the amount of T3 available and in an iodine-deficient environment may partly determine overall risk of MR. PMID:15286152

  20. Quantitative characterization of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor flowfield using unified, laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A calibrated, nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) was used to quantify the steady, compressible flowfield of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor. The combustor was configured with single and staged, transverse-air injection into a supersonic-air freestream behind a rearward-facing step. Pressure, temperature, two-velocity components, and injectant mole fraction were measured with high spatial resolution in the three-dimensional flowfields. These experimental results provide a benchmark set of data for validation of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes being developed to model supersonic combustor flowfields.

  1. Quantitative characterization of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor flowfield using unified, laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A calibrated, nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) was used to quantify the steady, compressible flowfield of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor. The combustor was configured with single and staged, transverse-air injection into a supersonic-air freestream behind a rearward-facing step. Pressure, temperature, two-velocity components, and injectant mole fraction were measured with high spatial resolution in the three-dimensional flowfields. These experimental results provide a benchmark set of data for validation of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes being developed to model supersonic combustor flowfields.

  2. [PECULIARITIES OF THE COURSE OF PREGNANCY, THE IMPLICATIONS OF DELIVERY IN WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSIA IN THE CONDITIONS OF NATURAL IODINE DEFICIENCY].

    PubMed

    Fedynchuk, G V; Maliar, V A

    2015-01-01

    The level of preeclampsia in 2.2 times higher in mountain regions as compared with lowland. In the presence of concomitant pathology of the thyroid gland on a background of natural iodine deficiency in pregnancy complicated with recurrent pregnancy loss in 2.8 times more primary placental insufficiency in 3.6 times, oligohydramnios 1.5 times, premature rupture of the amniotic fluid in 1.9 times, anemia, preeclampsia develops at earlier periods of gestation and more difficult to correct medication, in most cases becomes more severe.

  3. Calcium deficiency cannot induce obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Paradis, S; Cabanac, M

    2005-06-30

    If intake of a required nutrient--here calcium--affects body weight, the effect must be mediated by a change in the body weight set-point. Thus, the controversial 'anti-obesity' influence of high calcium intake should decrease the body weight set-point. Diets differing in calcium content were assigned to three groups of rats. The effects of the diets on body weight, BMI, fat content, plasma calcium, body weight set-point, food intake, and preference for various calcium solutions were measured after 6 weeks of calcium deprivation or supplementation, and again after a further 6 weeks of recovery on a regular diet. After 6 weeks, the low-calcium diet had induced calcium deficiency but had failed to raise the body weight set-point. Nor had it produced obesity or fat accumulation. After 6 weeks of recovery, body weight and fat content were no higher in calcium-deprived rats than in the control or supplemented rats. In this experiment, low-calcium intake failed to cause obesity and did not raise the body weight set-point. The results indicate that calcium intake probably does not affect body weight.

  4. Copper deficiency potentiates ethanol induced liver damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zidenberg-Cherr, S.; Han, B.; Graham, T.W.; Keen, C.L. )

    1992-02-26

    Copper sufficient (+Cu) and deficient ({minus}Cu) rats were fed liquid diets with EtOH or dextrose at 36% of kcals for 2 mo. Consumption of either the {minus}Cu diet or EtOH resulted in lower liver CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were lowest in EtOH/{minus}Cu rats; being 20% and 50% of control values, respectively. Ethanol resulted in higher MnSOD activity in +Cu and {minus}Cu rats. Low Cu intake as well as EtOH resulted in lower mitochondrial (Mit) TBARS relative to controls. TBARS were lowest in Mit from EtOH/{minus}Cu rats. Microsomal (Micro) TBARS were lower in {minus}Cu and EtOH-fed rats than in controls. The peroxidizability index (PI) was calculated as an index of substrate availability for lipid peroxidation. Ethanol feeding resulted in lower PI's in Mit and Micro than measured in non-EtOH rats. There was a positive correlation between Micro PI's and TBARS. These results show that despite reductions in components of antioxidant defense, compensatory mechanism arise resulting in reduction in peroxidation targets and/or an increase in alternate free radical quenching factors. Histological examination demonstrated increased portal and intralobular connective tissue and cell necrosis in EtOH/{minus}Cu rats, suggesting that Cu may be a critical modulator of EtOH induced tissue damage.

  5. Iodine Affects Differentiation and Migration Process in Trophoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Olivo-Vidal, Zendy Evelyn; Rodríguez, Roció Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2016-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is associated with oxidative stress increase and preeclampsia during gestation, suggesting that iodine concentration plays an important role in the normal placenta physiology. The question raised is to analyze the effect of iodine deficiency on oxidative stress, viability, differentiation, and migration process and changes in the expression of differentiation and migration markers. Iodine deprivation was done using potassium perchlorate (KCLO4) to block sodium iodide symporter (NIS) transporter and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS to inhibit pendrine (PEN) transport for 3-48 h. Then trophoblast cells were treated with low iodine doses of 5-500 μM and high iodine doses of 100-5000 μM. Oxidative stress, viability, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hGC) were measured by colorimetric methods. Migration throphoblast cells were evaluated by both wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Changes in mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Iodine deprivation induces a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), viability, and migration process vs control cells. We found a significant overregulation in the mRNA's peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma), Snail, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA's in cells deprived of iodine, as well as a down glial cell missing-1 (GCM-1) regulation, hGC, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and E-cadherin mRNA expression. The expression of hypoxic induction factor alpha (HIFα) mRNA does not change with iodine deprivation. In cells deprived of iodine, supplementing low iodine doses (5-500 μM) does not induce any significant changes in viability. However, ROS and migration process were decreased, although we found an increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion as a differentiation marker. In addition, we found that PPAR-gamma, Snail, and MPP-9 mRNAs expression are downregulated with low iodine doses, in contrast with GCM-1, PAPP

  6. A unified planar measurement technique for compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1992-01-01

    A unified laser-induced fluorescence technique for conducting planar measurements of temperature, pressure and velocity in nonreacting, highly compressible flows has been developed, validated and demonstrated. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, was induced by an argon-ion laser and collected using a liquid-nitrogen cooled CCD camera. In the measurement technique, temperature is determined from the fluorescence induced with the laser operated broad band. Pressure and velocity are determined from the shape and position of the fluorescence excitation spectrum which is measured with the laser operated narrow band. The measurement approach described herein provides a means of obtaining accurate, spatially-complete maps of the primary flow field parameters in a wide variety of cold supersonic and transonic flows.

  7. A unified planar measurement technique for compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1992-01-01

    A unified laser-induced fluorescence technique for conducting planar measurements of temperature, pressure and velocity in nonreacting, highly compressible flows has been developed, validated and demonstrated. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, was induced by an argon-ion laser and collected using a liquid-nitrogen cooled CCD camera. In the measurement technique, temperature is determined from the fluorescence induced with the laser operated broad band. Pressure and velocity are determined from the shape and position of the fluorescence excitation spectrum which is measured with the laser operated narrow band. The measurement approach described herein provides a means of obtaining accurate, spatially-complete maps of the primary flow field parameters in a wide variety of cold supersonic and transonic flows.

  8. TRAIL and DR5 promote thyroid follicular cell apoptosis in iodine excess-induced experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiujie; Li, Lanying; Li, Qingxin; Zang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Zebing

    2011-11-01

    Death receptor-mediated apoptosis has been implicated in target organ destruction in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Several apoptosis signaling pathways, such as Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), have been shown to be active in thyroid cells and may be involved in destructive thyroiditis. Thyroid toxicity of iodide excess has been demonstrated in animals fed with an iodide-rich diet, but its pathogenic role remains unclear. The effects of excessive iodine on TRAIL and its death receptor expression in thyroid were investigated. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) was induced by excessive iodine and thyroglobulin (Tg) in non-obese diabetic mice. The expression of TRAIL and its death receptor DR5 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Following administration of excessive iodine alone, Tg, and excessive iodine combined with Tg, TRAIL-positive cells appear not only in follicular cells but also in lymphocytes infiltrated in the thyroid, whereas DR5-positive cells appear only in follicular cells. Large numbers of CD3-positive cells and a few CD22-positive cells were detected in thyroid. A great amount of follicular cells were labeled specifically by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxynucleotide triphosphate nick-end labeling assay. Taken together, our results suggest that excessive iodine could induce TRAIL and DR5 abnormal expression in thyroid. TRAIL band with DR5 to promote follicular cells apoptosis thus mediate thyroid destruction in EAT.

  9. Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis--a case for subtotal thyroidectomy in severely ill patients.

    PubMed

    Köbberling, J; Hintze, G; Becker, H D

    1985-01-02

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis (IIT), due to iodine application in high amounts in patients with circumscript or disseminated thyroid autonomy, is complicated by a prolonged course, mainly due on the body's resistance to conservative therapy with thiourea derivates. Therefore, we decided to perform subtotal thyroidectomy in 16 thyrotoxic patients. This is in contrast to the common opinion that surgery should only be performed after normalization of thyroid hormones. In all 16 patients with severe IIT, including three patients with thyroid storm, hormone levels decreased within a few days after surgery to normal or subnormal values and the clinical picture of thyrotoxicosis disappeared. In the case of thyroid storm the signs of disorientation normalized within 1-3 days. One patient died 5 weeks after surgery due to severe concomitant diseases. One patient exhibited transitory respiration distress and another had postoperative hypocalcaemia. In nine patients L-thyroxine replacement became necessary because of subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism. Only by this procedure will the high intrathyroidal storage of iodine and performed hormone be extracted. Surgery as a treatment for thyrotoxicosis should be reserved for patients with severe IIT, where conservative treatment has been shown to be ineffective. Furthermore, in rare selected cases, when a rapid normalization is required, surgery without preoperative treatment seems to be justified. The effect of surgery was impressive in all our cases and there were only minor perioperative complications. Thus, it could be shown that subtotal thyroidectomy may be a rational and effective treatment in severe IIT which should be carefully considered and weighed against other types of therapy.

  10. Reference intervals of thyroid hormones in a previously iodine-deficient but presently more than adequate area of Western China: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Fang, Yujie; Jing, Da; Xu, Shaoyong; Ming, Jie; Gao, Bin; Shen, Han; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Qiuhe

    2016-04-25

    The aim of our study is to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of thyroid hormones in a previously iodine-deficient area but presently more than iodine-adequate area of Western China, and also to investigate the factors which affect thyroid function. The cross-sectional study conducted in Xi'an, was based on 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey. Among 1286 participating adults, 717 were finally included as reference population. Thyrotropin (TSH), total triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroperoxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) were measured. Thyroid ultrasound examination was also performed. The present study established the new RIs of serum TSH (0.43-5.51 mIU/L), FT4 (11.0-20.4 pmol/L), FT3 (3.63-5.73 pmol/L), T4 (67.8-157 mmol/L) and T3 (1.08-2.20 mmol/L), which were different from the data provided by the manufacturers. Significant differences among all the age groups were observed in FT3, but neither in TSH nor in FT4. The TSH levels in adults with pathologic ultrasonography results or positive thyroid autoantibody were significantly higher than those in reference adults. Our present results provide valuable references for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases in population of Western China. Considering that most inland areas of China have faced the challenge of the transition from iodine deficiency to adequacy or more than adequacy, we recommend physicians utilize our RIs to determine thyroid diseases in the similar areas with Xi'an in China.

  11. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and multinodular non-toxic goiter in an inpatient population from a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rendina, D; De Filippo, G; Mossetti, G; Zampa, G; Muscariello, R; Benvenuto, G; Vivona, C L; Ippolito, S; Galante, F; Lombardi, G; Biondi, B; Strazzullo, P

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance predispose individuals to the development of both metabolic syndrome and non-toxic nodular thyroid diseases. The aim of this observational, cross-sectional study is to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and multinodular nontoxic goiter in an inpatient population from a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency. We examined 1422 Caucasian euthyroid inpatients. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasound of the neck. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed to evaluate single thyroid nodules and dominant nodules ≥15 mm in euthyroid multinodular goiter. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the criteria of the American Heart Association/ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Of the sample, 277 patients had clinical evidence of multinodular nontoxic goiter, 461 met the criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, and 132 were found to have both conditions. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, nicotinism, parity, alcohol intake, thyroid function, and metabolic syndrome- related pharmacological treatment, metabolic syndrome was found to be an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multinodular non-toxic goiter. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and multi nodular non-toxic goiter was apparent in both men and women. In this study of euthyroid inpatients, we demonstrate that metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multinodular non-toxic goiter in a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency. We propose that patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome should be screened for the presence of multinodular non-toxic goiter.

  12. Iodinated Contrast Media Can Induce Long-Lasting Oxidative Stress in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seun Deuk; Kim, Yoon Ji; Lee, Sang Heun; Cho, Deok Kyu; Cho, Yun Hyeong; Moon, Sung Jin; Lee, Sang Choel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Due to their comorbidities, dialysis patients have many chances to undergo radiologic procedures using iodinated contrast media. We aimed to assess time-sequenced blood oxidative stress level after contrast exposure in hemodialysis (HD) patients compared to those in the non-dialysis population. Materials and Methods We included 21 anuric HD patients [HD-coronary angiography (CAG) group] and 23 persons with normal renal function (nonHD-CAG group) scheduled for CAG, and assessed 4 oxidative stress markers [advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP); catalase; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; and malondialdehyde] before and after CAG, and subsequently up to 28 days. Results In the nonHD-CAG group, only AOPP increased immediately after CAG and returned to baseline within one day. However, in the HD-CAG group, all four oxidative stress markers were significantly increased starting one day after CAG, and remained elevated longer than those in the nonHD-CAG group. Especially, AOPP level remained elevated for a month after contrast exposure. Conclusion Our study showed that iodinated contrast media induces severe and prolonged oxidative stress in HD patients. PMID:24142649

  13. Update on iodine status worldwide.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Andersson, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Salt iodization has been introduced in many countries to control iodine deficiency. The two most commonly used approaches to assessing iodine nutrition on the population level are estimation of the household penetration of adequately iodized salt (HHIS) and measurement of urinary iodine concentrations (UICs). The aim of this review is to assess global and regional iodine status in 2012 by using each of these indicators. The most recent national data on HHIS were obtained from UNICEF. The most recent data on UICs, primarily national data in school-age children, were obtained from a systematic literature search, the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and the WHO Micronutrients Database. The median UIC was used to classify national iodine status and the UIC distribution to estimate the number of individuals with low iodine intakes. Thirty-two countries are iodine deficient based on the national median UIC. Globally, 29.8% of school-age children (246 million) are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake. Out of 128 countries with HHIS data, 37 countries have salt iodization coverage that meets the international goal of at least 90% of households consuming adequately iodized salt and 39 countries have coverage rates of less than 50%. Overall, ≈70% of households worldwide have access to iodized salt. Iodized salt programs need to be strengthened and extended to reach nearly one-third of the global population that still has inadequate iodine intakes.

  14. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pons, Roser; Syrengelas, Dimitris; Youroukos, Sotiris; Orfanou, Irene; Dinopoulos, Arqirios; Cormand, Bru; Ormazabal, Aida; Garzía-Cazorla, Angels; Serrano, Mercedes; Artuch, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize levodopa (l-dopa)-induced dyskinesias in patients with tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical observation was carried out on 6 patients who were diagnosed with tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency and were treated with escalating doses of l-dopa. All 6 patients showed l-dopa-induced dyskinesias of variable intensity early in the course of treatment and regardless of the age of initiation. l-Dopa-induced dyskinesias were precipitated by increases in the dose of l-dopa and also by febrile illnesses and stress. They caused dysfunction and distress in 2 patients. The dyskinesias were improved by decreasing the l-dopa dose or by slowing its titration upward. Increasing the dose frequency was helpful in 2 patients, and introducing amantadine was helpful in another 2 patients. l-Dopa-induced dyskinesias are a common phenomenon in tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. The current observations show that l-dopa-induced dyskinesias are frequent in a dopamine-deficient state in the absence of nigrostriatal degeneration. Although l-dopa-induced dyskinesias in tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency are phenomenologically similar to those that occur in Parkinson's disease, they are different in a number of other respects, suggesting intrinsic differences in the pathophysiologic basis of l-dopa-induced dyskinesias in the 2 conditions. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Assessment of DNA double-strand breaks induced by intravascular iodinated contrast media following in vitro irradiation and in vivo, during paediatric cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Gould, Richard; McFadden, Sonyia L; Horn, Simon; Prise, Kevin M; Doyle, Philip; Hughes, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric cardiac catheterizations may result in the administration of substantial amounts of iodinated contrast media and ionizing radiation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of iodinated contrast media in combination with in vitro and in vivo X-ray radiation on lymphocyte DNA. Six concentrations of iodine (15, 17.5, 30, 35, 45, and 52.5 mg of iodine per mL blood) represented volumes of iodinated contrast media used in the clinical setting. Blood obtained from healthy volunteers was mixed with iodinated contrast media and exposed to radiation doses commonly used in paediatric cardiac catheterizations (0 mGy, 70 mGy, 140 mGy, 250 mGy and 450 mGy). Control samples contained no iodine. For in vivo experimentation, pre and post blood samples were collected from children undergoing cardiac catheterization, receiving iodine concentrations of up to 51 mg of iodine per mL blood and radiation doses of up to 400 mGy. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to assess γH2AX-foci induction, which corresponded to the number of DNA double-strand breaks. The presence of iodine in vitro resulted in significant increases of DNA double-strand breaks beyond that induced by radiation for ≥ 17.5 mg/mL iodine to blood. The in vivo effects of contrast media on children undergoing cardiac catheterization resulted in a 19% increase in DNA double-strand breaks in children receiving an average concentration of 19 mg/mL iodine to blood. A larger investigation is required to provide further information of the potential benefit of lowering the amount of iodinated contrast media received during X-ray radiation investigations.

  16. Monitoring the effects of iodine prophylaxis in the adult population of southern Italy with deficient and sufficient iodine intake levels: a cross-sectional, epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Catalano, Stefania; Perri, Anna; Santoro, Marta; Siciliano, Lorenza; Lofaro, Danilo; Gallo, Massimiliano; Marsico, Stefania; Bruno, Rosalinda; Giordano, Cinzia; Barone, Ines; Andò, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    I prophylaxis is the most effective strategy to eradicate I deficiency disorders, but it has been shown to affect the thyroid disease pattern. In this study, we assessed the frequency of thyroid disorders in an adult population living in two areas of southern Italy after implementing I prophylaxis. To this aim, a cross-sectional, population-based study including 489 subjects from an I-deficient rural and an I-sufficient urban area of southern Italy was conducted. Thyroid ultrasound was performed on all participants, and urine and blood samples were collected from each subject. The levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TgAb) and thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), urinary I excretion (UIE), and thyroid volume and echogenicity were evaluated. We found that the median UIE was higher in the urban than in the rural area (P=0·004), whereas the prevalence of subjects affected by goitre was higher in the rural compared with the urban area (P=0·003). Positive TgAb rather than TPOAb were more frequent in subjects from the urban area compared with the rural area (P=0·009). The hypoechoic pattern at thyroid ultrasound (HT-US) was similar between the two areas, but TgAb were significantly higher (P=0·01) in HT-US subjects from the urban area. The frequency of elevated TSH did not differ between the two screened populations, and no changes were found for TgAb positivity in subjects with high TSH in the urban compared with the rural area. Our findings support that the small risks of I supplementation are far outweighed by the substantial benefits of correcting I deficiency, although continued monitoring of populations is necessary.

  17. Crack initiation and propagation behavior of zirconium cladding under an environment of iodine-induced stress corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Jun Hwan; Choi, Byung Kwon; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2007-04-01

    Tests of iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (ISCC) were carried out to elucidate the initiation and propagation of cracks in the claddings of zirconium alloys. Zircaloy-4 cladding and Nb-contained zirconium cladding were pressurized with and without a pre-cracked state at 350°C in an iodine environment. The results show that pitting nucleation and growth play an important role in initiating ISCC. Pits preferentially grow and agglomerate around the grain boundary, where the number of pits increases with the iodine concentration and the hoop stress of the claddings. A model of grain-boundary pitting coalescence and a model of pitting-assisted slip cleavage, which were proposed to clearly elucidate the crack initiation and propagation process under ISCC, produce reasonable results. The Nb-contained zirconium cladding exhibits higher ISCC resistance than Zircaloy-4 from the standpoint of a higher threshold stress-intensity factor and a lower crack propagation rate.

  18. Experimental investigation of a supersonic swept ramp injector using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Planar measurements of injectant mole fraction and temperature have been conducted in a nonreacting supersonic combustor configured with underexpanded injection in the base of a swept ramp. The temperature measurements were conducted with a Mach 2 test section inlet in streamwise planes perpendicular to the test section wall on which the ramp was mounted. Injection concentration measurements, conducted in cross flow planes with both Mach 2 and Mach 2.9 free stream conditions, dramatically illustrate the domination of the mixing process by streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp. These measurements, conducted using a nonintrusive optical technique (laser-induced iodine fluorescence), provide an accurate and extensive experimental data base for the validation of computation fluid dynamic codes for the calculation of highly three-dimensional supersonic combustor flow fields.

  19. Experimental investigation of a supersonic swept ramp injector using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Planar measurements of injectant mole fraction and temperature have been conducted in a nonreacting supersonic combustor configured with underexpanded injection in the base of a swept ramp. The temperature measurements were conducted with a Mach 2 test section inlet in streamwise planes perpendicular to the test section wall on which the ramp was mounted. Injection concentration measurements, conducted in cross flow planes with both Mach 2 and Mach 2.9 free stream conditions, dramatically illustrate the domination of the mixing process by streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp. These measurements, conducted using a nonintrusive optical technique (laser-induced iodine fluorescence), provide an accurate and extensive experimental data base for the validation of computation fluid dynamic codes for the calculation of highly three-dimensional supersonic combustor flow fields.

  20. Breast Milk Iodine Concentration Is a More Accurate Biomarker of Iodine Status Than Urinary Iodine Concentration in Exclusively Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Dold, Susanne; Zimmermann, Michael B; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Jia, Qingzhen; Jukic, Tomislav; Kusic, Zvonko; Quirino, Antonio; Sang, Zhongna; San Luis, Teofilo Ol; Vandea, Elena; Andersson, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Background: Iodine status in populations is usually assessed by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). However, iodine is also excreted in breast milk during lactation; thus, breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) may be a promising biomarker of iodine nutrition in lactating women. Whether the mammary gland can vary fractional uptake of circulating iodine in response to changes in dietary intake is unclear.Objective: We evaluated UIC and BMIC as biomarkers for iodine status in lactating women with a wide range of iodine intakes.Methods: We recruited 866 pairs of lactating mothers and exclusively breastfed infants from 3 iodine-sufficient study sites: Linfen, China (n = 386); Tuguegarao, Philippines (n = 371); and Zagreb, Croatia (n = 109). We also recruited iodine-deficient lactating women from Amizmiz, Morocco (n = 117). We collected urine and breast milk samples and measured UIC and BMIC.Results: In the 3 iodine-sufficient sites, a pooled regression analysis of the estimated iodine excretion revealed higher fractional iodine excretion in breast milk than in urine at borderline low iodine intakes. In contrast, in the iodine-deficient site in Morocco, a constant proportion (∼33%) of total iodine was excreted into breast milk.Conclusions: In iodine-sufficient populations, when iodine intake in lactating women is low, there is increased partitioning of iodine into breast milk. For this reason, maternal UIC alone may not reflect iodine status, and BMIC should also be measured to assess iodine status in lactating women. Our data suggest a BMIC reference range (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) of 60-465 μg/kg in exclusively breastfeeding women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02196337. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Flowfield measurements in a model scramjet combustion using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary designs were completed for an iodine mixing chamber and the optical setup to be used with a modified wind tunnel in obtaining accurate, spatially resolved measurements of variables in the flowfield of a model nonreacting scramjet combustor. Schematics of the iodine-seeded wind tunnel and a sketch of the charcoal filter for removing the iodine are included along with a cutaway section of the laboratory.

  2. The odyssey of nontoxic nodular goiter (NTNG) in Greece under suppression therapy, and after improvement of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Michalaki, Marina; Kyriazopoulou, Venetsana; Paraskevopoulou, Panagiota; Vagenakis, Apostolos G; Markou, Kostas B

    2008-06-01

    Nontoxic nodular goiter (NTNG) is common in endemic goiter regions. Thyroxine (T4) is often used to treat NTNG. There is little information regarding T4 treatment in regions that have recently become iodine sufficient. We studied the effect of T4 treatment on thyroid function tests in southwestern Greece (SWG), a recently iodine-sufficient area. We studied 827 residents of SWG (group A) to determine goiter prevalence, thyroid function, and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Group B: 385 consecutive patients with thyroid dysfunction. Of these, 89 had NTNG and followed for 10 years on T4 treatment, and 296 had hyperthyroidism. Group C: 29 patients with NTNG, treated with triiodothyronine (T3) 50 mug/day and followed for 6 months. Measurements included serum T4 and 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) before and at the end of T3 administration. The median UIC in group A was 114 microg/L. In group B (89 patients), the incidence of newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism was 5-7% per year with a cumulative percentage of 33% at the 10th year. The initial thyrotropin (TSH) was lower (0.78 +/- 0.51 mIU/L) in those who developed thyrotoxicosis compared to those who remained euthyroid (1.17 +/- 0.74 mIU/L) (p < 0.05). In 296 thyrotoxic patients, the incidence of autoimmune hyperthyroidism and toxic multi-nodular goiter (TMNG) was similar. In group C, 10/29 patients remained euthyroid and the 24-hour RAIU decreased by 49% during T3 treatment. Similarly, serum T4 decreased by 49%. In the remaining patients who developed hyperthyroidism, 24-hour RAIU and T4 were decreased by 19% and 22%, respectively. In SWG, a recently iodine-sufficient region, the risk of developing hyperthyroidism in patients with NTNG after administration of 100-150 microg T4 is relatively high in those whose serum TSH before T4 treatment is in the lower normal range. Therefore, T4 treatment should be avoided in these patients.

  3. Inhibition of autophagy stimulate molecular iodine-induced apoptosis in hormone independent breast tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Preeti; Godbole, Madan; Rao, Geeta; Annarao, Sanjay; Mitra, Kalyan; Roy, Raja; Ingle, Arvind; Agarwal, Gaurav; Tiwari, Swasti

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) causes non-apoptotic cell death in MDA-MB231 breast tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy is activated as a survival mechanism in response to I{sub 2} in MDA-MB231. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to I{sub 2}-induced apoptotic cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy inhibitor potentiates apoptosis and tumor regressive effects of I{sub 2} in mice. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor negative (ER{sup -ve}) and p53 mutant breast tumors are highly aggressive and have fewer treatment options. Previously, we showed that molecular Iodine (I{sub 2}) induces apoptosis in hormone responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and non-apoptotic cell death in ER{sup -ve}-p53 mutant MDA-MB231 cells (Shrivastava, 2006). Here we show that I{sub 2} (3 {mu}M) treatment enhanced the features of autophagy in MDA-MB231 cells. Since autophagy is a cell survival response to most anti-cancer therapies, we used both in vitro and in vivo systems to determine whether ER{sup -ve} mammary tumors could be sensitized to I{sub 2}-induced apoptosis by inhibiting autophagy. Autophagy inhibition with chloroquine (CQ) and inhibitors for PI3K (3MA, LY294002) and H+/ATPase (baflomycin) resulted in enhanced cell death in I{sub 2} treated MDA-MB231 cells. Further, CQ (20 {mu}M) in combination with I{sub 2}, showed apoptotic features such as increased sub-G1 fraction ({approx}5-fold), expression of cleaved caspase-9 and -3 compared to I{sub 2} treatment alone. Flowcytometry of I{sub 2} and CQ co-treated cells revealed increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability (p < 0.01) and translocation of cathepsin D activity to cytosol relative to I{sub 2} treatment. For in vivo studies ICRC mice were transplanted subcutaneously with MMTV-induced mammary tumors. A significant reduction in tumor volumes, as measured by MRI, was found in I{sub 2} and CQ co-treated mice relative to I{sub 2} or

  4. Cord blood thyroid-stimulating hormone and free T4 levels in Turkish neonates: is iodine deficiency still a continuing problem?

    PubMed

    Kişlal, Fatih; Cetinkaya, Semra; Dilmen, Uğur; Yaşar, Handan; Teziç, Tahsin

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the cord blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T(4) (FT(4) ) levels in Turkish neonates and to determine whether these variables reveal iodine deficiency. We collected 818 cords from healthy mothers at parturition and measured levels of FT(4) and TSH. We also measured cord blood FT(4) and TSH levels in different stages of gestation and gender. We grouped the neonates according to cord serum TSH levels, either being less (Group A) or greater (Group B) than 10 mIU/L. Group A included 589 neonates (300 girls [51%] and 289 boys [49%]) and Group B included 229 neonates (105 girls [45%] and 124 boys [55%]). The percentage of subjects with cord blood TSH < 10 mIU/L and >10 mIU/L was 72% and 28%, respectively. Although cord TSH levels in Group B were greater than those in Group A (P < 0.001), cord blood FT(4) levels in Group B were lower than those in Group A (P < 0.05). There was no difference between both sex in terms of birthweight and maternal age. TSH and FT(4) levels did not vary according to neonate sex during gestation, except for from week 37 to 41. TSH levels of male neonates at the 41st week of gestation were higher than those of female neonates (P < 0.05). There were no effects of birthweight on TSH and FT(4) levels if the neonate was lighter than 2500 g at birth. TSH levels of male neonates were higher than those of female neonates when their birthweights were <2500 g (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in TSH levels according to birthweights in male neonates. Our data provide the normative data for cord blood TSH and FT(4) levels in Turkish neonates and show that iodine deficiency is a still a public health problem in Turkey. These measurements can be useful for detection and verification of hypothyroidism in a screening program for congenital hypothyroidism as well as evaluation of the success of the iodination program. © 2010 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2010 Japan Pediatric

  5. Determination of discretionary salt intake in an iodine deficient area of East Java-Indonesia using three different methods.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Annasari; Muslimatun, Siti; Untoro, Juliawati; Lan, Maria C P J; Kristianto, Yohanes

    2006-01-01

    As salt is a potential vehicle for delivering iodine to a population, study on salt intake is important. Many methods have been used to measure iodised-salt intake, but the methods were suspected to be inaccurate. A new method, called a lithium-marker technique, has been considered as suitable and safe; hence it has been proposed as a gold standard for measuring the actual salt intake of an individual. We conducted a study to determine discretionary salt intake using the lithium marker technique. The study shows that the total salt intake for children (N = 15) and mothers (N = 15) were 5.4+/-2.1 g/d and 5.8+/-1.7 g/d respectively in which 48.5+/-17.1% and 50.5?17.3% were discretionary salt. The discretionary salt intake measured using lithium marker (2.53 +/- 1.2 g/d for children and 2.99 +/- 1.5 g/d for mother) were significantly lower than using 24-hour salt recall (7.01+/-2.44 g/cap/d) and salt weighing (6.00+/-1.8 g/cap/d) (p<0.001). In conclusion, the discretionary salt intake by 24-hour salt recall and salt weighing were over estimated as compared to the lithium-labelled salt measurement. It is recommended that the level of iodine fortification in salt be increased up to 80-100 ppm of KIO3 to provide iodine intake of 150 microg/d.

  6. The role of iodine in human growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-08-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for mammalian life. Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem; globally, it is estimated that two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. In the fetal brain, inadequate thyroid hormone impairs myelination, cell migration, differentiation and maturation. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy increases rates of spontaneous abortion, reduces birth weight, and increases infant mortality. Offspring of deficient mothers are at high risk for cognitive disability, with cretinism being the most severe manifestation. It remains unclear if development of the offspring is affected by mild maternal iodine deficiency. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during childhood reduces somatic growth. Correction of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in primary school aged children improves cognitive and motor function. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations with periodic monitoring is an extremely cost effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle.

  7. Prevention and Management of Adverse Reactions Induced by Iodinated Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi Wei; Leow, Kheng Song; Zhu, Yujin; Tan, Cher Heng

    2016-04-01

    Iodinated radiocontrast media (IRCM) is widely used in current clinical practice. Although IRCM is generally safe, serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may still occur. IRCM-induced ADRs may be subdivided into chemotoxic and hypersensitivity reactions. Several factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of ADRs, including previous contrast media reactions, history of asthma and allergic disease, etc. Contrast media with lower osmolality is generally recommended for at-risk patients to prevent ADRs. Current premedication prophylaxis in at-risk patients may reduce the risk of ADRs. However, there is still a lack of consensus on the prophylactic role of premedication. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is another component of IRCM-related ADRs. Hydration remains the mainstay of CIN prophylaxis in at-risk patients. Despite several preventive measures, ADRs may still occur. Treatment strategies for potential contrast reactions are also summarised in this article. This article summarises the pathophysiology, epidemiology and risk factors of ADRs with emphasis on prevention and treatment strategies. This will allow readers to understand the rationale behind appropriate patient preparation for diagnostic imaging involving IRCM.

  8. Influence of iodine supply on the radiation-induced DNA-fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Sudbrock, F; Herrmann, A; Fischer, T; Zimmermanns, B; Baus, W; Drzezga, A; Schomäcker, K

    2017-01-01

    The protective effect of stable iodide against radiation on thyroid cells was investigated. One physiological effect of stable iodine is well-rooted: stable iodine leads to a reduced thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine. This work wants to focus on an intrinsic effect of stable iodine by which DNA-damage in cells is prevented. To investigate this intrinsic effect thyroid cells (FRTL-5) were externally irradiated by use of a linear accelerator (LINAC) applying energy doses of 0.01 Gy-400 Gy and by incubation with various activity concentrations of (131)I (0.1-50 MBq/ml for 24 h). We added stable iodine (NaI) to the cells prior to external irradiation and investigated the effect of the concentration of stable iodine (1, 5, 15 μg/ml). In order to clarify whether thyroid cells have a distinctive and iodine-dependent reaction to ionizing radiation, keratinocytes (HaCaT) without NIS were exposed in the same way. As indicators for the cellular reaction, the extent of DNA fragmentation was determined (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). Both cell types showed distinct ability for apoptosis as proven with camptothecin. The addition of "cold" iodine from 1 to 15 μg/ml without irradiation ("negative control") did not change the response in both cell types. Plausibly, the radio-sensitivity of both cell types did increase markedly with increasing radiation dose but the radiation effect is diminished if iodine is added to the thyroid cells beforehand. The DNA-damage in thyroid cells after addition of cold iodine is reduced by a factor of 2-3. The skin cells did not show an significant change of radio-sensitivity depending on the presence of cold iodine. Elementary iodine possibly acts as a radical scavenger and thus markedly reduces the secondary radiation damage caused by the formation of cytotoxic radicals. This intrinsic radioprotective effect of iodine is seen only in cells with NIS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testis damage induced by zinc deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Merker, H J; Günther, T

    1997-04-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a Zn-deficient diet (1.2 mg/kg of Zn) for 28 days. Testes were then studied by light and electron microscopy. Zn deficiency induced necroses of precursors of germ cells leading to tubular atrophy and affected differentiation of spermatids. This was expressed by the occurrence of 2-4 axoneme-dense fibre-mitochondria complexes in one spermatid. Moreover, outer dense fibres, which normally contain 90% of sperm Zn, were "uncoiled" and flattened. The multiplication of the axoneme-dense fibre-mitochondria complexes induced by Zn deficiency might have been produced by an increase of Fe in spermatids and an increased formation of oxygen free radicals.

  10. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition.

  11. A mechanism for biologically-induced iodine emissions from sea-ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Blaszczak-Boxe, C. S.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-04-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea-ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea-ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, to accumulate in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL) on the surface of sea-ice. Prior to reaching the QLL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea-ice is depth-dependent. The QLL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest iodine is released to the atmosphere via 3 possible pathways: (1) emitted from the QLL and then transported throughout snow atop sea-ice, to be released to the atmosphere, (2) released directly from the QLL to the atmosphere in regions of sea-ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea-ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. The results show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e., I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea-ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during this timeframe. The model results also indicate that iodine may trigger the catalytic release of bromine from sea-ice through phase

  12. A mechanism for biologically-induced iodine emissions from sea-ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxe, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea-ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea-ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, to accumulate in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea-ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea-ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest iodine is released to the atmosphere via 3 possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea-ice, to be released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea-ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea-ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, nevertheless the results show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e., I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea-ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during this timeframe. The model results

  13. Bovine monocyte-derived macrophage function in induced copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cerone, S; Sansinanea, A; Streitenberger, S; García, C; Auza, N

    2000-03-01

    The effect of molybdenum-induced copper deficiency on monocyte-derived macrophage function was examined. Five female calves were given molybdenum (30 ppm) and sulphate (225 ppm) to induce experimental secondary copper deficiency. Oxidant production by bovine macrophages was measured after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan (OpZ). Lipoperoxidative effects inside of macrophage, superoxide dismutase activity, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation were determined. Copper deficiency was confirmed from decreased serum copper levels, and animals with values less than 5.9 micromol/l were considered deficient. The content of intracellular copper decreased about 40% in deficient cells compared with the controls. The respiratory burst activity determined by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction was significantly impaired with both stimulants used. Superoxide anion formation was less affected than hydrogen peroxide generation. In addition, increased lipid peroxidation was observed. It could be concluded that the effect of these changes may impair the monocyte-derived macrophage function in the immune system.

  14. Iodine status in a Sherpa community in a village of the Khumbu region of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Heydon, Emma E; Thomson, Christine D; Mann, Jim; Williams, Sheila M; Skeaff, Sheila A; Sherpa, Kami T; Heydon, John L

    2009-09-01

    To assess the iodine status of Sherpa residents living in Kunde village, Khumbu region, Nepal. Prevalence of goitre was determined by palpation. Urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were determined in casual morning samples, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in finger-prick blood samples on filter paper. Dietary and demographic data were obtained via questionnaire, and selected foods analysed for iodine. Khumbu region is an area of low soil iodine in Nepal, where the prevalence of goitre was greater than 90% in the 1960s prior to iodine intervention. Two hundred and fifteen of 219 permanent residents of Kunde were studied. Overall prevalence of goitre was 31% (Grade 1 goitre, 27.0%; Grade 2, 4.2%). When adjusted to a world population, goitre prevalence was 27% (95% CI 23, 32%); Grade 2 goitre prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI 1.0, 4.6%). Median UIC was 97 microg/l, but only 75 microg/l in women of childbearing age. Thirty per cent had UIC < 50 microg/l and 52% had UIC < 100 microg/l, while 31% of children aged <14 years had UIC > 300 microg/l. Ten per cent of participants had TSH concentrations >5 microU/ml. The prevalence of severe iodine deficiency has decreased since the 1960s, but mild iodine deficiency persists, particularly in women of childbearing age. The consumption of high-iodine uncooked instant noodles and flavour sachets by school-aged children contributed to their low prevalence of goitre and excessive UIC values. This finding may obscure a more severe iodine deficiency in the population, while increasing the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in children. Ongoing monitoring is essential.

  15. Accelerated degradation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskites induced by exposure to iodine vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenghao; Jiang, Yan; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J.; Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing

    2017-01-01

    Efficiencies of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have significantly increased in recent years, but instability issues impede their further development and application. Previous studies reported that volatile species (for example, iodine, I2) were generated when perovskites were subjected to moisture, oxygen, light illumination, applied electric field, and thermal stress (all of which are relevant to the operation of PSCs in practical applications). Here we show that I2 vapour causes severe degradation of MAPbI3 (MA: CH3NH3+) perovskite, due to chemical chain reactions. Furthermore, I2 vapour could also induce degradation of other iodide-based perovskites, such as FAPbI3 (FA: HC(NH2)2+) and FA0.8Cs0.2PbI3. The results reveal a universal degradation factor for iodide-based perovskite by I2. As the release of I2 is nearly inevitable during practical applications, this work suggests that MAPbI3 may not be suitable for long-term stable solar cells and it is imperative to develop other types of perovskite material to achieve stable PSCs.

  16. Subwavenumber charge-coupled device spectrometer calibration using molecular iodine laser-induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Joseph G.; Hernandez-Diaz, Carlos; Williamson, J. Charles

    2010-01-15

    Spectrometers configured with charge-coupled devices (CCD) or other array-based detectors require calibration to convert from the pixel coordinate to a spectral coordinate. A CCD calibration method well suited for Raman spectroscopy has been developed based on the 514.5 nm Ar{sup +} laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrum of room-temperature molecular iodine vapor. Over 360 primary and secondary I{sub 2} LIF calibration lines spanning 510-645 nm were identified as calibrant peaks using an instrumental resolution of 1 cm{sup -1}. Two instrument calibration functions were evaluated with these peaks: a second-order polynomial and a function derived from simple optomechanical considerations. The latter function provided better fitting characteristics. Calibration using I{sub 2} LIF was tested with measurements of both laser light scattering and Raman spectra. The I{sub 2} LIF reference spectra and the signal spectra were recorded simultaneously, with no cross talk, by separating the two signals spatially along the vertical axis of the CCD imager. In this way, every CCD image could be independently calibrated. An accuracy and a precision of {+-}0.05 cm{sup -1} were achieved with this calibration technique.

  17. The size of the community rather than its geographical location better defines the risk of iodine deficiency: results of an extensive survey in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Aghini-Lombardi, F; Vitti, P; Antonangeli, L; Fiore, E; Piaggi, P; Pallara, A; Consiglio, E; Pinchera, A

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the status of iodine nutrition in Southern Italy. The survey was carried out on 11-14 yr old children attending primary school and living in urban and non urban areas of 8 regions of Southern Italy. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was measured in 23,103 urinary samples randomly collected. Median UIE in the whole studied population was 74 μg/l [interquartile range (IR) 34-139 μg/l]. UIE was significantly higher in chief towns compared to non chief towns (81 μg/l, IR 39-145 μg/l vs 73 μg/l, IR 33-138 μg/l, p<0.0001) and in areas with >500 inhabitants per km² (median 87 μg/l, IR 43-154 μg/l) compared to areas with 100-500 per km² (median 66 μg/l, IR 29-126 μg/l, p<0.0001) and with <100 per km² (median 61 μg/l, IR 25-121 μg/l, p<0.0001). Median UIE was significantly lower in inland mountainous/hilly areas (68 μg/l, IR 30-129 μg/l) compared to coastal mountainous/hilly areas (79 μg/l, IR 37-144 μg/l, p<0.0001) and lowland (79 μg/l, IR 37-146 μg/l, p<0.0001). According to a binary logistic regression model, population density was the only independent parameter significantly associated with UIE ≥ 100 μg/l. The results of the present survey indicate that: 1) in Southern Italy mild to moderate iodine deficiency is still present; 2) median UIE in non urban areas is lower than in urban areas and is related to the size of the community rather than to its geographical location, being higher in a larger community. This may be due to better diversification of dietary habits and the easier availability of iodized salt and processed food through commercial facilities, more common in larger communities. Future monitoring surveys should take into account these observations.

  18. In the eye of the storm: iodinated contrast medium induced thyroid storm presenting as cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Alkhuja, Samer; Pyram, Ronald; Odeyemi, Olutunde

    2013-01-01

    The administration of iodinated contrast medium may lead to excess free thyroid hormone release and cause thyroid storm. A woman presented to the emergency department with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and intermittent bilateral lower extremities edema. Physical examination revealed mildly enlarged thyroid. Patient underwent a computed tomography scan of the chest with intravenous iodinated contrast medium to rule out pulmonary embolism, the patient developed a thyroid storm second to iodinated contrast medium injection. Proper treatment was provided and the patient had a good outcome. We present this case of an unusual presentation of a thyroid storm with cardiac arrest. This case illustrates that evaluating thyroid function tests in patients with an enlarged thyroid prior to the administration of iodinated contrast medium could prevent the development of thyroid storm.

  19. Twenty-four hour radioactive iodine uptake in 35 patients with amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, E.; Aghini-Lombardi, F.; Lippi, F.; Baschieri, L.; Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.; Pinchera, A.

    1985-12-01

    Amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis (AAT) occurs in approximately 10% of patients treated with this iodine rich drug in areas of mild iodine deficiency. The thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) is usually undetectable or very low in iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. In the present study, 35 patients with AAT were evaluated. Twelve patients had no thyroid abnormalities by physical exam and all had 24-hr RAIU less than or equal to 4%. In contrast, nine of 11 patients with AAT and diffuse goiters and eight of 12 patients with AAT and nodular goiters had RAIU values greater than 8%. In patients with AAT and goiter it appears possible that the thyroid fails to adapt normally to the excess iodide load, resulting in an inappropriately high RAIU in the presence of excess plasma iodine.

  20. Hypothalamic signaling in anorexia induced by indispensable amino acid deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinxia; Krasnow, Stephanie M.; Roth-Carter, Quinn R.; Levasseur, Peter R.; Braun, Theodore P.; Grossberg, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Animals exhibit a rapid and sustained anorexia when fed a diet that is deficient in a single indispensable amino acid (IAA). The chemosensor for IAA deficiency resides within the anterior piriform cortex (APC). Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the APC detects IAA deficiency are well established, the efferent neural pathways that reduce feeding in response to an IAA-deficient diet remain to be fully characterized. In the present work, we investigated whether 1) central melanocortin signaling is involved in IAA deficiency-induced anorexia (IAADA) and 2) IAADA engages other key appetite-regulating neuronal populations in the hypothalamus. Rats and mice that consumed a valine-deficient diet (VDD) for 2–3 wk exhibited marked reductions in food intake, body weight, fat and lean body mass, body temperature, and white adipose tissue leptin gene expression, as well as a paradoxical increase in brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein-1 mRNA. Animals consuming the VDD had altered hypothalamic gene expression, typical of starvation. Pharmacological and genetic blockade of central melanocortin signaling failed to increase long-term food intake in this model. Chronic IAA deficiency was associated with a marked upregulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in the lateral hypothalamus, particularly in the parasubthalamic nucleus, an area heavily innervated by efferent projections from the APC. Our observations indicate that the hypothalamic melanocortin system plays a minor role in acute, but not chronic, IAADA and suggest that the restraint on feeding is analogous to that observed after chronic dehydration. PMID:23047987

  1. Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in a mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient area.

    PubMed

    Ayturk, Semra; Gursoy, Alptekin; Kut, Altug; Anil, Cuneyd; Nar, Asli; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascil

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities with insulin resistance (IR) as a major component. It has been recently questioned whether MetS and its related components are associated with functional and morphological alterations of the thyroid gland. The aim of our study is to examine thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in a case-control study of patients with MetS in a mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient area. Two hundred and seventy-eight patients with MetS were randomly matched for age, gender, and smoking habits with 261 subjects without MetS. Serum TSH, free tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine, and the level of IR, which was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment for IR, as well as other MetS parameters were evaluated. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed in all subjects. All subjects with thyroid nodules >1 cm were offered to undergo thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. TSH was significantly positively correlated with the presence of MetS diagnosis. There was no association between free thyroid hormone levels and MetS and its related components. Mean thyroid volume was significantly higher in patients with MetS than in controls (17.5 + or - 5.5 vs 12.2 + or - 4.2 ml, P<0.0001). Also the percentage of patients with thyroid nodules was significantly higher in patients with MetS (50.4 vs 14.6%, P<0.0001). Subjects were also divided into two groups according to the presence of IR. The group of subjects with IR had increased thyroid volume and nodule formation. The odds ratio for the development of thyroid nodule in the presence of IR was 3.2. TSH as well as all MetS components were found to be independent predictors for thyroid volume increase. IR but not TSH was found to be correlated with thyroid nodule formation. Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 3 out of 38 patients with MetS who agreed to have a biopsy (7.9%). None of the subjects in the control group was diagnosed to have thyroid cancer. The results suggest that patients with Met

  2. Association of iodine fortification with incident use of antithyroid medication--a Danish Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Charlotte; Knudsen, Nils; Ovesen, Lars; Perrild, Hans; Rasmussen, Lone B; Laurberg, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-07-01

    Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism has been reported in the early phases of almost all iodine fortification programs, depending on prior iodine intake in the population, the amount of fortification, and the rate of change. The aim of the study was to monitor the effect of the Danish iodine fortification program on incidence of hyperthyroidism as measured by the incident use of antithyroid medication. We conducted a register study. Using the unique identification number of all Danes, we linked data from the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics and the Civil Registration register on an individual level. All dispensing of antithyroid medication from 1995 to 2007 was studied. The place of residency was used to divide patients into mildly and moderately iodine-deficient groups. We measured the incident use of antithyroid medication. In the region with moderate iodine deficiency, the number of incident users of antithyroid medication increased 46% in the first 4 yr of iodine fortification. The use increased the most among the youngest age group (younger than 40 yr) and the oldest age group (older than 75 yr). In the mildly iodine-deficient region, the number of incident users increased only 18%, and only in the youngest age groups (below 40 and 40-59 yr). After 4 yr of fortification, the incidence rates started to fall and reached baseline, for most groups, 6 yr after onset of fortification. This study shows that iodine fortification induced a temporary, modest increase in the incidence of hyperthyroidism as measured by use of antithyroid medication. A new steady state has not yet evolved.

  3. Calnexin deficiency and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zuppini, Anna; Groenendyk, Jody; Cormack, Lori A; Shore, Gordon; Opas, Michal; Bleackley, R Chris; Michalak, Marek

    2002-02-26

    In this study, we used calnexin-deficient cells to investigate the role of this protein in ER stress-induced apoptosis. We found that calnexin-deficient cells are relatively resistant to ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, caspase 3 and 8 cleavage and cytochrome c release were unchanged in these cells, indicating that ER to mitochondria "communication" during apoptotic stimulation is not affected in the absence of calnexin. The Bcl-2:Bax ratio was also not significantly changed in calnexin-deficient cells regardless of whether the ER stress was induced with thapsigargin or not. Ca(2+) homeostasis and ER morphology were unaffected by the lack of calnexin, but ER stress-induced Bap31 cleavage was significantly inhibited. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Bap31 forms complexes with calnexin, which may play a role in apoptosis. The results suggest that calnexin may not play a role in the initiation of the ER stress but that the protein has an effect on later apoptotic events via its influence on Bap31 function.

  4. Influence of the gaseous mixture composition on accuracy of molecular iodine on-line detection by laser-induced fluorescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper informs on research into the influence of the composition of gaseous mixtures analyzed on the accuracy of on-line molecular iodine detection by laser-induced fluorescence in various gaseous media—in atmospheric air and in technological mixtures formed during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The paper shows that by considering the composition of buffer media and parts of its components, the accuracy of iodine content measurement may be increased in several times.

  5. Formate Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme of Anaerobic Metabolism, Is Induced by Iron Deficiency in Barley Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Itai, Reiko; Suzuki, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko-Kishi; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Mori, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    To identify the proteins induced by Fe deficiency, we have compared the proteins of Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peptide sequence analysis of induced proteins revealed that formate dehydrogenase (FDH), adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, and the Ids3 gene product (for Fe deficiency-specific) increased in Fe-deficient roots. FDH enzyme activity was detected in Fe-deficient roots but not in Fe-sufficient roots. A cDNA encoding FDH (Fdh) was cloned and sequenced. Fdh expression was induced by Fe deficiency. Fdh was also expressed under anaerobic stress and its expression was more rapid than that induced by Fe deficiency. Thus, the expression of Fdh observed in Fe-deficient barley roots appeared to be a secondary effect caused by oxygen deficiency in Fe-deficient plants. PMID:9489019

  6. CHOP deficiency inhibits methylglyoxal-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Suji; Han, Jung-Hwa; Nam, Dae-Hwan; Park, Kwon Moo; Kim, Seong Yong; Woo, Chang-Hoon

    2016-11-18

    Epidemiological studies suggested that diabetic patients are susceptible to develop cardiovascular complications along with having endothelial dysfunction. It has been suggested that methylglyoxal (MGO), a glycolytic metabolite, has more detrimental effects on endothelial dysfunction rather than glucose itself. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which MGO induces endothelial dysfunction via the regulation of ER stress. Biochemical data showed that 4-PBA significantly inhibited MGO-induced protein cleavages of PARP-1 and caspase-3. In addition, it was found that high glucose-induced endothelial apoptosis was enhanced in the presence of GLO1 inhibitor, suggesting the role of endogenous MGO in high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction. MGO-induced endothelial apoptosis was significantly diminished by the depletion of CHOP with si-RNA against human CHOP, but not by SP600125, a specific inhibitor of JNK. The physiological relevance of this signaling pathway was demonstrated in CHOP deficiency mouse model, in which instillation of osmotic pump containing MGO led to aortic endothelial dysfunction. Notably, the aortic endothelial dysfunction response to MGO infusion was significantly improved in CHOP deficiency mice compared to littermate control. Taken together, these findings indicate that MGO specifically induces endothelial dysfunction in a CHOP-dependent manner, suggesting the therapeutic potential of CHOP inhibition in diabetic cardiovascular complications.

  7. Effect of low-dose selenium on thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid function in UK pregnant women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jinyuan; Pop, Victor J; Bath, Sarah C; Vader, Huib L; Redman, Christopher W G; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-02-01

    Selenium is an essential trace mineral and a component of selenoproteins that are involved in the production of thyroid hormones and in regulating the immune response. We aimed to explore the effect of low-dose selenium supplementation on thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) concentration and thyroid function in pregnant women from a mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient population. Samples and data were from a secondary analysis of Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention (SPRINT), a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study that recruited 230 women with singleton pregnancies from a UK antenatal clinic at 12 weeks of gestation. Women were randomized to receive 60 µg/day selenium or placebo until delivery. Serum thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured at 12, 20 and 35 weeks and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab) at 12 weeks. 93.5% of participants completed the study. Se supplementation had no more effect than placebo in decreasing TPO-Ab concentration or the prevalence of TPO-Ab positivity during the course of pregnancy. In women who were either TPO-Ab or Tg-Ab negative at baseline (Thy-Ab(-ve)), TSH increased and FT4 decreased significantly throughout gestation (P < 0.001), with no difference between treatment groups. In women who were Thy-Ab(+ve) at baseline, TSH tended to decrease and was lower than placebo at 35 weeks (P = 0.050). FT4 fell more on Se than placebo supplementation and was significantly lower at 35 weeks (P = 0.029). Low-dose selenium supplementation in pregnant women with mild-to-moderate deficiency had no effect on TPO-Ab concentration, but tended to change thyroid function in Thy-Ab(+ve) women.

  8. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Sophie; Sliwa, Dominika; Rustin, Pierre; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Santos, Renata

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  9. Iodine determination in food by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after digestion by microwave-induced combustion.

    PubMed

    Mesko, Márcia F; Mello, Paola A; Bizzi, Cezar A; Dressler, Valderi L; Knapp, Guenter; Flores, Erico M M

    2010-09-01

    Iodine determination in food samples was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after digestion by microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Sample masses up to 500 mg of bovine liver, corn starch, milk powder, or wheat flour were completely combusted using the MIC system. Ammonium nitrate (6 mol l(-1) solution, 50 μl) was used as an aid for ignition and vessels were charged with 15 bar of O(2). The use of H(2)O, 0.9 mmol l(-1) H(2)O(2), 10 to 50 mmol l(-1) (NH(4))(2)CO(3) and 56 mmol l(-1) tetramethylammonium hydroxide was investigated as absorbing solutions, as well as the suitability of performing a reflux step after the combustion process. Digestion of food samples by pressurized microwave-assisted acid digestion, microwave-assisted extraction and conventional extraction of iodine in alkaline solution were also evaluated. Iodine recoveries higher than 99% were obtained using MIC and 50 mmol l(-1) (NH(4))(2)CO(3) or 56 mmol l(-1) tetramethylammonium hydroxide as absorbing solution and with 5 min for the reflux step. Accuracy was evaluated using certified reference materials (bovine muscle, corn bran, and milk powder) and agreement better than 97% was obtained. The limit of quantification by MIC and further ICP-MS determination was 0.002 µg g(-1). Blanks were always low and no memory effects were observed. Digestion by MIC allowed the processing of up to eight samples by each run in 25 min with high efficiency of digestion (residual carbon content lower than 1%) providing a suitable medium for further iodine determination by ICP-MS.

  10. Simultaneous multiple-point velocity measurements using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C.; Hiller, B.; Hanson, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is demonstrated for measuring velocity at multiple locations in a plane of a gaseous flowfield using Doppler-shifted absorption with fluorescence detection from iodine molecules, excited by a sheet of tunable single-axial-mode argon-ion laser radiation at 514.5 nm. Measurements were made simultaneously at 10,000 points in an iodine-seeded supersonic flow field with a 100 x 100 element photodiode array camera and were found to agree well with a numerical solution for the velocity field. The accuracy with which a component of velocity can be measured is limited, in the current approach, by the iodine linewidth to about 5 m/sec.

  11. Iodine biofortification of crops: agronomic biofortification, metabolic engineering and iodine bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2017-04-01

    Iodine deficiency is a widespread micronutrient malnutrition problem, and the addition of iodine to table salt represents the most common prophylaxis tool. The biofortification of crops with iodine is a recent strategy to further enrich the human diet with a potentially cost-effective, well accepted and bioavailable iodine source. Understanding how iodine functions in higher plants is key to establishing suitable biofortification approaches. This review describes the current knowledge regarding iodine physiology in higher plants, and provides updates on recent agronomic and metabolic engineering strategies of biofortification. Whereas the direct administration of iodine is effective to increase the iodine content in many plant species, a more sophisticated genetic engineering approach seems to be necessary for the iodine biofortification of some important staple crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  13. Quantitative measurement of transverse injector and free stream interaction in a nonreacting SCRAMJET combustor using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary quantitative study of the compressible flowfield in a steady, nonreacting model SCRAMJET combustor using laser-induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) is reported. Measurements of density, temperature, and velocity were conducted with the calibrated, nonintrusive, optical technique for two different combustor operating conditions. First, measurements were made in the supersonic flow over a rearward-facing step without transverse injection for comparison with calculated pressure profiles. The second configuration was staged injection behind the rearward-facing step at an injection dynamic pressure ratio of 1.06. These experimental results will be used to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes being developed to model supersonic combustor flowfields.

  14. Planar measurement of flow field parameters in a nonreacting supersonic combustor using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence, has been used to obtain planar measurements of flow field parameters in the supersonic mixing flow field of a nonreacting supersonic combustor. The combustor design used in this work was configured with staged transverse sonic injection behind a rearward-facing step into a Mach 2.07 free stream. A set of spatially resolved measurements of temperature and injectant mole fraction has been generated. These measurements provide an extensive and accurate experimental data set required for the validation of computational fluid dynamic codes developed for the calculation of highly three-dimensional combustor flow fields.

  15. Planar measurement of flow field parameters in a nonreacting supersonic combustor using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence, has been used to obtain planar measurements of flow field parameters in the supersonic mixing flow field of a nonreacting supersonic combustor. The combustor design used in this work was configured with staged transverse sonic injection behind a rearward-facing step into a Mach 2.07 free stream. A set of spatially resolved measurements of temperature and injectant mole fraction has been generated. These measurements provide an extensive and accurate experimental data set required for the validation of computational fluid dynamic codes developed for the calculation of highly three-dimensional combustor flow fields.

  16. Galerkin analysis of light-induced patterns in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pushpita; Sen, Shrabani; Riaz, Syed Shahed; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2009-05-01

    The photosensitive chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system has been an experimental paradigm for the study of Turing pattern over the last several years. When subjected to illumination of varied intensity by visible light the patterns undergo changes from spots to stripes, vice versa, and their mixture. We carry out a nonlinear analysis of the underlying model in terms of a Galerkin scheme with finite number of modes to explore the nature of the stability and existence of various modes responsible for the type and crossover of the light-induced patterns.

  17. Serotonin Deficiency Exacerbates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity In Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyao; Song, Sidong; Pang, Qing; Zhang, Ruiyao; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Sushun; Meng, Fandi; Wu, Qifei; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure. Peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) is a cytoprotective neurotransmitter which is also involved in the hepatic physiological and pathological process. This study seeks to investigate the mechanisms involved in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, as well as the role of 5-HT in the liver's response to APAP toxicity. We induced APAP hepatotoxicity in mice either sufficient of serotonin (wild-type mice and TPH1-/- plus 5- Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)) or lacking peripheral serotonin (Tph1-/- and wild-type mice plus p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)).Mice with sufficient 5-HT exposed to acetaminophen have a significantly lower mortality rate and a better outcome compared with mice deficient of 5-HT. This difference is at least partially attributable to a decreased level of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Glutathione (GSH) depletion, peroxynitrite formation, hepatocyte apoptosis, elevated hepatocyte proliferation, activation of 5-HT2B receptor, less activated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in the mice sufficient of 5-HT versus mice deficient of 5-HT. We thus propose a physiological function of serotonin that serotonin could ameliorate APAP-induced liver injury mainly through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis ER stress and promoting liver regeneration. PMID:25631548

  18. Serotonin deficiency exacerbates acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyao; Song, Sidong; Pang, Qing; Zhang, Ruiyao; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Sushun; Meng, Fandi; Wu, Qifei; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-29

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure. Peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) is a cytoprotective neurotransmitter which is also involved in the hepatic physiological and pathological process. This study seeks to investigate the mechanisms involved in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, as well as the role of 5-HT in the liver's response to APAP toxicity. We induced APAP hepatotoxicity in mice either sufficient of serotonin (wild-type mice and TPH1-/- plus 5- Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)) or lacking peripheral serotonin (Tph1-/- and wild-type mice plus p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)). Mice with sufficient 5-HT exposed to acetaminophen have a significantly lower mortality rate and a better outcome compared with mice deficient of 5-HT. This difference is at least partially attributable to a decreased level of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Glutathione (GSH) depletion, peroxynitrite formation, hepatocyte apoptosis, elevated hepatocyte proliferation, activation of 5-HT2B receptor, less activated c-Jun NH₂-terminal kinase (JNK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in the mice sufficient of 5-HT versus mice deficient of 5-HT. We thus propose a physiological function of serotonin that serotonin could ameliorate APAP-induced liver injury mainly through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis ER stress and promoting liver regeneration.

  19. Increment of iodine content in vegetable plants by applying iodized fertilizer and the residual characteristics of iodine in soil.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Weng, Jing-Ke; Yan, Ai-Lan; Hong, Chun-Lai; Yong, Wen-Bin; Qin, Ya-Chao

    2008-01-01

    As a new attempt to control iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), we explored a method of iodine supplementation by raising the iodine content in vegetables. When grown in the soil supplemented with iodized fertilizer, the three experimental plant species (cucumber, aubergine, and radish) show increasing iodine levels in both leaf and fruit/rhizome tissues as the iodine content added in soil increases. Excessive iodine added to soil can be toxic to plants, whereas the tolerance limit to excessive iodine varies in the three plant species tested. The migration and volatilization of iodine in soil is correlated with the properties of the soil used. The residual iodine in soil increases as the iodine added to soil increases. The diatomite in the iodized fertilizer helps to increase the durability of the iodized fertilizer. This study potentially provides a safe and organic iodine supplementation method to control IDD.

  20. The importance of iodine in public health.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk.

  1. Contact Lens-induced Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Jennifer; Amram, Alec; Milani, Behrad; Park, Dongwook; Harthan, Jennifer; Joslin, Charlotte; McMahon, Timothy; Djalilian, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a pathologic condition caused by the dysfunction and/or destruction of stem cell precursors of the corneal epithelium, typified clinically by corneal conjunctivalization. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss a less well-known cause of limbal stem cell disease: contact lens (CL) wear. A literature search was conducted to include original articles containing patients with CL-induced LSCD. This review describes epidemiology, diagnostic strategies, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities for this condition.

  2. Thyroid status and 6-year mortality in elderly people living in a mildly iodine-deficient area: the aging in the Chianti Area Study.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Graziano; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Usberti, Elisa; Marina, Michela; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M; Valenti, Giorgio; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that, in older adults, living in a mildly iodine-deficient area, thyroid dysfunction may be associated with mortality independent of potential confounders. Longitudinal. Community-based. Nine hundred fifty-one individuals aged 65 and older. Plasma thyrotropin, free thyroxine, and free triiodothyronine concentrations and demographic features were evaluated in participants of the Invecchiare in Chianti Study aged 65 and older. Participants were classified according to thyroid function test. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used in the analysis. Eight hundred nineteen participants were euthyroid, 83 had subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper), and 29 had subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo). Overt hypo- and hyperthyroidism were found in five and 15 subjects, respectively. During a median of 6 years of follow-up, 210 deaths occurred (22.1%), 98 (46.6%) of which were from cardiovascular causes. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed higher overall mortality for SHyper (P = .04) than euthyroid subjects. After adjusting for multiple confounders, participants with SHyper (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.69) had significantly higher all-cause mortality than those with normal thyroid function. No significant association was found between SHyper and cardiovascular mortality. In euthyroid subjects, thyrotropin was found to be predictive of lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.57-0.99). SHyper is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in older adults. Low to normal circulating thyrotropin should be carefully monitored in elderly euthyroid individuals. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Impaired glucose metabolism is a risk factor for increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in a mild-to-moderate iodine deficient area.

    PubMed

    Anil, Cuneyd; Akkurt, Aysen; Ayturk, Semra; Kut, Altug; Gursoy, Alptekin

    2013-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of impaired glucose metabolism. IR is associated with increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in patients with metabolic syndrome. Data on the association of thyroid morphology and abnormal glucose metabolism are limited. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mild-to-moderate iodine deficient area. Data were gathered on all newly diagnosed patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus between May 2008 and February 2010. 156 patients with pre-diabetes and 123 patients with type 2 DM were randomly matched for age, gender, and smoking habits with 114 subjects with normal glucose metabolism. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid ultrasonography was performed in all participants. Mean TSH level in the diabetes group (1.9±0.9 mIU/L) was higher than in the control group (1.4±0.8 mIU/L) and the pre-diabetes group (1.5±0.8 mIU/L) (P<0.0001 for both). Mean thyroid volume was higher in the pre-diabetes (18.2±9.2mL) and diabetes (20.0±8.2mL) groups than in controls (11.4±3.8mL) (P<0.0001 for both). Percentage of patients with thyroid nodules was also higher in the pre-diabetes (51.3%) and diabetes groups (61.8%) than in controls (23.7%) (P<0.0001 for both). The results suggest that patients with impaired glucose metabolism have significantly increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – February 2017 VOLUME 45 NUMBER 1 FEBRUARY 2017 IODINE GLOBAL NETWORK (formerly ICCIDD Global Network) is a ... 2015 (PDF File, 9.42 MB) VOLUME 44 NUMBER 4 NOVEMBER 2016 IODINE GLOBAL NETWORK (formerly ICCIDD Global Network) is a ...

  5. Susceptibility to cerulein-induced pancreatitis in inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Qui, B; Mei, Q B; Ma, J J; Korsten, M A

    2001-07-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in acute pancreatitis, but its role has still not been fully examined. The present study explored the role of iNOS in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis using iNOS-deficient mice. Twelve- to 14-week-old male mice (C57B1/6 and iNOS-deficient) were administered cerulein by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection at hourly intervals for 7 hours and killed 24 hours later after the first dose. Pancreatic wet weight, pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and levels of plasma nitrite and serum amylase were measured. In another experiment isosorbide dinitrate (an NO donor) was given by oral gavage every 6 hours for 24 hours beginning simultaneously with cerulein injections in iNOS-deficient mice. Cerulein administration dose-dependently increased pancreatic wet weight, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of nitrite and amylase in C57B1/6 mice. These parameters (except nitrite levels) were significantly intensified in iNOS-deficient mice. At the dose employed, cerulein failed to increase nitrite levels in iNOS-deficient mice. The susceptibility to cerulein toxicity in iNOS-deficient mice was abolished by NO donor treatment. NO release from an iNOS source appears to play a protective role in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. At least in part, NO may prevent neutrophil accumulation after cerulein administration.

  6. Dietary protein deficiency induces osteoporosis in aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Bourrin, S; Toromanoff, A; Ammann, P; Bonjour, J P; Rizzoli, R

    2000-08-01

    Low dietary intake is common in elderly males with low femoral neck areal bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the selective influence of a low-protein diet in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in males and to uncover early and late adaptation of bone cells to protein deficiency, 8-month-old male rats were pair-fed a control (15% casein) or isocaloric low-protein (2.5% casein) diet for 1 or 7 months. BMD, bone ultimate strength, stiffness, and absorbed energy were measured in tibia proximal metaphysis and diaphysis. After double-labeling, histomorphometric analysis was performed at the same sites. Serum osteocalcin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion were measured. In proximal tibia, isocaloric low-protein diet significantly decreases BMD (12%), cancellous bone mass (71%), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th; 30%), resulting in a significant reduction in ultimate strength (27%). In cortical middiaphysis, a low-protein diet decreases BMD (9%) and enlarges the medullary cavity (36%), leading to cortical thinning and lower mechanical strength (20%). In cancellous bone, protein deficiency transiently depresses the bone formation rate (BFR; 60%), osteoid seam thickness (15%), and mineral apposition rate (MAR; 20%), indicating a decrease in osteoblast recruitment and activity. Cortical loss (15%) results from an imbalance between endosteal modeling drifts with impaired BFR (70%). From the first week of protein deficiency, osteocalcin and IGF-I levels drop significantly. Bone resorption activity and urinary deoxypyridinoline remain unchanged throughout the experiment. Protein deficiency in aged male rats induces cortical and trabecular thinning, and decreases bone strength, in association with a remodeling imbalance with a bone formation impairment and a decrease in IGF-I levels.

  7. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Commercial diet induced hypothyroidism due to high iodine. A histological and radiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, V A; Pisarev, M A; Lalia, J C; Rodriguez, M S; Cabrini, R L; Márquez, G

    2001-11-01

    A number of puppies of the School Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Science-UBA showed bone changes. Measurement of the iodine content of the commercial diet showed a significant increase in its content. Iodine excess causes alterations in thyroid function and morphology, and its hormones have a direct action on bone formation. Three groups of puppies were fed on different diets: a home-prepared diet, a commercial diet (containing 5.6 mg potassium iodide/kg dry food), and a home-prepared diet supplemented with 5.6 mg potassium iodide/kg dry food. Groups B and C developed hypothyroidism. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in the styloid apophyseal surface was found in groups B and C vs. A, determined by radiography. Histologically, the hypertrophied cartilage was shorter in groups B and C than in group A (p<0.0001). The present results suggest that commercial diets with a high iodine content may cause hypothyroidism and changes in bone metabolism.

  9. NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Deficiency Conjoint with Marginal Vitamin C Deficiency Causes Cigarette Smoke Induced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Das, Archita; Dey, Neekkan; Ghosh, Arunava; Das, Tanusree; Chatterjee, Indu B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The etiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is largely unknown. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is reported to be associated with MDS risk. There is inconsistent evidence that deficiency of NAD(P)H-quinone: oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) increases the risk of MDS. Earlier we had shown that CS induces toxicity only in marginal vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs but not in vitamin C-sufficient ones. We therefore considered that NQO1 deficiency along with marginal vitamin C deficiency might produce MDS in CS-exposed guinea pigs. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we show that CS exposure for 21 days produces MDS in guinea pigs having deficiency of NQO1 (fed 3 mg dicoumarol/day) conjoint with marginal vitamin C deficiency (fed 0.5 mg vitamin C/day). As evidenced by morphology, histology and cytogenetics, MDS produced in the guinea pigs falls in the category of refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD): refractory anemia; refractory thrombocytopenia that is associated with ring sideroblasts, micromegakaryocytes, myeloid hyperplasia and aneuploidy. MDS is accompanied by increased CD34(+) cells and oxidative stress as shown by the formation of protein carbonyls and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine. Apoptosis precedes MDS but disappears later with marked decrease in the p53 protein. MDS produced in the guinea pigs are irreversible. MDS and all the aforesaid pathophysiological events do not occur in vitamin C-sufficient guinea pigs. However, after the onset of MDS vitamin C becomes ineffective. Conclusions and Significance CS exposure causes MDS in guinea pigs having deficiency of NQO1 conjoint with marginal vitamin C deficiency. The syndromes are not produced in singular deficiency of NQO1 or marginal vitamin C deficiency. Our results suggest that human smokers having NQO1 deficiency combined with marginal vitamin C deficiency are likely to be at high risk for developing MDS and that intake of a moderately large dose of vitamin C would prevent MDS. PMID:21655231

  10. Uninhibited thyroidal uptake of radioiodine despite iodine excess in amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersinga, W.M.; Touber, J.L.; Trip, M.D.; van Royen, E.A.

    1986-08-01

    Iodine excess is associated with a low thyroidal radioiodine uptake due to dilution of the radioisotope by the increased stable iodide pool. We studied thyroidal uptake of radioisotopes in cardiac patients with iodine excess due to amiodarone treatment. /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy was performed in 13 patients receiving long term amiodarone therapy. Five patients had a clearly visible thyroid gland, and 8 patients had no or a very faint thyroid image. All patients with positive scans had an increased plasma TSH level, whereas all patients with negative scans had a normal or absent TSH response to TRH. Thyroidal uptake and discharge of 123I were studied in 30 other patients. Group I (n = 11) had normal plasma TSH responses to TRH and no iodine excess, group II (n = 7) had normal TSH responses to TRH and excess iodine from metrizoate angiography in the previous month, group III (n = 7) had normal or decreased TSH responses to TRH while receiving long term amiodarone therapy, and group IV (n = 5) had increased TSH responses to TRH while receiving long term amiodarone therapy. The mean radioiodine uptake value in group I (5.4 +/- 0.8% (+/- SE) at 60 min) was higher than those in group II (2.3 +/- 0.7%; P = 0.009) and group III (0.8 +/- 0.3%; P = 0.0005), but not different from that in group IV (5.3 +/- 1.2%; P = NS). Radioiodine discharge after perchlorate (expressed as a percentage of the 60 min uptake) in group I (10.1 +/- 2.2%) was lower than those in group II (24.9 +/- 10.6%; P = 0.05) and group III (28.8 +/- 5.3%; P less than 0.005), whereas discharge in group IV (58.0 +/- 6.1%) was greater than those in group II (P less than 0.05) and group III (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, 1) thyroid visualization by /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate and thyroid radioiodine uptake during iodine excess are decreased in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients, but preserved in hypothyroid patients.

  11. Changes in the regulation of iodine crystals and chemical mixtures containing over 2.2 percent iodine. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-07-02

    This rulemaking changes the regulation of the listed chemical iodine under the chemical regulatory provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) believes that this action is necessary to remove deficiencies in the existing regulatory controls, which have been exploited by drug traffickers who divert iodine (in the form of iodine crystals and iodine tincture) for the illicit production of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories. This rulemaking moves iodine from List II to List I; reduces the iodine threshold from 0.4 kilograms to zero kilograms; adds import and export regulatory controls; and controls chemical mixtures containing greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This rulemaking establishes regulatory controls that will apply to iodine crystals and iodine chemical mixtures that contain greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This regulation therefore controls iodine crystals and strong iodine tinctures/solutions (e.g., 7 percent iodine) that do not have common household uses and instead have limited application in livestock, horses, and for disinfection of equipment. Household products such as 2 percent iodine tincture/solution and household disinfectants containing iodine complexes will not be adversely impacted by this regulation. Additionally, the final rule exempts transactions of up to one-fluid-ounce (30 ml) of Lugol's Solution. Persons handling regulated iodine materials are required to register with DEA, are subject to the import/export notification requirements of the CSA, and are required to maintain records of all regulated transactions involving iodine regardless of size.

  12. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou; Peng, Shuangqing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  13. A Ground-Based Instrument for the Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection of Coastal Iodine Monoxide (IO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannun, R. A.; Thurlow, M. E.; O'Brien, A.; Co, D. T.; Hanisco, T. F.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The photochemistry of iodine monoxide (IO) within the marine boundary layer plays a role in the catalytic loss cycles of surface ozone and potentially leads to the nucleation of marine aerosols. Biogenic emissions of molecular iodine and organo-halide precursor molecules account for the largest sources of IO in marine and coastal environments. Due to the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric IO in conjunction with low mixing ratios of less than 10 ppt, high sensitivity in-situ measurements are needed in order to better understand the impact of IO photochemistry in a quantifiable way. To address these challenges, a laser-induced fluorescence instrument has been developed, with a nanosecond-pulsed Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser system. Through efficient optical design and fluorescence detection, we are able to operate in the sensitivity threshold of 1 ppt per minute for IO. Further design considerations included the development of a mobile, weatherproof instrument configuration, which can sustain deployment in a variety of field conditions. In order to validate the detection technique, the instrument was deployed at Shoals Marine Laboratory in Maine from August-September 2011. Instrument design considerations as well as preliminary results of the detection of IO from laminaria digitata, a kelp species present in coastal New England sites, will be presented.

  14. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, B; Fan, Z; Shi, X; Ke, Z-J; Luo, J

    2007-02-09

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes region selective neuronal loss in the brain; it has been used to model neurodegeneration that accompanies mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. The mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration remain incompletely elucidated. Inhibition of protein glycosylation, perturbation of calcium homeostasis and reduction of disulfide bonds provoke the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and cause ER stress. Recently, ER stress has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative models. We demonstrated here that TD up-regulated several markers of ER stress, such as glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible protein or C/EBP-homologus protein (GADD153/Chop), phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and cleavage of caspase-12 in the cerebellum and the thalamus of mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopic study revealed an abnormality in ER structure. To establish an in vitro model of TD in neurons, we treated cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) with amprolium, a potent inhibitor of thiamine transport. Exposure to amprolium caused apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in CGNs. Similar to the observation in vivo, TD up-regulated markers for ER stress. Treatment of a selective inhibitor of caspase-12 significantly alleviated amprolium-induced death of CGNs. Thus, ER stress may play a role in TD-induced brain damage.

  15. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Experimentally induced thiamine deficiency in beagle dogs: clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Read, D H; Harrington, D D

    1981-06-01

    Twenty-three 2- to 5-month-old Beagle dogs were fed a purified thiamine-deficient ration (2 to 3 micrograms of thiamine/100 g of ration) at a rate of 40 to 70 g/kg of body weight/day depending on age. Eleven dogs were used as principles, 6 as pair-fed controls, and 6 as ad libitum-fed controls. Controls were treated once a week with an IM dose of 300 micrograms of thiamine hydrochloride/kg of body weight. Three stages of clinical disease occurred in the principals: (i) an initial short (18.0 +/- 7.9 days) stage of induction, during which the dogs usually grew suboptimally, but were otherwise healthy, (ii) an intermediate stage of preliminary clinical signs of deficiency, characterized by a variable period (58.5 +/- 37.0 days) of progressive inappetance, failure to grow, loss of body weight, and coprophagia, and (iii) a terminal stage, which, in most dogs, was abrupt in onset and short (7.6 +/- 6.0 days) and consisted of either a neurologic syndrome or sudden unexpected death syndrome. Eight of the principals developed the neurologic syndrome characterized by anorexia, emesis, CNS depression, paraparesis, sensory ataxia, torticollis, circling, exophthalmos, tonic-clonic convulsions, profound muscular weakness, recumbency, and then died. Common reflex abnormalities included exaggerated patella reflex, proprioceptive and supporting reflex deficits, induced torticollis and ventroflexion of head, and absent eye menace (blink) reflex. Three other principals developed the sudden unexpected death syndrome. Common signs of deficiency were inappetance and paresis. Two were found dead and 1, with severe ECG abnormalities (including elevation of ST segment and tall or deeply inverted T waves), was killed.

  17. The influence of mandatory iodine fortification on the iodine status of Australian school children residing in an iodine sufficient region.

    PubMed

    Samidurai, Anna J; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter Sw

    To counter emerging iodine deficiency mandatory iodine fortification of bread was introduced throughout Australia in 2009. This study investigated the impact of iodine fortification on the iodine status of school aged children living in the iodine replete state of Queensland, and investigated which foods had greatest influence on overall iodine status. A convenience sample of 30 children aged 8.0-10.9 years living in south east Queensland, Australia, provided spot morning and afternoon urine samples on two consecutive days. Iodine status was categorised by the World Health Organization criterion. Semiquantitative food questionnaires (FFQ) completed by carers were used to investigate which foods were having the greatest influence on UIC. Analysis of variance was used to reduce the within person variation observed in urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and the data were log transformed before statistical analysis. Adjusted median UIC was 144 ug/L (IQR 120-210 ug/L) indicating iodine sufficient status. No samples were above the cut off for excessive UIC. Bread was the only statistically significant contributor to UIC (standardized β=0.37, p=0.04) with 14% of variation in UIC explained by bread consumption. UIC increased by 8.7% for each additional serve of bread. Iodine fortification of bread has increased the iodine status of school aged children in this Queensland cohort. Despite the small sample size in this study, improvements in methodology allowed its findings to be comparable to other, larger surveys.

  18. [Urinary iodine excretion levels in schoolchildren from Quindío, 2006-2007].

    PubMed

    Gallego, Martha L; Loango, Nelsy; Londoño, Angela L; Landazuri, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Iodine nutritional status is measured by urinary iodine concentration thereby allowing risks involved in such deficiency or increase to be assessed. Studying the frequency of the risk of iodine deficiency disorders, or more than suitable iodine intake in schoolchildren from Quindío. Urinary iodine concentration was measured in a casual urine sample taken from each subject; this study lasted from 2006 to 2007. Median urinary iodine was 272.4 microg/L in the 444 samples analysed. 11.9% of schoolchildren had normal urinary iodine, 28.8% had iodine deficiency and 11.5% of them had a severe deficit, 12.6% moderate deficit and 4.7% slight deficit. 59.3% presented a risk of excessive iodine intake. The range of iodine deficiency in boys was 31% and 26.6% in girls (no significant difference). No significant difference was found with age; however, there was a significant difference between economic levels 1 and 2 (p <0.000). Municipalities in rural areas had 100% iodine deficiency (median um < 100 microg/L) whilst those in the urban area (Armenia, Tebaida and The Caimo) had excessive iodine intake. The population being studied had severe iodine deficiencies (rural) and excessive intake (urban population), suggesting the absence or poor control of an iodization programme and additional exposure to factors causing iodine disorders. A programme is required for monitoring iodine disorders in the school population being studied.

  19. Paradoxical glucose-induced hyperkalemia. Combined aldosterone-insulin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, S; Strunk, B; Singer, I; Goldberg, M

    1975-11-01

    Severe hyperkalemia associated with spontaneous hyperglycemia as well as with the intravenous infusions of glucose occurred in an insulin-requiring diabetic patient in the absence of potassium administration, the use of diuretics which inhibit urinary potassium excretion or acidemia. Metabolic balance studies revealed, in addition to diabets, the presence of isolated aldosterone deficiency of the hyporeninemic type. Intravenous glucose infusions (0.5 g/kg body weight) produced significant hyperkalemia but desoxycortisone acetate (DOCA) therapy (10 mg/day) prevented the glucose-induced hyperkalemia. In this patient, the serum potassium concentration increases after the intravenous infusions of glucose because there is insufficient aldosterone and insulin to reverse the transfer of potassium to the extracellular fluid which normally occurs after hypertonic infusions of glucose. Although DOCA replacement modifies the distribution of potassium in the extracellular fluid and blunts the hyperkalemic effect of intravenous infusions of glucose, a rise in the insulin level is required for the usual hypokalemic response to intravenously administered glucose. These studies illustrate the risk of raising blood glucose levels in patients with combined aldosterone and insulin deficiency and the tendency towards hyperkalemia in diabetic patients under certain clinical conditions.

  20. New Compounds Induce Brassinosteroid Deficient-like Phenotypes in Rice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tadashi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Ikuko; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Oh, Keimei

    2013-08-13

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones with potent plant growth promoting activity. Because BR-deficient mutants of rice exhibit altered plant architecture and important agronomic traits, we conducted a systemic search for specific inhibitors of BR biosynthesis to manipulate the BR levels in plant tissues. Although previous studies have been conducted with BR biosynthesis inhibitors in dicots, little is known regarding the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition in monocot plants. In this work, we used potent inhibitors of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and we performed a hydroponic culture of rice seedlings to evaluate the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition. Among the test compounds, we found that 1-[[2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4-(phenoxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole (1) is a potent inhibitor that could induce phenotypes in rice seedlings that were similar to those observed in brassinosteroid deficient plants. The IC50 value for the retardation of plant growth in rice seedlings was approximately 1.27 ± 0.43 μM. The IC50 value for reducing the bending angle of the lamina joint was approximately 0.55 ± 0.15 μM.

  1. Dissecting iron deficiency-induced proton extrusion in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Santi, Simonetta; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Here, we have analysed the H(+)-ATPase-mediated extrusion of protons across the plasma membrane (PM) of rhizodermic cells, a process that is inducible by iron (Fe) deficiency and thought to serve in the mobilization of sparingly soluble Fe sources. The induction and function of Fe-responsive PM H(+)-ATPases in Arabidopsis roots was investigated by gene expression analysis and by using mutants defective in the expression or function of one of the isogenes. In addition, the expression of the most responsive isogenes was investigated in natural Arabidopsis accessions that have been selected for their in vivo proton extrusion activity. Our data suggest that the rhizosphere acidification in response to Fe deficiency is chiefly mediated by AHA2, while AHA1 functions as a housekeeping isoform. The aha7 knock-out mutant plants showed a reduced frequency of root hairs, suggesting an involvement of AHA7 in the differentiation of rhizodermic cells. Acidification capacity varied among Arabidopsis accessions and was associated with a high induction of AHA2 and IRT1, a high relative growth rate and a shoot-root ratio that was unaffected by the external Fe supply. An effective regulation of the Fe-responsive genes and a stable shoot-root ratio may represent important characteristics for the Fe uptake efficiency.

  2. Tracing iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Pierangelo Metrangolo and Giuseppe Resnati celebrate the bicentenary of the discovery of iodine - a good time to also bring to its conclusion an international project that aims to define and categorize halogen bonding.

  3. The way forward in Italy for iodine.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Antonella; DI Cosmo, Caterina; DE Angelis, Simona; DA Cas, Roberto; Stacchini, Paolo; Pastorelli, Augusto; Vitti, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. In 1848 an ad hoc committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, identified extensive areas afflicted by endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. Since then many epidemiological studies have been conducted in our country. These showed that iodine deficiency was present not only in mountain areas but also in coastal areas. In 1972 the iodization of salt at 15 mg/kg was allowed by law and iodized salt was distributed on request to selected endemic areas. Five years later the distribution was extended to the whole country. However the sale of iodized salt was not mandatory at that time and only a small fraction of the Italian population started using iodized salt. In 1991 the content of iodine in the salt was raised to 30 mg/kg and in 2005 a nationwide salt iodization program was finally implemented. Some years later a nationwide monitoring program of iodine prophylaxis was also implemented. Since 2005 the sale of iodized salt in Italian supermarkets has increased (34% in 2006, 55% in 2012), although it has been observed that the use of iodized salt is still low in the communal eating areas and in the food industry. These data are coherent with recent epidemiological studies showing that some regions in our country are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency and a high frequency of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. This implies that further efforts should be made to successfully correct iodine deficiency in Italy.

  4. Thiamine Deficiency Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Bingwei; Fan, Zhiqin; Shi, Xianglin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Luo, Jia

    2007-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes region selective neuronal loss in the brain; it has been used to model neurodegeneration that accompanies mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. The mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration remain incompletely elucidated. Inhibition of protein glycosylation, perturbation of calcium homeostasis and reduction of disulfide bonds provoke the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and cause ER stress. Recently, ER stress has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative models. We demonstrated here that TD up-regulated several markers of ER stress, such as GRP78, GADD153/Chop, phosphorylation of eIF2α and cleavage of caspase-12 in the cerebellum and the thalamus of mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopic study revealed an abnormality in ER structure. To establish an in vitro model of TD in neurons, we treated cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) with amprolium, a potent inhibitor of thiamine transport. Exposure to amprolium caused apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in CGNs. Similar to the observation in vivo, TD up-regulated markers for ER stress. Treatment of a selective inhibitor of caspase-12 significantly alleviated amprolium-induced death of CGNs. Thus, ER stress may play a role in TD-induced brain damage. PMID:17137721

  5. Global iodine nutrition: Where do we stand in 2013?

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2013-05-01

    Dietary iodine intake is required for the production of thyroid hormone. Consequences of iodine deficiency include goiter, intellectual impairments, growth retardation, neonatal hypothyroidism, and increased pregnancy loss and infant mortality. In 1990, the United Nations World Summit for Children established the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency worldwide. Considerable progress has since been achieved, largely through programs of universal salt iodization. Approximately 70% of all households worldwide currently have access to adequately iodized salt. In 2013, as defined by a national or subnational median urinary iodine concentration of 100-299 μg/L in school-aged children, 111 countries have sufficient iodine intake. Thirty countries remain iodine-deficient; 9 are moderately deficient, 21 are mildly deficient, and none are currently considered severely iodine-deficient. Ten countries have excessive iodine intake. In North America, bo