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Sample records for iodine oxides

  1. Towards graphene iodide: iodination of graphite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimek, Petr; Klímová, Kateřina; Sedmidubský, David; Jankovský, Ondřej; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2014-11-01

    Halogenated graphene derivatives are interesting owing to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we present various methods for the synthesis of iodinated graphene derivatives by the iodination of graphite oxides prepared according to either the Hummers or Hofmann method. Both graphite oxides were iodinated by iodine or hydroiodic acid under reflux or in an autoclave at elevated temperatures (240 °C) and pressures (over 100 bar). The influence of both graphite oxide precursors on the properties of resulting iodinated graphenes was investigated by various techniques, including SEM, SEM-EDS, high-resolution XPS, FTIR, STA, and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity was measured by a standard four point technique. In addition, the electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Although the iodinated graphenes were structurally similar, they had remarkably different concentrations of iodine. The most highly iodinated graphenes (iodine concentration above 30 wt%) exhibited relatively high C/O ratios, confirming high degrees of reduction. Iodine is incorporated in the form of covalent bonds to carbon atoms or as polyiodide anions non-covalently bonded through the charge transfer reaction with the graphene framework. Iodinated graphenes with such properties could be used as the starting material for further chemical modifications or as flame-retardant additives.Halogenated graphene derivatives are interesting owing to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we present various methods for the synthesis of iodinated graphene derivatives by the iodination of graphite oxides prepared according to either the Hummers or Hofmann method. Both graphite oxides were iodinated by iodine or hydroiodic acid under reflux or in an autoclave at elevated temperatures (240 °C) and pressures (over 100 bar). The influence of both graphite oxide precursors on the properties of resulting iodinated graphenes was

  2. Iodine oxide in the global marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados-Roman, C.; Cuevas, C. A.; Hay, T.; Fernandez, R. P.; Mahajan, A. S.; Royer, S.-J.; Galí, M.; Simó, R.; Dachs, J.; Großmann, K.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2014-08-01

    Emitted mainly by the oceans, iodine is a halogen compound important for atmospheric chemistry due to its high ozone depletion potential and effect on the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of iodine oxide (IO) measurements in the open marine boundary layer (MBL) made during the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation. Results show IO mixing ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1 pmol mol-1 and, complemented with additional field campaigns, this dataset confirms through observations the ubiquitous presence of reactive iodine chemistry in the global marine environment. We use a global model with organic (CH3I, CH2ICl, CH2I2 and CH2IBr) and inorganic (HOI and I2) iodine ocean emissions to investigate the contribution of the different iodine source gases to the budget of IO in the global MBL. In agreement with previous estimates, our results indicate that, globally averaged, the abiotic precursors contribute about 75% to the iodine oxide budget. However, this work reveals a strong geographical pattern in the contribution of organic vs. inorganic precursors to reactive iodine in the global MBL.

  3. A comparative study on the effects of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on thyroid oxidative stress in iodine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianshu; Shi, Rui; Qi, Tengche; Yin, Huisi; Mei, Lan; Han, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on treating iodine deficiency-induced goiter from the perspective of oxidative stress and to measure selenium values in Chinese herbs. One hundred twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups after inducing iodine-deficiency goiter: normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), iodine excess group (IE), and herbs with iodine excess group (HIE). The activities of oxidative enzymes and levels of oxidative products were measured using biochemical tests. The expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the thyroid was detected by immunohistochemistry and the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs were measured by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The herbs with iodine excess were tested to contain rich selenium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PRDX5 increased markedly, and the values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-HNE decreased significantly in the HIE group. In conclusion, compared with excess iodine, herbs with excess iodine damaged thyroid follicular cells less, which may be related to the increase of antioxidant capacity and rich selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs.

  4. Iodine oxide in the global marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados-Roman, C.; Cuevas, C. A.; Hay, T.; Fernandez, R. P.; Mahajan, A. S.; Royer, S.-J.; Galí, M.; Simó, R.; Dachs, J.; Großmann, K.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Emitted mainly by the oceans, iodine is a halogen compound important for atmospheric chemistry due to its high ozone depletion potential and effect on the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive data set of iodine oxide (IO) measurements in the open marine boundary layer (MBL) made during the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation. Results show IO mixing ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1 pmol mol-1 (30% uncertainty) and, complemented with additional field campaigns, this data set confirms through observations the ubiquitous presence of reactive iodine chemistry in the global marine environment. We use a global model with organic (CH3I, CH2ICl, CH2I2 and CH2IBr) and inorganic (HOI and I2) iodine ocean emissions to investigate the contribution of the different iodine source gases to the budget of IO in the global MBL. In agreement with previous estimates, our results indicate that, globally averaged, the abiotic precursors contribute about 75 % to the IO budget. However, this work reveals a strong geographical pattern in the contribution of organic vs. inorganic precursors to reactive iodine in the global MBL.

  5. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 weeks increases the healing rate. Also, applying povidone-iodine in addition to compression seems help heal ... Catheter-related infection. Some evidence suggests that applying povidone-iodine reduces the risk of blood stream infections ...

  6. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount depends on the iodine in the soil where they grew and in any fertilizer that ... babies. People living in regions with iodine-deficient soils who eat mostly local foods. These soils produce ...

  7. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  8. Biological activity of oxidized and reduced iodinated bombesins

    SciTech Connect

    Vigna, S.R.; Giraud, A.S.; Reeve, J.R. Jr.; Walsh, J.H.

    1988-07-01

    A method is reported for preparing oxidized and reduced iodinated Tyr4-bombesin. Iodogen was used to iodinate Tyr4-bombesin and the reaction products were separated by reverse-phase HPLC. The peak of oxidized label was then reduced by incubation with 725 mM dithiothreitol at 80 degrees C (pH 8.0) for one hour and the reaction products separated by HPLC as before. The reduced but not oxidized peaks of /sup 125/I-Tyr4-bombesin stimulated amylase release from rat pancreatic acini in vitro. We conclude that oxidation of bombesin producing C-terminal methionine sulfoxide destroys the biological activity of the peptide and that this form of oxidation can be reversed.

  9. First observations of iodine oxide from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2007-06-01

    We present retrievals of IO total columns from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. We analyze data for October 2005 in the polar regions to demonstrate for the first time the capability to measure IO column abundances from space. During the period of analysis (i.e. Southern Hemisphere springtime), enhanced IO vertical columns over 3 × 1013 molecules cm-2 are observed around coastal Antarctica; by contrast during that time in the Artic region IO is consistently below the calculated instrumental detection limit for individual radiance spectra (2-4 × 1012 molecules cm-2 for slant columns). The levels reported here are in reasonably good agreement with previous ground-based measurements at coastal Antarctica. These results also demonstrate that IO is widespread over sea-ice covered areas in the Southern Ocean. The occurrence of elevated IO and its hitherto unrecognized spatial distribution suggest an efficient iodine activation mechanism at a synoptic scale over coastal Antarctica.

  10. First Observations of Iodine Oxide from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2007-01-01

    We present retrievals of IO total columns from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. We analyze data for October 2005 in the polar regions to demonstrate for the first time the capability to measure IO column abundances from space. During the period of analysis (i.e. Southern Hemisphere springtime), enhanced IO vertical columns over 3 x 10(exp 13) molecules cm(exp -2) are observed around coastal Antarctica; by contrast during that time in the Arctic region IO is consistently below the calculated instrumental detection limit for individual radiance spectra (2-4 x 10(exp 12) molecules cm(exp -2) for slant columns). The levels reported here are in reasonably good agreement with previous ground-based measurements at coastal Antarctica. These results also demonstrate that IO is widespread over sea-ice covered areas in the Southern Ocean. The occurrence of elevated IO and its hitherto unrecognized spatial distribution suggest an efficient iodine activation mechanism at a synoptic scale over coastal Antarctica.

  11. Chemical dynamics of nano-aluminum/iodine (V) oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, B. K.; Welle, E. J.; Emery, S. B.; Bogle, M. B.; Ashley, V. L.; Schrand, A. M.; Lindsay, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    This proceeding describes our preliminary efforts in studying highly reactive composites containing crystalline iodine (V) oxide and nano-aluminum (nAl) with various amounts of cyclohexanone in the form of powders. In this study we report upon the application of physiochemical techniques such as thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powdered X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and electron microscopy for chemical characterization of powder composites. In addition dynamic measurements were conducted by recording pressure trace profiles during a combustion event. These various techniques were employed to examine these energetic materials (EMs) and associate changes to the chemical dynamics of the composite with the additive.

  12. Iodinated contrast media oxidation by nonthermal plasma: the role of iodine as a tracer.

    PubMed

    Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Azerrad, Sara P; Levinson, Yana; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2011-10-15

    The oxidation of trace pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater desalination streams by nonthermal plasma (NTP) was evaluated. Brines from a two stage-RO pilot plant process as well as two sources of tertiary effluents, ultrafiltrated secondary effluents and membrane biological reactor effluents, were comparatively tested with ultra-pure water. The non-ionic and ionic iodinated contrast media (ICM) compounds, iopromide (IOPr) and diatrizoate (DTZ), respectively, were used as model compounds. The neurostabilizer drug carbamazepine (CBZ) was used for reference purposes. Based on deiodination profiles, two distinct patterns of initial oxidation could be established for the ICM. The time profile of deiodination and transformation paralleled for DTZ, indicating that transformation of the aromatic ring is the main initial pattern of transformation. For IOPr, a considerable lag phase of deiodination was observed, suggesting that oxidation of the alkyl chains rather than ring oxidation is the main pattern of initial transformation. Although transformation rate of IOPr was higher compared to DTZ, the rate and degree of deiodination was higher for DTZ than IOPr. Both ICM displayed a markedly lower susceptibility to NTP oxidation compared to CBZ. However, the kinetics of IOPr transformation seems to be less affected by the water matrixes, compared to DTZ and CBZ. Whereas NTP mediated oxidation of ICM followed first-order kinetics, a better fit to Harris model was found for CBZ. As a result of the NTP oxidation, treated brines and effluents displayed a substantial increase in biodegradability (measured as BOD). To conclude, NTP displayed a high potential for treating reluctant pharmaceuticals active compounds such as ICM, even at the background of relatively high DOC concentrations, as can be found in treated effluents and desalination brines, and with no need for chemical additives.

  13. Dark reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalev, P.N.; Sedov, V.P.; Isupov, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The oxidation of iodine in darkness was studied in the system H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-I/sub 2/-HNO/sub 3/ by a potentiometric method using an ion-selective electrode and a spectrophotometric method. The concentration limits of the reaction was established. The reaction rate is satisfactorily described by the equation of a first-order reaction. It was established experimentally that the maximum of the reaction rate constant lies in the region of 0.2-0.6 M HNO/sub 3/ and 0.06 M H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and reaches a value of 0.1 min/sup /minus/1/.

  14. Measurements and Modelling of Reactive Iodine Oxides in the Coastal MBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najera, J. J.; Bloss, W. J.

    2012-04-01

    The release of iodine compounds into the marine atmosphere can affect a number of aspects of atmospheric composition: Iodine species can participate in catalytic ozone destruction cycles, which may be augmented by bromine species; reactions of iodine compounds can perturb the OH:HO2 and NO:NO2 ratios, heterogeneous loss of reservoir compounds such as HOI and INO3 can lead to removal of HOx and NOx, and higher iodine oxides can contribute to the formation and/or growth of aerosol particles. In this work, we focus upon understanding the effect of the spatial distribution of iodine emissions upon local HOx and NOx levels in the immediate vicinity of a coastal sites, using new observations to re-evaluate previous field campaign data. We present an analysis of results from a new instruments which measures point inorganic iodine species concentrations. The technique of resonance fluorescence (RF) is employed for the detection of iodine atoms, and the total photolabile iodine content. Measurements made at Mace Head, Ireland during July-August 2007 and May 2011 are presented. A detailed 1-dimensional photochemical box model is employed in a lagrangian sense to simulate the evolving chemical composition of an air column advected across the coastal margin. The model is compared with the observed iodine species, and then used to explore the transient response of the NOx and HOx families at the Mace Head site to heterogeneous iodine emissions: The transit time between the intertidal iodine emission zone and the shoreline site where previous measurements of HOx, NOx etc. have been made is insufficient for steady-state to become established, although this assumption has been used in earlier model studies of such data. Finally, we consider the limitations in our ability to quantify the impacts of iodine chemistry, which arise from uncertainties in the iodine kinetics and photochemistry - for example, what is the atmospheric lifetime of inorganic iodine ? - and explore their

  15. Iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles have received considerable attention because they represent more efficient, greener, more atom-economical, and milder bond-formation strategies over transition-metal-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions. This Focus Review gives a brief summary of recent development on iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles.

  16. Effect of environment on iodine oxidation state and reactivity with aluminum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan K; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L

    2016-04-28

    Iodine oxide is a highly reactive solid oxidizer and with its abundant generation of iodine gas during reaction, this oxidizer also shows great potential as a biocidal agent. A problem with using I2O5 in an energetic mixture is its highly variable reactive behavior. This study isolates the variable reactivity associated with I2O5 as a function of its chemical reaction in various environments. Specifically, aluminum fuel and iodine oxide powder are combined using a carrier fluid to aid intermixing. The carrier fluid is shown to significantly affect the oxidation state of iodine oxide, thereby affecting the reactivity of the mixture. Four carrier fluids were investigated ranging in polarity and water miscibility in increasing order from hexane < acetone < isopropanol < water as well as untreated, dry-mixed reactants. Oxidation state and reactivity were examined with experimental techniques including X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results are compared with thermal equilibrium simulations. Flame speeds increased with polarity of the fluid used to intermix the powder and ranged from 180 to 1202 m s(-1). The I2O5 processed in the polar fluids formed hydrated states of iodine oxide: HIO3 and HI3O8; and, the nonpolar and dry-mixed samples formed: I2O4 and I4O9. During combustion, the hydrated iodine oxides rapidly dehydrated from HIO3 to HI3O8 and from HI3O8 to I2O5. Both steps release 25% of their mass as vapor during combustion. Increased gas generation enhances convective energy transport and accounts for the increase in reactivity seen in the mixtures processed in polar fluids. These results explain the chemical mechanisms underlying the variable reactivity of I2O5 that are a function of the oxide's highly reactive nature with its surrounding environment. These results will significantly impact the selection of carrier fluid in the synthesis approach for iodine containing reactive mixtures. PMID:27052472

  17. Effect of environment on iodine oxidation state and reactivity with aluminum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan K; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L

    2016-04-28

    Iodine oxide is a highly reactive solid oxidizer and with its abundant generation of iodine gas during reaction, this oxidizer also shows great potential as a biocidal agent. A problem with using I2O5 in an energetic mixture is its highly variable reactive behavior. This study isolates the variable reactivity associated with I2O5 as a function of its chemical reaction in various environments. Specifically, aluminum fuel and iodine oxide powder are combined using a carrier fluid to aid intermixing. The carrier fluid is shown to significantly affect the oxidation state of iodine oxide, thereby affecting the reactivity of the mixture. Four carrier fluids were investigated ranging in polarity and water miscibility in increasing order from hexane < acetone < isopropanol < water as well as untreated, dry-mixed reactants. Oxidation state and reactivity were examined with experimental techniques including X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results are compared with thermal equilibrium simulations. Flame speeds increased with polarity of the fluid used to intermix the powder and ranged from 180 to 1202 m s(-1). The I2O5 processed in the polar fluids formed hydrated states of iodine oxide: HIO3 and HI3O8; and, the nonpolar and dry-mixed samples formed: I2O4 and I4O9. During combustion, the hydrated iodine oxides rapidly dehydrated from HIO3 to HI3O8 and from HI3O8 to I2O5. Both steps release 25% of their mass as vapor during combustion. Increased gas generation enhances convective energy transport and accounts for the increase in reactivity seen in the mixtures processed in polar fluids. These results explain the chemical mechanisms underlying the variable reactivity of I2O5 that are a function of the oxide's highly reactive nature with its surrounding environment. These results will significantly impact the selection of carrier fluid in the synthesis approach for iodine containing reactive mixtures.

  18. A theoretical study on the formation of iodine oxide aggregates and monohydrates.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, O; Gómez Martín, J C; Gómez, P C; Saiz-Lopez, A; Pacios, L F

    2013-10-01

    Biotic and abiotic emissions of molecular iodine and iodocarbons from the sea or the ice surface and the intertidal zone to the coastal/polar marine boundary layer lead to the formation of iodine oxides, which subsequently nucleate forming iodine oxide particles (IOPs). Although the link between coastal iodine emissions and ultrafine aerosol bursts is well established, the details of the nucleation mechanism have not yet been elucidated. In this paper, results of a theoretical study of a range of potentially relevant aggregation reactions of different iodine oxides, as well as complexation with water molecules, are reported. Thermochemical properties of these reactions are obtained from high level ab initio correlated calculations including spin-orbit corrections. The results show that the nucleation path most likely proceeds through dimerisation of I2O4. It is also shown that water can hinder gas-to-particle conversion to some extent, although complexation with key iodine oxides does not remove enough of these to stop IOP formation. A consistent picture of this process emerges from the theoretical study presented here and the findings of a new laboratory study reported in the accompanying paper (Gomez Martin et al., 2013). PMID:23942644

  19. Oxidation of N,N-Disubstituted Hydroxylamines to Nitrones with Hypervalent Iodine Reagents.

    PubMed

    Matassini, Camilla; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Cardona, Francesca; Goti, Andrea

    2015-08-21

    Hypervalent iodine compounds are viable reagents for the oxidation of N,N-disubstituted hydroxylamines to the corresponding nitrones, with IBX performing best. The procedure is very simple and user-friendly and affords the target compounds with high efficiency and regioselectivity, highlighting IBX as the reagent of choice for preparation of aldonitrones from nonsymmetric hydroxylamines. Evidence for a mechanism involving nitrogen to iodine coordination has been collected.

  20. Iodine's impact on tropospheric oxidants: a global model study in GEOS-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwen, T.; Evans, M. J.; Carpenter, L. J.; Andrews, S. J.; Lidster, R. T.; Dix, B.; Koenig, T. K.; Sinreich, R.; Ortega, I.; Volkamer, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Prados-Roman, C.; Mahajan, A. S.; Ordóñez, C.

    2016-02-01

    We present a global simulation of tropospheric iodine chemistry within the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. This includes organic and inorganic iodine sources, standard gas-phase iodine chemistry, and simplified higher iodine oxide (I2OX, X = 2, 3, 4) chemistry, photolysis, deposition, and parametrized heterogeneous reactions. In comparisons with recent iodine oxide (IO) observations, the simulation shows an average bias of ˜ +90 % with available surface observations in the marine boundary layer (outside of polar regions), and of ˜ +73 % within the free troposphere (350 hPa < p < 900 hPa) over the eastern Pacific. Iodine emissions (3.8 Tg yr-1) are overwhelmingly dominated by the inorganic ocean source, with 76 % of this emission from hypoiodous acid (HOI). HOI is also found to be the dominant iodine species in terms of global tropospheric IY burden (contributing up to 70 %). The iodine chemistry leads to a significant global tropospheric O3 burden decrease (9.0 %) compared to standard GEOS-Chem (v9-2). The iodine-driven OX loss rate1 (748 Tg OX yr-1) is due to photolysis of HOI (78 %), photolysis of OIO (21 %), and reaction between IO and BrO (1 %). Increases in global mean OH concentrations (1.8 %) by increased conversion of hydroperoxy radicals exceeds the decrease in OH primary production from the reduced O3 concentration. We perform sensitivity studies on a range of parameters and conclude that the simulation is sensitive to choices in parametrization of heterogeneous uptake, ocean surface iodide, and I2OX (X = 2, 3, 4) photolysis. The new iodine chemistry combines with previously implemented bromine chemistry to yield a total bromine- and iodine-driven tropospheric O3 burden decrease of 14.4 % compared to a simulation without iodine and bromine chemistry in the model, and a small increase in OH (1.8 %). This is a significant impact and so halogen chemistry needs to be considered in both climate and air quality models. 1 Here OX is defined as O3 + NO2 + 2

  1. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

  2. Hypervalent iodine/TEMPO-mediated oxidation in flow systems: a fast and efficient protocol for alcohol oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ambreen, Nida; Kumar, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hypervalent iodine(III)/TEMPO-mediated oxidation of various aliphatic, aromatic and allylic alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds was successfully achieved by using microreactor technology. This method can be used as an alternative for the oxidation of various alcohols achieving excellent yields and selectivities in significantly shortened reaction times. PMID:23946840

  3. Iodine oxide in the global marine boundary layer: inorganic versus organic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados-Roman, Cristina; Cuevas, Carlos; Mahajan, Anoop; Fernandez, Rafael; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades iodine has been object of increasing interest in atmospheric chemistry due to its link to the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, the NOx and HOx partitioning and the formation of ultra-fine particles. Recently laboratory and numerous fieldwork efforts have been carried out trying to assess the sources and sinks of reactive iodine in the open marine environment. Within the framework of the Malaspina expedition, in 2010-2011 the Spanish research vessel Hesperides circumnavigated the world aiming at investigating the biogeochemistry, physical oceanography and microbiological biodiversity of the oceans from a multidisciplinary approach. During that 7-months campaign throughout the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, a MAX-DOAS system was deployed, along with a surface ozone instrument, in order to monitor the geographical distribution of relevant reactive iodine compounds such IO. Complementing this extensive dataset with results from previous works in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, we show not only the ubiquity of iodine oxide in the open marine boundary layer (MBL) ranging between 0.3-1 pptv levels, but also provide what is- to our knowledge- the most comprehensive global map of the of IO and O3 distribution in the subpolar MBL. Ultimately, by means of a photochemical model, we will address the contribution of inorganic and organic iodine sources to the measured levels of IO.

  4. Fast regioselective sulfonylation of pyridine/quinoline N-oxides induced by iodine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijia; Zeng, Zebing; Chen, Chuang; Yi, Niannian; Jiang, Jun; Cao, Zhong; Deng, Wei; Xiang, Jiannan

    2016-06-21

    Fast sulfonylation of pyridine/quinoline N-oxides induced by iodine is demonstrated herein. The regioselective protocol occurs under metal-free conditions in a short reaction time (10 min), exhibiting high efficiency (up to 92% yield) and good compatibility (up to 33 examples). A gram-scale reaction was conducted with only a slight loss of production. PMID:27219641

  5. Regiospecific oxidation of polycyclic aromatic phenols to quinones by hypervalent iodine reagents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anhui; Duan, Yazhen; Xu, Daiwang; Penning, Trevor M; Harvey, Ronald G

    2010-03-20

    The hypervalent iodine reagents o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) and bis(trifluoro-acetoxy)iodobenzene (BTI) are shown to be general reagents for regio-controlled oxidation of polycyclic aromatic phenols (PAPs) to specific isomers (ortho, para, or remote) of polycyclic aromatic quinones (PAQs). The oxidations of a series of PAPs with IBX take place under mild conditions to furnish the corresponding ortho-PAQs. In contrast, oxidations of the same series of PAPs with BTI exhibit variable regiospecificity, affording para-PAQs where structurally feasible and ortho-PAQs or remote PAQ isomers in other cases. The structures of the specific PAQ isomers formed are predictable on the basis of the inherent regioselectivities of the hypervalent iodine reagents in combination with the structural requirements of the phenol precursors. IBX and BTI are recommended as the preferred reagents for regio-controlled oxidation of PAPs to PAQs.

  6. 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid organosulfonates: preparation, X-ray structure and reactivity of new, powerful hypervalent iodine(V) oxidants.

    PubMed

    Yusubov, Mekhman S; Svitich, Dmitrii Yu; Yoshimura, Akira; Nemykin, Victor N; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2013-12-14

    New powerful hypervalent iodine(V) oxidants, tosylate and mesylate derivatives of 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX), were prepared by the reaction of IBX with the corresponding sulfonic acids. Single crystal X-ray crystallography of the diacetate derivative of IBX-tosylate revealed an unusual heptacoordinated iodine geometry without any significant intermolecular secondary interactions.

  7. Pioneering Metal-Free Oxidative Coupling Strategy of Aromatic Compounds Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yasuyuki; Dohi, Toshifumi

    2015-10-01

    We started our hypervalent iodine research about 30 years ago in the mid-1980s. We soon successfully developed the single-electron-transfer oxidation ability of a hypervalent iodine reagent, specifically, phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate) (PIFA), toward aromatic rings of phenyl ethers for forming aromatic cation radicals. This was one of the exciting and unexpected events in our research studies so far, and the discovery was reported in 1991. It also led to the next challenge, developing the metal-free oxidative couplings for C-H functionalizations and direct couplings between the C-H bonds of valuable aromatic compounds in organic synthesis. In order to realize the effective oxidative coupling, pioneering new aromatic ring activations was essential and several useful methodologies have been found for oxidizable arenes. The achievements regarding this objective obtained in our continuous research are herein summarized with classification of the aromatic ring activation strategies.

  8. Iodine doping effects on the lattice thermal conductivity of oxidized polyacetylene nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Kedong E-mail: kedongbi@seu.edu.cn; Weathers, Annie; Pettes, Michael T.; Shi, Li E-mail: kedongbi@seu.edu.cn; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo; Goh, Munju

    2013-11-21

    Thermal transport in oxidized polyacetylene (PA) nanofibers with diameters in the range between 74 and 126 nm is measured with the use of a suspended micro heater device. With the error due to both radiation and contact thermal resistance corrected via a differential measurement procedure, the obtained thermal conductivity of oxidized PA nanofibers varies in the range between 0.84 and 1.24 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} near room temperature, and decreases by 40%–70% after iodine doping. It is also found that the thermal conductivity of oxidized PA nanofibers increases with temperature between 100 and 350 K. Because of exposure to oxygen during sample preparation, the PA nanofibers are oxidized to be electrically insulating before and after iodine doping. The measurement results reveal that iodine doping can result in enhanced lattice disorder and reduced lattice thermal conductivity of PA nanofibers. If the oxidation issue can be addressed via further research to increase the electrical conductivity via doping, the observed suppressed lattice thermal conductivity in doped polymer nanofibers can be useful for the development of such conducting polymer nanostructures for thermoelectric energy conversion.

  9. Photodecomposition of iodinated contrast media and subsequent formation of toxic iodinated moieties during final disinfection with chlorinated oxidants.

    PubMed

    Allard, Sébastien; Criquet, Justine; Prunier, Anaïs; Falantin, Cécilia; Le Person, Annaïg; Yat-Man Tang, Janet; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-15

    Large amount of iodinated contrast media (ICM) are found in natural waters (up to μg.L(-)(1) levels) due to their worldwide use in medical imaging and their poor removal by conventional wastewater treatment. Synthetic water samples containing different ICM and natural organic matter (NOM) extracts were subjected to UV254 irradiation followed by the addition of chlorine (HOCl) or chloramine (NH2Cl) to simulate final disinfection. In this study, two new quantum yields were determined for diatrizoic acid (0.071 mol.Einstein(-1)) and iotalamic acid (0.038 mol.Einstein(-1)) while values for iopromide (IOP) (0.039 mol.Einstein(-1)), iopamidol (0.034 mol.Einstein(-1)) and iohexol (0.041 mol.Einstein(-1)) were consistent with published data. The photodegradation of IOP led to an increasing release of iodide with increasing UV doses. Iodide is oxidized to hypoiodous acid (HOI) either by HOCl or NH2Cl. In presence of NOM, the addition of oxidant increased the formation of iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs). On one hand, when the concentration of HOCl was increased, the formation of I-DBPs decreased since HOI was converted to iodate. On the other hand, when NH2Cl was used the formation of I-DBPs was constant for all concentration since HOI reacted only with NOM to form I-DBPs. Increasing the NOM concentration has two effects, it decreased the photodegradation of IOP by screening effect but it increased the number of reactive sites available for reaction with HOI. For experiments carried out with HOCl, increasing the NOM concentration led to a lower formation of I-DBPs since less IOP are photodegraded and iodate are formed. For NH2Cl the lower photodegradation of IOP is compensated by the higher amount of NOM reactive sites, therefore, I-DBPs concentrations were constant for all NOM concentrations. 7 different NOM extracts were tested and almost no differences in IOP degradation and I-DBPs formation was observed. Similar behaviour was observed for the 5 ICM

  10. Iodine from bacterial iodide oxidization by Roseovarius spp. inhibits the growth of other bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Lim, Choon-Ping; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2013-03-01

    Microbial activities in brine, seawater, or estuarine mud are involved in iodine cycle. To investigate the effects of the microbiologically induced iodine on other bacteria in the environment, a total of 13 bacteria that potentially participated in the iodide-oxidizing process were isolated from water or biofilm at a location containing 131 μg ml(-1) iodide. Three distinct strains were further identified as Roseovarius spp. based on 16 S rRNA gene sequences after being distinguished by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Morphological characteristics of these three Roseovarius spp. varied considerably across and within strains. Iodine production increased with Roseovarius spp. growth when cultured in Marine Broth with 200 μg ml(-1) iodide (I(-)). When 10(6) CFU/ml Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus pumilus were exposed to various concentrations of molecular iodine (I(2)), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 0.5, 1.0, and 1.0 μg ml(-1), respectively. However, fivefold increases in the MICs for Roseovarius spp. were obtained. In co-cultured Roseovarius sp. IOB-7 and E. coli in Marine Broth containing iodide (I(-)), the molecular iodine concentration was estimated to be 0.76 μg ml(-1) after 24 h and less than 50 % of E. coli was viable compared to that co-cultured without iodide. The growth inhibition of E. coli was also observed in co-cultures with the two other Roseovarius spp. strains when the molecular iodine concentration was assumed to be 0.52 μg ml(-1).

  11. Theoretical investigation on iodine oxides formation and their role in the production of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Óscar; Gomez, Pedro C.; Gomez-Martin, Juan C.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Pacios, Luis F.

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric iodine has received considerable attention in the past two decades due to both its potential role in the catalytic destruction of ozone (1) and its contribution to the formation of ultrafine particles (2). Seaweeds, marine phytoplankton, and abiotic processes release iodocarbons and I2 to the atmosphere, which are photo-oxidized giving iodine oxides that polymerize to finally form iodine oxide particles (IOPs). In the last years, some laboratory studies have been carried out to investigate this process (see e.g. (3)), however the complete mechanism of formation of such particles and the role of water, and other condensable vapors, in this process have not yet been elucidated. In this context, quantum calculations could help to unravel essential steps of these processes and to evaluate relevant physicochemical properties that can be incorporated into atmospheric models. In this contribution, we show results of a theoretical study on different reactions that iodine oxides, in the presence of water, can undergo to form IOPs. Thermodynamic and kinetic properties of these reactions have been obtained at high level ab initio correlated calculations that included relativistic corrections. In these calculations, we have used a relativistic effective potential (REP) and REP-optimized basis sets for iodine atom developed in our group, which have previously been employed in a theoretical study about several iodinated species (4). (1) Saiz-Lopez, A.; Mahajan, A.S.; Salmon, R.A.; Bauguitte, J.B.; Jones, A.E.; Roscoe, H.K.; Plane, J.M.C. Science 2007, 317, 348-351 (2) O'Dowd, C.D.; Jimenez, J.L.; Bahreini, R.; Flagan, R.C.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Hämeri, K.; Pirjola, L.; Kulmala, M.; Jennings, S.G.; Hoffmann, T. Nature, 2002, 417, 632-636. (3) Saunders, R.W.; Kumar, R.; Gómez Martin, J.C.; Mahajan, A.S.; Murray, B.J.; Plane, J.M.C. Z. Phys. Chem. 2010, 224, 1095-1117. (4) Pacios, L.F.; Gálvez, O. J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2010, 6, 1738-1752.

  12. Microstructural Effects on the Reactivity of Nano-Aluminum/Iodine (V) Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, B.; Welle, E.; Martinez, L.; Nittinger, J.; Bogle, M.; Emery, S.; Lindsay, C.; Schrand, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recent efforts investigating the self-ignition mechanism of nanoaluminum blended with iodine (V) oxide in the form of powders with and without additives suggests that ignition begins below the decomposition point of either reactant and takes place at the alumina shell surrounding the aluminum nanoparticle. As observed in previous studies of powder composites, microstructural features such as particle morphology are expected to strongly influence properties that govern the combustion behavior of this energetic material (EM). In this study, highly reactive composites containing amorphous and/or crystalline iodine oxide and micron/nano-sized Al was blended with an additive and deposited as films. Physiochemical techniques such as thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, high-speed imaging and planar doppler velocimetry were employed to characterize these EMs with emphasis on correlating the reaction rate (burn rate) with inherent microstructural features (porosity, thickness, TMD, etc). This work was a continuation of efforts to probe the self-ignition mechanism of Al-iodine (V) oxide composites.

  13. Microstructural Effects on the Reactivity of Nano-Aluminum/Iodine (V) Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Brian; Langhals, Jarred; Emery, Sam; Martinez, Lucas; Welle, Eric; Lindsay, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Recent efforts investigating the self-ignition mechanism of nanoaluminum blended with iodine (V) oxide in the form of powders with and without additives suggests that ignition begins below the decomposition point of either reactant and takes place at the alumina shell surrounding the aluminum nanoparticle. As observed in previous studies of powder composites, microstructural features such as particle morphology are expected to strongly influence properties that govern the combustion behavior of this energetic material (EM). In this study, highly reactive composites containing amorphous and/or crystalline iodine oxide and nano-sized Al was blended with an additive and deposited as films. Physiochemical techniques such as thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, high-speed imaging, time of arrival data via photodiodes and planar doppler velocimetry were employed to characterize these EMs with emphasis on correlating the reaction rate (burn rate) with inherent microstructural features (porosity, thickness, TMD, etc). This work was a continuation of efforts to probe the self-ignition mechanism of Al-iodine (V) oxide composites.

  14. Water temperature significantly impacts the formation of iodinated haloacetamides during persulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Hu, Jianglin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Xu, Bin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-07-01

    The use of persulfate oxidation processes is receiving increasing interest for the removal of aquatic contaminants. However, it is unknown whether its application in the presence of iodide has the potential to directly form iodinated DBPs. This study investigated formation of six chlorinated, brominated and iodinated di-haloacetamides (DHAcAms) during persulfate oxidation in the presence of bromide and iodide. Formation of the same DHAcAms during chlorination was monitored for comparison. Persulfate oxidation of natural water formed diiodoacetamide (DIAcAm), and heat-activated persulfate, at 45 °C and 55 °C, generated bromoiodoacetamide (BIAcAm) and dibromoacetamide (DBAcAm), besides DIAcAm. At an ambient iodide concentration of 0.3 μM, total DHAcAms increased slightly from 0.43 to 0.57 nM as the water temperature increased from 4 °C to 35 °C, respectively (only DIAcAm detected), then significantly increased to 1.6 nM at 55 °C (DIAcAm, BIAcAm and DBAcAm detected). Equivalent total DHAcAm concentrations in the presence of 3.0 μM iodide were 0.5, 0.91 and 2.1 nM, respectively. Total DHAcAms formed during chlorination, predominantly dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and bromochloroacetamide (BCAcAm), were always significantly higher than that during persulfate oxidation. However, an integrated risk assessment showed the toxicity resulting from the DHAcAms was higher during persulfate oxidation than chlorination. An increase in water temperature from 25 °C to 55 °C significantly increased the integrated toxic risk values for both persulfate oxidation and chlorination. Use of persulfate oxidation should be weighed against the formation of high-toxicity iodinated HAcAms in waters with high ambient iodide concentrations.

  15. The effect of iodine salts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of protein in stored processed meats.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to assess the effect of iodine salts (KI or KIO(3)) on lipid oxidation as well as changes in the availability of lysine and methionine and protein digestibility in frozen-stored processed meats. Three types of iodine salt carriers were used: table salt, wheat fiber and soy protein isolate. The results showed no catalytic effect of iodine salts on lipid oxidation in stored processed meats. The application of a protein isolate and wheat fiber resulted in the inhibition of lipid oxidation in meatballs. During storage of meat products the contents of available lysine and methionine as well as protein digestibility were decreased. The utilization of wheat fiber as an iodine salt carrier had a significant effect on the reduction of lysine losses. No protective properties were found for the wheat fiber or soy protein isolate towards methionine.

  16. Enantioselective Oxidative Rearrangements with Chiral Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Michael; Kumar, Ravi; Rehbein, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A stereoselective hypervalent iodine‐promoted oxidative rearrangement of 1,1‐disubstituted alkenes has been developed. This practically simple protocol provides access to enantioenriched α‐arylated ketones without the use of transition metals from readily accessible alkenes. PMID:26800241

  17. Nocturnal chemistry of iodine and nitrogen oxides - results from the iNOCHES campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, Dean; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wilson, Eoin; Varma, Ravi; Kleinschmitt, Christoph; Pöhler, Denis; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich; Bleicher, Sergej; Wittmer, Julian

    2014-05-01

    Recent field observations have led to suggestions that nitrogen oxide processes, and particularly the formation of IONO2, are critical to the nocturnal fate of atmospheric iodine. IONO2 decomposes on a timescale of several minutes to IO and NO2 and is an important tropospheric reservoir for iodine, but large uncertainties remain concerning both the rate coefficients of its formation and decomposition, and of its absorption cross-section and photolysis rate. To better constrain these uncertainties, a series of chamber experiments was carried out to investigate these reactions and molecular properties. The iodine-Nitrogen Oxides CHamber ExperimentS (iNOCHES) campaign involved groups from Bayreuth, Cork, and Heidelberg and early results from the campaign are presented here. Instrumentation included an unusually high number of broadband optical cavity spectrometers, providing direct measurements of NO2, IO, OIO, I2, NO3, and IONO2 in the near-UV, blue, green, and red spectral regions. Most reactions were carried out under dark conditions and at different temperatures. Because different reaction pathways dominate in the absence of light, the iNOCHES study complements other investigations of some of the same reactions via photolytically-initiated chemistry.

  18. Corrosion of iron by iodide-oxidizing bacteria isolated from brine in an iodine production facility.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Satoshi; Ito, Kimio; Iino, Takao; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Mori, Koji; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2014-10-01

    Elemental iodine is produced in Japan from underground brine (fossil salt water). Carbon steel pipes in an iodine production facility at Chiba, Japan, for brine conveyance were found to corrode more rapidly than those in other facilities. The corroding activity of iodide-containing brine from the facility was examined by immersing carbon steel coupons in "native" and "filter-sterilized" brine samples. The dissolution of iron from the coupons immersed in native brine was threefold to fourfold higher than that in the filter-sterilized brine. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses revealed that iodide-oxidizing bacteria (IOBs) were predominant in the coupon-containing native brine samples. IOBs were also detected in a corrosion deposit on the inner surface of a corroded pipe. These results strongly suggested the involvement of IOBs in the corrosion of the carbon steel pipes. Of the six bacterial strains isolated from a brine sample, four were capable of oxidizing iodide ion (I(-)) into molecular iodine (I(2)), and these strains were further phylogenetically classified into two groups. The iron-corroding activity of each of the isolates from the two groups was examined. Both strains corroded iron in the presence of potassium iodide in a concentration-dependent manner. This is the first report providing direct evidence that IOBs are involved in iron corrosion. Further, possible mechanisms by which IOBs corrode iron are discussed.

  19. Water temperature significantly impacts the formation of iodinated haloacetamides during persulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Hu, Jianglin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Xu, Bin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-07-01

    The use of persulfate oxidation processes is receiving increasing interest for the removal of aquatic contaminants. However, it is unknown whether its application in the presence of iodide has the potential to directly form iodinated DBPs. This study investigated formation of six chlorinated, brominated and iodinated di-haloacetamides (DHAcAms) during persulfate oxidation in the presence of bromide and iodide. Formation of the same DHAcAms during chlorination was monitored for comparison. Persulfate oxidation of natural water formed diiodoacetamide (DIAcAm), and heat-activated persulfate, at 45 °C and 55 °C, generated bromoiodoacetamide (BIAcAm) and dibromoacetamide (DBAcAm), besides DIAcAm. At an ambient iodide concentration of 0.3 μM, total DHAcAms increased slightly from 0.43 to 0.57 nM as the water temperature increased from 4 °C to 35 °C, respectively (only DIAcAm detected), then significantly increased to 1.6 nM at 55 °C (DIAcAm, BIAcAm and DBAcAm detected). Equivalent total DHAcAm concentrations in the presence of 3.0 μM iodide were 0.5, 0.91 and 2.1 nM, respectively. Total DHAcAms formed during chlorination, predominantly dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and bromochloroacetamide (BCAcAm), were always significantly higher than that during persulfate oxidation. However, an integrated risk assessment showed the toxicity resulting from the DHAcAms was higher during persulfate oxidation than chlorination. An increase in water temperature from 25 °C to 55 °C significantly increased the integrated toxic risk values for both persulfate oxidation and chlorination. Use of persulfate oxidation should be weighed against the formation of high-toxicity iodinated HAcAms in waters with high ambient iodide concentrations. PMID:27076062

  20. Iodinated contrast media cause direct tubular cell damage, leading to oxidative stress, low nitric oxide, and impairment of tubuloglomerular feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Zhao; Schmerbach, Kristin; Lu, Yuan; Perlewitz, Andrea; Nikitina, Tatiana; Cantow, Kathleen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Persson, Pontus B; Patzak, Andreas; Liu, Ruisheng; Sendeski, Mauricio M

    2014-04-15

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) have adverse effects that may result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in CM-induced kidney injury. We test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide in tubules are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage and that increased local oxidative stress may increase tubuloglomerular feedback. Rat thick ascending limbs (TAL) were isolated and perfused. Superoxide and nitric oxide were quantified using fluorescence techniques. Cell death rate was estimated using propidium iodide and trypan blue. The function of macula densa and tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness were measured in isolated, perfused juxtaglomerular apparatuses (JGA) of rabbits. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were investigated in the renal medulla of rats that received CM. CM increased superoxide concentration and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability in TAL. Propidium iodide fluorescence and trypan blue uptake increased more in CM-perfused TAL than in controls, indicating increased rate of cell death. There were no marked acute changes in the expression of genes related to oxidative stress in medullary segments of Henle's loop. SOD activity did not differ between CM and control groups. The tubuloglomerular feedback in isolated JGA was increased by CM. Tubular cell damage and accompanying oxidative stress in our model are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage, which also modifies the tubulovascular interaction at the macula densa, and may therefore contribute to disturbances of renal perfusion and filtration.

  1. Iodinated contrast media cause direct tubular cell damage, leading to oxidative stress, low nitric oxide, and impairment of tubuloglomerular feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi Zhao; Schmerbach, Kristin; Lu, Yuan; Perlewitz, Andrea; Nikitina, Tatiana; Cantow, Kathleen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Persson, Pontus B.; Liu, Ruisheng; Sendeski, Mauricio M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) have adverse effects that may result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in CM-induced kidney injury. We test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide in tubules are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage and that increased local oxidative stress may increase tubuloglomerular feedback. Rat thick ascending limbs (TAL) were isolated and perfused. Superoxide and nitric oxide were quantified using fluorescence techniques. Cell death rate was estimated using propidium iodide and trypan blue. The function of macula densa and tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness were measured in isolated, perfused juxtaglomerular apparatuses (JGA) of rabbits. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were investigated in the renal medulla of rats that received CM. CM increased superoxide concentration and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability in TAL. Propidium iodide fluorescence and trypan blue uptake increased more in CM-perfused TAL than in controls, indicating increased rate of cell death. There were no marked acute changes in the expression of genes related to oxidative stress in medullary segments of Henle's loop. SOD activity did not differ between CM and control groups. The tubuloglomerular feedback in isolated JGA was increased by CM. Tubular cell damage and accompanying oxidative stress in our model are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage, which also modifies the tubulovascular interaction at the macula densa, and may therefore contribute to disturbances of renal perfusion and filtration. PMID:24431205

  2. Oxidation of iodide and iodine on birnessite (delta-MnO2) in the pH range 4-8.

    PubMed

    Allard, Sébastien; von Gunten, Urs; Sahli, Elisabeth; Nicolau, Rudy; Gallard, Hervé

    2009-08-01

    The oxidation of iodide by synthetic birnessite (delta-MnO(2)) was studied in perchlorate media in the pH range 4-8. Iodine (I(2)) was detected as an oxidation product that was subsequently further oxidized to iodate (IO(3)(-)). The third order rate constants, second order on iodide and first order on manganese oxide, determined by extraction of iodine in benzene decreased with increasing pH (6.3-7.5) from 1790 to 3.1M(-2) s(-1). Both iodine and iodate were found to adsorb significantly on birnessite with an adsorption capacity of 12.7 microM/g for iodate at pH 5.7. The rate of iodine oxidation by birnessite decreased with increasing ionic strength, which resulted in a lower rate of iodate formation. The production of iodine in iodide-containing waters in contact with manganese oxides may result in the formation of undesired iodinated organic compounds (taste and odor, toxicity) in natural and technical systems. The probability of the formation of such compounds is highest in the pH range 5-7.5. For pH <5 iodine is quickly oxidized to iodate, a non-toxic and stable sink for iodine. At pH >7.5, iodide is not oxidized to a significant extent.

  3. Organo-Iodine(III)-Catalyzed Oxidative Phenol-Arene and Phenol-Phenol Cross-Coupling Reaction.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Koji; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Ohshika, Takao; Dohi, Toshifumi; Kita, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    The direct oxidative coupling reaction has been an attractive tool for environmentally benign chemistry. Reported herein is that the hypervalent iodine catalyzed oxidative metal-free cross-coupling reaction of phenols can be achieved using Oxone as a terminal oxidant in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (HFIP). This method features a high efficiency and regioselectivity, as well as functional-group tolerance under very mild reaction conditions without using metal catalysts. PMID:26879796

  4. A comparison of iodinated trihalomethane formation from chlorine, chlorine dioxide and potassium permanganate oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Xu, Bin; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Yi-Li; Lin, Lin; Ye, Tao; Tian, Fu-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) from iodide-containing raw waters oxidized by chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) and potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) at different oxidant concentrations, reaction times, pHs, initial iodide concentrations and bromide to iodide mass ratios. Among the six investigated I-THMs, iodoform was the major species formed during the oxidation using chlorine, ClO₂ and KMnO₄. When oxidant concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, the formation of I-THMs increased and then decreased for chlorine and ClO₂, but kept increasing for KMnO₄. As the reaction time went by, I-THM concentration increased to a plateau within 10 h (ClO₂ within only 1 h, especially) for all the three oxidants. I-THM formation gradually increased from pH 3.0 to 9.0 and remained stable at pH values higher than 7.5 for chlorine; however, for ClO₂ and KMnO₄ the highest I-THM formation showed at pH 7.0 and 7.5, respectively. As initial iodide concentration increased from 20 to 800 μg/L, the total amount and species of I-THMs increased for the three oxidants. Iodide contributed to I-THM formation much more significantly than bromide.

  5. Mechanism of Oxidative Amidation of Nitroalkanes with Oxygen and Amine Nucleophiles by Using Electrophilic Iodine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lear, Martin J; Kwon, Eunsang; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2016-04-11

    Recently, we developed a direct method to oxidatively convert primary nitroalkanes into amides that entailed mixing an iodonium source with an amine, base, and oxygen. Herein, we systematically investigated the mechanism and likely intermediates of such methods. We conclude that an amine-iodonium complex first forms through N-halogen bonding. This complex reacts with aci-nitronates to give both α-iodo- and α,α-diiodonitroalkanes, which can act as alternative sources of electrophilic iodine and also generate an extra equimolar amount of I(+) under O2. In particular, evidence supports α,α-diiodonitroalkane intermediates reacting with molecular oxygen to form a peroxy adduct; alternatively, these tetrahedral intermediates rearrange anaerobically to form a cleavable nitrite ester. In either case, activated esters are proposed to form that eventually reacts with nucleophilic amines in a traditional fashion.

  6. Mechanism of Oxidative Amidation of Nitroalkanes with Oxygen and Amine Nucleophiles by Using Electrophilic Iodine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lear, Martin J; Kwon, Eunsang; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2016-04-11

    Recently, we developed a direct method to oxidatively convert primary nitroalkanes into amides that entailed mixing an iodonium source with an amine, base, and oxygen. Herein, we systematically investigated the mechanism and likely intermediates of such methods. We conclude that an amine-iodonium complex first forms through N-halogen bonding. This complex reacts with aci-nitronates to give both α-iodo- and α,α-diiodonitroalkanes, which can act as alternative sources of electrophilic iodine and also generate an extra equimolar amount of I(+) under O2. In particular, evidence supports α,α-diiodonitroalkane intermediates reacting with molecular oxygen to form a peroxy adduct; alternatively, these tetrahedral intermediates rearrange anaerobically to form a cleavable nitrite ester. In either case, activated esters are proposed to form that eventually reacts with nucleophilic amines in a traditional fashion. PMID:26938791

  7. Laccase-catalyzed oxidation of iodide and formation of organically bound iodine in soils.

    PubMed

    Seki, Miharu; Oikawa, Jun-ichi; Taguchi, Taro; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Amachi, Seigo

    2013-01-01

    Laccase oxidizes iodide to molecular iodine or hypoiodous acid, both of which are easily incorporated into natural soil organic matter. In this study, iodide sorption and laccase activity in 2 types of Japanese soil were determined under various experimental conditions to evaluate possible involvement of this enzyme in the sorption of iodide. Batch sorption experiment using radioactive iodide tracer ((125)I(-)) revealed that the sorption was significantly inhibited by autoclaving (121 °C, 40 min), heat treatment (80 and 100 °C, 10 min), γ-irradiation (30 kGy), N(2) gas flushing, and addition of reducing agents and general laccase inhibitors (KCN and NaN(3)). Interestingly, very similar tendency of inhibition was observed in soil laccase activity, which was determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as a substrate. The partition coefficient (K(d): mL g(-1)) for iodide and specific activity of laccase in soils (Unit g(-1)) showed significant positive correlation in both soil samples. Addition of a bacterial laccase with an iodide-oxidizing activity to the soils strongly enhanced the sorption of iodide. Furthermore, the enzyme addition partially restored iodide sorption capacity of the autoclaved soil samples. These results suggest that microbial laccase is involved in iodide sorption on soils through the oxidation of iodide.

  8. Formation of iodinated disinfection by-products during oxidation of iodide-containing water with potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yi-Li; Hu, Chen-Yan; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Lin, Lin; Mwakagenda, Seleli Andrew; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2012-11-30

    This study shows that iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) including iodoform (IF), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA) can be produced when iodide-containing waters are in contact with potassium permanganate. IF was found as the major I-DBP species during the oxidation. Iodide was oxidized to HOI, I(2) and I(3)(-), consequently, which led to the formation of iodinated organic compounds. I-DBPs varied with reaction time, solution pH, initial concentrations of iodide and potassium permanganate. Yields of IF, IAA and TIAA increased with reaction time and considerable I-DBPs were formed within 12 h. Peak IF yields were found at circumneutral pH range. However, formation of IAA and TIAA was favored under acidic conditions. Molar ratio of iodide to potassium permanganate showed significant influence on formation of IF, IAA and TIAA. The formation of IF, IAA and TIAA also depended on the characteristics of the waters.

  9. Iodine-Catalyzed Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reaction: A Regioselective Sulfenylation of Imidazoheterocycles Using Dimethyl Sulfoxide as an Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Siddaraju, Yogesh; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2016-09-01

    A regioselective formation of C-S bonds has been achieved using a cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) protocol using iodine as a catalyst and dimethyl sulfoxide as an oxidant under green chemistry conditions. This strategy employs the reaction of easily available heterocyclic thiols or thiones with imidazoheterocycles. This protocol provides an efficient, mild, and inexpensive method for sulfenylation of imidazoheterocycles with a diverse range of heterocyclic thiols and heterocyclic thiones. PMID:27490357

  10. UV-vis spectroscopy of iodine adsorbed on alkali-metal-modified zeolite catalysts for addition of carbon dioxide to ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Doskocil, E.J.; Bordawekar, S.V.; Kaye, B.G.; Davis, R.J.

    1999-07-29

    The basicity of alkali-metal-exchange (Na, K, Cs) zeolites X and Y was probed by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of adsorbed iodine. The observed blue shift in the visible absorption spectrum of adsorbed iodine, compared to gaseous iodine, correlated well with the negative charge on the framework oxygen atoms calculated from the Sanderson electronegativity equalization principle. The blue shifts associated with iodine adsorbed on classical catalytic supports like silica, alumina, and magnesia suggest that the iodine adsorption technique for probing basicity is applicable to a wide variety of solids. Iodine was also adsorbed on X and Y zeolites containing occluded cesium oxide formed by decomposition of impregnated cesium acetate. However, the iodine appeared to irreversibly react on these strongly basic samples, possibly forming an adsorbed triiodide ions. As a complement to the adsorption studies, the activity of alkali-metal-containing zeolites for the base-catalyzed formation of ethylene carbonate from ethylene oxide and carbon dioxide was investigated. Among the ion-exchanged zeolites, the cesium form of zeolite X exhibited the highest activity for ethylene carbonate formation. The catalytic activity of a zeolite containing occluded cesium was even higher than that of a cesium-exchanged zeolite. The presence of water adsorbed in zeolite pores promoted the rate of ethylene carbonate formation for both cesium-exchanged and cesium-impregnated zeolite X.

  11. Effects of 3,5-Diiodotyrosine and Potassium Iodide on Thyroid Function and Oxidative Stress in Iodine-Excess Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Lin, Xinying; Yu, Fugui; Zhang, Man; Chen, Hongxia; Bao, Wei; Wang, Xia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of organic iodine (3,5-diiodotyrosine, DIT) and inorganic iodine (potassium iodine, KI) on thyroid function and oxidative stress in iodine-excess Wistar rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups: normal control (NC), thyroid tablet-induced hyperthyroidism model (HM), low DIT (L-DIT), medium DIT (M-DIT), high DIT (H-DIT), low KI (L-KI), medium KI (M-KI), and high KI (H-KI). All rats were fed ad libitum for 30 days. Morphological changes in the thyroid, absolute and relative weights of the thyroid, thyroid function markers free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4), urinary iodine level, and oxidative stress indicators were measured. Compared to the HM groups, the FT3 and FT4 levels decreased in the L-DIT groups; the thyroid weight and thyroid weight/body weight values decreased markedly in the L-DIT and M-DIT groups; serum superoxide dismutase/malondialdehyde increased markedly; glutathione peroxidase activity increased markedly in the L-DIT groups; and malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in the M-DIT groups. However, the FT3 and FT4 levels decreased and glutathione peroxidase levels increased significantly in the DIT groups compared to their corresponding KI groups. Additionally, urinary iodine levels increased significantly in both DIT and KI groups, while the highest urinary iodine excretion was showed in the DIT groups among groups. When the addition of iodine with the same doses in iodine-excess rats, although neither DIT nor KI normalized iodine levels in the iodine-excess rats, the DIT did less damage than did KI to thyroid follicular cells. Therefore, DIT rather than KI had a protective effect by balancing the antioxidant system when exposed to supraphysiological iodine. These suggest that DIT may be used as a new alternative iodized salt in the universal salt iodization to avoid the potential damage of surplus KI. PMID:26002813

  12. Effects of 3,5-Diiodotyrosine and Potassium Iodide on Thyroid Function and Oxidative Stress in Iodine-Excess Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Lin, Xinying; Yu, Fugui; Zhang, Man; Chen, Hongxia; Bao, Wei; Wang, Xia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of organic iodine (3,5-diiodotyrosine, DIT) and inorganic iodine (potassium iodine, KI) on thyroid function and oxidative stress in iodine-excess Wistar rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups: normal control (NC), thyroid tablet-induced hyperthyroidism model (HM), low DIT (L-DIT), medium DIT (M-DIT), high DIT (H-DIT), low KI (L-KI), medium KI (M-KI), and high KI (H-KI). All rats were fed ad libitum for 30 days. Morphological changes in the thyroid, absolute and relative weights of the thyroid, thyroid function markers free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4), urinary iodine level, and oxidative stress indicators were measured. Compared to the HM groups, the FT3 and FT4 levels decreased in the L-DIT groups; the thyroid weight and thyroid weight/body weight values decreased markedly in the L-DIT and M-DIT groups; serum superoxide dismutase/malondialdehyde increased markedly; glutathione peroxidase activity increased markedly in the L-DIT groups; and malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in the M-DIT groups. However, the FT3 and FT4 levels decreased and glutathione peroxidase levels increased significantly in the DIT groups compared to their corresponding KI groups. Additionally, urinary iodine levels increased significantly in both DIT and KI groups, while the highest urinary iodine excretion was showed in the DIT groups among groups. When the addition of iodine with the same doses in iodine-excess rats, although neither DIT nor KI normalized iodine levels in the iodine-excess rats, the DIT did less damage than did KI to thyroid follicular cells. Therefore, DIT rather than KI had a protective effect by balancing the antioxidant system when exposed to supraphysiological iodine. These suggest that DIT may be used as a new alternative iodized salt in the universal salt iodization to avoid the potential damage of surplus KI.

  13. Effects of iodine intercalation into Bi-based copper oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Akihiko; Koike, Yoji; Sasaki, Keiichi; Noji, Takashi; Saito, Yoshitami )

    1994-02-01

    We have investigated the stage-1 iodine-intercalation compounds, whose host materials are Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]Ca[sub 1[minus]x]Y[sub x]Cu[sub 2]O[sub 8] (Bi-2212 phase) and Bi[sub 1.6]Pb[sub 0.5]Sr[sub 1.9[minus]x]La[sub x]Cu[sub 1.05]O[sub 6] (Bi-2201 phase) with various x values. In the Bi-2212 phase, it has been found that the change in Tc through the stage-1 iodine intercalation is due to two effects: a change of the two-dimensionality and an increase in the carrier number. The former effect decreases Tc by about 10 K independent of the carrier number of the host sample. The latter effect shifts the x dependence of Tc to larger x values by about 0.08, taking account of oxygen release from the host samples during the intercalation process. This result is clear evidence for the occurrence of both the change of two-dimensionality and the increase in carrier number about 0.04 per CuO[sub 2] unit due to the charge transfer through the stage-1 iodine intercalation. In the Bi-2201 phase, Tc decreases by about 10 K through the stage-1 iodine intercalation. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Silver oxide nanocrystals anchored on titanate nanotubes and nanofibers: promising candidates for entrapment of radioactive iodine anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongjiang; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Long; Sarina, Sarina; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-10-01

    Iodine radioisotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials. The 129I- anion is one of the more mobile radioactive species due to a long half-life, and it is a great challenge to design long-term management solutions for such radioactive waste. In this study, a new adsorbent structure with the potential to efficiently remove radioactive iodine anions (I-) from water is devised: silver oxide (Ag2O) nanocrystals firmly anchored on the surface of titanate nanotubes and nanofibers via coherent interfaces between Ag2O and titanate phases. I- anions in fluids can easily access the Ag2O nanocrystals and be efficiently trapped by forming AgI precipitate that firmly attaches to the adsorbent. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be readily dispersed in liquids and easily separated after purification; and the adsorption beds loaded with the adsorbents can permit high flux. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The proposed structure reveals a new direction in developing efficient adsorbents for the removal of radioactive anions from wastewater.Iodine radioisotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials. The 129I- anion is one of the more mobile radioactive species due to a long half-life, and it is a great challenge to design long-term management solutions for such radioactive waste. In this study, a new adsorbent structure with the potential to efficiently remove radioactive iodine anions (I-) from water is devised: silver oxide (Ag2O) nanocrystals firmly anchored on the surface of titanate nanotubes and nanofibers via coherent interfaces between Ag2O and titanate phases. I- anions in fluids can easily access the Ag2O nanocrystals and be efficiently trapped by forming AgI precipitate that firmly attaches to the adsorbent. Due to their one

  15. On the possibility of iodide oxidation in the near-surface of the Black Sea and its implications to iodine in the general ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truesdale, Victor W.; Watts, Simon F.; Rendell, A. R.

    2001-11-01

    Iodide oxidation to iodate in near-surface waters of the open oceans is an elusive process, and an unequivocal demonstration of it would simplify modelling of the marine iodine system. In the open ocean, the upward advection of iodate complicates any mathematical treatment of the problem. In this context, the high concentration (0.1 μM) of iodate in the Black Sea surface waters suggested that this Sea might be a place where oxidation might be demonstrated. Hydrologically, the surface waters of the Black Sea appear to be downstream of the deeper waters and, given the latter's anoxicity, the surface waters seemed likely to gain most of their iodine as iodide by upward advection. To test this further, prior to experimentation, an iodine budget for the near-surface waters, based upon the latest hydrological model of the Sea was prepared; this predicts a minimum oxidation flux of 3.89×10 -4 mol I m -2 a -1. The chemistry of this oxidation is discussed in the light of existing knowledge of the sulfide system. It is argued that as the redox potential of the IO 3-/I - and I 2/I - couples at pHs typical of the Black Sea (7.75) are much higher than that of the sulfate-sulfide couple, iodide is probably oxidized in the near-surface domain. This contrasts with sulfide oxidation in the suboxic zone. The possible role of nitrifying bacteria in the oxidation is discussed.

  16. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Iodine is found in: Amiodarone (Cordarone) Chemicals (catalysts) for photography and engraving Dyes and inks Lugol's solution Pima syrup Potassium iodide Radioactive iodine used for certain medical tests or the treatment ...

  17. High-precision gravimetric coulometry using the silver-perchloric acid coulometer: Titration of arsenious oxide with electrogenerated iodine.

    PubMed

    Newton, C M

    1977-06-01

    High-precision gravimetric coulometry with a silver-perchloric acid coulometer is evaluated as an alternative to the conventional titrimetric method. The loss of weight (caused by electrolytic dissolution) of a highly pure silver anode in series with the cathode of a conventional constant-current titration system is measured and related to the number of equivalents of substance titrated. The precision of the method is determined by titrations of the Standard Reference Material 83C arsenious oxide (99.99% pure) with electrogenerated iodine, using biamperometric end-point detection. Depending on the size of the sample, an ultimate precision of 25 ppm is obtained. The assay for 0.5-g samples of the SRM material is 99.993(9) +/- 0.002(5)% purity.

  18. Synthesis of 2-azaindolizines by using an iodine-mediated oxidative desulfurization promoted cyclization of N-2-pyridylmethyl thioamides and an investigation of their photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Fumitoshi; Kitagawa, Asumi; Yamaguchi, Eiji; Murai, Toshiaki

    2006-11-23

    Iodine-mediated, oxidative desulfurization promoted cyclization of N-2-pyridylmethyl thioamides serves as an efficient and versatile method for the preparation of 2-azaindolizines (imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines) and rare 2-azaindolizine sulfur-bridged dimers. The 2-azaindolizines prepared in this manner are readily converted to a variety of fluorescent compounds by using transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. [reaction: see text]. PMID:17107087

  19. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Sihan; Wang, Yao; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Lu; Du, Xiaoxia; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT)/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs). Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2) markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/CT/fluorescence trimodal imaging. PMID:24904212

  20. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Xue, Sihan; Wang, Yao; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Lu; Du, Xiaoxia; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT)/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs). Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2) markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/CT/fluorescence trimodal imaging. PMID:24904212

  1. Synthetic applications of pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Akira; Yusubov, Mekhman S; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2016-06-01

    Hypervalent iodine compounds have found wide practical application as versatile, efficient, and sustainable reagents for organic synthesis. Pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine derivatives are characterized by the presence of additional intramolecular non-covalent coordination at the iodine center, which leads to significant alteration of their physical and chemical properties. In comparison with common hypervalent iodine reagents, these pseudocyclic compounds have higher thermal stability, better solubility, and improved reactivity. In recent years, pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine reagents are increasingly used in organic synthesis as environmentally friendly selective oxidants and electrophiles. Furthermore, numerous enantioselective reactions mediated by chiral pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine species have been recently developed. In the present review, the preparation and structural features of pseudocyclic iodine(iii) and iodine(v) derivatives are discussed, and recent developments in their synthetic applications are summarized. PMID:27143521

  2. Interactions between metal oxides and species of nitrogen and iodine in bioturbated marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Sundby, Bjørn; Lefrançois, Lucie; Luther, George W.; Mucci, Alfonso

    2000-08-01

    By using a gold amalgam (Au/Hg) voltammetric microelectrode, we have measured simultaneously and with millimeter resolution the distributions of O 2, Mn(II), Fe(II), I(-I), and HS(-I) in bioturbated sediment cores from the Laurentian Trough. We also measured nitrate and ammonia in the pore water, total I and ascorbate- and HCl-extractable Fe and Mn in the solid-phase sediment, and fluxes of O 2, NO 3-, and NH 4+ across the sediment-water interface. The concentrations of O 2 and Mn(II) were below their respective detection limits of 3 and 5 μM between 4 and 12 mm depth, but a sharp iodide maximum occurred at the depth where upward diffusing Mn(II) was being removed. We propose that the iodide peak is maintained through the reduction of IO 3- by Mn(II), reoxidation of I(-I) to IO 3- in the oxic zone above the peak and oxidation to I 2 below where it is ultimately trapped by reaction with organic matter. The iodide production rate is sufficient to account for the oxidation of all of the upward diffusing Mn(II) by IO 3-. Nitrate plus nitrite (ΣNO 3) decreased to a minimum within 10 mm of the sediment-water interface, in agreement with flux measurements which showed ΣNO 3 uptake by the sediment. Below the minimum, ΣNO 3 rebounded, and reached a maximum at 40- to 50-mm depth. This rebound is attributed to the anaerobic oxidation of ammonia by manganese oxides. Fe(II) was always first detected below the anoxic ΣNO 3 maximum, and was accompanied by colloidal or complexed Fe(III). A sharp upward-directed ammonia gradient was recorded near the sediment-water interface, but no ammonia was released during the first 48 h of the incubations. If the ammonia removal were due to coupled bacterial nitrification-denitrification, more than one half of the total measured oxygen uptake (6.7 to 7.3 mmol/m 2/d) would be required, and more organic carbon would be oxidized by nitrate than by oxygen. This scenario is not supported by nitrate flux calculations. Alternatively, the

  3. Asymmetric oxidative dearomatizations promoted by hypervalent iodine(III) reagents: an opportunity for rational catalyst design?

    PubMed Central

    Harned, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of and λ3- and λ5-iodanes in the oxidative dearomatization of phenols is a well-established and general procedure for the construction of cyclohexadienone structures. However, their use in asymmetric dearomatization reactions is quite underdeveloped and, despite work by several research groups over the past several years, a general chiral aryl iodide catalyst has yet to emerge. This article will serve to highlight the significant progress that has been made in this area and will reveal some of deficiencies in the literature that the author believes may be hindering further progress. PMID:25147412

  4. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlargement of the thyroid (goiter – see Goiter brochure ), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ) and to mental retardation in infants and ... when lying down, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. HYPOTHYROIDISM – As the body’s iodine levels fall, hypothyroidism may ...

  5. Models of the formation of oxide phases in nanostructured materials based on lead chalcogenides subjected to treatment in oxygen and iodine vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Maraeva, E. V. Moshnikov, V. A.; Tairov, Yu. M.

    2013-10-15

    Model concepts concerning control over the formation of oxide layers during the course of oxidation are developed on the basis of experimental results of studies of systematic features of the formation of nanostructured layers after diffusion annealing. Data on a variation in the composition of oxide phases as the extent of deviation from stoichiometry is changed in the initial lead chalcogenide are presented. Model concepts related to the possibility of varying the thickness of the coating oxide phases using annealing in an oxygen-containing medium are developed. It is shown that annealing in an iodine atmosphere ensures the effective penetration of oxygen into the grains, which is necessary for an increase in the photoluminescence efficiency.

  6. Formation of iodinated disinfection by-products during oxidation of iodide-containing waters with chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yi-Li; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2013-06-01

    This study was to explore the formation of iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs), including iodoform (CHI3), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA), when iodide-containing artificial synthesized waters and raw waters are in contact with chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Among the investigated I-DBPs, CHI3 was the major species during ClO2 oxidation in artificial synthesized waters. Impact factors were evaluated, including the concentrations of ClO2, iodide (I(-)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH. Formation of CHI3, IAA and TIAA followed an increasing and then decreasing pattern with increased ClO2 or DOC concentration. I-DBPs yield was significantly affected by solution pH. High concentrations of I-DBPs were generated under circumneutral conditions with the maximum formation at pH 8. The increase of I(-) concentration can increase I-DBPs yields, but the increment was suppressed when I(-) concentration was higher than 50 μM. When 100 μg/L I(-)and ClO2 (7.5-44.4 μM) were spiked to the raw water samples from Yangshupu and Minhang drinking water treatment plant, certain amounts of CHI3 and IAA were found under pH 7 and the concentrations were strongly correlated with ClO2 dosage and water qualities, however, no TIAA was detected. Finally, we investigated I-DBPs formation of 18 model compounds, including 4 carboxylic acids, 5 phenols and 8 amino acids, treating with ClO2 when I(-) was present. Results showed that most of these model compounds could form a considerable amount of I-DBPs, especially for propanoic acid, butanoic acid, resorcinol, hydroquinone, alanine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine and serine.

  7. Redox transformations and transport of cesium and iodine (-1, 0, +5) in oxidizing and reducing zones of a sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, P.M.; Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tracer tests were performed in distinct biogeochemical zones of a sand and gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, MA, to study the redox chemistry (I) and transport (Cs, I) of cesium and iodine in a field setting. Injection of iodide (I -) into an oxic zone of the aquifer resulted in oxidation of I - to molecular iodine (I2) and iodate (IO3-) over transport distances of several meters. Oxidation is attributed to Mn-oxides present in the sediment. Transport of injected IO 3- and Cs+ was retarded in the mildly acidic oxic zone, with retardation factors of 1.6-1.8 for IO3- and 2.3-4.4for Cs. Cs retardation was likely due to cation exchange reactions. Injection of IO3- into a Fe-reducing zone of the aquifer resulted in rapid and complete reduction to I- within 3 m of transport. The nonconservative behavior of Cs and I observed during the tracer tests underscores the necessity of taking the redox chemistry of I as well as sorption properties of I species and Cs into account when predicting transport of radionuclides (e.g., 129I and 137Cs) in the environment.

  8. Redox transformations and transport of cesium and iodine (-1, 0, +5) in oxidizing and reducing zones of a sand and gravel aquifer.

    PubMed

    Fox, Patricia M; Kent, Douglas B; Davis, James A

    2010-03-15

    Tracer tests were performed in distinct biogeochemical zones of a sand and gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, MA, to study the redox chemistry (I) and transport (Cs, I) of cesium and iodine in a field setting. Injection of iodide (I(-)) into an oxic zone of the aquifer resulted in oxidation of I(-) to molecular iodine (I(2)) and iodate (10(3)(-)) over transport distances of several meters. Oxidation is attributed to Mn-oxides present in the sediment Transport of injected 10(3)(-) and Cs(+) was retarded in the mildly acidic oxic zone, with retardation factors of 1.6-1.8 for 10(3)(-) and 2.3-4.4 for Cs. Cs retardation was likely due to cation exchange reactions. Injection of 10(3)(-) into a Fe-reducing zone of the aquifer resulted in rapid and complete reduction to I(-) within 3 m of transport. Then on conservative behavior of Cs and I observed during the tracer tests underscores the necessity of taking the redox chemistry of I as well as sorption properties of I species and Cs into account when predicting transport of radionuclides (e.g., (129)I and (137)Cs) in the environment.

  9. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  10. Iodine-mediated solvent-controlled selective electrophilic cyclization and oxidative esterification of o-alkynyl aldehydes: an easy access to pyranoquinolines, pyranoquinolinones, and isocumarins.

    PubMed

    Verma, Akhilesh K; Rustagi, Vineeta; Aggarwal, Trapti; Singh, Amit P

    2010-11-19

    Chemoselective behavior of iodine in different solvents in the electrophilic iodocyclization of o-alkynyl aldehydes is described. o-Alkynyl aldehydes 3a-t on reaction with I2 in CH2Cl2 with appropriate nucleophiles provides pyrano[4,3-b]quinolines 4a-f, via formation of cyclic iodonium intermediate Q; however, using alcohols as a solvent as well as nucleophile, o-alkynyl esters 5a-y were obtained selectively in good to excellent yields via formation of hypoiodide intermediate R. Subsequently, o-alkynyl esters were converted in to pyranoquinolinones 6a-i and isocoumarin 6j by electrophilic iodocyclization. This developed oxidative esterification provides a novel access for the chemoselective synthesis of esters 5q-u from aldehydes 3n-p without oxidizing primary alcohol present in the substrate.

  11. Atmospheric iodine levels influenced by sea surface emissions of inorganic iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Lucy J.; MacDonald, Samantha M.; Shaw, Marvin D.; Kumar, Ravi; Saunders, Russell W.; Parthipan, Rajendran; Wilson, Julie; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-02-01

    Naturally occurring bromine- and iodine-containing compounds substantially reduce regional, and possibly even global, tropospheric ozone levels. As such, these halogen gases reduce the global warming effects of ozone in the troposphere, and its capacity to initiate the chemical removal of hydrocarbons such as methane. The majority of halogen-related surface ozone destruction is attributable to iodine chemistry. So far, organic iodine compounds have been assumed to serve as the main source of oceanic iodine emissions. However, known organic sources of atmospheric iodine cannot account for gas-phase iodine oxide concentrations in the lower troposphere over the tropical oceans. Here, we quantify gaseous emissions of inorganic iodine following the reaction of iodide with ozone in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that the reaction of iodide with ozone leads to the formation of both molecular iodine and hypoiodous acid. Using a kinetic box model of the sea surface layer and a one-dimensional model of the marine boundary layer, we show that the reaction of ozone with iodide on the sea surface could account for around 75% of observed iodine oxide levels over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. According to the sea surface model, hypoiodous acid--not previously considered as an oceanic source of iodine--is emitted at a rate ten-fold higher than that of molecular iodine under ambient conditions.

  12. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  13. Hypervalent iodine(III)-induced oxidative [4+2] annulation of o-phenylenediamines and electron-deficient alkynes: direct synthesis of quinoxalines from alkyne substrates under metal-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Sota; Takeda, Youhei; Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Minakata, Satoshi

    2013-10-18

    Hypervalent iodine(III)-induced oxidative [4+2] annulation of o-phenylenediamines and electron-deficient alkynes under metal-free conditions has been developed. The reaction allows for direct access to quinoxalines bearing two electron-withdrawing groups in an efficient manner.

  14. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... are good sources. Kelp is the most common vegetable-seafood that is a rich source of iodine. ... iodine deficiency is generally not a problem. Iodine poisoning is rare in the U.S. Very high intake ...

  15. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  16. The geochemistry of iodine - a review.

    PubMed

    Fuge, R; Johnson, C C

    1986-06-01

    Iodine has long been recognised as an important element environmentally. Despite this there are many gaps in our knowledge of its geochemistry and even where information is available much of this is based on old data which, in the light of recent data, are suspect.Iodine forms few independent minerals and is unlikely to enter most rock-forming minerals. In igneous rocks its concentration is fairly uniform and averages 0.24 mg/kg. Sedimentary rocks tend to have higher concentrations with average iodine contents of:-recent sediments 5-200 mg/kg, carbonates 2.7 mg/kg, shales 2.3 mg/kg and sandstones 0.8 mg/kg. Organic-rich sediments are particularly enriched in iodine.Soils, generally, are much richer in iodine than the parent rocks with the actual level being decided mainly by soil type and locality. Little soil iodine is water-soluble and much iodine is thought to be associated with organic matter, clays and aluminium and iron oxides. Most iodine in soils is derived from the atmosphere where, in turn, it has been derived from the oceans. Seawater has a mean iodine content of 58 μg/L, while non-saline surface waters have lower and very variable levels. Subsurface brines and mineral waters are generally strongly enriched in iodine.Marine plants are frequently enriched in iodine while terrestrial plants have generally low contents. Iodine is essential for all mammals.Consideration of the geochemical cycle of iodine reveals that its transfer from the oceans to the atmosphere is probably the most important process in its geochemistry.

  17. Hair Iodine for Human Iodine Status Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Prejac, Juraj; Višnjević, Vjeran; Skalnaya, Margarita G.; Mimica, Ninoslav; Drmić, Stipe; Skalny, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, human iodine deficiency is, after iron, the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine, which reflects very recent iodine exposure; a long-term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. Methods: We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The hair iodine median was 0.499 μg/g, and was 0.482 and 0.508 μg/g for men and women respectively, suggesting no sex-related difference. We studied hair iodine uptake by analyzing the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy, and excess. We estimated overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration was below 0.1–0.15 μg/g. Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.1–2.0 μg/g where the deposition of iodine in the hair was linearly increasing (R2=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0 μg/g and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Conclusion: Hair appears to be a valuable and robust biological indicator tissue for assessing long-term iodine status. We propose that an adequate iodine status corresponds with hair iodine uptake saturation of 0.565–0.739 μg/g (55–65%). PMID:24446669

  18. Observing iodine monoxide from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Begoin, Mathias; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    Iodine and iodine monoxide (IO) belong to the group of reactive halogen species, and they may impact on atmospheric chemical composition and the radiation budget. Vice versa, sur-rounding conditions may influence the emissions and pathways of iodine compounds. Although atmospheric amounts of iodine are typically fairly small, the impact may still be substantial. Iodine radicals are photolytically released from precursors and may then cause catalytic ozone depletion. In this reaction with ozone, IO is produced, a molecule which plays a central role in the iodine cycling. Via self reactions of IO, higher iodine oxides form and initiate the formation of new particles, which may change the atmospheric radiation balance. Apart from that, many living species, including human beings, vertebrates in general, but also micro-and macroalgae species, e.g., depend on the supply with iodine. Consequently, it is necessary to understand the cycling of iodine through the different components of the Earth system. Although increas-ing research effort in the form of field, laboratory and modeling studies has strongly improved our knowledge and understanding of iodine abundances and impact, still many open questions remain. The relevance of iodine on a global scale is not well known yet; sources are not well quantified and release processes are not fully understood. Since recently, IO may be observed from space by the SCIAMACHY instrument on the EN-VISAT satellite, which is in a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. Nadir observations from SCIAMACHY have been analysed for the IO absorption signature in the visible wavelength range for several mission years. IO amounts are typically close to the limit of detectability of SCIAMACHY. Detecting such small quantities, careful attention needs to be paid to system-atic errors, spectral correlations and resulting retrieval artefacts. Subsequently, appropriate temporal averaging is utilised to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting

  19. Reductive and oxidative degradation of iopamidol, iodinated X-ray contrast media, by Fe(III)-oxalate under UV and visible light treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cen; Arroyo-Mora, Luis E; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Sharma, Virender K; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2014-12-15

    Iopamidol, widely employed as iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM), is readily degraded in a Fe(III)-oxalate photochemical system under UV (350 nm) and visible light (450 nm) irradiation. The degradation is nicely modeled by pseudo first order kinetics. The rates of hydroxyl radical (OH) production for Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) and Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/visible (450 nm) systems were 1.19 ± 0.12 and 0.30 ± 0.01 μM/min, respectively. The steady-state concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) for the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) conditions was 10.88 ± 1.13 × 10(-14) M and 2.7 ± 0.1 × 10(-14) M for the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/visible (450 nm). The rate of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) production under Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) was 0.19 ± 0.02 μM/min with a steady-state concentration of 5.43 ± 0.473 × 10(-10) M. Detailed product studies using liquid chromatography coupled to Q-TOF/MS demonstrate both reduction (multiple dehalogenations) and oxidation (aromatic ring and side chains) contribute to the degradation pathways. The reduction processes appear to be initiated by the carbon dioxide anion radical (CO2(-)) while oxidation processes are consistent with OH initiated reaction pathways. Unlike most advanced oxidation processes the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/photochemical system can initiate to both reductive and oxidative degradation processes. The observed reductive dehalogenation is an attractive remediation strategy for halogenated organic compounds as the process can dramatically reduce the formation of the problematic disinfection by-products often associated with oxidative treatment processes. PMID:25269106

  20. Reductive and oxidative degradation of iopamidol, iodinated X-ray contrast media, by Fe(III)-oxalate under UV and visible light treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cen; Arroyo-Mora, Luis E; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Sharma, Virender K; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2014-12-15

    Iopamidol, widely employed as iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM), is readily degraded in a Fe(III)-oxalate photochemical system under UV (350 nm) and visible light (450 nm) irradiation. The degradation is nicely modeled by pseudo first order kinetics. The rates of hydroxyl radical (OH) production for Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) and Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/visible (450 nm) systems were 1.19 ± 0.12 and 0.30 ± 0.01 μM/min, respectively. The steady-state concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) for the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) conditions was 10.88 ± 1.13 × 10(-14) M and 2.7 ± 0.1 × 10(-14) M for the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/visible (450 nm). The rate of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) production under Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/UV (350 nm) was 0.19 ± 0.02 μM/min with a steady-state concentration of 5.43 ± 0.473 × 10(-10) M. Detailed product studies using liquid chromatography coupled to Q-TOF/MS demonstrate both reduction (multiple dehalogenations) and oxidation (aromatic ring and side chains) contribute to the degradation pathways. The reduction processes appear to be initiated by the carbon dioxide anion radical (CO2(-)) while oxidation processes are consistent with OH initiated reaction pathways. Unlike most advanced oxidation processes the Fe(III)-oxalate/H2O2/photochemical system can initiate to both reductive and oxidative degradation processes. The observed reductive dehalogenation is an attractive remediation strategy for halogenated organic compounds as the process can dramatically reduce the formation of the problematic disinfection by-products often associated with oxidative treatment processes.

  1. Iodine and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women. PMID:21765996

  2. Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  3. Electrolytic trapping of iodine from process gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Horner, Donald E.; Mailen, James C.; Posey, Franz A.

    1977-01-25

    A method for removing molecular, inorganic, and organic forms of iodine from process gas streams comprises the electrolytic oxidation of iodine in the presence of cobalt-III ions. The gas stream is passed through the anode compartment of a partitioned electrolytic cell having a nitric acid anolyte containing a catalytic amount of cobalt to cause the oxidation of effluent iodine species to aqueous soluble species.

  4. Revisiting History: Encountering Iodine Then and Now--A General Chemistry Laboratory to Observe Iodine from Seaweed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    The history of the discovery of iodine is retold using brown-colored seaweed found commonly along the ocean shore. The seaweed is ashed at a low temperature and the iodides are extracted into boiling water. The iodides are oxidized in acidic medium. Solvent extraction of iodine by oxidation of iodides as well as simple aqueous extraction of iodide…

  5. Laser induced fluorescence studies of iodine oxide chemistry. Part II. The reactions of IO with CH3O2, CF3O2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Tucceri, María E; Crowley, John N

    2006-11-28

    The technique of pulsed laser photolysis was coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection of iodine oxide (IO) to measure rate coefficients, k for the reactions IO + CH(3)O(2)--> products (R1, 30-318 Torr N(2)), IO + CF(3)O(2)--> products (R2, 70-80 Torr N(2)), and IO + O(3)--> OIO + O(2) (R3a). Values of k(1) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(2) = (3.6 +/- 0.8) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and k(3a) <5 x 10(-16) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) were obtained at T = 298 K. In the course of this work, the product yield of IO from the reaction of CH(3)O(2) with I was determined to be close to zero, whereas CH(3)OOI was formed efficiently at 70 Torr N(2). Similarly, no evidence was found for IO formation in the CF(3)O(2) + I reaction. An estimate of the rate coefficients k(CH(3)O(2) + I) = 2 x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(CH(3)OOI + I) = 1.5 x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was also obtained. The results on k(1)-k(3) are compared to the limited number of previous investigations and the implications for the chemistry of the marine boundary layer are briefly discussed.

  6. Cooperative catalysis by bovine serum albumin-iodine towards cascade oxidative coupling-C(sp(2))-H sulfenylation of indoles/hydroxyaryls with thiophenols on water.

    PubMed

    Saima; Equbal, Danish; Lavekar, Aditya G; Sinha, Arun K

    2016-06-22

    Cooperative cascade catalysis by bovine serum albumin (BSA)-iodine allows for the first time the performance of C(sp(2))-H sulfenylation of indole from readily available thiophenol (-SH bond) via in situ generation/cleavage of disulfide (S-S bond) in air under aqueous conditions, whereas BSA or I2 individually do not permit this two step sequence to occur in the same pot towards C-S bond formation. This green cooperative protocol is extendable to sulfenylation of hydroxyaryls (i.e. 2-naphthol or 4-hydroxycoumarin) with diverse thiols (aryl/heteroaryl) without using any toxic metal catalysts, bases or oxidants, thus rendering the process environmentally and economically reliable. Further, the gram scale synthesis of a COX-2 inhibitor (3-(pyridin-2-ylthio)-1H-indole), regioselectivity and recyclability (up to four cycles) are the additional merits of this cooperative cascade bio-chemocatalytic (BSA-I2) protocol. Moreover, HPLC and ESI-MS provide powerful insights into the mechanistic aspects of the above cascade sulfenylation reaction. PMID:27251465

  7. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  8. Consequences of excess iodine.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E

    2014-03-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 µg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent.

  9. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    PubMed

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination. PMID:24945978

  10. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    PubMed

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination.

  11. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared.

  12. Iodine-deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Jooste, Pieter L; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2008-10-01

    2 billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goitre, newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone, and blood thyroglobulin. In nearly all countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is iodisation of salt, which is one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When iodisation of salt is not possible, iodine supplements can be given to susceptible groups. Introduction of iodised salt to regions of chronic iodine-deficiency disorders might transiently increase the proportion of thyroid disorders, but overall the small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. International efforts to control iodine-deficiency disorders are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges. PMID:18676011

  13. Effect of glucose on the distribution of iodine-123-IHA-16 between esterification and oxidation in canine myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Arvieux, C.C.; Fagret, D.; Dubois, F.; Brichon, P.Y.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pilichowski, P.; Cuchet, P.; Comet, M. )

    1990-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of glucose perfusion on the myocardial metabolism of (123I)-16-iodo-9-hexadecenoic acid (IHA), the latter was injected intravenously into six fasting dogs perfused with a solution lacking glucose (controls) and seven fasting dogs perfused with glucose and insulin. The distribution of myocardial 123I among iodides, free IHA, and esterified IHA was measured in myocardial biopsy specimens. The increase in esterification and decrease in oxidation of IHA due to glucose were quantified using a compartmental mathematical model of myocardial IHA metabolism. Subsequently, in six control and six glucose-perfused dogs, cardiac radioactivity was measured with a scintillation camera for 1 hr following i.v. injection of IHA. Four different methods were used to analyze the myocardial time-activity curves and to calculate the distribution of IHA between oxidation and esterification. Results comparable to those provided by analysis of biopsy specimens can be obtained by considering the curve to be the sum of an exponential and a constant, or by analyzing it with a compartmental mathematical model.

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: Electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO2,3 and IO2-4 radicals.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gaolei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue B.

    2011-11-14

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) investigation on electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO{sub 2}{sup -} and IO{sub 2}{sup -} were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO{sub 3}{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, and IO{sub 4}{sup -} were studied at 193 and 157 nm only due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anion ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. For the first time, EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined (except for IO{sub 2}) to be 2.515 {+-} 0.010 (BrO{sub 2}), 2.575 {+-} 0.010 (IO{sub 2}), 4.60 {+-} 0.05 (BrO{sub 3}), 4.70 {+-} 0.05 (IO{sub 3}), and 6.05 {+-} 0.05 eV (IO{sub 4}). Three low-lying excited states with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO{sub 2} [1.69 (A {sup 2}B2), 1.79 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.99 eV (C {sup 2}A{sub 2})], BrO{sub 3} [0.7 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.6 (B {sup 2}E), 3.1 eV (C {sup 2}E)], and IO{sub 3} [0.60 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.20 (B {sup 2}E), {approx}3.0 eV (C {sup 2}E)], whereas six excited states of IO{sub 2} are determined with the respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A {sup 2}B{sub 2}), 1.73 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.83 (C {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 4.23 (D {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 4.63 (E {sup 2}B{sub 2}), and 5.23 eV (F {sup 2}B{sub 1}). Periodate possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. The obtained EAs and low-lying excited state information are compared with available theoretical calculations and discussed with their atmospheric implications.

  15. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO(2,3) and IO(2-4) radicals.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gao-Lei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2011-11-14

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical investigation of electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO(2)(-) and IO(2)(-) were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO(3)(-), IO(3)(-), and IO(4)(-) were only studied at 193 and 157 nm due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anionic ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. The EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined for the first time (except for IO(2)) to be 2.515 ± 0.010 (BrO(2)), 2.575 ± 0.010 (IO(2)), 4.60 ± 0.05 (BrO(3)), 4.70 ± 0.05 (IO(3)), and 6.05 ± 0.05 eV (IO(4)). Three low-lying excited states along with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO(2) [1.69 (A (2)B(2)), 1.79 (B (2)A(1)), 1.99 eV (C (2)A(2))], BrO(3) [0.7 (A (2)A(2)), 1.6 (B (2)E), 3.1 eV (C (2)E)], and IO(3) [0.60 (A (2)A(2)), 1.20 (B (2)E), ∼3.0 eV (C (2)E)], whereas six excited states of IO(2) are determined along with their respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A (2)B(2)), 1.73 (B (2)A(1)), 1.83 (C (2)A(2)), 4.23 (D (2)A(1)), 4.63 (E (2)B(2)), and 5.23 eV (F (2)B(1)). Periodate (IO(4)(-)) possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. Accompanying theoretical calculations reveal structural changes from the anions to the neutrals, and the calculated EAs are in good agreement with experimentally determined values. Franck-Condon factors simulations nicely reproduce the observed vibrational progressions for BrO(2) and IO(2). The low-lying excited state information is compared with theoretical calculations and discussed with their

  16. Formation of organic iodine supplied as iodide in a soil-water system in Chiba, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Yoko S; Takahashi, Yoshio; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-03-15

    Speciation of iodine in a soil-water system was investigated to understand the mechanism of iodine mobility in surface environments. Iodine speciation in soil and pore water was determined by K-edge XANES and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, for samples collected at a depth of 0-12 cm in the Yoro area, Chiba, Japan. Pore water collected at a 0-6 cm depth contained 50%-60% of organic iodine bound to dissolved organic matter, with the other portion being I(-). At a 9-12 cm depth, 98% of iodine was in the form of dissolved I(-). In contrast, XANES analysis revealed that iodine in soil exists as organic iodine at all depths. Iodine mapping of soil grains was obtained using micro-XRF analysis, which also indicated that iodine is bound to organic matter. The activity of laccase, which has the ability to oxidize I(-) to I(2), was high at the surface of the soil-water layer, suggesting that iodide oxidizing enzymes can promote iodine organification. The distribution coefficient of organic iodine in the soil-water system was more than 10-fold greater than that of iodide. Transformation of inorganic iodine to organic iodine plays an important role in iodine immobilization, especially in a surface soil-water system.

  17. [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2005-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient, it would be administered every day with our diet. The main role of this micronutrient is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation. Iodine deficit is related with goitre, and an important problem "diseases related with iodine deficiency", including high rate of neonatal mortality, decrease of intelligence, delayed of growth, high rate of aborts and congenital abnormalities.A risk group is pregnant women. Some authors have been demonstrated the utility of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. A systematic review of Cochrane group has shown that iodine supplementation during pregnancy decreased neonatal mortality RR 0.71 (0.56-0.9), and decrease the incidence of cretinism in children under 4 years RR 0.27 (0.12-0.6). As final recommendations, a program in pregnant women must be development to treat with iodine such as we make with folic acid. Pills with iron and iodine (1 mg iron and 25 ug iodine) have been demonstrated better results that pills with iodine. Tablets are the main presentation due to the role of the women in our Society and the work time. Programs of iodine enriched salt have been demonstrated a follow up of 50%. PMID:16386080

  18. Iodine-Catalyzed Oxidative Functionalization of Azaarenes with Benzylic C(sp(3))-H Bonds via N-Alkylation/Amidation Cascade: Two-Step Synthesis of Isoindolo[2,1-b]isoquinolin-7(5H)-one.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Kun; Shi, Xin; Zhou, Wang; Yang, Luo

    2016-05-01

    An efficient and practical iodine-catalyzed oxidative functionalization of azaarenes with benzylic C-H bonds via an N-alkylation and amidation cascade is developed to provide isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones. This method utilizes readily available unfunctionalized azaarenes and methylarenes as starting materials and proceeds under metal-free conditions with good to excellent yields, avoiding the use of expensive noble metal catalysts and generation of halide and metal wastes. The synthetic utility of this reaction is exemplified by the concise, two-step synthesis of isoindolo[2,1-b]isoquinolin-7(5H)-one.

  19. Inherent calibration of a blue LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-12-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first direct detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. The instrument is further inherently calibrated for light extinction from the cavity by observing O4 or H2O (at 477 nm and 443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7 × 10-7cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement at blue wavelengths in open cavity mode, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, i.e., keep the cavity enclosed and/or aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative instrument for applications in simulation chambers and in the open atmosphere.

  20. Inherent calibration of a novel LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-06-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first CEAS detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. A further innovation consists in the measurement of extinction losses from the cavity, e.g. due to aerosols, at two wavelengths by observing O4 (477 nm) and H2O (443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7×10-7 cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement in open cavity mode (mirrors facing the open atmosphere), and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, and/or keep the cavity enclosed and aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction at 477 nm and 443 nm. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative instrument for applications in simulation

  1. Iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T C

    1987-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) affects 800 million people in the world, yet iodine supplementation is one of the most cost-effective nutritional interventions known. Iodine is incorporated into thyroid hormones, necessary for regulating metabolic rate, growth, and development of the brain and nervous system. IDD may appear as goiter in adults, usually not a serious problem, or in cretinism in children, which is marked by severe mental and physical retardation, with irreversible hearing and speech defects and either deaf-mutism, squint and paralysis, or stunting and edema. Children supplemented by age 1 or 2 can sometimes be helped. Foods contain variable amounts of iodine dependent on the soil where they are grown, hence mountainous and some inland regions have high goiter and IDD incidence. There are also goitrogenic foods, typically those of the cabbage family. Diagnosis is clinical or by blood tests for thyroid hormone levels and ratios. Finger-stick methods are available. Prevention of IDD is simple with either iodized salt or flour, iodinated central water supplies, injectable or oral iodine-containing oil. All cost about $.04 per person per year, except injections, which cost about $1 per person, but have the advantage that they could be combined with immunizations. Local problems with supplements are loss of iodine in salt with storage in tropics, and local production of cheaper uniodinated salt. Emphasis should be given to pregnant women and young children. There is no harm in giving pregnant women iodine injections in 2nd or 3rd trimester. PMID:12343033

  2. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  3. Iodine Affects Differentiation and Migration Process in Trophoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Olivo-Vidal, Zendy Evelyn; Rodríguez, Roció Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2016-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is associated with oxidative stress increase and preeclampsia during gestation, suggesting that iodine concentration plays an important role in the normal placenta physiology. The question raised is to analyze the effect of iodine deficiency on oxidative stress, viability, differentiation, and migration process and changes in the expression of differentiation and migration markers. Iodine deprivation was done using potassium perchlorate (KCLO4) to block sodium iodide symporter (NIS) transporter and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS to inhibit pendrine (PEN) transport for 3-48 h. Then trophoblast cells were treated with low iodine doses of 5-500 μM and high iodine doses of 100-5000 μM. Oxidative stress, viability, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hGC) were measured by colorimetric methods. Migration throphoblast cells were evaluated by both wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Changes in mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Iodine deprivation induces a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), viability, and migration process vs control cells. We found a significant overregulation in the mRNA's peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma), Snail, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA's in cells deprived of iodine, as well as a down glial cell missing-1 (GCM-1) regulation, hGC, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and E-cadherin mRNA expression. The expression of hypoxic induction factor alpha (HIFα) mRNA does not change with iodine deprivation. In cells deprived of iodine, supplementing low iodine doses (5-500 μM) does not induce any significant changes in viability. However, ROS and migration process were decreased, although we found an increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion as a differentiation marker. In addition, we found that PPAR-gamma, Snail, and MPP-9 mRNAs expression are downregulated with low iodine doses, in contrast with GCM-1, PAPP

  4. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  5. Iodine - Its possible role in tropospheric photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed study of the photochemistry of iodine and its oxides indicates that iodine species may play an important role in the tropospheric photochemical system. Methyl iodide, often observed in the marine troposphere with an average concentration of 5-10 ppt, is photolyzed and thereby produces I atoms. Chemical interactions with O3, HxOy, and NOx cause I to be converted to other inorganic compounds such as IO, HOI, IONO2, and I2. The production of these species and their subsequent recycling back to I can lead to the catalytic removal of tropospheric O3, the enhancement of the NO2/NO ratio, the destruction of HxOy free radicals, and the conversion of HO2 to OH. Ultimately, tropospheric inorganic iodine is removed by heterogeneous processes. Calculations using a numerical model to simulate tropospheric photochemistry indicate that iodine may have a strong impact upon the atmospheric O3-NOx-HxOy system. The magnitude of these effects is dependent upon the value of several uncertain rate constants and the primary source distributions of CH3I and other organic and inorganic iodine compounds.

  6. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... much radioactive iodine is taken up by your thyroid gland in a certain time period. A similar test ... over the area of your neck where the thyroid gland is located. The probe detects the location and ...

  7. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  8. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  9. Dual Behavior of Iodine Species in Condensation of Anilines and Vinyl Ethers Affording 2-Methylquinolines.

    PubMed

    Le, Song Thi; Yasuoka, Chisa; Asahara, Haruyasu; Nishiwaki, Nagatoshi

    2016-01-01

    A metal-free, mild and efficient method for the synthesis of 2-methylquinolines was successfully developed by condensation of anilines with vinyl ethers in the presence of catalytic amount of iodine. Modification of both pyridine and benzene moieties was easily achieved by changing only the vinyl ether and aniline. In this reaction, the iodine species was revealed to show dual behavior; molecular iodine serves as an oxidant, while its reduced form, hydrogen iodide, activates the vinyl ether. The redox reaction between these iodine species enables the use of a catalytic amount of iodine in this synthetic method. PMID:27347919

  10. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders.

  11. Changes of the dimensionality and {ital T}{sub {ital c}} through the iodine intercalation and oxidation in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, A.; Koike, Y.; Noji, T.; Saito, Y.; Nishizaki, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamanaka, A.; Takekawa, S.; Minami, F.

    1995-12-01

    The effects of stage-one iodine intercalation and oxidation on the dimensionality of the physical properties and on the superconducting transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}} have been investigated in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} single crystals. Both intercalation and oxidation change the dimensionality of the normal-state properties from pseudo-two-dimensional to three-dimensional, decrease {ital T}{sub {ital c}} and also change the magnetic-field dependence of the activation energy in the flux creep. The broadening of the resistive superconducting-transition under magnetic fields is suppressed through only the oxidation. These changes through the intercalation and oxidation have been found to be explained by the multilayer model, where a high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductor is regarded as an alternating stack of the CuO{sub 2} layer ({ital S} layer) and the block layer ({ital N} layer), taking account of the proximity effect and of the redistribution of carriers to the {ital S} and {ital N} layers. We have arrived at the conclusion that the multilayer model can be one of the candidates for the model of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors.

  12. Iodine supplementation in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Ghirri, Paolo; Lunardi, Sara; Boldrini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world's greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation.

  13. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D.

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Particles and iodine compounds in coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Jones, Anna E.; Brough, Neil; Weller, Rolf; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Schoenhardt, Anja; Burrows, John P.; Fleming, Zoe L.

    2015-07-01

    Aerosol particle number concentrations have been measured at Halley and Neumayer on the Antarctic coast, since 2004 and 1984, respectively. Sulphur compounds known to be implicated in particle formation and growth were independently measured: sulphate ions and methane sulphonic acid in filtered aerosol samples and gas phase dimethyl sulphide for limited periods. Iodine oxide, IO, was determined by a satellite sensor from 2003 to 2009 and by different ground-based sensors at Halley in 2004 and 2007. Previous model results and midlatitude observations show that iodine compounds consistent with the large values of IO observed may be responsible for an increase in number concentrations of small particles. Coastal Antarctica is useful for investigating correlations between particles, sulphur, and iodine compounds, because of their large annual cycles and the source of iodine compounds in sea ice. After smoothing all the measured data by several days, the shapes of the annual cycles in particle concentration at Halley and Neumayer are approximated by linear combinations of the shapes of sulphur compounds and IO but not by sulphur compounds alone. However, there is no short-term correlation between IO and particle concentration. The apparent correlation by eye after smoothing but not in the short term suggests that iodine compounds and particles are sourced some distance offshore. This suggests that new particles formed from iodine compounds are viable, i.e., they can last long enough to grow to the larger particles that contribute to cloud condensation nuclei, rather than being simply collected by existing particles. If so, there is significant potential for climate feedback near the sea ice zone via the aerosol indirect effect.

  15. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Markou, K; Georgopoulos, N; Kyriazopoulou, V; Vagenakis, A G

    2001-05-01

    Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroid gland has the capacity and holds the machinery to handle the iodine efficiently when the availability of iodine becomes scarce, as well as when iodine is available in excessive quantities. The latter situation is handled by the thyroid by acutely inhibiting the organification of iodine, the so-called acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect, by a mechanism not well understood 52 years after the original description. It is proposed that iodopeptide(s) are formed that temporarily inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mRNA and protein synthesis and, therefore, thyroglobulin iodinations. The Wolff-Chaikoff effect is an effective means of rejecting the large quantities of iodide and therefore preventing the thyroid from synthesizing large quantities of thyroid hormones. The acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect lasts for few a days and then, through the so-called "escape" phenomenon, the organification of intrathyroidal iodide resumes and the normal synthesis of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) returns. This is achieved by decreasing the intrathyroidal inorganic iodine concentration by down regulation of the sodium iodine symporter (NIS) and therefore permits the TPO-H202 system to resume normal activity. However, in a few apparently normal individuals, in newborns and fetuses, in some patients with chronic systemic diseases, euthyroid patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, and Graves' disease patients previously treated with radioimmunoassay (RAI), surgery or antithyroid drugs, the escape from the inhibitory effect of large doses of iodides is not achieved and clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism ensues. Iodide-induced hypothyroidism has also been observed in patients with a history of postpartum thyroiditis, in euthyroid patients after a previous episode of subacute thyroiditis, and in patients treated with recombinant interferon-alpha who developed transient thyroid dysfunction during interferon-a treatment. The

  16. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  17. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Johnston, F. L.

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth medium, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute <0.1 % to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere.

  18. Consolidation of tin sulfide chalcogels and xerogels with and without adsorbed iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Lepry, William C.; Kroll, Jared O.; Chun, Jaehun; Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Alblouwy, Fares K.; Bulbule, Aneeruddha; Sabolsky, Edward

    2015-11-18

    Tin sulfide (Sn2S3) chalcogels are one of the most effective non-oxide aerogels evaluated to date for iodine gas capture. This is attributed to the fact that the Sn within the gel network has a strong affinity for chemisorption of iodine to form SnI4. This study demonstrates an approach for consolidating the raw and iodine-sorbed Sn2S3 chalcogels into a chalcogenide glass using GeS2 as a glass forming additive. The system with both iodine-sorbed and iodine-free Sn2S3 chalcogels provides better glass-forming characteristics than Sn-S or Sn-S-I alone, and the quantity of iodine measured in the bulk glass of the consolidated iodine-sorbed Sn2S3 chalcogel was at ~45 mass%. Additional experiments were also conducted using microwave sintering and hot isostatic pressing with Sn2S3 xerogels.

  19. Effect of dietary iodine on production of iodine enriched eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaiya, Shaikh; Nayak, Sunil; Baghel, R. P. S.; Nayak, Anju; Malapure, C. D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of iodine supplementation on iodine content of eggs in laying hens. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 135 laying hens (White Leghorn) of 55 weeks age were randomly distributed to 5 dietary treatments; each group contained 27 laying hens distributed in three replicates of 9 birds each. Diet T1 was control basal layer diet without iodine enrichment in which iodine content (I2) was as per NRC recommendation. Basal diets were supplemented with calcium iodate (Ca (IO3)2) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg in T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively. The iodine content in the calcium iodate is 65.21%, therefore, the diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 3.25, 6.50, 9.75 and 13.0 ppm iodine, respectively. The laying hens were fed the respective experimental diets ad libitum during the experimental period of 10-week. The iodine content of egg yolk and albumen was analyzed at the end of 5th and 10th week of the experiment. Economics of feeding for the production of iodine enriched egg was calculated at the end of the experiment. Results: Increasing iodine levels in diet of hens from 0.45 to 13.0 ppm significantly increased egg iodine concentration, the highest concentration of egg iodine was observed in the group fed diet supplemented with 13.0 ppm iodine followed by those fed 9.75, 6.50, 3.25 and 0.45 ppm iodine in diet. There was no significant difference in the iodine levels of unboiled versus boiled eggs. Therefore, the consumers are ensured to receive the optimal levels of iodine from boiled iodine-enriched eggs. Among different diets, minimum and significantly lower feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was noticed in hens allotted T3 diet (6.50 ppm I2). However, feeding cost of hens receiving 3.25 and 9.25 ppm I2 was statistically (p<0.05) similar to control group (T1). Further, it was noticed that feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was significantly increased due to the inclusion

  20. [The changes of processes of free radical oxidation of lipids and proteins, antioxidant defence in rats with hypofunction of the thyroid gland in conditions of iodine and copper deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M; Huranych, T V

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid status, copper balance, correlation of processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL), proteins (POP), antioxidant defence (AOD) were examined in experiments on rats with hypofunction of thyroid gland under iodine monodeficit (HTGI) and combined iodine and copper deficit (HTGI+Cu). It was determined that a combined deficit of microelements is accompanied by a distribution of copper content between different tissues (increase in red blood cell mass and cerebrum, decrease in myocardium), essential changes of indexes of hypotalamo-hypophysis-thyroid axis, oxygen-dependent metabolism, antiradical defense, exacerbating the effects of negative influence of each of them on organism. It was established that HTGI+Cu causes a suppression of oxygen-dependent processes. In thyroid gland, it is shown a decrease of content of dyenic conjugates (DC) by 69,70% , of TBA-reacting products (TBA-RP) by 47,72% in diencephalon, the volume of modified proteins (VMP) - by 37,10-98,98% in the tissues of diencephalons. The results obtained let us to suggest a pivotal role ofmicroelement dysbalance and metabolic mechanisms in pathogenesis of cardiological pathology under thyroid dysfunction. The development of HTGI +Cu exhausts the resources of AOD: decreases the activity of catalase (on 47,05%), superoxide dismutase (on 33,13%), ceruloplasmine (on 33,93%) and saturation of transferrin with iron (on 56,76%) against the background of selective rise in the activity of glu-tationreductase (in 2,8 time) in comparison with the control data. The long-term disturbances ofantyoxidative defence can be the reason of manifestation of oxygendependent processes and the development of pathological changes in separate physiological systems of organism.

  1. Iodine Excess as an Environmental Risk Factor for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqian; Kawashima, Akira; Ishido, Yuko; Yoshihara, Aya; Oda, Kenzaburo; Hiroi, Naoki; Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The global effort to prevent iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, such as universal salt iodization, has achieved impressive progress during the last few decades. However, iodine excess, due to extensive environmental iodine exposure in addition to poor monitoring, is currently a more frequent occurrence than iodine deficiency. Iodine excess is a precipitating environmental factor in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. Excessive amounts of iodide have been linked to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and animals, while intrathyroidal depletion of iodine prevents disease in animal strains susceptible to severe thyroiditis. Although the mechanisms by which iodide induces thyroiditis are still unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed: (1) excess iodine induces the production of cytokines and chemokines that can recruit immunocompetent cells to the thyroid; (2) processing excess iodine in thyroid epithelial cells may result in elevated levels of oxidative stress, leading to harmful lipid oxidation and thyroid tissue injuries; and (3) iodine incorporation in the protein chain of thyroglobulin may augment the antigenicity of this molecule. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding excess iodide as an environmental toxicant and relate it to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:25050783

  2. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is generally recognized as the most commonly preventable cause of mental retardation and the most common cause of endocrinopathy (goiter and primary hypothyroidism). Iodine deficiency becomes particularly critical in pregnancy due to the consequences for neurological damage during fetal development as well as during lactation. The safety of therapeutic doses of iodine above the established safe upper limit of 1 mg is evident in the lack of toxicity in the Japanese population that consumes 25 times the median intake of iodine consumption in the United States. Japan's population suffers no demonstrable increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis or hypothyroidism. Studies using 3.0- to 6.0-mg doses to effectively treat fibrocystic breast disease may reveal an important role for iodine in maintaining normal breast tissue architecture and function. Iodine may also have important antioxidant functions in breast tissue and other tissues that concentrate iodine via the sodium iodide symporter. PMID:18590348

  3. Iodine Emissions from Seaweeds: Species-dependent and Seasonal Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Thomas; Ball, Stephen; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Emissions of iodine from macroalgae into the marine boundary layer (MBL) significantly impact tropospheric chemistry and the biogeochemical cycling of iodine. Gas-phase iodine chemistry perturbs the usual HOx and NOx radical cycles, provides additional sink reactions for tropospheric ozone, and modifies atmospheric oxidizing capacity. Iodine oxides (IxOywith x ≥ 2) formed through the reaction of iodine atoms with ozone nucleate new aerosol particles which, if they grow sufficiently, can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and so influence the local climate in coastal regions. Some seaweeds, such as brown algae, are important bio-accumulators of iodine. They specifically induce iodine metabolism to protect themselves against oxidative stress, both as a defence mechanism and when exposed to air around low tide. Indeed the dominant emission source of iodine into the atmosphere in coastal regions comes from intertidal macroalgal beds, particularly those of kelp species. We present results from an extensive laboratory study of molecular iodine (I2) emissions from five seaweed species (two Fucales, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, and three kelp species, Laminaria digitata, L. hyperborea and Saccharina latissima). Eighty-four incubation experiments were performed at the Station Biologique in Roscoff (Brittany, France) between September 2012 and June 2013 to quantify species-dependent I2 emission rates in response to progressive air exposure, mimicking low tide, and to investigate any seasonal differences. Measurements were conducted on 'fresh' biological samples: Ascophyllum and Fucus thalli were collected whilst still submerged on an ebbing tide, transported in seawater to the laboratory and analysed immediately; kelp samples were collected by boat, stored in an outside aquarium in running seawater and analysed within a few days. I2 emissions were quantified at high time resolution by broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometry (1σ detection limit

  4. Electrophilic iodination: a gateway to high iodine compounds and energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Chand, Deepak; He, Chunlin; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-09-21

    A large number of iodine atoms can be introduced into a single molecule in a one-pot reaction using trifluoroperacetic acid-mediated electrophilic iodination methodology. The scope of this reaction was investigated extensively using several pyrazole substrates which resulted in nine polyiodo pyrazole compounds with iodine content as high as 80%. This synthetic methodology was also utilized successfully for iodination of benzimidazoles. Tetraiodobenzimidazole was nitrated with 100% nitric acid to give a high yield of 4,5,6,7-tetranitro-1H-benzimidazol-2(3H)-one (14). All of these materials were fully characterized and compounds 5, 9, 10 and 14 were confirmed further with single crystal X-ray analysis. High density, positive oxygen balance, and very good impact sensitivity values characterize 14. For the first time, two 1,2,5-oxadiazole-N-oxide rings were introduced into a benzimidazole ring (11) which remarkably improves the stability of oxadiazole-N-oxide compounds. PMID:27510578

  5. [Allergy to iodinated drugs and to foods rich in iodine: Iodine is not the allergenic determinant].

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie

    2015-11-01

    "Iodine allergy" does not exist. The concept of "iodine allergy" should be abandoned since it may result in inappropriate measures such as drug, food or environmental eviction. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media is not infrequent. The corresponding allergens have not been identified. Iodine is not involved. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to povidone iodine is rare. The corresponding allergen is povidone in case of immediate hypersensitivity while nonoxynol might be involved during non-immediate hypersensitivity. Seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins. Immediate drug hypersensitivity or food hypersensitivity is assessed by immediate-reading skin tests while non-immediate drug hypersensitivity is investigated by delayed-reading skin testing. Combined histamine and tryptase measurement is invaluable during the diagnostic approach of immediate hypersensitivity. Other biological tests are being evaluated. Allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents does not contraindicate the use of other iodinated drugs.

  6. [Allergy to iodinated drugs and to foods rich in iodine: Iodine is not the allergenic determinant].

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie

    2015-11-01

    "Iodine allergy" does not exist. The concept of "iodine allergy" should be abandoned since it may result in inappropriate measures such as drug, food or environmental eviction. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media is not infrequent. The corresponding allergens have not been identified. Iodine is not involved. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to povidone iodine is rare. The corresponding allergen is povidone in case of immediate hypersensitivity while nonoxynol might be involved during non-immediate hypersensitivity. Seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins. Immediate drug hypersensitivity or food hypersensitivity is assessed by immediate-reading skin tests while non-immediate drug hypersensitivity is investigated by delayed-reading skin testing. Combined histamine and tryptase measurement is invaluable during the diagnostic approach of immediate hypersensitivity. Other biological tests are being evaluated. Allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents does not contraindicate the use of other iodinated drugs. PMID:26387623

  7. Iodination of organic substrates with halide salts and H2O2 using an organotelluride catalyst.

    PubMed

    Higgs, D E; Nelen, M I; Detty, M R

    2001-02-01

    [figure: see text] Organotelluride 1 is a water-soluble catalyst for the oxidation of iodide with hydrogen peroxide in pH 6 phosphate buffer. In two-phase systems, organic substrates are efficiently iodinated using 0.8 mol % of catalyst. Water-soluble substrates are iodinated without an organic cosolvent.

  8. Intraluminal iodination of thyroglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Ofverholm, T.; Ericson, L.E.

    1984-03-01

    The intraluminal distribution of newly synthesized (injection of (/sup 3/H)leucine) and newly iodinated (injection of Na/sup 125/I) proteins in thyroids of rats given T4 for 2 days was studied with quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography. Three, 4.5, and 6 h after (/sup 3/H)leucine about 90%, 85%, and 65%, respectively, of the luminal label was confined to the microvillus region. This distribution differed from that of newly iodinated protein; already 2 min after injection only about 30% of the grains was located over the microvillus region. The remaining 70% of the grains located outside the microvillus region formed a gradient towards the center of the lumen. The grain distributions 30 min and 2 h after Na/sup 125/I were similar to that present after 2 min. The distribution of grains after pulse labeling with Na/sup 125/I (injected 2 min before propylthiouracil and 2 h before fixation) was also similar to that found in rats injected with Na/sup 125/I alone, indicating that diffusion of labeled proteins in the lumen was very slow in T4-treated rats. A slow diffusion was also suggested by the presence of an unlabeled peripheral ring in follicle lumens of T4-treated rats injected with Na/sup 125/I 48 h before fixation. In normal rats given (/sup 3/H)leucine 3 h before fixation or Na/sup 125/I 1 h or 48 h before fixation the grains were homogeneously distributed in most follicle lumens. Together our findings indicate that (1) administration of T4 has effects on the diffusion properties of the colloid; (2) iodine is incorporated not only into newly synthesized thyroglobulin recently delivered to the follicle lumen but also into molecules already stored in the lumen; (3) a portion of the iodine incorporated into proteins is bound to molecules which are not in direct contact with thyroperoxidase in the apical plasma membrane.

  9. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent uptake of iodine by marine Flavobacteriaceae bacterium strain C-21.

    PubMed

    Amachi, Seigo; Kimura, Koh; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Shinoyama, Hirofumi; Fujii, Takaaki

    2007-12-01

    The cells of the marine bacterium strain C-21, which is phylogenetically closely related to Arenibacter troitsensis, accumulate iodine in the presence of glucose and iodide (I-). In this study, the detailed mechanism of iodine uptake by C-21 was determined using a radioactive iodide tracer, 125I-. In addition to glucose, oxygen and calcium ions were also required for the uptake of iodine. The uptake was not inhibited or was only partially inhibited by various metabolic inhibitors, whereas reducing agents and catalase strongly inhibited the uptake. When exogenous glucose oxidase was added to the cell suspension, enhanced uptake of iodine was observed. The uptake occurred even in the absence of glucose and oxygen if hydrogen peroxide was added to the cell suspension. Significant activity of glucose oxidase was found in the crude extracts of C-21, and it was located mainly in the membrane fraction. These findings indicate that hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase plays a key role in the uptake of iodine. Furthermore, enzymatic oxidation of iodide strongly stimulated iodine uptake in the absence of glucose. Based on these results, the mechanism was considered to consist of oxidation of iodide to hypoiodous acid by hydrogen peroxide, followed by passive translocation of this uncharged iodine species across the cell membrane. Interestingly, such a mechanism of iodine uptake is similar to that observed in iodine-accumulating marine algae.

  11. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  12. Health consequences of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh

    2007-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are one of the biggest worldwide public health problem of today. Their effect is hidden and profoundly affects the quality of human life. Iodine deficiency occurs when the soil is poor in iodine, causing a low concentration in food products and insufficient iodine intake in the population. When iodine requirements are not met, the thyroid may no longer be able to synthesize sufficient amounts of thyroid hormone. The resulting low-level of thyroid hormones in the blood is the principal factor responsible for the series of functional and developmental abnormalities, collectively referred to as IDD. Iodine deficiency is a significant cause of mental developmental problems in children, including implications on reproductive functions and lowering of IQ levels in school-aged children. The consequence of iodine deficiency during pregnancy is impaired synthesis of thyroid hormones by the mother and the foetus. An insufficient supply of thyroid hormones to the developing brain may result in mental retardation. Brain damage and irreversible mental retardation are the most important disorders induced by iodine deficiency. Daily consumption of salt fortified with iodine is a proven effective strategy for prevention of IDD. PMID:21748117

  13. Iodine deficiency, other trace elements, and goitrogenic factors in the etiopathogeny of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

    PubMed

    Thilly, C H; Vanderpas, J B; Bebe, N; Ntambue, K; Contempre, B; Swennen, B; Moreno-Reyes, R; Bourdoux, P; Delange, F

    1992-01-01

    Severe goiter, cretinism, and the other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have their main cause in the lack of availability of iodine from the soil linked to a severe limitation of food exchanges. Apart from the degrees of severity of the iodine deficiency, the frequencies and symptomatologies of cretinism and the other IDD are influenced by other goitrogenic factors and trace elements. Thiocyanate overload originating from consumption of poorly detoxified cassava is such that this goitrogenic factor aggravates a relative or a severe iodine deficiency. Very recently, a severe selenium deficiency has also been associated with IDD in the human population, whereas in animals, it has been proven to play a role in thyroid function either through a thyroidal or extrathyroidal mechanism. The former involves oxidative damages mediated by free radicals, whereas the latter implies an inhibition of the deiodinase responsible for the utilization of T4 into T3. One concludes that: 1. Goiter has a multifactorial origin; 2. IDD are an important public health problem; and 3. IDD are a good model to study the effects of other trace elements whose actions in many human metabolisms have been somewhat underestimated.

  14. Iodine deficiency, other trace elements, and goitrogenic factors in the etiopathogeny of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

    PubMed

    Thilly, C H; Vanderpas, J B; Bebe, N; Ntambue, K; Contempre, B; Swennen, B; Moreno-Reyes, R; Bourdoux, P; Delange, F

    1992-01-01

    Severe goiter, cretinism, and the other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have their main cause in the lack of availability of iodine from the soil linked to a severe limitation of food exchanges. Apart from the degrees of severity of the iodine deficiency, the frequencies and symptomatologies of cretinism and the other IDD are influenced by other goitrogenic factors and trace elements. Thiocyanate overload originating from consumption of poorly detoxified cassava is such that this goitrogenic factor aggravates a relative or a severe iodine deficiency. Very recently, a severe selenium deficiency has also been associated with IDD in the human population, whereas in animals, it has been proven to play a role in thyroid function either through a thyroidal or extrathyroidal mechanism. The former involves oxidative damages mediated by free radicals, whereas the latter implies an inhibition of the deiodinase responsible for the utilization of T4 into T3. One concludes that: 1. Goiter has a multifactorial origin; 2. IDD are an important public health problem; and 3. IDD are a good model to study the effects of other trace elements whose actions in many human metabolisms have been somewhat underestimated. PMID:1375059

  15. Determination of total iodine and iodate in sea water and in various evaporites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnepfe, M.M.

    1972-01-01

    Iodine in sea water and evaporites is determined spectrophotometrically as the starch-iodine complex without prior separation or concentration of the iodine. In slightly alkaline solution, iodide is first oxidized to iodate with permanganate. Oxidized states of manganese are destroyed with iron(II) in phosphate medium without affecting the iodate. After acidification, iodide is added to react with the iodate in the presence of starch. The iodate content is determined by the same procedure, but without the addition of permanganate. As little as 0.1??g of iodine is determinable in the presence of 500 mg of chloride and 5 mg of bromide. The total iodine concentration in seven samples of sea water was found to vary from 50 ??3 to 84 ??6 ??g l-1 with 50-100% present as the iodate. ?? 1972.

  16. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  17. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  18. Evidence of reactive iodine chemistry in the Arctic boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Anoop S.; Shaw, Marvin; Oetjen, Hilke; Hornsby, Karen E.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Lee, James D.; Moller, Sarah J.; Edwards, Peter; Commane, Roisin; Ingham, Trevor; Heard, Dwayne E.; Plane, John M. C.

    2010-10-01

    Although it has recently been established that iodine plays an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of coastal Antarctica, where it occurs at levels which cause significant ozone (O3) depletion and changes in the atmospheric oxidising capacity, iodine oxides have not previously been observed conclusively in the Arctic boundary layer (BL). This paper describes differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) observations of iodine monoxide (IO), along with gas chromatographic measurements of iodocarbons, in the sub-Arctic environment at Kuujjuarapik, Hudson Bay, Canada. Episodes of elevated levels of IO (up to 3.4 ± 1.2 ppt) accompanied by a variety of iodocarbons were observed. Air mass back trajectories show that the observed iodine compounds originate from open water polynyas that form in the sea ice on Hudson Bay. A combination of long-path DOAS and multiaxis DOAS observations suggested that the IO is limited to about 100 m in height. The observations are interpreted using a one-dimensional model, which indicates that the iodocarbon sources from these exposed waters can account for the observed concentrations of IO. These levels of IO deplete O3 at rates comparable to bromine oxide (BrO) and, more importantly, strongly enhance the effect of bromine-catalyzed O3 depletion in the Arctic BL, an effect which has not been quantitatively considered hitherto. However, the measurements and modeling results indicate that the effects of iodine chemistry are on a much more localized scale than bromine chemistry in the Arctic environment.

  19. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  20. Atmospheric iodine abates smog ozone.

    PubMed

    HAMILTON, W F; LEVINE, M; SIMON, E

    1963-04-12

    Traces of iodine in test samples of irradiated photochemical smog atmospheres either inhibit ozone formation or lower its concentration. Eye and respiratory irritation are reduced qualitatively. Iodine is more effective in suppressing ozone in a photochemical smog atmosphere than it is in purified air.

  1. Hypothyroidism following iodine-131 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.T.

    1982-02-01

    A teaching editorial dealing with the hypothyroidism side effect of Iodine-131 radiotherapy is presented. The author reviews two articles in this issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine on the subject, discusses Graves' disease, Iodine 125 radiotherapy, and the patient-physician relationship when dealing with the problem. (JMT)

  2. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  3. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOEpatents

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  4. Detection, identification and formation of new iodinated disinfection byproducts in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    The use of seawater for toilet flushing introduces high levels of inorganic ions, including iodide ions, into a city's wastewater treatment systems, resulting in saline wastewater effluents. Chlorination is widely used in disinfecting wastewater effluents owing to its low cost and high efficiency. During chlorination of saline wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with effluent organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Iodinated DBPs show significantly higher toxicity than their brominated and chlorinated analogues and thus have been drawing increasing concerns. In this study, polar iodinated DBPs were detected in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents using a novel precursor ion scan method. The major polar iodinated DBPs were identified and quantified, and their organic precursors and formation pathways were investigated. The formation of iodinated DBPs under different chlorine doses and contact times was also studied. The results indicated that a few polar iodinated DBPs were generated in the chlorinated saline primary effluent, but few were generated in the chlorinated saline secondary effluent. Several major polar iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline primary effluent were proposed with structures, among which a new group of polar iodinated DBPs, iodo-trihydroxybenzenesulfonic acids, were identified and quantified. The organic precursors of this new group of DBPs were found to be 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and the formation pathways of these new DBPs were tentatively proposed. Both chlorine dose and contact time affected the formation of iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.

  5. Detection, identification and formation of new iodinated disinfection byproducts in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    The use of seawater for toilet flushing introduces high levels of inorganic ions, including iodide ions, into a city's wastewater treatment systems, resulting in saline wastewater effluents. Chlorination is widely used in disinfecting wastewater effluents owing to its low cost and high efficiency. During chlorination of saline wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with effluent organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Iodinated DBPs show significantly higher toxicity than their brominated and chlorinated analogues and thus have been drawing increasing concerns. In this study, polar iodinated DBPs were detected in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents using a novel precursor ion scan method. The major polar iodinated DBPs were identified and quantified, and their organic precursors and formation pathways were investigated. The formation of iodinated DBPs under different chlorine doses and contact times was also studied. The results indicated that a few polar iodinated DBPs were generated in the chlorinated saline primary effluent, but few were generated in the chlorinated saline secondary effluent. Several major polar iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline primary effluent were proposed with structures, among which a new group of polar iodinated DBPs, iodo-trihydroxybenzenesulfonic acids, were identified and quantified. The organic precursors of this new group of DBPs were found to be 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and the formation pathways of these new DBPs were tentatively proposed. Both chlorine dose and contact time affected the formation of iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline wastewater effluents. PMID:25462718

  6. Development of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine containing inorganic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Sven; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of iodine is important in multiple ways. The focus lies on the ability to influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, i.e. by destruction of ozone, and the formation of iodine oxide particles (IOP), i.e. the influence on condensation nuclei (CCN). Using a variation of techniques, like differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS), the reactive iodine species of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2), iodine monoxide (IO) and iodine dioxide (OIO) have all been detected in the atmosphere from Antarctica to the equatorial marine boundary layer (MBL). In the past few years there have been active research on IO, especially after revealing significant levels in open ocean measurements, OIO and higher iodine oxides. In addition to atmospheric measurements, significant developments in laboratory kinetics, photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry of iodine species have been accomplished. [1] Here we introduce an online-method for detecting gaseous molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine-containing inorganic compounds such as HOI, which is a further development of the technique used by Carpenter et al. [2]. The method is based on selective photolytic dissociation of the analytes, followed by oxidization and particle formation of the iodine compounds. The particles are than size-segregated and detected by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system. Initial IOP forming is performed in a reaction chamber providing specific wavelengths according to corresponding bond dissociation thresholds. Atmospheric samples can also be pre concentrated by diffusion denuder (with α Cyclodextrin modified and immobilised silica coating) [3-5] and afterwards released by thermodesorption. First attempts of quantification are carried out by external calibration using an

  7. Structurally Defined Molecular Hypervalent Iodine Catalysts for Intermolecular Enantioselective Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Haubenreisser, Stefan; Wöste, Thorsten H.; Martínez, Claudio; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Molecular structures of the most prominent chiral non‐racemic hypervalent iodine(III) reagents to date have been elucidated for the first time. The formation of a chirally induced supramolecular scaffold based on a selective hydrogen‐bonding arrangement provides an explanation for the consistently high asymmetric induction with these reagents. As an exploratory example, their scope as chiral catalysts was extended to the enantioselective dioxygenation of alkenes. A series of terminal styrenes are converted into the corresponding vicinal diacetoxylation products under mild conditions and provide the proof of principle for a truly intermolecular asymmetric alkene oxidation under iodine(I/III) catalysis. PMID:26596513

  8. Iodinated contrast media inhibit oxygen consumption in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells from elderly humans and diabetic rats: Influence of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Per; Hansell, Peter; Fasching, Angelica; Palm, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Mechanisms underlying contrast medium (CM)-induced nephropathy remain elusive, but recent attention has been directed to oxygen availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the low-osmolar CM iopromide and the iso-osmolar CM iodixanol on oxygen consumption (QO2) in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells (PTC) from kidneys ablated from elderly humans undergoing nephrectomy for renal carcinomas and from normoglycemic or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Materials PTC were isolated from human kidneys, or kidneys of normoglycemic or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. QO2 was measured with Clark-type microelectrodes in a gas-tight chamber with and without each CM (10 mg I/mL medium). L-NAME was used to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production caused by nitric oxide synthase. Results Both CM reduced QO2 in human PTC (about –35%) which was prevented by L-NAME. PTC from normoglycemic rats were unaffected by iopromide, whereas iodixanol decreased QO2 (–34%). Both CM decreased QO2 in PTC from diabetic rats (–38% and –36%, respectively). L-NAME only prevented the effect of iopromide in the diabetic rat PTC. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that CM can induce NO release from isolated PTC in vitro, which affects QO2. Our results suggest that the induction of NO release and subsequent effect on the cellular oxygen metabolism are dependent on several factors, including CM type and pre-existing risk factors for the development of CM-induced nephropathy. PMID:26933994

  9. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  10. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases. PMID:27276725

  11. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  12. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  13. Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

  14. [Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Molnár, I; Magyari, M; Stief, L

    1998-08-30

    The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism. 42 patients with cardiovascular disease (mean age 65 +/- 13 yr, 16 males) were investigated if iodine insufficiency can play a role as a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. The patients were divided in 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary disfunction and arrhythmia. Urine iodine concentration (5.29 +/- 4.52 micrograms/dl) was detected with Sandell-Kolthoff colorimetric reaction. The most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure (4.7 +/- 4.94 micrograms/dl and 4.9 +/- 4.81 micrograms/dl, respectively). An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients (5.3 +/- 1.4 mlU/l). An elevation in lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglyceride) associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia. In conclusion, the occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent. Iodine supplementation might prevent the worsing effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease.

  15. Modification of σ-Donor Properties of Terminal Carbide Ligands Investigated Through Carbide-Iodine Adduct Formation.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Anders; Vosch, Tom; Bendix, Jesper

    2016-09-26

    The terminal carbide ligands in [(Cy3 P)2 X2 Ru≡C] complexes (X=halide or pseudohalide) coordinate molecular iodine, affording charge-transfer complexes rather than oxidation products. Crystallographic and vibrational spectroscopic data show the perturbations of iodine to vary with the auxiliary ligand sphere on ruthenium, demonstrating the σ-donor properties of carbide complexes to be tunable.

  16. Abiotic production of iodine molecules in irradiated ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonyong; Kim, Kitae; Yabushita, Akihiro

    2015-04-01

    Reactive halogen species play an important role in Earth's environmental systems. Iodine compounds are related to ozone depletion event (ODE) during Antarctic spring, formation of CCN (cloud condensation nuclei), and controlling the atmospheric oxidizing capacity. However, the processes and mechanisms for abiotic formation of iodine compounds in polar region are still unclear. Although the chemical reactions taking place in ice are greatly different from those in aquatic environment, reaction processes of halogens in frozen condition have rarely studied compared to those in water. In this study, we investigated iodide oxidation to form triiodide (I3-) in ice phase under UV irradiation ( λ > 300 nm) and dark condition. The production of I3- through iodide oxidation, which is negligible in aqueous solution, was significantly accelerated in ice phase even in the absence of UV irradiation. The following release of gaseous iodine molecule (I2) to the atmosphere was also monitored by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). We speculate that the markedly enhanced iodide oxidation in polycrystalline ice is due to the freeze concentration of iodides, protons, and dissolved oxygen in the ice crystal grain boundaries. The experiments conducted under ambient solar radiation of the Antarctic region (King George Island, 62°13'S 58°47'W, sea level) also confirmed that the generation of I3- via iodide oxidation process is enhanced when iodide is trapped in ice. The observed intrinsic oxidative transformation of iodide to generate I3-(aq) and I2(g) in frozen environment suggests a previously unknown pathway for the substantial release of reactive iodine species to the atmosphere.

  17. Direct construction of 5-methyl-2-phenylisoxazol-3(2H)-ones via hypervalent iodine mediated sequential tandem oxidative cyclization of 3-oxo-N-phenylbutanamides catalyzed by zinc oxide (ZnO).

    PubMed

    Liu, Weibing; Zhou, Peng; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Zhibo

    2013-01-28

    A sequential oxidative tandem cyclization reaction mediated by a combination of (diacetoxyiodo)benzene (DIB) with zinc oxide (ZnO) is presented for the synthesis of 5-methyl-2-phenylisoxazol-3(2H)-ones from β-ketobutylanilides. A variety of β-ketobutylanilide compounds were used in this approach, and a wide range of functionalized 5-methylisoxazol-3(2H)-ones were obtained in good to excellent yields.

  18. Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  19. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  20. PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLYER,D.J.

    2001-08-08

    Probably the most widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is I-123. It has gradually replaced I-131 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this reason, it has in many instances replaced the reactor produced iodine-131 (Lambrecht and Wolf 1973). A great number of radiopharmaceuticals have been labeled using I-123 and the number is increasing. One of the most promising uses of I-123 is in the imaging of monoclonal antibodies to localize and visualize tumors. However, preclinical and clinical experiences with radiolabeled antibodies have not realized the expectations regarding specificity and sensitivity of tumor localization with these agents. It appears that much of the administered activity is not associated with the tumor site and only a small fraction actually accumulates there. Work continues in this area and tumor-associated antigens can be targets for specific antibody reagents.

  1. The changing epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-07-01

    Globally, about 2 thousand million people are affected by iodine deficiency. Although endemic goitre is the most visible sign of iodine deficiency, its most devastating consequence is brain damage causing mental retardation in children. The relationship between iodine deficiency and brain damage was not clearly established until the 1980s when the term iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which encompass a spectrum of conditions caused by iodine deficiency, was introduced. This paradigm shift in the understanding of the clinical consequences of iodine deficiency led to a change in iodine deficiency assessment. The median urinary iodine excretion level has been recommended as the preferred indicator for monitoring population iodine deficiency status since 2001. The 2007 WHO urinary iodine data in schoolchildren from 130 countries revealed that iodine intake is still insufficient in 47 countries. Furthermore, about one-third of countries lack national estimates of the prevalence of iodine deficiency. The picture that has emerged from available data worldwide over the past two decades is that IDDs are not confined to remote, mountainous areas in developing countries, but are a global public health problem that affects most countries, including developed countries and island nations. The recognition of the universality of iodine deficiency highlights the need to develop and apply new strategies to establish and maintain sustainable IDD elimination and strengthen regular monitoring programmes. PMID:22473332

  2. Metal-Free Asymmetric Synthesis of Indanes through Chiral Hypervalent Iodine(III)-Mediated Ring Contraction.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Anees; Silva, Luiz F

    2016-03-01

    The iodine(III)-mediated asymmetric oxidative rearrangement of 1,2-dihydronaphthalenes was investigated to prepare optically active 1-substituted indanes. The chiral hypervalent iodine species is generated in situ from a chiral aryl iodide, prepared in 94% yield in one step. This metal-free protocol was applied to different cyclic alkenes, substituted with oxygen, with nitrogen, or at position 1 with aryl or methyl. Indanes can be isolated as an acetal or alcohol in up to 78% ee. PMID:26866897

  3. Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin D; Jimenez, Jose L; Bahreini, Roya; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H; Hämeri, Kaarle; Pirjola, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Jennings, S Gerard; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2002-06-01

    The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei--from which marine clouds originate--depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid derived from the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide is responsible for the production of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. It was accordingly proposed that algae producing dimethyl sulphide play a role in climate regulation, but this has been difficult to prove and, consequently, the processes controlling marine particle formation remains largely undetermined. Here, using smog chamber experiments under coastal atmospheric conditions, we demonstrate that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapours, which are the photolysis products of biogenic iodocarbons emitted from marine algae. Moreover, we illustrate, using aerosol formation models, that concentrations of condensable iodine-containing vapours over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. We suggest therefore that marine iodocarbon emissions have a potentially significant effect on global radiative forcing.

  4. Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin D; Jimenez, Jose L; Bahreini, Roya; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H; Hämeri, Kaarle; Pirjola, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Jennings, S Gerard; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2002-06-01

    The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei--from which marine clouds originate--depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid derived from the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide is responsible for the production of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. It was accordingly proposed that algae producing dimethyl sulphide play a role in climate regulation, but this has been difficult to prove and, consequently, the processes controlling marine particle formation remains largely undetermined. Here, using smog chamber experiments under coastal atmospheric conditions, we demonstrate that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapours, which are the photolysis products of biogenic iodocarbons emitted from marine algae. Moreover, we illustrate, using aerosol formation models, that concentrations of condensable iodine-containing vapours over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. We suggest therefore that marine iodocarbon emissions have a potentially significant effect on global radiative forcing. PMID:12050661

  5. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  6. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  7. Iodination by stimulated human neutrophils. Studies on its stoichiometry, subcellular localization and relevance to microbial killing.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, A W; Garcia, R C; Harper, A M; Banga, J P

    1983-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase of phagocytic leucocytes is thought to utilize H2O2 to oxidize halides, which then react with and kill ingested microbes. This hypothesis was based largely on the incorporation of radiolabelled iodide into cells that had phagocytosed bacteria. The present studies investigated the stoichiometry of these reactions and the subcellular localization and electrophoretic pattern of the cellular components that became iodinated. 1. The stoichiometry of the reactions are such that only a small proportion (less than 0.3%) of the total oxygen consumed is utilized for iodination. Iodination after stimulation with the soluble stimulus phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which is not known to involve the azurophil granules and their contained myeloperoxidase, was comparable with that occurring after bacterial ingestion. 2. Analytical subcellular fractionation of cells that had phagocytosed bacteria localized about 25% of the radioactivity to the membranes, and most of the residual radioactivity distributed with the bacteria and dense granules. In cells stimulated with PMA, more of the radioactivity was associated with the membranes, but about half was still associated with the dense granules. 3. Autoradiographs after dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of cells stimulated with opsonized bacteria gave a similar distribution of iodinated components to that obtained with cells that had been stimulated with PMA or iodinated with Iodogen. These patterns of iodination were very different from those obtained when bacteria alone were iodinated with Iodogen or myeloperoxidase and H2O2. Preparations in which bacteria had been phagocytosed did not show evidence of iodination of bacterial proteins or coating opsonins. Thus positive evidence for the iodination of bacteria has not been produced, and the role of iodination in the microbicidal process of neutrophils remains to be established. Images Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6303312

  8. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-03-15

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  10. Perchlorate, iodine and the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    In pharmacologic doses, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodine uptake and subsequently decreases thyroid hormone production. Although pharmacologic doses may be used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, recent literature has focussed on the detection of low levels of perchlorate in the environment, groundwater and foodstuffs and their potential adverse effects on human thyroid function. This is of particular concern to the developing foetus and infant, whose normal neurodevelopment depends on adequate iodine intake for the production of thyroid hormones. Further research is needed to clarify the potential health effects of low-level chronic environmental perchlorate exposure. The health impact of environmental perchlorate may be dependent upon adequate iodine intake and should be interpreted in combination with other environmental exposures that are also potential thyroidal endocrine disruptors. PMID:20172477

  11. A study on the expulsion of iodine from spent-fuel solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Akira; Ishikawa, Niroh

    1995-02-01

    During dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, some radioiodine remains in spent-fuel solutions. Its expulsion to dissolver off-gas is important to minimize iodine escape to the environment. In our current work, the iodine remaining in spent-fuel solutions varied from 0 to 10% after dissolution of spent PWR-fuel specimens (approximately 3 g each). The amount remaining probably was dependent upon the dissolution time required. The cause is ascribable to the increased nitrous acid concentration that results from NOx generated during dissolution. The presence of nitrous acid was confirmed spectrophotometrically in an NO-HNO{sub 3} system at 100{degrees}C. Experiments examining NOx concentration versus the quantity of iodine in a simulated spent-fuel solution indicate that iodine (I{minus}) in spent fuels is subjected to the following three reactions: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid arising from NOx, and (3) formation of colloidal iodine (AgI, PdI{sub 2}), the major iodine species in a spent-fuel solution. Reaction (2) competes with reaction (3) to control the quantity of iodine remaining in solution. The following two-step expulsion process to remove iodine from a spent-fuel solution was derived from these experiments: Step One - Heat spent-fuel solutions without NOx sparging. When aged colloidal iodine is present, an excess amount of iodate should be added to the solution. Step Two - Sparge the fuel solution with NOx while heating. Effect of this new method was confirmed by use of a spent PWR-fuel solution.

  12. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  13. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  14. Iodine Standard Materials: Preparation and Inter-Laboratory Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    D D Jenson; M L Adamic; J E Olson; M G Watrous; C Vockenhuber

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is preparing to enter the community of AMS practioners who analyze for 129Iodine. We expect to take delivery of a 0.5 MV compact accelerator mass spectrometry system, built by NEC, in the early summer of 2014. The primary mission for this instrument is iodine; it is designed to analyze iodine in the +3 charge state. As part of the acceptance testing for this instrument, both at NEC and on-site in our laboratory, some sort of standard or reference material is needed to verify performance. Appropriate standard materials are not readily available in the commercial marketplace. Small quantities can sometimes be acquired from other laboratories already engaged in iodine analyses. In the longer-term, meaningful quantities of standard materials are needed for routine use in analyses, and for quality control functions1. We have prepared some standard materials, starting with elemental Woodward iodine and NIST SRM 3231 [Iodine-129 Isotopic Standard (high level)] 10-6 solution. The goal was to make mixtures at the 5x10-10, 5x10-11, 5x10-12 ratio levels, along with some unmodified Woodward, in the chemical form of silver iodide. Approximately twenty grams of each of these mixtures were prepared. The elemental Woodward iodine was dissolved in chloroform, then reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite in water. At this point the NIST spike material was added, in the form of sodium iodide. The mixed iodides were oxidized back to iodine in chloroform using hydrogen peroxide. This oxidation step was essential for isotopic equilibration of the 127 and 129 atoms. The iodine was reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite as before. Excess sulfites and sulfates were precipitated with barium nitrate. After decanting, silver nitrate was used to precipitate the desired silver iodide. Once the silver iodide was produced, the material was kept in darkness as much as possible to minimize photo-oxidation. The various mixtures were synthesized independently of each

  15. Behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Kazunori; Takahashi, A.

    1997-08-01

    The results of laboratory-scale experiments concerning the behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, which were carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, are summarized. Based on previous and new experimental results, the difference in quantity of residual iodine in the fuel solution between laboratory-scale experiments and reprocessing plants is discussed, Iodine in spent fuels is converted to the following four states: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid generated in the dissolution, (3) formation of a colloid of insoluble iodides such as AgI and PdI{sub 2}, and (4) deposition on insoluble residue. Nitrous acid controls the amount of colloid formed. As a result, up to 10% of iodine in spent fuels is retained in the fuel solution, up to 3% is deposited on insoluble residue, and the balance volatilizes to the off-gas, Contrary to earlier belief, when the dissolution is carried out in 3 to 4 M HNO{sub 3} at 100{degrees}C, the main iodine species in a fuel solution is a colloid, not iodate, Immediately after its formation, the colloid is unstable and decomposes partially in the hot nitric acid solution through the following reaction: AgI(s) + 2HNO{sub 3}(aq) = {1/2}I{sub 2}(aq) + AgNO{sub 3}(aq) + NO{sub 2}(g) + H{sub 2}O(1). For high concentrations of gaseous iodine, I{sub 2}(g), and NO{sub 2}, this reaction is reversed towards formation of the colloid (AgI). Since these concentrations are high near the liquid surface of a plant-scale dissolver, there is a possibility that the colloid is formed there through this reversal, Simulations performed in laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated this reversal, This phenomenon can be one reason the quantity of residual iodine in spent fuels is higher in reprocessing plants than in laboratory-scale experiments. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The impact of molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raso, A. R. W.; Custard, K. D.; Shepson, P. B.; Pratt, K.; Tanner, D.; Huey, L. G.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive halogen chemistry has been shown to instigate or be active during ozone depletion events in the polar regions. It has long been hypothesized that iodine may be an important contributor to ozone depletion in the atmosphere near ice/snow-covered polar surfaces. This has been supported in recent years by measurements of IO and I2 in marine environments and around Antarctica. However, the detection of inorganic iodine compounds (I2, IO, HOI) in the Arctic has been very sparse, and molecular iodine (I2) measurements have not previously been reported. Here we present measurements of I2 in the interstitial snowpack air, conducted at Barrow, Alaska in January and February of 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was measured at up to 35ppt in the snowpack interstitial air when the top of the snowpack was artificially illuminated. During the daylight hours, I2 concentrations were highest in the late afternoon and were significantly higher on clear days than on overcast. Together these observations suggest that, like Br2 and Cl2, I2 has a photochemical production mechanism. While I- can be directly oxidized by O3, this may not be the dominant initiation pathway for sunlit conditions. A zero dimensional photochemical model shows that, because of coupling between XO radicals, proper simulation of ozone depletion events in the arctic will require understanding and inclusion of detailed iodine chemistry.

  17. Advanced prototype automated iodine monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The technique of detecting and measuring parts-per-million concentrations of aqueous iodine by direct spectrophotometric means is discussed, and development of a prototype Automated Iodine Monitoring/Controller System (AIMS) is elaborated. The present effort is directed primarily toward reducing the power requirement and the weight of the AIMS. Other objectives include determining the maximum concentration of iodine that can be dissolved in an alcohol solution, and in an aqueous potassium iodide solution. Also discussed are the effects of a no flow condition on iodine measurements and the effect of pH on spectrophotometric iodine determinations.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and application of iodine modified titanium dioxide in phototcatalytical reactions under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwasi, Segomotso; Tian, Baozhu; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinlong

    2012-02-01

    Iodine doped titanium dioxide has been successfully prepared by simple hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate in the presence of iodic acid. The adopted method allowed for the production of spherical iodine doped titaniun dioxide nanoparticles with varied amount of iodine content. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, Raman, transmission electron microscopy as well as UV-vis DRS revealed that titanium dioxide nanostructures were doped with iodine which existed in two different valence states I5+ and I-. The iodine in the form of I5+ is believed to have doped into the lattice whereas I- was well dispersed on the surface of TiO2 probably as iodine adducts hence rendering it to be highly absorbing in visible light region. The I-TiO2 exhibited improved photocatalytic activity toward degradation of acid orange 7 (AO7), methyl orange (MO) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) under visible light over the pristine TiO2 prepared by the same method. High catalytic properties are attributed to iodine doping which led to high specific surface area, absorption in visible region as well as alleviation of charge carrier recombination. The most probable route undertaken in the degradation of AO7 is through indirect oxidation by the hydroxyl radicals.

  19. The Extrathyronine Actions of Iodine as Antioxidant, Apoptotic, and Differentiation Factor in Various Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Anguiano, Brenda; Delgado, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Background Seaweed is an important dietary component and a rich source of iodine in several chemical forms in Asian communities. Their high consumption of this element (25 times higher than in Western countries) has been associated with the low incidence of benign and cancerous breast and prostate disease in Japanese people. Summary We review evidence showing that, in addition to being a component of the thyroid hormone, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine. In animal and human studies, molecular iodine (I2) supplementation exerts a suppressive effect on the development and size of both benign and cancerous neoplasias. Investigations by several groups have demonstrated that these effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby triggering mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, and indirect effects through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors type gamma, which, in turn, trigger apoptotic or differentiation pathways. Conclusions We propose that the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficient Disorders recommend that iodine intake be increased to at least 3 mg/day of I2 in specific pathologies to obtain the potential extrathyroidal benefits described in the present review. PMID:23607319

  20. Iodine supplementation in pregnancy - is it time?

    PubMed

    Taylor, P N; Vaidya, B

    2016-07-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormone and optimal foetal neurological development. Pregnant women living in borderline or moderate-severe iodine deficient areas are at particularly high risk of being iodine deficient, and this may have important clinical consequences, particularly for the neurocognitive development of the offspring. It is a substantial problem and many countries including the United Kingdom are mild-moderately iodine deficient. Although the detrimental effects of severe iodine deficiency are well recognized, the benefits of correcting mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are unclear due to a lack of randomized controlled trials in this area. However, observational data increasingly indicate that there may be substantial health and economic benefits from correcting iodine deficiency in pregnancy. There is now a growing trend from learned societies that iodine supplementation should be utilized in pregnancy in countries with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. The dose of iodine supplement needs to reflect local iodine status and iodization policies and will need careful monitoring at the population level to ensure doses to prevent under/excess dosing which would undermine the potential benefits. National tailored guidance is therefore essential. PMID:26998765

  1. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, thyroglobulin and newborn thyrotropin. In nearly all iodine-deficient countries, the best strategy to control IDD is salt iodization, one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When salt iodization is not possible, iodine supplements can be targeted to vulnerable groups. Introduction of iodized salt to regions of chronic IDD may transiently increase the incidence of thyroid disorders, and programs should include monitoring for both iodine deficiency and excess. Although more data on the epidemiology of thyroid disorders caused by differences in iodine intake are needed, overall, the relatively small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. PMID:18565420

  2. Iodine Loading of NO Aged Silver Exchanged Mordenite

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, K. K.; Bruffey, S. H.; Jubin, J. T.; Walker, Jr., J. F.

    2014-09-30

    In an off-gas treatment system for used nuclear fuel processing, a solid sorbent will typically be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water vapor, gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed sorbents. Silver exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine its iodine sorption capacity after long term exposure to increasingly more complex chemical environments. Studies previously conducted at ORNL investigated the effects of aging reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag{sup 0}Z) in dry air, moist air, and NO2. This study investigated the effects of extended exposure to nitric oxide (NO) gas on the iodine capture performance of Ag{sup 0}Z. A deep bed of Ag{sup 0}Z was aged in a 1% nitric oxide (NO) air stream, and portions of the bed were removed at pre-determined intervals. After being removed from the NO stream, each sample was loaded with iodine in a thin bed configuration. These samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) to quantify the iodine content in the sample. Samples were removed at one week and one month. A 78% decrease in sample capacity was seen after one week of exposure, with no further decrease observed after 1 month of aging. The observed loss in capacity is larger in magnitude than previous studies exposing Ag{sup 0}Z to dry air, moist air, or NO2 gas. The aging study was terminated after one month and repeated; this successfully demonstrated the reproducibility of the results.

  3. Implementation of polar ice emissions of iodine in a global chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Carmona-Balea, Antia; Juan-Vicente, Caterina; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2016-04-01

    The sources of the large iodine monoxide (IO) concentrations measured in coastal Antarctica remain unknown. In this work polar iodine emissions have been included in the global chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem. The implementation is based on three recent suggested mechanisms: i) release of iodine through the equilibrium HOI+I-↔I2+H2O from sea-ice algae and subsequent diffusion through brine channels to accumulate in the brine layer; ii) photolysis of iodate frozen salts, and iii) emission of gaseous iodine from the production of triiodide (I3-) via iodide oxidation in frozen solution. The results are compared to ground- ship- and satellite-based observations of IO in the Antarctic troposphere.

  4. Simultaneous detection of iodine and iodide on boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Stéphane; Comninellis, Christos; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-15

    Individual and simultaneous electrochemical detection of iodide and iodine has been performed via cyclic voltammetry on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in a 1M NaClO(4) (pH 8) solution, representative of typical environmental water conditions. It is feasible to compute accurate calibration curve for both compounds using cyclic voltammetry measurements by determining the peak current intensities as a function of the concentration. A lower detection limit of about 20 μM was obtained for iodide and 10 μM for iodine. Based on the comparison between the peak current intensities reported during the oxidation of KI, it is probable that iodide (I(-)) is first oxidized in a single step to yield iodine (I(2)). The latter is further oxidized to obtain IO(3)(-). This technique, however, did not allow for a reasonably accurate detection of iodate (IO(3)(-)) on a BDD electrode.

  5. Sorption and Transport of Iodine Species in Sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Moran, J; Seaman, J

    2004-05-20

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we focused on the sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. We conducted both column and batch experiments to investigate the sorption and transport behavior of iodine, and the sediments we examined exhibit a wide range in organic matter, clay mineralogy, soil pH, and texture. The results of our experiments illustrate complex behavior with various processes occurring, including iodate reduction, irreversible retention or mass loss of iodide, and rate-limited and nonlinear sorption. There was an appreciable iodate reduction to iodide, presumably mediated by the structural Fe(II) in some clay minerals; therefore, careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. The different iodine species exhibited dramatically different sorption and transport behavior in three sediment samples collected from different depths at the Savannah River Site. This indicates that, when anthropogenic {sup 129}I is deposited on the surface at this site, the different iodine species will have different residence times as they migrate through the various sediment regimes. Our study results yielded additional insight into processes and mechanisms affecting the geochemical cycling of iodine in the environment, and provided quantitative estimates of key parameters (e.g., extent and rate of sorption) for risk assessment at these sites.

  6. Speciation of iodine in high iodine groundwater in china associated with goitre and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Guan, Haixia; Teng, Weiping; Laurberg, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Iodine intake affects the occurrence of disease in a population. Excessive iodine intake may be caused by a high iodine content of drinking water. Tap water in few locations in Europe contains up to 139 microg/L mostly bound to humic substances, probably leaching from marine sediments in the aquifers. Even higher iodine contents have been found in Chinese waters, previously shown to associate with goitre and hypothyroidism. The aims were to elucidate speciation of high iodine groundwater from deep wells in China and to compare with high iodine waters from Europe. Water was sampled from eight wells in five villages along Bohai Bay, China. Macro-molecules and low molecular weight (MW) substances were separated by size exclusion chromatography (high performance liquid chromatography, Superose 12 HR 10/30, buffer 0.1 M Tris, pH 7.0). Organic material was evaluated by A280 and iodine in fractions measured by the Ce/As method after alkaline incineration. Iodine content of well water varied from 135 to 880 microg/L (median 287 microg/L). The amount of organic material in water was low with A280, <1-5 mAU. The chromatographic traces were similar between samples: One peak of iodine eluted around K (AV) 0.65 corresponding to MW 5 kDa (humic substances) and one peak at V (total) (iodide/low MW substances). The fraction of iodine in macro-molecules, suggested to be humic substances, varied from 8% to 70% (median 27%). Iodine and peak absorbance were associated (p = 0.006). In conclusion, iodine in iodine-rich deep well water in northern China may have marine origin and may associate with humic substances, comparable to shallow well iodine-rich water in Europe. High iodine intake from iodine-rich water suggests the cause of endemic goitre and hypothyroidism in some areas in China being iodine.

  7. Iodine-129 and Iodine-127 speciation in groundwater at the Hanford Site, U.S.: iodate incorporation into calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Creeley, Danielle; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Grandbois, Russell; Schwehr, Kathy; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Yeager, Chris; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-09-03

    The Hanford Site, the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States, has large radioactive waste plumes containing high 129I levels. The geochemical transport and fate of radioiodine depends largely on its chemical speciation that is greatly affected by environmental factors. This study reports, for the first time, the speciation of stable and radioactive iodine in the groundwater from the Hanford Site. Iodate was the dominant species and accounts for up to 84%, followed by organo-iodine and minimal levels of iodide. The relatively high pH and oxidizing environment may have prevented iodate reduction. Our results identified that calcite precipitation caused by degassing of CO2 during deep groundwater sampling incorporated between 7 to 40% of dissolved iodine (including 127I and 129I) that was originally in the groundwater, transforming dissolved to particulate iodate during sampling. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying iodine incorporation by calcite, laboratory experiments were carried out to replicate this iodine sequestering processes. Two methods were utilized in this study, 1) addition of sodium carbonate; 2) addition of calcium chloride followed by sodium carbonate where the pH was well controlled at ~8.2, which is close to the average pH of Hanford Site groundwater. It was demonstrated that iodate was the main species incorporated into calcite and this incorporation process could be impeded by elevated pH and decreasing ionic strength in groundwater. This study provides critical information for predicting the long-term fate and transport of 129I at the Hanford Site and reveals a potential means for improved remediation strategies of 129I.

  8. Iodine plus n-3 fatty acid supplementation augments rescue of postnatal neuronal abnormalities in iodine-deficient rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Mohan, Vishwa; Modi, Dinesh R; Sinha, Rohit A; Rastogi, Leena; Kumar, Praveen; Godbole, Madan M

    2013-08-01

    High prevalence of hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient (ID) mothers has serious implications for mental health of the progeny. Independent supplementation of iodine and n-3 fatty acids (FA) markedly improves growth and cognitive performance of school children. Discerning effects of n-3 FA and iodine on the developing cerebellum have not been ascertained. The present study investigates effects of these two micronutrients separately as well as together in an ID rat model. We studied the effects of these micronutrients on progeny of ID dams by instituting the following supplementation diets: (1) low-iodine diet (LID), (2) LID+potassium iodide (KI), (3) LID+n-3 FA and (4) LID+KI+n-3 FA. Pups were investigated for morphological and biochemical parameters at the peak of cerebellar histogenesis on postnatal day (P) 16 and for neurobehavioural as well as motor coordination parameters at P40. Results indicate that n-3 FA alone, without improvement in circulating thyroid hormone (TH), significantly improves functional, morphological and biochemical indices of the developing cerebellum. Further, results show that co-supplementation with iodine and n-3 FA rescues not only the loss of neurotrophic support, but also salvages motor coordination, memory and learning. This additive effect results in significantly improving neurotrophic support and seems to be mediated by parallel significant increase in TH receptor (TR)α and normalisation of TRβ, retinoic orphan receptor α and p75 neurotrophin receptor, as well as noteworthy prevention of apoptotic cell death and strengthening of anti-oxidative defence. The overall results indicate important mitigating role that n-3 FA may play in enhancing TH nuclear receptor-mediated signalling in the developing cerebellum. PMID:23312094

  9. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  10. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  11. Reactions for improving efficiencies in thermochemical cycles related to the sulfur dioxide-iodine process

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.V.; Bowman, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    A modification of the sulfur dioxide-iodine cycle which uses magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfite and magnesium iodide is examined with particular emphasis on decreasing the amount of water employed and thereby increasing the efficiency. The key reaction is that of iodine with magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfite hexahydrate with no additional water. This produces 77% of the total possible sulfate as well as magnesium iodide, hydrogen iodide and hydrogen at 523/sup 0/K. The efficiency of this cycle varies between 58% and 39% depending on the amount of heat that can be recovered. This is the first example of a cycle where there is no large energy burden due to evaporation.

  12. Graphs for 53-I (Iodine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 53-I (Iodine, atomic number Z = 53).

  13. Effect of iodine disinfectant source and water quality parameters on soluble iodine speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Joann; Hurst, Charles; Barkley, Robert; Dunham, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of iodine species distribution of various aqueous solutions of iodine disinfectants and water from equilibrated suspensions of triodide and pentaiodide resins were done at the University of Colorado for the Center for Space Environmental Health during 1992 and 1993. Direct measurements of three individual iodine species: I(-), I2 and I3(-), were made. In addition three measures of total titratable iodine species were used. It has been found that I2 and I3(-) solutions produce a significant fraction of the non-disinfecting species iodine I(-), ranging from 50 to 80% of added iodine, respectively, at pH values of approximately 5. Correspondingly, I2 solutions produce more than twice the concentration of disinfecting iodine species per mass iodine dose than I3(-) solutions. Both I(-) and I2 species were found in aqeuous extracts of pentaiodide resin, although no soluble species were detected with triiodide resin.

  14. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, B S

    1983-11-12

    Disorders resulting from severe iodine deficiency affect more than 400 million people in Asia alone. These disorders include stillbirths, abortions, and congenital anomalies; endemic cretinism, characterised most commonly by mental deficiency, deaf mutism, and spastic diplegia and lesser degrees of neurological defect related to fetal iodine deficiency; and impaired mental function in children and adults with goitre associated with subnormal concentrations of circulating thyroxine. Use of the term iodine deficiency disorders, instead of "goitre", would help to bridge the serious gap between knowledge and its application. Iodised salt and iodised oil (by injection or by mouth) are suitable for the correction of iodine deficiency on a mass scale. A single dose of iodised oil can correct severe iodine deficiency for 3-5 years. Iodised oil offers a satisfactory immediate measure for primary care services until an iodised salt programme can be implemented. The complete eradication of iodine deficiency is therefore feasible within 5-10 years. PMID:6138653

  15. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible.

  16. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  17. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Baidar, S.; Cuevas, C. A.; Koenig, T. K.; Fernandez, R. P.; Dix, B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Campos, T. L.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  18. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible. PMID:15703706

  19. Concentration-dependent mobility, retardation, and speciation of iodine in surface sediment from the Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Du, J; Xu, C; Schwehr, K A; Ho, Y-F; Li, H-P; Roberts, K A; Kaplan, D I; Brinkmeyer, R; Yeager, C M; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Santschi, P H

    2011-07-01

    Iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states in aquatic systems in the form of organic and inorganic species. This feature leads to complex biogeochemical cycling of stable iodine and its long-lived isotope, (129)I. In this study, we investigated the sorption, transport, and interconversion of iodine species by comparing their mobility in groundwaters at ambient concentrations of iodine species (10(-8) to 10(-7) M) to those at artificially elevated concentrations (78.7 μM), which often are used in laboratory analyses. Results demonstrate that the mobility of iodine species greatly depends on, in addition to the type of species, the iodine concentration used, presumably limited by the number of surface organic carbon binding sites to form covalent bonds. At ambient concentrations, iodide and iodate were significantly retarded (K(d) values as high as 49 mL g(-1)), whereas at concentrations of 78.7 μM, iodide traveled along with the water without retardation. Appreciable amounts of iodide during transport were retained in soils due to iodination of organic carbon, specifically retained by aromatic carbon. At high input concentration of iodate (78.7 μM), iodate was found to be reduced to iodide and subsequently followed the transport behavior of iodide. These experiments underscore the importance of studying iodine geochemistry at ambient concentrations and demonstrate the dynamic nature of their speciation during transport conditions.

  20. Comparison of byproduct formation in waters treated with chlorine and iodine: relevance to point-of-use treatment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma Marie; Plewa, Michael J; Lindell, Crystal L; Richardson, Susan D; Mitch, William A

    2010-11-15

    Due to their efficacy in deactivating a range of microbial pathogens, particularly amoebic cysts, iodine-based disinfectants have been a popular option for point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection by campers, the military, and rural consumers in developing countries. Recently, concerns regarding the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) have arisen during chloramine disinfection of iodide-containing waters in the developed world; similar concerns should pertain to iodine-based POU disinfection. Because there are alternative POU disinfection techniques, including chlorine-based disinfectants, this paper compared disinfection byproduct formation from a range of iodine-based disinfectants at their recommended dosages to chlorination and chloramination under overdosing conditions. Just as chloroform was the predominant trihalomethane (THM) forme during chlorination or chloramination, iodoform was the predominant THM formed during iodination. Conditions fostering THM formation were similar between these treatments, except that THM formation during chlorination increased with pH, while it was slightly elevated at circumneutral pH during iodination. Iodoform formation during treatment with iodine tincture was higher than during treatment with iodine tablets. On a molar basis, iodoform formation during treatment with iodine tincture was 20-60% of the formation of chloroform during chlorination, and total organic iodine (TOI) formation was twice that of total organic chlorine (TOCl), despite the 6-fold higher oxidant dose during chlorination. Based upon previous measurements of chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity for the individual THMs, consumers of two waters treated with iodine tincture would receive the same THM-associated cytotoxic exposure in 4-19 days as a consumer of the same waters treated with a 6-fold higher dose of chlorine over 1 year. Iodoacetic acid, diiodoacetic acid, and other iodo-acids were also formed with

  1. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to iodine in iodine-replete populations (schoolchildren and adults) and the proportion of concentrations <50 micro g/l. METHOD: A questionnaire on frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations was circulated to 29 scientific groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen groups reported data from 48 populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  2. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  3. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Towards the eradication of iodine-deficiency disorders in Brazil through a salt iodination programme.

    PubMed

    Medeiros-Neto, G A

    1988-01-01

    Iodine-deficiency disorders have been a serious public health problem in Brazil because of the failure of a salt iodination programme established in 1953. The reasons for this failure were logistical, e.g., potassium iodide was not supplied to all salt-producers, iodination of salt was largely erratic, and part of the population at risk used only non-refined salt, which was not iodinated. In 1978 a task force was therefore formed to implement measures to eliminate iodine-deficiency disorders from the country. For this purpose, potassium iodate was distributed, free-of-charge, to all salt mills and an iodate dosing spray was supplied without cost to small salt producers. Also, regional laboratories for determining iodine in salt were set up, inspectors made regular visits to the salt mills, and samples of salt from commerce and from the producers were analysed. More than 90% of the samples contained 10-30 mg iodine per kg. In three typical areas of the country with endemic goitre the urinary excretion of iodine increased from an average of less than 40 mug iodine to 125 +/- 38 mug iodine per g creatinine. In conclusion, the salt iodination programme was a complete success and could serve as a model for other countries with a high prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders.

  5. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  6. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Baidar, Sunil; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Koening, Theodore; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Dix, Barbara; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Campos, Teresa L.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    There are still many uncertainties about the influence of iodine chemistry in the stratosphere, as the real amount of reactive iodine injected to this layer the troposphere and the partitioning of iodine species are still unknown. In this work we report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (SZA < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer (TORERO campaign) and a 3D global chemistry-climate model (CAM-Chem) with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 pptv), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, could be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modelled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent or even larger than that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  7. Current challenges in meeting global iodine requirements.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Creswell J; Jooste, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a global problem of immense magnitude afflicting 2 billion of the world's population. The adverse effects of iodine deficiency in humans, collectively termed iodine deficiency disorders, result from decreased thyroid hormone production and action, and vary in severity from thyroid enlargement (goiter) to severe, irreversible brain damage, termed endemic cretinism. Thyroid hormone is essential throughout life, but it is critical for normal brain development in the fetus and throughout childhood. During pregnancy, maternal thyroid hormone production must increase by 25-50% to meet maternal-fetal requirements. The principal sources of iodine in the diet include milk and dairy products, seafoods and foods with added iodized salt. Vegetables, fruits and cereals are generally poor sources of iodine because most of our soils and water supplies are deficient in iodine. The accepted solution to the problem is Universal Salt Iodization where all salt for human and animal consumption is iodized at a level of 20-40 µg/g. In principle, mandatory fortification represents the most effective public health strategy where safety and efficacy can be assured and there is a demonstrated need for the nutrient in the population. Voluntary fortification of salt and other foods has many limitations and few benefits. Iodine supplementation is a useful, but expensive, inefficient and unsustainable strategy for preventing iodine deficiency. The current worldwide push to decrease salt intake to prevent cardiovascular disease presents an entirely new challenge in addressing iodine deficiency in both developing and developed countries. PMID:25825304

  8. Automated iodine monitor system. [for aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a direct spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water was established. An iodine colorimeter, was built to demonstrate the practicality of this technique. The specificity of this method was verified when applied to an on-line system where a reference solution cannot be used, and a preliminary design is presented for an automated iodine measuring and controlling system meeting the desired specifications. An Automated iodine monitor/controller system based on this preliminary design was built, tested, and delivered to the Johnson Space Center.

  9. Short communication: Feed iodine concentrations on farms with contrasting levels of iodine in milk.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Lacasse, P; Fouquet, A; Beraldin, F; Robichaud, A; Berthiaume, R

    2011-09-01

    In a previous study, milk iodine concentration from 501 farms across Canada was found to vary considerably and appeared to be influenced by feeding practices. Farms with contrasting levels of milk iodine from a subset of 200 participating farms were used to determine the relationship between milk iodine concentration and the concentration of this mineral in different feeds and complete diets given to lactating dairy cows. The 30 farms with the lowest levels of iodine in milk (low group) and the 30 farms with the highest levels (high group) were selected. Samples of bulk tank milk, all feed ingredients, and water were collected. Additionally, each farmer completed a questionnaire providing information on feeding management. The iodine offered on each of the farms was estimated from the amount of the feed in the diet recommended by the Ration'L software (Valacta, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) and the iodine concentration in the feed sampled and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The dietary concentration of iodine offered daily was 33% lower for the low group compared with the high group; that is, 1.20±0.099 versus 1.81±0.195 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Milk iodine concentrations averaged 146±13.9 μg/kg for the low group and 487±44.6 μg/kg for the high group. A linear relationship was found between dietary iodine concentration and milk iodine level, as follows: milk iodine (μg/kg)=145 (±66.9)+113 (±39.4) dietary iodine concentration (mg/kg DM). However, the low R(2) value (0.15) indicates that other factors, such as milking management and the presence of goitrogens, may have affected the concentrations of iodine in milk. Forages supplied approximately 17% of iodine requirements in the average lactating cow diet. Therefore, variations in the iodine content of forages are unlikely to cause iodine overfeeding. In contrast, 27% of the mineral mix samples presented iodine concentrations >100,000 μg/kg of DM (and up to

  10. Insights into the photochemical transformation of iodine in aqueous systems: humic acid photosensitized reduction of iodate.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Russell W; Kumar, Ravi; MacDonald, Samantha M; Plane, John M C

    2012-11-01

    Marine aerosol is highly enriched in iodine, mostly in the form of iodate (IO(3)(-)) ions, compared to its relative abundance in seawater. This paper describes a laboratory study of the photochemical reduction of IO(3)(-) in the presence of humic acid. Spectroscopic analysis showed that ~20% of IO(3)(-) was converted to "free" iodide (I(-)) ions and this fraction remained constant as a function of time. Direct detection of an organically fixed fraction (i.e., ∼ 80%) was not possible, but a number of test reactions with surrogate organic compounds containing functional groups identified in humic acid structures indicate that efficient substitution of iodine occurs at aromatic 1,2 diol sites. These iodinated humic acids are stable with respect to photolysis at near-UV/visible wavelengths and are likely to account for a significant proportion of the soluble iodine-containing organic material occurring within aerosols. In the lower atmosphere, oxidation of I(-) to I(2) in marine aerosol occurs mostly through the uptake of O(3), with H(2)O(2) playing a very minor role. A model of iodine chemistry in the open ocean tropical boundary layer, which incorporates these experimental results, is able to account for the observed enrichment of iodine in marine aerosol.

  11. Modelling molecular iodine emissions in a coastal marine environment: the link to new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M. C.; McFiggans, G.; Williams, P. I.; Ball, S. M.; Bitter, M.; Jones, R. L.; Hongwei, C.; Hoffmann, T.

    2005-07-01

    A model of iodine chemistry in the marine boundary layer (MBL) has been used to investigate the impact of daytime coastal emissions of molecular iodine (I2). The model contains a full treatment of gas-phase iodine chemistry, combined with a description of the nucleation and growth, by condensation and coagulation, of iodine oxide nano-particles. In-situ measurements of coastal emissions of I2 made by the broadband cavity ring-down spectroscopy (BBCRDS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) techniques are presented and compared to long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) observations of I2 at Mace Head, Ireland. Simultaneous measurements of enhanced I2 emissions and particle bursts show that I2 is almost certainly the main precursor of new particles at this coastal location. The ratio of IO to I2 predicted by the model indicates that the iodine species observed by the DOAS are concentrated over a short distance (about 8% of the 4.2 km light path) consistent with the intertidal zone, bringing them into good agreement with the I2 measurements made by the two in-situ techniques. The model is then used to investigate the effect of iodine emission on ozone depletion, and the production of new particles and their evolution to form stable cloud condensation nuclei (CCN).

  12. Modelling molecular iodine emissions in a coastal marine environment: the link to new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M. C.; McFiggans, G.; Williams, P. I.; Ball, S. M.; Bitter, M.; Jones, R. L.; Hongwei, C.; Hoffmann, T.

    2006-03-01

    A model of iodine chemistry in the marine boundary layer (MBL) has been used to investigate the impact of daytime coastal emissions of molecular iodine (I2). The model contains a full treatment of gas-phase iodine chemistry, combined with a description of the nucleation and growth, by condensation and coagulation, of iodine oxide nano-particles. In-situ measurements of coastal emissions of I2 made by the broadband cavity ring-down spectroscopy (BBCRDS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) techniques are presented and compared to long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) observations of I2 at Mace Head, Ireland. Simultaneous measurements of enhanced I2 emissions and particle bursts show that I2 is almost certainly the main precursor of new particles at this coastal location. The ratio of IO to I2 predicted by the model indicates that the iodine species observed by the DOAS are concentrated over a short distance (about 8% of the 4.2 km light path) consistent with the intertidal zone, bringing them into good agreement with the I2 measurements made by the two in-situ techniques. The model is then used to investigate the effect of iodine emission on ozone depletion, and the production of new particles and their evolution to form stable cloud condensation nuclei (CCN).

  13. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, "This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient." If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  14. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  15. Amniotic fluid iodine concentrations do not vary in pregnant women with varying iodine intake.

    PubMed

    García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Gallo, Manuel; García, Laureano; Prieto, Stephanie; Alcaide-Torres, Javier; Santiago, Piedad; Velasco, Inés; Soriguer, Federico

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important clinical and public health problem. Its prevention begins with an adequate intake of iodine during pregnancy. International agencies recommend at least 200 microg iodine per d for pregnant women. We assessed whether iodine concentrations in the amniotic fluid of healthy pregnant women are independent of iodine intake. This cross-sectional, non-interventional study included 365 consecutive women who underwent amniocentesis to determine the fetal karyotype. The amniocentesis was performed with abdominal antisepsis using chlorhexidine. The iodine concentration was measured in urine and amniotic fluid. The study variables were the intake of iodized salt and multivitamin supplements or the prescription of a KI supplement. The mean level of urinary iodine was 139.0 (SD 94.5) microg/l and of amniotic fluid 15.81 (SD 7.09) microg/l. The women who consumed iodized salt and those who took a KI supplement had significantly higher levels of urinary iodine than those who did not (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The urinary iodine levels were not significantly different in the women who took a multivitamin supplement compared with those who did not take this supplement, independently of iodine concentration or multivitamin supplement. The concentrations of iodine in the amniotic fluid were similar, independent of the dietary iodine intake. Urine and amniotic fluid iodine concentrations were weakly correlated, although the amniotic fluid values were no higher in those women taking a KI supplement. KI prescription at recommended doses increases the iodine levels in the mother without influencing the iodine levels in the amniotic fluid.

  16. Sorption and transport of iodine species in sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinhong; Zhao, Pihong; Moran, Jean E; Seaman, John C

    2005-07-01

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites, where anthropogenic (129)I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. We conducted integrated column and batch experiments to investigate the interconversion, sorption and transport of iodine species, and the sediments we examined exhibit a wide range in organic matter, clay mineralogy, soil pH, and texture. The results of our experiments illustrate complex behavior with various processes occurring, including iodate reduction, irreversible retention or mass loss of iodide, and rate-limited and nonlinear sorption. There was an appreciable iodate reduction to iodide, presumably mediated by the structural Fe(II) in some clay minerals; therefore, careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. The different iodine species exhibited dramatically different sorption and transport behavior in three sediment samples, possessing different physico-chemical properties, collected from different depths at the Savannah River Site. Our study yielded additional insight into processes and mechanisms affecting the geochemical cycling of iodine in the environment, and provided quantitative estimates of key parameters (e.g., extent and rate of sorption) for risk assessment at these sites.

  17. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for

  18. Modification of σ-Donor Properties of Terminal Carbide Ligands Investigated Through Carbide-Iodine Adduct Formation.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Anders; Vosch, Tom; Bendix, Jesper

    2016-09-26

    The terminal carbide ligands in [(Cy3 P)2 X2 Ru≡C] complexes (X=halide or pseudohalide) coordinate molecular iodine, affording charge-transfer complexes rather than oxidation products. Crystallographic and vibrational spectroscopic data show the perturbations of iodine to vary with the auxiliary ligand sphere on ruthenium, demonstrating the σ-donor properties of carbide complexes to be tunable. PMID:27612099

  19. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents.

    PubMed

    Miller, J K; Swanson, E W; Lyke, W A; Byrne, W F

    1975-06-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from .3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94% in feces and reduced as much as 35% in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient.

  20. Iodine Tagging Velocimetry in a Mach 10 Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, Robert Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    A variation on molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) [1] designated iodine tagging velocimetry (ITV) is demonstrated. Molecular iodine is tagged by two-photon absorption using an Argon Fluoride (ArF) excimer laser. A single camera measures fluid displacement using atomic iodine emission at 206 nm. Two examples ofMTVfor cold-flowmeasurements areN2OMTV [2] and Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging [3]. These, like most MTV methods, are designed for atmospheric pressure applications. Neither can be implemented at the low pressures (0.1- 1 Torr) in typical hypersonic wakes. Of all the single-laser/singlecamera MTV approaches, only Nitric-Oxide Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence-based MTV [4] has been successfully demonstrated in a Mach 10 wake. Oxygen quenching limits transit times to 500 ns and accuracy to typically 30%. The present note describes the photophysics of the ITV method. Off-body velocimetry along a line is demonstrated in the aerothermodynamically important and experimentally challenging region of a hypersonic low-pressure near-wake in a Mach 10 air wind tunnel. Transit times up to 10 µs are demonstrated with conservative errors of 10%.

  1. Lasing characteristics of iodine monofluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Young, R. J.

    1980-10-01

    Lasing has been observed at 491 and 484 nm from iodine monofluoride in mixtures of He/CF3I/NF3. The emission and lasing spectrum were investigated as well as conditions for optimum lasing. Optimum lasing at E/N of 1.8 x 10 to the -16th occurred at 1277/0.65/2 torr with an output reflector of 32% transmission. A media gain of 2% per cm was measured at optimum lasing conditions. Passivation with CF3I was found to be important for longer-lifetime operation.

  2. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt. PMID:12748410

  3. Iodine generator for disinfecting reclaimed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    System dispenses iodine into water tank automatically in quantities varying from 0.5 to 20 ppm. It stores 180-day supply of iodine crystals, sufficient to support six people consuming water at rate of 4.5 to 13.6 kg per person per day.

  4. Chiral hypervalent iodine reagents: synthesis and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Parra, Alejandro; Reboredo, Silvia

    2013-12-16

    Chiral hypervalent iodine chemistry has been steadily increasing in importance in recent years. This review catalogues enantioselective transformations triggered by chiral hypervalent iodine(III/V) reagents, in stoichiometric or catalytic quantities, highlighting the different reactivities in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Moreover, the synthesis of the most remarkable and successful catalysts has been illustrated in detail.

  5. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  6. Immobilization of iodine in soil-water systems and its relation to iodine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Iodine tends to accumulate in thyroid, and radioactive 131I and 129I are threatening to human health both short-term and long-term, respectively. It is thus important to understand iodine behavior in surface environments. Possible iodine species are I-, IO3-, I2, and organo-iodine species. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected to ICP-MS were used to determine iodine species in soil and pore water, respectively. Soil and pore water samples were collected at depths of 0 to 12 cm near a tube well in Yoro, Chiba, Japan, where surface soil is flooded with brine containing iodine of 5.8 mg/L. Soil samples were also collected at depths of 0 to 90 cm in Yakushima Island, Kagoshima, Japan. The soil samples were frozen, and iodine K-edge XANES were measured at BL01B1, SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). Soil samples were buried into resin and prepared as thin sections, and mapping of iodine in soil grain was obtained using μ-XRF analysis at BL37XU, SPring-8. HPLC-ICP-MS, equipped with anion exchange or size exclusion column, was used to determine iodine species in pore water. Yoro: The depth profile of iodine concentration in soil correlates quite well with that of organic carbon content. XANES spectra are almost identical to that of humic substances at any depth (Fig. 1). Iodine mapping shows that iodine exists in organic matter more than clay minerals and iron rich mineral. Iodine in pore water exists as I- and organic iodine bound to dissolved humic substances at 0-6 cm, and mainly as I- at 9-12 cm, respectively. Thus, iodine tends to be bound to organic materials in soil as organic iodine, where as iodine in pore water exists mainly as I-. Yakushima: Iodine concentration is higher in volcanic ash soil layer (25-55 cm) than surface organic rich soil layer (0-25 cm). XANES spectrum of volcanic ash soil was different from those of reference materials (Fig. 1). Volcanic ash soil in Yakushima contains imogolite and

  7. Fluorescence analysis of iodinated acetophenone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Crivelaro, F; Oliveira, M R S; Lima, S M; Andrade, L H C; Casagrande, G A; Raminelli, C; Caires, A R L

    2015-03-15

    In the present paper the synthesis and optical characterization of iodinated acetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone obtained from 4-hydroxyacetophenone, were carried out. The optical features of iodinated molecules were determined by performing the UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and thermal lens spectroscopies. The results showed that the optical properties of the 4-hydroxyacetophenone is altered when the iodine atom is inserted, as substituent, in the aromatic ring. Although it was determined that the optical feature was changed when one iodine atom was inserted in the aromatic ring (4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone), the results revealed that emission behavior was strongly altered when two iodine atoms (4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone) were acting as substituents: the fluorescence quantum efficiency increases approximately 60%.

  8. Global modeling of tropospheric iodine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwen, Tomás. M.; Evans, Mat J.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Chance, Rosie; Baker, Alex R.; Schmidt, Johan A.; Breider, Thomas J.

    2016-09-01

    Natural aerosols play a central role in the Earth system. The conversion of dimethyl sulfide to sulfuric acid is the dominant source of oceanic secondary aerosol. Ocean emitted iodine can also produce aerosol. Using a GEOS-Chem model, we present a simulation of iodine aerosol. The simulation compares well with the limited observational data set. Iodine aerosol concentrations are highest in the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) averaging 5.2 ng (I) m-3 with monthly maximum concentrations of 90 ng (I) m-3. These masses are small compared to sulfate (0.75% of MBL burden, up to 11% regionally) but are more significant compared to dimethyl sulfide sourced sulfate (3% of the MBL burden, up to 101% regionally). In the preindustrial, iodine aerosol makes up 0.88% of the MBL burden sulfate mass and regionally up to 21%. Iodine aerosol may be an important regional mechanism for ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  9. Eliminating iodine deficiency: obstacles and their removal.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Fagela-Domingo, Carmelita

    2008-12-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a global concern for developing countries and some industrialised countries. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation, posing a threat to the social and economic development of countries. Initiatives were developed and instituted to accelerate progress to achieve the goal of universal salt iodisation (USI). However, these efforts were not successful in eliminating iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in some countries. Every year, 50 million children are born without the protection that iodine offers to the growing brain and body and about 18 million suffer some significant degree of mental impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and non-governmental organisations assist to ensure that populations at risk have access to iodised salt. This paper will review the highlights of iodine deficiency and present the experiences in the various countries in Asia, i.e. assessments of the situation, action plans, and obstacles to implementation. PMID:19904447

  10. Graphene-Iodine Nanocomposites: Highly Potent Bacterial Inhibitors that are Bio-compatible with Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Some, Surajit; Sohn, Ji Soo; Kim, Junmoo; Lee, Su-Hyun; Lee, Su Chan; Lee, Jungpyo; Shackery, Iman; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Nakwon; Cho, Il-Joo; Jung, Hyo-Il; Kang, Shinill; Jun, Seong Chan

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-composites, capable of inhibiting bacterial growth which is also bio-compatible with human cells have been highly sought after. Here we report for the first time the preparation of new graphene-iodine nano-composites via electrostatic interactions between positively charged graphene derivatives and triiodide anions. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, UV-spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial potential of these graphene-iodine composites against Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirobilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and E. coli was investigated. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the nanocomposite with human cells [human white blood cells (WBC), HeLa, MDA-MB-231, Fibroblast (primary human keratinocyte) and Keratinocyte (immortalized fibroblast)], was assessed. DGO (Double-oxidizes graphene oxide) was prepared by the additional oxidation of GO (graphene oxide). This generates more oxygen containing functional groups that can readily trap more H+, thus generating a positively charged surface area under highly acidic conditions. This step allowed bonding with a greater number of anionic triiodides and generated the most potent antibacterial agent among graphene-iodine and as-made povidone-iodine (PVP-I) composites also exhibited nontoxic to human cells culture. Thus, these nano-composites can be used to inhibit the growth of various bacterial species. Importantly, they are also very low-cytotoxic to human cells culture. PMID:26843066

  11. The importance of iodine in public health.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk. PMID:25663362

  12. The importance of iodine in public health.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk.

  13. Thermochemistry of small iodine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulková, K.; Federič, J.; Louis, F.; Cantrel, L.; Demovič, L.; Černušák, I.

    2013-11-01

    We present a systematic study of the thermochemistry for a set of iodine species relevant to atmospheric chemistry. The reactions include H, O and I atoms and H2, OH, HI, I2, iodine monoxide, hypoiodous acid (HOI) and H2O species. The calculations presented were performed using completely renormalized coupled cluster theory including single, double and non-iterative triple substitutions in conjunction with the ANO-RCC basis sets developed for scalar relativistic calculations. The second-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian was used to account for the scalar relativistic effects. The calculations also included spin-orbit corrections and semi-core correlation contributions. The resulting reaction enthalpies and Gibbs energies at 298 K have been compared with the experimental data. On the basis of a set of selected reactions we suggest an updated value for Δ f H298K° of HOI based on the set of isogyric reactions: -69.0 ± 3.7 kJ mol-1.

  14. Changes in the regulation of iodine crystals and chemical mixtures containing over 2.2 percent iodine. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-07-01

    This rulemaking changes the regulation of the listed chemical iodine under the chemical regulatory provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) believes that this action is necessary to remove deficiencies in the existing regulatory controls, which have been exploited by drug traffickers who divert iodine (in the form of iodine crystals and iodine tincture) for the illicit production of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories. This rulemaking moves iodine from List II to List I; reduces the iodine threshold from 0.4 kilograms to zero kilograms; adds import and export regulatory controls; and controls chemical mixtures containing greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This rulemaking establishes regulatory controls that will apply to iodine crystals and iodine chemical mixtures that contain greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This regulation therefore controls iodine crystals and strong iodine tinctures/solutions (e.g., 7 percent iodine) that do not have common household uses and instead have limited application in livestock, horses, and for disinfection of equipment. Household products such as 2 percent iodine tincture/solution and household disinfectants containing iodine complexes will not be adversely impacted by this regulation. Additionally, the final rule exempts transactions of up to one-fluid-ounce (30 ml) of Lugol's Solution. Persons handling regulated iodine materials are required to register with DEA, are subject to the import/export notification requirements of the CSA, and are required to maintain records of all regulated transactions involving iodine regardless of size.

  15. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P < 0.001), indicating optimal iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P < 0.01). A higher frequency of seafood meals was a significant predictor of UI in both groups, but household use of iodized salt was not. These data suggest the median UI in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored.

  16. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries.

  17. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries. PMID:26241461

  18. First application of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and hypoiodic acid in maritime aerosol during PEGASO cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Sven; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Simó, Rafel; Hoffmann, Thosten

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of iodine is important in multiple ways. The focus lies on the ability to influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, i.e. by destruction of ozone, and the formation of iodine oxide particles (IOP), i.e. the influence on condensation nuclei (CCN). Using a variation of techniques, like differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS), the reactive iodine species of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2), iodine monoxide (IO) and iodine dioxide (OIO) have all been detected in the atmosphere from Antarctica to the equatorial marine boundary layer (MBL). In the past few years there have been active research on IO, especially after revealing significant levels in open ocean measurements, and higher iodine oxides. In addition to atmospheric measurements, significant developments in laboratory kinetics, photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry of iodine species have been accomplished. [1] Here we introduce the first field application of an online-method for detecting gaseous molecular iodine and HOI, which is a further development of a technique [2] based on selective photolytic dissociation, followed by oxidization and particle formation of iodine compounds. The particles are than size-segregated and detected by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system. Initial IOP forming is performed in a reaction chamber providing specific wavelengths according to corresponding bond dissociation thresholds. Additionally offline sampling of iodine and iodine containing interhalogenes with coated diffusion denuders [3] were carried out throughout the cruise to compare both methods after analysis with GC/MS. Furthermore filter samples were taken to perform non-target analysis of organic compounds by UHPLC/ESI(+/-)-HR-MS. Preliminary results of iodine related

  19. Current global iodine status and progress over the last decade towards the elimination of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Takkouche, Bahi; Egli, Ines; Allen, Henrietta E.; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate worldwide iodine nutrition and monitor country progress towards sustained elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on urinary iodine (UI) and total goitre prevalence (TGP) in school-age children from 1993-2003 compiled in the WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency were analysed. The median UI was used to classify countries according to the public health significance of their iodine nutrition status. Estimates of the global and regional populations with insufficient iodine intake were based on the proportion of each country's population with UI below 100 microg/l. TGP was computed for trend analysis over 10 years. FINDINGS: UI data were available for 92.1% of the world's school-age children. Iodine deficiency is still a public health problem in 54 countries. A total of 36.5% (285 million) school-age children were estimated to have an insufficient iodine intake, ranging from 10.1% in the WHO Region of the Americas to 59.9% in the European Region. Extrapolating this prevalence to the general population generated an estimate of nearly two billion individuals with insufficient iodine intake. Iodine intake was more than adequate, or excessive, in 29 countries. Global TGP in the general population was 15.8%. CONCLUSION: Forty-three countries have reached optimal iodine nutrition. Strengthened UI monitoring is required to ensure that salt iodization is having the desired impact, to identify at-risk populations and to ensure sustainable prevention and control of iodine deficiency. Efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency should be maintained and expanded. PMID:16175826

  20. Investigation of iodine dopant amount effects on dye-sensitized hierarchically structured ZnO solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Ding, Haiyang; Tao, Xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The effect of I amount on the photovoltaic performance was investigated. • The enhancement in η of ZnO:I DSSCs was from 38% to 77% compared with ZnO DSSCs. • Appropriate I doping enhanced light harness and inhibited charge recombination. - Abstract: We prepare a series of iodine doped zinc oxide monodisperse aggregates (ZnO:I) with various iodine concentrations as the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to study iodine dopant amount-dependent photovoltaic performance. The iodine-doped DSSCs achieve overall conversion efficiency (η) of 3.6–4.6%. The enhancement in η of ZnO:I DSSCs is from 38% to 77% as compared to undoped ZnO DSSCs. The significantly enhanced η of DSSCs is found to be correlated with iodine dopant amount. The optimum iodine dopant amount is determined to be 2.3 wt% by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the incident photon to current conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data reveal a systematic correlation between photovoltaic properties and the iodine dopant amount. The enhancement of open-circuit potential of ZnO:I cells is arising from negative shift of their flat-band potential, as demonstrated by Mott–Schottky measurement.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Ultrarapidly Dissolving Orodispersible Films for Treating and Preventing Iodine Deficiency in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Rustemkyzy, Cholpon; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-11-11

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem that is easily prevented in many countries through having a salt iodization program. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that particular population groups including infants and young children have a sufficient level of daily iodine intake, while also reducing salt consumption in their diet. While many iodine supplements are available, swallowing tablet supplements is physically difficult for young children; thus, there is a need for the development of novel iodine delivery systems for pediatric patients. In this study a novel, ultrarapidly dissolving, nanofiber-based orodispersible film formulation containing iodine which is constructed from nanofibers was manufactured using an electrospinning technique. The potassium iodate (KIO3)-loaded poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) fiber orodispersible films dissolve within seconds on wetting (applying on the tongue) without the need for the consumption of water. The electrospinning process and KIO3 loading did not alter the crystallinity and conformation of PEO. With high loading, KIO3 nanocrystals are present in the fibers. This formulation design allows easy administration of iodine for preventing childhood iodine deficiency. We have also described a novel and easy method for producing and harvesting nanocrystals of inorganic salts that can be potentially adopted for use in other relevant fields.

  2. History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2012-11-13

    Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age.

  3. History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. PMID:23201844

  4. Acquired hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency in an American child.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Merrian J; Post, Ernest M

    2014-11-01

    Acquired hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency is rarely reported in iodine-replete environments. The case of a 9-year-old patient with severe acquired hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is presented. His deficiency occurred because of a restrictive diet used to control eosinophilic esophagitis. Hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency were quickly corrected with a kelp supplement.

  5. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  6. Emissions and Distribution of Reactive Iodine from Seaweed in Coastal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Schmitt, Stefan; Kreher, Karin; Johnston, Paul; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Emissions and Distribution of Reactive Iodine from Seaweed in Coastal Regions Reactive iodine species impact atmospheric chemistry in several ways. They play an important role in the process of ozone destruction at mid-latitudes and possibly in polar regions. Besides bromine, reactive iodine compounds also affect the atmospheric cleaning mechanisms by changing its oxidation capacity. Recent field studies indicate that reactive iodine may impact the local climate in coastal areas by playing a key role in the formation of new particles which could influence cloud micro physical properties. Particularly high concentrations of the reactive iodine are found at mid-latitude coastal sites, which are emitted by seaweed exposed to oxidative stress during low tide. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. Thus, there is still very limited knowledge on the involved seaweed species and their contribution to local, regional and global iodine emissions and also the potential iodine mediated particle formation. In order to investigate these questions, we performed extensive measurements at ten different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. We applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and open path Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS for IO in-situ measurements. Similar to LP-DOAS, open path CE-DOAS measures trace gases directly in the atmosphere. Additionally, another Long Path-DOAS system monitoring IO, OIO and I2, was permanently located at Mace Head. This allows an inter-comparison of the different locations with the reference station Mace Head while respecting the influence of temporally varying meteorology. We observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, IO concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site

  7. Computation of iodine species concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Flanagan, David T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    During an evaluation of the use of iodine as a water disinfectant and the development of methods for measuring various iodine species in water onboard Space Freedom, it became necessary to compute the concentration of the various species based on equilibrium principles alone. Of particular concern was the case when various amounts of iodine, iodide, strong acid, and strong base are added to water. Such solutions can be used to evaluate the performance of various monitoring methods being considered. The authors of this paper present an overview of aqueous iodine chemistry, a set of nonlinear equations which can be used to model the above case, and a computer program for solving this system of equations using the Newton-Raphson method. The program was validated by comparing results over a range of concentrations and pH values with those previously presented by Gottardi for a given pH. Use of this program indicated that there are multiple roots to many cases and selecting an appropriate initial guess is important. Comparison of program results with laboratory results for the case when only iodine is added to water indicates the program gives high pH values for the iodine concentrations normally used for water disinfection. Extending the model to include the effects of iodate formation results in the computer pH values being closer to those observed, but the model with iodate does not agree well for the case in which base is added in addition to iodine to raise the pH. Potential explanations include failure to obtain equilibrium conditions in the lab, inaccuracies in published values for the equilibrium constants, and inadequate model of iodine chemistry and/or the lack of adequate analytical methods for measuring the various iodine species in water.

  8. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-07-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women.

  9. Assessing potential diagenetic alteration of primary iodine-to-calcium ratios in carbonate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardisty, D. S.; Lu, Z.; Swart, P. K.; Planavsky, N.; Gill, B. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Lyons, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    We have evaluated iodine-to-calcium (I/Ca) ratios from a series of carbonate samples with well-constrained histories of diagenetic alteration to assess the likelihood of overprints on primary water column-derived signals. Because only the oxidized iodine species, iodate, is incorporated during carbonate precipitation, I/Ca ratios have strong potential as proxies for both marine redox and carbon cycling. This utility lies with the combination of iodate's redox sensitivity as well as the close association between iodine and marine organic matter. However, despite the possibility of large pore water iodine enrichments relative to overlying seawater, carbonate alteration under reducing diagenetic conditions, and iodate-to-iodide reduction, no study has assessed the prospect of diagenetic alteration of primary I/Ca ratios. Here, we evaluated aragonite-to-calcite transformations and dolomitization within the Key Largo Limestone of South Florida and the Clino and Unda drill cores of the Bahamas Bank. Also, early burial diagenesis was studied through analysis of I/Ca ratios in short cores from a variety of shallow settings within the Exuma Bay, Bahamas. Further, we evaluated authigenic carbonates through analysis of iodine in concretions constrained to have formed during varying stages of evolving pore fluid chemistry. In all cases, I/Ca ratios show the potential for diagenetic iodine loss relative to water-column derived values, consistent with observations of quantitative reduction of dissolved iodate to iodide in pore waters before or synchronous with carbonate alteration. In no case, however, did we observe an increase in I/Ca during diagenetic transformation. Our results suggest both that primary I/Ca values and trends can be preserved but that maximum I/Ca ratios should be considered a minimum estimate of seawater iodate. We recommend that ancient carbonates with distinct I/Ca trends not indicative of diagenetic iodine loss reflect preservation of or very early

  10. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex.

  11. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex. PMID:24338992

  12. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    PubMed Central

    Trøan, Gisken; Dahl, Lisbeth; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Abel, Marianne Hope; Indahl, Ulf Geir; Haug, Anna; Prestløkken, Egil

    2015-01-01

    Background Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1) or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2). To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg) cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:26689316

  13. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  14. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S. ); Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P. ); Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D. )

    1993-04-02

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm [times] 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 [sup 125]I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction for the Measurement of Total I (Iodine, Iodide, and Triiodide) in Spacecraft Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipert, Robert J.; Porter, Marc D.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Rutz, Jeff A.; Schultz, John R.; Carrizales, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    An experimental drinking water monitoring kit for the measurement of iodine and silver(I) was recently delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The kit is based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE) technology, which measures the change in diffuse reflectance of indicator disks following exposure to a water sample. To satisfy additional spacecraft water monitoring requirements, CSPE has now been extended to encompass the measurement of total I (iodine, iodide, and triiodide) through the introduction of an oxidizing agent, which converts iodide and triiodide to iodine, for measurement using the same indicator disks currently being tested on ISS. These disks detect iodine, but are insensitive to iodide and triiodide. We report here the operational considerations, design, and ground-based performance of the CSPE method for total I. The results demonstrate that CSPE technology is poised to meet NASA's total I monitoring requirements.

  16. Evaluation of Accessibility of Iodinated Salt and Nutritional Iodine Status during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, R; Beiranvand, A; Khakhali, HR; Salary, S; Aghasi, MR; Nourooz-Zadeh, J

    2012-01-01

    Background: To assess accessibility of iodinated salt and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) during pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December, 2009 in Urmia County, West Azerbaijan (WA), Iran. Methods: Data on demographic characteristics and iodinated salt accessibility were gathered through a questionnaire at 1st trimester. Household salt samples and urine samples (1st –and 3rd trimesters) were analyzed for iodine content. Pregnant women (n=490) at 1st trimester were interviewed. Of these, 490 subjects (12 prenatal care centers) were enrolled. Results: All participants declared that they were exclusive users of iodinated salt. Segregation of the household salt samples according to iodine content (0, 8, 15 and 30 ppm) revealed that the respective distributions were 3.3%, 1.4%, 23.7% and 71.6%. Median UIC levels at 1st and 3rd trimesters were 73.5 μg/L and 114μg/L respectively. Accordingly, 86% and 70% of participants exhibited UIC < 150 μg/L. Conclusion: Median UIC during pregnancy in WA is markedly lower than those previously reported for regions with adequate iodine status in the country. Thus, extra iodine is needed to maintain adequate iodine store during gestation. In addition, this preliminary study reveals that a significant proportion (28%) of the household salt samples had low iodine content (≤ 15 ppm) although a level (>20 and <40 ppm) is mandatory in Iran. Further studies are deemed necessary to elucidate the cause(s) for manifestation iodine deficiency among pregnant women despite 20 years after iodine fortification strategy. PMID:23113225

  17. Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?

    PubMed

    Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 μg/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 μg/L, respectively). Higher values >150 μg/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!"

  18. Improved measurement of iodine in food samples using inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haldimann, M; Eastgate, A; Zimmerli, B

    2000-11-01

    A new ICP-MS method for the determination of iodine in food samples is presented. The method makes use of a new miniature cyclonic spray chamber and a concentric glass nebulizer that is designed for low sample uptakes and is operated in a self-aspirating mode. As a consequence the wash-out was accelerated over conventional systems. This configuration allows the direct determination of iodine in mineralized solutions following digestion with nitric acid only. No strong oxidizing reagents such as perchloric acid or lengthy sample preparation were necessary to alter the chemical form of potentially volatile species. The isotope dilution technique using the long-lived isotope 129I was applied to obtain freedom from matrix effects. The present study reports on results for total iodine in selected nutritional and biological reference materials and makes a comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  19. Modelling of iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking in CANDU fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. J.; Thompson, W. T.; Kleczek, M. R.; Shaheen, K.; Juhas, M.; Iglesias, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC) is a recognized factor for fuel-element failure in the operation of nuclear reactors requiring the implementation of mitigation measures. I-SCC is believed to depend on certain factors such as iodine concentration, oxide layer type and thickness on the fuel sheath, irradiation history, metallurgical parameters related to sheath like texture and microstructure, and the mechanical properties of zirconium alloys. This work details the development of a thermodynamics and mechanistic treatment accounting for the iodine chemistry and kinetics in the fuel-to-sheath gap and its influence on I-SCC phenomena. The governing transport equations for the model are solved with a finite-element technique using the COMSOL Multiphysics® commercial software platform. Based on this analysis, this study also proposes potential remedies for I-SCC.

  20. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. PMID:27231879

  1. Critical evaluation of cadexomer-iodine ointment and povidone-iodine sugar ointment.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Kiori; Fujii, Satoshi

    2009-05-01

    Topical iodine forms are used for infected and necrotic pressure ulcers. Despite antimicrobial advantages several potential disadvantages were observed with controversial results. To clarify the controversy, the reactivity of povidone-iodine (PI) sugar ointment and cadexomer-iodine (CI) ointment toward biological components was investigated. L-Tyrosine as a component of proteins and egg lecithin as a component of lipid membranes were reacted with forms of iodine. Furthermore, water absorption abilities of ointments were investigated. The reactions of PI sugar ointment and CI ointment with L-tyrosine were reversely dependent on iodine concentrations. CI ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration dependent manner, while PI sugar ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration independent steady manner. However, at the clinically relevant iodine concentration (0.1, w/v%) PI sugar ointment reacted efficiently with L-tyrosine and less efficiently with lecithin, while CI ointment reacted efficiently with lecithin and less efficiently with L-tyrosine. Water absorption rate constant was 29.9 mg/cm(2)/min(0.5) for PI sugar ointment and 15.3 for CI ointment. Water absorption capacity per weight over 24 h was 26% forPI sugar ointment and 76% for CI ointment [corrected]. These results suggest that PI sugar ointment and CI ointment have different characteristics for iodine reactivity and water absorption.

  2. [Contribution of natural mineral water to the iodine supply of the population].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, S; Stelz, A; Muskat, E

    1996-10-01

    Most parts of Germany are iodine deficiency areas. Daily iodine intake may be increased by food with high iodine content. Therefore determination of iodine in different foodstuffs is of importance. Aim of our work was to develop a method for mineral waters. Besides, we wanted to find out to what extent natural mineral waters can contribute to the iodine supply of the population. The method is based on the reaction of the halogenids iodide and bromide with ethylene oxide in a sulfuric acid medium while converting into 2-iodo- and 2-bromoethanol. After extraction, the reaction products are determined by capillary gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The method was modified for mineral waters. Single results were confirmed by ICP-MS. For mineral waters the limits of determination are 3 micrograms/L for iodide and 42 micrograms/L for bromide. The investigation of mineral waters from Hessen showed, that only few sources contain iodide in remarkable amounts. Therefore a considerable improvement of iodide intake is possible only with single mineral waters.

  3. Determination of iodine and molybdenum in milk by quadrupole ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Reid, Helen J; Bashammakh, Abdul A; Goodall, Phillip S; Landon, Mark R; O'Connor, Ciaran; Sharp, Barry L

    2008-03-15

    A reliable method for the determination of iodine and molybdenum in milk samples, using alkaline digestion with tetramethylammonium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, followed by quadrupole ICP-MS analysis, has been developed and tested using certified reference materials. The use of He+O2 (1.0 ml min(-1) and 0.6 ml min(-1)) in the collision-reaction cell of the mass spectrometer to remove (129)Xe+-- initially to enable the determination of low levels of 129I--also resulted in the quantitative conversion of Mo(+) to MoO2+ which enabled the molybdenum in the milk to be determined at similar mass to the iodine with the use of Sb as a common internal standard. In order to separate and pre-concentrate iodine at sub microg l(-1) concentrations, a novel method was developed using a cation-exchange column loaded with Pd2+ and Ca2+ ions to selectively retain iodide followed by elution with a small volume of ammonium thiosulfate. This method showed excellent results for aqueous iodide solutions, although the complex milk digest matrix made the method unsuitable for such samples. An investigation of the iodine species formed during oxidation and extraction of milk sample digests was carried out with a view to controlling the iodine chemistry.

  4. In-capillary derivatization and determination of iodine in sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bao D Q; Chernov'yants, Margarita S; Burykin, Igor V

    2012-01-21

    A new capillary electrophoretic (CE) method was developed for the simple and selective determination of iodine in 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl. The proposed method is based on the in-capillary derivatization of iodine with thiosulfate ions using the zone-passing technique and direct photometric detection of the iodide and tetrathionate formed. The optimal conditions for the separation and derivatization reaction were established by varying the concentration of iodine, electrolyte pH and applied voltage. The optimized separations were carried out in phosphate electrolyte (pH 6.86) using direct photometric detection at 253.7 nm. Common photometric detection absorbing anions such as Cl(-), NO(2)(-), S(2)O(3)(2-) did not give any interference. Valid calibration (r(2) = 0.994) is demonstrated in the range 16.5-198.1 mg l(-1) of iodine. The detection limit (calculated according to K. Doerffel, Statistik in der analytischen Chemie, 1990) was 11.53 mg l(-1) (by iodide peak area) and 8.45 mg l(-1) (by tetrathionate peak area). The proposed system was applied to the determination of iodine after oxidation of iodide in underground water.

  5. Review of analytical methods for the quantification of iodine in complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Shelor, C Phillip; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-09-19

    Iodine is an essential element of human nutrition. Nearly a third of the global population has insufficient iodine intake and is at risk of developing Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD). Most countries have iodine supplementation and monitoring programs. Urinary iodide (UI) is the biomarker used for epidemiological studies; only a few methods are currently used routinely for analysis. These methods either require expensive instrumentation with qualified personnel (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, instrumental nuclear activation analysis) or oxidative sample digestion to remove potential interferences prior to analysis by a kinetic colorimetric method originally introduced by Sandell and Kolthoff ~75 years ago. The Sandell-Kolthoff (S-K) method is based on the catalytic effect of iodide on the reaction between Ce(4+) and As(3+). No available technique fully fits the needs of developing countries; research into inexpensive reliable methods and instrumentation are needed. There have been multiple reviews of methods used for epidemiological studies and specific techniques. However, a general review of iodine determination on a wide-ranging set of complex matrices is not available. While this review is not comprehensive, we cover the principal developments since the original development of the S-K method.

  6. Emission of iodine containing volatiles by selected microalgae species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, U. R.; Carpenter, L. J.; Huang, R.-J.; Kundel, M.; Bosle, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2014-06-01

    In this study we present the results of an incubation study of different phytoplankton samples in F/2 aqueous media treated with elevated ozone levels. Halocarbon measurements show that the samples tested released bromoform and different iodocarbons including iodomethane, iodochloromethane and diiodomethane. Iodide and iodate levels in the liquid phase were representative of concentrations of surface water in a natural environment. Measurement of volatile iodine (I2) emissions from two diatom samples (Mediopyxis helysia and Porosira glacialis) and the background sample (F/2-medium from locally seawater), showed that the quantity of I2 evolved depends on the ozone concentration in the air. This behaviour was assumed to be caused by the oxidation reaction mechanism of iodine with ozone. The I2 emission flux agrees with model calculations at different iodide concentrations. The I2 emission of a natural plankton concentrate sample was, however, very low compared to other samples and showed no dependence on ozone. The reason for this was shown to be the low iodide concentration in the algae suspension, which seems to be the limiting factor in the oxidative formation of I2.

  7. The Electronic Spectrum of Iodine Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Ian J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents equations and techniques for calculating and interpreting many of the spectroscopically important parameters associated with the ground and second excited states of the iodine molecule. (Author/CS)

  8. Teaching the Rovibronic Spectroscopy of Molecular Iodine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The rovibronic spectroscopy of molecular iodine provides a clearer understanding of the electronic potential parameters of various systems to the undergraduate students. The technique also helps them to test the various other quantum mechanical concepts.

  9. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  10. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear medicine treatment for an overactive thyroid, a condition ... locally overactive in producing too much thyroid hormone. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  11. The atmospheric chemistry of iodine monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Laszlo, B.; Huie, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    The possible role of iodine on tropospheric ozone arid, more recently, stratospheric ozone has been of considerable interest. There have been, however relatively few experimental determination of the chemistry of the important radical, IO. Laser flash photolysis with two-wavelength transient absorption experiments were performed on N{sub 2}O/I{sub 2}+X{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures (X{sub 2} = halogen) at room temperature and total pressure between 8 and 80 kPa. An extended IO absorption spectrum, experimental rate coefficients of IO+IO, IO+O({sup 3}P), IO+BrO, BrO+I and IO+ClO reactions will be presented. Preliminary results show the atmospheric importance of reaction between alkylperoxy radicals and iodine atoms or iodine monoxide radicals. These reactions seem to be important tropospheric iodine sinks.

  12. Modeling the complex bromate-iodine reaction.

    PubMed

    Machado, Priscilla B; Faria, Roberto B

    2009-05-01

    In this article, it is shown that the FLEK model (ref 5 ) is able to model the experimental results of the bromate-iodine clock reaction. Five different complex chemical systems, the bromate-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, the bromite-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, and now the bromate-iodine clock reaction are adequately accounted for by the FLEK model. PMID:19361181

  13. The chlorate-iodine clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André P; Faria, Roberto B

    2005-12-28

    A clock reaction produced by mixing chlorate and iodine solutions in perchloric acid media is reported. This is the first example of a clock reaction using chlorate as a reagent. Increasing chlorate and acid concentration reduces the induction period. Changing the initial iodine concentration does not affect the length of the induction period. The discovery of this clock reaction opens the possibility that a new family of oscillation reactions can be built using chlorate as reagent. PMID:16366551

  14. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  15. Iodine supplementation and the prevention of cretinism.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J T

    1993-03-15

    Normal development of the CNS requires adequate thyroid hormone exposure. Since iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone molecule, its deficiency during fetal development can cause hypothyroidism and irreversible mental retardation. The full-blown syndrome, called cretinism, includes deaf-mutism, short stature, spasticity, and profound mental retardation. The clinical spectrum can vary in degree and combination of these features. Screening programs in iodine-deficient countries show that up to 10% of neonates have elevated serum TSH levels, putting them at theoretical risk for permanent brain damage. About one billion people worldwide risk the consequences of iodine deficiency, all of which can be prevented by adequate maternal and infant iodine nutrition. Iodized salt is usually the preferred prophylactic vehicle, but iodized vegetable oil, iodized water, and iodine tablets are also occasionally used. The United Nations and the heads of state of most countries have pledged the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency by the year 2000. This goal is technically feasible if pursued with sufficient vigor and resources. PMID:8494259

  16. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  17. Iodine-induced thyroid blockade: role of selenium and iodine in the thyroid and pituitary glands.

    PubMed

    Basalaeva, Nadezdha L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the content of iodine and selenium in the thyroid and pituitary glands of rats under iodine-induced blockade of the thyroid gland. Electron probe microanalysis, wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and point analysis were used in this investigation. We also determined the expression of sodium iodide symporter and caspase 32 in the thyroid and pituitary glands and the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the pituitary. The samples for iodine analysis must be thoroughly dehydrated, and for this purpose, we developed a method that produced samples of constant mass with minimal loss of substrate (human thyroid gland was used for the investigation). Normal levels of iodine and selenium were found in the thyroid, pituitary, ovaries, testes hypothalamus, and pancreas of healthy rats. The levels of iodine and selenium in I- or Se-positive points and the percentage of positive points in most of these organs were similar to those of controls (basal level), except for the level of iodine in the thyroid gland and testes. Blockade of the thyroid gland changed the iodine level in iodine-positive points of the thyroid and the pituitary glands. On the sixth day of blockage, the iodine level in iodine-positive points of the thyroid gradually decreased to the basal level followed by an abrupt increase on the seventh day, implying a rebound effect. The opposite was found in the pituitary, in which the level of iodine in iodine-positive points increased during the first 6 days and then abruptly decreased on the seventh day. Expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone in the pituitary decreased during the first 5 days but sharply increased on the sixth day, with a minimum level of iodine in the thyroid and maximum in the pituitary, before normalization of the iodine level in both glands preceding the rebound effect. The expression of sodium iodide symporter increased during the first 4 days of blockage and then decreased in both

  18. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition.

  19. National trends in iodine nutrition: is everyone getting enough?

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Until the 1920s, endemic iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in the Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Northwestern regions of the United States. Iodized salt was responsible for eliminating endemic goiter in the United States and remains the mainstay of iodine deficiency disorder eradication efforts worldwide. Although urinary iodine values have decreased by 50% since the early 1970s, the United States remains iodine sufficient. However, U.S. iodine nutrition, particularly among women of childbearing age, may remain an area worthy of public health concern. There is a wide amount of variation in the iodine content of some common foods, and the iodine content of foods is not well reflected by package labeling. There needs to be increased awareness of the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, among the U.S. public.

  20. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  1. Iodine concentration of milk in a dose-response study with dairy cows and implications for consumer iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Friedrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Lebzien, Peter; Bemmann, Doreen; Spolders, Markus; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Most feed is poor in iodine and iodine supplementation of cow's diets must guarantee milk iodine concentrations for humans that contribute to prevention of the deficiency and minimize the risk of exceeding an upper limit of iodine intake. Five Holstein cows were fed four iodine doses (via Ca(Iota O(3))(2).6H(2)O). In four sequential 14-d periods, doses of 0.2 (basal diet), 1.3, 5.1, and 10.1 mg iodine kg(-1) diet dry matter (DM) were administered. Samples of milk were collected during each period; blood was also sampled from each cow for each iodine dosage. In an 18-d depletion period, a non-supplemented diet was provided. Iodine was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The iodine content of milk and serum reflected the iodine dosages in feed significantly. The levels for the four doses tested in milk were 101+/-32, 343+/-109, 1215+/-222, and 2762+/-852 microg iodine kg(-1). The total amount of iodine in milk per day was 30-40% of ingested supplemental iodine. Omitting additional iodine resulted in a short-term reduction of serum and milk iodine following an exponential decay function. The iodine supplementation of 0.5-1.5 mg kg(-1) diet DM represents the requirement of the cow, resulting in 100-300 microg iodine L(-1) milk, which optimally contributes to human supply. The maximum dietary levels of former and present EU legislations (10 and 5 mg iodine kg(-1) cow feed) increase the risk of iodine excess in humans.

  2. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  3. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  4. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases. PMID:23987480

  5. Effects of increased iodine intake on thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  6. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-10-15

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect.

  7. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  8. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  9. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  10. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  11. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  12. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  13. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  14. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (P< 0·001). The concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone increased from 1·5 (IQR 1·2-2·2) to 2·1 (IQR 1·3-2·9) mIU/l (P< 0·001), with two participants having concentrations exceeding the normal range after supplement ingestion (but normal free thyroxine concentrations). There was no change in the concentrations of other thyroid hormones after supplement ingestion. The seaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI. PMID:25006699

  15. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (P< 0·001). The concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone increased from 1·5 (IQR 1·2-2·2) to 2·1 (IQR 1·3-2·9) mIU/l (P< 0·001), with two participants having concentrations exceeding the normal range after supplement ingestion (but normal free thyroxine concentrations). There was no change in the concentrations of other thyroid hormones after supplement ingestion. The seaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  16. Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high

  17. EURRECA-Estimating iodine requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Novaković, Romana; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones, and current recommendations for intake are based on urinary iodine excretion, assessment of thyroid size, thyroidal iodine accumulation and turnover, radioactive iodine uptake, balance studies, and epidemiological studies. Dietary iodine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. The prevalence of inadequate iodine intake is high: 29% of the world's population lives in iodine-deficient areas and 44% of Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. To assess current data and update evidence for setting dietary recommendations for iodine, the EURRECA Network of Excellence has undertaken systematic review and evaluation of (i) the usefulness of iodine status biomarkers (ii) the relationship between iodine status biomarkers and dietary iodine intake, and (iii) the relationship between iodine intake and health outcomes (endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, and cognitive function). This review summarizes the main research outputs: the key findings of the literature review, results of the meta-analyses, and discussion of the main conclusions. Currently, data for relevant intake-status-health relationships for iodine are limited, particularly for population groups such as children under two years, pregnant women, and the elderly. The EURRECA Network developed best practice guidelines for the identification of pertinent iodine studies based on a systematic review approach. This approach aimed to identify comparable data, suitable for meta-analysis, for different countries and across all age ranges. When new data are available, the EURRECA Network best practice guidelines will provide a better understanding of iodine requirements for different health outcomes which could be used to set evidence-based dietary iodine recommendations for optimal health. PMID:23952087

  18. [Iodine and thyroid: what a clinic should know].

    PubMed

    Santana Lopes, Maria; Jácome de Castro, João; Marcelino, Mafalda; Oliveira, Maria João; Carrilho, Francisco; Limbert, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization considers iodine deficiency as a major worldwide cause of mental and development diseases, estimating that about 13% of the world population is affected by diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is a trace element necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which, since it cannot be formed by the organism, must be taken regularly with food. Fish and shellfish are generally a good source, because the ocean contains a considerable amount of iodine. On the contrary, plants which grow in iodine-deficient soils are poor in this element, as well as meat and other animal products fed in plants low in iodine. Salt is the best way for iodine supplementation. Cooking the food with iodized salt is a desirable practice because it guarantees the presence of this element. There are also other methods to provide iodine to the general population, such as adding iodine to drinking water or taking supplements of iodine. In pregnancy is recommended iodine supplementation, except in patients with known thyroid disorders. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Inadequate iodine intake leads to inadequate thyroid hormone production. The most important consequences of iodine deficiency, in the general population are goiter and hypothyroidism, and in the severe cases, mental retardation, cretinism and increased neo-natal and infant mortality. The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) formed in 1985, with the only aim of achieving optimal iodine nutrition in the world, in cooperation with UNICEF and WHO. In Portugal, recent studies show significant deficiencies in pregnancy and The Portuguese Society of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, in partnership with General Directorate of Health, proposed an iodine supplementation during pregnancy with 150-200µg/day. PMID:23069238

  19. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until the population in general has been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years by way of universal salt iodization. PMID:27099837

  20. Iodine Supplementation: Usage "with a Grain of Salt".

    PubMed

    Prete, Alessandro; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used "with a grain of salt," because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders. PMID:25873950

  1. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until the population in general has been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years by way of universal salt iodization. PMID:27099837

  2. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obican, Sarah G; Jahnke, Gloria D; Soldin, Offie P; Scialli, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms.

  3. Selection and applicability of quenching agents for the analysis of polar iodinated disinfection byproducts.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Tao, Yuxian; Xian, Qiming

    2016-11-01

    Iodide is widely present in drinking water sources as well as wastewater effluents. Chlorination and chloramination are the most commonly used disinfection methods. During chlorination or chloramination of drinking water/wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Recently, several new polar iodinated DBPs have been identified in drinking water as well as chlorinated wastewater effluents, and they have drawn increasing concerns due to their high toxicity. In DBPs studies, the selection of an appropriate quenching agent is critical to prevent further formation or any decomposition of DBPs during the holding time between sample collection and analysis. A previous study reported the applicability of different quenching agents for the analysis of various categories of chlorinated and brominated DBPs. But the applicability of quenching agents for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs has not been reported. In this study, four different quenching agents (sodium sulfite, sodium thiosulfate, ascorbic acid and sodium borohydride) were tested for their suitability for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs, and ascorbic acid was selected as the suitable quenching agent. Furthermore, it was found that ascorbic acid was applicable for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs under the quenching agent doses of 0-0.42 mmol/L (stoichiometric amounts equivalent to 0-30 mg/L Cl2), contact times within 24 h, and pHs in the range of 6-8. Therefore, ascorbic acid was a widely applicable quenching agent for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs under various conditions. PMID:27557432

  4. Viable Particles from Iodine Compounds in the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, H. K.; Jones, A. E.; Brough, N.; Weller, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Schoenhardt, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Fleming, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particle number concentrations have been measured at Halley and Neumayer on the Antarctic coast, since 2004 and 1984 respectively. Sulphur compounds known to be implicated in particle formation and growth were independently measured: sulphate ions and methane sulphonic acid in filtered aerosol samples; and gas-phase di-methyl sulphide for limited periods. Iodine oxide, IO, was determined by a satellite sensor from 2003 to 2009, and by different ground-based sensors at Halley in 2004 and in 2007. Previous model results and mid-latitude observations show that iodine compounds consistent with the large values of IO observed may be responsible for an increase in number concentrations of small particles. Coastal Antarctica is useful for investigating correlations between particles, sulphur and iodine compounds, because of their large annual cycles together with the source of iodine compounds in sea ice. After smoothing all measured data by several days, the shapes of the annual cycles in particle concentration at Halley and at Neumayer are approximated by linear combinations of the shapes of sulphur compounds and IO, but not by sulphur compounds alone. However, there is no short-term correlation between IO and particle concentration. The apparent correlation after smoothing but not in the short term suggests that iodine compounds and particles are sourced some distance offshore. This suggests that new particles formed from iodine compounds are viable, i.e. they can last long enough to grow to the larger particles that contribute to Cloud Condensation Nuclei, rather than being adsorbed by existing particles. If so there is significant potential for climate feedback near the sea ice zone via the aerosol indirect effect.

  5. Rapid, specific determination of iodine and iodide by combined solid-phase extraction/diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arena, Matteo P.; Porter, Marc D.; Fritz, James S.

    2002-01-01

    A new, rapid methodology for trace analysis using solid-phase extraction is described. The two-step methodology is based on the concentration of an analyte onto a membrane disk and on the determination by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the amount of analyte extracted on the disk surface. This method, which is adaptable to a wide range of analytes, has been used for monitoring ppm levels of iodine and iodide in spacecraft water. Iodine is used as a biocide in spacecraft water. For these determinations, a water sample is passed through a membrane disk by means of a 10-mL syringe that is attached to a disk holder assembly. The disk, which is a polystyrene-divinylbenzene composite, is impregnated with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which exhaustively concentrates iodine as a yellow iodine-PVP complex. The amount of concentrated iodine is then determined in only 2 s by using a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrometer by comparing the result with a calibration curve based on the Kubelka-Munk function. The same general procedure can be used to determine iodide levels after its facile and exhaustive oxidation to iodine by peroxymonosulfate (i.e., Oxone reagent). For samples containing both analytes, a two-step procedure can be used in which the iodide concentration is calculated from the difference in iodine levels before and after treatment of the sample with peroxymonosulfate. With this methodology, iodine and iodide levels in the 0.1-5.0 ppm range can be determined with a total workup time of approximately 60 s with a RSD of approximately 6%.

  6. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation-induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  8. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maertens, Gaetan; L'homme, Chloe; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  9. Determination of Iodine-129 in Low Level Radioactive Wastes - 13334

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.C.; Ahn, J.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K.S.

    2013-07-01

    For the radioactivity determination of {sup 129}I in the radioactive wastes, alkali fusion and anion-exchange resin separation methods, which are sample pretreatment methods, have been investigated in this study. To separate and quantify the {sup 129}I radionuclide in an evaporator bottom and spent resin, the radionuclide was chemically leached from the wastes and adsorbed on an anion exchange resin at pH 4, 7, 9. In the case of dry active waste and another solid type, the alkali fusion method was applied. KNO{sub 3} was added as a KOH and oxidizer to the wastes. It was then fused at 450 deg. C for 1 hour. The radioactivity of the separated iodine was measured with a low energy gamma spectrometer after the sample pretreatment. Finally, it was confirmed that the recovery rate of the iodine for the alkali fusion method was 83.6±3.8%, and 86.4±1.6% for the anionic exchange separation method. (authors)

  10. Total synthesis of natural products using hypervalent iodine reagents

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Gaëtan; L'Homme, Chloé; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last 5 years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products. PMID:25601909

  11. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nohr, S; Jorgensen, A; Andersen, S

    1999-05-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders.

  12. Chemical template directed iodine patterns on the octadecyltrichlorosilane surface.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuguang

    2008-01-01

    A carboxylic-terminated nanometer-scale chemical pattern on an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) surface can guide the deposition and crystallization of iodine, forming an iodine pattern on the chemical pattern. The iodine in the pattern is gel-like when fabricated by the solution-deposit method. In contrast, a dendritic, snowflake-shaped polycrystalline iodine sheet is formed by the vapor-phase condensation method. The data demonstrate that iodine is a good tracing and visualizing agent for studying liquid behavior at the nano scale. The topography of the iodine stain reveals that the "coffee ring" effect can be suppressed by reducing the pattern size and increasing the evaporation rate. The chemical template-bound iodine pattern has an unusually low vapor pressure and it can withstand prolonged baking at elevated temperature, which differs significantly from bulk iodine crystals.

  13. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  14. [Iodine deficiency in infancy - a risk for cognitive development].

    PubMed

    Remer, T; Johner, S A; Gärtner, R; Thamm, M; Kriener, E

    2010-08-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy seriously influences fetal brain development and in the worst case induces cretinism. Recent studies have shown that even a mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and during the first years of life adversely affects brain development. The World Health Organisation (WHO) considers iodine deficiency as the most common preventable cause of early childhood mental deficiency. In this context, the insufficient production of the four iodine atoms containing thyroxine seems to play a causal role, i. e., due to the iodine substrate deficiency the neuronally particularly relevant free-thyroxine level falls. Due to the very limited iodine storage capacity, the infantile thyroid is eminently dependent on an adequate and steady iodine supply. In the first month of life, when milk is the only energy- and nutrient provider, infants fed a commercial formula regularly have a sufficient iodine supply. However, breastfed infants, who depend on maternal iodine status, frequently show an inadequate iodine intake. Furthermore, iodine intake is critical when complementary food (CF) is introduced. Especially homemade CF is poor in iodine, but also commercial CFs are only partly fortified. A simultaneous inadequate iodine supply of the breastfeeding mother and the preferential use of mostly iodine-poor organic milk cannot ensure an adequate iodine supply of the infant. In terms of an improvement of nutrient supply, especially concerning an unhindered brain development, the corresponding German reference value for iodine intake of infants until age 4 month should be raised from currently 40 microg/d to at least 60 microg/d (WHO-reference: 90 microg/d). PMID:20665419

  15. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  16. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Monteiro, Emily V; Pereira, Juliano R T; Faria, Roberto B

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  17. Selenium and Iodine in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Licchelli, Brunella; Triggiani, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Selenium and iodine are essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and function. Selenium, in form of selenocysteine, is found either in the catalytic center of enzymes involved in the protection of the thyroid gland from free radicals originating during thyroid hormone synthesis, and in three different iodothyronine deiodinases catalyzing the activation and the inactivation of thyroid hormones. Iodine is an essential constituent of thyroid hormones and its deficiency causes different disorders that include goiter, hypothyroidism, reduced fertility and alteration in growth, physical and neurological development. These two micronutrients could be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases, a spectrum of pathological conditions including Hashimoto's thryoiditis, post-partum thyroiditis, the so-called painless thyroiditis, Graves' disease and Graves' ophtalmopathy. Aim of this paper is to review the role played by selenium and iodine in autoimmune thyroiditis.

  18. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  19. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Monteiro, Emily V; Pereira, Juliano R T; Faria, Roberto B

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions.

  20. Iodine-129 and iodine-127 speciation in groundwater at the Hanford site, US: iodate incorporation into calcite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Creeley, Danielle; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Grandbois, Russell; Schwehr, Kathleen A; Kaplan, Daniel I; Yeager, Chris M; Wellman, Dawn; Santschi, Peter H

    2013-09-01

    The geochemical transport and fate of radioiodine depends largely on its chemical speciation that is greatly affected by environmental factors. This study reports, for the first time, the speciation of stable and radioactive iodine in the groundwater from the Hanford Site. Iodate was the dominant species and accounted for up to 84% of the total iodine present. The alkaline pH (pH ∼ 8) and predominantly oxidizing environment may have prevented reduction of the iodate. In addition, groundwater samples were found to have large amounts of calcite precipitate which were likely formed as a result of CO2 degassing during removal from the deep subsurface (>70m depth). Further analyses indicated that between 7 and 40% of the dissolved (127)I and (129)I that was originally in the groundwater had coprecipitated in the calcite. Iodate was the main species incorporated into calcite and this incorporation process could be impeded by elevating the pH and decreasing ionic strength in groundwater. This study provides critical information for predicting the long-term fate and transport of (129)I. Furthermore, the common sampling artifact resulting in the precipitation of calcite by degassing CO2, had the unintended consequence of providing insight into a potential solution for the in situ remediation of groundwater (129)I.

  1. Lack of enhanced photocatalytic formation of iodine on particulate semiconductor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, C; Anilkumar, P; Vinayagamoorthy, P

    2012-12-01

    Under UV-A light illumination, formation of iodine from iodide ion on the surfaces of anatase TiO(2), ZnO, Fe(2)O(3), CeO(2), MoO(3), Bi(2)O(3), and Nb(2)O(5) increases with the concentration of iodide ion, airflow rate and light intensity and conform to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. Measurement of the particle size of the semiconductor oxides by light scattering method and deduction of the same from the determined specific surface area show that the oxide particles agglomerate in suspension. However, mixtures of any two listed particulate semiconductors do not show enhanced photocatalytic formation of iodine indicating absence of interparticle charge transfer. The results are rationalized.

  2. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  3. A quantitative model of the biogeochemical transport of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Ji, Z.; Weng, J.

    2010-12-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are among the world’s most prevalent public health problems yet preventable by dietary iodine supplements. To better understand the biogeochemical behavior of iodine and to explore safer and more efficient ways of iodine supplementation as alternatives to iodized salt, we studied the behavior of iodine as it is absorbed, accumulated and released by plants. Using Chinese cabbage as a model system and the 125I tracing technique, we established that plants uptake exogenous iodine from soil, most of which are transported to the stem and leaf tissue. The level of absorption of iodine by plants is dependent on the iodine concentration in soil, as well as the soil types that have different iodine-adsorption capacity. The leaching experiment showed that the remainder soil content of iodine after leaching is determined by the iodine-adsorption ability of the soil and the pH of the leaching solution, but not the volume of leaching solution. Iodine in soil and plants can also be released to the air via vaporization in a concentration-dependent manner. This study provides a scientific basis for developing new methods to prevent IDD through iodized vegetable production.

  4. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries. PMID:27421794

  5. Iodine Deficiency in School Children in Aligarh District, India.

    PubMed

    Aslami, Ahmad Nadeem; Ansari, Mohammed A; Khalique, N; Kapil, Umesh

    2016-08-01

    We carried out this study to assess iodine deficiency disorders among school children of 6-12 years age group in Aligarh district of India. The prevalence of goiter was 5.2%. Median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 150 ug/L; 22.5% of students had biochemical iodine deficiency. 50.4% households were consuming adequately iodized salt. PMID:27567653

  6. Hydrolysis of iodine: equilibria at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Ramette, R.W.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrolysis (or disproportionation) of molecular iodine to form iodate and iodide ions has been studied by emf measurements over the temperature range, 3.8/sup 0/ to 209.0/sup 0/C. The interpretation of these results required a knowledge of the formation constant for triiodide ion and the acid dissociation constant of iodic acid, both of which were measured as a function of temperature. The resulting thermodynamic data have been incorporated into a general computer model describing the hydrolysis equilibria of iodine as a function of initial concentration, pH and temperature.

  7. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend its useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle was manually controlled in demonstration, readily automated to start and stop according to signals and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is that regeneration bed provides highly concentrated biocide source (200 mg/L) when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  8. Oxygen centered radicals in iodine chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljev, Dragomir R; Milenković, Maja C; Mojović, Milos D; Popović-Bijelić, Ana D

    2011-07-14

    The existence of free radicals in iodine-based oscillatory systems has been debated for some time. Recently, we have reported the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the iodide-peroxide system in acidic medium, which is common to all iodine--based oscillatory systems ( J. Phys. Chem. A 2011 , 115 , 2247--2249 ). In this work, the goal was to identify the ROS produced in this system using an EPR spin trap which can distinguish between hydroxyl (HO(•)) and hydroperoxyl (HOO(•)) radicals. The formation of the hydroperoxyl radical was observed and a possible explanation for the low EPR signal of hydroxyl radical was proposed. PMID:21692499

  9. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  10. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. PMID:23916171

  11. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view.

  12. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    PubMed

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%).

  13. Determination of the width of the absorption line of atomic iodine in optimization of the parameters of an iodine switch

    SciTech Connect

    Eroshenko, V.A.; Kirillov, G.A.; Mochalov, M.R.; Shemyakin, V.I.; Shurygin, V.K.

    1981-09-01

    A theoretical basis is given for the optimization of the parameters of an iodine switch. The results are reported of an experimental study of the pressure dependence of the width of the absorption line of atomic iodine. The broadening coefficient of molecular iodine is 3.2 MHz/Torr in the temperature range 800--1000 /sup 0/C.

  14. Synthesis of iodine-containing cyclophosphazenes for using as radiopacifiers in dental composite resin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuchen; Lan, Jinle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xuliang; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a strategy of using iodine-containing cyclophosphazenes as radiopacifiers for dental composite resin was evaluated. It was hypothesized that cyclophosphazenes bearing both iodine and acrylate group swere able to endow composite resins radiopacity without compromising mechanical properties. The cyclophosphazene compounds were synthesized by subsequently nucleophilic substitution of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene with hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 4-iodoaniline. Cyclotriphosphazenes containing two different molar ratios of HEMA to 4-iodoaniline (1:5 and 2:4) were obtained, and were identified with (1)H NMR, FT-IR, UV and mass spectroscopy. The iodine-containing cyclophosphazenes were able to dissolve well in bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin, and were added at two contents (10 or 15%wt. of the resin). The resins were photo-cured and post-thermal treated before characterizations. The resulting composite resins demonstrated the ability of blocking X-ray. And the addition of HEMA-co-iodoaniline substituted cyclotriphosphazenes caused minor adverse effect on the mechanical properties of the resins because the cyclotriphosphazenes could mix well and react with the resins. The presence of rigid phosphazene rings between resin backbones displayed an effective function of decreasing polymerization shrinkage. In summary, soluble and reactive iodine-containing cyclotriphosphazenes demonstrated advantages over traditional heavy metals or metal oxides in being used as additives for producing radiopaque dental resins.

  15. Removal of elemental mercury by iodine-modified rice husk ash sorbents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengfei; Guo, Xin; Zheng, Chuguang

    2010-01-01

    Iodine-modified calcium-based rice husk ash sorbents (I2/CaO/RHA) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and N2 isotherm adsorption/desorption. Adsorption experiments of vapor-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. I2/CaO/RHA performances on Hg0 adsorption were compared with those of modified Ca-based fly ash sorbents (I2/CaO/FA) and modified fly ash sorbents (I2/FA). Effects of oxidant loading, supports, pore size distribution, iodine impregnation modes, and temperature were investigated as well to understand the mechanism in capturing Hg0. The modified sorbents exhibited reasonable efficiency for Hg0 removal under simulated flue gas. The surface area, pore size distribution, and iodine impregnation modes of the sorbents did not produce a strong effect on Hg0 capture efficiency, while fair correlation was observed between Hg0 uptake capacity and iodine concentration. Therefore, the content of I2 impregnated on the sorbents was identified as the most important factor influencing the capacity of these sorbents for Hg0 uptake. Increasing temperature in the range of 80-140 degrees C caused a rise in Hg0 removal. A reaction mechanism that may explain the experimental results was presumed based on the characterizations and adsorption study. PMID:21235196

  16. Low Iodine Content in the Diets of Hospitalized Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. Methods: We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Results: Preterm formula provided 16.4–28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0–17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Conclusions: Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered. PMID:22337912

  17. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  18. Characteristics of the electron beam pumped iodine monofluoride laser

    SciTech Connect

    Champagne, L.F.; Ehrlich, J.E.

    1983-02-01

    Electron beam pumping of Ar/CF/sub 3/I/NF/sub 3/ mixtures yields optical pulse lengths about 0.5 ..mu..s from iodine monofluoride. Laser efficiency in this system is about0.04 percent. Laser performance is limited by the formation of molecular iodine. The formation of molecular iodine in the excited state (I/sub 2/) reduces the number of iodine atoms available to form IF. In the ground state, molecular iodine (I/sub 2/) absorbs the IF laser emission at 485 and 491 nm.

  19. Characteristics of the electron beam pumped iodine monofluoride laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, L. F.; Ehrlich, J. E.

    1983-02-01

    Electron beam pumping of Ar/CF3I/NF3 mixtures yields optical pulse lengths approximately 0.5 microsec from iodine monofluoride. Laser efficiency in this system is approximately 0.04 percent. Laser performance is limited by the formation of molecular iodine. The formation of molecular iodine in the excited state reduces the number of iodine atoms available to form excited-state IF. In the ground state, molecular iodine absorbs the excited-state IF laser emission at 485 and 491 nm.

  20. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  1. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  2. Arthur von Hubl and the Iodine Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iodine value is still one of the most commonly applied indices in fatty acid chemistry. Its introduction was a milestone in analyzing fats and oils as well as describing their structure-property relationships, although it can be considered largely outdated because modern analytical methods such...

  3. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

  5. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  6. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  7. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  8. Halogen Bonding in Hypervalent Iodine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Luca; Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Halogen bonds occur when electrophilic halogens (Lewis acids) attractively interact with donors of electron density (Lewis bases). This term is commonly used for interactions undertaken by monovalent halogen derivatives. The aim of this chapter is to show that the geometric features of the bonding pattern around iodine in its hypervalent derivatives justify the understanding of some of the longer bonds as halogen bonds. We suggest that interactions directionality in ionic and neutral λ(3)-iodane derivatives is evidence that the electron density distribution around iodine atoms is anisotropic, a region of most positive electrostatic potential exists on the extensions of the covalent bonds formed by iodine, and these positive caps affect, or even determine, the crystal packing of these derivatives. For instance, the short cation-anion contacts in ionic λ(3)-iodane and λ(5)-iodane derivatives fully match the halogen bond definition and geometrical prerequisites. The same holds for the short contacts the cation of ionic λ(3)-iodanes forms with lone-pair donors or the short contacts given by neutral λ(3)-iodanes with incoming nucleophiles. The longer and weaker bonds formed by iodine in hypervalent compounds are usually called secondary bondings and we propose that the term halogen bond can also be used. Compared to the term secondary bond, halogen bond may possibly be more descriptive of some bonding features, e.g., its directionality and the relationships between structure of interacting groups and interaction strength. PMID:26809623

  9. Iodine as propellant for electric space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondein, Pascaline; Chabert, Pascal; Aanesland, Ane

    2014-10-01

    In PEGASES (an electric gridded thruster) both positive and negative ions are expelled after extraction from an ion-ion plasma formed downstream a localized magnetic field placed a few centimeters from the ionization region. For this thruster concept, we believe that Iodine is the best candidate. Its advantages are multiple: heavy and therefore good for high thrust, low ionization threshold and high electronegativity (the latter crucial for PEGASES) leading to high ion-ion densities and low RF power, at solid state at STP with a high vapor, and finally inexpensive. Iodine is also di-atomic and therefore energy loss in dissociation processes are reduced compared to SF6. We present here a dedicated experimental set-up intended for iodine experiments. The injection system consists of an evaporation chamber with temperature controlled gas lines and vacuum chamber to control condensation. A global model of the iodine electronegative plasma will be developed to compare and predict the plasma behavior and composition inside the thruster. The main challenge in this model is to reproduce the conditions of a strongly segregated plasma with two regions: one with rather high electron temperature and low electronegativity and the other an ion-ion plasma with low temperature.

  10. Iodine insufficiency: a global health problem?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2013-09-01

    As a result of collaborative efforts with international organizations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries practice universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory salt fortification programs. As a consequence, the prevalence of iodine deficiency decreased dramatically. The United States and Canada are among the few developed countries that do not practice USI. Such an undertaking would require evidence of deficiency among vulnerable population groups, including pregnant women, newborns, and developing infants. Government agencies in the United States rely heavily on data from NHANES to assess the iodine status of the general population and pregnant women in particular. NHANES data suggest that pregnant women in the United States remain mildly deficient. This is important, because the developing fetus is dependent on maternal iodine intake for normal brain development throughout pregnancy. Professional societies have recommended that pregnant and lactating women, or those considering pregnancy, consume a supplement providing 150 μg iodine daily. The United States and Canada collaborate on the daily recommended intake and are also confronted with the challenge of identifying the studies needed to determine if USI is likely to be beneficial to vulnerable population groups without exposing them to harm.

  11. Iodine insufficiency: a global health problem?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2013-01-01

    As a result of collaborative efforts with international organizations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries practice universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory salt fortification programs. As a consequence, the prevalence of iodine deficiency decreased dramatically. The United States and Canada are among the few developed countries that do not practice USI. Such an undertaking would require evidence of deficiency among vulnerable population groups, including pregnant women, newborns, and developing infants. Government agencies in the United States rely heavily on data from NHANES to assess the iodine status of the general population and pregnant women in particular. NHANES data suggest that pregnant women in the United States remain mildly deficient. This is important, because the developing fetus is dependent on maternal iodine intake for normal brain development throughout pregnancy. Professional societies have recommended that pregnant and lactating women, or those considering pregnancy, consume a supplement providing 150 μg iodine daily. The United States and Canada collaborate on the daily recommended intake and are also confronted with the challenge of identifying the studies needed to determine if USI is likely to be beneficial to vulnerable population groups without exposing them to harm. PMID:24038248

  12. Effects of iodine concentration on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking of zircaloy-4 tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seog Ryu; Young, Hwan Kang; Lee, Jai-Young

    1988-05-01

    Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC) experiments on Zircaloy-4 tube were undertaken in the iodine concentration range of 0-4 mg/cm 2, the temperature range of 330-400 ° C and a nominal hoop stress of 475 MPa, using the internal pressurization method. The time-to-failure, failure strain and strain rate were measured as a function of the iodine concentration. An apparent activation energy for I-SCC was calculated from the temperature dependence of I-SCC. A fractographic interpretation was also made through scanning electron microscopic examination. The results suggest that the iodine concentration has an influence on the crack propagation step to increase the propagation rate of I-SCC, promoting the I-SCC susceptibility. It is found that the critical iodine concentration means the phenomenological value to show the iodine concentration dependence of I-SCC susceptibility, not the critical value to determine the occurrence of I-SCC. The I-SCC behavior of Zircaloy is discussed from the viewpoint of the crack initiation and propagation process.

  13. [Antihyperlipidemic effect of iodine egg: search for active ingredients and their iodine contents].

    PubMed

    Kaji, K; Seyama, Y; Yamashita, S

    1984-04-01

    Active fractions that possess the hypocholesterolemic effect of iodine egg yolk lipid fraction have been investigated with male Wistar strain rats fed on a cholesterol-rich diet. Iodine egg yolk lipid was extracted by Folch's (chloroform: methanol) method and was refractionated into a neutral lipid (IEY-NL) fraction and a polar lipid (IEY-PL) fraction. The iodine content in each fraction was determined. The animals were kept on the cholesterol-rich diet for 5 days, and then they were fed the fractions in addition to the above diet for 10 more days. The hypocholesterolemic effect was seen most significantly with the IEY-NL fraction. The serum total cholesterol level in rats receiving this fraction was 70% as compared with that of the Ch group (fed on the cholesterol diet). However, the liver total cholesterol level was not affected or rather increased by the IEY-NL fraction. Another fraction (IEY-PL) showed no such effect. Iodine content in the IEY-NL fraction was quite low (0.2 ppm) compared with the other fractions. The daily dose in terms of iodine in the IEY-NL fraction was only the amount equivalent to 1/50 of the reported daily requirement for the rat. The IEY-NL fraction induced the hypocholesterolemic effect, though it contained only a trace of iodine. PMID:6540225

  14. A review on the metabolic disorders of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is in the crucial parts of two hormones of T4 and T3 produced by the thyroid glands which are essential for all the aspects of human metabolisms. It is demonstrated that iodine deficiency can be considered as sole cause of many thyroid abnormalities including mental disorders. Iodine deficiency of sufficient degree to cause hypothyroidism during fetus life and early infancy will be accompanied with brain abnormality possibly to the stage of mental retardation. The iodine deficiency among subjects in their early stage of childhood is not as severe as those in their fetus or infancy. In adult subjects the sever iodine deficiency can be also associated with mental disorders due to the direct side effects of hypothyroidism occurred by lack of iodine. The clinical manifestation of iodine deficiency show itself with psychological disorders in adult subjects. The status of iodine within blood can be evaluated through measurement of urinary iodine level and the low urinary concentration is an indicative of hypothyroidism. Mental retardation and brain damage due to iodine deficiency can be prevented if iodine supplementation prescribed duly on time. PMID:21902053

  15. Radioactive iodine separations and waste forms development.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Rademacher, David

    2010-04-01

    Reprocessing nuclear fuel releases gaseous radio-iodine containing compounds which must be captured and stored for prolonged periods. Ag-loaded mordenites are the leading candidate for scavenging both organic and inorganic radioiodine containing compounds directly from reprocessing off gases. Alternately, the principal off-gas contaminant, I2, and I-containing acids HI, HIO3, etc. may be scavenged using caustic soda solutions, which are then treated with bismuth to put the iodine into an insoluble form. Our program is focused on using state-of-the-art materials science technologies to develop materials with high loadings of iodine, plus high long-term mechanical and thermal stability. In particular, we present results from research into two materials areas: (1) zeolite-based separations and glass encapsulation, and (2) in-situ precipitation of Bi-I-O waste forms. Ag-loaded mordenite is either commercially available or can be prepared via a simple Ag+ ion exchange process. Research using an Ag+-loaded Mordenite zeolite (MOR, LZM-5 supplied by UOP Corp.) has revealed that I2 is scavenged in one of three forms, as micron-sized AgI particles, as molecular (AgI)x clusters in the zeolite pores and as elemental I2 vapor. It was found that only a portion of the sorbed iodine is retained after heating at 95o C for three months. Furthermore, we show that even when the Ag-MOR is saturated with I2 vapor only roughly half of the silver reacted to form stable AgI compounds. However, the Iodine can be further retained if the AgI-MOR is then encapsulated into a low temperature glass binder. Follow-on studies are now focused on the sorption and waste form development of Iodine from more complex streams including organo-iodine compounds (CH3I). Bismuth-Iodate layered phases have been prepared from caustic waste stream simulant solutions. They serve as a low cost alternative to ceramics waste forms. Novel compounds have been synthesized and solubility studies have been completed

  16. Lipid compositional changes in calves fed excess iodine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, K J

    1990-09-01

    Calves were fed milk replacer containing .57, 10, or 200 ppm iodine (from ethylenediaminedihydriodide) to determine the effects of excess dietary iodine on composition of lipids in blood plasma, liver, and heart. High iodine intakes had no effect on plasma total lipids or lipid classes, but caused lipid class concentration changes in liver and heart. Both 10 and 200 ppm iodine increased concentration of liver phosphatidylethanolamine and heart phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and total lipids, and the 200 ppm intake also increased concentration of liver phosphatidylcholine, total lipids, and heart phosphatidylethanolamine. Both iodine treatments tended to increase all the other minor lipid classes in liver and heart as well. Both 10 and 200 ppm iodine treatments increased some of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the major phospholipids of plasma, liver, and heart. For the preruminant calf, liver and heart may be more useful than blood plasma for indicating excess iodine effects on lipid metabolism.

  17. The Importance of Adequate Iodine during Pregnancy and Infancy.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased ≥50% during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and impair neurological development of the fetus. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroidism; the most severe manifestation is cretinism. In iodine-deficient areas, controlled studies have demonstrated that iodine supplementation before or during early pregnancy eliminates new cases of cretinism, increases birth weight, reduces rates of perinatal and infant mortality and generally increases developmental scores in young children by 10-20%. Mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency can cause thyroid dysfunction, but whether it impairs cognitive and/or neurological function in the offspring remains uncertain. In nearly all regions affected by iodine deficiency, salt iodization is the most cost-effective way of delivering iodine and improving maternal and infant health. PMID:27198746

  18. Metabolic engineering of the iodine content in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Landini, Martina; Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Tonacchera, Massimo; Agretti, Patrizia; Dimida, Antonio; Vitti, Paolo; Alpi, Amedeo; Pinchera, Aldo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2012-01-01

    Plants are a poor source of iodine, an essential micronutrient for human health. Several attempts of iodine biofortification of crops have been carried out, but the scarce knowledge on the physiology of iodine in plants makes results often contradictory and not generalizable. In this work, we used a molecular approach to investigate how the ability of a plant to accumulate iodine can be influenced by different mechanisms. In particular, we demonstrated that the iodine content in Arabidopsis thaliana can be increased either by facilitating its uptake with the overexpression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) or through the reduction of its volatilization by knocking-out HOL-1, a halide methyltransferase. Our experiments show that the iodine content in plants results from a balance between intake and retention. A correct manipulation of this mechanism could improve iodine biofortification of crops and prevent the release of the ozone layer-threatening methyl iodide into the atmosphere.

  19. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  20. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.P.; Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-09-01

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for (/sup 125/)iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination.

  1. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.P.; Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-09-01

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination.

  2. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  3. Parameters of an electric-discharge generator of iodine atoms for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N; Vorob'ev, M V; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V; Mikheev, P A; Ufimtsev, N I

    2009-01-31

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used for measuring the concentration of iodine molecules at the output of an electric-discharge generator of atomic iodine. Methyl iodide CH{sub 3}I is used as the donor of atomic iodine. The fraction of iodine extracted from CH{sub 3}I in the generator is {approx}50%. The optimal operation regimes are found in which 80%-90% of iodine contained in the output flow of the generator was in the atomic state. This fraction decreased during the iodine transport due to recombination and was 20%-30% at the place where iodine was injected into the oxygen flow. The fraction of the discharge power spent for dissociation was {approx}3%. (elements of laser setups)

  4. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  5. Quantification of total iodine in intact granular starches of different botanical origin exposed to iodine vapor at various water activities.

    PubMed

    Manion, Bruce; Ye, Mei; Holbein, Bruce E; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2011-11-01

    Iodine has been used as an effective tool for studying both the structure and composition of dispersed starch and starch granules. In addition to being employed to assess relative amylose contents for starch samples, it has been used to look at the molecular mobility of the glucose polymers within intact starch granules based on exposure to iodine vapor equilibrated at different water activities. Starches of different botanical origin including corn, high amylose corn, waxy corn, potato, waxy potato, tapioca, wheat, rice, waxy rice, chick pea and mung bean were equilibrated to 0.33, 0.75, 0.97 water activities, exposed to iodine vapor and then absorbance spectra and LAB color were determined. In addition, a new iodine quantification method sensitive to <0.1% iodine (w/w) was employed to measure bound iodine within intact granular starch. Amylose content, particle size distribution of granules, and the density of the starch were also determined to explore whether high levels of long linear glucose chains and the surface area-to-volume ratio were important factors relating to the granular iodine binding. Results showed, in all cases, starches complexed more iodine as water content increased and waxy starches bound less iodine than their normal starch counterparts. However, much more bound iodine could be measured chemically with waxy starches than was expected based on colorimetric determination. Surface area appeared to be a factor as smaller rice and waxy rice starch granules complexed more iodine, while the larger potato and waxy potato granules complexed less than would be expected based on measured amylose contents. Corn, high amylose corn, and wheat, known to have starch granules with extensive surface pores, bound higher levels of iodine suggesting pores and channels may be an important factor giving iodine vapor greater access to bind within the granules. Exposing iodine vapor to moisture-equilibrated native starches is an effective tool to explore starch

  6. Linearity of iodine sorption and sorption capacities for seven soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, M.I.; Hawkins, J.L.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-11-01

    Iodine, a soluble and prevalent element in spent nuclear fuel and a pivotal element in the assessment of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste disposal option, sorbs to soils rich in organics and hydrous oxides. Biotic factors, such as microbes, enzymes and plant exudates, have been implicated in the retention of I to soils. Anion exchange of I{sup {minus}} or IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and chemical or biological oxidation to I{sub 2} followed by reactions with the soil organic matter are possible retention mechanisms. We have carried out sorption and desorption studies across a wide range of soil solution concentrations (10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup 5} mg I/L, 10{sup {minus}12} to 1 M) for seven soils typical of upland and lowland soils of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Soil solid-liquid partition values (K{sub d}), required for impact assessments, varied from 60 to 1800 L/kg and were significantly correlated with extractable Al oxide content, and background I and organic matter content. Freundlich isotherm fits show that sorption of I across our intentionally large concentration range is nonlinear; however, sorption of I across our intentionally large concentration range is nonlinear; however, sorption of I at environmental concentrations (<0.1 mg I/L soil solution) is linear and can be described by the K{sub d} model. Sorption of I was not related to peroxidase enzyme activity. Desorption percentages were small implying sorption was not easily reversed, even with a strong electrolyte, KNO{sub 3}. Desorption results and simple correlations of I sorption to soil properties suggest that the oxidation of I{sup {minus}} to I{sub 2} and complexation to organic functional groups or oxides are the major processes for I retention in Shield soils. 52 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui L; Ma, Gary; Li, Mu; Su'a, Sarah Asi Faletoese; Ieremia, Merina; Viali, Satu; Faeamani, Gavin; Bell, A Colin; Quested, Christine; Neal, Bruce C; Eastman, Creswell J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine iodine nutrition status and whether iodine status differs across salt intake levels among a sample of women aged 18-45 years living in Samoa. A cross-sectional survey was completed and 24-hr urine samples were collected and assessed for iodine (n=152) and salt excretion (n=119). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the women was 88 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR)=54-121 μg/L). 62% of the women had a UIC <100 μg/L. The crude estimated mean 24-hr urinary salt excretion was 6.6 (standard deviation 3.2) g/day. More than two-thirds (66%) of the women exceeded the World Health Organization recommended maximum level of 5 g/day. No association was found between median UIC and salt excretion (81 μg/L iodine where urinary salt excretion >=5 g/day versus 76 μg/L where urinary salt excretion <5 g/day; p=0.4). Iodine nutrition appears to be insufficient in this population and may be indicative of iodine deficiency disorders in Samoan women. A collaborative approach in monitoring iodine status and salt intake will strengthen both programs and greatly inform the level of iodine fortification required to ensure optimal iodine intake as population salt reduction programs take effect. PMID:26965773

  8. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  9. Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui L; Ma, Gary; Li, Mu; Su'a, Sarah Asi Faletoese; Ieremia, Merina; Viali, Satu; Faeamani, Gavin; Bell, A Colin; Quested, Christine; Neal, Bruce C; Eastman, Creswell J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine iodine nutrition status and whether iodine status differs across salt intake levels among a sample of women aged 18-45 years living in Samoa. A cross-sectional survey was completed and 24-hr urine samples were collected and assessed for iodine (n=152) and salt excretion (n=119). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the women was 88 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR)=54-121 μg/L). 62% of the women had a UIC <100 μg/L. The crude estimated mean 24-hr urinary salt excretion was 6.6 (standard deviation 3.2) g/day. More than two-thirds (66%) of the women exceeded the World Health Organization recommended maximum level of 5 g/day. No association was found between median UIC and salt excretion (81 μg/L iodine where urinary salt excretion >=5 g/day versus 76 μg/L where urinary salt excretion <5 g/day; p=0.4). Iodine nutrition appears to be insufficient in this population and may be indicative of iodine deficiency disorders in Samoan women. A collaborative approach in monitoring iodine status and salt intake will strengthen both programs and greatly inform the level of iodine fortification required to ensure optimal iodine intake as population salt reduction programs take effect.

  10. On the biophilic nature of iodine in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderfield, Henry; Truesdale, Victor W.

    1980-10-01

    Vertical profiles of concentrations of iodate- and total-iodine have been measured at thirty stations in the Pacific, Atlantic and Antarctic Oceans. The salinity-normalised iodine profiles are indicative of both iodine removal and iodate reduction in the euphotic zone. Thus, surface waters appear to be depleted in iodate-iodine (by 0.03-0.22 μM) but less so in total-iodine (by <0.01-0.06 μM) when compared with the near-constant iodine concentrations (˜0.46 μM) at depth. Graphs of specific total-iodine versus specific phosphate fit a linear model well and lie within a narrow envelope for all stations, suggesting a direct coupling of iodine and nutrients during assimilation/regeneration. The I/C atom ratio calculated from these hydrographic data (1.0 × 10 -4) agrees well with contemporary plankton compositions ( I/C= 1.4 (±0.8) × 10 -4). Similar graphs involving specific iodate also fit a linear model well. However, their gradients vary from station to station leading to a variability in I/C interconversion ratio, analogous to the variability of Redfield nutrient ratios for coastal waters. This variation is attributed to changes in both productivity and nitrate availability. Pacific deep waters contain anomalously high total-iodine concentrations which may reflect regional differences of I/P ratio in surface waters or else diffusion of iodine from bottom sediments.

  11. Iodine Deficiency and the Brain: Effects and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Redman, Kahla; Ruffman, Ted; Fitzgerald, Penelope; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient needed in human diets. As iodine is an integral component of thyroid hormone, it mediates the effects of thyroid hormone on brain development. Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent and preventable cause of mental impairment in the world. The exact mechanism through which iodine influences the brain is unclear, but is generally thought to begin with genetic expression. Many brain structures and systems appear to be affected with iodine deficiency, including areas such as the hippocampus, microstructures such as myelin, and neurotransmitters. The clearest evidence comes from the studies examining cognition in the cases of iodine deprivation or interventions involving iodine supplementation. Nevertheless, there are many inconsistencies and gaps in the literature of iodine deficiency, especially over the lifespan. This paper summarizes the literature on this topic, suggests a causal mechanism for iodine's effect on the brain, and indicates areas for the future research (e.g., using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI to examine how iodine supplementation facilitates cognitive functioning). PMID:25880137

  12. Simulation model accurately estimates total dietary iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C

    2009-07-01

    One problem with estimating iodine intake is the lack of detailed data about the discretionary use of iodized kitchen salt and iodization of industrially processed foods. To be able to take into account these uncertainties in estimating iodine intake, a simulation model combining deterministic and probabilistic techniques was developed. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997-1998) and an update of the Food Composition database were used to simulate 3 different scenarios: Dutch iodine legislation until July 2008, Dutch iodine legislation after July 2008, and a potential future situation. Results from studies measuring iodine excretion during the former legislation are comparable with the iodine intakes estimated with our model. For both former and current legislation, iodine intake was adequate for a large part of the Dutch population, but some young children (<5%) were at risk of intakes that were too low. In the scenario of a potential future situation using lower salt iodine levels, the percentage of the Dutch population with intakes that were too low increased (almost 10% of young children). To keep iodine intakes adequate, salt iodine levels should not be decreased, unless many more foods will contain iodized salt. Our model should be useful in predicting the effects of food reformulation or fortification on habitual nutrient intakes.

  13. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  14. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-08-23

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  15. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  16. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  17. [Nonradioactive iodine-labeled antibodies-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Xi; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Zhuang, Zhi-Xia; Cui, Wei-Gang

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, the system of nonradioactive iodine-labeled-antibodies linking inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for immunoassay was reported. The goat-anti-Escherichia coli and goat anti rabbit were considered as simulant antigen and antibody respectively in order to establish a new method of immunoassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry which has the advantage of high sensitivity, low detection limit and preferable linearity range. During the experiment, the N-bromosuccinimide, a mild oxidant, was used to oxidize the non-radioactive iodine (127 I) that labeled the protein. The method of nonradioactive iodine labeled protein was established and the best labeling condition was explored. The compound of I was purified by Sephadex G50 column chromatography, then the stability and activity were examined. The results showed that the labeling program was simple, reaction time was within two minutes, the labeling yield achieved 63.12% and none of I shed from the compound after 96 hours. The simulant antigen and antibody reacted on polystyrene microtiter plate and the I was detected by ICP-MS, the detection limit of the method was 0.12 mg x L(-1), relative standard deviation (n = 9) was less than 3% and the linearly dependent coefficient was 0.998 7. This system can also be used in analysis of other protein, nucleic acid and so on.

  18. A study on the magnesium-iodine thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakuta, T.; Haraya, K.; Sako, T.; Ito, N.; Yoshitome, H.; Todo, N.; Kato, J.

    The rates of redox reaction of magnesium oxide and iodine in water and of the thermal decomposition of magnesium iodate are investigated in order to design a hydrogen production process using the magnesium-iodine cycle for the thermochemical decomposition of water. The optimal conditions of the redox reaction are determined; they are an initial molar ratio of MgO:I2:H2O =1:5:8, a temperature of 150 C, and a reaction time of 15 to 20 min. The thermal decomposition of magnesium iodate is found to be a two-step reaction which starts at 588 and 615 C, respectively. It is noted that the enthalpy change of magnesium iodate to intermediate paraperiodate - Mg5(IO6)2 - is 65.4 kcal/mol and that of paraperiodate to magnesium oxide is 99.0 kcal/mol. The vapor pressures of liquid iodine, magnesium iodide, and MgI2-I2 aqueous solutions are measured, and the data are fitted to the Antoine equation by the least squares method.

  19. Development of iodine waste forms using low-temperature sintering glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Rademacher, David

    2010-06-01

    This presentation will describe our recent work on the use of low temperature-sintering glass powders mixed with either AgI or AgI-zeolite to produce a stable waste form. Radioactive iodine ({sup 129}I, half-life of 1.6 x 10{sup 7} years) is generated in the nuclear fuel cycle and is of particular concern due to its extremely long half-life and its effects on human health. As part of the DOE/NE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the separation of {sup 129}I from spent fuel during fuel reprocessing is being studied. In the spent fuel reprocessing scheme under consideration, the iodine is released in gaseous form and collected using Ag-loaded zeolites, to form AgI. Although AgI has extremely low solubility in water, it has a relatively high vapor pressure at moderate temperatures (>550 C), thus limiting the thermal processing. Because of this, immobilization using borosilicate glass is not feasible. Therefore, a bismuth oxide-based glasses are being studied due to the low solubility of bismuth oxide in aqueous solution at pH > 7. These waste forms were processed at 500 C, where AgI volatility is low but the glass powder is able to first densify by viscous sintering and then crystallize. Since the glass is not melted, a more chemically stable glass can be used. The AgI-glass mixture was found to have high iodine leach resistance in these initial studies.

  20. Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2014-04-01

    The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

  1. Relationship between Virucidal Efficacy and Free Iodine Concentration of Povidone-Iodine in Buffer Solution.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideki; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Satoko; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sugiyama, Noriyoshi; Kajiura, Takumi; Ueda, Tomofumi; Morimoto, Shota; Yokota, Katuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Povidone-iodine solutions prepared to various concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) with 0.2M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) (PVP-I PB) were analyzed to determine their free iodine concentrations using membrane permeation cells, and their inactivation effects on three viruses (influenza A virus, poliovirus type 1 and adenovirus type 3) were examined. The free iodine concentrations in the 0.01-10% PVP-I PB were determined to be 1.84, 4.88, 1.58 and 0.17 ppm (approximate values), respectively, with the maximum obtained for the 0.1% solution. The virucidal efficacy of these PVP-I PB against poliovirus type 1 and adenovirus type 3 was found to be generally dependent on free iodine concentration, with the 0.1% solution being the most effective. Influenza A virus was inactivated with an action time of 15 s at all four concentrations examined. The results of this study suggested an association between free iodine concentration and virucidal efficacy for the 0.01-10% PVP-I PB.

  2. Observations of iodine monoxide in the Arctic troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielcke, Johannes; Lampel, Johannes; Frieß, Udo; Sihler, Holger; Netcheva, Stoyka; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    A unique feature of the polar troposphere is the strong impact of halogen photochemistry, in which reactive halogen species are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulfide. The sources, however, as well as release and recycling mechanisms of these halogen species are far from being completely understood, especially the role of chlorine and iodine compounds. For iodine, which is thought to be produced either by organic precursors or inorganic processes, one curious issue is the difference of its role in the two polar regions, the Arctic and the Antarctic. Satellite observations show significant quantities of IO in large areas of Antarctica and the surrounding ocean and comparatively no IO in the Arctic. This is in concordance with some ground-based remote sensing observations in Antarctica, whereas publications of IO mixing ratios or upper limits from the Arctic are seldom. This strong hemispheric dichotomy may however not be the whole picture. Here we present data from ground-based MAX-DOAS observations in the Arctic. Long-term measurements from Alert, Canada (82N) spanning the period from 2007 until 2013 indicate elevated and significant quantities of IO in the troposphere in late spring and early summer comparable to ground-based observations in Antarctica. This is backed up by ship-borne MAX-DOAS measurements in Baffin Bay during summer 2010, which also show elevated and significant amounts of IO. Furthermore the interaction of IO and BrO will be shown, as well as the influence of meteorological parameters and the data will be compared to other measurements.

  3. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  4. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  5. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Richard B.

    2007-05-01

    A fluorescent clock reaction is described that is based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but uses the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents. The reaction uses easily obtained household products. One variation illustrates the sequential steps and mechanisms of the reaction; other variations maximize the dramatic impact of the demonstration; and a variation that uses liquid detergent in the Briggs Rauscher reaction yields a striking oscillating luminescence. The iodine fluorescence quenching clock reaction can be used in the classroom to explore not only the principles of redox chemistry and reaction kinetics, but also the photophysics of fluorescent pH probes and optical quenching.

  6. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  7. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  8. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations.

  9. The impact of iodine supplementation and bread fortification on urinary iodine concentrations in a mildly iodine deficient population of pregnant women in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Vicki L; Hodyl, Nicolette A; Fogarty, Paul A; Torpy, David J; Roberts, Rachel; Nettelbeck, Ted; Ma, Gary; Hetzel, Basil

    2013-01-01

    Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can have significant effects on fetal development and future cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to characterise the iodine status of South Australian women during pregnancy and relate it to the use of iodine-containing multivitamins. The impact of fortification of bread with iodized salt was also assessed. Women (n = 196) were recruited prospectively at the beginning of pregnancy and urine collected at 12, 18, 30, 36 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. The use of a multivitamin supplement was recorded at each visit. Spot urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were assessed. Median UICs were within the mildly deficient range in women not taking supplements (<90 μg/L). Among the women taking iodine-containing multivitamins UICs were within WHO recommendations (150-249 μg/L) for sufficiency and showed an increasing trend through gestation. The fortification of bread with iodized salt increased the median UIC from 68 μg/L to 84 μg/L (p = .011) which was still in the deficient range. Pregnant women in this region of Australia were unlikely to reach recommended iodine levels without an iodine supplement, even after the mandatory iodine supplementation of bread was instituted in October 2009.

  10. [Biological effects of the iodine 131 radionuclide].

    PubMed

    Kasuba, V

    1997-06-01

    Radionuclides released into the biosphere by local sources are added to artificial radionuclides introduced by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests or nuclear accidents. The main polluters are nuclear industry reprocessing plants and nuclear power stations. Other sources are hospitals using radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. This article presents the effects of radioisotope iodine-131 on a living organism, on the cell and on the genetic material within the cell. Beside the accident iodine-131 contamination, its wide diagnostic and therapeutic application attributes to the total radiation dose. The biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical in the body depends on the way of use and on the and physical and chemical shape of this radiopharmaceutical. A few minutes after the administration, all iodine ingested or inhaled is rapidly absorbed by blood. The irradiation dose in blood depends on the administered amount of 131I and the fraction passing into the plasma as protein-bound 131I. After entering the organism, iodine mostly accumulates in the thyroid gland. The effect of ionized radiation on living cells are proportional to the dosage of 131I. Intracellular radioactive decay occurs in cytoplasm, in karyoplasm, and in the DNA molecule incorporated fraction. Beside the damage resulting from the deposition of radiation energy, 131I causes biological damage when it decays while the isotope is incorporated into the DNA of human cells. Certain beta/gamma-emitting isotopes such as 131I may be particularly hazardous when incorporated into DNA. Incorporation of radioactively labeled compounds into the DNA leads to highly selective irradiation of the nucleus of the proliferating cells. This produces pronounced biological damage as the genetic material in the cell nucleus constitutes the most radiosensitive target within the cell. PMID:9471970

  11. Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear stuctures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

  12. Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear structures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

  13. Iodinated contrast media and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    One of the principal complications of radiographic procedures utilizing intravascular iodinated contrast media is acute kidney injury. Although several clinical and procedural factors impact a patient's risk for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI), substantial attention has been focused on the relationship between the type of contrast agent used and renal injury. Multiple contrast agents are available for clinical use, each defined by a series of physicochemical properties. The evolution from high osmolal to low osmolal and, more recently, iso-osmolal contrast media has led to several clinical trials and meta-analyses comparing the nephrotoxicity of different contrast agents. This article summarizes the physicochemical properties that define and differentiate iodinated contrast media, discusses the purported relationship between these properties and kidney injury, and describes the salient findings of clinical trials and meta-analyses that have compared the nephrotoxic effects of contrast agents. Although ongoing and future studies will further elucidate our understanding of the relationship between iodinated contrast and risk for CIAKI, a sound understanding of the currently available data will help inform evidence-based decisions on the use of these agents in clinical practice.

  14. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg-1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg-1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg-1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg-1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d-1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d-1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L-1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d-1 based on consumption of 2 L d-1.

  15. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  16. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    PubMed Central

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg−1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg−1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg−1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg−1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d−1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d−1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L−1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d−1 based on consumption of 2 L d−1. PMID:26503697

  17. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet.

    PubMed

    Watts, M J; Joy, E J M; Young, S D; Broadley, M R; Chilimba, A D C; Gibson, R S; Siyame, E W P; Kalimbira, A A; Chilima, B; Ander, E L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg(-1) in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg(-1). Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d(-1) compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d(-1). Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L(-1) with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d(-1) based on consumption of 2 L d(-1).

  18. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargus, William

    2014-10-01

    Iodine (I2) has been considered as a potential electrostatic spacecraft thruster propellant for approximately 2 decades, but has only recently been demonstrated. Energy conversion efficiency appears to be on par with xenon without thruster modification. Intriguingly, performance appears to exceed xenon at high acceleration potentials. As part of a continuing program for the development of non-intrusive plasma diagnostics for advanced plasma spacecraft propulsion, we have identified the I II 5d5D4 o state as metastable, and therefore containing a reservoir of excited state ions suitable for laser probing. The 5d5D4 o - 6p5P3 transition at 695.878 nm is convenient for diode laser excitation with the 5s5S2 o - 6p5P3 transition at 516.12 nm as an ideal candidate for non-resonant fluorescence collection. We have constructed a Penning type iodine microwave discharge lamp optimized for I II production for table-top measurements. This work demonstrates I II laser-induced fluorescence in a representative iodine discharge and will validate our previous theoretical work based on the limited available historical I II spectral data.

  19. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1987-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987 under NASA grant NAG1-441 entitled 'Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier'. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar-simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically. It was observed that the threshold pump-beam intensities for both Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals were about 1000 solar constants, and the cw laser operation of the Nd:Cr:GSGG crystal was more difficult than that of the Nd:YAG crystal under the solar-simulator pumping. The possibility of the Nd:Cr:GSGG laser operation with a fast continuously chopped pumping was also observed. In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

  20. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  1. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet.

    PubMed

    Watts, M J; Joy, E J M; Young, S D; Broadley, M R; Chilimba, A D C; Gibson, R S; Siyame, E W P; Kalimbira, A A; Chilima, B; Ander, E L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg(-1) in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg(-1). Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d(-1) compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d(-1). Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L(-1) with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d(-1) based on consumption of 2 L d(-1). PMID:26503697

  2. Enhanced electrical and optical properties of iodine doped LDPE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreelatha, K.; Predeep, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to dope Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) with iodine and to study the effect of iodine doping on the optical band gap of LDPE films. The DC conductivity measurements and UV/Vis spectral studies are employed to characterize the samples. Iodine treatment induces colour change in the polymer film which supports the interaction between iodine molecules and polyethylene chains. I2 molecule links the polymer chains electronically and provides conducting path ways by forming DA complexes. The absorption band of complex films has extended to the visible and near infrared region of the spectrum. Further there are discernible shifts found in the energy gap and band edge towards lower energies on doping with iodine. This is essentially due to the formation of strong DA complexes upon iodine doping which improves the conducting behaviour.

  3. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  4. Iodine in food- and dietary supplement-composition databases.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, Pamela R; Patterson, Kristine Y; Spungen, Judith H; Wirtz, Mark S; Andrews, Karen W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year. For more than a decade, the NDL has collected and analyzed foods as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; iodine analysis is now being added to the program. The NDL recently qualified a commercial laboratory to conduct iodine analysis of foods by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Co-analysis of a set of samples by the commercial laboratory using the ICP-MS method and by the FDA laboratory using its standard colorimetric method yielded comparable results. The FDA recently reviewed historical TDS data for trends in the iodine content of selected foods, and the NDL analyzed samples of a limited subset of those foods for iodine. The FDA and the NDL are working to combine their data on iodine in foods and to produce an online database that can be used for estimating iodine intake from foods in the US population. In addition, the NDL continues to analyze dietary supplements for iodine and, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, to publish the data online in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database. The goal is to provide, through these 2 harmonized databases and the continuing TDS focus on iodine, improved tools for estimating iodine intake in population studies.

  5. Iodine in food- and dietary supplement-composition databases.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, Pamela R; Patterson, Kristine Y; Spungen, Judith H; Wirtz, Mark S; Andrews, Karen W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year. For more than a decade, the NDL has collected and analyzed foods as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; iodine analysis is now being added to the program. The NDL recently qualified a commercial laboratory to conduct iodine analysis of foods by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Co-analysis of a set of samples by the commercial laboratory using the ICP-MS method and by the FDA laboratory using its standard colorimetric method yielded comparable results. The FDA recently reviewed historical TDS data for trends in the iodine content of selected foods, and the NDL analyzed samples of a limited subset of those foods for iodine. The FDA and the NDL are working to combine their data on iodine in foods and to produce an online database that can be used for estimating iodine intake from foods in the US population. In addition, the NDL continues to analyze dietary supplements for iodine and, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, to publish the data online in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database. The goal is to provide, through these 2 harmonized databases and the continuing TDS focus on iodine, improved tools for estimating iodine intake in population studies. PMID:27534627

  6. Emission of iodine-containing volatiles by selected microalgae species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, U. R.; Carpenter, L. J.; Huang, R.-J.; Kundel, M.; Bosle, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we present the results of an emission study of different phytoplankton samples in aqueous media treated with elevated ozone levels. Halocarbon measurements show that the samples tested released bromoform and different iodocarbons, including iodomethane, iodochloromethane and diiodomethane. Iodide and iodate levels in the liquid phase were representative of concentrations of surface water in a natural environment. Measurement of volatile iodine (I2) emissions from two diatom samples (Mediopyxis helysia and Porosira glacialis) and the background sample (F/2 medium from filtered natural seawater) showed that the quantity of evolved I2 depends on the ozone concentration in the air. This behaviour was assumed to be caused by the oxidation reaction mechanism of iodide with ozone. The I2 emission flux agrees with model calculations at different iodide concentrations. The I2 emission of a natural plankton concentrate sample was, however, very low compared to other samples and showed no dependence on ozone. The reason for this was shown to be the low iodide concentration in the algal suspension, which seems to be the limiting factor in the oxidative formation of I2.

  7. Medical effects of iodine disinfection products in spacecraft water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Various iodination products (IDPs), including iodinated and iodine-induced new compounds, will be present in the iodine-disinfected water that is expected to be used by crews on the NASA Space Station and on long duration missions. The metabolic intermediaries created by such a process may be more important to crew health than the parent IDPs, and reclamation and recycling may be expected to produce additional products. These medical effects may be expressed in crews as hypersensitivity, allergic, acute toxic, and chronic toxic reactions, as well as modifications of immune system response.

  8. [Experience with iodine prophylaxis in the province of Bolzano].

    PubMed

    Franzellin, F

    1998-01-01

    Since 1981 in the province of Bolzano a "free-choice" iodine prophylaxis with iodinated dietary salt has been implemented. An epidemiological survey carried out in 1982 in 3109 schoolchildren living in this region showed an incidence of endemic goiter grade 1B-3 (WHO classification) of 23.6 +/- 14.0% and an urinary iodine excretion of 10.2 +/- 8.0 micrograms/l (colorimetric analysis) compared to the values of 39.6 +/- 17.7 micrograms/l found in a similar population of schoolchildren living in a non goitrous urban area in Northern Italy (Padua). This program of iodine prophylaxis was advertised through the local mass media. A further epidemiological survey, performed in the whole province in the year 1990, involving 1046 schoolchildren, randomly selected, showed an average goiter incidence of 1.6 +/- 1.3% and a urinary iodine excretion of 137.1 +/- 104.4 micrograms/l (ICP-MS analysis) in comparison to the values of 182.6 +/- 131.7 micrograms/l seen in the schoolchildren of the town of Padua. During the period of iodine prophylaxis the content of iodine in the commercially available iodinated dietary salt was also estimated. In 1990 the average content was 31.0 mg/kg and in 1997 was 27.1 mg/kg. These data therefore confirm the usefulness of iodinated salt in the prophylaxis of endemic goiter.

  9. A model for a continuous-wave iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In H.; Tabibi, Bagher M.

    1990-01-01

    A model for a continuous-wave (CW) iodine laser has been developed and compared with the experimental results obtained from a solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser. The agreement between the calculated laser power output and the experimental results is generally good for various laser parameters even when the model includes only prominent rate coefficients. The flow velocity dependence of the output power shows that the CW iodine laser cannot be achieved with a flow velocity below 1 m/s for the present solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser system.

  10. Recent experiences with iodine water disinfection in Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.; Slezak, Terry N.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial proliferation in the STS potable water system is prevented by maintaining a 2-5 ppm iodine residual. The iodine is added to fuel cell water by an iodinated ion exchange resin in the Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Crew comments indicated excessive iodine in the potable water. To better define the problem, a method of in-flight iodine analysis was developed. Inflight analysis during STS-30 and STS-28 indicated iodine residuals were generally in the 9-13 ppm range. It was determined that the high iodine residual was caused by MCV influent temperatures in excess of 120 F. This is well above the MCV operating range of 65-90 F. The solution to this problem was to develop a resin suitable for the higher temperatures. Since 8 months were required to formulate a MCV resin suitable for the higher temperatures, a temporary solution was necessary. Two additional MCV's were installed on the chilled and ambient water lines leading into the galley to remove the excess iodine. These reduced the iodine residual to 3-4 ppm during STS-33, STS-34, STS-36 and STS-32. A high-temperature resin was formulated and initially flown on STS-31.

  11. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  12. Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, J B; Contempré, B; Duale, N L; Deckx, H; Bebe, N; Longombé, A O; Thilly, C H; Diplock, A T; Dumont, J E

    1993-02-01

    Studies were performed to assess the role of combined selenium and iodine deficiency in the etiology of endemic myxedematous cretinism in a population in Zaire. One effect of selenium deficiency may be to lower glutathione peroxidase activity in the thyroid gland, thus allowing hydrogen peroxide produced during thyroid hormone synthesis to be cytotoxic. In selenium-and-iodine-deficient humans, selenium supplementation may aggravate hypothyroidism by stimulating thyroxin metabolism by the selenoenzyme type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. Selenium supplementation is thus not indicated without iodine or thyroid hormone supplementation in cases of combined selenium and iodine deficiencies.

  13. Iodine and thyroid hormones during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2007-07-01

    Iodine is a trace element essential for synthesis of the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These hormones play a vital role in the early growth and development stages of most organs, especially the brain. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that, after famine, iodine deficiency is the most avoidable cause of cerebral lesions including different degrees of mental retardation and cerebral paralysis. The main function of iodine in vertebrates is to interact with the thyroid hormones. During pregnancy sufficient quantities of iodine are required to prevent the appearance of hypothyroidism, trophoblastic and embryonic or fetal disorders, neonatal and maternal hypothyroidism, and permanent sequelae in infants. Thyroid hormone receptors and iodothyronine deiodinases are present in placenta and central nervous tissue of the fetus. A number of environmental factors influence the epidemiology of thyroid disorders, and even relatively small abnormalities and differences in the level of iodine intake in a population have profound effects on the occurrence of thyroid abnormalities. The prevalence of disorders related to iodine deficit during pregnancy and postpartum has increased. Iodine supplementation is an effective measure in the case of pregnant and lactating women. However, it is not implemented and the problem is still present even in societies with theoretically advanced health systems. During pregnancy and postpartum, the WHO recommends iodine intake be increased to at least 200 microg/day. Side-effects provoked by iodine supplementation are rare during pregnancy at the recommended doses. PMID:17701774

  14. Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, J B; Contempré, B; Duale, N L; Deckx, H; Bebe, N; Longombé, A O; Thilly, C H; Diplock, A T; Dumont, J E

    1993-02-01

    Studies were performed to assess the role of combined selenium and iodine deficiency in the etiology of endemic myxedematous cretinism in a population in Zaire. One effect of selenium deficiency may be to lower glutathione peroxidase activity in the thyroid gland, thus allowing hydrogen peroxide produced during thyroid hormone synthesis to be cytotoxic. In selenium-and-iodine-deficient humans, selenium supplementation may aggravate hypothyroidism by stimulating thyroxin metabolism by the selenoenzyme type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. Selenium supplementation is thus not indicated without iodine or thyroid hormone supplementation in cases of combined selenium and iodine deficiencies. PMID:8427203

  15. Screening for thyroid disease and iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-02-01

    The high global prevalence of iodine deficiency and autoimmune thyroid disorders and the mental and physical consequences of these disorders creates a huge human and economic burden that can be prevented, in large part, by early detection and appropriate preventative or therapeutic measures. The availability of sophisticated, sensitive and accurate laboratory testing procedures provides an efficient and effective platform for the application of screening for these disorders. Measurement of urine iodine concentration (UIC) in school children or pregnant women is the recommended indicator for screening populations for iodine deficiency. The severity of the iodine deficiency is classified according to the UIC. Measurement of serum thyrotropin (TSH) as an indicator for population iodine deficiency is used only in neonates and is supplementary to UIC screening. Other indicators such as goitre rates, thyroid function and serum thyroglobulin levels are useful adjunctive but not frontline process indicators. The human and economic benefits of screening for congenital hypothyroidism by measurement of heel-prick TSH have been well documented and justify its universal application. Using this measurement for monitoring population iodine intake is recommended by the World Health Organization but further validation is required before it can be universally recommended. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is readily detected by current highly sensitive serum TSH assays and its prevalence appears to increase with age, varies with iodine intake and ethnicity and may occur in up to 20% of older age people. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is the less common disorder and screening cannot be justified because of its low prevalence and minimal or insignificant clinical effects. The argument for screening for subclinical hypothyroidism in middle-aged and older women is stronger but lacks evidence of benefit from randomised controlled trials or cost benefit analyses of therapeutic intervention, so

  16. Optimizing separation of iodine from halogen interferences in preparation for TIMS analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Engelmann, Mark D.

    2011-11-28

    Low-level analysis of radioiodine performed by TIMS requires an initial chemical separation from interfering higher electron-affinity halogens. Experiments using 125I and 36Cl tracers have shown that iodide can be selectively oxidized and purged from solution while the chloride remains in the solution. A systematic investigation of the experimental factors that affect the oxidation and transfer of iodine along with the separation of iodide from chloride has been completed. Experimental design was used to determine the optimum experimental conditions by obtaining a better understanding of factor affects and interactions. Factors such as gas purge rate, experiment run time, and oxidant concentration were simultaneously studied in a central composite design of experiments and response surfaces were generated from results. Optimizing experimental factors resulted in improved iodide oxidation and transfer efficiencies, halogen separation, and shorter analysis times.

  17. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  18. Antineoplastic effect of iodine and iodide in dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors: association between lactoperoxidase and estrogen-adduct production.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ofelia; Delgado, Guadalupe; Anguiano, Brenda; Petrosyan, Pavel; Molina-Servín, Edith D; Gonsebatt, Maria E; Aceves, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    Several groups, including ours, have reported that iodine exhibited antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in various cancer cells only if this element is supplemented as molecular iodine, or as iodide, to cells that are able to oxidize it with the enzyme thyroperoxidase. In this study, we analyzed the effect of various concentrations of iodine and/or iodide in the dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) mammary cancer model in rats. The results show that 0.1% iodine or iodide increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type γ (PPARγ), triggering caspase-mediated apoptosis pathways in damaged mammary tissue (DMBA-treated mammary gland) as well as in frank mammary tumors, but not in normal mammary gland. DMBA treatment induces the expression of lactoperoxidase, which participates in the antineoplastic effect of iodide and could be involved in the pro-neoplastic effect of estrogens, increasing the formation of DNA adducts. In conclusion, our results show that a supplement of 0.1% molecular iodine/potassium iodide (0.05/0.05%) exert antineoplastic effects, preventing estrogen-induced DNA adducts and inducing apoptosis through PPARγ/caspases in pre-cancer and cancerous cells. Since this iodine concentration does not modify the cytology (histology, apoptosis rate) or physiology (triiodothyronine and thyrotropin) of the thyroid gland, we propose that it be considered as an adjuvant treatment for premenopausal mammary cancer.

  19. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-07-03

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  20. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  1. Influence of various iodine supplementation levels and two different iodine species on the iodine content of the milk of cows fed rapeseed meal or distillers dried grains with solubles as the protein source.

    PubMed

    Franke, K; Meyer, U; Wagner, H; Flachowsky, G

    2009-09-01

    Supplementation of animal feed with iodine influences the iodine content of milk and therefore, in addition to salt iodination, provides another possibility for improving the human iodine supply. On the other hand, excessive iodine intake by humans through drinking milk must be avoided. Furthermore, the iodine content of milk varies, depending on the presence of iodine antagonists in feed (e.g., glucosinolates in rapeseed) and the applied iodine species. This study evaluated the impact of various feed iodine supplementation levels up to the permitted maximum level, the effect of applying rapeseed compared with a glucosinolate-free ration, and the impact of 2 different iodine species on the iodine content of milk. A total of 32 dairy cows were divided into 4 groups with 8 animals each. Two groups received distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as the protein source, and the others received rapeseed meal (RSM, 16.5% of total diet). In each case, half the animals received feed supplemented with iodine in the form of potassium iodide, and the other half received feed supplemented with iodine in the form of calcium iodate. Iodine supplementation levels of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) were tested in consecutive periods of 21 d each. The milk iodine concentration increased with increasing iodine supplementation of the feed. Rapeseed meal in the ration (0.58 mmol of glucosinolates/kg of diet DM) diminished the milk iodine concentration by up to one-half to one-third of the concentration achieved by DDGS. At iodine supplementation levels of 2 mg/kg of DM and higher, the differences were significant. The application of iodate predominantly resulted in higher milk iodine concentrations compared with iodide, but not significantly in any period. At the highest tested iodine supplementation (5 mg/kg of DM), the milk iodine concentration increased up to 1,464 (iodide) and 1,578 microg/kg (iodate) when feeding DDGS and up to 718 (iodide) and 620 microg

  2. Superoxide Production by a Manganese-Oxidizing Bacterium Facilitates Iodide Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsiu-Ping; Daniel, Benjamin; Creeley, Danielle; Grandbois, Russell; Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Ho, Yi-Fang; Schwehr, Kathy A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Santschi, Peter H.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    The release of radioactive iodine (i.e., iodine-129 and iodine-131) from nuclear reprocessing facilities is a potential threat to human health. The fate and transport of iodine are determined primarily by its redox status, but processes that affect iodine oxidation states in the environment are poorly characterized. Given the difficulty in removing electrons from iodide (I−), naturally occurring iodide oxidation processes require strong oxidants, such as Mn oxides or microbial enzymes. In this study, we examine iodide oxidation by a marine bacterium, Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b, which promotes Mn(II) oxidation by catalyzing the production of extracellular superoxide (O2−). In the absence of Mn2+, Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b cultures oxidized ∼90% of the provided iodide (10 μM) within 6 days, whereas in the presence of Mn(II), iodide oxidation occurred only after Mn(IV) formation ceased. Iodide oxidation was not observed during incubations in spent medium or with whole cells under anaerobic conditions or following heat treatment (boiling). Furthermore, iodide oxidation was significantly inhibited in the presence of superoxide dismutase and diphenylene iodonium (a general inhibitor of NADH oxidoreductases). In contrast, the addition of exogenous NADH enhanced iodide oxidation. Taken together, the results indicate that iodide oxidation was mediated primarily by extracellular superoxide generated by Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b and not by the Mn oxides formed by this organism. Considering that extracellular superoxide formation is a widespread phenomenon among marine and terrestrial bacteria, this could represent an important pathway for iodide oxidation in some environments. PMID:24561582

  3. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine. PMID:24096017

  4. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

  5. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine.

  6. Xenon and iodine reveal multiple distinct exotic xenon components in Efremovka "nanodiamonds"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Holland, G.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Fisenko, A. V.; Crowther, S. A.; Turner, G.

    2016-03-01

    We identify new xenon components in a nanodiamond-rich residue from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. We demonstrate for the first time that these, and the previously identified xenon components Xe-P3 and Xe-P6, are associated with elevated I/Xe ratios. The 129I/127I ratio associated with xenon loss from these presolar compositions during processing on planetesimals in the early solar system was (0.369 ± 0.019) × 10-4, a factor of 3-4 lower than the canonical value. This suggests either incorporation of iodine into carbonaceous grains before the last input of freshly synthesized 129I to the solar system's precursor material, or loss of noble gases during processing of planetesimals around 30 Myr after solar system formation. The xenon/iodine ratios and model closure ages were revealed by laser step pyrolysis analysis of a neutron-irradiated, coarse-grained nanodiamond separate. Three distinct low temperature compositions are identified by characteristic I/Xe ratios and 136Xe/132Xe ratios. There is some evidence of multiple compositions with distinct I/Xe ratios in the higher temperature releases associated with Xe-P6. The presence of iodine alongside Q-Xe and these components in nanodiamonds constrains the pathway by which extreme volatiles entered the solid phase and may facilitate the identification of their carriers. There is no detectable iodine contribution to the presolar Xe-HL component, which is released at intermediate temperatures; this suggests a distinct trapping process. Releases associated with the other components all include significant contributions of 128Xe produced from iodine by neutron capture during reactor irradiation. We propose a revised model relating the origin of Xe-P3 (which exhibits an s-process deficit) through a "Q-process" to the Q component (which makes the dominant contribution to the heavy noble gas budget of primitive material). The Q-process incorporates noble gases and iodine into specific carbonaceous phases with mass

  7. Technical Evaluation of Biogeochemical Transformation of Iodine at 200-UP-1, Hanford, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Cordova, E.; Brooks, S.; Moser, E.; Wells, J.; Lee, B.

    2015-12-01

    nitrate was present. No iodate reduction was observed in the absence of nitrate. Additionally, several isolates have been identified that can oxidize iodide. Currently, analytical techniques are underway to quantify the effect of microbial interaction on iodine speciation along with characterization of these diverse microbial isolates.

  8. Iodine-to-calcium ratios in carbonates suggest a primary origin for the Precambrian Lomagundi and Shuram carbon isotope excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardisty, D. S.; Lu, Z.; Planavsky, N. J.; Osburn, M. R.; Bekker, A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic increases in iodine-to-calcium ratios (I/Ca) in carbonates from both the Precambrian Lomagundi and Shuram carbonate carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb) excursion intervals suggest primary origins for these events. Iodate (IO3-), the oxidized iodine species, is the exclusive species incorporated into carbonates. The high redox sensitivity of IO3- to deoxygenation requires highly oxidizing fluids for IO3- production, making I/Ca in platform carbonates a simple indicator of the presence of oxidizing fluids in the surface ocean. Similarly, redox sensitivity makes the proxy host susceptible to diagenetic iodine loss during carbonate recrystallization in reducing pore fluids. Recent work has shown carbonates to experience near-complete iodine loss during dolomitization in the Permian, and work from our group evaluating modern and recent carbonates demonstrate the potential for diagenetic iodine loss during carbonate recrystallization. In some cases, however, such as meteoric aragonite-to-calcite transitions, oxidizing pore fluids have the potential to buffer IO3- concentrations, causing negligible alteration to primary I/Ca despite negative shifts in δ13Ccarb. These results highlight that diagenetic alterations to I/Ca and δ13Ccarb need not always be coupled, but importantly, no observed scenario promotes post-depositional addition of iodine to carbonates. This means that, independent of δ13Ccarb, systematic, stratigraphic increases in I/Ca ratios observed in the carbonate record are most easily interpreted as resulting from depositional controls such as surface ocean redox or shifts in the total marine iodine reservoir. From this, increasing I/Ca ratios coincident with rising and falling δ13Ccarb trends for the Paleoproterozic Lomagundi and Neoproterozoic Shuram events, respectively, support suggestions of a primary origin for the δ13Ccarb excursions. Significant increase in I/Ca in dolomites deposited during the Lomagundi excursion, rising from blank values in

  9. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  10. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  11. Viscosity of high-temperature iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Steve H.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    The viscosity coefficient of iodine in the temperature range 500 - 3000 K is calculated. Because of the low dissociation energy of the I2 molecules, the dissociation degree of the gas increases quickly with temperature, and I + I2 and I + I collisions must be taken into account in calculation of viscosity at temperatures greater than 1000 deg. Several possible channels for atom-atom interaction are considered, and the resulting collision integrals are averaged over all the important channels. It is also shown that the rigid-sphere model is inaccurate in predictions of the viscosity.

  12. Hermetic optical-fiber iodine frequency standard.

    PubMed

    Light, Philip S; Anstie, James D; Benabid, Fetah; Luiten, Andre N

    2015-06-15

    We have built an optical-frequency standard based on interrogating iodine vapor that has been trapped within the hollow core of a hermetically sealed kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser locked to a hyperfine component of the P(142)37-0 I2127 transition using modulation transfer spectroscopy shows a frequency stability of 3×10(-11) at 100 s. We discuss the impediments in integrating this all-fiber standard into a fully optical-fiber-based system, and suggest approaches that could improve performance of the frequency standard substantially.

  13. [Iodinated contrast agents used in Radiology].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ribelles, C; Sánchez Fuster, M A; Pamies Guilabert, J

    2014-06-01

    Iodinated contrast media are widely used in Radiology practices with a very low rate of adverse effects, being contrast-induced nephropathy the most serious one. In the majority of cases it is temporary and reversible, even though it can increase the inhospital morbidity and mortality in patients with risk factors. We will describe the various measures of prevention, being hydration and use of non-ionic contrast low osmolality those which have demonstrated greater effectiveness. Precautions to be taken in some risk situations, as patients treated with metformin or with impaired renal function, are also discussed.

  14. Factors affecting iodine concentration of milk of individual cows.

    PubMed

    Franke, A A; Bruhn, J C; Osland, R B

    1983-05-01

    Variations were measured of iodine concentrations of milk during complete lactations of 36 Holstein cows from the University of California herd in Davis and 24 Holstein and 12 Guernsey cows from the California State University herd in Fresno. At Davis no iodine was added to the concentrate, whereas at Fresno iodine as ethylene diamine dihydriodide was added to the concentrate at 4 ppm. At Davis, the mean milk iodine concentration was 166 micrograms/kg; at Fresno, the mean milk iodine concentration was 745 micrograms/kg. Holstein milk had higher iodine concentrations than Guernsey milk, 839 versus 554 micrograms/kg. Iodine concentrations of milk increased during lactation for all cows. At Davis, samples taken in the 1st mo of lactation had 105 micrograms/kg compared with 218 micrograms/kg in the 9th mo. At Fresno, samples taken in the 2nd wk of lactation had 183 micrograms/kg, compared with 1017 micrograms/kg in the 40th wk. Addition of as little as 4 ppm ethylene diamine dihydriodide to the concentrate throughout lactation will lead to greatly increased iodine concentrations in the milk, particularly in late lactation.

  15. Povidone iodine skin absorption: an ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nesvadbova, Martina; Crosera, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-06-15

    Povidone iodine is a water-soluble complex used to disinfect the skin surface and it exerts prolonged germicidal action against a broad spectrum of germs. Indeed, it is often applied on burned skin, large wounds, deep tissues or mucosa. Notably some surgical hand-scrub solutions, which are considered safe antiseptics, contain large amounts of iodine that can be absorbed by skin. The aim of present study was to study the skin absorption of iodine after the application on the skin of povidone-iodine solution, used by health care workers during surgical procedure. We use Franz diffusion static cells with human skin. After 24h from the beginning of our measurement the iodine concentration in the receiving compartment was 11.59±6.3μg/cm(2). The medium flux calculated was 0.73±0.33μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 8.9±1.5h. These in vitro results confirmed that povidone iodine could pass through the skin in a relevant amount that can explain the clinical findings in burned or surgically treated patients. In professional use the repetitive contact with povidone iodine, also as soap, can cause iodine skin permeation that must be considered when the washing procedures are repeated more than 20 times a day.

  16. Comparison of methods for iodine analysis in foods.

    PubMed

    Judprasong, K; Jongjaithet, N; Chavasit, V

    2016-02-15

    Spectrophotometric and ICP-MS methodology for iodine determination was compared. Samples were alkali dry-ashed, dissolved in water, and iodine assayed by spectrophotometry and by ICP-MS. Iodine content in the studied foods ranged from 3 to 1304μg/100g. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between iodine values determined spectrophotometrically using an external calibration curve and values determined using a standard addition. Foods containing low iodine concentrations (4-25μg/100g) also showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between iodine concentrations determined spectrophotometrically and concentrations determined by ICP-MS. For food items with more than 25μg/100g, the spectrophotometric methods yielded markedly higher (p<0.05) concentrations than the standard ICP-MS method (relative positive bias 25-122%), especially in foods with high sodium and/or iron contents. A catalytic effect of sodium and iron on the Sandell and Kolthoff reaction, leading to false high values in the spectrophotometric determination of iodine was demonstrated. ICP-MS is recommended for iodine determination in foods.

  17. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  18. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0-6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  19. [Effects of the iodine deficiency on intellectual variables among children].

    PubMed

    Muela Martínez, José Antonio; García León, Ana; Torres Barahona, Rosario; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; Sóriguer Escofet, Federico

    2008-05-01

    An association between severe iodine deficiency and poor mental development has been found in many studies. We examined the relationship between moderate or mild iodine deficiency and intellectual capacity in order to determine whether problems common to severe iodine deficiency (including mental retardation) also emerge in a more subtle form. We also wished to know whether the classic methodology (comparing iodine-deficient zones with nondeficient zones) is the most adequate, and propose to combine this grouping by zones with urinary iodine presented by individuals in each zone. We measured IQ, manipulative and verbal capacity, attention, visual motor ability and disruptive behaviour, variables that have barely been studied in this kind of investigations. The sample comprised 760 schoolchildren from the province of Jaén (southern Spain). Our results show that children with low levels of iodine intake and with urinary iodine concentration lower than 100 microg/litre had a lower IQ and displayed more disruptive behaviour than children with high levels of the criteria. The other variables were not associated with iodine deficiency. PMID:18413091

  20. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A.; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  1. Povidone iodine skin absorption: an ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nesvadbova, Martina; Crosera, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-06-15

    Povidone iodine is a water-soluble complex used to disinfect the skin surface and it exerts prolonged germicidal action against a broad spectrum of germs. Indeed, it is often applied on burned skin, large wounds, deep tissues or mucosa. Notably some surgical hand-scrub solutions, which are considered safe antiseptics, contain large amounts of iodine that can be absorbed by skin. The aim of present study was to study the skin absorption of iodine after the application on the skin of povidone-iodine solution, used by health care workers during surgical procedure. We use Franz diffusion static cells with human skin. After 24h from the beginning of our measurement the iodine concentration in the receiving compartment was 11.59±6.3μg/cm(2). The medium flux calculated was 0.73±0.33μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 8.9±1.5h. These in vitro results confirmed that povidone iodine could pass through the skin in a relevant amount that can explain the clinical findings in burned or surgically treated patients. In professional use the repetitive contact with povidone iodine, also as soap, can cause iodine skin permeation that must be considered when the washing procedures are repeated more than 20 times a day. PMID:25858112

  2. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. PMID:25934357

  3. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.

  4. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 μg/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P<0·001). In adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  5. US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clarence William; Egan, Sara Kathleen; Kim, Henry; Beru, Nega; Bolger, Philip Michael

    2008-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and car airbags), occurs naturally in some fertilizers, and may be generated under certain climatic conditions. It has been detected in surface and groundwater and in food. Perchlorate at high (e.g., pharmacological) doses can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its function. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has identified that "the fetuses of pregnant women who might have hypothyroidism or iodide deficiency as the most sensitive population." This study reports on intake estimates of perchlorate and iodine, a precursor to iodide, using the analytical results from the TDS. Estimated average perchlorate and iodine daily intakes as well as the contribution of specific food groups to total intakes were estimated for 14 age/sex subgroups of the US population. The estimated smallest lower bound to the largest upper bound average perchlorate intakes by the 14 age/sex groups range from 0.08 to 0.39 micrograms per kilogram body weight per day (microg/kg bw/day), compared with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 microg/kg bw/day. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated intakes of perchlorate on a body weight basis. The estimated average iodine intakes by the 14 age/sex groups reveal a lower bound (ND=0) and upper bound (ND=LOD) range of average intakes from 138 to 353 microg/person/day. Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR).

  6. Coupling iodine speciation to primary, regenerated or ``new'' production: a re-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, George T. F.

    2001-06-01

    In two recent studies (Tian et al., Deep-Sea Res. I 43 (1996) 723-738; Campos et al., Deep-Sea Res. II 43 (1996) 455-466), in order to explain the observed temporal variations in the distributions of the dissolved iodine species at the time-series stations in the Mediterranean Sea, the North Atlantic and the North Pacific, diverse assumptions were invoked on the relationships between changes in the speciation of dissolved iodine in the surface oceans and biological production such that the surface enrichment of I - was linked to both regenerated production and primary production while the surface depletion of [IO 3-+I -] was linked to "new" production. However, while some of the major conclusions in these studies are critically dependent on these assumptions, the validity of the assumptions has yet to be verified with experimental evidence. On the other hand, while there are still significant unknowns in the understanding of the cycling among dissolved iodine species in the surface oceans, presently available data from laboratory cultures and field observations are consistent with an alternative conceptual model in which IO 3- and NO 3- are taken up at some ratio to each other during NO 3- uptake and almost all of the IO 3- taken up is exuded as I -. Thus, the depletion of IO 3- and the enrichment of I - in the surface water are linked to NO 3- uptake. This alternative model is also consistent with the data sets presented by Tian et al. (1996) and Campos et al. (1996). By linking the surface depletion of IO 3- to NO 3- uptake, significantly different biogeochemical behavior of the marine dissolved iodine system may be inferred. The extent to which I - may be oxidized to IO 3- within the euphotic zone during the residence time of the water in the surface ocean is still an open question.

  7. Solar-simulator-pumped atomic iodine laser kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H. W.; Raju, S.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1983-01-01

    The literature contains broad ranges of disagreement in kinetic data for the atomic iodine laser. A kinetic model of a solar-simulator-pumped iodine laser is used to select those kinetic data consistent with recent laser experiments at the Langley Research Center. Analysis of the solar-simulator-pumped laser experiments resulted in the following estimates of rate coefficients: for alkyl radical (n-C3F7) and atomic iodine (I) recombination, 4.3 x 10 to the 11th power (1.9) + or - cu cm/s; for n-C3F7I stabilized atomic iodine recombination (I + I) 3.7 x 10 to the -32nd power (2.3) + or -1 cm to the 6th power/s; and for molecular iodine (I2) quenching, 3.1 x 10 to the -11th power (1.6) + or - 1 cu cm/s. These rates are consistent with the recent measurements.

  8. Appropriate iodine nutrition in Iran: 20 years of success.

    PubMed

    Delshad, Hossein; Mehran, Ladan; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2010-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element in the human body, its only known function is the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Effects of iodine deficiency, termed iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), include endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, decreased fertility rate, increased infant mortality and mental retardation. 2.2 billion people worldwide are at risk for IDD. Of these, 30-70% have goiter and 1-10% have cretinism. Two decades ago the I.R. Iran was among the countries most severely affected by iodine deficiency, but during the last two decades has made much progress in the development of universal salt iodization strategies and IDD prevention, and since 1996 meets all WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD criteria for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency. PMID:21287473

  9. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  10. Serial thyroid iodine content in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.S.; Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-02-01

    X-ray fluorescent scanning was used to measure initial thyroidal iodine content in 64 patients diagnosed as being hyperthyroid and selected for I-131 therapy, and serially in 48 of these patients after therapy in an attempt to determine those patients that were at high risk of becoming hypothyroid. Iodine content fell rapidly after therapy, reaching a nadir at about three months. Based on the population studied, the chance of early hypothyroidism (within 12 months) is about 80% if the iodine content measured at three months is less than 2 mg. If the iodine content is greater than 2 mg, the chance is only about 14%. The serial measurement of thyroidal iodine content (with x-ray fluorescent scanning) may allow early identification of those patients at high risk of developing permanent hypothyroidism following a therapeutic dose of I-131.

  11. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  12. Incorporation of iodine in polymeric microparticles and emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.

    2016-04-01

    Application of different methods for formation of microcontainers containing iodine is proposed in this paper. Two types of microcontainers: microemulsions and microparticles have been investigated, conditions and methods for obtaining microcontainers were optimized. Microparticles were formed by layer-by-layer method with cores of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as templates. Incorporation of complexes of iodine with polymers (chitosan, starch, polyvinyl alcohol) into core, shell and hollow capsules was investigated and loadings of microparticles with iodine were estimated. It was found that the complex of iodine with chitosan adsorbed at CaCO3 core is the most stable under physiological conditions and its value of loading can be 450 μg of I2 per 1 g of CaCO3. Moreover, chitosan was chosen as a ligand because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as very low toxicity while its complex with iodine is very stable. A small amount of microparticles containing a iodine-chitosan complex can be used for prolonged release of iodine in the human body since iodine daily intake for adults is around 100 μg. "Oil-in-water" emulsions were prepared by ultrasonication of iodinated oils (sunflower and linseed) with sodium laurilsulfate (SLS) as surfactant solution. At optimal conditions, the homogenous emulsions remained stable for weeks, with total content of iodine in such emulsion being up to 1% (w/w). The oil:SLS ratio was equal to 1:10 (w/w), optimal duration and power of ultrasound exposure were 1.5 min and 7 W, correspondingly. Favorable application of iodized linseed oil for emulsion preparation with suitable oil microdroplets size was proved.

  13. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  14. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  15. On a new method for chemical production of iodine atoms in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, A I; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2004-11-30

    A new method is proposed for generating iodine atoms in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The method is based on a branched chain reaction of dissociation of the alkyl iodide CH{sub 3}I in a medium of singlet oxygen and chlorine. (active media)

  16. Iodine waste form summary report (FY 2007).

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; McMahon, Kevin A.; Gao, Huizhen; Rajan, Ashwath Natech

    2007-11-01

    This new program at Sandia is focused on Iodine waste form development for GNEP cycle needs. Our research has a general theme of 'Waste Forms by Design' in which we are focused on silver loaded zeolite waste forms and related metal loaded zeolites that can be validated for chosen GNEP cycle designs. With that theme, we are interested in materials flexibility for iodine feed stream and sequestration material (in a sense, the ability to develop a universal material independent on the waste stream composition). We also are designing the flexibility to work in a variety of repository or storage scenarios. This is possible by studying the structure/property relationship of existing waste forms and optimizing them to our current needs. Furthermore, by understanding the properties of the waste and the storage forms we may be able to predict their long-term behavior and stability. Finally, we are working collaboratively with the Waste Form Development Campaign to ensure materials durability and stability testing.

  17. The impact of natural water column mixing on iodine and nutrient speciation in a eutrophic anchialine pond (Rogoznica Lake, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žic, Vesna; Carić, Marina; Ciglenečki, Irena

    2013-11-01

    The effect of natural water column mixing on the inorganic iodine and nutrient speciation in an intensely eutrophicated anchialine pond has been studied in late seasons of 2003 and 2004. As a result of an extremely warm and very dry European summer of 2003 this system attained isohaline and isothermal conditions in late-summer. Vertical mixing between highly reducing deep water with that in the upper layers produced intermediate redox conditions and homogeneous nutrient distribution within the water column. Nitrogen speciation additionally suggests a pronounced activity of nitrifying bacteria and/or archaea arising from an influx of the ammonium nitrogen. Meanwhile, in 2004 the water column attained nearly isohaline conditions late in November. Partial mixing of the water column resulted in downward transport of dissolved oxygen and moderate upward fluxes of nutrients into the surface layers, whereby the flux of ammonium was sufficiently high to promote nitrification. A response of the inorganic iodine to mixing of the water column was in accord with those of major constituents and nutrients. The results demonstrate that, in spite of marked changes in speciation, total inorganic iodine remained preserved within the system over each survey. Oxic to hypoxic redox conditions formed immediately after the overturn in September 2003 favoured iodate reduction, while slow mixing in November 2004 promoted iodide oxidation. In this system dominated by the sedimentary influence a degree of oxygenation of deep water seems to control the inorganic iodine inventory for the pond.

  18. Synthesis and structure of interaction products of quinoline-2(1H)-thione with molecular iodine.

    PubMed

    Chernov'yants, Margarita S; Starikova, Zoya A; Kolesnikova, Tatiana S; Karginova, Anastasia O; Lyanguzov, Nikolay V

    2015-03-15

    The behavior of quinoline-2(1H)-thione, which is a potential antithyroid drug toward molecular iodine, was investigated. The ability of quinoline-2(1H)-thione to form the outer-sphere charge-transfer complex C9H7NS·I2 with iodine molecular in dilute chloroform solution has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy (lgβ=3.85). The crystal structure of the new salt 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium triiodide - product of irreversible oxidation of quinoline-2(1H)-thione was determined by X-ray diffraction. The 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium cations form dimers through π-π-stacking interaction between quinoline rings. Strong intramolecular interactions are observed between iodine - sulfur atoms and iodine - hydrogen atoms with shortened contacts (less of sum of van der Waals contacts). It is noteworthy that two perfectly centrosymmetrical anions I3(-) form a very short contact I(3)⋯I(3') 3.7550(5) so we can state the formation of the dianion I(6)(2-). Therefore the formation and topology of polyiodide species depend on the characteristics, such as shape, size and charge, etc., of the counter cation, 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium, which is considered as templating agent. PMID:25579655

  19. Synthesis and structure of interaction products of quinoline-2(1H)-thione with molecular iodine.

    PubMed

    Chernov'yants, Margarita S; Starikova, Zoya A; Kolesnikova, Tatiana S; Karginova, Anastasia O; Lyanguzov, Nikolay V

    2015-03-15

    The behavior of quinoline-2(1H)-thione, which is a potential antithyroid drug toward molecular iodine, was investigated. The ability of quinoline-2(1H)-thione to form the outer-sphere charge-transfer complex C9H7NS·I2 with iodine molecular in dilute chloroform solution has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy (lgβ=3.85). The crystal structure of the new salt 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium triiodide - product of irreversible oxidation of quinoline-2(1H)-thione was determined by X-ray diffraction. The 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium cations form dimers through π-π-stacking interaction between quinoline rings. Strong intramolecular interactions are observed between iodine - sulfur atoms and iodine - hydrogen atoms with shortened contacts (less of sum of van der Waals contacts). It is noteworthy that two perfectly centrosymmetrical anions I3(-) form a very short contact I(3)⋯I(3') 3.7550(5) so we can state the formation of the dianion I(6)(2-). Therefore the formation and topology of polyiodide species depend on the characteristics, such as shape, size and charge, etc., of the counter cation, 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium, which is considered as templating agent.

  20. [Trace elements storage peculiarities and metallothionein content in human thyroid gland under iodine deficiency euthyroid nodular goiter].

    PubMed

    Fal'fushins'ka, H I; Hnatyshyna, L L; Osadchuk, O Ĭ; Shydlovs'kyĭ, V O; Stoliar, O B

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of iodine and copper in the node, paranodular and contralateral (not affected tissue by node) tissues of thyroid gland in relation to the level of metal-binding proteins, potential antioxidants and oxidative changes in tissue was investigated. To assess the severity of the pathological process the molecular markers of cytotoxicity were used. The reduction of total iodine (by 19.5%), increase of inorganic iodine fraction (by 82.4%) and total copper content (twice) in paranodular and nodular tissues compared with contrlateral part have been established. Excess of copper in goitrous-changes tissue was partially accumulated in the metallothioneins. The level of metal-binding form of metallothioneins and reserve of free thiols of these proteins was higher two-three times and lower content of reduced glutathione in node-affected tissue compared to the contralateral part. Signs of cytotoxicity among them: higher cathepsine D free activity (up to 84.6% and 134.4% in paranodular tissue and node respectively) and higher level of DNA strand breaks in the node (up to 22.6%) were observed. In paranodular tissue the range of indices variability compared with parenchyma of contralateral part is shorter than in the node. Thus, under low level of iodine organification and high copper level in goitrous-modified tissue of thyroid gland metallothionein may provide a partial compensatory effect on prooxidative processes.

  1. Earth's Volatiles History and Cycles: the Case of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Marocchi, M.; Munsch, P.; Auzende, A.; Raepsaet, C.; Mezouar, M.; Testemale, D.; Kubsky, S.; Carriere, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Among the volatile elements present in our solar system, iodine is involved in mechanisms of primary importance during planet's evolution. The different isotopic signatures of 129Xe/132Xe for mantle and atmosphere between the Earth and Mars may reflect an early fractionation of xenon with respect to iodine. The role of fluids and more especially water is seriously envisaged to generate such a fractionation because whereas iodine is hydrophilic, xenon is not. Therefore iodine's early degassing with a water-rich fluid from a magma ocean is a good hypothesis to explain iodine, but also chlorine and bromine losses during early differentiation stages of the Earth. It was also shown that iodine is involved in natural ozone destruction in the Earth's atmosphere. Today we are able to detect iodine in volcanic emissions. The intensive subduction-zones volcanic degassing may explain the presence of iodine in the atmosphere if degassed together with water. The combination of synchrotron X-Ray characterization with diamond anvil cells, applied as magmatic and mantelic reactors to simulate pressure and temperature conditions of the planet interiors allows: (1) the characterization of fluids (aqueous, melt, supercritic) existing in the Earth; (2) element transfers via such fluids from depths to planets surfaces. Here, we have experimentally monitored iodine degassing from high pressure hydrous melts in situ in diamond anvil cells DAC by measuring iodine partitioning between aqueous fluids and hydrous melts during decompression. DAC experiments have been combined with high energy Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence at the beam lines Id27 and FAME from ESRF. Partition coefficients (D(I)fluid/melt = (I)fluid/(I)melt ) have been measured in situ from 500 to 900 °C and from 0.1 to 1.8 GPa. First results show that they are ranging from 1.9 (1.4 GPa) to 60 (0.1 GPa) and seem to tend to unity close to total miscibility between melts and aqueous fluids. At low pressure conditions (lower than

  2. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care

  3. Comparison of free iodine as a function of the dilution of two commercial povidone-iodine formulations.

    PubMed

    Atemnkeng, M A; Plaizier-Vercammen, J A

    2006-01-01

    Binding studies by means of equilibrium dialysis on two different Povidone-lodine-solutions reveal that the amount of available iodine and free iodine is very different as such and after dilution. The free iodine concentration in the Braunol concentrate was found to be ca. 22 mg/L and in the iso-Betadine concentrate only ca. 2.1 mg/L, despite the total amount of available iodine in iso-Betadine being higher than that of Braunol. As the bactericidal level of free iodine is characterised by concentrations >5 ppm, Braunol can be employed as a disinfectant as such, iso-Betadine has to be diluted before use. In both concentrates more than 99% of available iodine is present as reservoir for free iodine. Concerning the results as a function of dilution, it was demonstrated that, for both solutions, free iodine reaches a maximum after a 50-fold dilution (ca. 31 mg/L and ca. 51 mg/L for iso-Betadine and Braunol respectively). After dilution, a more constant level of free iodine was observed in the Braunol than in the iso-Betadine solution, and this is attributed to the present molar ratio of I(2)/I- and the addition of iodate in the former. The pH for both solutions approximates that of the skin, as such and after dilution. In summary, it can be stated that Braunol is superior to iso-Betadine as to the release of free iodine in both the undiluted as well as in the diluted form.

  4. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  9. Nutrition: Breast milk--a gateway to iodine-dependent brain development.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2014-03-01

    Iodine from the diet is fundamental for brain development. Via milk, infants receive 40-45% of the iodine in their mother's diet during breastfeeding; however, it is unclear to what extent depot iodine supplements (that is, iodized oil) given to iodine-deficient breastfeeding mothers compares with direct supplementation of the infants.

  10. Photo-chemical reduction of iodate (IO3-) in sea-water leading to the emission of iodine (I2) in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.

    2013-12-01

    Iodine exists in open seawaters mainly in the inorganic forms iodate (IO3-) and iodide (I-). While the concentration of IO3- predominates in deep water, I- concentrations increase toward the surface. The primary precursor for iodine oxide particle (IOP) formation in the coastal marine boundary layer (MBL) is iodine (I2) originating from exposed macroalgae. In contrast, recent field measurements of IO above the open ocean suggest that biogenic organic-iodine emissions cannot account for the observed levels. Thus, the alternative mechanisms include the reduction of IO3- to I- in seawater which in turn is converted to, and emitted as I2 to the atmosphere which may contribute to observed levels of I2 in the MBL. In this study a series of laboratory investigations of the photo-chemical reduction of iodate (IO3-) to both aqueous iodide (I-) and a bound, soluble iodinated organic form have been conducted to investigate three potentially important processes likely to participate in the recycling of I2 from seawater in the presence of sunlight: (i) the role of dissolved organic materials (i.e. humic acid), (ii) the effect of salinity (Cl- concentration) and (iii) deposition and uptake of O3. The experiments involved the initial photolysis of IO3- solutions with either humic acid or Cl- added. The formation of I- in solution (due to IO3- reduction) was detected using time-resolved UV-Vis spectroscopy. Oxidation of iodide ions to I2 formation in the solutions and release to the gas-phase was confirmed indirectly by the detection of iodine oxide particles (IOPs) generated by the photo-oxidation of the gas-phase I2 released from solution using a coupled differential mobility analyser (DMA) and Faraday cup electrometer (FCE) system. The results indicate a constant fraction of ~ 20% of reduced iodate is in the form free iodide (I-) and by difference, ~ 80% of reduced iodate is most likely in an iodinated humic acid. Iodine (I2) is emitted by the uptake of ozone on iodide (I

  11. Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esselstyn, C.B. Jr.; Schumacher, O.P.; Eversman, J.; Sheeler, L.; Levy, W.J.

    1982-11-01

    The association of external ionizing radiation to the head and neck and the subsequent development of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands has been documented in recent years. This also has been demonstrated experimentally in animals. Despite the numbers of patients with Graves disease who have been treated with radioactive iodine, there are no reports in the literature of parathyroid surgery for hyperparathyroidism secondary to earlier treatment with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. This report describes the operative and pathologic findings in four patients with hyperparathyroidism. These patients had previously been treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. The pathologic findings at surgery included in three cases a single enlarged hyperplastic gland consistent with a parathyroid adenoma. One patient had hyperplasia of all four glands. The two largest glands and halves of the two remaining glands were removed. In a long-term follow-up of children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease, Levy and Schumacher found calcium elevations in 10 of 159 patients. The increased incidence of hyperparathyroidism following radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease in children and adolescents would seem several times higher than normal. Whether adults who have radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease have a similar increase incidence is not known. Meanwhile it would seem reasonable to suggest that patients whose hyperthyroidism is treated with radioactive iodine should have their serum calcium levels determined at 5-year intervals.

  12. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  13. Iodine nutrition among indigenous Tarahumara schoolchildren in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monárrez-Espino, J; Greiner, T

    2005-10-01

    This paper adds iodine data to the nutritional survey recently published in the Eur J Clin Nutr (2004;58:532-540) to identify growth retardation and micronutrient deficiencies among Tarahumara children from five selected indigenous boarding schools in Mexico. Total goiter rate (TGR) (n=384), urinary iodine concentrations (UI) (n = 100), and iodine content of salt were measured. Overall, TGR was 7.0% (grade 1 = 6.8%, grade 2 = 0.2%). The median UI of the group was 125 microg/l, while the median UI across the schools ranged from 92.0-156.5 microg/l, with 32 and 6% of the children having UI between 50-99 microg/l and 20-49 microg/l, respectively. The iodine content in all the salt packages checked at the schools was above 25 parts per million. Based on TGR and UI, there is a marginal iodine deficiency in this sample of children, probably due to an insufficient iodine intake. These results add to existing evidence that iodine deficiency still constitutes a public health problem in certain populations living in the mountainous regions in Mexico.

  14. AGING AND IODINE LOADING OF SILVER-FUNCTIONALIZED AEROGELS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, Stephanie H; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Anderson, Kaara K; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Silver-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine capture capacity, high porosity and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag0-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41wt% to 32wt%.

  15. Aging and iodine loading of silver-functionalized aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, S.H.; Jubin, R.T.; Anderson, K.K.; Walker, J.F.

    2013-07-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their potential application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine-capture capacity, high porosity, and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high-humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine-capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41 wt% to 32 wt%. (authors)

  16. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  17. Iodine-mediated etching of gold nanorods for plasmonic sensing of dissolved oxygen and salt iodine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyang; Chen, Zhaopeng; Cheng, Fangbin; Zhang, Yaowen; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-05-10

    Here, we have carefully investigated iodine-mediated etching of gold nanorods (AuNRs) in the presence of iodate and applied this phenomenon to on-site detection of dissolved oxygen (DO). Under given conditions, the quantitative conversion of target analytes DO to iodine leads to the etching of AuNRs along the longitudinal direction with the aid of cetyltrimethylammonium. As a result, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance shifts to a short wavelength. The peak-shift can be used for quantitative determination of DO and iodate by a spectrophotometer. The satisfactory results from DO detection in different water samples and iodate detection in table salt indicate the feasibility of the proposed methods. Moreover, the as-prepared colorimetric test paper would make the detection more economical and simpler. PMID:27049138

  18. Urinary iodine excretion rates following intrathecal injections of iodinated organic carbonates.

    PubMed

    Staubus, A E; Newton, B N; Klein, L C; Weinrib, A B; Kunz, A L

    1979-11-01

    Oily iodinated organic carbonates were investigated for use as myelographic media. The urinary excretion of total iodine was used to monitor the apparent elimination rate of these compounds from the subarachnoid space. Within the chain length series of C2-C6, the decrease of elimination rates and disposition rate constants with increasing chain length was demonstrated. This observation is consistent with a dissolution rate-limited elimination model. Such a model was derived and successfully NONLIN computer fitted to the observed elimination data. The model-derived parameter of clearance from the cerebrospinal fluid through the lipid "blood-brain barrier" correlated well with the compound's water solubilities and projected octanol-water partition coefficients. Additional compounds need to be tested to evaluate the postulated model system. PMID:583163

  19. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    DOEpatents

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  20. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  1. A mechanism for biologically induced iodine emissions from sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Blaszczak-Boxe, C. S.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, ultimately accumulating in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest that iodine is released to the atmosphere via three possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea ice, from where it is released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, the results nevertheless show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e. I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during

  2. New method of iodine labelling of peptide hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, E.

    1984-01-01

    Usually peptide hormones and related compounds are radioactively labelled with iodine on tyrosine residues of the peptide. However many peptide hormones do not contain tyrosine or the iodinated tyrosine interferes with the biological properties. In order to circumvent these and other problems, a general method is proposed which allows the introduction of iodine into the para-position of phenylalanine with a modified Sandmeyer procedure. This last-step modification together with HPLC purification permits the obtention of carrier-free and metabolically stable labelled products with maximal specific activity possible. The model has been carried out on several peptide-models like angiotensin II, endorphine and head activator peptide.

  3. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion. PMID:27079409

  4. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion.

  5. Consequences of iodine deficiency and excess in pregnant women: an overview of current knowns and unknowns.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Lazarus, John H; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-09-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during development results in maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and associated serious adverse health effects, including cretinism and growth retardation. Universal salt iodization is the first-line strategy for the elimination of severe iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation is recommended for vulnerable groups in severely iodine-deficient regions where salt iodization is infeasible or insufficient. A recent clinical trial has informed best practices for iodine supplementation of severely iodine-deficient lactating mothers. Because of successful programs of universal salt iodization in formerly severely iodine-deficient regions around the world, public health concern has shifted toward mild to moderate iodine deficiency, which remains prevalent in many regions, especially among pregnant women. Observational studies have shown associations between both mild maternal iodine deficiency and mild maternal thyroid hypofunction and decreased child cognition. Iodine supplementation has been shown to improve indexes of maternal thyroid function, even in marginally iodine-deficient areas. However, no data are yet available from randomized controlled trials in regions of mild to moderate iodine insufficiency on the relation between maternal iodine supplementation and neurobehavioral development in the offspring; thus, the long-term benefits and safety of such supplementation are uncertain. Although it is clear that excessive iodine intake can cause alterations in thyroid function in susceptible individuals, safe upper limits for iodine intake in pregnancy have not been well defined. Well-designed, prospective, randomized controlled trials that examine the effects of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid function and infant neurobehavioral development in mildly to moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women are urgently needed. In addition, clinical data on the effects of iodine excess in pregnant and lactating women are needed to inform

  6. The Rotational Spectrum of Iodine Dioxide, OIO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Cohen, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    The rotational spectra of OIO in its ground vibrational and first excited bending states have been observed for the first time. OIO was formed initially from the products of a microwave discharge in O2 passing over molecular iodine and later with greater yield in a DC discharge through a mixture of O2 and I2 vapor. OIO is an asymmetric prolate rotor (kappa = -0.690) with a (sup 2)B(sub 1) electronic ground state. Over 550 ground state transitions and over 160 transitions of the excited bending state have been included in the fits. The resulting parameters are well determined and will be compared to those recently published for OBrO and OClO. These will be interpreted in terms of the molecular geometry, harmonic force field, and electronic structure.

  7. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  8. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  9. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  10. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Kim, Khong Hon; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I. Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The materials studied were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals. The slope efficiency of 0.17 percent was measured for the Nd:YLF near the threshold pump intensity which was 211 solar constants (29W/sq cm). The threshold pump intensity of the Nd:YAG was measured to be 236 solar constants (32W/sq cm) and the near-threshold slope efficiency was 0.12 percent. True CW laser operation of Cr:Nd:GSGG was possible only at pump intensities less than or equal to 1,500 solar constants (203 W/sq cm). This fact was attributed to the high thermal focusing effect of the Cr:Nd:GSGG rod.

  11. Preparation and structure of a solid-state hypervalent-iodine polymer containing iodine and oxygen atoms in fused 12-atom hexagonal rings.

    PubMed

    Richter, Helen W; Koser, Gerald F; Incarvito, Christopher D; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2007-07-01

    The treatment of dilute aqueous solutions of [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene with aqueous Mg(ClO4)2 produced thin elongated-hexagonal plates exhibiting a supramolecular structure in which tetra-mu-oxopentaiodanyl dication repeat units are joined to each other by significantly ionic bonds and each unit is associated with two perchlorate ions. The linearly extended cationic structure is formed from the 12-atom hexagonal rings of alternating iodine and oxygen atoms, a novel structure. Each 12-membered ring forms a nearly planar hexagonal shape with sides defined by almost linear O-I-O segments (175.7+/-1.6) degrees. The apexes are occupied by bridging oxide ligands where the I-O-I angles deviate only slightly from an ideal 120 degrees hexagonal angle (116.8+/-1.2) degrees, consistent with sp2 hybridization of the bridging oxygen atoms that participate in three-center four-electron bonds with iodine. These 12-atom hexagons are slightly "chair" distorted at the oxygen atoms. The planes of the rings are separated by layers containing the phenyl rings. The perchlorate ions reside in void spaces created by the three-up, three-down arrangement of the phenyl rings around each 12-membered I-O ring and are positioned directly above and below the I-O rings. PMID:17569525

  12. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: from domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig; Knudsen, Nils; Ovesen, Lars; Nøhr, Susanne B; Bülow Pedersen, Inge

    2002-10-01

    Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during lactation in the mammary gland of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), also responsible for iodine transport in the thyroid. Milk iodine content varies with the iodine intake of the mother, and urinary iodine excretion in groups of mothers seems to be a valuable indicator of the iodine status of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake areas of the world. It can be speculated that a low-iodine content of mother's milk because of inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland may be one factor of importance for development of myxedematous cretinism.

  13. 2D gasdynamic simulation of the kinetics of an oxygen-iodine laser with electric-discharge generation of singlet oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Chukalovsky, A. A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Klopovsky, K. S.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Proshina, O. V.

    2011-03-15

    The kinetic processes occurring in an electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser are analyzed with the help of a 2D (r, z) gasdynamic model taking into account transport of excited oxygen, singlet oxygen, and radicals from the electric discharge and their mixing with the iodine-containing gas. The main processes affecting the dynamics of the gas temperature and gain are revealed. The simulation results obtained using the 2D model agree well with the experimental data on the mixture gain. A subsonic oxygen-iodine laser in which singlet oxygen is generated by a 350 W transverse RF discharge excited in an oxygen flow at a pressure P = 10 Torr and the discharge tube wall is covered with mercury oxide is simulated. The simulated mixing system is optimized in terms of the flow rate and the degree of preliminary dissociation of the iodine flow. The optimal regime of continuous operation of a subsonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser is found.

  14. Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. M. Bhaskara; Kumari, Y. Bharathi; Mallikharjunasarma, Dokka; Bulliraju, Kamana; Sreelatha, Vanjivaka; Ananda, Kuppanna

    2012-01-01

    The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) or trityl (Trt) protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness. PMID:23118772

  15. Iodinated contrast media and the role of renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Palevsky, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Iodinated contrast media are among the most commonly used pharmacologic agents in medicine. Although generally highly safe, iodinated contrast media are associated with several adverse effects, most significantly the risk of acute kidney injury, particularly in patients with underlying renal dysfunction. By virtue of their pharmacokinetic characteristics, these contrast agents are efficiently cleared by hemodialysis and to a lesser extent, hemofiltration. This has led to research into the capacity for renal replacement therapies to prevent certain adverse effects of iodinated contrast. This review examines the molecular and pharmacokinetic characteristics of iodinated contrast media and critically analyzes data from past studies on the role of renal replacement therapy to prevent adverse effects of these diagnostic agents.

  16. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 10 pounds of body weight (equivalent to 0.5 to 2.5 milligrams of iodinated casein per pound of body weight). (2) Indications for use. For dogs for apparent decreased thyroid activity where the signs...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 10 pounds of body weight (equivalent to 0.5 to 2.5 milligrams of iodinated casein per pound of body weight). (2) Indications for use. For dogs for apparent decreased thyroid activity where the signs...

  18. Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I/sub 2/. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Volatilization of iodine from nitric acid using peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Cathers, G.I.; Shipman, C.J.

    1975-10-21

    A method for removing radioactive iodine from nitric acid solution by adding hydrogen peroxide to the solution while concurrently holding the solution at the boiling point and distilling hydrogen iodide from the solution is reported.

  20. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV