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Sample records for iodo radioativo um

  1. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DBPS IN U. S. CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodo-acids were recently identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3...

  2. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DBPS IN U. S. CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodo-acids were recently identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3...

  3. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodo-acids were recently identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3...

  4. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodo-acids were recently identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3...

  5. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo- prope...

  6. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DBPS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  7. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo- prope...

  8. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DBPS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  9. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  10. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  11. MEASUREMENT AND TOXICITY OF IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this work was to develop an analytical method to quantify these five iodo-acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid) in drinking water, measure their oc...

  12. Halogen Bonding in Iodo-perfluoroalkane/Pyridine Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haiyan; Eliason, Jeffrey K.; Moliva A., C. Diane; Olson, Jason L.; Flancher, Scott M.; Gealy, M. W.; Ulness, Darin J.

    2009-12-01

    Mole fraction and temperature studies of halogen bonding between 1-iodo-perfluorobutane, 1-iodo-perfluorohexane, or 2-iodo-perfluoropropane and pyridine were performed using noisy light-based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (I(2) CARS) spectroscopy. The ring breathing mode of pyridine both is highly sensitive to halogen bonding and provides a strong I(2) CARS signal. As the lone pair electrons from the pyridinyl nitrogen interact with the σ-hole on the iodine from the iodo-perfluoroalkane, the ring breathing mode of pyridine blue-shifts proportionately with the strength of the interaction. The measured blue shift for halogen bonding of pyridine and all three iodo-perfluoroalkanes is comparable to that for hydrogen bonding between pyridine and water. 2-Iodo-perfluoropropane displays thermodynamic behavior that is different from that of the 1-iodo-perfluoroalkanes, which suggests a fundamental difference at the molecular level. A potential explanation of this difference is offered and discussed.

  13. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo...

  14. Antineoplastic agents. 548. Synthesis of iodo- and diiodocombstatin phosphate prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pettit, George R; Rosenberg, Heidi J; Dixon, Rachel; Knight, John C; Hamel, Ernest; Chapuis, Jean-Charles; Pettit, Robin K; Hogan, Fiona; Sumner, Brandy; Ain, Kenneth B; Trickey-Platt, Brindi

    2012-03-23

    Toward the objective of designing a structurally modified analogue of the combretastatin A-4 phosphate prodrug (1b) with the potential for increased specificity toward thyroid carcinoma, synthesis of a series of iodocombstatin phosphate (11a-h) and diiodocombstatin phosphate prodrugs (12a-h) has been accomplished. The diiodo series was obtained via 8a and 9c from condensation of 4 and 6, and the iodo sequence involved a parallel pathway. Both series of iodocombstatins were found to display significant to powerful inhibition of the growth of a panel of human cancer cell lines and of the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line. Of the diiodo series, 12a was also found to markedly inhibit growth of pediatric neuroblastoma, and monoiodocombstatin 9a strongly inhibited HUVEC growth. Overall, the strongest activity was found against the breast, CNS, leukemia, lung, and prostate cancer cell lines and the least activity against the pancreas and colon lines. Parallel biological investigations of tubulin interaction, antiangiogenesis, and antimicrobial effects were also conducted.

  15. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  16. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  17. SOLVENT-FREE FACILE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL α-TOSYLOXY β-KETO SULFONES USING [HYDROXY(TOSYLOXY)IODO]BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile, general and high yielding protocol for the synthesis of novel α-tosyloxy β-keto sulfones is described utilizing relatively non-toxic, [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene, under solvent-free conditions at room temperature.

  18. SOLVENT-FREE FACILE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL α-TOSYLOXY β-KETO SULFONES USING [HYDROXY(TOSYLOXY)IODO]BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile, general and high yielding protocol for the synthesis of novel α-tosyloxy β-keto sulfones is described utilizing relatively non-toxic, [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene, under solvent-free conditions at room temperature.

  19. Formation of iodo-trihalomethanes, iodo-haloacetic acids, and haloacetaldehydes during chlorination and chloramination of iodine containing waters in laboratory controlled reactions.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; Richardson, Susan D; Barceló, Damia

    2017-08-01

    Iodine containing disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) and haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are emerging disinfection by-product (DBP) classes of concern. The former due to its increased potential toxicity and the latter because it was found to be the third most relevant DBP class in mass in a U.S. nationwide drinking water study. These DBP classes have been scarcely investigated, and this work was performed to further explore their formation in drinking water under chlorination and chloramination scenarios. In order to do this, iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), iodo-haloacetic acids (I-HAAs) and selected HALs (mono-HALs and di-HALs species, including iodoacetaldehyde) were investigated in DBP mixtures generated after chlorination and chloramination of different water matrices containing different levels of bromide and iodide in laboratory controlled reactions. Results confirmed the enhancement of I-DBP formation in the presence of monochloramine. While I-THMs and I-HAAs contributed almost equally to total I-DBP concentrations in chlorinated water, I-THMs contributed the most to total I-DBP levels in the case of chloraminated water. The most abundant and common I-THM species generated were bromochloroiodomethane, dichloroiodomethane, and chlorodiiodomethane. Iodoacetic acid and chloroiodoacetic acid contributed the most to the total I-HAA concentrations measured in the investigated disinfected water. As for the studied HALs, dihalogenated species were the compounds that predominantly formed under both investigated treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and antiproliferative activity of β-aryl-δ-iodo-γ-lactones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wzorek, Alicja; Gawdzik, Barbara; Gładkowski, Witold; Urbaniak, Mariusz; Barańska, Anita; Malińska, Maura; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kempińska, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    A convenient pathway for the synthesis of new of β-aryl-δ-iodo-γ-lactones is described. The synthetic route led to both cis and trans isomers which were separated by column chromatography or crystallization. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods: IR, NMR and HR-MS. For lactones with naphthyl ring (6e and 7e) the crystal structures were also obtained. The lactones were screened for biological evaluation against cancer line HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia). The tests showed that the presence of substituent at the benzene ring does not significantly affect the antiproliferative activity of the compound.

  1. Molecular imaging of inflammation in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis with IodoDPA

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, Catherine A.; Bedja, Djahida; Mease, Ronnie C.; Wang, Haofan; Kass, David A.; Chatterjee, Subroto; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-05-22

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a common and serious vascular disease predisposing individuals to myocardial infarction and stroke. Intravascular plaques, the pathologic lesions of atherosclerosis, are largely composed of cholesterol-laden luminal macrophage-rich infiltrates within a fibrous cap. The ability to detect those macrophages non-invasively within the aorta, carotid artery and other vessels would allow physicians to determine plaque burden, aiding management of patients with atherosclerosis. Methods and results: We previously developed a low-molecular-weight imaging agent, [{sup 125}I]iodo-DPA-713 (iodoDPA), which selectively targets macrophages. Here we use it to detect both intravascular macrophages and macrophage infiltrates within the myocardium in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT data were confirmed by echocardiography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging and histology. SPECT images showed focal uptake of radiotracer at the aortic root in all ApoE -/- mice, while the age-matched controls were nearly devoid of radiotracer uptake. Focal radiotracer uptake along the descending aorta and within the myocardium was also observed in affected animals. Conclusions: IodoDPA is a promising new imaging agent for atherosclerosis, with specificity for the macrophage component of the lesions involved. - Highlights: • [{sup 125}I]iodoDPA SPECT detects atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE -/- mice with high contrast. • Plaques are detected in ApoE -/- mice regardless of diet with iodoDPA. • iodoDPA has very low uptake in healthy tissue including healthy TSPO + tissues at 24 h.

  2. Crystal structure of 8-iodo-quinolinium tetra-chlorido-aurate(III).

    PubMed

    Onserio, Benard O; Tamang, Sem Raj; Hoefelmeyer, James D

    2015-12-01

    The structure of the title salt, (C9H7IN)[AuCl4], is comprised of planar 8-iodo-quinolinium cations (r.m.s. deviation = 0.05 Å) and square-planar tetra-chlorido-aurate(III) anions. The asymmetric unit contains one 8-iodo-quinolinium cation and two halfs of [AuCl4](-) anions, in each case with the central Au(III) atom located on an inversion center. Inter-molecular halogen-halogen contacts were found between centrosymmetric pairs of I [3.6178 (4) Å] and Cl atoms [3.1484 (11), 3.3762 (13), and 3.4935 (12) Å]. Inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding is also found in the structure. These inter-actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. Additionally, there is an intra-molecular N-H⋯I hydrogen bond between the aromatic iminium and iodine. There are no aurophilic inter-actions or short contacts between I and Au atoms, and there are no notable π-stacking inter-actions between the aromatic cations.

  3. Selective impairments to memory consolidation in chicks produced by 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Komissarova, N V; Tiunova, A A; Anokhin, K V

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the role of DNA synthesis in the formation of different types of memory in neonatal chicks. The nucleotide analogs 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU) and 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) were used; these are incorporated into DNA, impairing its function, and have amnestic actions in defined models of learning in mice. We studied the effects of 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine of the formation of long-term memory in chicks during training in different models: passive avoidance, imprinting, taste aversion, and spatial learning in a maze. In the taste aversion model, i.p. administration of IdU (10 mg/kg 5 min before or 50 min after training) had an amnestic effect on testing 1-2 days after training. IdU-induced amnesia developed more than 6 h after training, while administration of IdU 2 h after training had no amnestic effect. 5'-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine also had a similar amnestic action in the taste aversion model. In the passive avoidance, imprinting, and spatial maze learning models, administration of IdU at the same dose before and after training did not induce amnesia. These data lead to the suggestion that DNA synthesis in the brain may play a critical role in the mechanisms of memory consolidation in chicks in types of learning such as taste aversion.

  4. Proteomic Quantification and Site-Mapping of S-Nitrosylated Proteins Using Isobaric iodoTMT Reagents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based protein post-translational modification in response to nitric oxide signaling and is involved in a wide range of biological processes. Detection and quantification of protein S-nitrosylation have been challenging tasks due to instability and low abundance of the modification. Many studies have used mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods with different thiol-reactive reagents to label and identify proteins with S-nitrosylated cysteine (SNO-Cys). In this study, we developed a novel iodoTMT switch assay (ISA) using an isobaric set of thiol-reactive iodoTMTsixplex reagents to specifically detect and quantify protein S-nitrosylation. Irreversible labeling of SNO-Cys with the iodoTMTsixplex reagents enables immune-affinity detection of S-nitrosylated proteins, enrichment of iodoTMT-labeled peptides by anti-TMT resin, and importantly, unambiguous modification site-mapping and multiplex quantification by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Additionally, we significantly improved anti-TMT peptide enrichment efficiency by competitive elution. Using ISA, we identified a set of SNO-Cys sites responding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in murine BV-2 microglial cells and revealed effects of S-allyl cysteine from garlic on LPS-induced protein S-nitrosylation in antioxidative signaling and mitochondrial metabolic pathways. ISA proved to be an effective proteomic approach for quantitative analysis of S-nitrosylation in complex samples and will facilitate the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of nitrosative stress in disease. PMID:24926564

  5. Diesterified Derivatives of 5-Iodo-2′-Deoxyuridine as Cerebral Tumor Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Rösler, Thomas W.; Matusch, Andreas; Librizzi, Damiano; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Freundlieb, Nils; Hoeffken, Helmut; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to develop beneficial tracers for cerebral tumors, we tested two novel 5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (IUdR) derivatives, diesterified at the deoxyribose residue. The substances were designed to enhance the uptake into brain tumor tissue and to prolong the availability in the organism. We synthesized carrier added 5-[125I]iodo-3′,5′-di-O-acetyl-2′-deoxyuridine (Ac2[125I]IUdR), 5-[125I]iodo-3′,5′-di-O-pivaloyl-2′-deoxyuridine (Piv2[125I]IUdR) and their respective precursor molecules for the first time. HPLC was used for purification and to determine the specific activities. The iodonucleoside tracer were tested for their stability against human thymidine phosphorylase. DNA integration of each tracer was determined in 2 glioma cell lines (Gl261, CRL2397) and in PC12 cells in vitro. In mice, we measured the relative biodistribution and the tracer uptake in grafted brain tumors. Ac2[125I]IUdR, Piv2[125I]IUdR and [125I]IUdR (control) were prepared with labeling yields of 31–47% and radiochemical purities of >99% (HPLC). Both diesterified iodonucleoside tracers showed a nearly 100% resistance against degradation by thymidine phosphorylase. Ac2[125I]IUdR and Piv2[125I]IUdR were specifically integrated into the DNA of all tested tumor cell lines but to a less extend than the control [125I]IUdR. In mice, 24 h after i.p. injection, brain radioactivity uptakes were in the following order Piv2[125I]IUdR>Ac2[125I]IUdR>[125I]IUdR. For Ac2[125I]IUdR we detected lower amounts of radioactivities in the thyroid and stomach, suggesting a higher stability toward deiodination. In mice bearing unilateral graft-induced brain tumors, the uptake ratios of tumor-bearing to healthy hemisphere were 51, 68 and 6 for [125I]IUdR, Ac2[125I]IUdR and Piv2[125I]IUdR, respectively. Esterifications of both deoxyribosyl hydroxyl groups of the tumor tracer IUdR lead to advantageous properties regarding uptake into brain tumor tissue and metabolic stability. PMID:25028935

  6. Synthesis of [{sup 125}I]iodoDPA-713: A new probe for imaging inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haofan; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2009-11-06

    [{sup 125}I]IodoDPA-713 [{sup 125}I]1, which targets the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa), was synthesized in seven steps from methyl-4-methoxybenzoate as a tool for quantification of inflammation in preclinical models. Preliminary in vitro autoradiography and in vivo small animal imaging were performed using [{sup 125}I]1 in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and in a murine model of lung inflammation, respectively. The radiochemical yield of [{sup 125}I]1 was 44 {+-} 6% with a specific radioactivity of 51.8 GBq/{mu}mol (1400 mCi/{mu}mol) and >99% radiochemical purity. Preliminary studies showed that [{sup 125}I]1 demonstrated increased specific binding to TSPO in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the lungs of an experimental inflammation model of lung inflammation. Compound [{sup 125}I]1 is a new, convenient probe for preclinical studies of TSPO activity.

  7. Extending Halogen-based Medicinal Chemistry to Proteins: IODO-INSULIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    El Hage, Krystel; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Phillips, Nelson B; Smith, Brian J; Menting, John G; Whittaker, Jonathan; Lawrence, Michael C; Meuwly, Markus; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-12-30

    Insulin, a protein critical for metabolic homeostasis, provides a classical model for protein design with application to human health. Recent efforts to improve its pharmaceutical formulation demonstrated that iodination of a conserved tyrosine (Tyr(B26)) enhances key properties of a rapid-acting clinical analog. Moreover, the broad utility of halogens in medicinal chemistry has motivated the use of hybrid quantum- and molecular-mechanical methods to study proteins. Here, we (i) undertook quantitative atomistic simulations of 3-[iodo-Tyr(B26)]insulin to predict its structural features, and (ii) tested these predictions by X-ray crystallography. Using an electrostatic model of the modified aromatic ring based on quantum chemistry, the calculations suggested that the analog, as a dimer and hexamer, exhibits subtle differences in aromatic-aromatic interactions at the dimer interface. Aromatic rings (Tyr(B16), Phe(B24), Phe(B25), 3-I-Tyr(B26), and their symmetry-related mates) at this interface adjust to enable packing of the hydrophobic iodine atoms within the core of each monomer. Strikingly, these features were observed in the crystal structure of a 3-[iodo-Tyr(B26)]insulin analog (determined as an R6 zinc hexamer). Given that residues B24-B30 detach from the core on receptor binding, the environment of 3-I-Tyr(B26) in a receptor complex must differ from that in the free hormone. Based on the recent structure of a "micro-receptor" complex, we predict that 3-I-Tyr(B26) engages the receptor via directional halogen bonding and halogen-directed hydrogen bonding as follows: favorable electrostatic interactions exploiting, respectively, the halogen's electron-deficient σ-hole and electronegative equatorial band. Inspired by quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics, such "halogen engineering" promises to extend principles of medicinal chemistry to proteins.

  8. Palladium-promoted cascade reactions of isonitriles and 6-iodo-N-propargylpyridones: synthesis of mappicines, camptothecins, and homocamptothecins.

    PubMed

    Curran, Dennis P; Du, Wu

    2002-09-19

    Ambient-temperature reactions of electron-rich aryl isonitriles with substituted 6-iodo-N-propargylpyridones in the presence of silver carbonate and palladium acetate produce 11H-indolizino[1,2-b]quinolin-9-ones in good to excellent yield. Experimental evidence suggests that the process occurs though organopalladium rather than radical intermediates. It is applied to synthesis analogues of mappicine and camptothecin, including the silatecans DB-67 and DB-91 (homo-DB-67).

  9. Crystal structures of two bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene derivatives: similarities and differences in the crystal packing.

    PubMed

    McAdam, C John; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C; Simpson, Jim

    2015-12-01

    The isomeric derivatives 1,2-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene, (I), and 1,3-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene (II), both C8H8I2, were prepared by metathesis from their di-bromo analogues. The ortho-derivative, (I), lies about a crystallographic twofold axis that bis-ects the C-C bond between the two iodo-methyl substituents. The packing in (I) relies solely on C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds supported by weak parallel slipped π-π stacking inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 4.0569 (11) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3789 (8) Å and slippage = 2.245 Å]. While C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds are also found in the packing of (II), type II, I⋯I halogen bonds [I⋯I = 3.8662 (2) Å] and C-H⋯π contacts feature prominently in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure.

  10. Electrical properties of solid iodo mercurates resulting from the reaction of HgI2 with alcaline iodides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponpon, J. P.; Amann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Potassium iodide solutions are currently used during the fabrication process of mercuric iodide based nuclear radiation detectors. However, KI treatment leaves the HgI2 surface covered with a residual compound (namely the potassium tri-iodo mercurate) which has a significant influence on the surface properties and stability of mercuric iodide devices and therefore on the detectors characteristics. Looking for other solutions to etch mercuric iodide, we found it interesting to investigate the electrical properties of the compounds which may form when etching HgI2 in NH4I, NaI, and RbI. For this purpose, solid iodo mercurates with the cations ammonium, sodium, and rubidium, have been prepared by reacting HgI2 with the solutions of interest. Study of the electrical properties of these samples and comparison with those of potassium tri-iodo mercurate ones, especially with respect to humidity, indicates noticeable stability differences in presence of water vapour. This could have interesting consequences on the surface cleaning of mercuric iodide.

  11. Novel approach to aminocarboranes by mild amidation of selected iodo-carboranes.

    PubMed

    Sevryugina, Yulia; Julius, Richard L; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2010-11-15

    A mild protocol for the palladium-catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig amidation of icosahedral carboranes is described. Employing 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2'-(N,N-dimethylamino)biphenyl (1) as a ligand and K(3)PO(4) as a base, benzamide, trifluoroacetamide, acetamide, and formamide were coupled to a series of mono- and di-iodo carboranes furnishing the respective carborane derivatives in good to excellent yields. Subsequent base-mediated saponification of the trifluoroacetamide derivatives was shown to provide the free aminocarboranes. The structures of N-(1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-9-yl)benzamide (8a), N-(1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-9-yl)trifluoroacetamide (8b), N-(1,12-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-2-yl)benzamide (10a), N-(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-9-yl)benzamide (12a), N-(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-9-yl)acetamide (12c), N-(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-9-yl)formamide (12d), N-(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-3-yl)benzamide (13a), N,N'-(1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-9,10-diyl)dibenzamide (15a), and N,N'-(1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-9,10-diyl)bis(trifluoroacetamide) (15b) have been established through X-ray single-crystal diffraction studies.

  12. Crystal structures and vibrational spectroscopy of neutral platinum(IV) amine iodo complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, G.; Danzeisen, O. F.; Rotter, H. W.; Goanta, M.

    1999-05-01

    A series of platinum(IV) amine iodo complexes of the type [PtL 2I 4] was synthesized for the first time and their infrared and Raman spectra were recorded. The crystal structures of cis-[Pt(net) 2I 4], (net=ethylamine) (space group Pnma, a=14.668(3), b=8.787(2), c=11.433(2) Å), trans-[Pt(net) 2I 4] (space group C2/c, a=11.276(2), b=8.866(2), c=12.542(3) Å, β=114.86(3)°) and [Pt(en)I 4] (en=ethylendiamine) (space group P1, a=6.780(1), b=11.613(2), c=14.703(3) Å, α=71.87(3), β=80.78(3), γ=80.08 (3)°) were determined. Formation of linear chains of molecules with short intermolecular I-I distances was observed for cis-[Pt(net) 2I 4]. The spectroscopic behavior is discussed according to these results.

  13. Carcinoid tumors: CT and I-131 meta-iodo-benzylguanidine scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Adolph, J.M.; Kimmig, B.N.; Georgi, P.; zum Winkel, K.

    1987-07-01

    The diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) and iodine-131 meta-iodo-benzylguanidine (MIBG) scintiscanning was studied in nine patients with histologically proved carcinoid tumors of intestinal (n = 4), bronchial (n = 3), or thymic (n = 2) origin. CT scans clearly depicted the tumors and metastases in relation to surrounding vital structures but did not provide findings specific for carcinoids. The appearance on CT of an abdominal soft-tissue mass with a radiating pattern of linear densities was found to be highly suggestive of intestinal carcinoid tumors. I-131 MIBG scintiscans disclosed intense tracer uptake in the tumors and metastases in five patients. MIBG studies correctly depicted nine of nine tumor manifestations in intestinal carcinoids and four of six tumor manifestations in bronchus carcinoids. No MIBG concentration was found in thymus carcinoids. Because of its selective uptake mechanism, I-131 MIBG scintigraphy can allow specific detection and localization of neuroendocrine tumor tissue in patients with suspected carcinoid tumors. MIBG scintigraphy has diagnostic potential as a screening procedure in carcinoid tumors, especially those of intestinal origin.

  14. Fused polycyclic compounds via cycloaddition of 4-(1'-cyclohexenyl)-5-iodo-1,2,3-triazoles with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione: the importance of a sacrificial iodide leaving group.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Heather A; Simmons, J Tyler; Clark, Ronald J; Zhu, Lei

    2013-05-17

    4-(1'-Cyclohexenyl)-5-iodo-1,2,3-triazole and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione undergo a formal Diels-Alder reaction, which following an S(N)2' solvolysis process to displace the iodo group affords a fused polycyclic compound.

  15. Radiolabeled n-substituted-6-iodo-3, 14-dihydroxy-4, 5alpha-epoxymorphinans, intermediates for producing the same, and a process for the preparation and methods of detecting opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    de Costa, B.R.; Iadarola, M.J.; Rothman, R.B.; Berman, K.F.; Rice, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to radiolabeled N-substituted-6-iodo-3,14-dihydroxy-4,5 alpha-epoxymorphinans, intermediates for producing the same, and a process for the preparation and methods of detecting opioid receptors, wherein Iodo is selected from the group consisting of (123)I and (125)I; and where the N substitution is alkyl, cycloalkylloweralkyl or allyl.

  16. Validation of brain tumour imaging with p-[123I]iodo-L-phenylalanine and SPECT.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Dirk; Ketter, Ralf; Romeike, Bernd F M; Sell, Nadja; Schaefer, Andrea; Moringlane, Jean R; Kirsch, Carl-Martin; Samnick, Samuel

    2005-09-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to validate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with p-[(123)I]iodo-L-phenylalanine (IPA) in brain tumours and to evaluate its potential for the characterisation of indeterminate brain lesions. In 45 patients with indeterminate brain lesions or suspected progression of glioma, amino acid uptake was studied using IPA-SPECT and compared with the final diagnosis established by biopsy or serial imaging. After image fusion of IPA-SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging, the presence of tumour was visually determined by two independent observers. IPA uptake was quantified as the ratio between maximum uptake in the suspicious lesion and mean uptake in unaffected brain. Primary brain tumours were present in 35 cases (12 low-grade and 23 high-grade gliomas). Non-neoplastic brain lesions were confirmed in seven cases (three dysplasias, three inflammatory lesions, one lesion after effective therapy). Visual analysis showed a high concordance between the two observers (kappa=0.90, p<0.001), with sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 100% for the discrimination of primary brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions. At 30 min p.i., IPA uptake in primary brain tumours was higher than that in non-neoplastic lesions (1.70+/-0.36 vs 1.14+/-0.18, p<0.05). Brain metastases showed no increased uptake (1.13+/-0.22, n=3). The persistent retention of IPA in low-grade gliomas without disruption of the blood-brain barrier was visualised up to 24 h p.i. Low-grade and high-grade gliomas showed equivalent IPA uptake (1.72+/-0.37 vs 1.67+/-0.36 at 30 min, p=0.745). IPA shows long and specific retention in gliomas. IPA is a promising and safe radiopharmaceutical for the visualisation of gliomas and the characterisation of indeterminate brain lesions.

  17. Renal accumulation and excretion of radioiodinated 3-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Shikano, Naoto; Kawai, Keiichi; Nakajima, Syuichi; Nishii, Ryuichi; Flores, Leo Garcia; Kubodera, Akiko; Kubota, Nobuo; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Saji, Hideo

    2004-05-01

    We investigated mechanisms of renal accumulation of radioiodinated 3-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT), which has been used clinically for tumor imaging and as an amino acid transport marker in studies of brain and pancreas function. In this study, we used 125I- or 123I-labeled IMT ([125I]IMT or [123I]IMT) as the transport marker. Partition coefficients of [125I]IMT were determined for hypothetic urine at pH ranging from 5 to 8. The examination of uptake and inhibition of [125I]IMT was performed using normal human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC), which are characteristic of the proximal convoluted tubule. The plasma protein binding ratio of [125I]IMT was determined using rats. In the in vivo experiments using mice, we examined biodistribution and excretion inhibition, and performed whole body autoradiography. Also, renal SPECT using [123I]IMT was performed using a normal canine. Very low lipophilicity of [125I]IMT in hypothetic urine suggests that a carrier-mediated pathway contributes to its marked kidney accumulation. [125I]IMT uptake into RPTEC was significantly inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) in a sodium-dependent manner, suggesting reabsorption mainly via system B0 in apical membrane of proximal tubule. Plasma protein binding ratio of IMT was 45.4 +/- 5.6%. At 6 hr after administration of IMT to mice, excretion via urinary tract was 77.51% of injected dose, and excretion into feces was 0.25%. Furosemide, ethacrynic acid and probenecid inhibited tubular secretion of [125I]IMT in mice. We obtained very clear autoradiographs of mouse renal cortex and a canine renal SPECT image (S2-like region). We believe that [123I]IM-T is useful for kidney imaging. In future studies, we plan to examine the use of [123I]IMT in diagnosis of disease.

  18. 5-Iodo-2-aminoindan, a nonneurotoxic analogue of p-iodoamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.E.; Johnson, M.P.; Oberlender, R. )

    1991-01-01

    A rigid analogue, 5-iodo-2-aminoindan (5-IAI), of the serotonin neurotoxic halogenated amphetamine p-iodoamphetamine (PIA) was pharmacologically evaluated for production of serotonin neurotoxicity. A comparison was also made between 5-IAI and PIA in the two-lever drug discrimination paradigm in rats trained to discriminate saline from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or saline from the alpha-ethyl homologue of MDMA, MBDB. PIA and 5-IAI were both behaviorally active, and fully substituted in both groups of animals, but were considerably less potent than p-chloroamphetamine (PCA). PIA had about twice the potency of PCA as an inhibitor of {sup 3}H-5-HT uptake in rat brain cortical synaptosomes, while 5-IAI was only about 75% as potent as PCA in this assay. A single 40 mg/kg dose of PIA resulted in a 40% reduction of 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and in the number of 5-HT uptake sites in rat cortex at one week sacrifice. The same dose of 5-IAI with one week sacrifice led to about a 15% decrease in 5-HIAA levels and number of 5-HT uptake sites, but only the latter was statistically significant. In rat hippocampus, PIA gave significant decreases in all serotonin markers examined, while 5-IAI slightly but significantly decreased only 5-HT levels. Neither compound produced any change in catecholamine or catecholamine metabolite levels. The results confirm earlier reports of the selective serotonin neurotoxicity of PIA, which is less severe than that of PCA, and also demonstrate that its rigid analogue 5-IAI does not appear to cause significant serotonin deficits in the rat.

  19. An Experiment on the Methane-Methanol-Iodo-methane Cycle to Produce Nuclear Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Youngjoon, Shin; Wonjae, Lee; Kiyoung, Lee; Jonghwa, Chang; Sangbong, Lee

    2006-07-01

    Steam reforming is a mature and well-established technology on an industrial scale, and its research and development have focused on a high efficiency and low cost through the use of a cheaper material and production methods. However the new task presented due to the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 1997 is how to overcome the carbon dioxide generation problem in this technology. One of several CO{sub 2}-free alternatives based on a steam reforming of methane were introduced conceptually, named as the closed Methane-Methanol-Iodo-methane (MMI) cycle. We have calculated the thermodynamic properties as a function of the temperature on the chemical reactions that are supporting this CO{sub 2}- free process and evaluated theoretically the realization of each chemical reaction step. By analyzing the Gibbs free energy change, it has been found that most reactions are available within the temperature range of 298 K - 1,298 K except for the conversion of methanol to methyl iodide. In order to obtain methyl iodide from methanol to satisfy the closed MMI cycle, a SO{sub 2}-catalytic chemical reaction pathway during the step of an iodizing of methanol is possible. The experimental confirmation has been performed in an I{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}OH-SO{sub 2} system. The sulfuric acid produced as a byproduct can be thermally decomposed to SO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and then the H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} are recycled in the MMI cycle, respectively. The productivity of methyl iodide has been confirmed at up to 86% for a typical chemical reaction condition. (authors)

  20. 1-(4-Iodo-3-phenyl­isoquinolin-1-yl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weijun; Zhu, Mei; Hong, Dongfeng

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H13IN2O2, the isoquinoline ring makes dihedral angles of 55.92 (3)° and 76.11 (3)° with the benzene and succinimide rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene and succinimide rings is 70.37 (3)°. In the crystal structure, the iodo atom deviates from the isoquinoline plane by 0.163 (1) Å. The crystal studied was found to be a racemic twin with a domain ratio of 0.41 (5):0.59 (5). PMID:21578394

  1. Nuclear microprobe analysis of iodine and iron distributions in tumor cells exposed to the anthracycline 4'-iodo-4'-deoxydoxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, R.; Moretto, Ph.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    1997-07-01

    In this study, we performed nuclear microprobe analysis on cultured human ovarian cancer cells exposed to pharmacological concentrations of 4'-iodo-4'-deoxydoxorubicin (IDX), an anthracycline anticancer drug. We observed that iodine and iron cellular distributions were strongly correlated, suggesting intracellular iron chelation by the anthracycline. The average cellular iron concentration did not change during drug exposure, but the cellular distribution of iron was modified following the preferential nuclear localization of iodine, as determined by single cell microanalysis. These results are important for understanding the cellular pharmacology of anthracyclines. They suggest that iron cellular delocalization and its subsequent nuclear accumulation may participate to the overall cytotoxicity of IDX, and more generally to anthracycline antitumor activity.

  2. Dehalogenation Activity of Selected Fungi Toward δ-Iodo-γ-Lactone Derived from trans,trans-Farnesol.

    PubMed

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Gładkowski, Witold; Świtalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Szumny, Antoni; Gębarowska, Elżbieta; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2016-04-01

    Time-course of biotransformation of racemic trans-4-((E)-4',8'-dimethylnona-3',7'-dien-1-yl)-5-iodomethyl-4-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (1) in fungal and yeast cultures was investigated. In these conditions, the substrate 1 was enantioselectively dehalogenated yielding 4-((E)-4',8'-dimethylnona-3',7'-dien-1-yl)-4-methyl-5-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one (2) and its structure was established based on the spectroscopic data. The most effective biocatalyst used was Didymosphaeria igniaria, which catalyzed the process with highest rate and enantioselectivity (ee of product = 76%). The antiproliferative activity of δ-iodo-γ-lactone 1, product of its biotransformation 2, and starting substrate (farnesol) were evaluated toward two cancer cell lines: A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia).

  3. (Biphenyl-2-alkyne) derivatives as common precursors for the synthesis of 9-iodo-10-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes and 9-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Tamiris B; Lutz, Guilherme; Back, Davi F; Zeni, Gilson

    2016-11-08

    In this paper, we report our results on the cyclization of (biphenyl-2-alkyne) derivatives to give two different types of phenanthrene derivatives, 9-iodo-10-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes and 9-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes. The strategy for the synthesis was based on the use of electrophilic cyclization for the preparation of 9-iodo-10-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes and iron(iii) chloride/diorganyl diselenide-mediated intramolecular cyclization to prepare 9-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes. The effects of solvent, temperature, reaction time and stoichiometry on the efficiency of cyclization reactions were investigated. The standard reaction conditions were compatible with many functional groups in the substrates, such as methyl, chlorine, fluorine and methoxyl. This protocol was efficient for diorganyl diselenides and disulfides but ineffective for diorganyl ditellurides. The resulting phenanthrenes were further functionalized through Sonogashira reactions followed by the electrophilic cyclization reaction to give the selenophene-fused aromatic compounds.

  4. Development of an analytical method for analysis of flubendiamide, des-iodo flubendiamide and study of their residue persistence in tomato and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N; Sharma, D

    2011-01-01

    Flubendiamide is a new insecticide that has been found to give excellent control of lepidopterous pests of tomato. This study has been undertaken to develop an improved method for analysis of flubendiamide and its metabolite des-iodo flubendiamide and determine residue retention in tomato and soil. The analytical method developed involved extraction of flubendiamide and its metabolite des-iodo flubendiamide with acetonitrile, liquid-liquid partitioning into hexane-ethyl acetate mixture (6:4, v v⁻¹) and cleanup with activated neutral alumina. Finally the residues were dissolved in gradient high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade acetonitrile for analysis by HPLC. The mobile phase, acetonitrile-water at 60:40 (v v⁻¹) proportion and the wavelength of 235 nm gave maximum peak resolution. Using the above method and HPLC parameters described, nearly 100 % recovery of both insecticides were obtained. There was no matrix interference and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg kg⁻¹. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on field-treated tomato from treatments @ 48 and 96 g active ingredient hectare⁻¹ were 0.83 and 1.68 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. The residues of flubendiamide dissipated at the half-life of 3.9 and 4.4 days from treatments @ 48 and 96 g a.i. ha⁻¹, respectively and persisted for 15 days from both the treatments. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in tomato fruits at any time during the study period. Residues of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in soil from treatment @ 48 and 96 g a.i. ha⁻¹ were below detectable level (BDL, < 0.01 mg kg⁻¹) after 20 days. Flubendiamide completely dissipated from tomato within 20 days when the 480 SC formulation was applied at doses recommended for protection against lepidopterous pests.

  5. Cyclization and N-iodosuccinimide-induced electrophilic iodocyclization of 3-aza-1,5-enynes to synthesize 1,2-dihydropyridines and 3-iodo-1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaoyi; Wang, Dongping; Wu, Fan; Li, Xincheng; Wan, Boshun

    2013-04-19

    Metal-free cyclization and N-iodosuccinimide-induced electrophilic iodocyclization of readily available 3-aza-1,5-enynes have been developed. The reactions selectively give 1,2-dihydropyridines and 3-iodo-1,2-dihydropyridines involving an aza-Claisen rearrangement and a 6π-electrocyclization step. Furthermore, the reaction could be carried out in 10 g scale for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines.

  6. Crystal structures of two bis­(iodo­meth­yl)benzene derivatives: similarities and differences in the crystal packing

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, C. John; Hanton, Lyall R.; Moratti, Stephen C.; Simpson, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The isomeric derivatives 1,2-bis­(iodo­meth­yl)benzene, (I), and 1,3-bis­(iodo­meth­yl)benzene (II), both C8H8I2, were prepared by metathesis from their di­bromo analogues. The ortho-derivative, (I), lies about a crystallographic twofold axis that bis­ects the C—C bond between the two iodo­methyl substituents. The packing in (I) relies solely on C—H⋯I hydrogen bonds supported by weak parallel slipped π–π stacking inter­actions [inter-centroid distance = 4.0569 (11) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3789 (8) Å and slippage = 2.245 Å]. While C—H⋯I hydrogen bonds are also found in the packing of (II), type II, I⋯I halogen bonds [I⋯I = 3.8662 (2) Å] and C—H⋯π contacts feature prominently in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure. PMID:26870415

  7. Two saturable recognition sites for (-) (125I)iodo-N6-(4-hydroxyphenyl-isopropyl)-adenosine binding on purified cardiac sarcolemma

    SciTech Connect

    Hausleithner, V.; Freissmuth, M.; Schuetz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of (-) (125)iodo-N6-(4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl)-adenosine (( /sup 125/I)HPIA) binding to purified sarcolemmal preparations of guinea pig and bovine hearts revealed two classes of binding sites when unlabeled iodo-HPIA (100 mumol/l) was used as non-specific binding marker. In the presence of 1 mmol/l theophylline, however, only the high affinity component was detected. Adenosine receptor agonists caused biphasic displacement of (/sup 125/I)HPIA binding, with a high affinity potency rank order typical of interaction with A1-adenosine receptors. Biphasic competition curves were also observed with 8-phenyltheophylline and isobutylmethylxanthine, whereas the theophylline curve was monophasic up to 1 mmol/l. In brain membranes, specific binding of (/sup 125/I)HPIA as well as of (/sup 3/H)PIA was further reduced when unlabeled iodo-HPIA replaces theophylline as the non-specific binding marker. These results suggest the presence of two (/sup 125/I)HPIA binding sites on cardiac sarcolemma and brain membranes, but receptor function can only be ascribed to the high affinity sites. The low affinity site probably represents an artefact, which is often observed when non-specific binding is defined with the unlabeled counterpart or a structurally related ligand of the radioligand used.

  8. Synthesis of cis-C-Iodo-N-Tosyl-Aziridines using Diiodomethyllithium: Reaction Optimization, Product Scope and Stability, and a Protocol for Selection of Stationary Phase for Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of C-iodo-N-Ts-aziridines with excellent cis-diastereoselectivity has been achieved in high yields by the addition of diiodomethyllithium to N-tosylimines and N-tosylimine–HSO2Tol adducts. This addition-cyclization protocol successfully provided a wide range of cis-iodoaziridines, including the first examples of alkyl-substituted iodoaziridines, with the reaction tolerating both aryl imines and alkyl imines. An ortho-chlorophenyl imine afforded a β-amino gem-diiodide under the optimized reaction conditions due to a postulated coordinated intermediate preventing cyclization. An effective protocol to assess the stability of the sensitive iodoaziridine functional group to chromatography was also developed. As a result of the judicious choice of stationary phase, the iodoaziridines could be purified by column chromatography; the use of deactivated basic alumina (activity IV) afforded high yield and purity. Rearrangements of electron-rich aryl-iodoaziridines have been promoted, selectively affording either novel α-iodo-N-Ts-imines or α-iodo-aldehydes in high yield. PMID:23738857

  9. A potential anti-cancer agent: 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hy-droxy-quinolinium dichlorido(5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-olato-κN,O)palladium(II) dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Vranec, Peter; Potočňák, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    The title Pd(II) coordination compound, (C(9)H(6)ClINO)[PdCl(2)(C(9)H(4)ClINO)]·2H(2)O, was prepared as a potential anti-cancer agent. Its structure is ionic and consists of a square-planar [PdCl(2)(CQ)](-) complex anion (CQ is 5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-olate), with the Pd(II) atom surrounded by two chloride ligands in a cis configuration and one N,O-bidentate CQ mol-ecule, a protonated anion of CQ as counter-cation and two non-coordinated water mol-ecules. The water mol-ecules are involved in O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which inter-connect the HCQ(+) cations into a chain parallel to [010]. Apart from these inter-actions, the structure is also stabilized by face-to-face π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid = 3.546 (3) Å], which occur between the phenolic parts of the complex anions and cations.

  10. Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N

    2010-09-01

    Flubendiamide belongs to a novel class of insecticide which controls lepidopteran pest complex of cabbage such as diamondback moth, cabbage white butterfly, cluster caterpillar etc. Being a newly introduced insecticide no information is available on its residue persistence in cabbage. A study was undertaken to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in cabbage and soil following 2 applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at the recommended and double the recommended dose of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide in cabbage were 0.33 and 0.49 mg kg(-1) respectively. The residues persisted for 10 days from the both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life of 3.9 and 4.45 days, respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite of flubendiamide, was not detected in cabbage at any time during the study period. Soil sample collected from the treated field after 15 days was free from any residue of flubendiamide or its metabolite.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated (E)-18-iodo-17-octadecenoic acid as a model iodoalkenyl fatty acid for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.; Kabalka, G.W.; Sastry, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 125/I-labeled (E)-18-iodo-17-octadecenoic acid (13) has been prepared and evaluated in rats to determine the myocardial uptake and retention and degree of in vivo deiodination of this model iodovinyl-substituted fatty acid, which contains no structural perturbation to inhibit metabolism. This new agent was prepared by NaI-chloramine-T treatment of (17-carbomethoxyheptadec-1-en-1-yl)boronic acid (11) prepared by catecholborane treatment of methyl 17-octadecynoate (10), followed by basic hydrolysis to the free acid (13). The pivotal substrate, 17-octadecynoic acid (9), was prepared by two new routes. The /sup 125/I-labeled acid 13 showed high myocardial uptake (1 h, 1.90-2.28% dose/g) with 45% washout after 2 h but lower heart/blood ratios in comparison to analogues containing the tellurium heteroatom. Deiodination was low for the first 2 h after injection (2 h, 61% dose/g). Excellent myocardial images were obtained in a dog with the /sup 123/I-labeled agent.

  12. 5-Iodo-2-deoxyuridine administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of disseminated glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Rewers, A.B.; Redgate, E.S.; Fisher, E.R.; Boggs, S.S. )

    1989-09-06

    A rat brain tumor model (Fischer 344 rats) with the clinical and pathological features of dissemination via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways was used to demonstrate the efficacy of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer when it is administered directly into the CSF. Stereotaxic implantation of 9L gliosarcoma cells (5 X 10(5)) into the CSF of the lateral cerebral ventricle resulted in widespread dissemination and median survival of 18.5 and 20 days (range, 10-22) in two experiments. A continuous 7-day infusion of IUDR into the CSF starting on the day of tumor implantation did not provide any beneficial effect. Irradiation of the cranial spinal axis with 800 rad on days 4, 6, and 7 after implantation achieved an increase in survival time that was modest but statistically significant. However, the combination of IUDR infusion and radiotherapy resulted in marked improvement in survival time and a 10% cure rate (two of 20 rats). This is the first demonstration in vivo that IUDR administered into the CSF can be a potent radiosensitizer.

  13. Diaqua-bis-(2-iodo-benzoato-κO)bis-(nicotinamide-κN(1))cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Aydın, Omür; Caylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Necefoğlu, Hacali; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2012-04-01

    In the title complex, [Co(C(7)H(4)IO(2))(2)(C(6)H(6)N(2)O)(2)(H(2)O)(2)], the Co(II) cation is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two monodentate 2-iodo-benzoate (IB) anions, two nicotin-amide (NA) ligands and two water mol-ecules. The four O atoms in the equatorial plane around the Co(II) cation form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement, while the slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination is completed by the two N atoms of the NA ligands in the axial positions. The dihedral angle between the carboxyl-ate group and the adjacent benzene ring is 22.3 (3)°, while the pyridine ring and the benzene ring are oriented at a dihedral angle of 84.59 (13)°. Intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding occurs between the carboxyl-ate group and coordinated water mol-ecule. In the crystal, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network.

  14. Crystal structure, spectroscopic studies and quantum mechanical calculations of 2-[((3-iodo-4-methyl)phenylimino)methyl]-5-nitrothiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir Tarı, Gonca; Gümüş, Sümeyye; Ağar, Erbil

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, 2-[((3-iodo-4-methyl)phenylimino)methyl]-5-nitrothiophene, C12H9O2N2I1S1, was synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The molecular structure was optimized at the B3LYP, B3PW91 and PBEPBE levels of the density functional method (DFT) with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set. Using the TD-DFT method, the electronic absorption spectra of the title compound was computed in both the gas phase and ethanol solvent. The harmonic vibrational frequencies of the title compound were calculated using the same methods with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set. The calculated results were compared with the experimental determination results of the compound. The energetic behavior such as the total energy, atomic charges, dipole moment of the title compound in solvent media were examined using the B3LYP, B3PW91 and PBEPBE methods with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set by applying the Onsager and the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis, the molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP) and the nonlinear optical properties (NLO) for the title compound were obtained with the same levels of theory. And then thermodynamic properties for the title compound were obtained using the same methods with the 6-311G(d,p) basis set.

  15. Regiospecific syntheses of functionalized diaryliodonium tosylates via [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]arenes generated in situ from (diacetoxyiodo)arenes

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Joong-Hyun; Pike, Victor W.

    2012-01-01

    Ready access to 18F-labeled aryl synthons is required for preparing novel radiotracers for molecular imaging with positron emission tomography. Diaryiodonium salts react with cyclotron-produced no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride ion to produce [18F]aryl fluorides. We aimed to prepare functionalized diaryliodonium salts to serve as potential precursors for producing useful 18F-labeled aryl synthons, such as 18F-labeled halomethylbenzenes, benzaldehydes and benzoic acid esters. Such salts were designed to have one functionalized aryl ring, one relatively electron-rich ring, such as 4-methoxyphenyl or 2-thienyl, and a non-fluorine containing weakly nucleophilic anion. Generation of a [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]arene from a functionalized (diacetoxyiodo)arene in situ followed by treatment with an electron-rich arene, such as anisole or thiophene, or with a functionalized arylstannane gave expedient regiospecific access to a wide range of functionally diverse diaryliodonium tosylates in moderate to high yields (44–98%). The described methodology broadens the scope for producing new functionalized diaryliodonium salts for diverse applications. PMID:22276914

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of 22-iodo- and (E)-20(22)-dehydro analogues of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Sicinski, R R; DeLuca, H F

    1999-12-01

    Construction of 25-hydroxy-steroidal side chain substituted with iodine at C-22 was elaborated on a model PTAD-protected steroidal 5,7-diene and applied to a synthesis of (22R)- and (22S)-22-iodo-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Configuration at C-22 in the iodinated vitamins, obtained by nucleophilic substitution of the corresponding 22S-tosylates with sodium iodide, was determined by comparison of their iodine-displacement processes and cyclizations leading to isomeric five-membered (22,25)-epoxy-1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 compounds. Also, 20(22)-dehydrosteroids have been obtained and their structures established by 1H NMR spectroscopy. When compared to the natural hormone, (E)-20(22)-dehydro-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was found 4 times less potent in binding to the porcine intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 2 times less effective in differentiation of HL-60 cells. 22-Iodinated vitamin D analogues showed somewhat lower in vitro activity, whereas (22,25)-epoxy analogues were inactive. Interestingly, it was established that (22S)-22-iodo-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was 3 times more potent than its (22R)-isomer in binding to VDR and four times more effective in HL-60 cell differentiation assay. The restricted mobility of the side chain of both 22-iodinated vitamin D compounds was analyzed by a systematic conformational search indicating different spatial regions occupied by their 25-oxygen atoms. Preliminary data on the in vivo calcemic activity of the synthesized vitamin D analogues indicate that (E)-20(22)-dehydro-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 22-iodo-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 isomers were ca. ten times less potent than the natural hormone 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 both in intestinal calcium transport and bone calcium mobilization.

  17. Mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10,MetO17)-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Preparation, characterization, and use for radioimmunoassay and receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.; Rose, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Magistretti, P.J.

    1986-04-25

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was labeled with sodium (125I)iodide using the chloramine-T method and subsequently purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography.Three main 125I-labeled peaks designated A, B, and C resulted from the radioiodination and purification procedures. They were characterized by electrophoresis of tryptic fragments; Edman degradation (for Peaks A and C); enzymatic digestion to amino acids by leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase Y and Pronase; and treatment with cyanogen bromide. Peak A corresponds to VIP monoiodinated on Tyr10 and with the Met17 residue oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. This (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10,MetO17)VIP displays the following characteristics. 1) It constitutes quantitatively the major product of the iodination procedure (62.5%); 2) it is well resolved from other labeled and unlabeled products; 3) it is stable (2 months at -20 degrees C); 4) it possesses a high specific activity (2050 Ci/mmol); 5) it maintains the biological activity of native VIP; and 6) it binds to antibody and membrane recognition sites in a specific, saturable, and reversible manner. Reduction of (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10, Met-O17)VIP to (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10)VIP does not improve the performance of the tracer in a radioimmunoassay. The method described in this article is simple and rapid and yields a molecular form of 125I-labeled VIP that has been fully characterized and is suitable for use in biological studies.

  18. Organopromoted direct synthesis of 6-iodo-3-methylthioimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines via convergent integration of three self-sorting domino sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Xi, Hailing; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Xia; Gao, Qinghe; Wu, Anxin

    2015-09-07

    An NH2CN-promoted convergent integration of three self-sorting domino sequences is described for the construction of 6-iodo-3-methylthioimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines from aryl methyl ketones and 2-aminopyridines. This strategy allows the construction of an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine ring along with methylthiolation at C-3 and iodination at C-6. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that this process terminates at the iodination stage without Kornblum oxidation in the presence of I2 and DMSO.

  19. 5-Iodo-2-Pyrimidinone-2'-Deoxyribose-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Radiosensitization in U87 Human Glioblastoma Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Timothy J. Kinsella, Michael T.; Seo, Yuji; Berk, Gregory

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: 5-Iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2'-deoxyribose (IPdR) is a novel orally administered (p.o.) prodrug of 5-iododeoxyuridine. Because p.o. IPdR is being considered for clinical testing as a radiosensitizer in patients with high-grade gliomas, we performed this in vivo study of IPdR-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in a human glioblastoma xenograft model, U87. Methods and Materials: Groups of 8 or 9 athymic male nude mice (6-8 weeks old) were implanted with s.c. U87 xenograft tumors (4 x 10{sup 6} cells) and then randomized to 10 treatment groups receiving increasing doses of p.o. IPdR (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/d) administered once daily (q.d.) x 14 days with or without radiotherapy (RT) (0 or 2 Gy/d x 4 days) on days 11-14 of IPdR treatment. Systemic toxicity was determined by body weight measurements during and after IPdR treatment. Tumor response was assessed by changes in tumor volumes. Results: IPdR alone at doses of {>=}500 mg/kg/d resulted in moderate inhibition of tumor growth. The combination of IPdR plus RT resulted in a significant IPdR dose-dependent tumor growth delay, with the maximum radiosensitization using {>=}500 mg/kg/d. IPdR doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/d resulted in transient 5-15% body weight loss during treatment. Conclusions: In U87 human glioblastoma s.c. xenografts, p.o. IPdR given q.d. x 14 days and RT given 2 Gy/d x 4 days (days 11-14 of IPdR treatment) results in a significant tumor growth delay in an IPdR dose-dependent pattern. The use of p.o. IPdR plus RT holds promise for Phase I/II testing in patients with high-grade gliomas.

  20. delta 9-(16 alpha-/sup 125/I)iodo-19-nortestosterone: a gamma-emitting photoaffinity label for the progesterone receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D.J.; Bullock, D.W.; Hoyte, R.M.; Hochberg, R.B.

    1988-05-01

    We have synthesized 16 alpha-iodo-4,9-estradien-17 beta-ol-3-one (delta 9-16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone (delta 9-INT)) labeled with 125I (delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT) to provide a new gamma-emitting photoaffinity ligand for the progesterone receptor that has many advantages over the currently available (3H)R5020. We have characterized the interaction of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT with the rabbit uterine progesterone receptor and have demonstrated the usefulness of this compound for studies of receptor structure. The binding of 2 nM (3H)progesterone to receptor in rabbit uterine cytosol was specifically competed for by 19-nortestosterone, 16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone, and delta 9-INT. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and (3H)progesterone estimated the same number of binding sites in rabbit uterine cytosol, with a Kd for delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT of about 2.7 nM. The binding of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT was inhibited by both progesterone and R5020, whereas testosterone, estradiol, and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone were ineffective. In cytosol, delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT covalently labeled the same mol wt receptor forms as (3H)R5020. Although the efficiency of cross-linking was similar for (3H)R5020 (3%) and delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT (4%), the radioactivity was 10-fold greater due to the higher specific activity of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and the lack of sample quench. The use of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT greatly increases the sensitivity and efficiency of the photoaffinity labeling technique; it will provide a valuable tool for further studies of the progesterone receptor, allowing the detection of receptor in dilute cytosol after gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions.

  1. 1,3-Bis(2,3,5,6-tetra­fluoro-4-iodo­phen­oxy)-2,2-bis­[(2,3,5,6-tetra­fluoro-4-iodo­phen­oxy)meth­yl]propane

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Ursini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C29H8F16I4O4, short I⋯I and I⋯F contacts, which can be understood as halogen bonds (XBs), represent the strongest inter­molecular inter­actions, consistent with the presence of I and F atoms, and the absence of H atoms, at the periphery of the mol­ecule. In addition, π–π stacking inter­actions between tetra­fluoro­iodo­phenyl (TFIP) groups and five short F⋯F inter­actions are present. PMID:23634113

  2. Iodine-124-labeled iodo-azomycin-galactoside imaging of tumor hypoxia in mice with serial microPET scanning.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, Pat; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Chapman, J Donald; Schneider, Richard; Cai, Shangde; Larson, Steven; Wen, Bixiu; Chen, Yuchun; Finn, Ronald; Ruan, Shutian; Gerweck, Leo; Humm, John; Ling, Clifton

    2004-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia, present in many human cancers, can lead to resistance to radiation and chemotherapy, is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype and is an independent prognostic factor of clinical outcome. It is therefore important to identify and localize tumor hypoxia in cancer patients. In the current study, serial microPET imaging was used to evaluate iodine-124-labeled iodo-azomycin-galactoside ((124)I-IAZG) (4.2-day physical half-life) as a hypoxia imaging agent in 17 MCa breast tumors and six FSaII fibrosarcomas implanted in mice. For comparison, another promising hypoxic-cell PET radiotracer, fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-misonidazole ((18)F-FMISO), was also imaged in the same tumor-bearing animals. Twelve animals were also imaged with (18)F-labeled fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). In addition, histological examination was performed, and direct measurement of tumor oxygenation status carried out with the Oxylite probe system. Two size groups were used, relatively well-oxygenated tumors in the range of 80-180 mg were designated as small, and those >300 mg and highly hypoxic, as large. Based on the data from 11 MCa and six FSaII tumors, both (124)I-IAZG and (18)F-FMISO images showed high tracer uptake in the large tumors. In (18)F-FMISO images at 1, 3-4, and 6-8 h post-injection (p.i.), there was considerable whole-body background activity. In contrast, (124)I-IAZG imaging was optimal when performed at 24-48 h p.i., when the whole-body background had dissipated considerably. As a result, the (124)I-IAZG images at 24-48 h p.i. had higher tumor to whole-body activity contrast than the (18)F-FMISO images at 3-6 h p.i. Region-of-interest analysis was performed as a function of time p.i. and indicated a tumor uptake of 5-10% (of total-body activity) for FMISO at 3-6 h p.i., and of ~17% for IAZG at 48 h p.i. This was corroborated by biodistribution data in that the tumor-to-normal tissue (T/N, normal tissues of blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney

  3. Comparison of Chlamydia subgroup A detection from clinical specimens after 40 and 64 hours of incubation in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-treated McCoy's cells.

    PubMed

    Jonhson, J E; Smith, T F

    1976-03-01

    The time course of formation of inclusion bodies produced by Chlamydia in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUdR)-treated McCoy's cells was studied with the use of a known isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-184/Ur and 47 frozen clinical urethral specimens previously shown to be either positive or negative for chlamydial inclusions after 3 days of incubation. Subsequent examination of 369 clinical specimens from the genitourinary tract over a 6-month period revealed 47 (13%) Chlamydia-positive cultures, all of which demonstrated inclusion bodies by iodine staining at 40 and 64 h postinoculation. Another 146 similar detected by iodine staining from 22 (15%). This study indicates that, although Chlamydia subgroup A inclusions are larger at 64 h, they can be readily detected from clinical specimens in IUdR-treated McCoy's cells at 40 h postinfection.

  4. Comparison of Chlamydia subgroup A detection from clinical specimens after 40 and 64 hours of incubation in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-treated McCoy's cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jonhson, J E; Smith, T F

    1976-01-01

    The time course of formation of inclusion bodies produced by Chlamydia in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUdR)-treated McCoy's cells was studied with the use of a known isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-184/Ur and 47 frozen clinical urethral specimens previously shown to be either positive or negative for chlamydial inclusions after 3 days of incubation. Subsequent examination of 369 clinical specimens from the genitourinary tract over a 6-month period revealed 47 (13%) Chlamydia-positive cultures, all of which demonstrated inclusion bodies by iodine staining at 40 and 64 h postinoculation. Another 146 similar detected by iodine staining from 22 (15%). This study indicates that, although Chlamydia subgroup A inclusions are larger at 64 h, they can be readily detected from clinical specimens in IUdR-treated McCoy's cells at 40 h postinfection. Images PMID:57968

  5. 3-((3-/sup 125/I)Iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl Carbohydrazide, a new radioiodination reagent for ultrasensitive detection and determination of periodate-oxidized nucleoside derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Randerath, K.

    1981-08-01

    A new radioiodination reagent for the identification and quantitation of periodate-oxidized ribonucleosides was developed. The reagent, 3-((3-/sup 125/I)iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl carbohydrazide, was prepared by radioiodination of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester in the presence of chloramine T, followed by reduction of the latter with sodium arsenite and treatment of the radioiodinated ester with an excess of carbohydrazide. The reagent reacted quantitatively with periodate-oxidized nucleosides to form /sup 125/I-labeled morpholine derivatives which were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. The reagent was found to react also with other carbonyl compounds and thus may find more general application in the qualitative and quantitative ultramicroanalysis of aldehydes and ketones.

  6. Determination of protolytic equilibria for methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside by ab initio and spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowska, Aleksandra; Makowski, Mariusz; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chylewska, Agnieszka; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2008-12-01

    UV absorption spectra of methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside were recorded over a wide pH range. On this basis, a relationship between absorbance and pH was plotted, from which deprotonation equilibrium constants of this compound were determined. Further, quantum-mechanical calculations were performed at the ab initio level both in the gas phase by using the Restricted Hartree Fock (RHF), Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods and under consideration of solvation effects within the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM), which enabled location of preferred protonation and deprotonation centers of this compound. The results provided the basis for discussion of the influence of substituents in the sugar ring on protolytic equilibria occurring in aqueous solutions of 3-azido-2,3-dideoxy sugars.

  7. Triclinic and orthorhombic polymorphs of 2-iodo-4-nitroaniline: interplay of hydrogen bonds, nitro...I interactions and aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, S A; Skakle, J M; Low, J N; Wardell, J L; Garden, S J; Pinto, A C; Torres, J C; Glidewell, C

    2001-08-01

    In the triclinic polymorph of 2-iodo-4-nitroaniline, C(6)H(5)IN(2)O(2), space group P-1, the molecules are linked by paired N-H...O hydrogen bonds into C(8)[R(2)(2)(6)] chains of rings. These chains are linked into sheets by nitro...I interactions, and the sheets are pairwise linked by aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions. In the orthorhombic polymorph, space group Pbca, the molecules are linked by single N-H...O hydrogen bonds into spiral C(8) chains; the chains are linked by nitro...O interactions into sheets, each of which is linked to its two immediate neighbours by aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions, so producing a continuous three-dimensional structure.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (E)-19-iodo-3,3-dimethyl-18-nonadecenoic acid, a new dimethyl-branched long-chain fatty acid to evaluate regional myocardial fatty acid uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Ambrose, K.R.; Neff, K.H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The synthetic method for the preparation of (E)-19-iodo-3,3-dimethyl-18-nonadecenoic acid (DMIVN) involved introduction of substituents into the 2- and 5-positions of a thiophene ring followed by sulfur extrusion of a 2,5-dialkyl thiophene derivative to provide a key 3,3-dimethyl-branched fatty acid intermediate, 17-iodo-3,3-dimethylheptadecanoic acid. Myocardial subcellular distribution studies of the /sup 125/I-labeled DMIVN in fasted rats showed a higher association of radioactivity with the microsomes when compared to the results obtained with the 19-carbon straight chain analogue. With the nonfasted rats the distribution profiles of the two analogues showed differences that seemed to correlate with the differences in myocardial retention that fasting and feeding can induce. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Metal Free Formation of Various 3-Iodo-1H-pyrrolo[3',2':4,5]imidazo-[1,2-a]pyridines and [1,2-b]Pyridazines and Their Further Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Tber, Z; Hiebel, M-A; El Hakmaoui, A; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Berteina-Raboin, S

    2015-07-02

    3-iodo-1H-pyrrolo[3',2':4,5]imidazo-[1,2-a]pyridines and [1,2-b]pyridazines were prepared following Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé MCR combined with I2-promoted electrophilic cyclization. The flexibility of the method enables the introduction of diversity in the 2, 5, 6, and 7 positions on the resulting scaffold using commercially available starting materials. Furthermore, subsequent palladium-catalyzed reactions were successfully achieved using our iodinated derivatives.

  10. Simultaneous and high-throughput analysis of iodo-trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes in drinking water using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: an optimization of sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Chen, Xichao; Wei, Zi; Xu, Xiong; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2014-10-24

    When iodide and natural organic matter are present in raw water, the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (Iodo-THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and halonitromethanes (HNMs) pose a potential health risk because they have been reported to be more toxic than their brominated or chlorinated analogs. In the work, simultaneous analysis of Iodo-THMs, HANs, and HNMs in drinking water samples in a single cleanup and chromatographic analysis was proposed. The DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber was found to be the most suitable for all target compounds, although 75μm CAR/PDMS was better for chlorinated HANs and 65μm PDMS/DVB for brominated HNMs. After optimization of the SPME parameters (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction time of 30min at 40°C, addition of 40% w/v of salt, (NH4)2SO4 as a quenching agent, and desorption time of 3min at 170°C), detection limits ranged from 1 to 50ng/L for different analogs, with a linear range of at least two orders of magnitude. Good recoveries (78.6-104.7%) were obtained for spiked samples of a wide range of treated drinking waters, demonstrating that the method is applicable for analysis of real drinking water samples. Matrix effects were negligible for the treated water samples with total organic carbon concentration of less than 2.9mg/L. An effective survey conducted by two drinking water treatment plants showed the highest proportion of Iodo-THMs, HANs, and HNMs occurred in treated water, and concentrations of 13 detected compounds ranged between the ng/L and the μg/L levels.

  11. Room Temperature ICl-Induced Dehydration/Iodination of 1-Acyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles. A Selective Route to Substituted 1-Acyl-4-iodo-1H-pyrazoles

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Jesse P.; Mehta, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    A number of new functionally substituted 1-acyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles have been prepared in moderate to excellent yields from the corresponding 2-alkyn-1-ones. The resulting dihydropyrazoles undergo dehydration and iodination in the presence of ICl and Li2CO3 at room temperature to provide 1-acyl-4-iodo-1H-pyrazoles. PMID:18665643

  12. Halogen-bonded network of trinuclear copper(II) 4-iodo­pyrazolate complexes formed by mutual breakdown of chloro­form and nanojars

    PubMed Central

    Surmann, Stuart A.; Mezei, Gellert

    2016-01-01

    Crystals of bis­(tetra­butyl­ammonium) di-μ3-chlorido-­tris­(μ2-4-iodo­pyrazolato-κ2 N:N′)tris­[chlorido­cuprate(II)] 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate, (C16H36N)2[Cu3(C3H2IN2)3Cl5]·0.5C4H8O or (Bu4N)2[CuII 3(μ 3-Cl)2(μ-4-I-pz)3Cl3]·0.5C4H8O, were obtained by evaporating a solution of (Bu4N)2[{CuII(μ-OH)(μ-4-I-pz)}nCO3] (n = 27–31) nanojars in chloro­form/1,4-dioxane. The decomposition of chloro­form in the presence of oxygen and moisture provides HCl, which leads to the breakdown of nanojars to the title trinuclear copper(II) pyrazolate complex, and possibly CuII ions and free 4-iodo­pyrazole. CuII ions, in turn, act as catalyst for the accelerated decomposition of chloro­form, ultimately leading to the complete breakdown of nanojars. The crystal structure presented here provides the first structural description of a trinuclear copper(II) pyrazolate complex with iodine-substituted pyrazoles. In contrast to related trinuclear complexes based on differently substituted 4-R-pyrazoles (R = H, Cl, Br, Me), the [Cu3(μ-4-I-pz)3Cl3] core in the title complex is nearly planar. This difference is likely a result of the presence of the iodine substituent, which provides a unique, novel feature in copper pyrazolate chemistry. Thus, the iodine atoms form halogen bonds with the terminal chlorido ligands of the surrounding complexes [mean length of I⋯Cl contacts = 3.48 (1) Å], leading to an extended two-dimensional, halogen-bonded network along (-110). The cavities within this framework are filled by centrosymmetric 1,4-dioxane solvent mol­ecules, which create further bridges via C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds with terminal chlorido ligands of the trinuclear complex not involved in halogen bonding. PMID:27840698

  13. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (Ki = 24–227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [3H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested against Ser438Thr hSERT, all three PALs showed dramatic rightward shifts in inhibitory potency, with Ki values ranging from 3.8 to 9.9 μM, consistent with the role of Ser438 as a key residue for high-affinity binding of many SSRIs, including (S)-citalopram. Photoactivation studies demonstrated irreversible adduction to hSERT by all ligands, but the reduced (S)-citalopram inhibition of labeling by [125I]15 compared to that by [125I]22 and [125I]26 suggests differences in binding mode(s). These radioligands will be useful for characterizing the drug–protein binding interactions for (S)-citalopram at hSERT. PMID:26153715

  14. 10-Iodo-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic Acids Are Selective Inhibitors of DYRK1A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase DYRK1A has been suggested to act as one of the intracellular regulators contributing to neurological alterations found in individuals with Down syndrome. For an assessment of the role of DYRK1A, selective synthetic inhibitors are valuable pharmacological tools. However, the DYRK1A inhibitors described in the literature so far either are not sufficiently selective or have not been tested against closely related kinases from the DYRK and the CLK protein kinase families. The aim of this study was the identification of DYRK1A inhibitors exhibiting selectivity versus the structurally and functionally closely related DYRK and CLK isoforms. Structure modification of the screening hit 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid revealed structure–activity relationships for kinase inhibition and enabled the design of 10-iodo-substituted derivatives as very potent DYRK1A inhibitors with considerable selectivity against CLKs. X-ray structure determination of three 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids cocrystallized with DYRK1A confirmed the predicted binding mode within the ATP binding site. PMID:25730262

  15. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of two polymorphs of the iodo-bridged ruthenium salt, μ-iodido-bis{η5-cyclopentadienyl-dicarbonyl-ruthenium(II)} tetrafluoroborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyawade, Eunice A.; Friedrich, Holger B.; M'thiruaine, Cyprian M.; Omondi, Bernard

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of RpI (Rp = (η5-C5H5)Ru(CO)2) and AgBF4 in two different solvents, tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane afforded two polymorphs of the iodo-bridged cationic complex [Rp2I]BF4. Polymorph I precipitates out of solution as yellow broad-shaped blocks while polymorph II crystallises out as thin-shaped blocks. While I crystallizes in the monoclinic P2/c space group with a = 12.0982(5) Å, b = 9.7923(4) Å, c = 15.5321(6) Å, β = 102.9880(10)°, polymorph (II) crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c with a = 7.00560(10) Å, b = 14.1446(3) Å, c = 18.2226(3) Å, β = 96.2390(10)°. The IR spectra of the compound showed the presence of terminal carbonyl groups but the absence of bridging carbonyl groups. Thermal studies of the two polymorphs reveal very close melting points, 432.2 and 435.2 K for I and II respectively. The enthalpies associated with their melting points are +15.1 kJ mol-1 and +21.9 kJ mol-1 for polymorphs I and II, respectively. ESI-mass spectroscopy showed the presence of a number of statistically possible combinations of the cationic species. The two polymorphs have also been characterized using DSC, IR and NMR.

  16. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Lapinsky, David J; Perley, Danielle; Felts, Bruce; Tomlinson, Michael J; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Henry, L Keith; Lever, John R; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-07-23

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (K(i) = 24-227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [(3)H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested against Ser438Thr hSERT, all three PALs showed dramatic rightward shifts in inhibitory potency, with Ki values ranging from 3.8 to 9.9 μM, consistent with the role of Ser438 as a key residue for high-affinity binding of many SSRIs, including (S)-citalopram. Photoactivation studies demonstrated irreversible adduction to hSERT by all ligands, but the reduced (S)-citalopram inhibition of labeling by [(125)I]15 compared to that by [(125)I]22 and [(125)I]26 suggests differences in binding mode(s). These radioligands will be useful for characterizing the drug-protein binding interactions for (S)-citalopram at hSERT.

  17. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor binding 4{prime}-IODO-PK11195: A new radioiodinated ligand for detecting lesioned brain areas

    SciTech Connect

    Saji, H.; Iida, Y.; Nakatsuka, I.

    1995-05-01

    An increase in the peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites (PBBS) has recently been reported in excitotoxic and ischaemic lesions in the brain. Thus, PBBS visualization has been of greater interest due to the possibility of imaging the lesioned area as positive image. In this study, our interest is focussed in the development of a radioiodinated compound for the SPECT study of PBBS function. Taking account of the environment of binding sites and the stability in vivo, we selected the 4{prime}position of C-1 phenyl moiety of the isoqunoline derivative PK11195 as the best exploitable site for the iodination. The no-carrier-added I-125 labeled 4{prime}-iodo-PK11195 (IPK) was synthesized by the bromine-iodine exchange reaction in 60% radiochemical yield and > 98% radiochemical purity. In vitro competitive binding studies with H-3-PI11195 using rat kidney membranes shows that IPK has high affinity for PBBS as much as PK11195. The in vivo biodistribution in mice showed high uptake of I-125-IPK in the kidney, lung, heart and adrenal, organs reported as containing high PBBS, which were reduced by the treatment with cold PK11195. Furthermore, autoradiographic studies in transient middle cerebral arteries occlusion in rats showed high accumulation of I-125-IPK in lesioned sites, in contrast to the decease of radioactivity of Tc-99m-HM-PAO. Gathered data indicated that the newly designed IPK holds to great potential for detecting the lesioned brain areas as positive image.

  18. Brain and brain tumor uptake of L-3-(123I)iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine: competition with natural L-amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, K.J.; Roosen, N.; Coenen, H.H.; Kuikka, J.T.; Kuwert, T.; Herzog, H.; Stoecklin, G.F.; Feinendegen, L.E. )

    1991-06-01

    SPECT studies with L-3-(123I)iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine (IMT) were carried out in 10 patients with different types of brain tumors--first under fasting conditions (basal) and a week later during intravenous infusion of a mixture of naturally-occurring L-amino acids (AA load). An uptake index (UI) was calculated by dividing tissue count rates by the integral of plasma count rates. The UI decreased by 45.6% {plus minus} 15.4% (n = 10, p less than 0.001) for normal brain and by 53.2% {plus minus} 14.1% for gliomas (n = 5, p less than 0.01) during AA load compared to basal conditions, while two meningiomas and a metastasis showed only a minor decrease (23.9 {plus minus} 5.7%, n.s.). Two pituitary adenomas could not be delineated on the SPECT scans. These data indicate that IMT competes with naturally-occurring L-amino acids for transport into normal brain and gliomas. Transport characteristics of IMT into tumors of nonglial origin appear to be different from those of gliomas. For both types of tumors, it is advisable to perform IMT-SPECT under fasting conditions.

  19. Synthesis of 4'-iodo-5-methoxy-valerophenone O-(2-aminoethyl)oxime as an agent for exploration of serotoninergic transporter.

    PubMed

    Branger, C; Garreau, L; Dognon, A M; Frangin, Y; Caillet, M; Ombetta-Goka, J E; Chalon, S; Besnard, J C; Guilloteau, D

    1995-02-01

    The serotonin reuptake process is observed in the central nervous system and in cells derived from the neural crest. It would therefore be of great interest to visualize this reuptake for brain exploration and to visualize the tumors derived from these cells (Apudome). Fluvoxamine has been described as a specific uptake inhibitor for serotonin uptake and we therefore supposed that an iodinated derivative of this compound would be a suitable tracer for this purpose. We had shown by computer-assisted investigation that the trifluoromethyl group of fluvoxamine can be replaced by iodine without changing the steric hindrance of the structure. We therefore expected that this result would allow the development of a new iodinated ligand for human exploration by SPECT which would inhibit for the serotoninergic transporter. This new ligand is 4'-iodo-5-methoxyvalerophenone O-(2-aminoethyl)oxime in its E configuration. In vitro binding studies demonstrated that this iodinated ligand has a weaker affinity for the serotonin uptake sites than fluvoxamine. Steric hindrance is not sufficient to predict affinity, other structural factors such as electronic density and dipole moment must be considered to explain the biological difference between fluvoxamine and its iodinated analog.

  20. Quantitative measurement of regional blood flow with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate bolus track NMR imaging in cerebral infarcts in rats: validation with the iodo[14C]antipyrine technique.

    PubMed Central

    Wittlich, F; Kohno, K; Mies, G; Norris, D G; Hoehn-Berlage, M

    1995-01-01

    NMR bolus track measurements were correlated with autoradiographically determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The NMR method is based on bolus infusion of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and high-speed T*2-sensitive NMR imaging. The first pass of the contrast agent through the image plane causes a transient decrease of the signal intensity. This time course of the signal intensity is transformed into relative concentrations of the contrast agent in each pixel. The mean transit time and relative blood flow and volume are calculated from such indicator dilution curves. We investigated whether this NMR technique correctly expresses the relative rCBF. The relative blood flow data, calculated from NMR bolus track experiments, and the absolute values of iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography were compared. A linear relationship was observed, indicating the proportionality of the transient NMR signal change with CBF. Excellent interindividual reproducibility of calibration constants is observed (r = 0.963). For a given NMR protocol, bolus track measurements calibrated with autoradiography after the experiment allow determination of absolute values for rCBF and regional blood volume. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7892189

  1. Extraordinary thermal stability of an oligodeoxynucleotide octamer constructed from alternating 7-deaza-7-iodo guanine and 5-Iodocytosine base pairs - DNA duplex stabilization by halogen bonds?

    PubMed

    Ramzaeva, Natalya; Eickmeier, Henning; Rosemeyer, Helmut

    2014-04-01

    A reinvestigation of the published X-ray crystal-structure analyses of 7-halogenated (Br, I) 8-aza-7-deaza-2'-deoxyguanosines Br(7) c(7) z(8) Gd ; 1a and I(7) c(7) z(8) Gd , 1b, as well as of the structurally related 7-deaza-7-iodo-2'-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyladenine (β-I(7) c(7) Ad ; 2=6e in Table 1) and its α-D-anomer (α-I(7) c(7) Ad ; 3) clearly revealed the existence of halogen bonds between corresponding halogen substituents and the adjacent N(3)-atoms of neighboring nucleoside molecules within the single crystals. These halogen bonds can be rationalized by the presence of a region of positive electrostatic potential, the σ-hole, on the outermost portion the halogen's surface, while the three unshared pairs of electrons produce a belt of negative electrostatic potential around the central part of the halogen substituent. The N(3) atoms of the halogenated nucleosides carry a partial negative charge. This novel type of bonding between nucleosides was tentatively used to explain the extraordinary high stability of oligodeoxynucleotides constructed from halogenated nucleotide building blocks. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Characterization of the early primary antibody response to the 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetate (NIP) and the 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) determinants*

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Diane H.; Kontiainen, Sirkka; Stavitsky, A. B.; Mäkelä, O.

    1968-01-01

    Rabbits, rats and mice were injected intraperitoneally with 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetate (NIP)-chicken globulin. Antibodies to this hapten were assayed in gradient centrifuged fractions or gel filtration fractions of their sera by neutralization of NIP-phage. The 19S antibodies appeared a few days after immunization. Sometimes 7S antibodies appeared simultaneously or after a lag of a few days. Rabbits were injected into the hind footpads with 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DMP)—bovine γ-globulin in complete Freund's adjuvant. Passive haemagglutination, antigen-binding, radioimmunoelectrophoresis and passive cutaneous anaphylactic reactions were applied to the assay of antibody in sera and in ultracentrifugal, electrophoretic and chromatographic fractions of these sera. The γM and γG antibodies appeared simultaneously in the blood on the 5th or 6th day after immunization. The γM antibodies were detected most readily by haemagglutination, but also by radioimmunoelectrophoresis. The γG antibodies were detected on the 5th or 6th day by antigen-binding, radioimmunoelectrophoresis and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and only later by haemagglutination. The data are discussed with regard to methods for demonstrating the different classes of antibody to haptens, to the organ and cellular origins of antibodies and to the validity of the postulated sequential synthesis of γM and γG antibodies. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5709090

  3. The inhibition of PB125I formation in calf thyroid caused by 14-iodo-15-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid is due to decreased H2O2 availability.

    PubMed

    Krawiec, L; Chazenbalk, G D; Puntarulo, S A; Burton, G; Boveris, A; Valsecchi, R M; Pisarev, M A

    1988-02-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has shown that 14-iodo-15-hydroxy-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (I-HO-A) is a potent inhibitor of iodine organification in calf thyroid slices. The present studies were performed in order to clarify the mechanism of this action. Incubation of thyroid slices with 10(-4)M I-HO-A caused a 47 and 53% decrease in PB125I formation after 30 and 60 min incubation, respectively. In a series of experiments an inverse relationship between the degree of inhibition caused by I-HO-A and total iodine content and basal iodoprotein formation was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled compounds showed a significant decrease in 125I incorporation into MIT, DIT, T3 and total iodolipid. The site of the inhibitory effect of I-HO-A was then sought. TPO was measured by three different methods. When TPO was solubilized from I-HO-A treated slices, no change in enzymatic activity was observed. Moreover, the same lack of action was found when solubilized TPO was incubated with I-HO-A. The production and release of H2O2 into the incubation medium was measured by chemiluminiscence technique. In control slices the values increased during the first 10 min and reached a plateau. Pretreatment of the slices with 10(-4)M KI caused a 51% inhibition, while the same concentration of I-HO-A produced a 59% inhibition. The possibility that I-HO-A might exert its action through a putative protein inhibitor was also explored. Incubation of slices with 10(-5)M I-HO-A caused a 46% decrease in PB125I formation and addition of actinomycin D or puromycin failed to alter this effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Half-Sandwich Alkyl, Amido, and Iodo Samarium(II) Complexes: Non-Conventional Sterically Governed Oxidation of (tBu4 Carb)2 Sm.

    PubMed

    Selikhov, Alexander N; Mahrova, Tatyana V; Cherkasov, Anton V; Fukin, Georgy K; Maron, Laurent; Trifonov, Alexander A

    2017-01-26

    The half-sandwich tetra-tert-butylcarbazol-9-yl iodo complex [(tBu4 Carb)Sm(μ-I)(THF)2 ]2 (1) was synthesized by the salt metathesis reaction of tBu4 CarbK and SmI2 (THF)2 in THF. Complex 1 along with metallic Cu was also isolated from the oxidation reaction of (tBu4 Carb)2 Sm by CuI. The formation of stable radical tBu4 Carb(.) was detected in this non-conventional process, indicating preferential oxidation of anion tBu4 Carb(-) vs. Sm(II) . The treatment of 1 with two equivalents of dibenzo-18-crown-6 resulted in heterolytic dissociation of a η(5) -bond Sm-tBu4 Carb and afforded an ionic compound [tBu4 carb(-) ][SmI(crown)(THF)2 ](+) (4). Alkylation of 1 with o-NMe2 C6 H4 CH2 K (1:2 molar ratio) in THF allowed for the synthesis of half-sandwich Sm(II) alkyl complex (tBu4 Carb)SmCH2 (o-NMe2 C6 H4 CH2 )(THF)2 (5) in 55 % yield. The amido complex (tBu4 Carb)SmN(SiMe3 )2 (DME) (6) was obtained by the reaction of 1 with two molar equivalents of NaN(SiMe3 )2 in THF in 89 % yield. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Biological Effects of Irradiating Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Internal Exposure with 125I-Labeled 5-Iodo-2′-Deoxyuridine-Chitosan Drug Loading Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ran; Wan, Jianmei; Jiang, Bo; Zhou, Dayong; Song, Miaoli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the authors evaluate the biological effects of irradiation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by internal exposure with 125I-labeled 5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (125I-UdR)-chitosan drug loading nanoparticles (125I-UdR-CS-DLN). The authors observed that accumulation of nanoparticles was significantly (p<0.05) higher in hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 than normal liver cells HL-7702 after treated with 125I-UdR-CS-DLN for 30 minutes. Survival of HepG2 cells was significantly lower at 125I-UdR-CS-DLN doses higher than 37 kBq/mL (more significant in the G1 phase and G2/M phase) than the HL-7702 cells. In addition, 125I-UdR-CS-DLN induced a higher level of DNA double-strand breaks than 125I-UdR, and HepG2 cells exhibited a lower level of DNA repair when compared with HL-7702 cells. In vivo animal experiments, TUNEL staining, after targeted treatment, showed that 125I-UdR-CS-DLN induced significant cell apoptosis in rabbit hepatocellular tumors in situ than 125I-UdR infusion at the same dose. In conclusion, hepatocellular carcinoma cells were significantly irradiated with 125I-UdR-CS-DLN compared with 125I-UdR, and 125I-UdR-CS-DLN irradiation enhanced DNA damage, induced liver cancer cell apoptosis, and prevented DNA damage repair. However, evaluating the extent of damage and organ sparing in vivo should also be considered. PMID:25379613

  6. Pilot clinical trial of 5-[{sup 125}I] iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine in the treatment of colorectal cancer metastic to the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Macapinlac, H.A.; Kemeny, N.; Daghighian, F.

    1996-04-01

    The thymidine analog, 5-iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine (IUdR), is incorporated in the DNA of cell sin the S phase. When incorporated in the DNA, short-range Auger electrons emitted by {sup 125}I-labeled IUdR can cause double-strand breaks, delivering a lethal radiation dose to the cell. We conducted therapeutic trial to evaluate [{sup 125}I/{sup 131}I]IUdR pharmacokinetics in liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Dosimetry, safety, and therapeutic potential were assessed. Four patients were each infused with 5 mCi [{sup 125}I]IUdR and 10 mCi [{sup 131}I]IUdR through the sideport of a hepatic artery pump. Iodine-131 images were quantitated and used for pharmacokinetic studies. The radioactivity in the DNA of biopsy samples of tumor, normal liver and bone marrow, obtained 24 or 48 hr after injection, was counted. All patients had [{sup 125}I]IUdR and [{sup 131}I]IUdR uptake in tumor, with a biexponential clearance. Repeat injections in individual patients showed little variation in tumor uptake, especially in the slow clearance component. On planar images, no long-term retention was seen in bone marrow or other activity dividing normal tissues. Radioactivity in the DNA of one marrow sample taken at 24 hr was above background, but in another taken at 48 hr it was equal to background levels. No side effects were noted, no hematologic toxicity was observed in any patients and no tumor responses were seen. There is persisten uptake of [{sup 125}I]IUdR in hepatic tumors, thereby making hepatic artery infusion a suitable mode of delivery for therapy. Repeat injections will be needed because only 15%-50% of tumor cells are in the S phase. Based on results from this pilot study, a therapeutic regimen is being planned. 43 refs. 2 figs.

  7. Direct amidation of carboxylic acids catalyzed by ortho-iodo arylboronic acids: catalyst optimization, scope, and preliminary mechanistic study supporting a peculiar halogen acceleration effect.

    PubMed

    Gernigon, Nicolas; Al-Zoubi, Raed M; Hall, Dennis G

    2012-10-05

    The importance of amides as a component of biomolecules and synthetic products motivates the development of catalytic, direct amidation methods employing free carboxylic acids and amines that circumvent the need for stoichiometric activation or coupling reagents. ortho-Iodophenylboronic acid 4a has recently been shown to catalyze direct amidation reactions at room temperature in the presence of 4A molecular sieves as dehydrating agent. Herein, the arene core of ortho-iodoarylboronic acid catalysts has been optimized with regards to the electronic effects of ring substitution. Contrary to the expectation, it was found that electron-donating substituents are preferable, in particular, an alkoxy substituent positioned para to the iodide. The optimal new catalyst, 5-methoxy-2-iodophenylboronic acid (MIBA, 4f), was demonstrated to be kinetically more active than the parent des-methoxy catalyst 4a, providing higher yields of amide products in shorter reaction times under mild conditions at ambient temperature. Catalyst 4f is recyclable and promotes the formation of amides from aliphatic carboxylic acids and amines, and from heteroaromatic carboxylic acids and other functionalized substrates containing moieties like a free phenol, indole and pyridine. Mechanistic studies demonstrated the essential role of molecular sieves in this complex amidation process. The effect of substrate stoichiometry, concentration, and measurement of the catalyst order led to a possible catalytic cycle based on the presumed formation of an acylborate intermediate. The need for an electronically enriched ortho-iodo substituent in catalyst 4f supports a recent theoretical study (Marcelli, T. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2010, 49, 6840-6843) with a purported role for the iodide as a hydrogen-bond acceptor in the orthoaminal transition state.

  8. Determination of NH2 concentration on 3-aminopropyl tri-ethoxy silane layers and cyclopropylamine plasma polymers by liquid-phase derivatization with 5-iodo 2-furaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakhov, Anton; Čechal, Jan; Michlíček, Miroslav; Shtansky, Dmitry V.

    2017-08-01

    The quantification of concentration of primary amines, e.g. in plasma polymerized layers is a very important task for surface analysis. However, the commonly used procedure, such as gas phase derivatization with benzaldehydes, shows several drawbacks, the most important of which are the side reaction effects. In the present study we propose and validate a liquid phase derivatization using 5-iodo 2-furaldehyde (IFA). It was demonstrated that the content of NH2 groups can be determined from the atomic concentrations measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in particular from the ratio of I 3d and N 1s peak intensities. First, we demonstrate the method on a prototypical system such as 3-aminopropyl tri-ethoxy silane (APTES) layer. Here the XPS analysis carried out after reaction of APTES layer with IFA gives the fraction of primary amines (NH2/N) of 38.3 ± 7.9%. Comparing this value with that obtained by N 1s curve fitting of APTES layer giving 40.9 ± 9.5% of amine groups, it can be concluded that all primary amines were derivatized by reaction with IFA. The second system to demonstrate the method comprises cyclopropylamine (CPA) plasma polymers that were free from conjugated imines. In this case the method gives the NH2 fraction ∼8.5%. This value is closely matching the NH2/N ratio estimated by 4-trifluoromethyl benzaldehyde (TFBA) derivatization. The reaction of IFA with CPA plasma polymer exhibiting high density of conjugated imines revealed the NH2/N fraction of ∼10.8%. This value was significantly lower compared to 17.3% estimated by TFBA derivatization. As the overestimated density of primary amines measured by TFBA derivatization is probably related to the side reaction of benzaldehydes with conjugated imines, the proposed IFA derivatization of primary amines can be an alternative procedure for the quantification of surface amine groups.

  9. Assessment of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats with 125I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose, a new tracer of glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Perret, Pascale; Slimani, Lotfi; Briat, Arnaud; Villemain, Danièle; Halimi, Serge; Demongeot, Jacques; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Insulin resistance, characterised by an insulin-stimulated glucose transport defect, is an important feature of the pre-diabetic state that has been observed in numerous pathological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in glucose transport in rats using (125)I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG), a new tracer of glucose transport proposed as an imaging tool to assess insulin resistance in vivo. Two protocols were performed, a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a normoinsulinaemic-normoglycaemic protocol, in awake control and insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. The tracer was injected at steady state, and activity in 11 tissues and the blood was assessed ex vivo at several time points. A multicompartmental mathematical model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the organs. Insulin sensitivity of fructose-fed rats, estimated by the glucose infusion rate, was reduced by 40% compared with control rats. At steady state, 6DIG uptake was significantly stimulated by insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues of control rats (basal versus insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.01; muscle, p<0.05; heart, p<0.001), whereas insulin did not stimulate 6DIG uptake in insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. Moreover, in these tissues, the fractional transfer coefficients of entrance were significantly increased with insulin in control rats (basal vs insulin: diaphragm, p<0.001; muscle, p<0.001; heart, p<0.01) whereas no significant changes were observed in fructose-fed rats. This study sets the stage for the future use of 6DIG as a non-invasive means for the evaluation of insulin resistance by nuclear imaging.

  10. Muscle bio-energetics in acute glycolytic block: in vivo phosphorus-nuclear magnetic resonance study of iodo-acetate injected rats.

    PubMed

    Argov, Z; Nagle, D; Giger, U; Leigh, J S

    1989-01-01

    In vivo phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of muscle was performed at rest, during work and during postexercise recovery in rats injected with iodo-acetate (IA) (35-40 mg.kg-1, intra-arterially), in order to follow bio-energetic changes in muscle with acute glycolytic block. Three animals with contracture had very low ratios of phosphocreatine:inorganic phosphate (PCr:Pi) at rest (0.5-0.9). The PCr:Pi were normal at rest (6.9 +/- 2.0, +/- 2 SD) in all other rats. Exercise-induced continuous accumulation of phosphomonoesters (PME), the characteristic finding of glycolytic block, was observed. The end-exercise levels of PME correlated with the degree of block measured in vitro. During steady-state work, induced by nerve stimulation at four frequencies, PCr:Pi values were significantly lower (p less than 0.02) than the control values at 0.25, 1.0 and 2.0 Hz. The ATP levels fell during exercise to reach 75% +/- 7% of initial values. The recovery of PCr:Pi from exercise and the disappearance of PME were slow. Two animals which survived the IA injection demonstrated much lower PME accumulation 18 h later. It is concluded that in acute muscle glycolytic block: (1) energy metabolism is impaired during exercise and also at rest, (2) accumulating PME can serve as an indicator of the degree of glycolytic block, (3) ATP levels fall during work, and (4) postexercise recovery is slow. The findings are compared with 31P-NMR observations in chronic muscle glycolytic disorders.

  11. Synthesis of (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S)-trans-8-hydroxy-2-[N-n-propyl-N-(3'-iodo-2'-propenyl)] aminotetralin: new 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Z P; Kung, M P; Clarke, W; Maayani, S; Mu, M; Kung, H F

    1995-01-01

    (R,S)-trans-8-Hydroxy-2-[N-n-propyl-N-(3'-iodo-2'- propenyl)amino]tetralin 7, a new radioiodinated ligand based on 8-OH-DPAT, was reported as a potential ligand for 5-HT1A receptors. The optically active (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S)-7 were prepared to investigate the stereoselectivity of (R,S)-7. Racemic intermediate 8-methoxy-2-N-n-propyltetralin was reacted with the acyl chloride of (-)-(R)-O-methylmandelic acid to form a mixture of (S,R)- and (R,R)-diastereoisomers, which were separated by flash column chromatography. After removing the N-acyl group from the diastereoisomers, the desired (+)-(R)- or (-)-(S)-7 was obtained by adding an N-iodopropenyl group. In vitro homogenate binding studies showed the stereoselectivity of this new compound for 5-HT1A receptors. (+)-(R)-7 isomer displayed 100-fold higher affinity than the (-)-(S)-7 isomer. Biochemical study indicated that (+)-(R)-7 potently inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in hippocampal membranes (Emax and EC50 were 24.5% and 5.4 nM, respectively), while (-)-(S)-7 showed no effect at 1 microM. The radioiodinated (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S)-[125I]7 were confirmed by coelution with the resolved unlabeled compound on HPLC (reverse phase column PRP-1, acetonitrile/pH 7.0 buffer, 80/20). The active isomer, (+)-(R)-[125I]7, displayed high binding affinity to 5-HT1A receptors (Kd = 0.09 +/- 0.02 nM). In contrast, the (-)-(S)-7 isomer displayed a significantly lower affinity to the 5-HT1A receptor (Kd > 10 nM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Tuning the stereoelectronic properties of 1-sulfanylhex-1-enitols for the sequential stereoselective synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodo-β-D-allopyranosides.

    PubMed

    Kövér, Andrea; Boutureira, Omar; Matheu, M Isabel; Díaz, Yolanda; Castillón, Sergio

    2014-04-04

    The preparation of challenging 2-deoxy-2-iodo-β-D-allo precursors of 2-deoxy-β-D-ribo-hexopyranosyl units and other analogues is reported using a robust olefination-cyclization-glycosylation sequence. Here, we particularly focus on tuning the stereoelectronic properties of the alkenyl sulfides intermediates in order to improve the diastereoselectivity of the cyclization step and, hence, the efficiency of the overall transformation. Phosphine oxides with the general formula Ph2P(O)CH2SR (R = t-Bu, Cy, p-MeOPh, 2,6-di-ClPh, and 2,6-di-MePh) were easily synthesized and subsequently used in the olefination reaction with 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-D-ribose and -D-arabinose. The corresponding sugar-derived alkenyl sulfides were submitted to a 6-endo [I(+)]-induced cyclization, and the resulting 2-deoxy-2-iodohexopyranosyl-1-thioglycosides were used as glycosyl donors for the stereoselective synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodohexopyranosyl glycosides. Among the different S-groups studied, t-Bu derivative was the best performer for the synthesis of cholesteryl 2-deoxy-2-iodomannopyranosides, whereas for the synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodoallopyranosides none of the derivatives here studied proved superior to the phenyl analogue previously described. Glycosylation of cholesterol with different d-allo and d-manno derivatives produced 2-deoxy-2-iodoglycosides with stereoselectivities in the same order in each case, reinforcing the involvement of an oxocarbenium ion as the common intermediate of this crucial glycosylation step.

  13. 12-((5-Iodo-4-azido-2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino)dodecanoic acid: Biological recognition by cholesterol esterase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnunen, P.M.; Klopf, F.H.; Bastiani, C.A.; Gelfman, C.M.; Lange, L.G. )

    1990-02-13

    Potential probes of protein cholesterol and fatty acid binding sites, namely, 12-((5-iodo-4-azido-2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino)dodecanoate (IFA) and its coenzyme A (IFA:CoA) and cholesteryl (IFA:CEA) esters, were synthesized. These radioactive, photoreactive lipid analogues were recognized as substrates and inhibitors of acyl-CoA;cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol esterase, neutral lipid binding enzymes which are key elements in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism. In the dark, IFA reversibly inhibited cholesteryl ({sup 14}C)oleate hydrolysis by purified bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterase with an apparent K{sub i} of 150 {mu}M. Cholesterol esterase inhibition by IFA became irreversible after photolysis with UV light and oleic acid provided 50% protection against inactivation. Incubation of homogeneous bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterase with IFA:CEA resulted in its hydrolysis to IFA and cholesterol, indicating recognition of IFA:CEA as a substrate by cholesterol esterase. The coenzyme A ester, IFA:CoA, was a reversible inhibitor of microsomal ACAT activity under dark conditions, and photolysis resulted in irreversible inhibition of enzyme activity with 87% efficiency. IFA:CoA was also recognized as a substrate by both liver and aortic microsomal ACATs, with resultant synthesis of {sup 125}IFA:CEA. IFA and its derivatives, IFA:CEA and IFA:CoA, are thus inhibitors and substrates for cholesterol esterase and ACAT. Biological recognition of these photoaffinity lipid analogues will facilitate the identification and structural analysis of hitherto uncharacterized protein lipid binding sites.

  14. Experimental and ab Initio Study of Catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I)) under Pressure: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Electronic, and Luminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Aguirrechu-Comerón, Amagoia; Hernández-Molina, Rita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Plácida; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Ulises R; Lavín, Vı́ctor; Angel, Ross J; Gonzalez-Platas, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Copper(I) iodine compounds can exhibit interesting mechanochromic and thermochromic luminescent properties with important technological applications. We report the synthesis and structure determination by X-ray diffraction of a new polymeric staircase copper(I) iodine compound catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I), [C10H9CuIN]. The structure is composed of isolated polymeric staircase chains of copper-iodine coordinated to organic ligands through Cu-N bonds. High pressure X-ray diffraction to 6.45 GPa shows that the material is soft, with a bulk modulus K0 = 10.2(2)GPa and a first derivative K'0 = 8.1(3), typical for organometallic compounds. The unit-cell compression is very anisotropic with the stiffest direction [302] arising from a combination of the stiff CuI ladders and the shear of the planar quinolone ligands over one another. Full structure refinements at elevated pressures show that pressures reduce the Cu···Cu distances in the compound. This effect is detected in luminescence spectra with the appearance of four sub-bands at 515, 600, 647, and 712 nm above 3.5 GPa. Red-shifts are observed, and they are tentatively associated with interactions between copper(I) ions due to the shortening of the Cu···Cu distances induced by pressure, below twice the van der Waals limit (2.8 Å). Additionally, ab initio simulations were performed, and they confirmed the structure and the results obtained experimentally for the equation of state. The simulation allowed the band structure and the electronic density of states of this copper(I) iodine complex to be determined. In particular, the band gap decreases slowly with pressure in a quadratic way with dEg/dP = -0.011 eV/GPa and d(2)Eg/dP(2) = 0.001 eV/GPa(2).

  15. [125I]2-(2-chloro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-5-methyl-pyrroline (LNP 911), a high-affinity radioligand selective for I1 imidazoline receptors.

    PubMed

    Greney, Hugues; Urosevic, Dragan; Schann, Stephan; Dupuy, Laurence; Bruban, Véronique; Ehrhardt, Jean-Daniel; Bousquet, Pascal; Dontenwill, Monique

    2002-07-01

    The I1 subtype of imidazoline receptors (I1R) is a plasma membrane protein that is involved in diverse physiological functions. Available radioligands used so far to characterize the I(1)R were able to bind with similar affinities to alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARs) and to I1R. This feature was a major drawback for an adequate characterization of this receptor subtype. New imidazoline analogs were therefore synthesized and the present study describes one of these compounds, 2-(2-chloro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-5-methyl-pyrroline (LNP 911), which was of high affinity and selectivity for the I1R. LNP 911 was radioiodinated and its binding properties characterized in different membrane preparations. Saturation experiments with [125I]LNP 911 revealed a single high affinity binding site in PC-12 cell membranes (K(D) = 1.4 nM; B(max) = 398 fmol/mg protein) with low nonspecific binding. [125I]LNP 911 specific binding was inhibited by various imidazolines and analogs but was insensitive to guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate. The rank order of potency of some competing ligands [LNP 911, PIC, rilmenidine, 4-chloro-2-(imidazolin-2-ylamino)-isoindoline (BDF 6143), lofexidine, and clonidine] was consistent with the definition of [125I]LNP 911 binding sites as I1R. However, other high-affinity I1R ligands (moxonidine, efaroxan, and benazoline) exhibited low affinities for these binding sites in standard binding assays. In contrast, when [125I]LNP 911 was preincubated at 4 degrees C, competition curves of moxonidine became biphasic. In this case, moxonidine exhibited similar high affinities on [125I]LNP 911 binding sites as on I1R defined with [125I]PIC. Moxonidine proved also able to accelerate the dissociation of [125I]LNP 911 from its binding sites. These results suggest the existence of an allosteric modulation at the level of the I1R, which seems to be corroborated by the dose-dependent enhancement by LNP 911 of the agonist effects on the adenylate cyclase pathway

  16. (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-[125I]iodo- 2-methoxybenzamide hydrochloride, a new selective radioligand for dopamine D-2 receptors.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, T; Janowsky, A; Kessler, R M; Clanton, J A; Smith, H E

    1988-10-01

    From salicyclic acid, the two enantiomers of N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide (6b) were prepared in a five-step synthesis. With use of Heindel's triazene method for introduction of the radionuclide, the iodine-125-labeled substituted benzamide was obtained with a calculated specific activity of 136 Ci/mmol and 14% radiochemical yield. For the preparation of the iodine-125-labeled benzamide with higher specific activity, this method was unsuccessful and utilization of the corresponding tri-n-butyltin derivative was required. Treatment of the latter in dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium iodide-125 and chloramine-T gave [125I](S)-6b in 56% radiochemical yield and at least 97% radiochemical purity. The displacement of [125I](S)-6b and [3H](S)-sulpiride from their respective binding sites in striatal rat brain homogenates using various neuroleptic agents showed that (S)-6b has the same binding profile but more potent binding for dopamine D-2 receptors than has sulpiride. These experiments also indicate that the S enantiomer of 6b is a specific ligand (KD = 1.2 nM) for the D-2 receptor. Further, the octanol-water partition coefficient of (S)-6b as determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was found to be 40 times greater than that for sulpiride. Thus (S)-6b has a lipophilicity that will allow a relatively higher uptake into the brain compared to sulpiride. In vivo experiments with rats show that [125I](S)-6b penetrates readily into the brain and is preferentially localized in the striatum as compared to the cerebellum, the ratio of uptake being 7.2 to 1, 60 min after injection. These observations of good brain penetration and high affinity and selectivity for D-2 receptors indicate that the corresponding iodine-123-labeled benzamide may be a useful ligand for the noninvasive visualization study of dopamine D-2 receptor sites in vivo by single photon emission computed tomography.

  17. In Vivo Differences between Two Optical Isomers of Radioiodinated o-iodo-trans-decalinvesamicol for Use as a Radioligand for the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Izumi; Kozaka, Takashi; Miwa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yoji; Azim, Mohammad Anwar-ul; Ogawa, Kazuma; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo; Shiba, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a superior VAChT imaging probe for SPECT, radiolabeled (-)-OIDV and (+)-OIDV were isolated and investigated for differences in their binding affinity and selectivity to VAChT, as well as their in vivo activities. Procedures Radioiodinated o-iodo-trans-decalinvesamicol ([125I]OIDV) has a high binding affinity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) both in vitro and in vivo. Racemic [125I]OIDV was separated into its two optical isomers (-)-[125I]OIDV and (+)-[125I]OIDV by HPLC. To investigate VAChT binding affinity (Ki) of two OIDV isomers, in vitro binding assays were performed. In vivo biodistribution study of each [125I]OIDV isomer in blood, brain regions and major organs of rats was performed at 2,30 and 60 min post-injection. In vivo blocking study were performed to reveal the binding selectivity of two [125I]OIDV isomers to VAChT in vivo. Ex vivo autoradiography were performed to reveal the regional brain distribution of two [125I]OIDV isomers and (-)-[123I]OIDV for SPECT at 60 min postinjection. Results VAChT binding affinity (Ki) of (-)-[125I]OIDV and (+)-[125I]OIDV was 22.1 nM and 79.0 nM, respectively. At 2 min post-injection, accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV was the same as that of (+)-[125I]OIDV. However, (+)-[125I]OIDV clearance from the brain was faster than (-)-[125I]OIDV. At 30 min post-injection, accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV (0.62 ± 0.10%ID/g) was higher than (+)-[125I]OIDV (0.46 ± 0.07%ID/g) in the cortex. Inhibition of OIDV binding showed that (-)-[125I]OIDV was selectively accumulated in regions known to express VAChT in the rat brain, and ex vivo autoradiography further confirmed these results showing similar accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV in these regions. Furthermore, (-)-[123I]OIDV for SPECT showed the same regional brain distribution as (-)-[125I]OIDV. Conclusion These results suggest that radioiodinated (-)-OIDV may be a potentially useful tool for studying presynaptic cholinergic neurons in the brain. PMID

  18. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17 -diol and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (17 alpha-(iodovinyl)estradiol derivatives) as high specific activity potential radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, I.; Ferreira, N.L.; Eckelman, W.C.; Francis, B.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.

    1984-10-01

    Two 17 alpha-(/sup 125/I)iodovinyl estradiol derivatives 4b,d possessing high specific activity have been prepared and tested as potential radiopharmaceuticals. The use of the 3-acetyl derivatives 2c,e and the replacement of iodine monochloride with sodium iodide and Chloramine-T in THF/phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) permitted us to synthesize no-carrier-added (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-d iol (4b) and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (4d) with 50% radiochemical yield and high purity. Although the specific activity represents only half of the theoretical value in some cases, this modified approach is a substantial improvement over the previously published method. Our preliminary distribution studies indicate that although both 4b and 4d localize in the tissues known to have a large concentration of estrogen receptors, 4d accumulates in higher amounts in target tissues and provides a high target to nontarget ratio.

  20. Study of [18F]FLT and [123I]IaraU for cellular imaging in HSV1 tk-transfected murine fibrosarcoma cells: evaluation of the tracer uptake using 5-fluoro, 5-iodo and 5-iodovinyl arabinosyl uridines as competitive probes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ho-Lien; Chiang, Li-Wu; Chen, Jia-Rong; Yang, Wen K; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Chen, Jenn-Tzong; Duh, Ting-Shien; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Farn, Shiou-Shiow; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Huang, Chia-Wen; Lin, Kun-I; Yu, Chung-Shan

    2012-04-01

    As one of the most intensively studied probes for imaging of the cellular proliferation, [(18)F]FLT was investigated whether the targeting specificity of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) dependency could be enhanced through a synergistic effect mediated by herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) tk gene in terms of the TK1 or TK2 expression. 5-[(123)I]Iodo arabinosyl uridine ([(123)I]IaraU) was prepared in a radiochemical yield of 8% and specific activity of 21 GBq/μmol, respectively. Inhibition of the cellular uptake of these two tracers was compared by using the arabinosyl uridine analogs such as 5-iodo, 5-fluoro and 5-(E)-iodovinyl arabinosyl uridine along with 2'-fluoro-5-iodo arabinosyl uridine (FIAU). Due to potential instability of the iodo group, accumulation index of 1.6 for [(123)I]IaraU by HSV1-TK vs. control cells could virtually be achieved at 1.5 h, but dropped to 0.2 compared to 2.0 for [(18)F]FLT at 5 h. The results from competitive inhibition by these nucleosides against the accumulation of [(18)F]FLT implied that FLT exerted a mixed TK1- and TK2-dependent inhibition with HSV1-tk gene transfection because of the shifting of thymidine kinase status. Taken together, the combination of [(18)F]FLT and HSV1-TK provides a synergistic imaging potency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using uh and um in spontaneous speaking.

    PubMed

    Clark, Herbert H; Fox Tree, Jean E

    2002-05-01

    The proposal examined here is that speakers use uh and um to announce that they are initiating what they expect to be a minor (uh), or major (um), delay in speaking. Speakers can use these announcements in turn to implicate, for example, that they are searching for a word, are deciding what to say next, want to keep the floor, or want to cede the floor. Evidence for the proposal comes from several large corpora of spontaneous speech. The evidence shows that speakers monitor their speech plans for upcoming delays worthy of comment. When they discover such a delay, they formulate where and how to suspend speaking, which item to produce (uh or um), whether to attach it as a clitic onto the previous word (as in "and-uh"), and whether to prolong it. The argument is that uh and um are conventional English words, and speakers plan for, formulate, and produce them just as they would any word.

  2. Iodination of carbohydrate-derived 1,2-oxazines to enantiopure 5-iodo-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazines and subsequent palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions

    PubMed Central

    Medvecký, Michal; Linder, Igor; Schefzig, Luise

    2016-01-01

    Iodination of carbohydrate-derived 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazines of type 3 using iodine and pyridine in DMF furnished 5-iodo-substituted 1,2-oxazine derivatives 4 with high efficacy. The alkenyl iodide moiety of 1,2-oxazine derivatives syn-4 and anti-4 was subsequently exploited for the introduction of new functionalities at the C-5 position by applying palladium-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions such as Sonogashira, Heck, or Suzuki coupling reactions as well as a cyanation reaction. These cross-coupling reactions led to a series of 5-alkynyl-, 5-alkenyl-, 5-aryl- and 5-cyano-substituted 1,2-oxazine derivatives being of considerable interest for further synthetic elaborations. This was exemplarily demonstrated by the hydrogenation of syn-21 and anti-24 and by a click reaction of a 5-alkynyl-substituted precursor. PMID:28144363

  3. Evidence for the rapid direct control both in vivo and in vitro of the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation by 3,5,3'-tri-iodo-L-thyronine in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Romero, R; Mowbray, J

    1979-01-01

    1. Examination of the distribution of L-tri-iodothyronine among rat liver tissue fractions after its intravenous injection into thyroidectomized rats focused attention on mitochondria at very short times after administration. By 15 min this fraction contained 18.5% of the tissue pool; however, the content had decreased sharply by 60 min and even further over the next 3 h. By contrast, the content in all other fractions was constant or increased over 4 h. About 60% of tissue hormone was bound to soluble protein. 2. Mitochondria isolated from thyroidectomized rats showed P/O ratios that were about 50% of those found in normal controls, with both succinate and pyruvate plus malate as substrates. There was no evidence of uncoupling; the respiratory-control ratio was about 6. 3. Mitochondria isolated 15 min after injection of tri-iodothyronine into thyroidectomized rats showed P/O ratios and respiratory-control ratios that were indistinguishable from those obtained in mitochondria from euthyroid animals. The oxidation rate was, however, not restored. 4. Incubation of homogenates of livers taken from thyroidectomized animals injected with L-tri-iodothyronine before isolation of the mitochondria restored the P/O ratio to normal; by contrast, direct addition of hormone to isolated mitochondria had no effect. The role of extramitochondrial factors in rapid tri-iodothyronine action is discussed. 5. Possible mechanisms by which tri-iodothyronine might rapidly alter phosphorylation efficiency are considered: it is concluded that control of adenine nucleotide translocase is unlikely to be involved. 6. The amounts of adenine nucleotides in liver were measured both after thyroidectomy and 15 min after intravenous tri-iodo-thyronine administration to thyroidectomized animals. The concentrations found are consistent with a decreased phosphorylation efficiency in thyroidectomized animals. Tri-iodothyronine injection resulted in very significant changes in the amounts of ATP, ADP and

  4. Postmortem detection of 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine] in fluids and tissues determined by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry from a traumatic death.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Devers, Kelly G; Arbefeville, Elise F; Pearson, Julia M; Houston, Eric; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    We present a traumatic fatality of a 19-year-old man who had ingested blotter paper containing 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine]. Postmortem specimens were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Toxicology findings for fluids based upon blood or urine calibrators were as follows: peripheral blood, 405 pg/mL; heart blood, 410 pg/mL; urine, 2.86 ng/mL; and vitreous humor, 99 pg/mL. While findings based upon the method of standard additions were: gastric contents, 7.1 μg total; bile, 10.9 ng/g; brain, 2.54 ng/g and liver, 7.2 ng/g. To our knowledge the presented case is the first postmortem case of 25I-NBOMe intoxication documented by toxicological analysis of tissues and body fluids.

  5. Postmortem detection of 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine] in fluids and tissues determined by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry from a traumatic death

    PubMed Central

    Poklis, Justin L.; Devers, Kelly G.; Arbefeville, Elise F.; Pearson, Julia M.; Houston, Eric; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    We present a traumatic fatality of a 19-year-old man who had ingested blotter paper containing 25INBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine]. Postmortem specimens were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Toxicology findings for fluids based upon blood or urine calibrators were as follows: peripheral blood, 405 pg/mL; heart blood, 410 pg/mL; urine, 2.86 ng/mL; and vitreous humor, 99 pg/mL. While findings based upon the method of standard additions were: gastric contents, 7.1 μg total; bile, 10.9 ng/g; brain, 2.54 ng/g and liver, 7.2 ng/g. To our knowledge the presented case is the first postmortem case of 25I-NBOMe intoxication documented by toxicological analysis of tissues and body fluids. PMID:24215811

  6. Determination of Ultra-trace Rhodium in Water Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Cloud Point Extraction Using 2-(5-Iodo-2-Pyridylazo)-5-Dimethylaminoaniline as a Chelating Agent.

    PubMed

    Han, Quan; Huo, Yanyan; Wu, Jiangyan; He, Yaping; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Longhu

    2017-03-24

    A highly sensitive method based on cloud point extraction (CPE) separation/preconcentration and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection has been developed for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of rhodium in water samples. A new reagent, 2-(5-iodo-2-pyridylazo)-5-dimethylaminoaniline (5-I-PADMA), was used as the chelating agent and the nonionic surfactant TritonX-114 was chosen as extractant. In a HAc-NaAc buffer solution at pH 5.5, Rh(III) reacts with 5-I-PADMA to form a stable chelate by heating in a boiling water bath for 10 min. Subsequently, the chelate is extracted into the surfactant phase and separated from bulk water. The factors affecting CPE were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-6.0 ng/mL, the detection limit was 0.023 ng/mL for rhodium and relative standard deviation was 3.67% (c = 1.0 ng/mL, n = 11).The method has been applied to the determination of trace rhodium in water samples with satisfactory results.

  7. FT-IR and FT-Raman characterization and investigation of reactive properties of N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide by molecular dynamics simulations and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, P. K.; Al-Abdullah, Ebtehal S.; Al-Omary, Fatmah A. M.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Anto, P. L.; Sheena, Mary Y.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Zitko, Jan; Dolezal, Martin; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2017-05-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide were recorded and the experimentally observed wavenumbers are compared with the theoretically obtained wavenumbers. The redshift of the Nsbnd H stretching mode in the IR spectrum from the computed value indicated the weakening of the Nsbnd H bond. The ring breathing modes of the phenyl ring and pyrazine ring are assigned at 819 and 952 cm-1 theoretically. Using natural bond orbital analysis, the stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed. The most reactive sites in the molecule were identified by molecular electrostatic potential map. The calculations of the average local ionization energy (ALIE) were used for visualization and determination of molecule sites possibly prone to electrophilic attacks. Further information on possible reactive centers of title molecule has been obtained by calculations of Fukui functions. Vulnerability of title molecule towards autoxidation mechanism was investigated by calculations of bond dissociation energies (BDE), while vulnerability towards hydrolysis was investigated by calculations of radial distribution functions (RDF) as obtained after molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Molecular docking studies suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against mGluRs.

  8. Synthesis and structure-affinity relationships of new 4-(6-iodo-H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-2-yl)-N-dimethylbenzeneamine derivatives as ligands for human beta-amyloid plaques.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lisheng; Cuevas, Jessica; Temme, Sebastian; Herman, Mary M; Dagostin, Claudio; Widdowson, David A; Innis, Robert B; Pike, Victor W

    2007-09-20

    A new and extensive set of 4-(6-iodo-H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-2-yl)-N-dimethylbenzeneamine (IMPY) derivatives was synthesized and assayed for affinity toward human Abeta plaques. 6-Ethylthio- (12h), 6-cyano- (12e), 6-nitro- (12f), and 6-p-methoxybenzylthio- (15d) analogues were discovered to have high affinity (KI < 10 nM). However, introduction of a hydrophilic thioether group in the 6-position (15a-c, 15e-g) reduced or abolished affinity. In secondary N-methyl analogues, a bromo substituent in the adjacent ring position (14a) imparted high affinity (KI = 7.4 nM) whereas a methyl substituent did not (14c). The tolerance for nonhydrophilic thioether substituents in the 6-position opens up the possibility of developing new sensitive positron emission tomography radioligands for imaging human Abeta plaques in Alzheimer's disease, especially in view of the amenability of thioethers to be labeled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 through S-alkylation reactions. The structure-activity relationships revealed in this study extends insight into the topography of the binding site for IMPY-like ligands in human Abeta plaques.

  9. Dopamine D-2 receptor imaging radiopharmaceuticals: synthesis, radiolabeling, and in vitro binding of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N- ((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Kasliwal, R.; Pan, S.G.; Kung, M.P.; Mach, R.H.; Guo, Y.Z.

    1988-05-01

    In developing central nervous system (CNS) dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agents, enantiomers, R-(+) and S-(-) isomers, of 3-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-((1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide, (/sup 125/I)IBZM, were synthesized, and their in vitro binding characteristics were evaluated in rat striatum tissue preparation. The (S)-(-)-(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding (Kd = 0.43 nM, Bmax = 0.48 pmol/mg of protein). Competition data of various ligands for IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than (S)-(-)-IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol much greater than (R)-(+)-IBZM greater than (S)-(-)-BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH23390 much greater than propanolol. The results indicate that (/sup 125/I)IBZM binds specifically to the dopamine D-2-receptor with stereospecificity. The (/sup 125/I)IBZM is potentially useful as an imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  10. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Experience with (S)-5-[123I]iodo-3-(2-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-[123I]IA) in the Living Human Brain of Smokers and Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    BRAŠIĆ, JAMES ROBERT; ZHOU, YUN; MUSACHIO, JOHN L.; HILTON, JOHN; FAN, HONG; CRABB, ANDREW; ENDRES, CHRISTOPHER J.; REINHARDT, MELVIN J.; DOGAN, AHMET S.; ALEXANDER, MOHAB; ROUSSET, OLIVIER; MARIS, MARIKA A.; GALECKI, JEFFREY; NANDI, AYON; WONG, DEAN F.

    2009-01-01

    (S)-5-[123I]iodo-3-(2-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-[123I]IA), a novel potent radioligand for high-affinity α4β2* neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), provides a means to evaluate the density and the distribution of nAChRs in the living human brain. We sought in healthy adult smokers and nonsmokers to (1) evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of 5-[123I]IA in an open nonblind trial and (2) to estimate the density and distribution of α4β2* nAChRs in the brain. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed for five hours after the intravenous administration of approximately 0.001 μg/kg (approximately 10 mCi) 5-[123I]IA. Blood pressure, heart rate, and neurobehavioral status were monitored before, during, and after the administration of 5-[123I]IA to twelve healthy adults (8 men and 4 women) (6 smokers and 6 nonsmokers) ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (mean = 28.25, standard deviation = 8.20). High plasma nicotine level was significantly associated with low 5-[123I]IA binding in (1) the caudate head, the cerebellum, the cortex, and the putamen, utilizing both the Sign and Mann-Whitney U tests, (2) the fusiform gyrus, the hippocampus, the parahippocampus, and the pons utilizing the Mann-Whitney U test, and (3)the thalamus utilizing the Sign test. We conclude that 5-[123I]IA is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective pharmacologic agent for human subjects to estimate high-affinity α4/β2 nAChRs in the living human brain. PMID:19140167

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-18F-fluoro-5-iodo-3-[2-(S)-3,4-dehydropyrrolinylmethoxy]pyridine (18F-Niofene) as a potential imaging agent for nicotinic α4β2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Sharon A; Hillmer, Ansel T; Wooten, Dustin W; Patel, Ashna; Christian, Bradley T; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic α4β2 acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in various pathophysiologies including neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, 2-18F-A85380 (2-FA) and 5-123I-A85380 (5-IA) are used separately in human PET and SPECT studies respectively and require >4-6 hours of scanning. We have developed 2-fluoro-5-iodo-3-[2-(S)-3-dehydropyrrolinylmethoxy]pyridine (niofene) as a potential PET/SPECT imaging agent for nAChRs with an aim to have rapid binding kinetics similar to that of 18F-nifene used in PET studies. Niofene exhibited a 10-fold better in vitro binding affinity in rat brain than that of nicotine. The relative binding of niofene was similar to that of niodene and twice as better as that of nifene. In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices alongside niodene indicated selective binding of niofene to regions consistent with α4β2 receptor distribution. Niofene, 10 nM, displaced >70% of 3H-cytisine bound to α4β2 receptors in rat brain slices. Radiolabeling of 18F-niofene was achieved in 10-15% radiochemical yield in high specific activities >2 Ci/μmol and showed rapid in vivo kinetics similar to that of 18F-nifene and 18F-nifrolene. In vivo PET in rats showed rapid uptake in the brain and selective localization in receptor regions such as the thalamus (TH). Pseudoequilibrium with 18F-niofene was achieved in 30-40 minutes, which is similar to that of 18F-nifene. Further evaluation of 18F-niofene as a potential PET imaging agent is underway. Future studies will be conducted to radiolabel niofene with iodine-123 for use in SPECT imaging. PMID:24982821

  12. Reaction of (13S)-13-iodo-6beta-methoxy-3alpha,5-cyclo-13,14-seco-5alpha-androstane-14,17-dione with hydroxylamine and its application to the synthesis of new 13,14-seco steroids.

    PubMed

    Khripach, Vladimir A; Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Kuchto, Anna I; Fando, Galina P; Zhiburtovich, Yuliya Y; Lyakhov, Alexander S; Govorova, Alla A; Groen, Marinus B; van der Louw, Jaap; de Groot, Aede

    2004-07-01

    The synthesis of 13,14-seco steroids starting from easily available (13S)-13-iodo-6beta-methoxy-3alpha,5-cyclo-13,14-seco-5alpha-androsta-14,17-dione is described. The C-17 ketone was converted regioselectively into its oxime with simultaneous stereoselective deiodination at C-13. The remaining C-14 carbonyl group was then reduced stereoselectively with Ca(BH4)2. The configurations at the relevant stereocenters of the thus obtained hydroxy oxime were determined by X-ray analysis. Successful regeneration of the C-17 carbonyl group was achieved by treatment of the corresponding oxime acetate with TiCl3.

  13. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  14. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  15. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  16. [32P]2-iodo-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate ([32P]MRS2500), a novel radioligand for quantification of native P2Y1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Dayle; Ohno, Michihiro; Nicholas, Robert A; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Harden, T Kendall

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the P2Y family of nucleotide-activated G-protein-coupled receptors has been compromised by the lack of selective high-affinity, high-specific-radioactivity radioligands. We have pursued quantification of the P2Y1 receptor through the development of a series of selective P2Y1 receptor antagonists. Recently, we synthesized 2-iodo-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine 3′,5′-bisphosphate (MRS2500), a selective, competitive antagonist that exhibits a Ki of 0.8 nM in competition-binding assays with [3H]MRS2279. A 3′-monophosphate precursor molecule, MRS2608, was radiolabeled at the 5′ position with 32P using polynucleotide kinase and [γ32P]ATP to yield [32P]MRS2500. [32P]MRS2500 bound selectively to Sf9 insect cell membranes expressing the human P2Y1 receptor (Sf9-P2Y1), but did not detectably bind membranes expressing other P2Y receptors. P2Y1 receptor binding to [32P]MRS2500 was saturable with a KD of 1.2 nM. Agonists and antagonists of the P2Y1 receptor inhibited [32P]MRS2500 binding in Sf9-P2Y1 membranes with values in agreement with those observed in functional assays of the P2Y1 receptor. A high-affinity binding site for [32P]MRS2500 (KD=0.33 nM) was identified in rat brain, which exhibited the pharmacological selectivity of the P2Y1 receptor. Distribution of this binding site varied among rat tissues, with the highest amount of binding appearing in lung, liver, and brain. Among brain regions, distribution of the [32P]MRS2500 binding site varied by six-fold, with the highest and lowest amounts of sites detected in cerebellum and cortex, respectively. Taken together, these data illustrate the synthesis and characterization of a novel P2Y1 receptor radioligand and its utility for examining P2Y1 receptor expression in native mammalian tissues. PMID:16299552

  17. Improved assays for DNA-polymerizing enzymes by the use of enzymatically synthesized 5-( sup 125 I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate, illustrated by direct quantitation of anti-HIV reverse transcriptase antibody and by serum DNA polymerase analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Neumueller, M.K.; Karlstroem, A.R.K.; Kaellander, C.F.G.; Gronowitz, J.S. )

    1990-02-01

    A one-step procedure which uses enzymes in a crude extract of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1-infected cells to synthesize 5-(125I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate (( 125I)dUTP) from (125I)dU is described. The design of a one-step procedure for the purification of the product is also presented. The recovery of (125I)dUTP from (125I)dU varied between 50 and 75%, the radiochemical purity of the product was greater than 90%, and both synthesis and purification were completed within 8 h. The sensitivity and specificity of (125I)dUTP as a substrate for both DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (DNAp) and RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase, RT) were evaluated and compared to those of (3H)dTTP for the following specimens: purified cloned Klenow fragment, crude extracts of HeLa-, BHK-, and HSV-2-infected BHK cells, purified avian myeloblastosis virus RT, and purified cloned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RT. The (125I)dUTP was accepted as a substrate equally as well (3H)dTTP by all of the specimens at all of the concentrations tested. When the same amount of radiolabel was used, (125I)dUTP gave a sensitivity 10- to 25-fold higher than that of (3H)dTTP. The gain in sensitivity was due to the higher specific activity and a higher counting efficiency of the 125I-label compound. The use of (125I)dUTP also offered technical advantages over alternative substrates available, such as product separation without acid precipitation and exclusion of the need for scintillation cocktails. The half-life of the nucleic also gives a reasonable shelf-life for use in routine assays. Activity of less than 0.3 pg of HIV RT could be detected when the new substrate was used, and this made it possible to quantitate HIV RT antibodies (abs) in diluted serum samples without purifying the immunoglobulin.

  18. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of Two 18F-Labeled 6-Iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Derivatives as Prospective Radioligands for β-Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lisheng; Chin, Frederick T.; Pike, Victor W.; Toyama, Hiroshi; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Modell, Kendra; Briard, Emmanuelle; Shetty, H. Umesha; Sinclair, Kathryn; Donohue, Sean; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Kung, Mei-Ping; Dagostin, Claudio; Widdowson, David A.; Green, Michael; Gao, Weiyi; Herman, Mary M.; Ichise, Masanori; Innis, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated 18F-labeled IMPY [6-iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine] derivatives as agents for imaging β-amyloid plaque with positron emission tomography (PET). The precursor for radiolabeling and reference compounds was synthesized in up to five steps from commercially accessible starting materials. One of the two N-methyl groups of IMPY was substituted with either a 3-fluoropropyl (FPM-IMPY) or a 2-fluoroethyl (FEM-IMPY) group. FPM-IMPY and FEM-IMPY were found to have moderate affinity for Aβ- aggregates with Ki = 27 ± 8 and 40 ± 5 nM, respectively. A “one-pot” method for 18F-2-fluoroethylation and 18F-3-fluoropropylation of the precursor was developed. The overall decay-corrected radiochemical yields were 26–51%. In PET experiments with normal mouse, high uptake of activity was obtained in the brain after iv injection of each probe: 6.4% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY at 1.2 min, and 5.7% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY at 0.8 min. These values were similar to those of [123I/125I]IMPY (7.2% ID/g at 2 min). Polar and nonpolar radioactive metabolites were observed in both plasma and brain homogenates after injection of [18F]FEM or [18F]FPM-IMPY. In contrast to the single-exponential washout of [123I/125I]IMPY, the washouts of brain activity for the two fluorinated analogues were biphasic, with an initial rapid phase over 20 min and a subsequent much slower phase. Residual brain activity at 2 h, which may represent polar metabolites trapped in the brain, was 4.5% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY and 2.1% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY. Substantial skull uptake of [18F]fluoride was also clearly observed. With a view to slow the metabolism of [18F]FEM-IMPY, an analogue was prepared with deuteriums substituted for the four ethyl hydrogens. However, D4-[18F]FEM-IMPY showed the same brain uptake and clearance as the protio analogue. Metabolism of the [18F]FEM-IMPY was appreciably slower in rhesus monkey than in mouse. Autoradiography of postmortem brain sections

  20. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena.

  1. Crystal structures of 1-bromo-3,5-bis­(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)benzene 0.15-hydrate and 3,5-bis­(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-1-iodo­benzene

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Timo; Hoffmann, Frank; Fröba, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The bromo and iodo derivatives of a meta-bis­(1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-substituted benzene, C16H19BrN2O2·0.15H2O (1) and C16H19IN2O2 (2), have been prepared and studied in terms of their mol­ecular and crystal structures. While the former crystallizes as a sub-hydrate, with 0.15 formula units of water and shows an almost all-planar arrangement of the three ring systems, the latter crystallizes solvate-free with the flanking heterocycles twisted considerably with respect to the central arene. Non-covalent contacts include parallel-displaced π–π inter­actions and (non-classical) hydrogen bonding for both (1) and (2), as well as relatively short I⋯N contacts for (2). PMID:26594388

  2. Crystal structures of 1-bromo-3,5-bis-(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)benzene 0.15-hydrate and 3,5-bis-(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-1-iodo-benzene.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Hoffmann, Frank; Fröba, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The bromo and iodo derivatives of a meta-bis-(1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-substituted benzene, C16H19BrN2O2·0.15H2O (1) and C16H19IN2O2 (2), have been prepared and studied in terms of their mol-ecular and crystal structures. While the former crystallizes as a sub-hydrate, with 0.15 formula units of water and shows an almost all-planar arrangement of the three ring systems, the latter crystallizes solvate-free with the flanking heterocycles twisted considerably with respect to the central arene. Non-covalent contacts include parallel-displaced π-π inter-actions and (non-classical) hydrogen bonding for both (1) and (2), as well as relatively short I⋯N contacts for (2).

  3. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated

  4. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads.

    PubMed

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term "error correction" to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated. QuorUM is distributed

  5. Universal Monitor (UM) for OTEC compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    Universal Monitor (UM), is a device-independent concept to measure, with precision, the initiation and progression of fouling in any given OTEC Compact Heat Exchanger model with or without the application of countermeasures. Design description and supporting analyses for the Universal Monitor for OTEC Compact Heat Exchangers are presented.

  6. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  7. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; ...

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  8. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  9. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  10. STS-40 Exp. No. 192 urine monitoring system (UMS) on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Experiment No. 192, Fluid-Electrolyte Regulation During Space Flight, urine monitoring system (UMS) is set up on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, at the side hatch. The UMS is attached to OV-102's waste collection system (WCS). The urine specimen tray with sample tubes appears to the right of the UMS equipment.

  11. Glucose transport activity and photolabelling with 3-[125I]iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-O-succinyldeacetyl (IAPS)-forskolin of two mutants at tryptophan-388 and -412 of the glucose transporter GLUT1: dissociation of the binding domains of forskolin and glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, A; Keller, K; Monden, I; Brown, F M; Wandel, S; Shanahan, M F; Joost, H G

    1993-01-01

    The tryptophan residues 388 and 412 in the glucose transporter GLUT1 were altered to leucine (L) by site-directed mutagenesis and were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. As assessed by immunoblotting, comparable numbers of glucose transporters were present in plasma membranes from cells transfected with wild-type GLUT1, GLUT1-L388 or GLUT1-L412. Transfection of the wild-type GLUT1 gave rise to a 3-fold increase in the reconstituted glucose transport activity recovered from plasma membranes. In contrast, transfection of GLUT1-L412 failed to increase the reconstituted transport activity, whereas transfection of GLUT1-L388 produced only a 70% increase. Photolabelling of GLUT1-L412 with 3-[125I]iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-O-succinyldeacetyl (125IAPS)-forskolin was not different from that of the wild-type GLUT1, whereas the GLUT1-L388 incorporated 70% less photolabel than did the wild-type GLUT1. These data suggest a dissociation of the binding sites of forskolin and glucose in GLUT1. Whereas both tryptophan-388 and tryptophan-412 appear indispensable for the function of the transporter, only tryptophan-388 is involved in the binding of the inhibitory ligand forskolin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8452538

  12. Crystal structures of two C,N-disubstituted acetamides: 2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-N-(2-iodo­phen­yl)acetamide and 2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Badiadka; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.; Rathore, Ravindranath; Glidewell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In the crystal of 2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-N-(2-iodo­phen­yl)acetamide, C14H11ClINO, mol­ecules are linked by a combination of N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form a C(4)C(4)[R 2 1(7)] chain of rings and chains of this type are linked by a combination of C—Cl⋯π(arene) and C—I⋯π(arene) inter­actions to form deeply puckered twofold inter­woven sheets. In the crystal of 2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide, C12H10ClN3O, mol­ecules are linked into complex sheets by N—H⋯N, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and by C—H⋯π(arene) inter­actions. PMID:27920915

  13. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  14. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  15. Quantification of recombinant and platelet P2Y1 receptors utilizing a [125I]-labeled high affinity antagonist 2-iodo-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate ([125I]MRS2500)

    PubMed Central

    Ohlmann, Philippe; de Castro, Sonia; Brown, Garth G.; Gachet, Christian; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Harden, T. Kendall

    2013-01-01

    The ADP-activated P2Y1 receptor is broadly expressed and plays a crucial role in ADP-promoted platelet aggregation. We previously synthesized 2-iodo-N6-methyl–(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine 3′,5′-bisphosphate (MRS2500), as a selective, high affinity, competitive antagonist of this receptor. Here we report utilization of a trimethylstannyl precursor molecule for the multistep radiochemical synthesis of a [125I]-labeled form of MRS2500. [125I]MRS2500 bound selectively to Sf9 insect cell membranes expressing the human P2Y1 receptor but did not specifically bind to membranes isolated from empty vector-infected cells. Binding of [125I]MRS2500 to P2Y1 receptors was saturable with a Kd of 1.2 nM. Known agonists and antagonists of the P2Y1 receptor inhibited [125I]MRS2500 binding to P2Y1 receptor-expressing membranes with potencies in agreement with those previously observed in functional assays of this receptor. A high-affinity binding site for [125I]MRS2500 also was observed on intact human platelets (Kd = 0.61 nM) and mouse platelets (Kd = 1.20 nM) that exhibited the pharmacological selectivity of the P2Y1 receptor. The densities of sites observed were 151 sites/platelet and 229 sites/platelet in human and mouse platelets, respectively. In contrast, specific binding was not observed in platelets isolated from P2Y1 receptor (−/−) mice. Taken together, these data illustrate the synthesis and characterization of a novel P2Y1 receptor radioligand and its utility for examining P2Y1 receptors natively expressed on human and mouse platelets. PMID:20594939

  16. MRS2500 [2-Iodo-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate], a Potent, Selective, and Stable Antagonist of the Platelet P2Y1 Receptor with Strong Antithrombotic Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hechler, Béatrice; Nonne, Christelle; Roh, Eun Joo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Lanza, François; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Gachet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The platelet P2Y1 ADP receptor is an attractive target for new antiplatelet drugs. However, because of the lack of strong and stable antagonists, only a few studies have suggested that pharmacological inhibition of the P2Y1 receptor could efficiently inhibit experimental thrombosis in vivo. Our aim was to determine whether the newly described potent and selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 [2-iodo-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate] could inhibit platelet function ex vivo and experimental thrombosis in mice in vivo. MRS2500 was injected intravenously into mice, and its effect on ex vivo platelet aggregation and in several models of thrombosis in vivo was determined. MRS2500 displayed high potency and stable and selective P2Y1 receptor inhibition ex vivo. Although MRS2500 injection resulted in only moderate prolongation of the bleeding time, it provided strong protection in systemic thromboembolism induced by infusion of a mixture of collagen and adrenaline. MRS2500 also potently inhibited localized arterial thrombosis in a model of laser-induced vessel wall injury with two degrees of severity. Moreover, combination of MRS2500 with clopidogrel, the irreversible inhibitor of the platelet P2Y12 receptor for ADP, led to increased antithrombotic efficacy compared with each alone. These results add further evidence for a role of the P2Y1 receptor in thrombosis and validate the concept that targeting the P2Y1 receptor could be a relevant alternative or complement to current antiplatelet strategies. PMID:16236815

  17. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  18. Report to the Maryland General Assembly on UMS Institutional and System Identities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ. System Administration, Adelphi.

    This report examines the use of the name "University of Maryland System" (UMS) to characterize the state's university system and its 13 institutions. It is noted that the UMS name is somewhat misleading, in that it suggests that the system comprises only the seven institutions with "University of Maryland" in their name. The…

  19. Adults Return to Mathematics: A Proposed Project in Uganda by the Uganda Mathematical Society (UMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaahwa, Janet

    This paper provides information on a project by the Uganda Mathematical Society (UMS) that aims to popularize mathematics in Uganda. UMS believes that if parents learn mathematics (primary and secondary), they will be able to help their children themselves instead of hiring others to coach their children as is the practice today. Another way to…

  20. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, & First U.M. Church-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  1. EPCR expression marks UM171-expanded CD34(+) cord blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fares, Iman; Chagraoui, Jalila; Lehnertz, Bernhard; MacRae, Tara; Mayotte, Nadine; Tomellini, Elisa; Aubert, Léo; Roux, Philippe P; Sauvageau, Guy

    2017-06-22

    A small subset of human cord blood CD34(+) cells express endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR/CD201/PROCR) when exposed to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal agonist UM171. In this article, we show that EPCR-positive UM171-treated cells, as opposed to EPCR-negative cells, exhibit robust multilineage repopulation and serial reconstitution ability in immunocompromised mice. In contrast to other stem cell markers, such as CD38, EPCR expression is maintained when cells are introduced in culture, irrespective of UM171 treatment. Although engineered overexpression of EPCR fails to reproduce the effects of UM171 on HSC activity, its expression is required for the repopulating activity of human HSCs. Altogether, our results indicate that EPCR is a reliable and cell culture-compatible marker of UM171-expanded human cord blood HSCs. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. HD 208905: um sistema múltiplo de estrelas quentes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeias, J. P.; Daflon, S.; Cunha, K.

    2003-08-01

    Durante o survey de associações OB do disco Galáctico, foi constatada a multiplicidade do sistema HD 208905, pertencentes à associação de Cep OB2. Este objeto está classificado como uma estrela pertencente a um sistema múltiplo, com magnitude mv = 7.0 e tipo espectral B1V. De fato, os espectros de HD 208905 apresentam perfis de absorção triplicados. Dois dos perfis são bastante similares entre si, e são estreitos e bem definidos, sugerindo que as velocidades rotacionais projetadas (v sin i) das duas estrelas são baixas. Os espectros obtidos também apresentam perfis mais alargados que poderiam ser atribuídos a uma terceira componente estelar com v sin i mais alto. A análise de HD 208905 é baseada no estudo da variação da posição relativa dos perfis espectrais de acordo com a fase do sistema. Nossos dados observacionais são um conjunto de espectros de alta resolução obtidos no McDonald Observatory (Universidade do Texas, Austin), Kitt Peak National Observatory e Palomar Observatory, cobrindo o período de 10/91 até 12/95. Inicialmente, calculamos a velocidade radial de cada componente do sistema, considerando o desvio Doppler sofrido por cada estrela. As velocidades radiais medidas foram, em seguida, corrigidas para velocidades radiais heliocêntricas. O passo seguinte constituiu na determinação da periodicidade da série temporal definida pelas medidas das velocidades radiais heliocêntricas através da análise de Fourier. A nossa base de dados não permitiu definir uma solução única para o sistema HD 208905. As possíveis soluções encontradas têm períodos entre 1 e 27 dias e serão apresentadas e discutidas.

  3. Time Variable Associated Absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, F. W.; Barlow, T. A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, R. D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1994-05-01

    We discuss dramatic changes in the z_a ~ z_e absorption system of the z_e = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (Q0150-203). The C IV lambda 1550 and N V lambda 1240 doublets at z_a = 2.1344 strengthened by a factor of ~ 3 between the observations of Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1988, ApJS, 68, 539; measured November 1981) and our earliest measurements (November and December 1990). During this time, C IV in the z_a = 2.0083 system may also have strengthened. The variability of other lines in these systems is unknown. Continued monitoring is in progress. We consider several models of the z_a ~ z_e absorption environment, and conclude that the absorbing clouds are close to the QSO and photoionized by the QSO continuum. The variability timescale (<~2.9 yrs rest) requires gas densities gap 4000 cm(-3) to allow changes in the ionization balance. This minimum density, and the high ionization needed to produce the Ne VIII lambda 774 and O VI lambda 1035 absorptions reported previously (E. M. Burbidge et al., 1993, BAAS, 24, 1135), requires clouds <~200 pc from the QSO. The full range of absorption line ionizations (including C III lambda 977 and N III lambda 989) implies that the clouds are segregated, spanning a factor of gap 10 in distance or gap 100 in density. Across these regions the H I fraction varies from ~ 10(-3) to ~ 10(-6) . The total hydrogen column ranges from a few times 10(18) cm(-2) in the low ionization gas to ~ 10(20) cm(-2) where the Ne VIII lines form. The Lyman continuum is expected to be optically thin throughout, consistent with the measured absence of a Lyman edge. The metal abundances are roughly solar or above. Implications of these results are discussed. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG 5-1630.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Draco nebula Herschel 250um map (Miville-Deschenes+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Salome, Q.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Blagrave, K.; Dassas, K.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Boulanger, F.; Lagache, G.; Lockman, F. J.; Marshall, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    Draco was observed with Herschel PACS (110 and 170um) and SPIRE (250, 350 and 500um) as part of the open-time program "First steps toward star formation: unveiling the atomic to molecular transition in the diffuse interstellar medium" (P.I. M-A Miville-Deschenes). A field of 3.85x3.85 was observed in parallel mode. Unfortunately, an error occurred during the acquisition of the PACS data making them unusable. Therefore, the results presented here are solely based on SPIRE data, especially the 250um map that has the highest angular resolution. (2 data files).

  5. Ground-based observation of the Venus 1.27-um O2 airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, S.; Iwagami, N.; Sagawa, H.; Kasaba, Y.; Ueno, M.; Imamura, T.

    We conducted near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of the nightside of Venus at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Japan on December 11, 2002. The 1.3-um spectra show 1.27-um O_2 IRA (0,0) airglow feature and thermal emission from the lower atmosphere. The brightest airglow feature of 5MR is found at the anti-solar point, which agrees with the previous studies. The hemispheric distribution of 1.3-um thermal emission shows equatorial depression similar to that of the 2-um region in previous studies. The hemispheric distribution of the rotational temperature shows a hot region at around the anti-solar point overlapping the bright region, and which suggests adiabatic heating due to the downward flow.

  6. UM206, a selective Frizzled antagonist, attenuates adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction in swine.

    PubMed

    Uitterdijk, André; Hermans, Kevin C M; de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne P M; Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Reiss, Irwin K; Duncker, Dirk J; Matthijs Blankesteijn, W; Merkus, Daphne

    2016-02-01

    Modulation of Wnt/Frizzled signaling with UM206 reduced infarct expansion and prevented heart failure development in mice, an effect that was accompanied by increased myofibroblast presence in the infarct, suggesting that Wnt/Frizzled signaling has a key role in cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the effects of modulation of Wnt/Frizzled signaling with UM206 in a swine model of reperfused MI. For this purpose, seven swine with MI were treated with continuous infusion of UM206 for 5 weeks. Six control swine were treated with vehicle. Another eight swine were sham-operated. Cardiac function was determined by echo in awake swine. Infarct mass was estimated at baseline by heart-specific fatty acid-binding protein ELISA and at follow-up using planimetry. Components of Wnt/Frizzled signaling, myofibroblast presence, and extracellular matrix were measured at follow-up with qPCR and/or histology. Results show that UM206 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in infarct mass compared with baseline (-41±10%), whereas infarct mass remained stable in the Control-MI group (+3±17%). Progressive dilation of the left ventricle occurred in the Control-MI group between 3 and 5 weeks after MI, while adverse remodeling was halted in the UM206-treated group. mRNA expression for Frizzled-4 and the Frizzled co-receptor LRP5 was increased in UM206-treated swine as compared with Control-MI swine. Myofibroblast presence was significantly lower in infarcted tissue of the UM206-treated animals (1.53±0.43% vs 3.38±0.61%) at 5 weeks follow-up. This study demonstrates that UM206 treatment attenuates adverse remodeling in a swine model of reperfused MI, indicating that Wnt/Frizzled signaling is a promising target to improve infarct healing and limit post-MI remodeling.

  7. 31.5um imaging observations of AGN using SOFIA/FORCAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Lindsay; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Packham, Christopher C.; Los Piratas Team

    2016-01-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGN) requires a toroidal region of optically and geometrically thick dust obscuring a central engine, accounting for various observed spectral features. Our aim is to investigate the overall torus properties to obtain analytical results for its physical parameters. We present 31.5um photometric observations of 12 nearby Seyfert galaxies from the 2.5m SOFIA telescope using the FORCAST camera. We used Clumpy torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the IR (1.2-31.5um) nuclear SEDs and high angular resolution mid-IR (8-13um) spectroscopy. We found that the turnover of the torus emission does not occur at wavelengths <31.5um, which we interpret as a lower-limit for the peak torus emission. Including the 31.5um nuclear flux 1) reduces the dispersion of Clumpy torus models at wavelengths >30um, which better constrains the model parameters, 2) generally decreases the radial extent of the torus. We find torus radii ranging from ~1 - 8.5pc, with an average radius of 2.6pc, which is consistent with interferometric and high-spatial resolution observations.

  8. Spectroscopy of JVI Himalia for detection and characterization of the 3 um water band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    We aim at securely detecting and characterizing the presence of the 3um band for the first time in the reflectance spectrum of a Jovian irregular satellite. Features in the 3um band can unambiguously reveal water ice or past aqueous alteration of the surface material that lead to bound water molecules and hydroxyl groups in minerals. Water ice and hydrated minerals are ubiquitous in the Jovian system and have been found on Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and the inner regular satellite JV Amalthea. In contrast to these neighboring satellites and to two irregular satellites that have been studied at Saturn and Neptune, a detection of water (previously or currently present) on a Jovian irregular satellite has not yet been succeeded due to constraints of ground-based observatories. No dedicated spacecraft mission to the Jovian system has allowed to study them close-up. Their very low albedos and small diameters only allow ground-based spectroscopy up to 2.5um for very few objects. The strong telluric absorption band of the atmosphere between 2.55-2.85um and the increasing IR-background beyond 2.85um makes ground-based spectroscopy for these very faint objects impossible. SOFIA has the unique capability to overcome these limits. Flitecam provides enough sensitivity to conduct spectroscopic investigations between 2.6-3.5um of the largest object of the Jovian irregular satellite population, JVI Himalia. Supplementary high quality spectral data from 0.65-2.55um has already been acquired by Schindler and Reddy using SpeX on NASA IRTF. Three indicators strongly suggest the presence of the 3um band: A shallow absorption feature around 1.1um attributed to magnetite, a weak feature around 0.7 um attributed to phyllosillicates and an average heliocentric distance of 5.2AU where water ice is thought to be stable throughout the history of the Solar System. The results of this study will greatly contribute to understand the origin and history of these objects.

  9. 6-Iodo-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshinobu

    2014-07-01

    In the title compound, C10H5IO3, an iodinated 3-formyl-chromone derivative, the non-H atoms are essentially coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0259 Å), with the largest deviation from the least-squares plane [0.056 (5) Å] being found for the formyl O atom. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked through I⋯O halogen bonds [I⋯O = 3.245 (4) Å, C-I⋯O = 165.95 (13) and C=O⋯I = 169.7 (4)°] along [101]. The supra-molecular chains are assembled into layers via π-π stacking inter-actions along the b axis [shortest centroid-centroid distance between the pyran and benzene rings = 3.558 (3) Å].

  10. UM-PRS: An implementation of the procedural reasoning system for multirobot applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaeho; Huber, Marcus J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is used in applications where predetermined situations might arise. The UM-PRS provides a reasoning system that represents robotic applications even in unpredictable domains, such as the robotic reconnaissance task domain outlined here. UM-PRS incorporates a changing context, rather than relying solely on a prearranged plan. The UM-PRS here provides representation important in the reasoning and interface between a mission plan and the executable map of an outdoor vehicle that changes its behavior based on what it comes in contact with in its environment. PRS is thus used in the dynamic control of such a vehicle, providing the basis for coordinating the joint task of multiple robotic vehicles by the their individual observations and representation.

  11. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Ochroconis constricta UM 578, Isolated from Human Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-04-17

    Ochroconis constricta is a soilborne dematiaceous fungus that has never been reported to be associated with human infection. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of strain UM 578, isolated from human skin scraping. The genomic information revealed will contribute to a better understanding of this species.

  13. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  14. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  15. Evolution and Persistence of 5-um Hot Spots at the Galileo Probe entry Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study on the longtudinal locations, morphology and evolution of the 5-um hot spots at 6.5 deg. N latitude (planetocentric), from an extensive IRTF-NSFCAM data set spanning more that 3 years, which includes the date of the Galileo Probe entry.

  16. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Churchdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Church-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  17. Evolution and Persistence of 5-um Hot Spots at the Galileo Probe entry Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study on the longtudinal locations, morphology and evolution of the 5-um hot spots at 6.5 deg. N latitude (planetocentric), from an extensive IRTF-NSFCAM data set spanning more that 3 years, which includes the date of the Galileo Probe entry.

  18. Genome Sequence of a Typical Ultramicrobacterium, Curvibacter sp. Strain PAE-UM, Capable of Phthalate Ester Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Hao, Zhenyu; Sun, Rui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-14

    Curvibacter sp. strain PAE-UM, isolated from river sediment, is a typical ultramicrobacterium capable of phthalate ester degradation. The genome of Curvibacter sp. PAE-UM consists of 3,284,473 bp, and its information will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability.

  19. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)) in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Fusco, Roberta; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Crupi, Rosalia; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic condition characterized by progressive scarring of lung parenchyma. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ultramicronized preparation of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)), an endogenous fatty acid amide, in mice subjected to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was induced in male mice by a single intratracheal administration of saline with bleomycin sulphate (1mg/kg body weight) in a volume of 100μL. PEA-um(®) was injected intraperitoneally at 1, 3 or 10mg/kg 1h after bleomycin instillation and daily thereafter. Animals were sacrificed after 7 and 21days by pentobarbitone overdose. One cohort of mice was sacrificed after seven days of bleomycin administration, followed by bronchoalveloar lavage and determination of myeloperoxidase activity, lung edema and histopathology features. In the 21-day cohort, mortality was assessed daily, and surviving mice were sacrificed followed by the above analyses together with immunohistochemical localization of CD8, tumor necrosis factor-α, CD4, interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and basic fibroblast growth factor. Compared to bleomycin-treated mice, animals that received also PEA-um(®) (3 or 10mg/kg) had significantly decreased weight loss, mortality, inflammation, lung damage at the histological level, and lung fibrosis at 7 and 21days. PEA-um(®) (1mg/kg) did not significantly inhibit the inflammation response and lung fibrosis. This study demonstrates that PEA-um(®) (3 and 10mg/kg) reduces the extent of lung inflammation in a mouse model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  20. Uh, Um, and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Christina A; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-03-01

    Filler disfluencies--uh and um--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an 'optimal outcome' (OO), as well as in peers with typical development (TD). While uh rates did not differ, participants with ASD produced um less frequently than OO or TD groups. Um rate was associated with autism symptom severity, but not executive function or language abilities, suggesting that um serves a pragmatic, listener-oriented function. Moreover, in contrast to minimal production in ASD, the typical OO um production substantiates the normalization of subtle social communication in this population.

  1. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Subaru H images of UM673 (Koptelova+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptelova, E.; Chiueh, T.; Chen, W. P.; Chan, H.-H.

    2014-05-01

    We carried out H-band observations of UM673 with the Subaru Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (IRCS) using an adaptive optics system with 188 control elements (AO188). The images were reduced following the procedure described in "Subaru Data Reduction CookBook: Imaging Observation with IRCS" by Y. Minowa (see also Minowa et al. 2005ApJ...629...29M). The final Subaru H-band stack image of UM673 was created by coadding 22 reduced single exposure images. We also created the exposure time map of the stack image. The 17x10arcsec subframe of the stack image and the corresponding exposure map displayed in Figures 1 and 2 of the paper are available as fits files. (2 data files).

  3. Variability of the broad absorption lines in the QSO UM 232

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Thomas A.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra of UM 232 taken in 1978, 1979, and 1988 at Lick Observatory are presented. Large changes in the Si IV lambda 1397, CIV lambda 1549, and Al III lambda 1857 broad absorption lines are apparent. The decrease in column density in all three ions and an observed brightening of the QSO suggests that these changes are due to an increase in the ionization level driven by an increase in the central source luminosity. This mechanism has been proposed by Smith and Penston to explain small changes in the absorption spectrum of the QSO 1246-057. The spectra of UM 232 show that the fractional decrease in optical depth is smaller at higher outflow velocies. The structure of the broad absorption-line region (BALR) is investigted by estimating an ionization parameter for each ion species as a function of velocity.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Activity of 70um-selected galaxies (Symeonidis+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonidis, M.; Rosario, D.; Georgakakis, A.; Harker, J.; Laird, E. S.; Page, M. J.; Willmer, C. N. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first active galactic nuclei (AGN) census in a sample of 61 galaxies selected at 70um, a wavelength which should strongly favour the detection of star-forming systems. For the purpose of this study, we take advantage of deep Chandra X-ray and Spitzer infrared (3.6-160um) data, as well as optical spectroscopy and photometry from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP 2) survey for the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) field, as part of the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey. We investigate spectral line diagnostics ([OIII]/H β and [NeIII]/[OII] ratios, Hδ Balmer absorption line equivalent widths and the strength of the 4000Å break), X-ray luminosities and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (1 data file).

  5. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  6. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future.

  7. Isoalantolactone inhibits UM-SCC-10A cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jiehua; Weng, Zhiyong; Li, Chenyuan; Li, Hong; Zhao, Yan; Mei, Xifan; Ren, Fu; Li, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Isoalantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the roots of Inula helenium L. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoalantolactone possesses antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic and anti-proliferative properties in a variety of cells, but there are no studies concerning its effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, an MTT assay demonstrated that isoalantolactone has anti-proliferative activity against the HNSCC cell line (UM-SCC-10A). Immunostaining identified that this compound induced UM-SCC-10A cell apoptosis but not necrosis. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects, flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that the apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest during the G1 phase, up-regulation of p53 and p21, and down-regulation of cyclin D. Furthermore, our results revealed that induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway led to up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax), down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression (Bcl-2), mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (Cyto c), reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 (Casp-3). Involvement of the caspase apoptosis pathway was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. Together, our findings suggest that isoalantolactone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and was associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in UM-SCC-10A cells. Therefore, isoalantolactone may become a potential drug for treating HNSCC.

  8. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  9. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-02-02

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis.

  10. The UM-Dearborn Observatory: Variable-object Research from an Urban Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, Elisabeth; Clarkson, William I.; Rasmussen, Eric J; Bord, Donald J.; Dage, Kristen; Matzke, David; Swift, Carrie

    2014-06-01

    Since its construction in 2007, the UM-Dearborn Observatory has provided a valuable educational tool both for students at UM-Dearborn and our neighbor-institution the Henry Ford Community College, and for the public at-large. We have recently (Jan 2014) added a systematic long-term research program with our 0.4m main telescope, to photometrically monitor a number of bright variable objects, including X-ray binaries and chemically-peculiar metal-poor stars over long timescales. We ultimately envision assembling a photometric database of (at least) four-color photometry over years-decades (i.e., many hundreds of orbital timescales for close binaries), with the preponderance of datapoints taken by undergraduates. To conduct this program, we have had to overcome a number of site challenges, the solutions of which will be useful to many programs using small telescopes at urban sites. The 0.4m telescope lies on a shared building within UM-Dearborn's main Fairlane campus - i.e., is about 20 meters above sea level, near several sources of water vapor (including an active steam vent less than 15 meters away), experiences significant mechanical vibrations from other building functions, and lies about 6 miles from central Detroit, well within the Detroit-Ann Arbor conurbation. Observing conditions are thus highly variable, with 5 arcsecond seeing typical and significant transparency variations observed even during a clear night. Nevertheless, we are now able to make scientifically useful observations in a semi-automatic way, to which our chosen scientific niche is well-suited. We present here our solutions to these challenges, along with initial results from our ongoing monitoring program.

  11. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic planetary nebulae 24um observations (Phillips+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. P.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have acquired 24um profiles images and fluxes for 224 Galactic PNe. The positions of the sources were taken from the Acker et al. (1992, Cat. V/84), MASH I (Parker et al., 2006MNRAS.373...79P, Cat. V/127) and MASH II (Miszalski et al., 2008MNRAS.384..525M, Cat. V/127) catalogues, and correspond to the so-called 'true' PNe whose identification is regarded as being highly probable. Sources designated as 'likely' or 'possible' are excluded from this analysis. The MISPGAL results were taken between 2005 and 2006 using the mips. (1 data file).

  13. Low-Power Differential SRAM design for SOC Based on the 25-um Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godugunuri, Sivaprasad; Dara, Naveen; Sambasiva Nayak, R.; Nayeemuddin, Md; Singh, Yadu, Dr.; Veda, R. N. S. Sunil

    2017-08-01

    In recent, the SOC styles area unit the vast complicated styles in VLSI these SOC styles having important low-power operations problems, to comprehend this we tend to enforced low-power SRAM. However these SRAM Architectures critically affects the entire power of SOC and competitive space. To beat the higher than disadvantages, during this paper, a low-power differential SRAM design is planned. The differential SRAM design stores multiple bits within the same cell, operates at minimum in operation low-tension and space per bit. The differential SRAM design designed supported the 25-um technology using Tanner-EDA Tool.

  14. Cliché fabrication method using precise roll printing process with 5 um pattern width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yejin; Kim, Inyoung; Oh, Dong-Ho; Lee, Taik-Min

    2016-09-01

    Among the printing processes for printed electronic devices, gravure offset and reverse offset method have drawn attention for its fine pattern printing possibility. These printing methods use cliché, which has critical effect on the final product precision and quality. In this research, a novel precise cliché replica method is proposed. It consists of copper sputtering, precise mask pattern printing with 5 um width using reverse offset printing, Ni electroplating, lift-off, etching, and DLC coating. We finally compare the fabricated replica cliché with the original one and print out precise patterns using the replica cliché.

  15. MIPAS observations of ozone chemiluminescence at 5 um analysed by a new non-lte model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, M.; Toselli, B.; Fernandez, R.; Gil-Lopez, S.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Stiller, G.; Hoffmann, L.; Riese, M.

    The proper characterization of ozone mid-ir radiances under non-LTE conditions is very important for the retrieval of mesospheric constituents such as ozone or carbon monoxide A recent study of Kaufmann et al 2006 indicated very large Envisat-MIPAS radiances at 4 8 um and suggested significant changes to standard non-LTE models of ozone to fit the measurements To verify and extend these results we developed a new ozone non-LTE model for the main vibrational-translational VT relaxation channels of ozone based on the theory of Schwartz-Slawsky-Herzfeld The VT relaxation rates are compared with the standard approach using a Landau-Teller type scaling law In addition to VT relaxation we also consider vibrational-vibrational energy exchange with O2 for various transitions and demonstrate the importance of this relaxation path for many vibrational levels Finally the non-LTE model parameters are constrained by comparing simulated 5um radiances with observations of the MIPAS instrument at stratospheric altitudes where the atmospheric state can be characterized from MIPAS measurements not affected by non-LTE

  16. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  17. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  18. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Cook, Robert W; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10(-13) and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920).

  20. Detector Technologies for Sub-500um High-Sensitivity PET Imaging via a Novel PET Insert Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2011-12-21

    The objective of this project was to develop detector technologies that would enable an ultrahigh resolution Virtual Pinhole (VP) PET insert device to provide sub-500 um resolution high-sensitivity PET imaging of a mouse in the future. To achieve this goal, we proposed to develop and characterize finely pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors and the associated readout electronics with the following specific aims: 1. Develop pixellated CZT detectors with 350um pitches using 2-5 mm substrates; characterize their spatial, energy and timing performance through experiments; and optimize the anode design with steering grid if found necessary. 2. Develop a high-bandwidth readout system using a novel ASIC that can be directly bonded to CZT detectors with 2048 anodes of 350um pitches; optimize its overall performance for VP-PET applications considering the tradeoffs between spatial resolution (in 3D), count rate capability, timing and energy resolutions. 3. Evaluate the performance of a VP-PET insert based on the proposed detector technology through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation. Overall, we have completed all three specific aims and demonstrated that pixelated CZT detectors of 350um pitches, combined with VP-PET geometry, can provide PET image resolution of ~460 um FWHM for small animal imaging applications.

  1. Dual graphs realized in the compounds di-{mu}{sub 3}-4-mercaptopyridine catena-di-{mu}{sub 2}-iodo-di-{mu}{sub 3}-iodo-{mu}{sub 4}-iodo penta copper(I) and di-{mu}{sub 3}-4-mercaptopyridine-di-catena-iodo-di-{mu}{sub 3}-iodo tri copper(I)

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian, Ehsan; Lidin, Sven

    2010-11-15

    Two compounds, [Cu5I5](SNC5H4)2 [i] and [Cu3I3](SNC5H4)2 [ii], were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and the crystal structures were solved. Both compounds crystallized in space group I41/a. The iodide and the sulphur from mercaptopyridine are connected to copper atom, giving the copper atoms tetrahedral coordination geometry. The pyridine end of the organic moiety is non-bonding and fills the empty space around the tetrahedra formed from copper, sulphur and iodide. - Graphical Abstract: A comparison of the central core in both compounds. Display Omitted

  2. Is the long case dead? 'Uh, I don't think so': the Uh/Um Index.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Robbert; Veysey, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Current tools for clinical assessment are tedious and time-consuming, particularly the dreadful long case. There is a need for novel instruments that incorporate other aspects of competence. We propose such a method, namely the Uh/Um Index. Our innovation paper describes the rationale for using speech dysfluency and occurrences of filler words such as 'uh' and 'um' as a proxy for competence. This appears to have won initial support from senior clinicians in our institution. Additional research is needed (non-restricted grants are welcomed) to establish rigorous standard setting and to fund our attendance at overseas conferences to make the Uh/Um Index the new buzzword in medical education.

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium iranicum UM_TJL against representative mycobacterial species suggests its environmental origin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joon Liang; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Hien Fuh; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-11-24

    Mycobacterium iranicum is a newly reported mycobacterial species. We present the first comparative study of M. iranicum UM_TJL and other mycobacteria. We found M. iranicum to have a close genetic association with environmental mycobacteria infrequently associated with human infections. Nonetheless, UM_TJL is also equipped with many virulence genes (some of which appear to be the consequence of transduction-related gene transfer) that have been identified in established human pathogens. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. iranicum is an environmental bacterium adapted for pathogenicity in the human host. This comparative study provides important clues and forms the basis for future functional studies on this mycobacterium.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM survey of 12um selected galaxies (Brightman+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Nandra, K.

    2011-11-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of 126 galaxies of the 12um galaxy sample (Rush et al. 1993, Cat. VII/157). By studying this sample at X-ray wavelengths, we aim to determine the intrinsic power, continuum shape and obscuration level in these sources. We improve upon previous works by the use of superior data in the form of higher signal-to-noise ratio spectra, finer spectral resolution and a broader bandpass from XMM-Newton. We pay particular attention to Compton thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the help of new spectral fitting models that we have produced, which are based on Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray radiative transfer, using both a spherical and torus geometry, and taking into account Compton scattering and iron fluorescence. (8 data files).

  5. MiR-222 targeted PUMA to improve sensitization of UM1 cells to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangfang; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Lijie; Liu, Zifeng; Li, Wenqing; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-12-02

    microRNAs have been shown to play critical roles in regulating the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. As a member of the oncogenic miRNAs (oncomiRs), miR-222 has been reported to drive the oncogenesis of many types of malignancies. However, little is known concerning the specific role of miR-222 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study explored the role and mechanism of miR-222 in increasing the expression of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and enhancing the sensitivity of OSCC to cisplatin (CDDP). Results showed that antisense (As)-miR-222 inhibits the expression of miR-222. In contrast, PUMA was dramaticallyup-regulated. IC50 values were significantly decreased in cells treated with As-miR-222 combined with CDDP, to a greater extent than in cells treated with CDDP alone. Furthermore, As-miR-222 enhanced apoptosis and inhibited the invasiveness of UM1 cells. Analysis of the above data suggested that, in UM1 cells, there might be a regulatory loop between miR-222 and PUMA, and that miR-222 inhibition increased the chemosensitivity to CDDP. These findings demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-222 could enhance the chemosensitivity of human OSCC cells to CDDP, and that the combination of As-miR-222 and CDDP could be an effective therapeutic strategy by boosting the expression of PUMA for controlling the growth of OSCC.

  6. The fungal UmSrt1 and maize ZmSUT1 sucrose transporters battle for plant sugar resources.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Anke; Dreyer, Ingo; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Sauer, Norbert; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2017-03-15

    The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes the corn smut disease inducing tumor formation in its host Zea mays. Upon infection, the fungal hyphae invaginate the plasma membrane of infected maize cells establishing an interface where pathogen and host are separated only by their plasma membranes. At this interface the fungal and maize sucrose transporters, UmSrt1 and ZmSUT1, compete for extracellular sucrose in the corn smut/maize pathosystem. Here we biophysically characterized ZmSUT1 and UmSrt1 in Xenopus oocytes with respect to their voltage-, pH- and substrate-dependence and determined affinities towards protons and sucrose. In contrast to ZmSUT1, UmSrt1 has a high-affinity for sucrose and is relatively pH- and voltage-independent. Using these quantitative parameters, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the competition for extracellular sucrose at the contact zone between the fungus and the host plant. This approach revealed that UmSrt1 exploits the apoplastic sucrose resource, which forces the plant transporter into a sucrose export mode providing the fungus with sugar from the phloem. Importantly, the high sucrose concentration in the phloem appeared disadvantageous for the ZmSUT1, preventing sucrose recovery from the apoplastic space in the fungus/plant interface.

  7. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  8. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  9. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  10. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  11. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  12. A Report to the Joint Chairs of the Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and the House Appropriations Committee on the Workload of the UMS Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park.

    This report provides data and recommendations on the workload and productivity of University of Maryland System (UMS) faculty. It outlines the state budgetary policy that mandates the report and explains UMS policy on faculty workload. The data in the report reflect teaching standards in place in 1993-94, prior to the adoption of the current UMS…

  13. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Origin and characteristics of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions (N Kuwait)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dousari, Ali. M.; Al-Elaj, Maraheb; Al-Enezi, Eqbal; Al-Shareeda, Abdulaziz

    2009-03-01

    Although Arabia hosts one of the largest deserts in the world, studies regarding aeolian erosional features in general and yardangs in particular are rare. The principal aim of this study is to delineate and investigate the various forms of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions in the northern part of Kuwait. The study area consists of two main depressions connected by neck area made up of continental sediments. Both depressions are surrounded by a dissected escarpment and their floors host muddy playas. On lithological bases, three main types of yardang have been identified: 7 yardangs are sculptured in sandstones of Lower Fars Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), 23 are carved in calcretic rocks of Ghar Formation (Oligocene to Lower Miocene), and 11 yardangs are developed in Quaternary sediments. Their mean orientation NW (297°) coincides with the prevailing direction of the strong local northwesterly wind called the shamal. The average length/width ratio is 1.5:1. The wide geographic distribution of yardangs around the margins of the northern depression is due to sand blasting. This is explained by the annual sand accumulation measured in the study area where the northern depression shows 143 times higher accumulation than the southern depression, the neck area and the platform above the depressions. Also, the field measurements for annual erosional rates show that the sides of the yardangs are more affected by erosion compared to their middle parts. Remarkably slight mineralogical variations were detected within the surface sediments of Um Al-Rimam depressions and the Quaternary muddy yardangs which indicate a common origin. The age of yardangs is unknown but annual erosional rates on a small Quaternary muddy yardang suggest that they range in age between 44 and 1500 years depending on yardang size. It is believed, as indicated from field observation and interpretation of aerial photos, that the majority of yardangs are pre-existing bedrock forms. These

  15. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  16. The French Muséum national d'histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset.

    PubMed

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-02-14

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments.

  17. The French Muséum national d'histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L.; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R.; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P.; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments.

  18. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolnough, S. J.; Bush, S. J.; Schiemann, R.; Turner, A. G.; Martin, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography (see Figure 1) is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Changes in moisture convergence, precipitation and circulation due to improved resolution of the orography then affect precipitation in the wider Indo-Pacific region.

  19. The French Muséum national d’histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset

    PubMed Central

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L.; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R.; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P.; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments. PMID:28195585

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A dust model for bet Pic from 0.58 to 870um (Ballering+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, N. P.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Gaspar, A.

    2016-08-01

    β Pic was imaged with the HST/STIS CCD in coronagraphic (50CORON) mode under program GO-12551 (PI: Apai), and the results of these observations were published in Apai et al. (2015ApJ...800..136A). The instrument bandpass is set by the response of the CCD and centered at 0.58um. We searched the HST archive and found previously unpublished observations of β Pic with the WFC3 instrument in the IR channel (filter F110W at ~1.16um) from program GO-11150 (PI: Graham). The Spitzer/MIPS observations of β Pic were taken under the Spitzer Guaranteed Time Observing Program 90 (PI: M. Werner). The data at all three bands (24, 70, and 160um) are published here for the first time. Two sets of 24um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 March 20, the second set of data was obtained on 2004 April 11. Two sets of 70um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 April 12. The second set was obtained on 2005 April 4. Herschel/PACS 70um scan map observations of β Pic (PI G. Olofsson, observation IDs 1342186612 and 1342186613) were published by Vandenbussche et al. (2010A&A...518L.133V). We used the ALMA 870um continuum image previously published by Dent et al. (2014Sci...343.1490D). (1 data file).

  1. Radiolabeled cyclosaligenyl monophosphates of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, 5-iodo-3'-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyuridine, and 3'-fluorothymidine for molecular radiotherapy of cancer: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kortylewicz, Zbigniew P; Kimura, Yu; Inoue, Kotaro; Mack, Elizabeth; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina

    2012-03-22

    Targeted molecular radiotherapy opens unprecedented opportunities to eradicate cancer cells with minimal irradiation of normal tissues. Described in this study are radioactive cyclosaligenyl monophosphates designed to deliver lethal doses of radiation to cancer cells. These compounds can be radiolabeled with SPECT- and PET-compatible radionuclides as well as radionuclides suitable for Auger electron therapies. This characteristic provides an avenue for the personalized and comprehensive treatment strategy that comprises diagnostic imaging to identify sites of disease, followed by the targeted molecular radiotherapy based on the imaging results. The developed radiosynthetic methods produce no-carrier-added products with high radiochemical yield and purity. The interaction of these compounds with their target, butyrylcholinesterase, depends on the stereochemistry around the P atom. IC(50) values are in the nanomolar range. In vitro studies indicate that radiation doses delivered to the cell nucleus are sufficient to kill cells of several difficult to treat malignancies including glioblastoma and ovarian and colorectal cancers.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1-20um observations of Herbig-Haro objects (Molinari+ 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, S.; Liseau, R.; Lorenzetti, D.

    1993-04-01

    For 58 exciting sources of Herbig-Haro objects/jets (HHES) we present a catalogue of photometric data for the infrared spectral bands JHKLMNQ (1-20 um). This catalog is based on our own observations and published information available up to May 1992. For each source, these data are presented in chronological order. In addition to the broad-band data, narrow-band N(8-13 um) photometric data are also provided. The flux calibration for each observational equipment is explicitly noted as the diaphragm sizes are used. The same kind of information for the established members of the FU Ori class is complementing the HHES catalogue. The frequency of observations and the photometric quality of the catalogued data are shortly discussed. (4 data files).

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SCUBA-2 850um survey in σ Ori cluster (Williams+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. P.; Cieza, L. A.; Andrews, S. M.; Coulson, I. M.; Barger, A. J.; Casey, C. M.; Chen, C.-C.; Cowie, L. L.; Koss, M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.

    2014-09-01

    We observed a circular region with diameter 0.5° (about the diameter of the full Moon) towards the sigma Orionis cluster at 850um. The data were taken in queue mode over numerous observing runs from 2011 October to 2013 January (programme IDs: M11BH02A, M12AH02A and M12BH47A) in median (JCMT band 3) weather conditions, defined by the zenith optical depths at 225GHz lying between 0.08 and 0.12. This corresponds to precipitable water vapour levels ~2-3mm and zenith optical depths at 850um ~0.25-0.35. The total on-source integration time was 31h. (1 data file).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spiderweb galaxy 870um and 1.4GHz images (Dannerbauer+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannerbauer, H.; Kurk, J. D.; De Breuck, C.; Wylezalek, D.; Santos, J. S.; Koyama, Y.; Seymour, N.; Tanaka, M.; Hatch, N.; Altieri, B.; Coia, D.; Galametz, A.; Kodama, T.; Miley, G.; Roettgering, H.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Venemans, B.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-11-01

    We provide both the APEX LABOCA 870um and the EVLA 1.4GHz signal map of the field around the high-z radio galaxy MRC1138-262. In addition, we make the integration and signal-to-noise map of the LABOCA observations available. The LABOCA signal and S/N map are in Jy, the integration map in seconds and the VLA 1.4GHz signal map is in uJy. (2 data files).

  6. Far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the quasar UM 675 with the faint object spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Lyons, Ronald W.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the far-UV spectral properties of a QSO and to look for evidence of He I 584 A emission and absorption the Faint Object Spectrograph aboard the HST was used to observed UM 675. Light is detected down to 520 A in the object in the rest frame and limits are set to He I emission, the He I Gunn-Peterson effect at z = 2.148, and Ly-alpha absorption at z roughly 0.5.

  7. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel SPIRE/FTS 194-671um survey of GOALS LIRGs (Lu+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Isaak, K. G.; Mazzarella, J. M.; van der Werf, P. P.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S.; Petric, A. O.; Privon, G. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we presented a Herschel SPIRE/FTS 194-671um spectroscopic survey of 121 galaxies belonging to a complete, flux-limited sample of 123 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) down to a total IR flux of 6.5x10-13W/m2, selected from the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS; Armus+ 2009PASP..121..559A). All 123 observed targets are listed in Table 1. (3 data files).

  9. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  10. The response of chemistry and climate to the 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Ewa; Telford, Paul; Maycock, Amanda; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    It is now generally agreed that the UV variability associated with the 11-year solar cycle leads to changes in ozone and temperature in the upper stratosphere. In addition, a range of observational and modelling studies suggest that such changes are the starting point for a chain of processes (including feedbacks) resulting in circulation changes in many areas of the atmosphere. However, precise details of the interactions between chemistry and meteorology induced by solar variability remain under question. In our study, we use a version of the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with consistent spectrally-resolved solar variability. While the solar cycle in heating rates has been applied with the method used in HadGEM2-ES, fine spectrally-resolved solar variability has been uniquely incorporated into the Fast-JX photolysis scheme. We perform two 50-year-long perpetual year solar maximum and solar minimum integrations and complement them with a three member ensemble of a transient 1960-2010 integration in which boundary conditions correspond by and large to the CCMI Ref-C1 scenario. We show how the inferred solar signals vary between the individual experiments. This indicates high natural variability and the resulting contamination of the solar signal with contributions from other processes as well as the existence of possible non-linearities between the solar cycle and other atmospheric forcings. Therefore, we highlight that long data series are needed to ensure correct attribution of the modelled and observed anomalies. In addition, we present results from two perpetual year experiments in which the solar cycle was applied exclusively in either short-wave heating or photolysis. We find large non-linearities in the modelled anomalies as compared to the realistic integration with both modulations included. This highlights the subtle nature of the dynamical response to the solar cycle forcing and indicates the need for interactive chemistry with a detailed photolysis

  11. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  12. M17SW [OI] 63 um self-absorption and optical depth effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Cristian

    M17SW is a giant molecular cloud located at 1.98 kpc, and it is iluminated by a cluster of OB stars at 1 pc to the east. It is one of the best galactic regions to study PDR structure from the exciting source to ionization source. The structure is highly clumpy from several studies of molecular emission. Our recent observations with SOFIA/upGREAT at very high velocity resolution and S/N have shown for M17SW that the [CII] line has a really high opacity and is heavily affected by self-absorption. Under these conditions, line ratios of fine structure lines derived from line-integrated, spectrally unresolved observations, when blindly used to derive physical source properties such as UV-intensity and density, give questionable results. The self-absorption in [CII] shows up as several narrow absorption notches across the broader [CII] emission profile. Of particular interest is the question: what is the nature of the absorbing forground clouds. On relevant observation with SOFIA is to study the profile of the second brightest cooling line, [OI] 63 um, observable with the GREAT H-channel. If the foreground gas is subthermally excited and has low density, as is indicated by the [CII] profiles, [OI] should show similar self-absorption notches, as is in fact indicated in the relatively low S/N-ratio spectra that we already obtained when mapping the M17SW interface. We thus propose to use the high sensitivity and resolving power of SOFIA/GREAT for a systematic study of the [OI] with deep integrations of the fine structure line, by observing the seven positions previously studied in [CII] and [13CII].

  13. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus.

  14. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  15. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  16. The DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test Provides Risk Stratification and Individualized Patient Care in Uveal Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Harbour, J William; Chen, Royce

    2013-04-09

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary cancer of the eye and has a strong propensity for metastasis. Although there have been many recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of UM, and only 2-4% of patients present with detectable metastasis, up to half of patients are at risk for dying of metastatic disease. Clinicopathologic factors are not accurate enough for individualized patient care. Chromosomal alterations have been used for prognostic purposes, but the routine clinical use of these methods is limited by their susceptibility to sampling error resulting from tumor heterogeneity, limited clinical validation, lack of standardized testing platforms, and high technical failure rates. In contrast, the DecisionDx-UM gene expression profile test is a stand-alone platform which requires no other information for maximal prognostic accuracy and which circumvents many of the drawbacks of chromosomal methods through the use of a highly sensitive microfluidics, PCR-based platform that simultaneously measures the expression of 15 carefully selected genes from primary uveal melanoma samples obtained by fine needle biopsy. Low metastatic risk is reported as Class 1, and high metastatic risk as Class 2. The test allows patients to be stratified into risk categories such that high-risk patients can be offered intensive metastatic surveillance and adjuvant therapy while low-risk patients can be spared these interventions. This test is now used as part of the standard of care in many ocular oncology centers.

  17. UM-SCC-104: a new human papillomavirus-16 containing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice L.; Davis, Samantha J.; Owen, John H.; Graham, Martin P.; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Park, Jung Je; Walline, Heather; Stoerker, Jay; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Chepeha, Douglas; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines exist. We established UM-SCC-104, a new HPV(+) HNSCC cell linefrom a recurrent oral cavity tumor, and characterized it for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). METHODS Tumor cells were tested for biomarker expression by immunohistology and the presence of HPV was assessed by several methods. RESULTS UM-SCC-104 has a unique genotype, contains HPV-16 and expresses E6/E7. Inoculation of (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase) ALDH(+) and ALDH(−) cells in an immunocompromised mouse resulted in tumor growth from the ALDH(+) cells after 6 weeks that recapitulated the histology of the primary, while ALDH(−) cells did not produce tumors. CONCLUSIONS UM-SCC-104, a new HPV-16, CSC-containing HNSCC cell line will aid in studying recurrent HPV(+) tumors. The aggressive nature of this tumor is consistent with high uniform expression of EGFR and a functionally significant proportion of ALDH(+) CSC. PMID:22162267

  18. User's manual (UM) for the enhanced logistics intratheater support tool (ELIST) database utility segment version 8.1.0.0 for solaris 7.

    SciTech Connect

    Dritz, K.

    2002-03-06

    This document is the User's Manual (UM) for the Enhanced Logistics Intratheater Support Tool (ELIST) Database Utility Segment. It tells how to use its features to administer ELIST database user accounts.

  19. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-04-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the za approximately equal ze absorption system of the ze = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at za = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from ze strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other za approximately equal ze absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 1018/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 1020/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link za approximately equal to ze systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the Ne VIII absorbing gas would itself produce measurable warm

  20. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  1. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  2. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  3. Sulforaphane retards the growth of UM-UC-3 xenographs, induces apoptosis, and reduces survivin in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqian; Shan, Yujuan

    2012-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that exists exclusively in cruciferous vegetables, may be the most promising preventive agent for bladder cancer (BC) to date. We previously observed that SFN dramatically inhibits human BC T24 cells in vitro. Our hypothesis is that SFN may attenuate BC growth. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the effect of SFN on human BC UM-UC-3 cell xenografts implanted into athymic mice. Sulforaphane extract was routinely prepared in our laboratory, and its content was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Athymic mice were injected subcutaneously with a UM-UC-3 cell suspension (2.0×10(6) cells/200 μL per mouse) and randomly divided into 2 groups. The positive control group was orally gavaged with water, and the treatment group was orally administered SFN from broccoli sprout (12 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. At the end of the experiment, tumor tissues were harvested and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. The average tumor volume decreased from 4.1±1.67 cm(3) in the positive control mice to 1.5±0.72 cm(3) in the SFN-treated mice, evidencing an inhibitory rate of 63%. The SFN extract also reduced the appearance of tumors, including karyopyknosis and angiogenesis. Sulforaphane extract induced caspase 3 and cytochrome c expression but reduced the expression of survivin. Sulforaphane extract retards the growth of UM-UC-3 xenografts in vivo, confirming its future potential in BC therapy.

  4. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M; Al Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods.

  5. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  6. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  7. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HI and 250um images of the Virgo cirrus (Bianchi+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S.; Giovanardi, C.; Smith, M. W. L.; Fritz, J.; Davies, J. I.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Baes, M.; Bocchio, M.; Boissier, S.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Casasola, V.; Clark, C. J. R.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Grossi, M.; Jones, A. P.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Pappalardo, C.; Ysard, N.; Zibetti, S.

    2016-10-01

    Images of the Virgo cirrus in the atomic gas HI emission and in the dust emission at 250um from Herschel-SPIRE. Two images are provided for HI emission from low velocity (LVC; -20km/sum: the observations, with large scale offsets removed; the model, obtained from the emissivity values derived in the paper and the two atomic gas maps; the residuals between observations and models. The three images have been obtained from observations/model/residuals for each of the four HeViCS fields, and combined in a single large scale map after removing field-to-field offsets; they are the same presented in Fig. 8 of the paper. In all cases the resolution is 4.8'. (2 data files).

  9. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  10. Factors affecting the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes during oxidation with chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanhong; Shan, Yingchun; Yang, Xin

    2014-01-15

    Effects of water characteristics, reaction time, temperature, bromide and iodide ion concentrations, oxidant doses, and pH on formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THM) during oxidation of iodide-containing water with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) were investigated. Among the water samples collected from ten water sources, iodoform (CHI3) was the predominant I-THM and trace amount of chlorodiiodomethane (CHClI2) was occasionally found. CHI3 yields correlated moderately with specific UV absorbance (SUVA) (R(2)=0.79), indicating that hydrophobic aromatic content were important precursors. Longer reaction time led to continued formation of CHI3. I-THM containing bromide was also found in waters containing both bromide and iodide, but CHI3 was dominant. The formation of CHI3 was higher at 25°C than 5°C and 35°C. CHI3 formation showed an increase followed by a decrease trend with increasing ClO2 doses and iodide concentrations and the highest yields occurred at iodide to ClO2 molar ratios of 1-2. pH 8 resulted in the highest CHI3 formation. It should be noted that a high iodide concentration was spiked to waters before adding ClO2 and the results may not reflect the formation yields of iodinated THMs in real conditions, but they provide information about formation trend of I-THM during oxidation of ClO2.

  11. Crystal structure of 7-iodo-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshinobu

    2016-12-01

    In the title compound, C10H5IO3, an iodinated 3-formyl-chromone derivative, the non-H atoms are essentially coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0344 Å), with the largest deviation from the least-squares plane [0.101 (3) Å] being found for the formyl O atom. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked through stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance between the benzene rings = 3.700 (3) Å] and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Halogen bonds between the I atoms at 7-position and the formyl O atoms [I1⋯O3 = 3.056 (2) Å, C6-I1⋯O3 = 173.18 (8)° and I1⋯O3-C10 = 111.12 (18)°] are also formed along [110], resulting in sheets perpendicular to the c axis, constructed by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and I⋯O halogen bonds.

  12. 6,8-Di-iodo-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbalde-hyde.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshinobu

    2014-05-01

    The title compound, C10H4I2O3, is an iodinated 3-formyl-chromone derivative, and the atoms are essentially coplanar [r.m.s. deviation = 0.049 Å, largest deviation from the least-squares plane = 0.111 (9) Å for the CH(=O) C atom]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into a three-dimensional network through halogen bonds [I⋯O = 3.352 (5) and 3.405 (7) Å, C-I⋯O = 144.2 (3) and 154.5 (3)°, and C=O⋯I = 134.9 (6) and 146.0 (6)°], and π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.527 (6) Å].

  13. 7-Iodo-3,3-diphenyl­octa­hydro­benzo­furan

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Muhammad; Yao-Feng, Wang; Qi, Wang; Chen, Fu-Xue

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C20H21IO, was synthesized by cyclo­haloetherification of 2-(cyclo­hex-2-en­yl)-2,2-diphenyl­ethanol in CH2Cl2, and crystallized with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The six-membered cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation, while the five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation with the fused C atom opposite the O atom as the flap in each case [displacements of the flap atoms = 0.6813 (3) and 0.6679 (3) Å]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming inversion dimers. PMID:23634117

  14. The effect of 125I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine labelling on murine tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C. J.; Sheridan, J. W.; Donald, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    Labelling with 125IUdR at radioactivity concentrations commonly employed in studied with i.v. injected tumour cells (1.0-0.1 microCi/ml) was shown to reduce considerably the in vitro reproductive viability of mastocytoma tumour cells. Velocity sedimentation cell separation studies on mastocytoma cells that had been labelled for 12 h with 0.8 microCi/ml 125IUdR yielded a population that varied markedly between fraction with respect to distribution of label and, in parallel, with respect to induced loss of reproductive viability. A similar population of mastocytoma cells that had been labelled for 36 h with 0.01 microCi/ml 125IUdR yielded fractions where distribution of label was not associated with reduced reproductive viability. Although in vivo survival (as distinct from reproductive viability) of tumour cells injected i.v. and i.p. was not significantly altered within 7 h and 30 h respectively by the commonly used concentrations of 125IUdR, it is suggested that in studies of the fate of injected tumour cells exponentially growing cells be labelled with 125IUdR for intervals well in excess of population doubling times at concentrations less than or equal to 0.025 microCi/ml. PMID:6784742

  15. Mass analysis of trifluoro-iodo-methane in a Surface Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, J. A.; Greenwood, C. L.; Lundie, D. T.; Seymour, D. L.; Hiden Analytical Team

    2011-10-01

    Surface barrier discharges operated at atmospheric pressure are effective chemical reactors. Mass analysis of the reaction products is possible using suitable high pressure mass spectrometer systems. As an example of the behaviour of simple surface barrier reactor (SBDs), experiments on the decomposition of CF3I are described in which the output from the reactor is admitted via a capillary inlet system into a Hiden HPR20 mass spectrometer. The discharge was operated using helium as the carrier gas. The observed mass spectra are discussed in terms of the plasma dissociation and the subsequent ionisation of the dissociated products in the electron impact ionisation source of the mass spectrometer. When oxygen was added to the gas mixture in the SBD, CFxO species were generated in the plasma. Their influence on the observed mass spectra is shown. The results demonstrate aspects of the capabilities of SBDs for dissociating halocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure and the possibilities of direct mass spectrometric monitoring of such processes.

  16. Simple, Efficient and Controllable Synthesis of Iodo/Di-iodoarenes via Ipsoiododecarboxylation/Consecutive Iodination Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Lijuan; Deng, Guo-Jun; Gong, Hang

    2017-01-01

    A practical, efficient, and operationally simple strategy for the ipsoiododecarboxylation and di-iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids using the low-cost commercial reagent succinimide (NIS) as iodine source is reported. This iodination or di-iodination process can be easily controlled through reaction conditions, thereby providing corresponding iodination or di-iodination products with high yields. Furthermore, these two reactions can be easily scaled up to gram-scale by using palladium catalyst (0.66 mol%), which provides high isolated yield.

  17. A 10-watt CW photodissociation laser with IODO perfluoro-tert-butane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher; Venable, Demetrius D.

    1989-01-01

    NASA has been investigating the feasibility of direct solar-pumped laser systems for power beaming in space. Among the various gas, liquid, and solid laser systems being proposed as candidates for solar-pumped lasers, the iodine photodissociation gas laser has demonstrated its potential for space application. Of immediate attention is the determination of system requirements and the choice of lasants to improve the system efficiency. The development of an efficient iodine laser depends on the availability of a suitable iodide which has favorable laser kinetics, chemically reversibility, and solar energy utilization. Among the various alkyliodide lasants comparatively tested in a long-pulse system, perfluoro- tert-butyl iodide, T-C4F9I, was found to be the best. However, the operating conditions for the laser medium in a continuously pumped and continuous-flow iodine laser differ considerably from those in the pulsed regime. The results of the continuous wave (CW)) laser performance from t-C4F9I are reported. Perfluoro- n-propyl iodide, n-C3F7I is used for comparison because of its universal use in photodissociation iodine lasers.

  18. 2-Iodo-N-(2-nitro­phenyl­sulfan­yl)aniline

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Iván; Cárdenas, Alejandro; Mundaca, Aldo; López-Rodríguez, Matías; Reyes, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    In title compound, C12H9IN2O2S, the nitro group is rotated slightly, by 8.91 (3)°, out of the plane of the aromatic ring to which it is bonded. Between the two aromatic rings the CSN plane is at a dihedral angle of 84.0 (7)° to the HNC plane. Mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O inter­actions into a double helical supra­molecular architecture. There are no iodo–nitro, π–π or C—H⋯π(arene) inter­actions. PMID:21203107

  19. Cardiac Iodine-123-Meta-Iodo-Benzylguanidine Uptake in Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Maw Pin; Murray, Alan; Hawkins, Terry; Chadwick, Thomas J; Kerr, Simon R J; Parry, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Carotid sinus syndrome is the association of carotid sinus hypersensitivity with syncope, unexplained falls and drop attacks in generally older people. We evaluated cardiac sympathetic innervation in this disorder in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and controls without carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Consecutive patients diagnosed with carotid sinus syndrome at a specialist falls and syncope unit were recruited. Asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and non-carotid sinus hypersensitivity control participants recruited from a community-dwelling cohort. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was determined using Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123-I-MIBG) scanning. Heart to mediastinal uptake ratio (H:M) were determined for early and late uptake on planar scintigraphy at 20 minutes and 3 hours following intravenous injection of 123-I-MIBG. Forty-two subjects: carotid sinus syndrome (n = 21), asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 12) and no carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 9) were included. Compared to the non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity control group, the carotid sinus syndrome group had significantly higher early H:M (estimated mean difference, B = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.13 to 0.67, p = 0.005) and late H:M (B = 0.32; 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.62, p = 0.032). There was, however, no significant difference in early H:M (p = 0.326) or late H:M (p = 0.351) between the asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity group and non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity controls. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity is increased relative to age-matched controls in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome but not those with asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements alone may therefore represent an over simplification in the assessment for carotid sinus syndrome and the relative increase in cardiac sympathetic innervation provides additional clues to understanding the mechanisms behind the symptomatic presentation of carotid sinus hypersensitivity.

  20. Synthesis and biodistribution of [125I]iodo- and [75Se]seleno-ergoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sadek, S; Basmadjian, G; Patel, A

    1987-01-01

    (8 beta)-8-([125]Iodomethyl)-6-propylergoline (125I-3) was prepared by refluxing the mesyl analog with Na125I in methyl-ethyl-ketone, followed by HPLC, in a radiochemical yield greater than 70%. [75Se]Selenopergolide (75Se-2) was prepared in 74% yield starting with H75(2) SeO3. The biodistribution studies of the two compounds in male rats show good uptake by the adrenals and the brain. Compound 75Se-2 had higher adrenal uptake and adrenal-to-blood ratios (4.2% dose/g and 70:1) than 125I-3 (3.6% dose/g and 23.8:1) at 15 min post injection. The two compounds had almost equal brain uptake (0.91% dose/g for 75Se-2 and 1.14% dose/g for 125I-3), but 75Se-2 showed higher brain-to-blood ratios (15.2:1 vs 7.3:1) at 15 min post injection. This study indicates that 75Se-2 and 123I-3 may be useful agents for imaging the adrenal and the brain.

  1. Simple, Efficient and Controllable Synthesis of Iodo/Di-iodoarenes via Ipsoiododecarboxylation/Consecutive Iodination Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Lijuan; Deng, Guo-Jun; Gong, Hang

    2017-01-01

    A practical, efficient, and operationally simple strategy for the ipsoiododecarboxylation and di-iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids using the low-cost commercial reagent succinimide (NIS) as iodine source is reported. This iodination or di-iodination process can be easily controlled through reaction conditions, thereby providing corresponding iodination or di-iodination products with high yields. Furthermore, these two reactions can be easily scaled up to gram-scale by using palladium catalyst (0.66 mol%), which provides high isolated yield. PMID:28091536

  2. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  3. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in The Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-11-21

    To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. 15 UMs in The Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. 4 cities in The Netherlands. UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  5. Das Märchen vom Zauberer im weißen Kittel: Mythen um berühmte Experimente und Experimentatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2003-09-01

    Um berühmte Experimentatoren und Experimente ranken sich ebenso Mythen wie um geniale Theoretiker. Sie sind in populärwissenschaftlichen Büchern, Lehrbüchern und sogar in wissenschaftshistorischen Texten verbreitet. Die durch die Aufklärung etablierte Kultur des eleganten Schauexperiments vermittelt ein schiefes Bild vom mühsamen Weg vieler Experimentatoren zum dargestellten Ergebnis. Auch der Mythos des einsamen, genialen Experimentators ohne Helfer widerspricht dem historischen Befund. Gleiches gilt für das experimentum crucis, das eine Theorie als entscheidendes Experiment belegen soll. Die historische Forschung zeigt, dass es eine lange, eigenständige Tradition der experimentellen und instrumentellen Arbeit gibt.

  6. The challenge and scientific application of the CO2 4.3 um atmospheric limb emission of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Piccialli, A.; Giuranna, M.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A. A.; García-Comas, M.; González-Galindo, F.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Jiménez-Monferrer, S.

    2015-10-01

    The atmospheric fluorescent emissions of CO2 at 4.3- um have been observed in the daytime upper atmosphere of Mars from a limb geometry by the instruments OMEGA and PFS on board Mars Express [1, 8]. Initial analysis using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) models show that the emissions are well understood [7, 3, 6]. Yet they have not been exploited to derive important thermospheric parameters, like CO2 densities and temperatures. Our major goals are to improve current NLTE models with a joint study of OMEGA and PFS data, and to build an ambitious state-of-the-art NLTE retreival scheme for Mars. Recent progress has been made in these directions on Mars, Venus and Earth. We will present a summary of these efforts and the difficulties and expectatives for its application to the Mars Express data

  7. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  8. Spattering activity at Halemáumáu in 2015 and the transition between Hawaiian and Strombolian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintz, B. G.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Taddeucci, J.; Gaudin, D.; Kueppers, U.; Carey, R.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive activity in 2015 at the free surface of the Halemáumáu lava lake at Kīlauea showed features of both Hawaiian fountaining and Strombolian explosivity. Like low Hawaiian fountains, spattering events often persisted for tens of minutes or hours. However, like Strombolian explosions, the activity consisted of a series of bursting of discrete, meter-sized gas bubbles. Each bubble burst threw fluidal bombs, with meter to decimeter diameters, to elevations of meters to a few tens of meters above the collapsing bubble remnant. Initial velocities of the pyroclasts were lower than either Strombolian explosions or high Hawaiian fountains, typically only 7 to 14 meters/second on average.Although some events were triggered by short-lived rock falls that penetrated the crust of the lava lake, the resulting outgassing activity would become self-sustaining and persistent. Activity was at times, confined to a single point source, to several point sources, or along arcs extending tens of meters parallel to the lake margin.This activity represents another type of behavior exhibited by basaltic volcanoes and provides greater insight into the spectrum between Hawaiian fountaining and Strombolian explosivity. Consequently, this activity is highly instructive in terms of: (a) the diversity of degassing/outgassing possible at basaltic volcanoes and (b) the controls on mechanically coupled versus decoupled behavior of the exsolved bubbles. The 2015 Halemáumáu activity was often continuous over similar timescales to Hawaiian fountaining but was markedly less steady than high fountains. A significant portion of the gas phase was released as discrete bubble bursts, but with frequencies two or three orders of magnitude higher than at Stromboli, which permitted sustained but not steady events.

  9. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS).

    PubMed

    De Hert, Marc; Van Bos, Liesbet; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U

    2015-01-01

    When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient's euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations.

  10. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  11. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 70um-1.2mm and N2H+ maps of IRDC18454 (W43) (Beuther+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Tackenberg, J.; Linz, H.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Ragan, S.; Nielbock, M.; Launhardt, R.; Schmiedeke, A.; Schuller, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Sakai, T.

    2011-11-01

    The cloud complex with a size of ~6'x6' was observed with PACS on Herschel on 2010 March 9. Maps at 250, 350, and 500um were obtained with SPIRE 2010) on 2010 March 11. We observed IRDC18454-1 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer during five nights in October and November 2009 at 93GHz in the C and D configurations. The N2H+ data has been observed using the BEARS receiver at the NRO 45m telescope in Nobeyama, Japan. The different velocity components have been observed one in April 2010 with an average system temperature of Tsys=206K, the second in June, at slightly lower Tsys. The MIPS 24um data (from MIPSGAL) as well as the IRAC 8um observations (from GLIMPSE) are taken from the Spitzer archive. The 1.2mm continuum data were first presented in Beuther et al. (2002, Cat. J/ApJ/566/945) and the APEX 870um data are part of the ATLASGAL survey of the Galactic plane (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S). (2 data files).

  13. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt: implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Z.

    2013-04-01

    The Kid Metamorphic Complex of SE Sinai represents a thick volcano-sedimentary succession that underwent polyphase deformation and greenschist to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The Malhaq and Um Zariq Formations, the target of this study, occupy roughly the northern half of this complex. The Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma), whereas Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an older sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813±6 Ma). The Malhaq Formation comprises a series of dark gray structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded and intercalated with fine- to medium-grained foliated mica-rich phyllites and schists, while the Um Zariq Formation is a dominantly metasedimentary sequence, mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists. Malhaq metasediments are enriched in SiO2, CaO and K2O and depleted in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of Um Zariq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies in all samples, and general enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. Geochemical investigations have revealed that the source rocks of Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq

  14. Evaluation of high-resolution MetUM and AMPS forecasts of near-surface meteorological variables over Larsen C ice shelf and northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; King, John; Weeks, Mark; Gadian, Alan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Steffen, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution weather forecasts are an important tool for understanding the detailed patterns of surface melt on the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS), Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the skill of UK Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts with horizontal grid spacing of 4-5 km for a 1 month period during January-February 2011 by comparing near-surface model output to automatic weather station measurements at 5 sites on the LCIS and 3 on the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Forecasts for the range 12-24 h showed a fairly homogeneous performance over the LCIS. The 2 m temperature simulated by AMPS has a correlation with observations of 0.5-0.6 and a systematic cold bias of around -1 degrees centigrade. By comparison, the MetUM had a higher correlation and was less negatively biased. The simulated surface pressure has a correlation of 0.99 and small biases in both models. AMPS yielded better results than the MetUM for 10 m wind speed, being able to capture particularly well synoptically-driven high wind speeds which the MetUM systematically underestimated. Both models struggle to simulate the 10 m wind direction when the wind conditions are highly variable. The simulation of specific humidity by both models was poor. Both models showed a general reduction in performance over the northern Antarctic Peninsula compared to the LCIS. Extending the analysis to consider the 12-36 h forecast range demonstrated a relatively weak dependence of model skill to the length of the forecast. The study focuses particularly on the representation of foehn wind events, which are an important contributor to surface melt over the LCIS, by examining additional ~1 km scale forecasts using the MetUM.

  15. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the

  16. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form.

  17. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  18. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-11-30

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed.

  19. Calcareous benthonic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition of Gebel Um El-Ghanayem, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Khalil, Hamza M.

    2014-08-01

    The studies of benthic calcareous foraminifera of the Maastrichtian-early Paleocene Dakhla Formation in Gebel Um El-Ghanayem (Western Desert, Egypt), improve reconstruction of depositional environments of these successions. In total, 68 taxa of benthic foraminifera were identified in the studied succession. The late Maastrichtian assemblages (Zone CF3) are dominated by calcareous foraminifera with tapered tests, this tapered taxon Loxostomum applinae, Lox. tegulatum various dentalinid taxa, and Buliminella cushmani dominate in CF3 Biozone. We thus interpret these faunas as being dominated by infaunal morphogroups, suggesting a moderately eutrophic environment. Danian assemblages are characterized by abundant epifaunal trochospiral species, such as Cibicidoides abudurbensis, Cibicidoides farafraensis, and Gyroidinoides girardanus. The infaunal morphogroups make up 25-47% of fauna in the Danian, in contrast to 62-76% in the Upper Maastrichtian. This dominance of the Danian benthic foraminiferal assemblages by epifaunal or mixed epifaunal/infaunal morphogroups suggests that the food supply to the benthos was less abundant than in the latest Cretaceous. The Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (K/Pg) is within the upper unit of the Lower Kharga Member and marked by a hiatus in at least the top of CF3 Zone of the Upper Maastrichtian to the Lower Paleocene (base Plc Zone).

  20. Occurrence and Mammalian Cell Toxicity of Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    An occurrence study was conducted to measure five iodo-acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid) and two iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs), (dichloroiodomethane and b...

  1. Occurrence and Mammalian Cell Toxicity of Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    An occurrence study was conducted to measure five iodo-acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid) and two iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs), (dichloroiodomethane and b...

  2. Datação do disco galáctico pela nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; Arany-Prado, L. I.

    2003-08-01

    A nucleocosmocronologia emprega abundâncias de nuclídeos radioativos na datação de escalas de tempo astrofísicas. O 232Th é um nuclídeo radioativo com meia-vida de 14 Gano, enquanto que os dois isótopos mais abundantes do Eu são estáveis. O decaimento radioativo do Th modifica as razões de abundâncias [Th/Eu], fornecendo assim um meio de sondar a escala de formação das populações estelares. O objetivo deste trabalho é averiguar a possibilidade de estimar uma idade para o disco Galáctico através da nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu] e investigar o nível de incerteza associado a esta estimativa. Para tanto, foi selecionada uma amostra de 20 estrelas anãs ou subgigantes de tipos espectrais F5 a G9, com -1,00 £ [Fe/H] £ +0,30 e idade(Gano) £ 13. As abundâncias de Th e Eu foram obtidas por síntese espectral das linhas localizadas em 4019,1 Å e 4129,7 Å, respectivamente. Uma comparação destas abundâncias com outros resultados da literatura demonstra que nossos valores apresentam dispersão 2 a 3 vezes menor que qualquer trabalho anterior. Os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias dos elementos que contaminam as regiões espectrais destas linhas foram determinados por nós, de maneira totalmente autoconsistente, através de análise espectral detalhada diferencial em relação ao Sol. As idades estelares individuais foram determinadas através de curvas isócronas teóricas no diagrama HR. Foi realizada, então, uma análise cronológica dos gráficos [Th/Eu] vs. [Fe/H] e [Th/Eu] vs. idade. Os dados estelares foram comparados a curvas calculadas para 3 idades do disco Galáctico - 9, 12, 15 Gano - e foi estudada a sensibilidade à idade assumida no cálculo do ajuste destas curvas aos dados. Estas curvas foram calculadas com base num modelo analítico de evolução química da Galáxia que leva em consideração a formação de refugos, que são compostos pelos remanescentes da evolução estelar, pelos resíduos da formação de estrelas de

  3. The resolution sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon and its inter-model comparison between MRI-AGCM and MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Tomomichi; Johnson, Stephanie J.; Schiemann, Reinhard; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Mizuta, Ryo; Yoshida, Kohei; Osamu Arakawa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we compare the resolution sensitivity of the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) in two Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs): the MRI-AGCM and the MetUM. We analyze the MetUM at three different resolutions, N96 (approximately 200-km mesh on the equator), N216 (90-km mesh) and N512 (40-km mesh), and the MRI-AGCM at TL95 (approximately 180-km mesh on the equator), TL319 (60-km mesh), and TL959 (20-km mesh). The MRI-AGCM and the MetUM both show decreasing precipitation over the western Pacific with increasing resolution, but their precipitation responses differ over the Indian Ocean. In MRI-AGCM, a large precipitation increase appears off the equator (5-20°N). In MetUM, this off-equatorial precipitation increase is less significant and precipitation decreases over the equator. Moisture budget analysis demonstrates that a changing in moisture flux convergence at higher resolution is related to the precipitation response. Orographic effects, intra-seasonal variability and the representation of the meridional thermal gradient are explored as possible causes of the resolution sensitivity. Both high-resolution AGCMs (TL959 and N512) can represent steep topography, which anchors the rainfall pattern over south Asia and the Maritime Continent. In MRI-AGCM, representation of low pressure systems in TL959 also contributes to the rainfall pattern. Furthermore, the seasonal evolution of the meridional thermal gradient appears to be more accurate at higher resolution, particularly in the MRI-AGCM. These findings emphasize that the impact of resolution is only robust across the two AGCMs for some features of the ASM, and highlights the importance of multi-model studies of GCM resolution sensitivity.

  4. The Workload of the UMS Faculty. A Report to the Joint Chairs of the Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and the House Appropriations Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ. System Administration, Adelphi.

    This report provides the results of a study of faculty workloads in the University of Maryland System (UMS) during the 1994-95 academic year. It was found that 19,446 course units were taught by full-time (FT) faculty at degree-granting institutions, an increase of 158 course units from the previous year while the number of FT faculty decreased by…

  5. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as solu

  6. The Neoproterozoic Kolet Um Kharit bimodal metavolcanic rocks, south Eastern Desert, Egypt: a case of enrichment from plume interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    Neoproterozoic metavolcanic rocks of Kolet Um Kharit (KUKh) in the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt have been traditionally regarded as a bimodal island-arc sequence. However, geological and geochemical arguments presented here make this interpretation doubtful. Geochemically, these rocks are classified into mafic (tholeiitic basalts) and felsic (high-K rhyodacites to rhyolites) groups. Both the KUKh mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks show similar geochemical characteristics, implying a genetic link. They have comparable trace element ratios, such as Zr/Nb (27 30 vs. 20 36), Y/Nb (5.44 6.25 vs. 5.05 5.9), K/Rb (577 1164 vs. 573 937), Ba/La (4.29 25 9 vs. 11.4 16.2), Nb/Yb (1.82 2.03 vs. 1.76 1.99). Similarly both groups have parallel LREE-enriched patterns (La/YbCN=2.37 2.81 vs. 2.55 3.17); and negative Nb and Ta anomalies (Nb/Lapm=0.51 0.58 vs. 0.45 0.52 and Ta/Lapm=0.51 0.62 vs. 0.49 0.55). The observed negative Nb and Ta anomalies in the KUKh metavolcanic rocks cannot be attributed to crustal contamination or fractional crystallization. These rocks could represent either a remnant of break-up LIP or were derived from an enriched mantle source containing subduction components beneath an intraoceanic back-arc basin. The recognition of the KUKh rocks as derived from an enriched mantle source revives interest in models that involve enrichment from “plume” interaction during the evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  7. The NEUF-DIX space project - Non-EquilibriUm Fluctuations during DIffusion in compleX liquids.

    PubMed

    Baaske, Philipp; Bataller, Henri; Braibanti, Marco; Carpineti, Marina; Cerbino, Roberto; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Donev, Aleksandar; Köhler, Werner; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Vailati, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion and thermal diffusion processes in a liquid mixture are accompanied by long-range non-equilibrium fluctuations, whose amplitude is orders of magnitude larger than that of equilibrium fluctuations. The mean-square amplitude of the non-equilibrium fluctuations presents a scale-free power law behavior q(-4) as a function of the wave vector q, but the divergence of the amplitude of the fluctuations at small wave vectors is prevented by the presence of gravity. In microgravity conditions the non-equilibrium fluctuations are fully developed and span all the available length scales up to the macroscopic size of the systems in the direction parallel to the applied gradient. Available theoretical models are based on linearized hydrodynamics and provide an adequate description of the statics and dynamics of the fluctuations in the presence of small temperature/concentration gradients and under stationary or quasi-stationary conditions. We describe a project aimed at the investigation of Non-EquilibriUm Fluctuations during DIffusion in compleX liquids (NEUF-DIX). The focus of the project is on the investigation in micro-gravity conditions of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in complex liquids, trying to tackle several challenging problems that emerged during the latest years, such as the theoretical predictions of Casimir-like forces induced by non-equilibrium fluctuations; the understanding of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in multi-component mixtures including a polymer, both in relation to the transport coefficients and to their behavior close to a glass transition; the understanding of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in concentrated colloidal suspensions, a problem closely related with the detection of Casimir forces; and the investigation of the development of fluctuations during transient diffusion. We envision to parallel these experiments with state-of-the-art multi-scale simulations.

  8. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  9. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  10. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  11. Connecting spatial and temporal scales of tropical precipitation in observations and the MetUM-GA6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Gill M.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Moise, Aurel F.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses tropical rainfall variability (on a range of temporal and spatial scales) in a set of parallel Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) simulations at a range of horizontal resolutions, which are compared with two satellite-derived rainfall datasets. We focus on the shorter scales, i.e. from the native grid and time step of the model through sub-daily to seasonal, since previous studies have paid relatively little attention to sub-daily rainfall variability and how this feeds through to longer scales. We find that the behaviour of the deep convection parametrization in this model on the native grid and time step is largely independent of the grid-box size and time step length over which it operates. There is also little difference in the rainfall variability on larger/longer spatial/temporal scales. Tropical convection in the model on the native grid/time step is spatially and temporally intermittent, producing very large rainfall amounts interspersed with grid boxes/time steps of little or no rain. In contrast, switching off the deep convection parametrization, albeit at an unrealistic resolution for resolving tropical convection, results in very persistent (for limited periods), but very sporadic, rainfall. In both cases, spatial and temporal averaging smoothes out this intermittency. On the ˜ 100 km scale, for oceanic regions, the spectra of 3-hourly and daily mean rainfall in the configurations with parametrized convection agree fairly well with those from satellite-derived rainfall estimates, while at ˜ 10-day timescales the averages are overestimated, indicating a lack of intra-seasonal variability. Over tropical land the results are more varied, but the model often underestimates the daily mean rainfall (partly as a result of a poor diurnal cycle) but still lacks variability on intra-seasonal timescales. Ultimately, such work will shed light on how uncertainties in modelling small-/short-scale processes relate to uncertainty in climate change

  12. UmUTracker: A versatile MATLAB program for automated particle tracking of 2D light microscopy or 3D digital holography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanqing; Stangner, Tim; Wiklund, Krister; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Andersson, Magnus

    2017-10-01

    We present a versatile and fast MATLAB program (UmUTracker) that automatically detects and tracks particles by analyzing video sequences acquired by either light microscopy or digital in-line holographic microscopy. Our program detects the 2D lateral positions of particles with an algorithm based on the isosceles triangle transform, and reconstructs their 3D axial positions by a fast implementation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld model using a radial intensity profile. To validate the accuracy and performance of our program, we first track the 2D position of polystyrene particles using bright field and digital holographic microscopy. Second, we determine the 3D particle position by analyzing synthetic and experimentally acquired holograms. Finally, to highlight the full program features, we profile the microfluidic flow in a 100 μm high flow chamber. This result agrees with computational fluid dynamic simulations. On a regular desktop computer UmUTracker can detect, analyze, and track multiple particles at 5 frames per second for a template size of 201 ×201 in a 1024 × 1024 image. To enhance usability and to make it easy to implement new functions we used object-oriented programming. UmUTracker is suitable for studies related to: particle dynamics, cell localization, colloids and microfluidic flow measurement. Program Files doi : http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/fkprs4s6xp.1 Licensing provisions : Creative Commons by 4.0 (CC by 4.0) Programming language : MATLAB Nature of problem: 3D multi-particle tracking is a common technique in physics, chemistry and biology. However, in terms of accuracy, reliable particle tracking is a challenging task since results depend on sample illumination, particle overlap, motion blur and noise from recording sensors. Additionally, the computational performance is also an issue if, for example, a computationally expensive process is executed, such as axial particle position reconstruction from digital holographic microscopy data. Versatile

  13. The ultraviolet spectrum of the gravitational lens candidate UM 425 = QSO 1120+019: Evidence for broad absorption line (BAL) structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelitsianos, A. G.; Oliversen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The UV line profile structure of high-ionization resonance lines found with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the brightest of four multiply imaged sources (images-A) in the candidate gravitational lens UM 425 = QSO 1120+019 indicates broad absorption line (BAL) structure. The deep-broad trough associated with the O IV line extends to velocities approiximately -12,000 km/s, and contains disrete features that suggest multicomponent velocity structure. This structure may include contributions from C IV absorption from the early-type galaxy that is believed to lens UM 425. A strong absorption feature in the blue wing of the Lyman-alpha lambda 1216 emission line may be a Lyman alpha absorption system at a Z(sub Ly alpha) = 1.437 +/- 0.003, or it may be formed by the superposition of the broad N V lambda lambda 1238, 1242 absorption trough on the extended blue emission wing of the QSO Lyman-alpha line. We obtained a redshift of Z(sub QSO) = 1.471 +/- 0.003 from Lyman-alpha lambda 1215, consistent with the redshift found by Meylan and Djorgovski in the optical. The Lyman-alpha line appears unusally weak due to the presence of N V lambda 1240 BAL absorption. A Lyman-limit absorption system at lambda 912 was not observed in the QSO rest frame. The detection of BAL structure in the other weaker ground-state resonance lines of N II (l) and S IV (l) was not found, suggesting these lines are formed in a region that is distinct from the BAL component. Detection of BAL structure in the other fainter images in this system with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instrumentation, similar to structure observed here in image A, could provide evidence that UM 425 is a gravitational lens.

  14. 0.18 um 3.1-10.6 GHz CMOS UWB LNA with 25±1dB gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsadini, Shila; Kashani, Farokh Hojat; Bathaei, Neda

    2011-05-01

    A 3.1-10.6 GHz ultra-wideband low noise-amplifier (UWB LNA) using standard 0.18 um CMOS technology which is applicable in telecommunication has been reported. A two-stage, common-gate in cascade with cascode, UWB LNA has been proposed to achieve more than 10 dB input and output return loss, maximum gain of 26 dB, and NF of 2.9 dB over the full frequency band. The proposed LNA consumes 10 mW from 1.8 V supply. The designed LNA has an excellent high gain in comparison with previous works.

  15. Radiolabeled cycloSaligenyl Monophosphates of 5-Iodo-2′-deoxyuridine, 5-Iodo-3′-fluoro-2′, 3′-dideoxyuridine, and 3′-Fluorothymidine for Molecular Radiotherapy of Cancer: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kortylewicz, Zbigniew P.; Kimura, Yu; Inoue, Kotaro; Mack, Elizabeth; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina

    2012-01-01

    Targeted molecular radiotherapy opens unprecedented opportunities to eradicate cancer cells with minimal irradiation of normal tissues. Described in this study are radioactive cycloSaligenyl monophosphates designed to deliver lethal doses of radiation to cancer cells. These compounds can be radiolabeled with SPECT- and PET-compatible radionuclides as well as radionuclides suitable for Auger electron therapies. This characteristic provides an avenue for the personalized and comprehensive treatment strategy that comprises diagnostic imaging to identify sites of disease, followed by the targeted molecular radiotherapy based on the imaging results. The developed radiosynthetic methods produce no-carrier-added products with high radiochemical yield and purity. The interaction of these compounds with their target, butyrylcholinesterase, depends on the stereochemistry around the P atom. IC50 values are in the nM range. In vitro studies indicate that radiation doses delivered to the cell nucleus are sufficient to kill cells of several difficult to treat malignancies including glioblastoma, and ovarian and colorectal cancers. PMID:22339166

  16. Synthesis and characterization of new adenosine A/sub 1/ receptor radioligands, N/sup 6/-3-/sup 125/IODO-4-aminobenzyladenosine, and a photoaffinity probe, N/sup 6/-3-/sup 125/IODO-4-azidobenzyladenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization of adenosine receptors in brain and fat membranes has been achieved with /sup 3/H-cyclohexyladenosine, /sup 125/Iodohydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine (/sup 125/IHPIA) and other radioligands. However, these radioligands failed to label cardiac receptors. The authors have synthesized two new radioligands, /sup 125/Iodoaminobenzyladenosine (/sup 125/IABA), and a photoaffinity probe /sup 125/Iodoazidobenzyladenosine (/sup 125/IAzBA). /sup 125/IABA bound to a single class of adenosine receptors on rat ventricle membranes with a K/sub D/ equivalent to that of /sup 125/IHPIA and Bmax of 15.2 fmol/mg protein but with one-sixth the nonspecific binding of the other radioligand. In brain membranes, /sup 125/IABA bound with a higher affinity (K/sub D/ 1.93 nM) than in the heart membranes (K/sub D/ 11.6 nM). Iodination of aminobenzyladenosine increased affinity for the adenosine receptor by 22-fold; from studies on adenylate cyclase in adipocytes and chick heart cells, the new ligand was found to be a full agonist at an A/sub 1/ adenosine receptor. /sup 125/Iodoazidobenzyladenosine (/sup 125/IAzBA) bound with high affinity (K/sub D/-1nM); to receptors on cortical membranes from dog, rat, guinea pig and pig. On photolysis, /sup 125/IAzBA on the adenosine receptor was covalently incorporated into a receptor binding subunit with a Mr of 34 kDa. /sup 125/IAzBA specifically photoincorporated into 34 kDa peptide in dog, guinea pig, rat, chick and pig cortical membranes; and in rat fat membranes. These results suggest that the A/sub 1/ adenosine receptor binding subunit in various mammalian species and tissues resides on a 34 kDa protein.

  17. Spitzer And Herschel-based Seds Of 24um-bright z 0.3- 3.0 Starbursts And Obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajina, Anna; Yan, L.; Fadda, D.; Dasyra, K.; Huynh, M.

    2012-05-01

    A key legacy of Spitzer are the mid-IR spectra of high-redshift objects - which would not be available again until the JWST. Such spectra have been very useful for disentangling the contribution of AGN and star-formation to the observed dust emission. We have constructed a unique Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopic, nearly 24um flux-limited sample, of 191 sources at z 0.3-2.8 and with log(L_IR/L_sun) 11-13. The size and selection of the sample, allows us to study galaxy evolution from the perspective of the mid-IR where AGN are prominent. Indeed, mid-IR diagnostics suggest that 70% of our sample is AGN-dominated. Without far-IR data however, it is unclear to what degree this conclusion applies to the overall IR emission. Here we extend the earlier mid-IR studies to incorporate Herschel far-IR photometry and address the full IR SED of Spitzer 24um-selected galaxies. This allows for the overall AGN contribution to their power output to be estimated. This also allows for a direct comparison with other populations both locally and at high redshifts - ultimately placing the 24um-bright populations in the wider context of galaxy evolution. Our first conclusion is that indeed mid-IR studies alone underestimate the level of star-formation in these systems -- we now find that only 19% of the sample are AGN-dominated (i.e. where the AGN luminosity is at least 50% of the total L_IR). We also find that sources of comparable L_IR locally, are not good analogs to the our sources -- consistent for example with recent ideas of cold gas accretion vs. mergers as a means of triggering extreme starbursts. Since local sources are not good analogs to high redshift ones, we construct a set of IR SEDs templates for high redshift starbursts and obscured quasars. The templates are public and useful, among others, for interpreting the all-sky mid-IR data from WISE.

  18. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  19. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  20. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  1. Polyhalogenated Indoles from the Red Alga Rhodophyllis membranacea: The First Isolation of Bromo-Chloro-Iodo Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Woolner, Victoria H; Jones, Cori M; Field, Jessica J; Fadzilah, Nazmi H; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Miller, John H; Keyzers, Robert A; Northcote, Peter T

    2016-03-25

    An unusual tetrahalogenated indole with the exceptionally rare inclusion of the three halogens bromine, chlorine, and iodine was found using mass spectrometry within a fraction of a semipurified extract obtained from the red alga Rhodophyllis membranacea. We report herein the isolation and structure elucidation, using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, of 11 new tetrahalogenated indoles (1-11), including four bromochloroiodoindoles (5-7, 10). Several were evaluated for cytotoxic and antifungal activities against the HL-60 promyelocytic cell line and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively.

  2. Crystal and molecular structure of alpha-iodo-beta-chlorovinyl phenyl sulfone and ,US -dibromovinyl phenyl sulfone

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'skii, V.K.; Shainyan, B.A.; Mirskova, A.N.

    1986-09-01

    The authors discuss rearrangement and isomerization procedures occurring in the bromination, iodination, and chlorination of the title sulfones and assess their crystal and molecular structure using NMR spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  3. Synthesis, electronic structure and catalytic activity of ruthenium-iodo-carbonyl complexes with thioether containing NNS donor ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Subrata; Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Biswas, Sujan; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The ruthenium carbonyl complexes 1 and 2 with redox noninnocent NNS donor ligand, 1-methyl-2-{(o-thiomethyl)phenylazo}imidazole (L) have been synthesized and characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis and 1H NMR) techniques. The complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 1.11 V for 1 and 0.76 V for 2 along with two successive one electron ligand reductions. Catalytic activity of the compounds has been investigated to the oxidation of PhCH2OH to PhCHO, 2-butanol (C4H9OH) to 2-butanone, 1-phenylethanol (PhC2H4OH) to acetophenone, cyclopentanol (C5H9OH) to cyclopentanone, cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone, cycloheptanol to cycloheptanone and cycloctanol to cycloctanone using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMO) as oxidant. The catalytic efficiency of 2 is greater than complex 1 and well correlate with the metal oxidation potential. DFT, NBO and TDDFT calculations in DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d)/lanL2TZ(f) method are employed to interpret the structural and electronic features of the complexes.

  4. 2-(5-Iodo-2-oxoindolin-3-yl­idene)hydrazinecarbo­thio­amide including an unknown solvate

    PubMed Central

    Conceição Duarte de Bittencourt, Viviane; Carratu Gervini, Vanessa; Rosa de Menezes Vicenti, Juliano; Maciel Velasques, Jecika; Jussiane Zambiazi, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C9H7IN4OS, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0373 Å). In the mol­ecule, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate, respectively, S(5) and S(6) ring motifs. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. These chains are linked via S⋯I contacts [3.4915 (16) Å], forming sheets lying parallel to (100). A region of disordered electron density, probably a disordered tetra­hydro­furan solvent mol­ecule, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. The formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during refinement. PMID:24940248

  5. Synthesis of chiral β-iodo- and vinylorganophosphorus(V) compounds by fragmentation of carbohydrate anomeric alkoxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guerra, Daniel; Rodríguez, María S; Suárez, Ernesto

    2013-01-18

    A new general methodology for the synthesis of chiral vinylphosphonate and vinylphosphine oxide carbohydrate derivatives has been developed using the anomeric alkoxyl radical fragmentation reaction as the key step. The synthetic sequence proceeded via β-iodophosphonate and β-iodophosphine oxide intermediates, which may be interesting synthons for the introduction of phosphorus into organic molecules. These vinylphosphonates could be easily transformed into 2-methylene-1-phosphapentofuranoses (3-methylene-1,2-oxaphospholanes) and β-aminophosphonates, isosteres of biologically active α-methylene-γ-lactones and β-amino acids, respectively.

  6. User's manual (UM) for the enhanced logistics intratheater support tool (ELIST) software segment version 8.1.0.0 for solaris 7.

    SciTech Connect

    Dritz, K.

    2002-03-06

    This document is the User's Manual (UM) for the Enhanced Logistics Intratheater Support Tool (ELIST) Software Segment. It tells how to use the end-user and administrative features of the segment. The instructions in Sections 4.2.1, 5.3.1, and 5.3.2 for the end-user features (Run ELIST and Run ETEdit) only cover the launching of those features in the DII COE environment; full details on the operation of ELIST and ETEdit in any environment can be found in the documents listed in Section 2.1.3 and referenced elsewhere in this document. On the other hand, complete instructions for the administrative features (Add Map Data and Delete Map Data) are presented in Sections 4.2.2, 5.3.3, and 5.3.4 of this document.

  7. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  8. An Enhancement of 160um-derived Star-Formation Rates in Active Galaxies to z = 3.2 with the ZFOURGE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Michael; Spitler, L.

    2016-08-01

    ZFOURGE is a new imaging survey, which employs unique near-infrared medium- band filters designed to probe galaxy properties over the last 12 billion years. By supplementing the high-quality ZFOURGE galaxy catalogues with data in radio, X- ray, and infrared wavebands, we have studied the complex interplay between AGNs and their host galaxies to a time when the Universe was only 10-15% of its present age. I will report on our study to compare the 160-um derived star-formation rates in active and non-active galaxies and show that AGN hosts, over all redshifts, tend to exhibit an elevated average star-formation activity compared to their non-active counterparts.

  9. Validation of the A&D UM-211 device for office blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    PubMed

    Fania, Claudio; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to define the accuracy of UM-211, an automated oscillometric device for office use coupled to several cuffs for different arm sizes, according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. The validation was performed in 33 individuals. Their mean age was 59.6±12.9 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) was 144.3±21.5 mmHg (range: 96-184 mmHg), diastolic BP was 86.8±18.5 mmHg (range: 48-124 mmHg), and arm circumference was 30.2±4.3 cm (range: 23-39 cm). Four sequential readings were taken by observers 1 and 2 using a double-headed stethoscope and a mercury sphygmomanometer, whereas three BP readings were taken by the supervisor using the test instrument. The differences between the readings provided by the device and the mean observer measurements were calculated. Therefore, each device measurement was compared with the previous and the next mean observer measurement. The validation results fulfilled all the 2010 European Society of Hypertension revision Protocol criteria for the general population and passed all validation grades. On average, the device overestimated systolic BP by 1.7±2.4 mmHg and diastolic BP by 1.7±2.5 mmHg. These data show that the UM-211 device coupled to several cuffs for different ranges of arm circumference met the requirements for validation according to the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. However, these results mainly apply to the use of the 22-32 and the 31-45 cm cuffs.

  10. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  11. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  12. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  13. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) from 1.25-850um (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.-R.; Lee, C. W.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Kim, G.; Allen, L. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Spitzer Gould Belt Survey (GBS) is a project to survey about 21 square degrees of 11 nearby molecular clouds at 3.6-160um to provide a census of star formation in nearby large clouds (P.I. L. Allen). Spitzer has mapped a total of 11 molecular clouds, CMC, Chamaeleon I, Chamaeleon III, Musca, Lupus V, Lupus VI, Ophiuchus North, Aquila, CrA, Cepheus, and IC 5146 with the IRAC and MIPS between 2004 March and 2008 October. We utilized the data provided by the c2d/GBS projects (Evans et al. 2009, J/ApJS/181/321; Dunham et al. 2015, J/ApJS/220/11). There are two cloud complexes which were not listed in the c2d/GBS projects, but observed by other projects, the Taurus molecular clouds and the Orion molecular clouds. The Taurus molecular clouds have been observed over an area of ~44 square degrees by one of the GTO programs (P.I. D. Padgett) with the IRAC and the MIPS instruments. The Orion molecular clouds have been surveyed in ~9°2 area by Spitzer (P.I. T. Megeath). See section 2.1 for further details. Complementary archive infrared data were retrieved from 2MASS and Herschel PACS and SPIRE and JCMT SCUBA-2; see section 2.2. We observed our sources with the N2H+(1-0) line with the Korean Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (KVN) 21m radio telescopes from 2011 October to 2016 May for the northern hemisphere sources, and the Mopra 22m telescope in 2012 April for the southern hemisphere sources. See section 2.3 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  15. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  16. Effect of chronic treatment with bovine recombinant growth hormone on cardiac dysfunction and lesion progression in UM-X7.1 cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Marleau, Sylvie; Lapointe, Nathalie; Massicotte, Julie; Céméus, Catia; Jasmin, Gaëtan; Dumont, Louis; Sirois, Martin G; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien; Du Souich, Patrick; Ong, Huy

    2002-12-01

    In view of the potentially beneficial effect of GH on ventricular function of humans suffering from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, we undertook a study to evaluate the optimal time to initiate treatment with GH and its duration in UM-X7.1 cardiomyopathic hamsters (CMH). GH (1 mg/kg.d) therapy was initiated either in the early or late (30 and 160 d old, respectively) phases of the disease and continued until death at 240 d of age. Age- and sex-matched Golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) were used as controls. Basal IGF-1 levels in serum were reduced by nearly half in CMH compared with GSH but were increased within a physiological range in male hamsters. In contrast, female hamsters presented elevated basal serum IGF-1 levels that were not further elevated by GH administration, as reported in experimental models and humans. Accordingly, the present study will focus on the effects of GH therapy on cardiac performance in male hamsters. GH did not improve ventricular function when starting at a late stage of the disease compared with CMH controls. Maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development decreased by approximately 64% in CMH treated early with recombinant bovine GH. Ventricular dysfunction was associated with morphologic indices of hypertrophy, ventricular dilatation, and extensive fibrosis. Mortality was strikingly increased in GH-treated CMH for 210 d (four males and eight females), as opposed to four females (and no male) in the vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that chronic treatment with recombinant bovine GH in CMH, starting at an early stage of lesion development, is associated with a reduced cardiac performance at the terminal stage of the disease.

  17. Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

    2015-04-30

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  19. Extraction spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in natural waters and aluminium alloys using pyridyl azo resorcinol (PAR) and iodo-nitro-tetrazolium chloride (INT).

    PubMed

    Gavazov, K; Simeonova, Z; Alexandrov, A

    2000-06-30

    Extraction-spectrophotometric methods are developed for the determination of vanadium content in natural waters and aluminium alloys. They are based on the formation and subsequent extraction into chloroform of the ternary ion association complex of V(V) with PAR and INT in the presence of CDTA and NH(4)F as masking agents. Optimum pH range of the reaction is 5.5-7.5. Maximum absorbance of the extracted complex is at 560 nm. The method for determination of V(V) in drinking waters can be successfully applied at a concentration level of 3 ppb and higher without additional pre-concentration. Among studied more than 30 foreign ions potentially present in natural waters only Ca(II) can interfere. It is removed by precipitation as CaF(2) and filtration. A 40-fold excess of V(IV) does not interfere with determination of V(V) and can also be determined indirectly (after oxidation to V(V)). The proposed method is applied to analysis of model mixtures as well as to the analysis of tap and mineral waters. Beer's law is obeyed for up to 15 mug of V(V) in 40 ml aqueous phase. The accuracy and precision are reasonable. The RSD is in the range 6.5-23.2% for determination of 6.3 ppb V(V). The procedure for analysis of aluminium alloys differs from the procedure for analysis of waters by the order of introduction of the reagents. The macrocomponent does not interfere and is not separated. Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ti and Zr do not interfere. A 25-fold excess of Ni interferes. The method is tested in the analysis of reference standards containing 0.005 and 0.007% V, respectively. The RSD is 1.4%.

  20. New iodo-acetamido cyanines for labeling cysteine thiol residues. A strategy for evaluating plasma proteins and their oxido-redox status.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Grilli, Stefano; Candiano, Giovanni; Fabbroni, Serena; Della Ciana, Leopoldo; Petretto, Andrea; Santucci, Laura; Urbani, Andrea; Gusmano, Rosanna; Scolari, Francesco; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2009-01-01

    Two new iodoacetamide-substituted cyanines, C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3, were synthesized starting from hemicyanine and were utilized for labeling plasma proteins. Specificity, sensitivity and feasibility for SH residues was tested utilizing an equimolar mixture of standard proteins and with normal plasma. Oxidized plasma proteins following H(2)O(2 )exposure and plasma from patients with focal glomerulosclerosis were analyzed as models of altered protein oxido-redox status. Following optimization of the assay (dye/protein ratio, pH), C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3 gave a sensitivity slightly better than N-hydroxysuccinimidyl dyes for plasma proteins and were successfully employed for differential display electrophoresis (DIGE). Twenty-nine proteins were detected in normal plasma after 2-DE while less proteins were detected in plasma of patients with glomerulosclerosis. Following massive 'in vitro' oxidation with H(2)O(2), C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3 failed to detect any residual SH, implicating massive oxidation. In conclusion, this study describes the synthesis of two new iodoacetamide cyanines that can be utilized for the analysis of plasma proteins with 2-DE and DIGE. They are also indicated for the definition of the oxido-redox status of proteins and were successfully utilized to extend the analysis of oxidation damage in patients with glomerulosclerosis.

  1. (±)-2-(N-tert-Butylamino)-3'-[(125)I]-iodo-4'-azidopropiophenone: a dopamine transporter and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor photoaffinity ligand based on bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban).

    PubMed

    Lapinsky, David J; Aggarwal, Shaili; Nolan, Tammy L; Surratt, Christopher K; Lever, John R; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Pandhare, Akash; Blanton, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Towards addressing the knowledge gap of how bupropion interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a ligand was synthesized in which the chlorine of bupropion was isosterically replaced with an iodine and a photoreactive azide was added to the 4'-position of the aromatic ring. Analog (±)-3 (SADU-3-72) demonstrated modest DAT and α4β2 nAChR affinity. A radioiodinated version was shown to bind covalently to hDAT expressed in cultured cells and affinity-purified, lipid-reincorporated human α4β2 neuronal nAChRs. Co-incubation of (±)-[(125)I]-3 with non-radioactive (±)-bupropion or (-)-cocaine blocked labeling of these proteins. Compound (±)-[(125)I]-3 represents the first successful example of a DAT and nAChR photoaffinity ligand based on the bupropion scaffold. Such ligands are expected to assist in mapping bupropion-binding pockets within plasma membrane monoamine transporters and ligand-gated nAChR ion channels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Azido-iodo-N-benzyl derivatives of threo-methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta): Rational design, synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and dopamine transporter photoaffinity labeling.

    PubMed

    Lapinsky, David J; Velagaleti, Ranganadh; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Liu, Yi; Huang, Yurong; Surratt, Christopher K; Lever, John R; Foster, James D; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Deutsch, Howard M

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to tropane-based compounds such as benztropine and cocaine, non-tropane-based photoaffinity ligands for the dopamine transporter (DAT) are relatively unexplored. Towards addressing this knowledge gap, ligands were synthesized in which the piperidine nitrogen of 3- and 4-iodomethylphenidate was substituted with a benzyl group bearing a photoreactive azide. Analog (±)-3a demonstrated modest DAT affinity and a radioiodinated version was shown to bind covalently to rat striatal DAT and hDAT expressed in cultured cells. Co-incubation of (±)-3a with nonradioactive d-(+)-methylphenidate or (-)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (β-CFT, WIN-35,428, a cocaine analog) blocked DAT labeling. Compound (±)-3a represents the first successful example of a DAT photoaffinity ligand based on the methylphenidate scaffold. Such ligands are expected to assist in mapping non-tropane ligand-binding pockets within plasma membrane monoamine transporters.

  3. Azido-Iodo-N-Benzyl Derivatives of threo-Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta): Rational Design, Synthesis, Pharmacological Evaluation, and Dopamine Transporter Photoaffinity Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Lapinsky, David J.; Velagaleti, Ranganadh; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Liu, Yi; Huang, Yurong; Surratt, Christopher K.; Lever, John R.; Foster, James D.; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Deutsch, Howard M.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to tropane-based compounds such as benztropine and cocaine, non-tropane-based photoaffinity ligands for the dopamine transporter (DAT) are relatively unexplored. Towards addressing this knowledge gap, ligands were synthesized in which the piperidine nitrogen of 3- and 4-iodomethylphenidate was substituted with a benzyl group bearing a photoreactive azide. Analog (±)-3a demonstrated modest DAT affinity and a radioiodinated version was shown to bind covalently to rat striatal DAT and hDAT expressed in cultured cells. Co-incubation of (±)-3a with nonradioactive D-(+)-methylphenidate or (−)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (β-CFT, WIN-35,428, a cocaine analog) blocked DAT labeling. Compound (±)-3a represents the first successful example of a DAT photoaffinity ligand based on the methylphenidate scaffold. Such ligands are expected to assist in mapping non-tropane ligand-binding pockets within plasma membrane monoamine transporters. PMID:21129986

  4. UV photolysis of 4-iodo-, 4-bromo-, and 4-chlorophenol: Competition between C-Y (Y = halogen) and O-H bond fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, Alan G.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; King, Graeme A.; Murdock, Daniel; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2013-04-28

    The wavelength dependences of C-Y and O-H bond fission following ultraviolet photoexcitation of 4-halophenols (4-YPhOH) have been investigated using a combination of velocity map imaging, H Rydberg atom photofragment translational spectroscopy, and high level spin-orbit resolved electronic structure calculations, revealing a systematic evolution in fragmentation behaviour across the series Y = I, Br, Cl (and F). All undergo O-H bond fission following excitation at wavelengths {lambda} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 240 nm, on repulsive ((n/{pi}){sigma}*) potential energy surfaces (PESs), yielding fast H atoms with mean kinetic energies {approx}11 000 cm{sup -1}. For Y = I and Br, this process occurs in competition with prompt C-I and C-Br bond cleavage on another (n/{pi}){sigma}* PES, but no Cl/Cl* products unambiguously attributable to one photon induced C-Cl bond fission are observed from 4-ClPhOH. Differences in fragmentation behaviour at longer excitation wavelengths are more marked. Prompt C-I bond fission is observed following excitation of 4-IPhOH at all {lambda}{<=} 330 nm; the wavelength dependent trends in I/I* product branching ratio, kinetic energy release, and recoil anisotropy suggest that (with regard to C-I bond fission) 4-IPhOH behaves like a mildly perturbed iodobenzene. Br atoms are observed when exciting 4-BrPhOH at long wavelengths also, but their velocity distributions suggest that dissociation occurs after internal conversion to the ground state. O-H bond fission, by tunnelling (as in phenol), is observed only in the cases of 4-FPhOH and, more weakly, 4-ClPhOH. These observed differences in behaviour can be understood given due recognition of (i) the differences in the vertical excitation energies of the C-Y centred (n/{pi}){sigma}* potentials across the series Y = I < Br < Cl and the concomitant reduction in C-Y bond strength, cf. that of the rival O-H bond, and (ii) the much increased spin-orbit coupling in, particularly, 4-IPhOH. The present results provide (another) reminder of the risks inherent in extrapolating photochemical behaviour measured for one molecule at one wavelength to other (related) molecules and to other excitation energies.

  5. Interferon induced by UV-irradiated murine cytomegalovirus decreases type C virus expression in BALB/c cells treated by 5-iodo-deoxyuridine or cycloheximide

    SciTech Connect

    Sergiescu, D.

    1983-01-01

    UV-irradiated mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) activates at low incidence (2.0 X 10(-4) - 8.0 X 10(-4)) a xenotropic type C virus in Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed nonproducer BALB 3T3 (KBALB) cells. When KBALB cells are treated with UV-MCMV and subsequently with potent chemical inducers, such as 5-Iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) or cycloheximide, the activation frequencies of type C virus are significantly lower than in controls exposed to the chemical inducers alone: 60% for IdUrd and 44% for cycloheximide. This decrease of activation appears to be mediated by endogenous interferon (IFN) induced by UV-MCMV in KBALB cells, as could be proven by neutralization of the inhibitory activity. Indeed, after exposure of UV-MCMV-infected cells to anti-IFN gamma globulin, the level of C type virus increases, reaching values obtained with IdUrd or cycloheximide in the absence of UV-MCMV. The inhibitory activity associated with UV-MCMV is dose-dependent and the xenotropic type C virus appears to be more sensitive than the ecotropic (N-tropic) retrovirus of BALB/c cells.

  6. Improved targeting of 5-[125I/131I]iodo-2‧-deoxyuridine to rat hepatoma by using lipiodol emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hung-Man; Yeh, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tien-Kui; Huang, Kuang-Liang; Chuang, Kuo-Tang; Liu, Ren-Shen; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Chen, Fu-Du; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Chen, Chin-Hsiung; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to assess whether emulsion of [ 125/131I]IUdR and lipiodol (IUdR/LP) can improve delivery of IUdR into hepatoma. MethodsIn vitro release profile of IUdR from IUdR/LP to serum was performed. IUdR/LP was injected into N1-S1 hepatoma-bearing SD rat via hepatic artery and IUdR/normal saline (IUdR/NS) was used for comparison. Biodistribution, autoradiography, imaging and tumor DNA incorporation assay were performed. The radioactive metabolites in plasma and urine were analyzed. Radiation doses to tumor and organs were estimated. ResultsIUdR released from lipiodol into serum was fast. There were longer retention, more DNA incorporation and higher radiation dose of IUdR in the tumor by using IUdR/LP. IUdR/LP deposited deep in the hepatomas. Only free iodide was found in the plasma and urine after injection of IUdR/LP. ConclusionsHepatic artery injection of IUdR/LP emulsion could definitely enhance the tumor cell uptake and incorporation to DNA of *IUdR, prolong the tumor retention time and increase radiation dose to tumor. IUdR/LP may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic tumors.

  7. Correlation of hetorogeneous blood flow and uptake of a di-methyl-branched IODO fatty acid in the normal and ischemic dog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Sloof, G.W.; Visser, F.C.; Comans, E.F.I. |

    1995-05-01

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) is heterogeneously distributed in normal and ischemic myocardium (myoc). Methylated iodinated fatty acids, like 15-(p-I-125-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPPA) can be used to study fatty acid metabolism with SPECT. We studied the relationship between DMIPPA uptake and MBF. In 10 open-chest dogs, ischemica was induced in the LAD coronary artery by an extra-corporal bypass system. MBF was measured with Sc-46 labeled microspheres. Fourty min. after DMIPPA iv. (34{plus_minus}4 MBq), hearts were excised and left ventricles were cut into 120 pieces, weighed and radioactivities counted. MBF and DMIPPA uptake were determined by counting in normal and ischemic myoc. Heterogeneity is expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) and agreement as the CV of the DMIPPA uptake to MBF ratio. A control study, normal flow in LAD, in 4 dogs revealed no differences in MBF or DMIPPA uptake between the cannulated versus native perfused myoc. We conclude the DMIPPA detects ischemia, in which it shows a different relation with MBF compared to normal myoc. DMIPPA is less heterogeneously distributed than MBF and agreement between MFB and DMIPPA uptake decreases during ischemia.

  8. Tri-iodo thyronine regulates antioxidant enzyme activities in different cell fractions through a mechanism sensitive to actinomycin D in a teleost, Anabas testudineus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Saumya, S M; Sreejith, P; Vijayasree, A S; Divya, L; Manju, M; Oommen, O V

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of hyperthyroid state on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in the crude (CF), post nuclear (PNF) and mitochondrial fractions (MF) of the fish liver. The in vivo injection of T3 (200ng) did not change the lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD), while actinomycin D (10microg), a potent mRNA inhibitor when administered with T3 increased them. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) had an increased activity in CF and MF of hyperthyroid group to compete the increased oxidative stress, but actinomycin D partially inhibited the T3-induced activity. SOD and CAT activities in PNF of hyperthyroid group had no change, the glutathione concentration varied depending on the GPx and GR activity. Hyperthyroidism decreased the protein content, while simultaneous administration of actinomycin D inhibited the T3 action of elevating the protein content. The results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in A. testudineus is modulated by thyroid hormone, through an action sensitive to actinomycin D.

  9. Crystal structure of 1-iodo-3-{[4-(tert-butyl­sulfan­yl)phen­yl]ethyn­yl}azulene

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Sebastian; Seichter, Wilhelm; Weber, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C20H19IS, features a 1,3-disubstituted azulene involving an ethynylene elongated 4-(tert-butyl­sulfanyl)­phenyl sidearm and an iodine atom as the substituents. The azulene ring system is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.012 Å) and subtends a dihedral angle of 35.7 (1)° with the benzene ring. As a result of the inherent dipole character of the azulene core, a supra­molecular π–π dimer [separation between the centroids of the five- and seven-membered rings = 3.7632 (10) Å] with anti­parallel orientated mol­ecules can be observed in the crystal. The packing is consolidated by an unusual I⋯π(acetyl­ene) contact [I⋯Cg = 3.34 Å, C—I⋯Cg = 173.3°], and a very weak C—H⋯π inter­action is also found in the structure, with the azulene five-membered ring as the acceptor. PMID:26396788

  10. The spectroscopic characterization, photochromism of cadmium(II)-iodo complexes of 1-alkyl-2-(arylazo)imidazoles and DFT computation of representative complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Chandana; Nandi, Avijit; Mallick, Debashis; Mondal, Sudipa; Sarker, Kamal Krishna; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2015-02-01

    [Cd(Raai-CnH2n+1)(μ-I)I]2 and [Cd(Raai-CnH2n+1)2I2] are synthesized by the reaction of CdI2 with 1-alkyl-2-(arylazo)imidazole (Raai-CnH2n+1, n = 4, 6, 8) in MeOH in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio of salt and ligands, respectively. The complexes have been characterized by spectral data (UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, Mass). The coordinated Raai-CnH2n+1 shows photochromism, E(trans)-to-Z(cis) isomerisation, upon UV light irradiation. The reverse process, Z-to-E, is very slow in visible light irradiation process while the reaction is sensitive to change of reaction temperature. The quantum yields (ϕE→Z) for E-to-Z and the activation energy (Ea) of Z-to-E isomerisation are calculated and found that the complexes show subordinate results compared to free ligand. DFT computations of two representative complexes were carried out to explain the spectral and photochromic phenomena.

  11. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  12. A Visão do Universo Segundo a Concepção de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Nesse trabalho foi identificada por meio de um questionário a visão de mundo sobre o Universo espaço e tempo entre 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio de três escolas de São Paulo. Constatou-se pouco conhecimento dos temas investigados sendo que apenas 20% dos alunos relacionaram as semanas com as fases da lua enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de astronomia seus conceitos ainda são inadequados havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos pois apesar de popular a astronomia é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecissões.

  13. 1-{[4'-(1H-1,2,4-Triazol-2-ium-1-ylmeth-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]meth-yl}-1H-1,2,4-triazol-2-ium bis-(3-carb-oxy-5-iodo-benzoate)-5-iodo-benzene-3,5-dicarb-oxy-lic acid-water (1/2/2).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kou-Lin; Deng, Ye; Ng, Seik Weng

    2012-05-01

    The neutral carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecule and the carboxyl-ate anion in the title compound, C(18)H(18)N(6) (2+)·2C(8)H(4)IO(4) (-)·2C(8)H(5)IO(4)·2H(2)O, are both nearly planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.034 and 0.045 Å, respectively). In the cation, the mid-point of the C-C bond linking the two benzene rings lies on a center of inversion, and the triazole ring is approximately perpendicular to the adjacent benzene ring [dihedral angle = 83.2 (3)°]. In the crystal, the cations, anions, carb-oxy-lic acid and lattice water mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a ribbon running along [1-10]. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin with the components in a 51.2 (1):48.8 (1) ratio.

  14. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  15. Recombinant bovine growth hormone-induced reduction of atrial natriuretic peptide is associated with improved left ventricular contractility and reverse remodeling in cardiomyopathic UM-X7.1 hamsters with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mulumba, Mukandila; Céméus, Catia; Dumont, Louis; du Souich, Patrick; Ong, Huy; Marleau, Sylvie

    2007-04-01

    To assess the effect of short-term treatment with GH on left ventricular contractility and remodeling, after the development of heart failure in cardiomyopathic hamsters (CMH). Two groups of 200-day-old UM-X7.1 CMH received daily subcutaneous injections of recombinant bovine (rb) GH (1mg/kg/day) or 0.9% NaCl for 40 days. Golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) were used as controls. At 240-day-old, the hamsters were randomly subjected to (i) assessment of left ventricular systolic function in a Langendorff perfused mode followed by the determination of the passive diastolic pressure-volume relationship and morphometric measurements; (ii) assessment of left ventricular mRNA expression of genes belonging to the fetal gene program including atrial (ANP) and brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides and cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms and of the circulating levels of the natriuretic peptides. Hearts from CMH were hypertrophied and dilated (p<0.05) compared to hearts from GSH, along with a approximately 10-fold increase in the circulating ANP and BNP levels. Left ventricular BNP and ANP mRNAs were elevated by 2- and 3-fold, respectively, compared to GSH. rbGH reduced both ANP mRNA and ANP circulating levels by 34% (p<0.01) but did not significantly modulate BNP levels. This effect was associated with a preserved systolic function and reverse remodeling as assessed by a leftward shift of the passive diastolic pressure-volume relationship indicating reduced ventricular dilatation. The data show that a short-term administration of GH in the terminal phase of the disease confers cardioprotection by attenuating systolic dysfunction and by inducing beneficial reverse remodeling.

  16. Ultrawide bandwidth 1.55-um lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Paul A.; Tanbun-Ek, Tawee; Logan, Ralph A.; Ackerman, David A.; Shtengel, Gleb E.; Yadvish, R. D.; Sergent, A. M.; Sciortino, Paul F., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the essential elements for creating a practical wide bandwidth directly modulated laser source. This includes considerations of the intrinsic limitations of the laser structure, due to the resonant frequency and damping of the laser output, together with carrier transport issues to allow carriers in the device active region to be efficiently modulated at high speeds. the use of a P-doped compressively strained multiple-quantum well active region to provide high intrinsic speed and remove transport limitations is described, together with record setting results of 25 GHz modulation bandwidth for a 1.55 micrometer Fabry-Perot laser and 26 GHz bandwidth for a 1.55 micrometer DFB laser. The challenges of providing high bandwidth electrical connections to the laser on a suitable submount, together with fiber attachment and microwave packaging, are discussed. Results of fully packaged 1.55 micrometer DFB lasers with 25 Ghz modulation bandwidth are shown. Digital modulation of the packaged 1.55 micrometer DFB including impedance matching is described, and the transient wavelength chirp is presented. This low chirp is reduced further using an optical filter, to provide a 10 GBit/s source with chirp similar to that of an external electroabsorption modulator.

  17. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  18. Macrocyclic lactones: A versatile source for omega radiohalogenated fatty acid analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A.H.; Lyster, D.M.; Robertson, K.A.; Vincent, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    For each omega halogenated fatty acid there exists a potential omega hydroxy fatty acid and the corresponding macrocyclic lactone. The authors have utilized such lactones as starting materials for omega /sup 123/I fatty acid analogs intended for myocardial imaging. Macrocyclic musk lactones are industrially available; 120 analogs are described in the literature. The preparation requires saponification, tosylation, and radio-iodide substitution. Iodo-fatty acids are readily separated from tosylate fatty acids on TLC. While providing a secure source of 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid and 17-iodo-heptadecanoic acid, the scheme allows ready access to a large number of untried fatty acid analogs. Examples presented are 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-7-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-12-oxa-hexadecanoic acid, 15-iodo-pentadecanoic acid, and 15-iodo-12-keto-pentadecanoic acid. Metabolic studies are in progress in mice and dogs to assess the utility of these analogs for myocardial imaging.

  19. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODINATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  20. Formation of Toxic Iodinated Disinfection By-Products from Compounds Used in Medical Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical cen...

  1. Formation of Toxic Iodinated Disinfection By-Products from Compounds Used in Medical Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical cen...

  2. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODINATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  3. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  4. (±)-2-(N-tert-Butylamino)-3′-[125I]-iodo-4′-azidopropiophenone: a dopamine transporter and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor photoaffinity ligand based on bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban)

    PubMed Central

    Lapinsky, David J.; Aggarwal, Shaili; Nolan, Tammy L.; Surratt, Christopher K.; Lever, John R.; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Pandhare, Akash; Blanton, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Towards addressing the knowledge gap of how bupropion interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a ligand was synthesized in which the chlorine of bupropion was isosterically replaced with an iodine and a photoreactive azide was added to the 4′-position of the aromatic ring. Analog (±)-3 (SADU-3-72) demonstrated modest DAT and α4β2 nAChR affinity. A radioiodinated version was shown to bind covalently to hDAT expressed in cultured cells and affinity-purified, lipid-reincorporated human α4β2 neuronal nAChRs. Co-incubation of (±)-[125I]-3 with non-radioactive (±)-bupropion or (−)-cocaine blocked labeling of these proteins. Compound (±)-[125I]-3 represents the first successful example of a DAT and nAChR photoaffinity ligand based on the bupropion scaffold. Such ligands are expected to assist in mapping bupropion-binding pockets within plasma membrane monoamine transporters and ligand-gated nAChR ion channels. PMID:22119468

  5. A CuAAC/Ullmann C-C coupling tandem reaction: copper-catalyzed reactions of organic azides with N-(2-iodoaryl)propiolamides or 2-iodo-N-(prop-2-ynyl)benzenamines.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Yan, Jiajie; Ding, Ke

    2012-07-06

    A novel copper-catalyzed tandem reaction was developed by utilizing two famous copper-catalyzed reactions, CuAAC and Ullmann coupling. The trapping of the C-Cu intermediate produced in CuAAC led to further formation of an aryl C-C bond through intramolecular Ullmann C-C coupling.

  6. Effect of immunomodulation on the fate of tumor cells in the central nervous system and systemic organs of mice. Distribution of (/sup 125/I)5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled KHT tumor cells after left intracardial injection

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, F.K.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of systemic immunomodulation on tumor cell arrest and retention in the central nervous system was studied by following radioactively labeled tumor cells. KHT mouse sarcoma tumor cells were labeled in vitro with (/sup 125/I)IdUrd, and 1x10/sup 5/ tumor cells were injected into the left side of the hearts of syngeneic C3H mice. Experimental groups consisted of untreated normal mice, mice pretreated iv with Corynebacterium parvum, and mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii; in this model both groups of immunomodulated mice are protected from developing systemic metastatic tumor, but only Toxoplasma-infected mice have protection against metastatic brain tumor. At time intervals from 1 to 96 hours, groups of mice from each experimental group were killed, and the brain and other organs were monitored for radioactivity to determine the number of viable tumor cells that had been present at the time of death. Normal mice demonstrated significant retention of tumor cells in the brain and kidneys plus adrenals at 96 hours. By contrast, in both groups of immunomodulated mice tumor cells were rapidly eliminated from systemic organs, but tumor cells were significantly retained in the central nervous system even at 96 hours after tumor cell injections. The results indicated that generalized immunomodulation had more effect in elimination of tumor cells from systemic organs than from the brain and that the elimination of tumor cells from the brain in Toxoplasma-infected mice was a delayed phenomenon.

  7. Crystal structure of [(2R,3R,4S)-3,4-bis(acet­yloxy)-5-iodo-3,4-di­hydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]methyl acetate

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Caracelli, Ignez; Stefani, Hélio A.; Shamim, Anwar; Tiekink, Edward R.T.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C12H15IO7, the 3,4-di­hydro-2H-pyran ring is in a distorted half-boat conformation with the atom bearing the acet­yloxy group adjacent to the C atom bearing the methyl­acetate group lying 0.633 (6) Å above the plane of the remaining ring atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0907 Å). In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into a supra­molecular chain along the a axis through two C—H⋯O inter­actions to the same acceptor carbonyl O atom; these chains pack with no specific inter­molecular inter­actions between them. PMID:25705505

  8. Crystal structure of 1,3-bis­(4-hexyl-5-iodo­thio­phen-2-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetra­hydro-2-benzo­thio­phene

    PubMed Central

    Linshoeft, Julian; Näther, Christian; Staubitz, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C28H36I2S3, a terthio­phene monomer, the central thio­phene unit is arranged anti-coplanar to the two outer thio­phene rings. There are two crystallographically independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, which show different conformations. In one mol­ecule, the dihedral angles between the inner and the two outer thiophene rings are 15.7 (3) and 3.47 (3)°, whereas these values are 4.2 (3) and 11.3 (3)° for the second mol­ecule. Differences are also found in the arrangement of the hexyl chains: in one of the two molecules, both chains are nearly in plane to the central moiety, whereas in the second molecule, only one chain is in plane and the other one is nearly perpendicular to the central moiety. Some of the C atoms are disordered and were refined using a split model with occupancy ratios of 0.65:0.35 and 0.70:0.30 in the two mol­ecules. PMID:25484713

  9. (9S,13R,14S)-7,8-Didehydro-4-(4-iodo-benz-yloxy)-3,7-dimeth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinan-6-one monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-Liang; Jiang, Ning-Fei

    2010-10-20

    In the title compound, C(26)H(28)INO(4)·H(2)O, benzene rings are inclined at a dihedral angle of 69.9 (1)°. The N-containing ring exhibits a chair conformation, while the other rings approximate to envelope conformations. In the crystal, the uncoordinated water mol-ecule forms inter-molecular O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  10. Comparative research on medicine application with 0.53-um, 1.06-um, and 1.32-um Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahua; Li, Zhenjia; Zhu, Changhong; Huang, Yizhong

    1996-09-01

    Because of its high power and excellent optical features, laser has almost been applied to everywhere of medical research and clinic. Over the past several years, laser medical has achieved a rapid progress, and laser medical instruments has developed promptly, each new wavelength can be successfully applied in diagnostic and treatment of diseases. Among the medical lasers, Nd:YAG solid-state laser systems have proven useful in surgical use operate, such as neurosurgery, gastroenterology, cardioangiology, urology, gynecology, dermatology and ENT. As with other solid-state lasers, the Nd:YAG laser can be made to emit various wavelengths by means of suitable resonator configurations and some newest solid-state laser technology, pumped by the Krypton lamp, the Nd:YAG laser at room temperature exhibits transition at 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG, using nonlinear crystal and Q-switch to double its frequency can attain 0.53 micrometer green beam. In our laser systems, the efficiency at 1.06 micrometer is more than 3 percent, an efficiency of 0.5 percent at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can be attained. For a power of 100w at 1.06 micrometer, 15w at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can therefore be produced. All of three kinds Nd:YAG laser hold these characteristics: high output power; optical fiber transition that can be cooperated with endoscope. The paper mainly discusses laser operating characteristics and clinic applications of three kinds wavelengths at 0.53 micrometer 1.06 micrometer and 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG laser systems.

  11. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  12. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  13. Thermal levitation of 10 um size particles in low vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Long Fung Frankie; Kowalski, Nicholas; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report on experimental methods for trapping 10 micron-sized ice, glass, ceramic and polyethylene particles with thermophoresis in medium vacuum, at pressures between 5 Torr and 25 Torr. Under appropriate conditions particles can launch and levitate robustly for up to an hour. We describe the experimental setup used to produce the temperature gradient necessary for the levitation, as well as our procedure for generating and introducing ice into the experimental setup. In addition to analyzing the conditions necessary for levitation, and the dependence of levitation on the experimental parameters, we report on the behavior of particles during levitation and ejection, including position and stability, under different pressures and temperatures. We also note a significant discrepancy between theory and data, suggesting the presence of other levitating forces.

  14. Astronomy around 1700. (German Title: Astronomie um 1700)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    The book focuses on Gottfried Kirch und Olaus Römer, two scholars who played a leading role in astronomy around 1700. It contains an annotated edition of the letter by Gottfried Kirch to Olaus Römer of October 25, 1703. Kirch was the astronomer of the Berlin Academy of Sciences since 1700, recognized both as astronomical calculator and as observer - Römer was director of the Copenhagen Observatory and was the first who determined the speed of light. Kirch's letter to Römer of October 1703, given here together with several addenda, was not a letter in the modern sense, but a treatise of broad contents, dealing with different astronomical items of that time: the problem of determining stellar and planetary positions, the subjective view on contemporaries, the methods of astronomical calculations, the discovery of comets and other questions are described in Kirch's vivid words. Numerous annotations by the editor explain the astronomy of that time. The editor leads the reader step by step through the methods of astronomical calculations, which become clear and understandable. A complete bibliography of works by and about Kirch and a list of known archival sources are added.

  15. Ex Femina Lux: Frauenbildung als Aufgeklarte Alternative um 1700.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, Elmar

    1991-01-01

    Explores the role of women in eighteenth-century Germany's University of Halle. Reports that the school admitted both male and female students. Explains that the university's central principle, the conquest of the world through personal effort, was viewed as well suited to women, who had not been tainted by academic tradition. (SG)

  16. FORCAST: a facility 5- to 40-um camera for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Luke D.; Herter, Terry L.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Gull, George E.; Pirger, Bruce; Schoenwald, Justin; Bowman, Harry; Nikola, Thomas

    2000-06-01

    We are constructing a facility-class, mid/far-infrared camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The Faint Object infraRed CAmera for the Sofia Telescope (FORCAST) is a two-channel camera with selectable filters for continuum imaging in the 5 - 8, 17 - 25 micron, and/or 25 - 40 micron regions. The design supports simultaneous imaging in the two-channels. Using the latest 256 X 256 Si:As and Si:Sb blocked-impurity-band detector array technology to provide high-sensitivity wide- field imaging. FORCAST will sample images at 0.75 arcsec/pixel and have a 3.2' X 3.2' instantaneous field- of-view. Imaging is diffraction limited for lambda > 15 microns.

  17. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  18. Exploring Ho-Nee-Um in the Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in grades three and four. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness--by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  19. A Winter Walk at Ho-Nee-Um.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the lower primary grades. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  20. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  1. Grant UM1CA167462 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. High-sensitivity (25-um pitch) microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Asbrock, James F.; Lum, Nancy A.; Kennedy, Adam; Wyles, Jessica; Hewitt, C.; Graham, Glen E.; Horikiri, Tad; Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chin, Richard; Kostrzewa, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    RIO has achieved a significant technical breakthrough in uncooled FPAs by reducing the pixel size by a factor of two while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity. Raytheon has produced high-quality 320 by 240 micro bolometer FPAs with 25 micrometers pitch pixels. The 320 by 240 FPAs have a sensitivity that is comparable to micro bolometer FPAs with 50 micrometers pixels. The average NETD value for these FPAs is about 35 mK with an f/1 aperture and operating at 30 Hz frame rates. Good pixel operability and excellent image quality have been demonstrated. Pixel operability is greater than 99 percent on some FPAs, and uncorrected responsivity nonuniformity is less than 4 percent. The micro bolometer detectors also have a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. This state-of-the-art performance has been achieved as a result of an advanced micromachining fabrication process. The process allows maximization of both the thermal isolation and the optical fill-factor. The reduction in pixel size offers several potential benefits for IR systems. For a given system resolution requirement, the 225 micrometers pixels allow a factor of two reduction in both the focal length and aperture size of the sensor optics. The pixel size reduction facilitates a significant FPA cost reduction since the number of die printed on a wafer can be increased. The pixel size reduction has enabled the development of a large-format 640 by 512 FPA array applicable to wide-field-of-view, long range surveillance and targeting missions, and a 160 by 128 array where applications for miniaturization and temperature invariance are required as well as low cost and low power.

  3. Spatial deconvolution of IRAS galaxies at 60 UM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Using IRAS in a slow scan observing mode to increase the spatial sampling rate and a deconvolution analysis to increase the spatial resolution, several bright galaxies were resolved at 60 micron. Preliminary results for M 82, NGC 1068, NGC 3079 and NGC 2623 show partially resolved emission from 10 to 26 arcsec., full width at half maximum, and extended emission from 30 to 90 arcsec. from the center. In addition, the interacting system, Arp 82, along with Mark 231 and Arp 220 were studied using the program ADDSCAN to average all available survey mode observations. The Arp 82 system is well resolved after deconvolution and its brighter component is extended; the two most luminous objects are not resolved with an upper limit of 15 arcsec. for Arp 220.

  4. IUE ultraviolet observations of W UM a Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Preston, S.

    1981-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of four W UMa eclipsing binary systems (44 Boo, VW Cep, W UMa, and epsilon) are discussed. The stars generally show large surface fluxes of high temperature lines (C II, C IV, N V, Si IV) which may result from the high rotational velocities forced by synchronous rotation. High dispersion spectra of the 44 Boo system in the Mg II line enable the individual stellar components to be identified. The line widths and phase variations are consistent with the optically determined spectroscopic orbit. Circumstellar absorption of Mg II may be presented at selected phases.

  5. [C II] 158 um optical depth and self-absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Cristian

    2015-10-01

    Recent observations with SOFIA/GREAT at very high velocity resolution have shown for two prototype PDR sources (Orion B and M17 SW) that the [CII] line has much higher opacities, ranging from 1 to 3, than predicted by simple PDR models and is heavily affected by self-absorption. Under these conditions, line ratios of fine structure lines derived from spectrally unresolved observations and line-integrated intensities, when blindly used to derive physical source properties such as UV-intensity and density in both Galactic and extragalactic environments, give questionable results. In order to understand in what fraction of sources the [CII] emission is affected, and if so, how strongly it is affected by such high, unexpected optical depth and self-absorption, we propose to use the high sensitivity and resolving power of the new upGREAT receiver array for a systematic study of the [CII] opacity and the possible effects of self-absorption with deep integrations of the [13CII] line, by observing several PDR sources covering a range of physical properties and conditions.

  6. Grant UM1CA182883 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Handling a Tricky Verb: Es handelt sich um "handeln".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn-Osius, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to establish a practical approach to teaching the various meanings of the German verb "handeln". Exercises that aid advanced students in understanding the verb's meaning include a complete list of all possible meanings of the verb, as well as sample sentences using the verb in a wide range of contexts. (LMO)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-) Methylene chloride (Methane, dichloro-) Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (2-Butanone) Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (2-Butanone, peroxide) Methyl hydrazine (Hydrazine, methyl-) Methyl iodide (Methane, iodo-)...

  9. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  10. GEO-CAPE application, demonstrated for CO by the IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS), and scaled to an expanded application that adds the 9.6, 3.3 and 3.6 um bands for multi-layer tropospheric ozone and for HCHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Roche, A. E.; Rairden, R. L.; Jamieson, T. H.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective (SR) region ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal InfraRed (TIR) region ~ 2110 to 2165 cm 1. As presented at this meeting in our poster "...multi-layer CO retrieval from atmospheric data..." very encouraging retrieval for CO, H2O, CH4 and albedo were obtained in an operational mode of ground based atmospheric observations that simulated space based operations in an application that would meet Decadal Survey GEO- CAPE air quality observation requirements for coverage, footprint size and refresh time. In this presentation we'll describe the details of how the ground based operations map to the space based operations. We will discuss concept details including [a] the approach for instrument cooling, [b] the scanning mirror and telescope system that would provide input to the TIMS in a way that meets the GEO-CAPE measurement requirements, [c] telemetry requirements, and [d] the scaling of retrieval precision from the ground based actuals to the space based operations. For example, the ground based actual TIMS column precisions for retrieval from the SR data scale to space deployed TIMS column retrieval precisions for CO(=8.6%), H2O(=3.7%), CH4(=0.9%) and for albedo(=0.2%) on the GEO-CAPE minimum footprint. We'll also present the actuals, and the scaling to the GEO-CAPE case, for multi-layer CO and H2O retrieval from the combined SR and TIR data sets. The required aperture is quite small, 7.5 cm. We will also present a straight forward approach to expand the GEO-CAPE TIMS concept to additional spectral regions near 3.3, 3.6 and 9.6 um that will provide for multi-layer retrieval of tropospheric ozone, and for HCHO column. The approach adds relatively small mass, but

  11. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  12. Electronically modified amine substituted alkynols for regio-selective synthesis of dihydrofuran derivatives.

    PubMed

    V, Vijay; Karkhelikar, Manjusha V; Sridhar, B; Mirzadeh, Nedaossadat; Bhargava, Suresh; Likhar, Pravin R

    2016-01-07

    An efficient and simple approach has been developed for the regio-selective synthesis of iodo-substituted dihydrofurans from amine substituted alkynols. The resulting iodo-substituted dihydrofurans have been further diversified by C-C couplings and C-N coupling reactions to afford a diverse range of substituted dihydrofuran derivatives.

  13. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  14. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  15. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  16. Derivativation of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter using a novel forskolin photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Wadzinski, B.; Shanahan, M.; Ruoho, A.

    1987-05-01

    An iodinated photoaffinity label for the glucose transporter, 3-iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-0-succinyldeacetyl-forskolin (IAPS-Fsk), has been synthesized, purified, and characterized. The K/sub i/ for inhibition of 3-0-methylglucose transport by TAPS-Fsk in human erythrocytes was found to be 0.1 uM. The carrier-free radioiodinated label has been shown to be a highly specific photoaffinity label for the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. Photolysis of erythrocyte membranes with 1-10 nM (I-125)IAPS-Fsk and analysis by SDS-PAGE showed specific derivatization of a broad band with an apparent molecular weight of 40-70 kDa. Photoincorporation using 2 nM (I-125)IAPS-Fsk was protected with D-glucose, cytochalasin B, and forskolin. No protection was observed with L-glucose. Endo-B-galactosidase digestion and trypsinization of (I-125)IAPS-Fsk labelled erythrocytes reduced the specifically radiolabelled transporter to 40 kDa and 18 kDa respectively. (I-125)-IAPS-Fsk will be used to study the structural aspects of the glucose transporter.

  17. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  18. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  19. Inter-action between maleic acid and N-R-furfuryl-amines: crystal structure of 2-methyl-N-[(5-phenyl-furan-2-yl)meth-yl]propan-2-aminium (2Z)-3-carb-oxy-acrylate and N-[(5-iodo-furan-2-yl)meth-yl]-2-methyl-propan-2-aminium (2Z)-3-carb-oxy-prop-2-enoate.

    PubMed

    Kvyatkovskaya, Elisaveta A; Zaytsev, Vladimir P; Zubkov, Fedor I; Dorovatovskii, Pavel V; Zubavichus, Yan V; Khrustalev, Victor N

    2017-04-01

    The title mol-ecular salts, C15H20NO(+)·C4H3O4(-), (I), and C9H15INO(+)·C4H3O4(-), (II), have very similar mol-ecular geometries for both cation and anion. The anions of both (I) and (II) are practically planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.062 and 0.072 Å, respectively) and adopt a rare symmetrical geometry with the hy-droxy H atom approximately equidistant from the two O atoms. In their crystals, the cations and anions in both (I) and (II) form tight ionic pairs via strong N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with a roughly perpendicular disposition of the anion to the furan ring of the cation. This ion-pair conformation appears to correlate with the lack of reactivity of these salts in [4 + 2] cyclo-addition reactions. In the extended structures of (I) and (II), the ion pairs form hydrogen-bonded chains propagating along [010] and [001], respectively, via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  20. C—I⋯N short contacts as tools for the construction of the crystal packing in the crystal structure of 3,3′-(ethane-1,2-di­yl)bis­(6-iodo-3,4-di­hydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazine)

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Augusto; Rojas, Jicli José; Ríos-Motta, Jaime; Bolte, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C18H18I2N2O2, consists of one half-mol­ecule, completed by the application of inversion symmetry. The mol­ecule adopts the typical structure for this class of bis-benxozazines, characterized by an anti orientation of the two benzoxazine rings around the central C—C bond. The oxazinic ring adopts a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—I⋯N short contacts [I⋯N = 3.378 (2) Å], generating layers lying parallel to the bc plane. PMID:28529771

  1. C-I⋯N short contacts as tools for the construction of the crystal packing in the crystal structure of 3,3'-(ethane-1,2-di-yl)bis-(6-iodo-3,4-di-hydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazine).

    PubMed

    Rivera, Augusto; Rojas, Jicli José; Ríos-Motta, Jaime; Bolte, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C18H18I2N2O2, consists of one half-mol-ecule, completed by the application of inversion symmetry. The mol-ecule adopts the typical structure for this class of bis-benxozazines, characterized by an anti orientation of the two benzoxazine rings around the central C-C bond. The oxazinic ring adopts a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-I⋯N short contacts [I⋯N = 3.378 (2) Å], generating layers lying parallel to the bc plane.

  2. Crystal structures of 3-fluoro-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide, 3-bromo-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide and 3-iodo-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide.

    PubMed

    Suchetan, P A; Suresha, E; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K

    2016-06-01

    In the title compounds, C14H9F4NO, (I), C14H9BrF3NO, (II), and C14H9F3INO, (III), the two benzene rings are inclined to one another by 43.94 (8)° in mol-ecule A and 55.66 (7)° in mol-ecule B of compound (I), which crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, but by only 10.40 (12)° in compound (II) and 12.5 (2)° in compound (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules to form chains propagating along the a-axis direction for (I), and along the b-axis direction for (II) and (III). In the crystal of (I), -A-B-A-B- chains are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (010). Within the layers there are weak offset π-π inter-actions present [inter-centroid distances = 3.868 (1) and 3.855 (1) Å]. In the crystals of (II) and (III), the chains are linked via short halogen-halogen contacts [Br⋯Br = 3.6141 (4) Å in (II) and I⋯I = 3.7797 (5) Å in (III)], resulting in the formation of ribbons propagating along the b-axis direction.

  3. Crystal structures of 3-fluoro-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide, 3-bromo-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide and 3-iodo-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Suchetan, P. A.; Suresha, E.; Naveen, S.; Lokanath, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compounds, C14H9F4NO, (I), C14H9BrF3NO, (II), and C14H9F3INO, (III), the two benzene rings are inclined to one another by 43.94 (8)° in mol­ecule A and 55.66 (7)° in mol­ecule B of compound (I), which crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, but by only 10.40 (12)° in compound (II) and 12.5 (2)° in compound (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules to form chains propagating along the a-axis direction for (I), and along the b-axis direction for (II) and (III). In the crystal of (I), –A–B–A–B– chains are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (010). Within the layers there are weak offset π–π inter­actions present [inter­centroid distances = 3.868 (1) and 3.855 (1) Å]. In the crystals of (II) and (III), the chains are linked via short halogen–halogen contacts [Br⋯Br = 3.6141 (4) Å in (II) and I⋯I = 3.7797 (5) Å in (III)], resulting in the formation of ribbons propagating along the b-axis direction. PMID:27308050

  4. Radiolabeled 5-Iodo-3′-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2′-deoxyuridine and Its 5′-Monophosphate for Imaging and Therapy of Androgen Receptor-Positive Cancers: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kortylewicz, Zbigniew P.; Nearman, Jessica; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina

    2014-01-01

    High levels of androgen receptor (AR) are often indicative of recurrent, advanced, or metastatic cancers. These conditions are also characterized by a high proliferative fraction. 5-Radioiodo-3′-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2′-deoxyuridine 8 and 5-radioiodo-3′-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2′-deoxyuridin-5′-yl monophosphate 13 target AR. They are also degraded intracellularly to 5-radioiodo-2′-deoxyuridine 1 and its monophosphate 20, respectively, which can participate in the DNA synthesis. Both drugs were prepared at the no-carrier-added level. Precursors and methods are readily adaptable to radiolabeling with various radiohalides suitable for SPECT and PET imaging, as well as endoradiotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies confirm the AR-dependent interactions. Both drugs bind to sex hormone binding globulin. This binding significantly improves their stability in serum. Biodistribution and imaging studies show preferential uptake and retention of 8 and 13 in ip xenografts of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells NIH:OVCAR-3, which overexpress AR. When these drugs are administered at therapeutic dose levels, a significant tumor growth arrest is observed. PMID:19653647

  5. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  6. Properties of Interstellar Medium In Infrared-bright QSOs Probed by [O i] 63 um and [C ii] 158 um Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Yan, Lin; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the host galaxies of nine QSOs at 0.1 < z < 0.2 with black hole masses of 3× {10}7 {M}⊙ to 3× {10}9 {M}⊙ based on the far-IR spectroscopy taken with Herschel Space Observatory. We detect the [O i] 63 μm ([C ii] 158 μm) emission in 6 (8) out of 8 (9) sources. Our QSO sample has far-infrared luminosities ({L}{{FIR}}) ˜ several times {10}11{L}⊙ . The observed line-to-{L}{{FIR}} ratios ({L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} and {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}{{FIR}}) are in the ranges of 2.6 × 10-4 to 10-2 and 2.8 × 10-4 to 2 × 10-3, respectively (including upper limits). These ratios are comparable to the values found in local ULIRGs, but higher than the average value published so far for z\\gt 1 IR-bright QSOs. One target, W0752+19, shows an additional broad velocity component (˜720 km s-1) and exceptionally strong [O i] 63 μm emission with {L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} of 10-2, an order of magnitude higher than the average value found among local (U)LIRGs. Combining with the analyses of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we conclude that the [O i] 63 μm emission in these QSOs is unlikely excited by shocks. We infer that the broad [O i] 63 μm emission in W0752+19 could arise from the warm and dense ISM in the narrow-line region of the central active galactic nucleus. Another possible explanation is the existence of a dense gas outflow with {n}{{H}}˜ {10}4 cm-3, where the corresponding broad [C ii] emission is suppressed. Based on the far-IR [O i] and [C ii] line ratios, we estimate constraints on the ISM density and UV radiation field intensity of {n}{{H}}≲ {10}3.3 cm-3 and {10}3\\lt {G}0≲ {10}4.2, respectively. These values are consistent with those found in local Seyfert 1 ULIRGs. In contrast, the gas with broad velocity width in W0752+19 has {n}{{H}}≳ {10}4.3 cm-3 and {G}0\\gt {10}4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. Mild steels coated with 14% manganese covered electrodes (E7-UM-200-K and E1-UM-350): Phenomena at the steel-coating interface

    SciTech Connect

    Molleda, F. . E-mail: fmolleda@etsin.upm.es; Mora, J.; Molleda, F.J.; Carrillo, E.; Mora, E.; Mellor, B.G.

    2006-12-15

    In this work the authors have studied the phenomena in the interface of the coating made on soft carbon steel with electrodes with a high content of manganese. The study has been done with scanning electron microscope and X-rays mapping images. These images show how the alloy elements are distributed in each of the constituent elements presented in the interface, and the nature of these constituents. These results have allowed us to verify that many of the problems that arise in homogeneous joints, as such localised corrosion, low interface resistance, etc., happened, precisely in these regions. As a help to determine the nature of the constituent elements, microhardness measurements have also been made.

  8. Iron- and cobalt-catalyzed arylation of azetidines, pyrrolidines, and piperidines with Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Barré, Baptiste; Gonnard, Laurine; Campagne, Rémy; Reymond, Sébastien; Marin, Julien; Ciapetti, Paola; Brellier, Marie; Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2014-12-05

    Iron- and cobalt-catalyzed cross-couplings between iodo-azetidines, -pyrrolidines, -piperidines, and Grignard reagents are disclosed. The reaction is efficient, cheap, chemoselective and tolerates a large variety of (hetero)aryl Grignard reagents.

  9. Formation of toxic iodinated disinfection by-products from compounds used in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Duirk, Stephen E; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher C; Kormos, Jennifer; Ternes, Thomas A; Attene-Ramos, Matias; Osiol, Jennifer; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D

    2011-08-15

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical centers to enable imaging of soft tissues (e.g., organs, veins, blood vessels) and are designed to be inert substances, with 95% eliminated in urine and feces unmetabolized within 24 h. ICM are not well removed in wastewater treatment plants, such that they have been found at elevated concentrations in rivers and streams (up to 100 μg/L). Naturally occurring iodide in source waters is believed to be a primary source of iodine in the formation of iodo-DBPs, but a previous 23-city iodo-DBP occurrence study also revealed appreciable levels of iodo-DBPs in some drinking waters that had very low or no detectable iodide in their source waters. When 10 of the original 23 cities' source waters were resampled, four ICM were found--iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, and diatrizoate--with iopamidol most frequently detected, in 6 of the 10 plants sampled, with concentrations up to 2700 ng/L. Subsequent controlled laboratory reactions of iopamidol with aqueous chlorine and monochloramine in the absence of natural organic matter (NOM) produced only trace levels of iodo-DBPs; however, when reacted in real source waters (containing NOM), chlorine and monochloramine produced significant levels of iodo-THMs and iodo-acids, up to 212 nM for dichloroiodomethane and 3.0 nM for iodoacetic acid, respectively, for chlorination. The pH behavior was different for chlorine and monochloramine, such that iodo-DBP concentrations maximized at higher pH (8.5) for chlorine, but at lower pH (6.5) for monochloramine. Extracts from chloraminated source waters with and without iopamidol, as well as from chlorinated source waters with iopamidol, were the most cytotoxic samples in mammalian cells. Source waters with iopamidol but no

  10. Self-Assembly of Reconfigurable By-Design Optical Materials with Molecular-Level Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-21

    acetylenes and deprotected with K2CO3, either 4-iodo-benzadehyde or 4- iodo- benzoic acid can be attached to give, respectively, the trialdehyde or the...2 10 4 with pyridine-4-boronic acid and 4-vinylpyridine respectively to provide COP-3P and COP- 6VP. Figure 1. Schematic diagrams of...acetylenes or arylboronic acids . The synthesis starts from the commercially available p-cresol. Iodination of 1 followed by the triflic acid

  11. Fluorescent charge-assisted halogen-bonding macrocyclic halo-imidazolium receptors for anion recognition and sensing in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Fabiola; Caballero, Antonio; White, Nicholas G; Claridge, Tim D W; Costa, Paulo J; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2012-07-18

    The synthesis and anion binding properties of a new family of fluorescent halogen bonding (XB) macrocyclic halo-imidazolium receptors are described. The receptors contain chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-imidazolium motifs incorporated into a cyclic structure using naphthalene spacer groups. The large size of the iodine atom substituents resulted in the isolation of anti and syn conformers of the iodo-imidazoliophane, whereas the chloro- and bromo-imidazoliophane analogues exhibit solution dynamic conformational behavior. The syn iodo-imidazoliophane isomer forms novel dimeric isostructural XB complexes of 2:2 stoichiometry with bromide and iodide anions in the solid state. Solution phase DOSY NMR experiments indicate iodide recognition takes place via cooperative convergent XB-iodide 1:1 stoichiometric binding in aqueous solvent mixtures. (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopic titration experiments with a variety of anions in the competitive CD(3)OD/D(2)O (9:1) aqueous solvent mixture demonstrated the bromo- and syn iodo-imidazoliophane XB receptors to bind selectively iodide and bromide respectively, and sense these halide anions exclusively via a fluorescence response. The protic-, chloro-, and anti iodo-imidazoliophane receptors proved to be ineffectual anion complexants in this aqueous methanolic solvent mixture. Computational DFT and molecular dynamics simulations corroborate the experimental observations that bromo- and syn iodo-imidazoliophane XB receptors form stable cooperative convergent XB associations with bromide and iodide.

  12. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature and timing of paleoclimatic events in the Arctic Ocean. In order to attempt to answer some of these questions, baseline studies are imperative. This report discusses the distribution of benthic foraminifers in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores (figs. 1 and 2, table 1) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). A modern data set of benthic foraminiferal distribution is necessary for interpreting the paleoclimatic and oceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean.

  13. Alors...euh...on parle francais? (So...um...Shall We Speak French?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith G.; Ishikawa, Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Describes a one-semester conversational course taught at Harvard University designed to teach basic oral communication skills in French with the main emphasis on teaching students to pause while speaking. (AM)

  14. Broadband 0.25-um Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-14

    power monolithic microwave integrated circuit amplifiers are extremely important in any communication system that must operate reliably and...broadband linear high- power amplifiers for future adaptive multimode radar systems . Qorvo has a high-performance 0.25-µm gallium nitride (GaN...ARL-TR-8091 ● AUG 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Broadband 0.25-µm Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier Designs by John E

  15. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MIPS 24um calibrators (Engelbracht+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbracht, C. W.; Blaylock, M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rho, J.; Rieke, G. H.; Muzerolle, J.; Padgett, D. L.; Hines, D. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Kelly, D. M.; Latter, W. B.; Hinz, J. L.; Misselt, K. A.; Morrison, J. E.; Stansberry, J. A.; Shupe, D. L.; Stolovy, S.; Wheaton, W. A.; Young, E. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Wachter, S.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Frayer, D. T.; Marleau, F. R.

    2014-07-01

    The data were all obtained using the MIPS small-field photometry mode astronomical observation template (AOT). For most targets, two cycles of photometry using 3s exposures were obtained, resulting in 14 individual images at each of two telescope nod positions (excluding the short exposure that starts the data-taking sequence at each of the two telescope nod positions). Starting with the raw data downloaded from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC), these data were processed using version 3.06 of the MIPS Data Analysis Tool (DAT; Gordon et al., 2005PASP..117..503G), which performs standard processing of infrared detector array data (slope fitting, dark subtraction, linearity correction, flat fielding, and mosaicking), as well as steps specific to the array used in MIPS (droop correction and dynamic range extension using the first difference frame) -- these steps are described in more detail in the paper. (5 data files).

  17. [The life story of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo: Quincas, Um berro à vida].

    PubMed

    Zancan, Lenira; Matida, Álvaro Hideyoshi

    2015-10-01

    The article seeks to reflect on the contribution of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo (1936-1993) to the field of public health relating his life story and his scientific production with core issues of education and health, present in his time and which remain in debate to this day. His contribution resulted in the production of new meanings for health practices, with the understanding as social and transdisciplinary phenomena. Based on conversations with co-authors and friends and rereading of his texts, it was decided to approach his biography from: (i) his skills and participation in initiatives and practices of preventive medicine and popular education, which fomented the critical analysis of health education; (ii) his presence as an educator in public health courses throughout the country, eliciting the deconstruction of the theories and practices of education and health with managers, students, professionals and teachers; (iii) his availability for transdisciplinary dialogue with the humanities and social sciences in the search for "epistemological sutures" between reason and passion, capable of responding to the dilemmas and challenges of healthcare work. These three trajectories indicate that the performance of "Quincas" must be understood from his restlessness as a health professional and educator, engaged in the production of knowledge and practices related to the complexity of the phenomenon of life.

  18. Alors...euh...on parle francais? (So...um...Shall We Speak French?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith G.; Ishikawa, Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Describes a one-semester conversational course taught at Harvard University designed to teach basic oral communication skills in French with the main emphasis on teaching students to pause while speaking. (AM)

  19. Application of 2-um wavelength holmium lasers for treatment of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Klimov, Igor V.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Nerobeev, Alexander I.; Sadovnikova, Lija B.; Eliseenko, Vladimir I.

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of the efficiency of application of 2 micrometers pulsed holmium laser for cosmetic and plastic surgery and dermatology is carried out. Preliminary experiments were carried out on rats. Solid state 2 micrometers pulsed laser was allowed to operate in free running mode with pulse energy up to 1.5 J and pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz. To deliver emission to the object a flexible quartz fiber without further focusing of 2.5 m in length and 400 micrometers of the core diameter was used. The effect of the different power density emission on the skin was studied. The second stage was the study of the influence of 2 micrometers emission on human skin. The results of the removal of hemangioma, papilloma, telangiectasia, nevus, nevus acantholytic, xanthelasma palpebral, verruca, chloasma, pigmental spots, tattoos, etc. are presented. Precision, simplicity, efficiency, and the high cosmetic effect of these operations is noted.

  20. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Dematiaceous Coelomycete Pyrenochaeta sp. Strain UM 256, Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Soo-Hoo, Tuck Soon; Na, Shiang Ling; Ong, Seong Siang; Hassan, Hamimah; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Hoh, Chee Choong; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2013-05-30

    Pyrenochaeta, classified under the order Pleosporales, is known to cause diseases in plants and humans. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a Pyrenochaeta sp. isolated from a skin scraping, with an estimated genome size of 39.4 Mb. Genes associated with the synthesis of proteases, toxins, plant cell wall degradation, and multidrug resistance were found.

  2. U.S. Court of Claims Deposition of Kish um us tubbee. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondo, Richard A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the expulsion of the Choctaw Indians from their lands in the U.S. southeast as a result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Provides a lesson plan using a primary source document along with accompanying discussion questions. Includes a three-page letter that is the deposition of a Choctaw Indian protesting removal. (CFR)

  3. Matching of Bragg condition of holographic phase gratings in 1.3-1.5um region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Hamalainen, Rauno M.

    1991-10-01

    The spectral diffraction efficiency of phase holograms depends on refractive index modulation, grating spacing, and the thickness of a holographic grating, e.g., the refractive index modulation of the dichromatic gelatin grating (DCG) can be increased so that the diffraction efficiency of 90% measured in Bragg angle without refractive index matching can be achieved in the recording wavelength. The use of the same holographic grating in longer wavelength regions in accordance with the Bragg condition demands the refractive index matching. In our applications, holographic phase gratings in hololens form (HOL) are used as a wavelength selective elements in conventional optical multi-/demultiplexing (mux/demux) applications, where various wavelengths are multiplexed to the detectors needed. On the other hand, the novel applications of the HOL element used as a monochromator in the external cavity construction of a semiconductor laser according to the refractive index matching the Bragg condition are theoretically investigated in the wavelength region from 1.3 micrometers to 1.5 micrometers .

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon I 870um sources (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Schuller, F.; Parise, B.; Andre, P.; Hatchell, J.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Bontemps, S.; Weiss, A.; Menten; K. M.; Muders, D.

    2011-01-01

    Table 2 lists the sources extracted with GAUSSCLUMPS from the filtered 870 micron continuum emission map of Chamaeleon I obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. These sources are listed in the order in which they were found by GAUSSCLUMPS, i.e. roughly in order of decreasing peak flux density. The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud is available in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (6 data files).

  5. Infrared 3-4 um Spectroscopic Investigation of a Large Sample of Nearby Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-27

    servable with small air masses from Mauna Kea , Hawaii, our main observing site. These selection criteria result in 24 ULIRGs classified optically as... Observatory , 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan; masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp C. C. Dudley Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division...data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. 2 Visiting Astronomer at the Infrared Telescope

  6. Porcine dermal lesions produced by 1.3um laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Winston, Golda C. H.; Burton, Margaret B.; Greene, Willie L.

    2003-07-01

    An increasing number of industries, to include military, medicinal, and technological arenas, are using 1.3 micron laser systems for which current skin and eye guidelines are identical. No skin threshold, ED50 or exposure data are available. The mechanisms of laser-tissue interaction with skin at 1.3 microns are unknown. Together, these facts necessitate increased research to prevent future laser accidents and injuries. This study examines the method of interaction of 1.3 microns laser light with tissue in the Yorkshire pig. Our research addresses laser-tissue interaction through delivery using a Nd:YAG with an intracavity filter producing 1.3 micron light at 0.5 millisecond exposure time and in the range of 137 to 475 J/cm2. Laser exposure to Yorkshire pigs was evaluated for dermal lesion development. Lesions were appraised for acute, one-hour and 24-hour post exposure presentation.

  7. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  8. Earth's spectral albedo from 0.5 to 4.4 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanes-Rodrig, P.; Palle, E.; Goode, P. R.; Koonin, S. E.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed spectroscopic earthshine data to determine Earth's nightly spectral albedos covering the visible, near and middle infrared spectral ranges. Observations in the visible were undertaken from Palomar Observatory with the spectrograph in the Palomar 60" telescope and with the echelle spectrograph of the InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The observing runs were chosen near the quarter moon to reduce the background glow produced by the moonshine (bright side of the Moon). Although observations were taken on different nights, the similarity of lunar phases and comparable cloud cover conditions for the monitored part of the Earth's surface, allow us to derive, for the first time, an apparent albedo of the Earth covering the entire spectral range from 0.5 to 4.4 microns.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dimethyl sulfide laboratory um, mm & FIR spectra (Jabri+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, A.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Tchana, F. K.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-02-01

    DMS was purchased from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Karlsruhe, Germany and used without further purification. The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. (3 data files).

  10. Optical detector selection for 1.5-um KTP OPO atmospheric lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamidipudi, Priyavadan; Killinger, Dennis K.

    1999-05-01

    A 1.5 micron wavelength KTP OPO Lidar system has been developed and used to study the sensitivity and the system signal-to-noise ratio for hard target and atmospheric aerosol lidar returns. Optimization of the receiver system was studied that included the use of different sizes, types of detectors, and the effect of laser beam quality factor, M2, on the telescope overlap function. Detectors that were studied included several different sizes of InGaAs APDs, direct photodetectors, a transferred-electron intensified photodiode (TE-IPD), and a PMT. The influence of the diffraction or beam quality factor (M2) of the OPO laser was studied and found to have a significant influence on the overlap of the transmit and receiver field of view. This overlap function is also influenced by the size of the lidar detector since a large M2 value can overfill the detector/telescope field of view so that small (high speed) detectors may be subject to a large reduction in the lidar signal. The size of the photodiodes and APDs used in the initial OPO lidar experiments were of the order of 0.1 mm to 2 mm, while the TE-IPD and the PMT are larger in acceptance area. Some initial experimental measurements with the photodetectors and APD, and projected theoretical comparisons with the TE-IPD and PMT detectors have been made.

  11. The Cauchy Problem for Ut = Delta u(m) When 0 m 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Ecuaciones Funcionales, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 3, Spain. • * Department of Mathematics, University of Nancy I, B. P. 239...required on u° to provide even a local solution in time, namely * Dpto Ecuaciones Funcionales, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 3

  12. Single-mode planar optics for 4-20um wavelengths astronomical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, E.; Kern, P.; Schanen, I.; Rousselet-Perraut, K.

    2002-06-01

    Single-mode planar optics for 4-20 micrometers wavelengths astronomical interferometry. Spatial filtering is a critical issue to achieve nulling interferometry in the framework of spatial missions aimed at the detection of exoplanets. Several working interferometric instruments take benefits of guided optics for spatial filtering in the near IR wavelengths and thus provide accurate visibility measurements. Futhermore planar optics would also provides beam combining functions within a single compact and stable device. Existing telecom technology allows beam combiner realizations for 0.8 to 1.6 micrometers wavelengths. Last works allow us to valid these technologies up to 2.4 micrometers for stellar interferometry in the H and K bands. Technological developments are required to meet the scientific domain of the spatial missions like IRSI/DARWIN and TPF dedicated to thermal infrared wavelengths [4-20 micrometers]. We present the most promising materials with their technologies to manufacture single-mode planar optics for this wavelength range. First set of solutions involved chalcogenide glasses. Channel waveguides could be manufactured by photo-exposition method or thin layer etching process. Another solution is using porous silicon obtained from an acid dissolution of a silicon substrate which allows refractive index modulation. The last set of solution is based on thin films etching of semiconductor materials like silicon, germanium, zinc sulfide and zinc selenide.Test benches for the single-mode behavior are also presented. For each solutions, we present some manufactured waveguides with their optical characterizations.

  13. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  14. Development of a 2.8 um film for scientific balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagami, T.; Isas/Jaxa Balloon Team

    Development of a balloon flying at higher altitudes is one of the most attractive trials in scientific balloon technologies. In 2002, the ISAS balloon group have succeeded in flying a balloon up to the altitude of 53.0 km using a balloon with a volume of 60,000 m^3 made of an ultra-thin polyethylene film with a thickness of 3.4 μm. To go to higher altitudes, it is necessary to make the balloon film much lighter. We started to develop the thinnest film within the current technology. We have made a special die for molding a thin polyethylene film, and formed a film with a thickness of 3.0 μm and a width of 110 cm. Using this film, we have manufactured a balloon with 5,000 m^3 in volume and succeeded in flying the balloon up to an altitude of 47.1 km. Then, we tried to make a thinner film changing the resin density and succeeded in forming a film with a thickness of 2.8 μm and a width of 140 cm. We are going to perform a balloon experiment in this early summer. In this paper, our approach to the 2.8 μm film and the result of the balloon experiment will be described.

  15. Password Complexity Recommendations: xez and pAxat8Um or P4$$w0rd!!!!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    the-line (at the time of writing ) NVidia GTX Titan cards [7]. The speed here are added for comparison. One can see that the much bigger and newer SHA...password2014 Suffix symbol password! Prefix numbers 0password, 1password, ..., 9password, ... 2014password Remove vowels psswrd Repeat...seen that the sweet spot seems to be 11 characters at the time of writing . Add one character if you are feeling paranoid or for very important sites. For

  16. A Room-Temperature Semiconductor Spaser Operating Near 1.5 um

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-22

    optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010). 4. D . E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D ...2010). 6. D . J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent...waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1211–1221 (2007). 16. M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D . A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa

  17. Synchronous and asynchronous multiplexer circuits for medical imaging realized in CMOS 0.18um technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Długosz, R.; Iniewski, K.

    2007-05-01

    Multiplexers are one of the most important elements in readout front-end ASICs for multi-element detectors in medical imaging. The purpose of these ASICs is to detect signals appearing randomly in many channels and to collect the detected data in an ordered fashion (de-randomization) in order to send it to an external ADC. ASIC output stage functionality can be divided into two: pulse detection and multiplexing. The pulse detection block is responsible for detecting maximum values of signals arriving from the shaper, sending a flag signal indicating that the peak signal has been detected and storing the pulse in an analog memory until read by ADC. The multiplexer in turn is responsible for searching for active flags, controlling the channel that has detected the peak signal and performing reset functions after readout. There are several types of multiplexers proposed in this paper, which can be divided into several classes: synchronous, synchronized and asynchronous. Synchronous circuits require availability of the multiphase clock generator, which increases the power dissipation, but simultaneously provide very convenient mechanism that enables unambiguous choice of the active channel. This characteristics leads to 100% effectiveness in data processing and no data loss. Asynchronous multiplexers do not require clock generators and because of that have simpler structure, are faster and more power efficient, especially when data samples occur seldom at the ASIC's inputs. The main problem of the asynchronous solution is when data on two or more inputs occur almost at the same time, shorter than the multiplexer's reaction time. In this situation some data can be lost. In many applications loss of the order of 1% of the data is acceptable, which makes use of asynchronous multiplexers possible. For applications when the lower loss is desirable a new hierarchy mechanism has been introduced. One of proposed solutions is a synchronized binary tree structure, that uses many simple asynchronous clock generators. This circuit joins advantages of synchronous and asynchronous solutions resulting in low power dissipation, high speed of operation and 100% effectiveness.

  18. New semiconductor diode laser emitting at 2 um for microsurgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, Pier Giorgio; Ragazzi, D.; Azzolini, Claudio; Trabucchi, Giuseppe; Brancato, Rosario

    1996-01-01

    A surgical laser instrument is presented, based on a semiconductor diode emitting in the spectral region around 2 micrometer, in continuous mode. At this wavelength tissue absorption is via histological water, and the interaction is purely thermal. A portable laser station was built, emitting up to 250 mW of optical power at 1.94 micrometers, out of the tip of a low- hydroxil fused-silica optical fiber of 200 micrometer diameter. Experiments have been performed both in vitro with enucleated porcine eyes and in vivo, on rabbits and rats. In vitreo-retinal surgery, retinectomies and incisions of epiretinal fibrotic membranes have been achieved. At reduced output power the laser radiation has been applied to the welding of tissues, in particular cornea, sclera and skin, with interesting results. This new laser source, characterized by ergonomic advantages like compactness, portability, long lifetime, reduced maintenance, is potentially attractive for a number of microsurgical procedures like micro- incisions, shallow coagulations, and welding of hydrated biological membranes.

  19. STS-40 Exp. No. 192 urine monitoring system (UMS) on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-04-036 (5-14 June 1991) --- Closeup view of urine monitoring system and test samples, part of the busy schedule of life sciences testing on the nine-day STS-40/Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) mission aboard the earth-orbiting Columbia.

  20. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  1. Fracture analysis and its relation to radioactivity around Gebel Um Risha, south eastern desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khateeb, S. O.; El Akraby, A. M.

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of radioactive fracture patterns prevailing in the study area revealed that there are a number of tectonic trends which show abnormal radioactivity. These trends can be arranged according to the degree of their importance as NW, NE, EW and NS. Meanwhile, they are applied in delineating interesting structural features that may serve as favourable loci of economic radioactive mineral deposits. Correlation of these radioactive fracture patterns with those deduced from surface geological map of the study area exhibits a good agreement assuring the importance of aeroradiometric survey data as an excellent tool in structural mapping.

  2. Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse

    2012-03-01

    The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected observations such as these. The result was that the search for the possible explanations of this rise-and-fall phenomenon intensified. The generally favoured explanation was that there was an active sinking of sea level in the Baltic rather than an active rising of the land surface in Fennoscandia. This was because water was seen as mobile, in contrast to a „terra firma". The relevant discussion was often emotional, and here, we try to illustrate it using material from the Geologenarchiv Freiburg (von Hoff, von Buch and Goethe). No more than a few decades later, it became obvious by the theory of Ice Age that both the sea level and the land could be mobile (eustatic sea level changes—glacial isostasy). Additionally, of course, plate tectonics had some influence: Norway is situated at the western end of the Eurasian plate and is part of a passive continental margin. There are still open research problems, many of which can be addressed using modern methods of satellite-based geophysics and geodesy. Some other aspects as the permanent uplift trend of Scandinavia since the Cambrium or the rhythmic to and fro of magma in the upper mantle during the Pleistocene are mentioned.

  3. "Um, They Weren't Thinking about Their Thinking": Children's Talk about Issues of Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

    2008-01-01

    This article presents first and second grade children's talk about issues of language diversity and culture. Children focus on the issue of oppression and initially examine oppressors in their talk within literature circles across a year in a Sheltered English Immersion classroom. Drawing on a critical literacy framework and anti-bias perspective,…

  4. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  5. 250 um inner diameter hollow waveguide for Er:YAG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Katsumasa; Matsuura, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    Advanced application of Er:YAG laser radiation in medical treatment requires a suitable, very precise delivery of this light to a target. In some cases (urology, cardiology, or endodontic treatments), thin waveguides are needed. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted with 250/360 μm inner/outer diameter hollow glass waveguides. The waveguide has inner coating made from cyclic olefin polymer and silver layers. All delivery systems were simple and consisted of lens, protector, and the waveguide. The laser source was the Er:YAG system working in a free-running regime and generating radiation at 2.94 μm wavelength. For testing, output laser energy up to 100 mJ with a repetition rate of 1 Hz was chosen. The output laser spatial profile was approximately TEM00 mode, so the structure changes behind the delivery system were readily detected. The energy delivery characteristics were also checked, and the transmission reached 77%. The maximum input fluence into the waveguide was 200 mJ/cm2, and no significant damages to waveguides were observed after the measurements.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon III 870um sources maps (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Parise, B.; Schuller, F.; Andre, P.; Bontemps, S.; Menten, K. M.

    2011-06-01

    The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon III molecular cloud displayed in Fig. 2 is available at CDS in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (1 data file).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGN 2.5-11um spectroscopy (Clavel+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, J.; Schulz, B.; Altieri, B.; Barr, P.; Claes, P.; Heras, A.; Leech, K.; Metcalfe, L.; Salama, A.

    2000-03-01

    We present observations over the 2.5-11μm range, with the ISOPHOT-S spectrometer and the ISOCAM imaging camera, of a sample of 57 AGNs and one non-active SB galaxy. The sample is about equally divided into type I (<=1.5 28 sources) and type II (>1.5 29 sources) objects. (4 data files).

  8. CSHELL: a high spectral resolution 1-5 um cryogenic echelle spectrograph for the IRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Toomey, Douglas W.; Carr, Jonathan B.

    1993-10-01

    A 1 - 5.4 micrometers Cryogenic Echelle Spectrograph (CSHELL) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility is described. It achieves a resolving power of 5,000 to 40,000 using slits ranging from 4.0' to 0.5' in width and 30' long. It operates in a single-order long-slit mode, and a circular variable filter is used as an order sorter. Two infrared arrays are employed to achieve spectral coverage from 1 - 5.4 micrometers : a 256 X 256 HgCdTe NICMOS-3 array for 1 - 2.5 micrometers and a SBRC 58 X 62 InSb array for 2.8 - 5.4 micrometers . A closed- cycle cooler is employed to keep the optics and supporting structure at 73 K and to maintain the detectors at their proper operating temperatures. The entire spectrograph fits within an envelope of 64 cm X 35 cm X 27 cm. The instrument is controlled by a microcomputer mounted on the telescope, but the observer commands the instrument from a UNIX X Windows workstation on the Internet. This use of the Internet for communication between instrument control and user interface computers facilitates remote observing. A limiting magnitude of 12.3 mag is achieved for S/N equals 10 in 1 hour integration time, at resolving power of 20,000 at 2.2 micrometers wavelength.

  9. Compact dual wavelength 3.30 to 3.47-um DIAL lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtiarev, Egor V.; Geiger, Allen R.; Richmond, Richard D.

    2000-07-01

    A compact (2'6' X 2'5' X 1'1') 3.30 - 3.47-micrometers DIAL lidar has been constructed for base remediation and chemical monitoring. The lidar system is designed for short range (0.5 km maximum) aerosol backscatter detection of light hydrocarbons with sensitivities at parts-per-million level in a 30-m ranging bin. The system can also operate in the topographic mode. The on-line and off-line wavelengths are produced sequentially using a dual crystal intra-cavity KTA OPO. Detection is by means of an 8-in Newtonian telescope coupled to a Stirling cycle cooled InSb detector. The system incorporates an onboard digital signal processor and controller, operator's interface is furnished by a laptop PC. Results of initial tests using diesel fuel and a solvent are presented.

  10. U.S. Court of Claims Deposition of Kish um us tubbee. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondo, Richard A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the expulsion of the Choctaw Indians from their lands in the U.S. southeast as a result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Provides a lesson plan using a primary source document along with accompanying discussion questions. Includes a three-page letter that is the deposition of a Choctaw Indian protesting removal. (CFR)

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WISE and HIP 22um excess stars (Wu+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.-J.; Wu, H.; Lam, M.-I.; Yang, M.; Wen, X.-Q.; Li, S.; Zhang, T.-J.; Gao, L.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a catalog that includes 141 bright candidates (<=10.27mag, V band) showing an excess of infrared (IR) at 22μm. Of these 141 candidates, 38 stars are known IR-excess stars or disks, 23 stars are double or multiple stars, and 4 are Be stars while the remaining more than 70 stars are identified as 22 μm excess candidates in our work. The criterion for selecting candidates is Ks-[22]μm. All these candidates are selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky data cross-correlated with the Hipparcos main catalog and the likelihood-ratio technique is employed. Considering the effect of background, we introduce the IRAS 100μm level to exclude the high background. We also estimate the coincidence probability of these sources. In addition, we present the optical to mid-IR spectral energy distributions and optical images for all the candidates, and give the observed optical spectra of six stars with the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences' 2.16m telescope. To measure for the amount of dust around each star, the fractional luminosity is also provided. We also test whether our method of selecting IR-excess stars can be used to search for extra-solar planets; we cross-match our catalog with known IR-excess stars with planets but found no matches. Finally, we give the fraction of stars showing excess IR for different spectral types of main-sequence stars. (2 data files).

  12. Peculiarities of coagulation action of IR lasers (1-3 um) radiation on cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Yuri D.; Boiko, Ernest V.; Volkov, Venjamin V.; Danilichev, Vladimir F.; Ganin, Dmitry V.; Gatzu, Andrey F.; Smirnov, Nicolay N.; Lazo, Victor V.; Tkachuk, Alexandra M.

    1996-04-01

    Antiviral, antibacterial, antitumoral effects of laser coagulation are now of great importance in clinical ophthalmology for different corneal diseases treatment. One can note, that nowadays solid-state free-mode pulsed near-and-mid-infrared lasers with the 1.3 - 3.0 micrometers wavelengths may become widespreadly accepted in this field of ophthalmosurgery. The corneal tissue absorption coefficients for these wavelengths are lying from some parts to several thousand cm-1. Thus, by proper selection of laser wavelength, possibility is appeared to coagulate precisely the seat of pathological alterations without damaging of more deeper, non changed corneal tissue. In our work the comparative experimental study results of rabbit cornea coagulation after exposure with using of different IR lasers (with 1.32; 1.54; 1.96; 2.09 and 2.84 micrometers wavelengths) are presented. Pulse duration was about 10-3 s. The subthreshold, threshold and superthreshold energy levels were studied. Threshold energies were registered if slightly noticed coagulative changes appeared in exposed volume of corneal tissue. The cornea response resulting from laser radiation exposure was evaluated by clinical examination, slit lamp biomicroscopy, light microscopy, fluorescent staining and biochemistry. For all wavelengths initial damage was found within the cornea layers. Superthreshold injury revealed the same picture except that for 1.32 micrometers the threefold increase of the threshold energy caused additionally iris injury. The damages of the cornea were marked near the surface, stretched to more deeper layers, and damage zones were extended from the epithelium for 2.84 micrometers wavelength to whole cornea thickness for 1.32 and 1.54 micrometers wavelengths and have intermediate position for 1.96 and 2.09 micrometers wavelengths, depending on the corneal absorption coefficient. Quantitative results of threshold energy levels were calculated by probit-analysis. The radiant exposure (HD50), that cause the threshold coagulation changes in cornea with 50% probability was determined for the beam diameter (irradiance diameter) of 2 mm and for 1.32; 1.54; 1.96; 2.09 and 2.84 micrometers wavelengths. Values determined were (2.4 +/- 0.2) X 10; 7.2 +/- 0.6; 2.9 +/- 0.5; 3.7 +/- 0.2; (1.9 +/- 0.4) X 10-1 J/cm2. These values are well-correlated to corneal absorption coefficients. The absorption coefficient the higher, the value HD50 the lower and the `danger' for ocular structures damage also the lower. This fact is needed to be taken into account, because of normative documents did not reflect it in 1.3 - 3.0 micrometers wavelength range. The obtained results may be used for development of new clinical laser applications and refinement of the laser safety standards.

  13. Lack of dentin acid resistance following 9.3 um CO2 laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Charles Q.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that laser irradiation of dental enamel by specific carbon dioxide laser conditions can inhibit subsequent acid dissolution of the dental enamel surface. The purpose of this study was to determine whether similar carbon dioxide laser conditions would have a protective effect on dentin. Blocks of human dentin roots (3x3 mm2) were irradiated at 9.3 µm wavelength with a 15-18 µs pulse duration laser and fluences of 0.50-1.50 J/cm2. A motion controller system was used to ensure uniform irradiation of the entire dentin surface. Surface acid dissolution profiles following irradiation were acquired for the five study groups, control group (Non-irradiated) and four laser-treated groups. Dissolution profiles of low fluence groups (0.50 and 0.75 J/cm2) exhibited similar profiles to the control group. Dissolution profiles of higher fluence groups (1.0 and 1.5 J/cm2) showed an increased dissolution rate over the control group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that the application of carbon dioxide laser irradiation significantly alters the surface of dentin but did not decrease the acid dissolution rate.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 891 70-500um images (Hughes+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, T. M.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Smith, M.; Parkin, T.; Gentile, G.; Bendo, G.; Wilson, C.; Allaert, F.; Bianchi, S.; De Looze, I.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Clements, D.; Davies, J.; Galametz, M.; Madden, S.; Remy-Ruyer, A.; Spinoglio, L.

    2014-02-01

    We present new, reduced Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron observations of NGC 891 taken has part of the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey (P.I.: C. Wilson) and an additional PACS 100 micron image taken from the Herschel EDGE-on galaxy Survey (P.I.: E. Murphy). The PACS 70, 100 and 160 observations were reduced with the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) v.11.0.1 with PACS Calibration v.32 and Scanamorphos v.22.0 (Roussel, 2013PASP..125.1126R). The SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron observations data were reduced with HIPE v.11.0.12 including the latest calibration due for inclusion in HIPE v.12.0 (Bendo et al., 2013MNRAS.433.3062B), and BriGAdE (Smith, in preparation). Complete details on the data reduction may be found in the paper. Image properties are summarised in images.dat. Please note that the FITS images presented here do not include the calibration factors to account for extended sources, nor colour corrections as described in the paper. The raw data can be retrieved from the Herschel Science Archive (ESA). (2 data files).

  15. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ˜16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ˜6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  16. The 12 UM Contribution of Nearby Galaxies to the Infrared Background

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    is as hot as in magellanic irregulars, because it is concentrated in their central regions (r SI kpc) where the UV energy density from post - AGB stars ...the Use of LFIR as a Star Formation Indicator in Galaxies". ApJ. 396. L69-L73. 3. Thuan. T. X., Patterson, R. J., Condon. J. J. & Mitchell. K. J. 1992...Infrared Properties of the CfA Galaxy Sample. II. Gas. Dust and Star Formation Along the Hubble Sequence", submitted to Ap. J. Books 1) "An

  17. Experimental study of biological effect by Nd:YAP laser (1.34um)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effect of different power, irradiation time of Nd: YAP laser (1341nm). Method: The canine skin, bronchia, stomach, bladder, uterus were irradiated with different irradiation power and time. The effect was observed by naked eyes, light microscope, and electric microscope. Result: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, the thermal coagulation dose reaching deep derma was 5W 4s, 10w 1s;the thermal coagulation dose puncturing the whole layer was 5W, 6s, 10W, 4s; the thermal coagulation dose reaching whole stratum was 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s, 40-60W 1s on stomach (Thickness 6mm), was 40W, 2s, 30W, 3s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 6s on bladder (Thickness 6mm ,irradiation underwater), was 10W, 4s on bronchia (Thickness 2 mm) and was 30W 3s, 20W 5s, 10W 6s on uterus (Thickness 6mm). Conclusion: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, it is safe when the dose is 5W, and the irradiating time is less than 4s; the dose is 10W, and the irradiating time is less than 1 s. Under these conditions, the gastric area is used to coagulating and ablating. It is safe when the dose is less than 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s. Under these condition, The bladder (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated. It is safe when the dose is no more than 40W, 1s, 30W, 2s, 20W, 3s, 10W, 5s.Under the condition where bronchia (thickness 2mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 10W, 3s.Under the condition where uterus (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 30W, 2s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 5s.

  18. Potential cerebral perfusion agents: synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated vinylalkylbarbituric acid analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Callahan, A.P.; Cunningham, E.B.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    A new iodinated barbiturate has been prepared. Treatment of 5-chloropentyne and propargyl bromide with diethyl 2-ethyl-2-sodiomalonate (DESM) provided diethyl 2-ethyl-2-(1-pentyn-5-yl)malonate (3) and diethyl 2-ethyl-2-propargylmalonate (4), respectively. Similar condensation of DESM with (E)-(5-iodo-1-penten-1-yl)boronic acid (9) or the reaction of catecholborane with 3 provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-borono-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (8). The direct sodium iodide-chloramine-T iodination of 8 or the treatment of (E)-1,5-diiodo-1-pentene (10) with DESM provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (11). The condensation of functionalized malonates 3, 4, and 11 with urea in the presence of a base provided the corresponding barbiturates, 5-ethyl-5-(1-pentyn-5-yl)-(5), 5-ethyl-5-propargyl- (6), and (E)-5-ethyl-5-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)barbituric acid (12), respectively. (E)-6-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylic acid (13) was isolated as the hydrolytic byproduct of 11. Compound 13 decarboxylated under vacuum to provide ethyl (E)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylate (14). The /sup 125/I-labeled congeners of 12 and 13 were synthesized in the same manner and evaluated in rats. The barbiturate 12 exhibited significant brain uptake (approximately 1% dose after 5 min), demonstrating that iodinated barbiturates freely cross the intact blood-brain barrier.

  19. Characterization of iodinated disinfection by-products in chlorinated and chloraminated waters using Orbitrap based gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; Cojocariu, Cristian I; Richardson, Susan D; Silcock, Paul J; Barcelo, Damia

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) have opened up the possibility to use the high resolution-accurate mass (HRAM) Orbitrap mass analyzer to further characterize the volatile and semivolatile fractions of environmental samples. This work describes the utilization of GC Orbitrap MS technology to characterize iodine-containing disinfection by-products (iodo-DBPs) in chlorinated and chloraminated DBP mixture concentrates. These DBP mixtures were generated in lab-scale disinfection reactions using Llobregat river water and solutions containing Nordic Lake natural organic matter (NOM). The DBPs generated were concentrated using XAD resins, and extracts obtained were analyzed in full scan mode with the GC Orbitrap MS. Integration of high resolution accurate mass information and fragment rationalization allowed the characterization of up to 11 different iodo-DBPs in the water extracts analyzed, including one new iodo-DBP reported for the first time. Overall, formation of iodo-DBPs was enhanced during chloramination reactions. As expected, NOM characteristics and iodide and bromide content of the tested waters affected the amount and type of iodo-DBPs generated.

  20. GTE_TRACEP_P3B Parameters 8

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-02-19

    ... (-90, 90)(-180,180) Parameters:  FSSP integral number 0.3 um <= Dp <= 1.0 um 1.0 um <= Dp <= 20.0 um 0.3 um <= Dp <= 20.0 um FSSP integral surface area 0.3 um <= Dp <= 1.0 um 1.0 um <= Dp <= 20.0 um ...

  1. Receptor binding and cell-mediated metabolism of (/sup 125/I)monoiodoglucagon by isolated canine hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hagopian, W.A.; Tager, H.S.

    1984-07-25

    A reverse-phase HPLC method has been developed to purify /sup 125/I-labeled products resulting from the chloramine-T-based iodination of glucagon. In addition the products ((/sup 125/I)iodoTyr/sup 10/ /sup 13/)glucagon, ((/sup 125/I)iodoTyr/sup 13/)glucagon, and ((/sup 125/I)iodoTyr/sup 10/)glucagon) have been used to study the receptor binding of glucagon and the cell-mediated metabolism of the hormone by isolated canine hepatocytes. It was concluded that (a) not withstanding apparent differences in affinities exhibited by the three peptides, the interactions with the glucagon receptor are functionally equivalent, and (b) the cell-mediated metabolism of receptor-bound glucagon involves the formation of hormone-derived peptides in which the biologically important NH/sub 2/-terminal region of the hormone has been modified by limited proteolytic cleavage.

  2. Interaction of insulin-like growth factor I with porcine thyroid cells cultured in monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Saji, M.; Tsushima, T.; Isozaki, O.; Murakami, H.; Ohba, Y.; Sato, K.; Arai, M.; Mariko, A.; Shizume, K.

    1987-08-01

    The interaction of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with porcine thyroid cells cultured in monolayer was studied. Specific binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I to thyroid cells was a reversible process dependent on the time and temperature of incubation. A steady state was achieved in 18 h at 4 C and averaged 14.2 +/- 2% (mean +/- SD)/10(6) cells. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I was inhibited by unlabeled IGF-I; half-maximal inhibition occurred at concentrations of 2-5 ng/ml. Multiplication-stimulating activity (rat IGF-II) and pork insulin had relative potencies of 1:20 and 1:300 compared with IGF-I. Scatchard analysis of binding data revealed a single class of IGF-I receptors with a Ka of 4.3 X 10(10) M-1, 49,000 binding sites were estimated per cell. Affinity cross-linking and autoradiography demonstrated the presence of type I IGF receptors. Thyroid cells also had specific receptors for insulin, but specific binding of (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin was much lower than that of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I. Preincubation of thyroid cells with IGF-I or insulin caused a concentration-dependent decrease in (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I binding due to an apparent loss of receptors. Preincubation with epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or TSH did not alter subsequent binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I. Low concentrations of IGF-I stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation of thyroid cells and acted synergistically with epidermal growth factor. Multiplication-stimulating activity and insulin had relative potencies in stimulating DNA synthesis comparable to their abilities to inhibit the binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I to thyroid cells.

  3. IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) demonstration of CO retrieval, including multi-layer, from atmospheric data acquired simultaneously in the solar reflective region near 2.3 um and the thermal emissive region near 4.7 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergenthaler, J. L.; Kumer, J.; Roche, A. E.; Rairden, R. L.; Blatherwick, R.; Hawat, T.; Desouza-Machado, S.; Hannon, S.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective (SR) region ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal InfraRed (TIR) region ~ 2110 to 2165 cm-1. We describe joint deployment at Denver University (DU) with co-investigators there of the TIMS, and of the DU colleagues FTS, to acquire simultaneous measurements of atmospheric spectra in the SR and the TIR. The FTS provided validation radiance data for the TIMS. The TIMS retrievals of CO, H2O and CH4 agreed well with validation vs these as retrieved from the DU data, AIRS retrieval, standard models and ECMWF. The TIMS CO retrievals included column retrieved from the just the SR data, column retrieved from just the TIR data, and a simple two-layer retrieval from the combined data sets. The data were acquired in an operational mode that mimicked the operations in a conceptual application that would provide footprints, coverage, refresh time as in the Decadal Survey GEO-CAPE mission statement. Very encouraging CO precisions were achieved, e.g., the TIMS CO column retrieval from the SR data demonstrated better than the 10% precision requirement as listed on slide 32 of the GEO-CAPE Reference document http://geo- cape.larc.nasa.gov/docs/GEOMAC_FinalReport_no_costs.ppt

  4. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich

    2004-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  5. First Total Synthesis of a Naturally Occurring Iodinated 5′-Deoxyxylofuranosyl Marine Nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianyun; Dou, Yanhui; Ding, Haixin; Yang, Ruchun; Sun, Qi; Xiao, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    4-Amino-7-(5′-deoxy-β-D-xylofuranosyl)-5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1, an unusual naturally occurring marine nucleoside isolated from an ascidan, Diplosoma sp., was synthesized from D-xylose in seven steps with 28% overall yield on 10 g scale. The key step was Vorbrüggen glycosylation of 5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine with 5-deoxy-1,2-O-diacetyl-3-O-benzoyl-D-xylofuranose. Its absolute configuration was confirmed. PMID:22690148

  6. Synthesis of α-Halo-α,α-Difluoromethyl Ketones by a Trifluoroacetate Release/Halogenation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    John, Jinu P.; Colby, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Three series of α-halo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketones are prepared from highly α-fluorinated gem-diols by exploiting the facile release of trifluoroacetate, followed by immediate trapping of the liberated α,α-difluoroenolate with an electrophilic chlorine, bromine, or iodine source. The products are typically isolated in good yields, even in the case of sensitive, α-iodo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketones. Also, we demonstrate that an α-iodo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketone will participate in a copper-promoted reaction to forge a new carbon–carbon bond. PMID:21995668

  7. Synthesis of an X-ray opaque biodegradable copolyester by chemical modification of poly (epsilon-caprolactone).

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Coudane, Jean; Vert, Michel

    2006-10-01

    Poly (epsilon-caprolactone-co-alpha-iodo-epsilon-caprolactone) was synthesized by binding iodine to PCL chain bearing carbanionic site on alpha-position of carbonyl groups using lithium diisopropylamide. Copolyesters containing from 10% to 25% of iodo-units were thus obtained. Viscoelastic properties (modulus, loss angle), thermal properties (T(m), T(c), DeltaH(m)), crystallinity and in vitro degradability of this new type of copolymers were measured. Their opacity to X-rays was assessed, and appeared high enough to be of interest for biomedical applications.

  8. Fungal strains as catalysts for the biotransformation of halolactones by hydrolytic dehalogenation with the dimethylcyclohexane system.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Małgorzata

    2012-08-14

    Bicyclic chloro-, bromo- and iodo-γ-lactones with dimethylcyclohexane rings were used as substrates for bioconversion by several fungal strains (Fusarium, Botrytis and Beauveria). Most of the selected microorganisms transformed these lactones by hydrolytic dehalogenation into the new compound cis-2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]- nonan-8-one, mainly the (-)-isomer. When iodo-γ-lactone was used as the substrate, two products were observed: a hydroxy-γ-lactone and an unsaturated lactone. The structures of all substrates and products were established on the basis of their spectral data. The mechanism of dehalogenation of three halolactones was also studied.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of heteroatom-bridged bisspirobifluorenes for the application of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Chao-Tsen; Chen, Chin-Ti

    2014-10-01

    Pure 2-iodo-9,9'-spirobifluorene was synthesized by an efficient method without troublesome iodination of 9,9- spirobifluorene (SP) or the Sandmeyer reaction of 2-amino-9,9'-spirobifluorene. A series of main group element-bridged bis-9,9'-spirobifluorene derivatives were synthesized via coupling reactions of 2-iodo-9,9'-spirobifluorene and main group element-containing precursors. These heteroatom-bridged bis-spirobifluorenes show large triplet state energy gaps, high glass transition temperatures, and varied charge-transporting properties advantageous to the host materials for blue phosphorescence organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs).

  10. Room temperature 1040fps, 1 megapixel photon-counting image sensor with 1.1um pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoodian, S.; Ma, J.; Starkey, D.; Wang, T. J.; Yamashita, Y.; Fossum, E. R.

    2017-05-01

    A 1Mjot single-bit quanta image sensor (QIS) implemented in a stacked backside-illuminated (BSI) process is presented. This is the first work to report a megapixel photon-counting CMOS-type image sensor to the best of our knowledge. A QIS with 1.1μm pitch tapered-pump-gate jots is implemented with cluster-parallel readout, where each cluster of jots is associated with its own dedicated readout electronics stacked under the cluster. Power dissipation is reduced with this cluster readout because of the reduced column bus parasitic capacitance, which is important for the development of 1Gjot arrays. The QIS functions at 1040fps with binary readout and dissipates only 17.6mW, including I/O pads. The readout signal chain uses a fully differential charge-transfer amplifier (CTA) gain stage before a 1b-ADC to achieve an energy/bit FOM of 16.1pJ/b and 6.9pJ/b for the whole sensor and gain stage+ADC, respectively. Analog outputs with on-chip gain are implemented for pixel characterization purposes.

  11. 'Disability Means, um, Dysfunctioning People': A Qualitative Analysis of the Meaning and Experience of Disability among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Rebecca; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2016-02-02

    There has been little qualitative analysis of the experience of stigma, social comparisons and conception of identity among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to develop an understanding of how adults with intellectual disabilities experience their own disability, and any implications relating to self-esteem, stigma and social interactions. Fifteen adults with intellectual disabilities were interviewed using semi-structured, open-ended questions regarding disability, social interactions and self-esteem. Interviews were analysed independently by two researchers using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Three major themes emerged during analysis, exploring pressure on participants to behave in a socially normative way, tendency to produce personal definitions of disability and consistently limited knowledge of and discomfort around common disability terminology. Participants' clearly experienced feelings of difference, despite a lack of articulation. Limited understanding of both terminology and conceptualization of disability status could negatively impact self-esteem, person-centred actions and political movement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  13. The effect of modification procedures on rigid gas permeable contact lenses: the UM-St. Louis Study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, B W; Henry, V A; Bennett, E S; Caroline, P J

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of frequently performed modification procedures on quality of vision, surface wettability, optical quality and subjective response. One subject was optimally fitted with both silicone/acrylate (S/A) and fluoro-silicone/acrylate (F-S/A) lens materials of identical design. Two methods of surface polishing, edge polishing and repowering were used in addition to three different spindle speeds. Each pair of lenses was worn by the subject for a period of 4 hours and the subjective response was then compared to the baseline or premodification data. In addition, both low magnification photography and Scanning Electron Microscopy (S.E.M.) were performed on each lens. The results showed that the addition of 0.50D minus power reduced visual acuity, contrast sensitivity function and optical quality with one of the methods used. Front surface polish and edge polish procedures did not appear to affect short-term performance. Controlling polish, application and tool pressure on certain procedures resulted in similar findings. Further studies would be beneficial to evaluate the effect of longer wearing periods and the use of other modification procedures. The authors conclude that S/A and F-S/A lens materials can be successfully modified in-office with adherence to recommended guidelines.

  14. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  15. "Disability Means, um, Dysfunctioning People": A Qualitative Analysis of the Meaning and Experience of Disability among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteleone, Rebecca; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been little qualitative analysis of the experience of stigma, social comparisons and conception of identity among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to develop an understanding of how adults with intellectual disabilities experience their own disability, and any implications relating to self-esteem,…

  16. Altstadtflair, Kunst und Kultur. Tourismus(potenziale) in und um die Universitätsstadt Tübingen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megerle, Heidi Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    The historic university town of Tübingen offers a high tourist potential due to art, culture, the river Neckar and the old-town-atmosphere. Whereas day tourism is above average and plays an economically important role, overnight tourism is still under average despite a constant upward trend. The current tourism strategy recommends a strengthening of overnight and individual quality tourism as well as seasonal and spatial equalisation of tourist flows and in addition an increased networking with the surrounding area, being highly attractive due to the Biosphere Reserve, the Geopark and the Outletcity of Metzingen.

  17. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  18. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  19. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 24um fluxes of GOODS-S AGN (Garcia-Gonzalez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Hernan-Caballero, A.; Sarajedini, V. L.; Villar, V.

    2015-06-01

    We compiled all the data taken around the GOODS South field with the MIPS instrument at 24μm by querying the Spitzer Heritage Archive.1 This field was observed by Spitzer during several campaigns from 2004 January to 2007 March. We focused our study on a region around RA=03:32:36 (J2000) and DE=-27:48:39 (J2000). These data correspond to different observing proposals from different PI, including the Guaranteed Time Observations programme (GTO, PI: G. Rieke) and the GOODS programme (PI: M. Dickinson). We have obtained 151 AORs (Astronomical Observation Request) but only downloaded 127 because the others were from the SWIRE (Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic) survey and were not sufficiently deep. (2 data files).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de Paz, A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  2. "Disability Means, um, Dysfunctioning People": A Qualitative Analysis of the Meaning and Experience of Disability among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteleone, Rebecca; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been little qualitative analysis of the experience of stigma, social comparisons and conception of identity among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to develop an understanding of how adults with intellectual disabilities experience their own disability, and any implications relating to self-esteem,…

  3. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  4. The Navy of Brazil: An Emerging Power at Sea (Marinha do Brasil: Um Poder Emergente no Mar),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    neighboring countries were solved through diplomacy. Second, the Brazilian economy remained essentially based on agricultural production, with little...emphasis on the industrialization process that took place in other parts of the world. As a result, the technological base gained by the war effort...industrial base , many problems were not solved and dependence on foreign support was almost absolute. These facts became more evident when Brazil, after having

  5. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  6. Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1.3 um

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; KLEM,JOHN F.; FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; FRITZ,IAN J.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; SIEG,ROBERT M.; GEIB,KENT M.; SCOTT,J.W.; NAONE,R.L.

    2000-06-05

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1294 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al{sub 0.94}Ga{sub 0.06}As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the optical cavity, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55 C. These lasers exhibit the longest wavelength reported to date for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown on GaAs substrates.

  7. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership Between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    sulforaphane contributes to tam sensitivity in tam resistant LCC2 cells by increasing expression of p27. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of...Slingerland, J., and Roy, D. (2010) Modulation of thioredoxin reductase by sulforaphane may restore tamoxifen sensitivity in resistant LCC2 cells

  8. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    D. Increase in TrxR by sulforaphane contributes to tam sensitivity in tam resistant LCC2 cells by increasing expression of p27. In: Proceedings of...9. Penney R., Felty, Q., Slingerland, J., and Roy, D. (2010) Modulation of thioredoxin reductase by sulforaphane may restore tamoxifen sensitivity

  9. Wartime Requirements for Ammunition, Materiel and Personnel (WARRAMP). Volume III. Ammunition Post Processor User’s Manual (APP-UM).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    147.21 1070.18 2280.10? HELO CREW 41.35 NONCRM 609.6? 1362.92 16.70 47.00 1051.03 203.22 6720.51 ARTILLERY .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 : LS . 19.51...I *,/kU 19 - USL m.C),F I UEtq I L -J IAPPH 1 .41/ 21 MkT LU I.,L:NTLALobaLJJGLii/ / .. tsd) 22 kWALU LO,,FIULNr1AL*37A.I,10F./ / 2.3 613RPT PK 4Ti 24...resolution model that simulates tactical combat between a r , v: d blue force; a production model that produces force on 7.1r--# - Ls . ELCON Equipment

  10. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Antiestrogen resistant cell lines LCC-2 and LY-2 regained sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of antiestrogens Tamoxifen and Fulvestrant by...estrogen therapy . This research is of significant merit because of its clinical relevance to breast cancer. Secondly, the research accomplishments...breast tumor resistance to anti-estrogen therapy . We proposed to investigate how reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced redox signaling pathways in breast

  11. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  12. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    level of p27 i n LY2 (Tamoxifen resistant) breast cancer cells exposed to antiestrogens. As shown in Fig. , tamoxifen e xposed LY2 cells...ove rall h ypothesis b ecause i t s hows t hat p27 l evels a re r estored w hen e xposed t o t amoxifen. T hus, t he Results: 6 increase in p27...degradation of p27. This increases t he l evels o f p27 in L Y2 cells e xposed t o tamoxifen which in turn inhibits cell cycle progression. These da ta p

  13. Pulsed-laser-induced damage in semiconductors Ge, ZnS, and ZnSe at 10.6um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, Sebastian; Kudriavtsev, Eugene M.; Autric, Michel L.

    1998-04-01

    Laser irradiation induced damage to several materials of interest for use as 10.6 micrometers laser system windows is investigated in this paper. The irradiation source in these single shot experiments was a pulsed TEA CO2 laser. Damage initiation in semiconductors has been studied during the interaction by measuring the variation of the transmitted intensity of a He- Ne and a CO2 cw lasers through the samples. Results show that damages appear at the beginning of the laser-matter interaction process on both surfaces and in the bulk of the materials. The damaged materials have been characterized for various incident fluences by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in terms of topography and morphology. The modified surface chemical analysis and the structural analysis have been carried out using energy dispersive x-ray and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  15. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  16. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  17. Observation of nonlinear optical phenomena in fused silica and air using a 100 GW, 1.54 um source.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, James Van; Law, R. J.; Luk, Ting Shan; Naudeau, Madeline L.; Nelson, Thomas Robert; Cameron, Stewart M.

    2006-02-01

    A 100-GW optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier system is used to study nonlinear effects in the 1.54 {micro}m regime. When focusing this beam in air, strong third-harmonic generation (THG) is observed, and both the spectra and efficiency are measured. Broadening is observed on only the blue side of the third-harmonic signal and an energy conversion efficiency of 0.2% is achieved. When propagated through a 10-cm block of fused silica, a collimated beam is seen to collapse and form multiple filaments. The measured spectral features span 400-2100 nm. The spectrum is dominated by previously unobserved Stokes emissions and broad emissions in the visible.

  18. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  19. Characterization of candidate DIAL lidar water-vapor and carbon dioxide absorption lines in the 2-um region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sova, Raymond M.; Thomas, Michael E.; Tobin, David; Byrum, Daniel; Strow, L. Larrabee

    1995-02-01

    DIAL lidar for water-vapor and temperature remote sensing in the eye-safe two micron region has been receiving much interest. Such systems rely on accurate spectral line characterization. Typically spectral line properties are taken from the HITRAN database. A series of transmittance measurements are made to complete and improve the HITRAN database in this important spectral region. A 3-meter base-path White cell attached to a BOMEM DA3.02 is used for the transmittance measurements. The White cell is set to a path length of 216 meters for all experiments. Measurements of pure water-vapor, nitrogen broadened water-vapor, pure carbon dioxide, and nitrogen broadened carbon dioxide are collected at room temperature. Data analysis is performed on water-vapor lines that are relatively temperature insensitive and carbon dioxide lines that are relatively temperature sensitive over the range of typical atmospheric temperatures. The measured spectrum is converted to the absorption coefficient and is nonlinear least squares fitted to determine the spectral line parameters. Some lines show good agreement (within a few percent) with the HITRAN database, other lines disagree by more than +/- 10%. Thus care must be exercised in applying the HITRAN database to DIAL lidar applications. New parameters are obtained that are not available on the current 1992 HITRAN database, such as the self width and pressure shift.

  20. Thyroid carcinoma in children and young adults: retrospective review of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Joana; Ribeiro, Cristina; Melo, Miguel; Gomes, Leonor; Costa, Gracinda; Carrilho, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma da tiróide é raro em crianças e em adultos jovens. A maior parte das orientações clínicas baseia-se em dados obtidos na população adulta. Persistem diversas controvérsias no que se refere à agressividade da apresentação clínica e da abordagem terapêutica.Objectivo: Avaliar todos os doentes com carcinoma da tiróide com menos de 20 anos no momento da apresentação, reflectindo a experiência da nossa unidade relativamente ao diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento desta entidade.Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de revisão retrospectiva dos registos clínicos de todas as crianças e adultos jovens seguidos na Consulta de Oncologia do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra entre 1996 e 2012 .Resultados: Foram estudados 19 doentes, com uma média etária de 16 anos, sendo 13 do sexo feminino. Nenhum dos doentes fora previamente submetido a irradiação da região do pescoço. A queixa de apresentação era a presença de uma massa cervical palpável em 84,6% dos casos. Foi realizada citologia aspirativa em 15 doentes, que foi diagnóstica ou suspeita de neoplasia em 71,4% dos casos. A tiroidectomia total foi levada a cabo em 18 casos (94,7%). Em todos estes foi identificada a presença de um carcinoma papilar. A invasão vascular e multicêntrica ocorreu em 21,1% dos casos. A dimensão tumoral média foi de 2,5 cm. O envolvimento ganglionar cervical foi diagnosticado em 31,6% dos casos e a presença de metástases à distância foi identificada em 5,2% dos casos. Na maior parte dos doentes (18 em 19), o quadro foi classificado como doença em estadio I. Todos os doentes fizeram terapêutica supressora com tiroxina e 84,2% dos doentes foram submetidos a ablação pós-operatória com iodo radioactivo (dose média de 85,7mCi). Durante um seguimento médio de cerca de 6 anos, 16 doentes permaneceram em remissão.Conclusão: Na nossa série, as taxas de metastização ganglionar cervical

  1. MICROWAVE-INDUCED, SOLVENT-FREE TRANSFORMATIONS OF BENZOHETERACYCLANONES BY HTIB (KOSER'S REAGENT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microwave-activated reaction of [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene (HTIB) with various chromanones, thiochromanones and dihydroquinolones under solvent-free conditions has been studied. In addition to the common dehydrogenation, 2,3-migration has also been observed in the case of...

  2. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  3. Rate of Hydrolysis of Tertiary Halogeno Alkanes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure the relative rate of hydrolysis of the 2-x-2 methylpropanes, where x is bromo, chloro or iodo. The results are plotted on a graph from which the relative rate of hydrolysis can be deduced. (Author/GA)

  4. Above ground performance of preservative-treated western wood species

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Morrell; D.J. Miller; Stan T. Lebow

    2000-01-01

    Incised and non-incised Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and ponderosa pine L- joints were treated with ammoniacal-based pentachlorophenol, chromated zinc chloride, thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMBT) or TCMTB plus methylenebisthiocyanate or 3 iodo-2-propynyl carbamate with or without chlorpyrifos to retentions between 0.8 and 6.4 kg/m3 and exposed, uncoated, above...

  5. Synthesis of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-boranomono phosphate as a potential thymidylate synthase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shoeb I; Dobrikov, Mikhail I; Shaw, Barbara Ramsay

    2005-01-01

    The 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine nucleoside and the 5'-boranomonophosphate nucleotide were synthesized as analogs of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate (5-FdUMP), a widely used mechanism-based inhibitor of thymidylate synthase. Synthesis was carried out from protected 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and trimethylsilylacetylene by Sonogashira palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction followed by selective phosphorylation and finally boronation.

  6. Rate of Hydrolysis of Tertiary Halogeno Alkanes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure the relative rate of hydrolysis of the 2-x-2 methylpropanes, where x is bromo, chloro or iodo. The results are plotted on a graph from which the relative rate of hydrolysis can be deduced. (Author/GA)

  7. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  8. Organoselenium and DMAP co-catalysis: regioselective synthesis of medium-sized halolactones and bromooxepanes from unactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Jana, Sadhan; Prasad, Ch Durga; Yadav, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-03-18

    A catalytic system consisting of bis(4-methoxyphenyl)selenide and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) has been developed for the regioselective synthesis of medium-sized bromo/iodo lactones and bromooxepanes possessing high transannular strain. (77)Se NMR, mass spectrometry and theoretical studies reveal that the reaction proceeds via a quaternary selenium intermediate.

  9. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  10. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  11. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Eng, W S; Robles, S; Vogt, R G; Wiśniewski, J R; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural 3H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated [125I]12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added 125I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of [125I]12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  12. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  13. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  14. Tissue welding for corneal wound suture with a CW 1.9-um diode laser: an in-vivo preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmettre, Thomas; Mordon, Serge R.; Mitchell, Valerie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the interest of a 1.9 micrometer diode laser for corneal wound suture. Six adult albino rabbits were anesthetized. A 7 mm corneal incision was practiced on the right eye. For 3 animals (laser plus stitch) the incision was surgically sutured with 2 stitches of a nylon monofilament and laser impacts were performed between the stitches. For 3 animals (laser only) juxtaposed lasers impacts were realized to suture the wound. After the procedure the animals were examined daily for signs of inflammation, infection and for healing of the corneal wound. Material was obtained for histological examination 1 month after the procedure. Approximation of the edges of the would was successfully obtained in the (laser plus stitch) group. In the (laser only) group this approximation remained troublesome. After the procedure, one cornea of the (laser only) group disclosed a little leakage during 2 days. Histological examination assessed the welding of the corneal wound in the two groups provided structural modifications and some inflammatory signs. Corneal welding using a 1.9 micrometer diode laser is possible either with laser and stitch or with laser only. The approximation of the edges of the wound with additional stitches is an evident drawback. The use of additional stitches should be avoided to keep the theoretical advantages of corneal would suture using laser welding.

  15. Resist profile and CD control improvement by using optimized resist thickness and substrate film stack ratio for 0.35-um logic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ming H.; Yu, Raymond; Chu, Ronfu; Lim, Chet Ping

    1997-08-01

    LOCOS is the most widely used method for 0.35 micrometers process isolation. 2000 angstrom silicon nitride on 200 angstrom padoxide was selected as oxidation barrier before process optimization for the need of control the bird's beak and stress which affects the subsequent gate oxide quality. However, resist profile is prone to footing at this film stack. Severe footing could make minimum space CD too small, even not opened, to cause isolation failure. Experiment data shows that if nitride thickness varies from 1.9 K to 2.1 K, line CD variation can be up to 0.08 micrometers for a 0.6 micrometers line, which is about 80 percent of CD variation budget. Based on simulation results, 8 different nitride thickness in the range of 1750 angstrom to 2100 angstrom with step of 50 angstrom were deposited on 200 angstrom padoxide. Swing curve, CD versus nitride thickness for resist Emax and Emin, CD versus different exposure dose charts were obtained. Resist profile cross-sectional SEM pictures were also done to confirm simulation and in-line CD SEM measurement. An optimum combination of substrate film stack and resist thickness was selected. After implementation of this optimization, the sensitivity of CD to the nitride thickness was greatly reduced. Better resist profile and CD control were obtained. This was well confirmed by in-line monitoring data.

  16. Hydraulische Optimierung des Reaktionsraumes um einen Infiltrationsbrunnen zur unterirdischen Enteisenung - Durchführung eines Feldversuchs mit Infiltrationssteuerung (Teil 2/2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartak, Rico; Macheleidt, Wolfgang; Ahrns, Johannes; Grischek, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In subsurface iron removal (SIR), oxygen-enriched water is injected into an aquifer to create a reaction zone. Ahrns et al. (2017) simulated a doubling of the efficiency coefficient by the inactivation of well screen sections during injection for a vertical SIR pilot well penetrating an aquifer with varying dissolved iron concentrations. The optimized injection regime was adopted conceptually in a pilot SIR test. An inflatable packer was used to manipulate the outflow distribution. The packer was inflated before the injection phase then evacuated with a vacuum pump before pumping while remaining inside the casing. Cycles with conventional injection were performed first and iron breakthrough was monitored in the pumped water. Subsequently when the packer was used, iron removal increased by 25% and the efficiency coefficient by 50% for an adopted reference value of 5.0 mg/l. Although the study site was unfavorable for SIR because of the unfavorable low alkalinity (pH in the re- and infiltrate decreased down to 4.2), the injectant could have been pretreated by the addition of alkalis prior to injection. This was not considered in the simulation and iron concentrations were above the limits commonly used in practice. However, the overall use of an optimized injection will still be presented.

  17. Hydraulische Optimierung des Reaktionsraumes um einen Infiltrationsbrunnen zur unterirdischen Enteisenung - Feldversuche und numerische Simulation zur Planung der optimalen Verfahrensergiebigkeit (Teil 1/2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrns, Johannes; Bartak, Rico; Grischek, Thomas; Pörschke, Richard

    2017-08-01

    In subsurface iron removal (SIR), oxygen-enriched water is injected into an aquifer to create a reaction zone. Aside from the hydraulic properties of the aquifer, groundwater quality often varies with depth so that in vertical wells the dissolved oxygen distribution (reaction zone) may not correspond to the dissolved iron concentration which may result in a lower efficiency coefficient. Therefore, measures to hydraulically optimize the formation of the reaction zone through a non-conventional injection were investigated. A high-resolution groundwater flow model was calibrated based on tracer and pump tests and used to plan the optimized injection for a SIR-pilot well with two screen segments. An optimized injection appears to be possible through the inactivation of well screen sections using packers. A doubling of the efficiency coefficient in comparison to a conventional injection was predicted when a packer, which remains evacuated inside the well while pumping, was used to seal 4/5 of the upper well screen length during injection. This scenario was used to plan the operating regime for a SIR field test, which is presented in Part 2.

  18. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble…

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Library of Spectra (0.5 to 2.5um) of Cool Stars (Lancon+ 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancon, A.; Wood, P. R.

    2000-07-01

    The present catalogue contains 182 low resolution optical spectra, 145 medium resolution (R~1100) near-IR spectra, and 112 merged optical+near-IR spectra that range from about 510 to 2450 nm. The observed stars are luminous cool objects: the sample includes red giants, red supergiants, oxygen rich and carbon rich long period variables (asymptotic giant branch stars), as well as a few Galactic Bulge and LMC/SMC stars. The optical data were acquired on the so-called 74 inch Telescope at Mount Stromlo Observatory. The near-IR data were acquired with the Cryogenic Array Spectrometer and Imager CASPIR on the 2.3 meter Australian National University Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. Optical and near-IR data for variable objects have been merged only when both were taken less than 15 days apart; but both spectral ranges are also provided separately. The spectra are corrected for telluric absorption. However, in regions where the transmission of the Earth atmosphere is close to zero the fluxes recovered remain highly uncertain. The flux calibration is based on a series of reference stars, for which a theoretical intrinsic energy distribution was assumed. An absolute flux calibration (to about 10% accuracy) was only achieved in exceptional cases; in the other cases, the absolute fluxes can be off their real values by an order of magnitude due to slit losses (for the programme star and/or the reference star) and to non-photometric wheather. Uncertainties in the relative values of fluxes along each spectrum are described in the paper. (8 data files).

  20. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between…

  1. A temperature-controlled cell for X-ray study of liquid systems using a commercial DRON-UM1 diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Petrun`kin, S.P.; Garavina, E.V.; Trostin, V.N.

    1995-02-01

    A container (cell) and a temperature-control system have been designed enabling one to carry out x-ray diffraction study of liquid samples both at a fixed temperature and within a certain temperature range using a commercial DRON-UMl x-ray diffractometer. Special features of the cell and the materials used for it allow one to study both chemically inert and corrosive liquids.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Combined ArTeMiS+SPIRE 350um image of NGC6334 (Andre+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, P.; Reveret, V.; Konyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tige, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-05-01

    High dynamic range dust continuum map of the NGC 6334 star-forming complex at 350 microns obtained by combining high-resolution ground-based observations taken with the ArTeMiS camera on the APEX telescope and Herschel Space Observatory data from the HOBYS key project (Motte et al., 2010A&A...518L..77M; Russeil et al. 2013A&A...554A..42R). The effective angular resolution is ~ 8" (HPBW). (2 data files).

  3. A Synchrotron-Based Facility for the in-situ Location, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of ~10 um Particles Captured in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.; Sutton, S; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust mission collected dust from the coma of Comet Wild-2 on January 2nd, 2004, by direct capture into aerogel cells that flew through the dust coma at 6 km/s. Stardust collected several hundred comet particles >10 {mu}m in size. These comet samples were delivered to Earth on January 15th, 2006. We developed a facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY, USA) for the in-situ characterization of 10 {mu}m particles collected in aerogel. These analytical instruments allow us to perform extensive chemical, mineralogical, and size-frequency characterization of particles captured in aerogel. These analyses are conducted without any invasive extraction, minimizing the possibility of contamination or particle loss during preparation. This facility was used to determine the chemical composition, the oxidation state, the mineralogy and to provide an indication of the grain size of the Wild-2 particles before they were removed from the aerogel. This information provides a catalog of particle types, allowing a more reasoned allocation of the particles to subsequent investigators based on a relatively detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and mineralogy of each particle. These measurements allowed a comparison of the chemical and mineralogical properties of the Wild-2 particles with other types of extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The success of in-situ analysis for Wild 2 particles demonstrates that synchrotron-based facilities will be important for the analysis of particles collected in aerogel on future earth-orbiting satellites and spacecraft.

  4. Derivation of a Large Isotopic Diffuse Sky Emission Component at 1.25 and 2.2um from the COBE/DIRBE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained with COBE/DIRBE, we reanalyzed the diffuse sky brightness at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}}, which consists of zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic emission including the extragalactic background light. Our new analysis including an improved estimate of the DGL and the ISL with the 2MASS data showed that deviations of the isotropic emission from isotropy were less than 10% in the entire sky at high Galactic latitude (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). We derived the DGL to 100 μm brightness ratios of ˜4.79 and ˜1.49 n W m-2 MJy-1 at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, respectively. The result of our analysis revealed a significantly large isotropic component at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}} with intensities of 60.15 ± 16.14 and 27.68+/- 6.21 {{n}} {{W}} {{{m}}}-2 {{sr}}-1, respectively. This intensity is larger than the integrated galaxy light, upper limits from γ-ray observation, and potential contribution from exotic sources (i.e., Population III stars, intrahalo light, direct collapse black holes, and dark stars). We therefore conclude that the excess light may originate from the local universe: the Milky Way and/or the solar system.

  5. Our Day-Care Centers Respect Children: Quality Criteria for Day-Care = Criterios para um Atendimento em Creches que Respeite os Direitos Fundamentais das Criancas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Maria Malta; Rosemberg, Fulvia

    Prepared as part of an effort to attain minimum quality standards for Brazilian day care centers, this document focuses on day-to-day provision of day care services for children from birth to 6 years old as well as broader day care administrative concerns. The first version of this document was prepared as part of a training project for day care…

  6. In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-um swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Hong, Youngjoo; Makita, Shuichi; Yamanari, Masahiro; Akiba, Masahiro; Miura, Masahiro; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2007-05-01

    Retinal, choroidal and scleral imaging by using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) with a 1-μm band probe light, and high-contrast and three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the choroidal vasculature are presented. This SS-OCT has a measurement speed of 28,000 A-lines/s, a depth resolution of 10.4 μm in tissue, and a sensitivity of 99.3 dB. Owing to the high penetration of the 1-μm probe light and the high sensitivity of the system, the in vivo sclera of a healthy volunteer can be observed. A software-based algorithm of scattering optical coherence angiography (S-OCA) is developed for the high-contrast and 3D imaging of the choroidal vessels. The S-OCA is used to visualize the 3D choroidal vasculature of the in vivo human macula and the optic nerve head. Comparisons of S-OCA with several other angiography techniques including Doppler OCA, Doppler OCT, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography are also presented.

  7. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  8. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  9. The flexible Ba7UM2S12.5O0.5 (M = V, Fe) compounds: syntheses, structures and spectroscopic, resistivity, and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Adel; Stojko, Wojciech; Malliakas, Christos D; Lebègue, Sébastien; Clavier, Nicolas; Ibers, James A

    2013-10-21

    Two new compounds, Ba7UV2S12.5O0.5 and Ba7UFe2S12.5O0.5, have been synthesized in fused-silica tubes by the direct combinations of V or Fe with U, BaS, and S at 1223 K. The compound Ba7UV2S12.5O0.5 crystallizes at 100 K in the Cs7Cd3Br17 structure type in space group D4h(18)–I4/mcm of the tetragonal system. The compound Ba7UFe2S12.5O0.5 crystallizes at 100 K in space group D4h(5)–P4/mbm of the tetragonal system. The structures are very similar with V/S or Fe/S networks in which Ba atoms reside as well as channels large enough to accommodate additional Ba atoms and infinite linear US5O chains. Each U atom is octahedrally coordinated to four equatorial S atoms, one axial S atom, and one axial O atom. The Fe/S network contains a S–S single bond, whereas the V/S network does not. The result is that the Fe3+ compound charge balances with 7 Ba2+, U4+, 2 Fe3+, 10.5 S2–, S2(2–), and 0.5 O2–, whereas the V4+ compound charge balances with 7 Ba2+, U4+, 2 V4+, 12.5 S2–, and 0.5 O2–. Other differences between these two compounds have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy and resistivity measurements. DFT calculations have provided insight into the nature of their bonding. The overall structural motif of Ba7UV2S12.5O0.5 and Ba7UFe2S12.5O0.5 offers a remarkable flexibility in terms of the oxidation state of the incorporated transition metal.

  10. Near-Infrared Continuum and 3.3um PAH Imaging of the Starburst Ring in the Type I Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7469

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzarella, J.; Voit, G.; Soifer, B.; Matthews, K.; Graham, J.; Armus, L.; Shupe, D.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution near-infrared images of the type 1 Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7469 have been obtained to probe its dusty nuclear environment. Direct images are relatively featureless, but residual images created by subtacting a smooth model based on best-fitting elliptical isoophotes reveal a tight inner spiral whose high surface-brightness portions correspond to a previously detected 3.

  11. Confusion about a little observatory: the history of the first high school observatory (German Title: Verwirrung um eine kleine Sternwarte: Die Geschichte der ersten Chemnitzer Schulsternwarte )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Elvira

    By means of a small watercolor, painted by a musicologist, the existence of the highschool observatory of Chemnitz was rediscovered. The small observatory was build in 1893 by means of funds and a donation: after WW I it was also used for popular education. During Nazi times, the observatory fell into neglect, and the mechanical damage made it impossible to put it back into operation after WW II The building was torn down in 1964 and forgotten.

  12. The FLARE mission: deep and wide-field 1-5um imaging and spectroscopy for the early universe: a proposal for M5 cosmic vision call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgarella, D.; Levacher, P.; Vives, S.; Dohlen, K.; Pascal, S.

    2016-07-01

    FLARE (First Light And Reionization Explorer) is a space mission that will be submitted to ESA (M5 call). Its primary goal (~80% of lifetime) is to identify and study the universe before the end of the reionization at z > 6. A secondary objective (~20% of lifetime) is to survey star formation in the Milky Way. FLARE's strategy optimizes the science return: imaging and spectroscopic integral-field observations will be carried out simultaneously on two parallel focal planes and over very wide instantaneous fields of view. FLARE will help addressing two of ESA's Cosmic Vision themes: a) << How did the universe originate and what is it made of? » and b) « What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? >> and more specifically, << From gas and dust to stars and planets >>. FLARE will provide to the ESA community a leading position to statistically study the early universe after JWST's deep but pin-hole surveys. Moreover, the instrumental development of wide-field imaging and wide-field integral-field spectroscopy in space will be a major breakthrough after making them available on ground-based telescopes.

  13. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between…

  14. X-ray, FTIR and DFT study of new iodine-containing derivatives of trifluoroacetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterkhova, Irina V.; Astakhova, Vera V.; Shainyan, Bagrat A.

    2017-08-01

    The X-ray structures of new iodine-containing derivatives of trifluoroacetamide: N-(1-cyclohexyl-2-iodoethyl)trifluoroacetamide (1), N-(2-iodo-1-phenylethyl)trifluoroacetamide (2), and N-(5-iodocyclopent-2-en-1-yl)trifluoroacetamide (3) have been determined. The conformers of amides 1, 2 and their structural analogue N-[2-iodo-1-(p-chlorophenyl)ethyl]trifluoroacetamide (4) with respect to rotation about the Csbnd CH2I bond were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy [along with N-(5-iodocyclopent-2-en-1-yl)trifluoroacetamide (3) and N-(6-iodocyclohex-2-en-1-yl)trifluoroacetamide (5)] and analyzed by quantum chemical calculations (B3LYP/DGDZVP).

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of alpha- and beta- scorpion toxin receptors associated with rat brain sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Darbon, H; Jover, E; Couraud, F; Rochat, H

    1983-09-15

    Azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus, a beta-toxin, and azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin V from Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus, an alpha-toxin, have been covalently linked after binding to their receptor sites that are related to the voltage sensitive sodium channel present in rat brain synaptosomes. Both derivatives labeled two polypeptides of 253000 +/- 20000 and 35000 +/- 2000 mol. wt. Labeling was blocked for each derivative by a large excess of the corresponding native toxin but no cross inhibition was obtained. These results suggest that both alpha - and beta - scorpion toxin receptors are located on or near the same two membrane polypeptides which may be part of the voltage dependent sodium channel.

  16. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen-Bonding Four-Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Barendt, Timothy A; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2016-09-05

    The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis-iodo triazolium-bis-naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo-triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion-rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the (1) H NMR anion binding results.

  17. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-iodovinyl-branched carbohydrates as potential brain imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiodinated carbohydrates such as 2-deoxy-2-iodo-D-glucose and 3-deoxy-3-iodo-D-glucose undergo facile chemical or in vivo deiodination which precludes their use as radiotracers of glucose metabolism in tissues. To overcome the problems resulting from in vivo deiodination, we explored the concept of stabilizing radioiodide on a model carbohydrate, (E)-C-3-iodovinyl-D-allose (10) as an iodovinyl moiety. This agent did not exhibit brain specificity but showed low in vivo deiodination which demonstrated for the first time that radioiodide can be stabilized on a carbohydrate. The goal of this study was to develop a deoxy-branched carbohydrate with radioiodide stabilized as a vinyliodide with the objective of achieving high brain uptake. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. A Case Report on Myxedema Madness: Curable Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Nimesh; Sharma, Prateek; Parmar, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Myxedema madness is a very rare but established entity. A psychotic patient having hypothyroid features should always be evaluated regarding same. A 30-year-old female without known significant past medical history had, for the past one and half year, continuous persecutory and referential delusions; second and third person auditory hallucinations, facial puffiness and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score of 41 on admission. Her thyroid profile was: Thyroid stimulating hormone - 63.71 mIU/L, Free tri iodo threonine (FT3) - 2.1 pg/ml, free tetra iodo thyronine (FT4) - 0.6 ng/ml with normal ultrasound-thyroid. Patient was started on thyroxin 100 μg with a low dose risperidone 2 mg. Risperidone was withdrawn over a week and the patient was discharged on thyroxin alone with BPRS score of 8 and absence of delusions and hallucinations. PMID:24701017

  19. A case report on myxedema madness: curable psychosis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nimesh; Sharma, Prateek; Parmar, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Myxedema madness is a very rare but established entity. A psychotic patient having hypothyroid features should always be evaluated regarding same. A 30-year-old female without known significant past medical history had, for the past one and half year, continuous persecutory and referential delusions; second and third person auditory hallucinations, facial puffiness and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score of 41 on admission. Her thyroid profile was: Thyroid stimulating hormone - 63.71 mIU/L, Free tri iodo threonine (FT3) - 2.1 pg/ml, free tetra iodo thyronine (FT4) - 0.6 ng/ml with normal ultrasound-thyroid. Patient was started on thyroxin 100 μg with a low dose risperidone 2 mg. Risperidone was withdrawn over a week and the patient was discharged on thyroxin alone with BPRS score of 8 and absence of delusions and hallucinations.

  20. Ruthenium-catalyzed aromatization of aromatic enynes via the 1,2-migration of halo and aryl groups: a new process involving electrocyclization and skeletal rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Chin; Pal, Sitaram; Lian, Jian-Jou; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2003-12-24

    The halo and aryl substituents of the 1,2-disubstituted styryl group of aromatic enynes undergo a 1,2-shift in the aromatization reaction catalyzed by TpRuPPh3(CH3CN)2PF6 (10 mol %) in toluene (110 degrees C, 6-8 h). The aryl group shifts to the neighboring olefin carbon, and the iodo (or bromo) substituent migrates to the terminal alkyne carbon. The mechanisms of these two migrations have been elucidated by isotope labeling experiments. It indicates that the 1,2-aryl shift arises from 5-endo-dig electrocyclization of a ruthenium-vinylidene species, whereas the 1,2-iodo shift follows a 6-endo-dig pathway.