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Sample records for iodo radioativo um

  1. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DBPS IN U. S. CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodo-acids were recently identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3...

  2. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodo-acids were recently identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3...

  3. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DBPS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  4. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo- prope...

  5. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  6. MEASUREMENT AND TOXICITY OF IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this work was to develop an analytical method to quantify these five iodo-acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid) in drinking water, measure their oc...

  7. Halogen Bonding in Iodo-perfluoroalkane/Pyridine Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haiyan; Eliason, Jeffrey K.; Moliva A., C. Diane; Olson, Jason L.; Flancher, Scott M.; Gealy, M. W.; Ulness, Darin J.

    2009-12-01

    Mole fraction and temperature studies of halogen bonding between 1-iodo-perfluorobutane, 1-iodo-perfluorohexane, or 2-iodo-perfluoropropane and pyridine were performed using noisy light-based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (I(2) CARS) spectroscopy. The ring breathing mode of pyridine both is highly sensitive to halogen bonding and provides a strong I(2) CARS signal. As the lone pair electrons from the pyridinyl nitrogen interact with the σ-hole on the iodine from the iodo-perfluoroalkane, the ring breathing mode of pyridine blue-shifts proportionately with the strength of the interaction. The measured blue shift for halogen bonding of pyridine and all three iodo-perfluoroalkanes is comparable to that for hydrogen bonding between pyridine and water. 2-Iodo-perfluoropropane displays thermodynamic behavior that is different from that of the 1-iodo-perfluoroalkanes, which suggests a fundamental difference at the molecular level. A potential explanation of this difference is offered and discussed.

  8. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo...

  9. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  10. SOLVENT-FREE FACILE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL α-TOSYLOXY β-KETO SULFONES USING [HYDROXY(TOSYLOXY)IODO]BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile, general and high yielding protocol for the synthesis of novel α-tosyloxy β-keto sulfones is described utilizing relatively non-toxic, [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene, under solvent-free conditions at room temperature.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and antiproliferative activity of β-aryl-δ-iodo-γ-lactones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wzorek, Alicja; Gawdzik, Barbara; Gładkowski, Witold; Urbaniak, Mariusz; Barańska, Anita; Malińska, Maura; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kempińska, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    A convenient pathway for the synthesis of new of β-aryl-δ-iodo-γ-lactones is described. The synthetic route led to both cis and trans isomers which were separated by column chromatography or crystallization. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods: IR, NMR and HR-MS. For lactones with naphthyl ring (6e and 7e) the crystal structures were also obtained. The lactones were screened for biological evaluation against cancer line HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia). The tests showed that the presence of substituent at the benzene ring does not significantly affect the antiproliferative activity of the compound.

  12. Molecular imaging of inflammation in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis with IodoDPA

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, Catherine A.; Bedja, Djahida; Mease, Ronnie C.; Wang, Haofan; Kass, David A.; Chatterjee, Subroto; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-05-22

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a common and serious vascular disease predisposing individuals to myocardial infarction and stroke. Intravascular plaques, the pathologic lesions of atherosclerosis, are largely composed of cholesterol-laden luminal macrophage-rich infiltrates within a fibrous cap. The ability to detect those macrophages non-invasively within the aorta, carotid artery and other vessels would allow physicians to determine plaque burden, aiding management of patients with atherosclerosis. Methods and results: We previously developed a low-molecular-weight imaging agent, [{sup 125}I]iodo-DPA-713 (iodoDPA), which selectively targets macrophages. Here we use it to detect both intravascular macrophages and macrophage infiltrates within the myocardium in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT data were confirmed by echocardiography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging and histology. SPECT images showed focal uptake of radiotracer at the aortic root in all ApoE -/- mice, while the age-matched controls were nearly devoid of radiotracer uptake. Focal radiotracer uptake along the descending aorta and within the myocardium was also observed in affected animals. Conclusions: IodoDPA is a promising new imaging agent for atherosclerosis, with specificity for the macrophage component of the lesions involved. - Highlights: • [{sup 125}I]iodoDPA SPECT detects atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE -/- mice with high contrast. • Plaques are detected in ApoE -/- mice regardless of diet with iodoDPA. • iodoDPA has very low uptake in healthy tissue including healthy TSPO + tissues at 24 h.

  13. Crystal structure of 8-iodo-quinolinium tetra-chlorido-aurate(III).

    PubMed

    Onserio, Benard O; Tamang, Sem Raj; Hoefelmeyer, James D

    2015-12-01

    The structure of the title salt, (C9H7IN)[AuCl4], is comprised of planar 8-iodo-quinolinium cations (r.m.s. deviation = 0.05 Å) and square-planar tetra-chlorido-aurate(III) anions. The asymmetric unit contains one 8-iodo-quinolinium cation and two halfs of [AuCl4](-) anions, in each case with the central Au(III) atom located on an inversion center. Inter-molecular halogen-halogen contacts were found between centrosymmetric pairs of I [3.6178 (4) Å] and Cl atoms [3.1484 (11), 3.3762 (13), and 3.4935 (12) Å]. Inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding is also found in the structure. These inter-actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. Additionally, there is an intra-molecular N-H⋯I hydrogen bond between the aromatic iminium and iodine. There are no aurophilic inter-actions or short contacts between I and Au atoms, and there are no notable π-stacking inter-actions between the aromatic cations.

  14. Synthesis of [{sup 125}I]iodoDPA-713: A new probe for imaging inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haofan; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2009-11-06

    [{sup 125}I]IodoDPA-713 [{sup 125}I]1, which targets the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa), was synthesized in seven steps from methyl-4-methoxybenzoate as a tool for quantification of inflammation in preclinical models. Preliminary in vitro autoradiography and in vivo small animal imaging were performed using [{sup 125}I]1 in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and in a murine model of lung inflammation, respectively. The radiochemical yield of [{sup 125}I]1 was 44 {+-} 6% with a specific radioactivity of 51.8 GBq/{mu}mol (1400 mCi/{mu}mol) and >99% radiochemical purity. Preliminary studies showed that [{sup 125}I]1 demonstrated increased specific binding to TSPO in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the lungs of an experimental inflammation model of lung inflammation. Compound [{sup 125}I]1 is a new, convenient probe for preclinical studies of TSPO activity.

  15. Extending Halogen-based Medicinal Chemistry to Proteins: IODO-INSULIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    El Hage, Krystel; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Phillips, Nelson B; Smith, Brian J; Menting, John G; Whittaker, Jonathan; Lawrence, Michael C; Meuwly, Markus; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-12-30

    Insulin, a protein critical for metabolic homeostasis, provides a classical model for protein design with application to human health. Recent efforts to improve its pharmaceutical formulation demonstrated that iodination of a conserved tyrosine (Tyr(B26)) enhances key properties of a rapid-acting clinical analog. Moreover, the broad utility of halogens in medicinal chemistry has motivated the use of hybrid quantum- and molecular-mechanical methods to study proteins. Here, we (i) undertook quantitative atomistic simulations of 3-[iodo-Tyr(B26)]insulin to predict its structural features, and (ii) tested these predictions by X-ray crystallography. Using an electrostatic model of the modified aromatic ring based on quantum chemistry, the calculations suggested that the analog, as a dimer and hexamer, exhibits subtle differences in aromatic-aromatic interactions at the dimer interface. Aromatic rings (Tyr(B16), Phe(B24), Phe(B25), 3-I-Tyr(B26), and their symmetry-related mates) at this interface adjust to enable packing of the hydrophobic iodine atoms within the core of each monomer. Strikingly, these features were observed in the crystal structure of a 3-[iodo-Tyr(B26)]insulin analog (determined as an R6 zinc hexamer). Given that residues B24-B30 detach from the core on receptor binding, the environment of 3-I-Tyr(B26) in a receptor complex must differ from that in the free hormone. Based on the recent structure of a "micro-receptor" complex, we predict that 3-I-Tyr(B26) engages the receptor via directional halogen bonding and halogen-directed hydrogen bonding as follows: favorable electrostatic interactions exploiting, respectively, the halogen's electron-deficient σ-hole and electronegative equatorial band. Inspired by quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics, such "halogen engineering" promises to extend principles of medicinal chemistry to proteins.

  16. Crystal structures of two bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene derivatives: similarities and differences in the crystal packing.

    PubMed

    McAdam, C John; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C; Simpson, Jim

    2015-12-01

    The isomeric derivatives 1,2-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene, (I), and 1,3-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene (II), both C8H8I2, were prepared by metathesis from their di-bromo analogues. The ortho-derivative, (I), lies about a crystallographic twofold axis that bis-ects the C-C bond between the two iodo-methyl substituents. The packing in (I) relies solely on C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds supported by weak parallel slipped π-π stacking inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 4.0569 (11) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3789 (8) Å and slippage = 2.245 Å]. While C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds are also found in the packing of (II), type II, I⋯I halogen bonds [I⋯I = 3.8662 (2) Å] and C-H⋯π contacts feature prominently in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in the ApoE −/− Mouse Model of Atherosclerosis with IodoDPA

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Catherine A.; Bedja, Djahida; Mease, Ronnie C.; Wang, Haofan; Kass, David A.; Chatterjee, Subroto; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a common and serious vascular disease predisposing individuals to myocardial infarction and stroke. Intravascular plaques, the pathologic lesions of atherosclerosis, are largely composed of cholesterol-laden luminal macrophage-rich infiltrates within a fibrous cap. The ability to detect those macrophages non-invasively within the aorta, carotid artery and other vessels would allow physicians to determine plaque burden, aiding management of patients with atherosclerosis. Methods and Results We previously developed a low-molecular-weight imaging agent, [125I]iodo-DPA-713 (iodoDPA), which selectively targets macrophages. Here we use it to detect both intravascular macrophages and macrophage infiltrates within the myocardium in the ApoE−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT data were confirmed by echocardiography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging and histology. SPECT images showed focal uptake of radiotracer at the aortic root in all ApoE−/− mice, while the age-matched controls were nearly devoid of radiotracer uptake. Focal radiotracer uptake along the descending aorta and within the myocardium was also observed in affected animals. Conclusions IodoDPA is a promising, new imaging agent for atherosclerosis, with specificity for the macrophage component of the lesions involved. PMID:25858322

  18. Electrical properties of solid iodo mercurates resulting from the reaction of HgI2 with alcaline iodides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponpon, J. P.; Amann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Potassium iodide solutions are currently used during the fabrication process of mercuric iodide based nuclear radiation detectors. However, KI treatment leaves the HgI2 surface covered with a residual compound (namely the potassium tri-iodo mercurate) which has a significant influence on the surface properties and stability of mercuric iodide devices and therefore on the detectors characteristics. Looking for other solutions to etch mercuric iodide, we found it interesting to investigate the electrical properties of the compounds which may form when etching HgI2 in NH4I, NaI, and RbI. For this purpose, solid iodo mercurates with the cations ammonium, sodium, and rubidium, have been prepared by reacting HgI2 with the solutions of interest. Study of the electrical properties of these samples and comparison with those of potassium tri-iodo mercurate ones, especially with respect to humidity, indicates noticeable stability differences in presence of water vapour. This could have interesting consequences on the surface cleaning of mercuric iodide.

  19. 5-Iodo-2-aminoindan, a nonneurotoxic analogue of p-iodoamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.E.; Johnson, M.P.; Oberlender, R. )

    1991-01-01

    A rigid analogue, 5-iodo-2-aminoindan (5-IAI), of the serotonin neurotoxic halogenated amphetamine p-iodoamphetamine (PIA) was pharmacologically evaluated for production of serotonin neurotoxicity. A comparison was also made between 5-IAI and PIA in the two-lever drug discrimination paradigm in rats trained to discriminate saline from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or saline from the alpha-ethyl homologue of MDMA, MBDB. PIA and 5-IAI were both behaviorally active, and fully substituted in both groups of animals, but were considerably less potent than p-chloroamphetamine (PCA). PIA had about twice the potency of PCA as an inhibitor of {sup 3}H-5-HT uptake in rat brain cortical synaptosomes, while 5-IAI was only about 75% as potent as PCA in this assay. A single 40 mg/kg dose of PIA resulted in a 40% reduction of 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and in the number of 5-HT uptake sites in rat cortex at one week sacrifice. The same dose of 5-IAI with one week sacrifice led to about a 15% decrease in 5-HIAA levels and number of 5-HT uptake sites, but only the latter was statistically significant. In rat hippocampus, PIA gave significant decreases in all serotonin markers examined, while 5-IAI slightly but significantly decreased only 5-HT levels. Neither compound produced any change in catecholamine or catecholamine metabolite levels. The results confirm earlier reports of the selective serotonin neurotoxicity of PIA, which is less severe than that of PCA, and also demonstrate that its rigid analogue 5-IAI does not appear to cause significant serotonin deficits in the rat.

  20. An Experiment on the Methane-Methanol-Iodo-methane Cycle to Produce Nuclear Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Youngjoon, Shin; Wonjae, Lee; Kiyoung, Lee; Jonghwa, Chang; Sangbong, Lee

    2006-07-01

    Steam reforming is a mature and well-established technology on an industrial scale, and its research and development have focused on a high efficiency and low cost through the use of a cheaper material and production methods. However the new task presented due to the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 1997 is how to overcome the carbon dioxide generation problem in this technology. One of several CO{sub 2}-free alternatives based on a steam reforming of methane were introduced conceptually, named as the closed Methane-Methanol-Iodo-methane (MMI) cycle. We have calculated the thermodynamic properties as a function of the temperature on the chemical reactions that are supporting this CO{sub 2}- free process and evaluated theoretically the realization of each chemical reaction step. By analyzing the Gibbs free energy change, it has been found that most reactions are available within the temperature range of 298 K - 1,298 K except for the conversion of methanol to methyl iodide. In order to obtain methyl iodide from methanol to satisfy the closed MMI cycle, a SO{sub 2}-catalytic chemical reaction pathway during the step of an iodizing of methanol is possible. The experimental confirmation has been performed in an I{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}OH-SO{sub 2} system. The sulfuric acid produced as a byproduct can be thermally decomposed to SO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and then the H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} are recycled in the MMI cycle, respectively. The productivity of methyl iodide has been confirmed at up to 86% for a typical chemical reaction condition. (authors)

  1. Fused polycyclic compounds via cycloaddition of 4-(1'-cyclohexenyl)-5-iodo-1,2,3-triazoles with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione: the importance of a sacrificial iodide leaving group.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Heather A; Simmons, J Tyler; Clark, Ronald J; Zhu, Lei

    2013-05-17

    4-(1'-Cyclohexenyl)-5-iodo-1,2,3-triazole and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione undergo a formal Diels-Alder reaction, which following an S(N)2' solvolysis process to displace the iodo group affords a fused polycyclic compound.

  2. 1-(4-Iodo-3-phenyl­isoquinolin-1-yl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weijun; Zhu, Mei; Hong, Dongfeng

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H13IN2O2, the isoquinoline ring makes dihedral angles of 55.92 (3)° and 76.11 (3)° with the benzene and succinimide rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene and succinimide rings is 70.37 (3)°. In the crystal structure, the iodo atom deviates from the isoquinoline plane by 0.163 (1) Å. The crystal studied was found to be a racemic twin with a domain ratio of 0.41 (5):0.59 (5). PMID:21578394

  3. Dehalogenation Activity of Selected Fungi Toward δ-Iodo-γ-Lactone Derived from trans,trans-Farnesol.

    PubMed

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Gładkowski, Witold; Świtalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Szumny, Antoni; Gębarowska, Elżbieta; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2016-04-01

    Time-course of biotransformation of racemic trans-4-((E)-4',8'-dimethylnona-3',7'-dien-1-yl)-5-iodomethyl-4-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (1) in fungal and yeast cultures was investigated. In these conditions, the substrate 1 was enantioselectively dehalogenated yielding 4-((E)-4',8'-dimethylnona-3',7'-dien-1-yl)-4-methyl-5-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one (2) and its structure was established based on the spectroscopic data. The most effective biocatalyst used was Didymosphaeria igniaria, which catalyzed the process with highest rate and enantioselectivity (ee of product = 76%). The antiproliferative activity of δ-iodo-γ-lactone 1, product of its biotransformation 2, and starting substrate (farnesol) were evaluated toward two cancer cell lines: A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia).

  4. (Biphenyl-2-alkyne) derivatives as common precursors for the synthesis of 9-iodo-10-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes and 9-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Tamiris B; Lutz, Guilherme; Back, Davi F; Zeni, Gilson

    2016-11-08

    In this paper, we report our results on the cyclization of (biphenyl-2-alkyne) derivatives to give two different types of phenanthrene derivatives, 9-iodo-10-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes and 9-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes. The strategy for the synthesis was based on the use of electrophilic cyclization for the preparation of 9-iodo-10-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes and iron(iii) chloride/diorganyl diselenide-mediated intramolecular cyclization to prepare 9-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes. The effects of solvent, temperature, reaction time and stoichiometry on the efficiency of cyclization reactions were investigated. The standard reaction conditions were compatible with many functional groups in the substrates, such as methyl, chlorine, fluorine and methoxyl. This protocol was efficient for diorganyl diselenides and disulfides but ineffective for diorganyl ditellurides. The resulting phenanthrenes were further functionalized through Sonogashira reactions followed by the electrophilic cyclization reaction to give the selenophene-fused aromatic compounds.

  5. Development of an analytical method for analysis of flubendiamide, des-iodo flubendiamide and study of their residue persistence in tomato and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N; Sharma, D

    2011-01-01

    Flubendiamide is a new insecticide that has been found to give excellent control of lepidopterous pests of tomato. This study has been undertaken to develop an improved method for analysis of flubendiamide and its metabolite des-iodo flubendiamide and determine residue retention in tomato and soil. The analytical method developed involved extraction of flubendiamide and its metabolite des-iodo flubendiamide with acetonitrile, liquid-liquid partitioning into hexane-ethyl acetate mixture (6:4, v v⁻¹) and cleanup with activated neutral alumina. Finally the residues were dissolved in gradient high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade acetonitrile for analysis by HPLC. The mobile phase, acetonitrile-water at 60:40 (v v⁻¹) proportion and the wavelength of 235 nm gave maximum peak resolution. Using the above method and HPLC parameters described, nearly 100 % recovery of both insecticides were obtained. There was no matrix interference and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg kg⁻¹. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on field-treated tomato from treatments @ 48 and 96 g active ingredient hectare⁻¹ were 0.83 and 1.68 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. The residues of flubendiamide dissipated at the half-life of 3.9 and 4.4 days from treatments @ 48 and 96 g a.i. ha⁻¹, respectively and persisted for 15 days from both the treatments. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in tomato fruits at any time during the study period. Residues of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in soil from treatment @ 48 and 96 g a.i. ha⁻¹ were below detectable level (BDL, < 0.01 mg kg⁻¹) after 20 days. Flubendiamide completely dissipated from tomato within 20 days when the 480 SC formulation was applied at doses recommended for protection against lepidopterous pests.

  6. Cyclization and N-iodosuccinimide-induced electrophilic iodocyclization of 3-aza-1,5-enynes to synthesize 1,2-dihydropyridines and 3-iodo-1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaoyi; Wang, Dongping; Wu, Fan; Li, Xincheng; Wan, Boshun

    2013-04-19

    Metal-free cyclization and N-iodosuccinimide-induced electrophilic iodocyclization of readily available 3-aza-1,5-enynes have been developed. The reactions selectively give 1,2-dihydropyridines and 3-iodo-1,2-dihydropyridines involving an aza-Claisen rearrangement and a 6π-electrocyclization step. Furthermore, the reaction could be carried out in 10 g scale for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines.

  7. Crystal structures of two bis­(iodo­meth­yl)benzene derivatives: similarities and differences in the crystal packing

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, C. John; Hanton, Lyall R.; Moratti, Stephen C.; Simpson, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The isomeric derivatives 1,2-bis­(iodo­meth­yl)benzene, (I), and 1,3-bis­(iodo­meth­yl)benzene (II), both C8H8I2, were prepared by metathesis from their di­bromo analogues. The ortho-derivative, (I), lies about a crystallographic twofold axis that bis­ects the C—C bond between the two iodo­methyl substituents. The packing in (I) relies solely on C—H⋯I hydrogen bonds supported by weak parallel slipped π–π stacking inter­actions [inter-centroid distance = 4.0569 (11) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3789 (8) Å and slippage = 2.245 Å]. While C—H⋯I hydrogen bonds are also found in the packing of (II), type II, I⋯I halogen bonds [I⋯I = 3.8662 (2) Å] and C—H⋯π contacts feature prominently in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure. PMID:26870415

  8. Synthesis of cis-C-Iodo-N-Tosyl-Aziridines using Diiodomethyllithium: Reaction Optimization, Product Scope and Stability, and a Protocol for Selection of Stationary Phase for Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of C-iodo-N-Ts-aziridines with excellent cis-diastereoselectivity has been achieved in high yields by the addition of diiodomethyllithium to N-tosylimines and N-tosylimine–HSO2Tol adducts. This addition-cyclization protocol successfully provided a wide range of cis-iodoaziridines, including the first examples of alkyl-substituted iodoaziridines, with the reaction tolerating both aryl imines and alkyl imines. An ortho-chlorophenyl imine afforded a β-amino gem-diiodide under the optimized reaction conditions due to a postulated coordinated intermediate preventing cyclization. An effective protocol to assess the stability of the sensitive iodoaziridine functional group to chromatography was also developed. As a result of the judicious choice of stationary phase, the iodoaziridines could be purified by column chromatography; the use of deactivated basic alumina (activity IV) afforded high yield and purity. Rearrangements of electron-rich aryl-iodoaziridines have been promoted, selectively affording either novel α-iodo-N-Ts-imines or α-iodo-aldehydes in high yield. PMID:23738857

  9. A potential anti-cancer agent: 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hy-droxy-quinolinium dichlorido(5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-olato-κN,O)palladium(II) dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Vranec, Peter; Potočňák, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    The title Pd(II) coordination compound, (C(9)H(6)ClINO)[PdCl(2)(C(9)H(4)ClINO)]·2H(2)O, was prepared as a potential anti-cancer agent. Its structure is ionic and consists of a square-planar [PdCl(2)(CQ)](-) complex anion (CQ is 5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-olate), with the Pd(II) atom surrounded by two chloride ligands in a cis configuration and one N,O-bidentate CQ mol-ecule, a protonated anion of CQ as counter-cation and two non-coordinated water mol-ecules. The water mol-ecules are involved in O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which inter-connect the HCQ(+) cations into a chain parallel to [010]. Apart from these inter-actions, the structure is also stabilized by face-to-face π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid = 3.546 (3) Å], which occur between the phenolic parts of the complex anions and cations.

  10. Crystal structure, spectroscopic studies and quantum mechanical calculations of 2-[((3-iodo-4-methyl)phenylimino)methyl]-5-nitrothiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir Tarı, Gonca; Gümüş, Sümeyye; Ağar, Erbil

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, 2-[((3-iodo-4-methyl)phenylimino)methyl]-5-nitrothiophene, C12H9O2N2I1S1, was synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The molecular structure was optimized at the B3LYP, B3PW91 and PBEPBE levels of the density functional method (DFT) with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set. Using the TD-DFT method, the electronic absorption spectra of the title compound was computed in both the gas phase and ethanol solvent. The harmonic vibrational frequencies of the title compound were calculated using the same methods with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set. The calculated results were compared with the experimental determination results of the compound. The energetic behavior such as the total energy, atomic charges, dipole moment of the title compound in solvent media were examined using the B3LYP, B3PW91 and PBEPBE methods with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set by applying the Onsager and the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis, the molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP) and the nonlinear optical properties (NLO) for the title compound were obtained with the same levels of theory. And then thermodynamic properties for the title compound were obtained using the same methods with the 6-311G(d,p) basis set.

  11. Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N

    2010-09-01

    Flubendiamide belongs to a novel class of insecticide which controls lepidopteran pest complex of cabbage such as diamondback moth, cabbage white butterfly, cluster caterpillar etc. Being a newly introduced insecticide no information is available on its residue persistence in cabbage. A study was undertaken to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in cabbage and soil following 2 applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at the recommended and double the recommended dose of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide in cabbage were 0.33 and 0.49 mg kg(-1) respectively. The residues persisted for 10 days from the both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life of 3.9 and 4.45 days, respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite of flubendiamide, was not detected in cabbage at any time during the study period. Soil sample collected from the treated field after 15 days was free from any residue of flubendiamide or its metabolite.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated (E)-18-iodo-17-octadecenoic acid as a model iodoalkenyl fatty acid for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.; Kabalka, G.W.; Sastry, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 125/I-labeled (E)-18-iodo-17-octadecenoic acid (13) has been prepared and evaluated in rats to determine the myocardial uptake and retention and degree of in vivo deiodination of this model iodovinyl-substituted fatty acid, which contains no structural perturbation to inhibit metabolism. This new agent was prepared by NaI-chloramine-T treatment of (17-carbomethoxyheptadec-1-en-1-yl)boronic acid (11) prepared by catecholborane treatment of methyl 17-octadecynoate (10), followed by basic hydrolysis to the free acid (13). The pivotal substrate, 17-octadecynoic acid (9), was prepared by two new routes. The /sup 125/I-labeled acid 13 showed high myocardial uptake (1 h, 1.90-2.28% dose/g) with 45% washout after 2 h but lower heart/blood ratios in comparison to analogues containing the tellurium heteroatom. Deiodination was low for the first 2 h after injection (2 h, 61% dose/g). Excellent myocardial images were obtained in a dog with the /sup 123/I-labeled agent.

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of 22-iodo- and (E)-20(22)-dehydro analogues of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Sicinski, R R; DeLuca, H F

    1999-12-01

    Construction of 25-hydroxy-steroidal side chain substituted with iodine at C-22 was elaborated on a model PTAD-protected steroidal 5,7-diene and applied to a synthesis of (22R)- and (22S)-22-iodo-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Configuration at C-22 in the iodinated vitamins, obtained by nucleophilic substitution of the corresponding 22S-tosylates with sodium iodide, was determined by comparison of their iodine-displacement processes and cyclizations leading to isomeric five-membered (22,25)-epoxy-1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 compounds. Also, 20(22)-dehydrosteroids have been obtained and their structures established by 1H NMR spectroscopy. When compared to the natural hormone, (E)-20(22)-dehydro-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was found 4 times less potent in binding to the porcine intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 2 times less effective in differentiation of HL-60 cells. 22-Iodinated vitamin D analogues showed somewhat lower in vitro activity, whereas (22,25)-epoxy analogues were inactive. Interestingly, it was established that (22S)-22-iodo-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was 3 times more potent than its (22R)-isomer in binding to VDR and four times more effective in HL-60 cell differentiation assay. The restricted mobility of the side chain of both 22-iodinated vitamin D compounds was analyzed by a systematic conformational search indicating different spatial regions occupied by their 25-oxygen atoms. Preliminary data on the in vivo calcemic activity of the synthesized vitamin D analogues indicate that (E)-20(22)-dehydro-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 22-iodo-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 isomers were ca. ten times less potent than the natural hormone 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 both in intestinal calcium transport and bone calcium mobilization.

  14. Mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10,MetO17)-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Preparation, characterization, and use for radioimmunoassay and receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.; Rose, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Magistretti, P.J.

    1986-04-25

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was labeled with sodium (125I)iodide using the chloramine-T method and subsequently purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography.Three main 125I-labeled peaks designated A, B, and C resulted from the radioiodination and purification procedures. They were characterized by electrophoresis of tryptic fragments; Edman degradation (for Peaks A and C); enzymatic digestion to amino acids by leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase Y and Pronase; and treatment with cyanogen bromide. Peak A corresponds to VIP monoiodinated on Tyr10 and with the Met17 residue oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. This (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10,MetO17)VIP displays the following characteristics. 1) It constitutes quantitatively the major product of the iodination procedure (62.5%); 2) it is well resolved from other labeled and unlabeled products; 3) it is stable (2 months at -20 degrees C); 4) it possesses a high specific activity (2050 Ci/mmol); 5) it maintains the biological activity of native VIP; and 6) it binds to antibody and membrane recognition sites in a specific, saturable, and reversible manner. Reduction of (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10, Met-O17)VIP to (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10)VIP does not improve the performance of the tracer in a radioimmunoassay. The method described in this article is simple and rapid and yields a molecular form of 125I-labeled VIP that has been fully characterized and is suitable for use in biological studies.

  15. Organopromoted direct synthesis of 6-iodo-3-methylthioimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines via convergent integration of three self-sorting domino sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Xi, Hailing; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Xia; Gao, Qinghe; Wu, Anxin

    2015-09-07

    An NH2CN-promoted convergent integration of three self-sorting domino sequences is described for the construction of 6-iodo-3-methylthioimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines from aryl methyl ketones and 2-aminopyridines. This strategy allows the construction of an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine ring along with methylthiolation at C-3 and iodination at C-6. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that this process terminates at the iodination stage without Kornblum oxidation in the presence of I2 and DMSO.

  16. 5-Iodo-2-Pyrimidinone-2'-Deoxyribose-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Radiosensitization in U87 Human Glioblastoma Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Timothy J. Kinsella, Michael T.; Seo, Yuji; Berk, Gregory

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: 5-Iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2'-deoxyribose (IPdR) is a novel orally administered (p.o.) prodrug of 5-iododeoxyuridine. Because p.o. IPdR is being considered for clinical testing as a radiosensitizer in patients with high-grade gliomas, we performed this in vivo study of IPdR-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in a human glioblastoma xenograft model, U87. Methods and Materials: Groups of 8 or 9 athymic male nude mice (6-8 weeks old) were implanted with s.c. U87 xenograft tumors (4 x 10{sup 6} cells) and then randomized to 10 treatment groups receiving increasing doses of p.o. IPdR (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/d) administered once daily (q.d.) x 14 days with or without radiotherapy (RT) (0 or 2 Gy/d x 4 days) on days 11-14 of IPdR treatment. Systemic toxicity was determined by body weight measurements during and after IPdR treatment. Tumor response was assessed by changes in tumor volumes. Results: IPdR alone at doses of {>=}500 mg/kg/d resulted in moderate inhibition of tumor growth. The combination of IPdR plus RT resulted in a significant IPdR dose-dependent tumor growth delay, with the maximum radiosensitization using {>=}500 mg/kg/d. IPdR doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/d resulted in transient 5-15% body weight loss during treatment. Conclusions: In U87 human glioblastoma s.c. xenografts, p.o. IPdR given q.d. x 14 days and RT given 2 Gy/d x 4 days (days 11-14 of IPdR treatment) results in a significant tumor growth delay in an IPdR dose-dependent pattern. The use of p.o. IPdR plus RT holds promise for Phase I/II testing in patients with high-grade gliomas.

  17. delta 9-(16 alpha-/sup 125/I)iodo-19-nortestosterone: a gamma-emitting photoaffinity label for the progesterone receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D.J.; Bullock, D.W.; Hoyte, R.M.; Hochberg, R.B.

    1988-05-01

    We have synthesized 16 alpha-iodo-4,9-estradien-17 beta-ol-3-one (delta 9-16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone (delta 9-INT)) labeled with 125I (delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT) to provide a new gamma-emitting photoaffinity ligand for the progesterone receptor that has many advantages over the currently available (3H)R5020. We have characterized the interaction of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT with the rabbit uterine progesterone receptor and have demonstrated the usefulness of this compound for studies of receptor structure. The binding of 2 nM (3H)progesterone to receptor in rabbit uterine cytosol was specifically competed for by 19-nortestosterone, 16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone, and delta 9-INT. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and (3H)progesterone estimated the same number of binding sites in rabbit uterine cytosol, with a Kd for delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT of about 2.7 nM. The binding of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT was inhibited by both progesterone and R5020, whereas testosterone, estradiol, and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone were ineffective. In cytosol, delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT covalently labeled the same mol wt receptor forms as (3H)R5020. Although the efficiency of cross-linking was similar for (3H)R5020 (3%) and delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT (4%), the radioactivity was 10-fold greater due to the higher specific activity of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and the lack of sample quench. The use of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT greatly increases the sensitivity and efficiency of the photoaffinity labeling technique; it will provide a valuable tool for further studies of the progesterone receptor, allowing the detection of receptor in dilute cytosol after gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions.

  18. Iodine-124-labeled iodo-azomycin-galactoside imaging of tumor hypoxia in mice with serial microPET scanning.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, Pat; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Chapman, J Donald; Schneider, Richard; Cai, Shangde; Larson, Steven; Wen, Bixiu; Chen, Yuchun; Finn, Ronald; Ruan, Shutian; Gerweck, Leo; Humm, John; Ling, Clifton

    2004-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia, present in many human cancers, can lead to resistance to radiation and chemotherapy, is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype and is an independent prognostic factor of clinical outcome. It is therefore important to identify and localize tumor hypoxia in cancer patients. In the current study, serial microPET imaging was used to evaluate iodine-124-labeled iodo-azomycin-galactoside ((124)I-IAZG) (4.2-day physical half-life) as a hypoxia imaging agent in 17 MCa breast tumors and six FSaII fibrosarcomas implanted in mice. For comparison, another promising hypoxic-cell PET radiotracer, fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-misonidazole ((18)F-FMISO), was also imaged in the same tumor-bearing animals. Twelve animals were also imaged with (18)F-labeled fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). In addition, histological examination was performed, and direct measurement of tumor oxygenation status carried out with the Oxylite probe system. Two size groups were used, relatively well-oxygenated tumors in the range of 80-180 mg were designated as small, and those >300 mg and highly hypoxic, as large. Based on the data from 11 MCa and six FSaII tumors, both (124)I-IAZG and (18)F-FMISO images showed high tracer uptake in the large tumors. In (18)F-FMISO images at 1, 3-4, and 6-8 h post-injection (p.i.), there was considerable whole-body background activity. In contrast, (124)I-IAZG imaging was optimal when performed at 24-48 h p.i., when the whole-body background had dissipated considerably. As a result, the (124)I-IAZG images at 24-48 h p.i. had higher tumor to whole-body activity contrast than the (18)F-FMISO images at 3-6 h p.i. Region-of-interest analysis was performed as a function of time p.i. and indicated a tumor uptake of 5-10% (of total-body activity) for FMISO at 3-6 h p.i., and of ~17% for IAZG at 48 h p.i. This was corroborated by biodistribution data in that the tumor-to-normal tissue (T/N, normal tissues of blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney

  19. Comparison of Chlamydia subgroup A detection from clinical specimens after 40 and 64 hours of incubation in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-treated McCoy's cells.

    PubMed

    Jonhson, J E; Smith, T F

    1976-03-01

    The time course of formation of inclusion bodies produced by Chlamydia in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUdR)-treated McCoy's cells was studied with the use of a known isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-184/Ur and 47 frozen clinical urethral specimens previously shown to be either positive or negative for chlamydial inclusions after 3 days of incubation. Subsequent examination of 369 clinical specimens from the genitourinary tract over a 6-month period revealed 47 (13%) Chlamydia-positive cultures, all of which demonstrated inclusion bodies by iodine staining at 40 and 64 h postinoculation. Another 146 similar detected by iodine staining from 22 (15%). This study indicates that, although Chlamydia subgroup A inclusions are larger at 64 h, they can be readily detected from clinical specimens in IUdR-treated McCoy's cells at 40 h postinfection.

  20. Comparison of Chlamydia subgroup A detection from clinical specimens after 40 and 64 hours of incubation in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-treated McCoy's cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jonhson, J E; Smith, T F

    1976-01-01

    The time course of formation of inclusion bodies produced by Chlamydia in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUdR)-treated McCoy's cells was studied with the use of a known isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-184/Ur and 47 frozen clinical urethral specimens previously shown to be either positive or negative for chlamydial inclusions after 3 days of incubation. Subsequent examination of 369 clinical specimens from the genitourinary tract over a 6-month period revealed 47 (13%) Chlamydia-positive cultures, all of which demonstrated inclusion bodies by iodine staining at 40 and 64 h postinoculation. Another 146 similar detected by iodine staining from 22 (15%). This study indicates that, although Chlamydia subgroup A inclusions are larger at 64 h, they can be readily detected from clinical specimens in IUdR-treated McCoy's cells at 40 h postinfection. Images PMID:57968

  1. Triclinic and orthorhombic polymorphs of 2-iodo-4-nitroaniline: interplay of hydrogen bonds, nitro...I interactions and aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, S A; Skakle, J M; Low, J N; Wardell, J L; Garden, S J; Pinto, A C; Torres, J C; Glidewell, C

    2001-08-01

    In the triclinic polymorph of 2-iodo-4-nitroaniline, C(6)H(5)IN(2)O(2), space group P-1, the molecules are linked by paired N-H...O hydrogen bonds into C(8)[R(2)(2)(6)] chains of rings. These chains are linked into sheets by nitro...I interactions, and the sheets are pairwise linked by aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions. In the orthorhombic polymorph, space group Pbca, the molecules are linked by single N-H...O hydrogen bonds into spiral C(8) chains; the chains are linked by nitro...O interactions into sheets, each of which is linked to its two immediate neighbours by aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions, so producing a continuous three-dimensional structure.

  2. Determination of protolytic equilibria for methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside by ab initio and spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowska, Aleksandra; Makowski, Mariusz; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chylewska, Agnieszka; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2008-12-01

    UV absorption spectra of methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside were recorded over a wide pH range. On this basis, a relationship between absorbance and pH was plotted, from which deprotonation equilibrium constants of this compound were determined. Further, quantum-mechanical calculations were performed at the ab initio level both in the gas phase by using the Restricted Hartree Fock (RHF), Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods and under consideration of solvation effects within the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM), which enabled location of preferred protonation and deprotonation centers of this compound. The results provided the basis for discussion of the influence of substituents in the sugar ring on protolytic equilibria occurring in aqueous solutions of 3-azido-2,3-dideoxy sugars.

  3. 3-((3-/sup 125/I)Iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl Carbohydrazide, a new radioiodination reagent for ultrasensitive detection and determination of periodate-oxidized nucleoside derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Randerath, K.

    1981-08-01

    A new radioiodination reagent for the identification and quantitation of periodate-oxidized ribonucleosides was developed. The reagent, 3-((3-/sup 125/I)iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl carbohydrazide, was prepared by radioiodination of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester in the presence of chloramine T, followed by reduction of the latter with sodium arsenite and treatment of the radioiodinated ester with an excess of carbohydrazide. The reagent reacted quantitatively with periodate-oxidized nucleosides to form /sup 125/I-labeled morpholine derivatives which were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. The reagent was found to react also with other carbonyl compounds and thus may find more general application in the qualitative and quantitative ultramicroanalysis of aldehydes and ketones.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (E)-19-iodo-3,3-dimethyl-18-nonadecenoic acid, a new dimethyl-branched long-chain fatty acid to evaluate regional myocardial fatty acid uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Ambrose, K.R.; Neff, K.H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The synthetic method for the preparation of (E)-19-iodo-3,3-dimethyl-18-nonadecenoic acid (DMIVN) involved introduction of substituents into the 2- and 5-positions of a thiophene ring followed by sulfur extrusion of a 2,5-dialkyl thiophene derivative to provide a key 3,3-dimethyl-branched fatty acid intermediate, 17-iodo-3,3-dimethylheptadecanoic acid. Myocardial subcellular distribution studies of the /sup 125/I-labeled DMIVN in fasted rats showed a higher association of radioactivity with the microsomes when compared to the results obtained with the 19-carbon straight chain analogue. With the nonfasted rats the distribution profiles of the two analogues showed differences that seemed to correlate with the differences in myocardial retention that fasting and feeding can induce. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Simultaneous and high-throughput analysis of iodo-trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes in drinking water using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: an optimization of sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Chen, Xichao; Wei, Zi; Xu, Xiong; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2014-10-24

    When iodide and natural organic matter are present in raw water, the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (Iodo-THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and halonitromethanes (HNMs) pose a potential health risk because they have been reported to be more toxic than their brominated or chlorinated analogs. In the work, simultaneous analysis of Iodo-THMs, HANs, and HNMs in drinking water samples in a single cleanup and chromatographic analysis was proposed. The DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber was found to be the most suitable for all target compounds, although 75μm CAR/PDMS was better for chlorinated HANs and 65μm PDMS/DVB for brominated HNMs. After optimization of the SPME parameters (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction time of 30min at 40°C, addition of 40% w/v of salt, (NH4)2SO4 as a quenching agent, and desorption time of 3min at 170°C), detection limits ranged from 1 to 50ng/L for different analogs, with a linear range of at least two orders of magnitude. Good recoveries (78.6-104.7%) were obtained for spiked samples of a wide range of treated drinking waters, demonstrating that the method is applicable for analysis of real drinking water samples. Matrix effects were negligible for the treated water samples with total organic carbon concentration of less than 2.9mg/L. An effective survey conducted by two drinking water treatment plants showed the highest proportion of Iodo-THMs, HANs, and HNMs occurred in treated water, and concentrations of 13 detected compounds ranged between the ng/L and the μg/L levels.

  6. Metal Free Formation of Various 3-Iodo-1H-pyrrolo[3',2':4,5]imidazo-[1,2-a]pyridines and [1,2-b]Pyridazines and Their Further Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Tber, Z; Hiebel, M-A; El Hakmaoui, A; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Berteina-Raboin, S

    2015-07-02

    3-iodo-1H-pyrrolo[3',2':4,5]imidazo-[1,2-a]pyridines and [1,2-b]pyridazines were prepared following Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé MCR combined with I2-promoted electrophilic cyclization. The flexibility of the method enables the introduction of diversity in the 2, 5, 6, and 7 positions on the resulting scaffold using commercially available starting materials. Furthermore, subsequent palladium-catalyzed reactions were successfully achieved using our iodinated derivatives.

  7. Room Temperature ICl-Induced Dehydration/Iodination of 1-Acyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles. A Selective Route to Substituted 1-Acyl-4-iodo-1H-pyrazoles

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Jesse P.; Mehta, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    A number of new functionally substituted 1-acyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles have been prepared in moderate to excellent yields from the corresponding 2-alkyn-1-ones. The resulting dihydropyrazoles undergo dehydration and iodination in the presence of ICl and Li2CO3 at room temperature to provide 1-acyl-4-iodo-1H-pyrazoles. PMID:18665643

  8. Halogen-bonded network of trinuclear copper(II) 4-iodo­pyrazolate complexes formed by mutual breakdown of chloro­form and nanojars

    PubMed Central

    Surmann, Stuart A.; Mezei, Gellert

    2016-01-01

    Crystals of bis­(tetra­butyl­ammonium) di-μ3-chlorido-­tris­(μ2-4-iodo­pyrazolato-κ2 N:N′)tris­[chlorido­cuprate(II)] 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate, (C16H36N)2[Cu3(C3H2IN2)3Cl5]·0.5C4H8O or (Bu4N)2[CuII 3(μ 3-Cl)2(μ-4-I-pz)3Cl3]·0.5C4H8O, were obtained by evaporating a solution of (Bu4N)2[{CuII(μ-OH)(μ-4-I-pz)}nCO3] (n = 27–31) nanojars in chloro­form/1,4-dioxane. The decomposition of chloro­form in the presence of oxygen and moisture provides HCl, which leads to the breakdown of nanojars to the title trinuclear copper(II) pyrazolate complex, and possibly CuII ions and free 4-iodo­pyrazole. CuII ions, in turn, act as catalyst for the accelerated decomposition of chloro­form, ultimately leading to the complete breakdown of nanojars. The crystal structure presented here provides the first structural description of a trinuclear copper(II) pyrazolate complex with iodine-substituted pyrazoles. In contrast to related trinuclear complexes based on differently substituted 4-R-pyrazoles (R = H, Cl, Br, Me), the [Cu3(μ-4-I-pz)3Cl3] core in the title complex is nearly planar. This difference is likely a result of the presence of the iodine substituent, which provides a unique, novel feature in copper pyrazolate chemistry. Thus, the iodine atoms form halogen bonds with the terminal chlorido ligands of the surrounding complexes [mean length of I⋯Cl contacts = 3.48 (1) Å], leading to an extended two-dimensional, halogen-bonded network along (-110). The cavities within this framework are filled by centrosymmetric 1,4-dioxane solvent mol­ecules, which create further bridges via C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds with terminal chlorido ligands of the trinuclear complex not involved in halogen bonding. PMID:27840698

  9. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (Ki = 24–227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [3H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested against Ser438Thr hSERT, all three PALs showed dramatic rightward shifts in inhibitory potency, with Ki values ranging from 3.8 to 9.9 μM, consistent with the role of Ser438 as a key residue for high-affinity binding of many SSRIs, including (S)-citalopram. Photoactivation studies demonstrated irreversible adduction to hSERT by all ligands, but the reduced (S)-citalopram inhibition of labeling by [125I]15 compared to that by [125I]22 and [125I]26 suggests differences in binding mode(s). These radioligands will be useful for characterizing the drug–protein binding interactions for (S)-citalopram at hSERT. PMID:26153715

  10. Brain and brain tumor uptake of L-3-(123I)iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine: competition with natural L-amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, K.J.; Roosen, N.; Coenen, H.H.; Kuikka, J.T.; Kuwert, T.; Herzog, H.; Stoecklin, G.F.; Feinendegen, L.E. )

    1991-06-01

    SPECT studies with L-3-(123I)iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine (IMT) were carried out in 10 patients with different types of brain tumors--first under fasting conditions (basal) and a week later during intravenous infusion of a mixture of naturally-occurring L-amino acids (AA load). An uptake index (UI) was calculated by dividing tissue count rates by the integral of plasma count rates. The UI decreased by 45.6% {plus minus} 15.4% (n = 10, p less than 0.001) for normal brain and by 53.2% {plus minus} 14.1% for gliomas (n = 5, p less than 0.01) during AA load compared to basal conditions, while two meningiomas and a metastasis showed only a minor decrease (23.9 {plus minus} 5.7%, n.s.). Two pituitary adenomas could not be delineated on the SPECT scans. These data indicate that IMT competes with naturally-occurring L-amino acids for transport into normal brain and gliomas. Transport characteristics of IMT into tumors of nonglial origin appear to be different from those of gliomas. For both types of tumors, it is advisable to perform IMT-SPECT under fasting conditions.

  11. Quantitative measurement of regional blood flow with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate bolus track NMR imaging in cerebral infarcts in rats: validation with the iodo[14C]antipyrine technique.

    PubMed Central

    Wittlich, F; Kohno, K; Mies, G; Norris, D G; Hoehn-Berlage, M

    1995-01-01

    NMR bolus track measurements were correlated with autoradiographically determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The NMR method is based on bolus infusion of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and high-speed T*2-sensitive NMR imaging. The first pass of the contrast agent through the image plane causes a transient decrease of the signal intensity. This time course of the signal intensity is transformed into relative concentrations of the contrast agent in each pixel. The mean transit time and relative blood flow and volume are calculated from such indicator dilution curves. We investigated whether this NMR technique correctly expresses the relative rCBF. The relative blood flow data, calculated from NMR bolus track experiments, and the absolute values of iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography were compared. A linear relationship was observed, indicating the proportionality of the transient NMR signal change with CBF. Excellent interindividual reproducibility of calibration constants is observed (r = 0.963). For a given NMR protocol, bolus track measurements calibrated with autoradiography after the experiment allow determination of absolute values for rCBF and regional blood volume. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7892189

  12. Synthesis of 4'-iodo-5-methoxy-valerophenone O-(2-aminoethyl)oxime as an agent for exploration of serotoninergic transporter.

    PubMed

    Branger, C; Garreau, L; Dognon, A M; Frangin, Y; Caillet, M; Ombetta-Goka, J E; Chalon, S; Besnard, J C; Guilloteau, D

    1995-02-01

    The serotonin reuptake process is observed in the central nervous system and in cells derived from the neural crest. It would therefore be of great interest to visualize this reuptake for brain exploration and to visualize the tumors derived from these cells (Apudome). Fluvoxamine has been described as a specific uptake inhibitor for serotonin uptake and we therefore supposed that an iodinated derivative of this compound would be a suitable tracer for this purpose. We had shown by computer-assisted investigation that the trifluoromethyl group of fluvoxamine can be replaced by iodine without changing the steric hindrance of the structure. We therefore expected that this result would allow the development of a new iodinated ligand for human exploration by SPECT which would inhibit for the serotoninergic transporter. This new ligand is 4'-iodo-5-methoxyvalerophenone O-(2-aminoethyl)oxime in its E configuration. In vitro binding studies demonstrated that this iodinated ligand has a weaker affinity for the serotonin uptake sites than fluvoxamine. Steric hindrance is not sufficient to predict affinity, other structural factors such as electronic density and dipole moment must be considered to explain the biological difference between fluvoxamine and its iodinated analog.

  13. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Lapinsky, David J; Perley, Danielle; Felts, Bruce; Tomlinson, Michael J; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Henry, L Keith; Lever, John R; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-07-23

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (K(i) = 24-227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [(3)H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested against Ser438Thr hSERT, all three PALs showed dramatic rightward shifts in inhibitory potency, with Ki values ranging from 3.8 to 9.9 μM, consistent with the role of Ser438 as a key residue for high-affinity binding of many SSRIs, including (S)-citalopram. Photoactivation studies demonstrated irreversible adduction to hSERT by all ligands, but the reduced (S)-citalopram inhibition of labeling by [(125)I]15 compared to that by [(125)I]22 and [(125)I]26 suggests differences in binding mode(s). These radioligands will be useful for characterizing the drug-protein binding interactions for (S)-citalopram at hSERT.

  14. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor binding 4{prime}-IODO-PK11195: A new radioiodinated ligand for detecting lesioned brain areas

    SciTech Connect

    Saji, H.; Iida, Y.; Nakatsuka, I.

    1995-05-01

    An increase in the peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites (PBBS) has recently been reported in excitotoxic and ischaemic lesions in the brain. Thus, PBBS visualization has been of greater interest due to the possibility of imaging the lesioned area as positive image. In this study, our interest is focussed in the development of a radioiodinated compound for the SPECT study of PBBS function. Taking account of the environment of binding sites and the stability in vivo, we selected the 4{prime}position of C-1 phenyl moiety of the isoqunoline derivative PK11195 as the best exploitable site for the iodination. The no-carrier-added I-125 labeled 4{prime}-iodo-PK11195 (IPK) was synthesized by the bromine-iodine exchange reaction in 60% radiochemical yield and > 98% radiochemical purity. In vitro competitive binding studies with H-3-PI11195 using rat kidney membranes shows that IPK has high affinity for PBBS as much as PK11195. The in vivo biodistribution in mice showed high uptake of I-125-IPK in the kidney, lung, heart and adrenal, organs reported as containing high PBBS, which were reduced by the treatment with cold PK11195. Furthermore, autoradiographic studies in transient middle cerebral arteries occlusion in rats showed high accumulation of I-125-IPK in lesioned sites, in contrast to the decease of radioactivity of Tc-99m-HM-PAO. Gathered data indicated that the newly designed IPK holds to great potential for detecting the lesioned brain areas as positive image.

  15. Tuning the stereoelectronic properties of 1-sulfanylhex-1-enitols for the sequential stereoselective synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodo-β-D-allopyranosides.

    PubMed

    Kövér, Andrea; Boutureira, Omar; Matheu, M Isabel; Díaz, Yolanda; Castillón, Sergio

    2014-04-04

    The preparation of challenging 2-deoxy-2-iodo-β-D-allo precursors of 2-deoxy-β-D-ribo-hexopyranosyl units and other analogues is reported using a robust olefination-cyclization-glycosylation sequence. Here, we particularly focus on tuning the stereoelectronic properties of the alkenyl sulfides intermediates in order to improve the diastereoselectivity of the cyclization step and, hence, the efficiency of the overall transformation. Phosphine oxides with the general formula Ph2P(O)CH2SR (R = t-Bu, Cy, p-MeOPh, 2,6-di-ClPh, and 2,6-di-MePh) were easily synthesized and subsequently used in the olefination reaction with 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-D-ribose and -D-arabinose. The corresponding sugar-derived alkenyl sulfides were submitted to a 6-endo [I(+)]-induced cyclization, and the resulting 2-deoxy-2-iodohexopyranosyl-1-thioglycosides were used as glycosyl donors for the stereoselective synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodohexopyranosyl glycosides. Among the different S-groups studied, t-Bu derivative was the best performer for the synthesis of cholesteryl 2-deoxy-2-iodomannopyranosides, whereas for the synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodoallopyranosides none of the derivatives here studied proved superior to the phenyl analogue previously described. Glycosylation of cholesterol with different d-allo and d-manno derivatives produced 2-deoxy-2-iodoglycosides with stereoselectivities in the same order in each case, reinforcing the involvement of an oxocarbenium ion as the common intermediate of this crucial glycosylation step.

  16. 12-((5-Iodo-4-azido-2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino)dodecanoic acid: Biological recognition by cholesterol esterase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnunen, P.M.; Klopf, F.H.; Bastiani, C.A.; Gelfman, C.M.; Lange, L.G. )

    1990-02-13

    Potential probes of protein cholesterol and fatty acid binding sites, namely, 12-((5-iodo-4-azido-2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino)dodecanoate (IFA) and its coenzyme A (IFA:CoA) and cholesteryl (IFA:CEA) esters, were synthesized. These radioactive, photoreactive lipid analogues were recognized as substrates and inhibitors of acyl-CoA;cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol esterase, neutral lipid binding enzymes which are key elements in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism. In the dark, IFA reversibly inhibited cholesteryl ({sup 14}C)oleate hydrolysis by purified bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterase with an apparent K{sub i} of 150 {mu}M. Cholesterol esterase inhibition by IFA became irreversible after photolysis with UV light and oleic acid provided 50% protection against inactivation. Incubation of homogeneous bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterase with IFA:CEA resulted in its hydrolysis to IFA and cholesterol, indicating recognition of IFA:CEA as a substrate by cholesterol esterase. The coenzyme A ester, IFA:CoA, was a reversible inhibitor of microsomal ACAT activity under dark conditions, and photolysis resulted in irreversible inhibition of enzyme activity with 87% efficiency. IFA:CoA was also recognized as a substrate by both liver and aortic microsomal ACATs, with resultant synthesis of {sup 125}IFA:CEA. IFA and its derivatives, IFA:CEA and IFA:CoA, are thus inhibitors and substrates for cholesterol esterase and ACAT. Biological recognition of these photoaffinity lipid analogues will facilitate the identification and structural analysis of hitherto uncharacterized protein lipid binding sites.

  17. Biological Effects of Irradiating Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Internal Exposure with 125I-Labeled 5-Iodo-2′-Deoxyuridine-Chitosan Drug Loading Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ran; Wan, Jianmei; Jiang, Bo; Zhou, Dayong; Song, Miaoli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the authors evaluate the biological effects of irradiation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by internal exposure with 125I-labeled 5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (125I-UdR)-chitosan drug loading nanoparticles (125I-UdR-CS-DLN). The authors observed that accumulation of nanoparticles was significantly (p<0.05) higher in hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 than normal liver cells HL-7702 after treated with 125I-UdR-CS-DLN for 30 minutes. Survival of HepG2 cells was significantly lower at 125I-UdR-CS-DLN doses higher than 37 kBq/mL (more significant in the G1 phase and G2/M phase) than the HL-7702 cells. In addition, 125I-UdR-CS-DLN induced a higher level of DNA double-strand breaks than 125I-UdR, and HepG2 cells exhibited a lower level of DNA repair when compared with HL-7702 cells. In vivo animal experiments, TUNEL staining, after targeted treatment, showed that 125I-UdR-CS-DLN induced significant cell apoptosis in rabbit hepatocellular tumors in situ than 125I-UdR infusion at the same dose. In conclusion, hepatocellular carcinoma cells were significantly irradiated with 125I-UdR-CS-DLN compared with 125I-UdR, and 125I-UdR-CS-DLN irradiation enhanced DNA damage, induced liver cancer cell apoptosis, and prevented DNA damage repair. However, evaluating the extent of damage and organ sparing in vivo should also be considered. PMID:25379613

  18. Experimental and ab Initio Study of Catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I)) under Pressure: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Electronic, and Luminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Aguirrechu-Comerón, Amagoia; Hernández-Molina, Rita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Plácida; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Ulises R; Lavín, Vı́ctor; Angel, Ross J; Gonzalez-Platas, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Copper(I) iodine compounds can exhibit interesting mechanochromic and thermochromic luminescent properties with important technological applications. We report the synthesis and structure determination by X-ray diffraction of a new polymeric staircase copper(I) iodine compound catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I), [C10H9CuIN]. The structure is composed of isolated polymeric staircase chains of copper-iodine coordinated to organic ligands through Cu-N bonds. High pressure X-ray diffraction to 6.45 GPa shows that the material is soft, with a bulk modulus K0 = 10.2(2)GPa and a first derivative K'0 = 8.1(3), typical for organometallic compounds. The unit-cell compression is very anisotropic with the stiffest direction [302] arising from a combination of the stiff CuI ladders and the shear of the planar quinolone ligands over one another. Full structure refinements at elevated pressures show that pressures reduce the Cu···Cu distances in the compound. This effect is detected in luminescence spectra with the appearance of four sub-bands at 515, 600, 647, and 712 nm above 3.5 GPa. Red-shifts are observed, and they are tentatively associated with interactions between copper(I) ions due to the shortening of the Cu···Cu distances induced by pressure, below twice the van der Waals limit (2.8 Å). Additionally, ab initio simulations were performed, and they confirmed the structure and the results obtained experimentally for the equation of state. The simulation allowed the band structure and the electronic density of states of this copper(I) iodine complex to be determined. In particular, the band gap decreases slowly with pressure in a quadratic way with dEg/dP = -0.011 eV/GPa and d(2)Eg/dP(2) = 0.001 eV/GPa(2).

  19. Pilot clinical trial of 5-[{sup 125}I] iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine in the treatment of colorectal cancer metastic to the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Macapinlac, H.A.; Kemeny, N.; Daghighian, F.

    1996-04-01

    The thymidine analog, 5-iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine (IUdR), is incorporated in the DNA of cell sin the S phase. When incorporated in the DNA, short-range Auger electrons emitted by {sup 125}I-labeled IUdR can cause double-strand breaks, delivering a lethal radiation dose to the cell. We conducted therapeutic trial to evaluate [{sup 125}I/{sup 131}I]IUdR pharmacokinetics in liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Dosimetry, safety, and therapeutic potential were assessed. Four patients were each infused with 5 mCi [{sup 125}I]IUdR and 10 mCi [{sup 131}I]IUdR through the sideport of a hepatic artery pump. Iodine-131 images were quantitated and used for pharmacokinetic studies. The radioactivity in the DNA of biopsy samples of tumor, normal liver and bone marrow, obtained 24 or 48 hr after injection, was counted. All patients had [{sup 125}I]IUdR and [{sup 131}I]IUdR uptake in tumor, with a biexponential clearance. Repeat injections in individual patients showed little variation in tumor uptake, especially in the slow clearance component. On planar images, no long-term retention was seen in bone marrow or other activity dividing normal tissues. Radioactivity in the DNA of one marrow sample taken at 24 hr was above background, but in another taken at 48 hr it was equal to background levels. No side effects were noted, no hematologic toxicity was observed in any patients and no tumor responses were seen. There is persisten uptake of [{sup 125}I]IUdR in hepatic tumors, thereby making hepatic artery infusion a suitable mode of delivery for therapy. Repeat injections will be needed because only 15%-50% of tumor cells are in the S phase. Based on results from this pilot study, a therapeutic regimen is being planned. 43 refs. 2 figs.

  20. The inhibition of PB125I formation in calf thyroid caused by 14-iodo-15-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid is due to decreased H2O2 availability.

    PubMed

    Krawiec, L; Chazenbalk, G D; Puntarulo, S A; Burton, G; Boveris, A; Valsecchi, R M; Pisarev, M A

    1988-02-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has shown that 14-iodo-15-hydroxy-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (I-HO-A) is a potent inhibitor of iodine organification in calf thyroid slices. The present studies were performed in order to clarify the mechanism of this action. Incubation of thyroid slices with 10(-4)M I-HO-A caused a 47 and 53% decrease in PB125I formation after 30 and 60 min incubation, respectively. In a series of experiments an inverse relationship between the degree of inhibition caused by I-HO-A and total iodine content and basal iodoprotein formation was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled compounds showed a significant decrease in 125I incorporation into MIT, DIT, T3 and total iodolipid. The site of the inhibitory effect of I-HO-A was then sought. TPO was measured by three different methods. When TPO was solubilized from I-HO-A treated slices, no change in enzymatic activity was observed. Moreover, the same lack of action was found when solubilized TPO was incubated with I-HO-A. The production and release of H2O2 into the incubation medium was measured by chemiluminiscence technique. In control slices the values increased during the first 10 min and reached a plateau. Pretreatment of the slices with 10(-4)M KI caused a 51% inhibition, while the same concentration of I-HO-A produced a 59% inhibition. The possibility that I-HO-A might exert its action through a putative protein inhibitor was also explored. Incubation of slices with 10(-5)M I-HO-A caused a 46% decrease in PB125I formation and addition of actinomycin D or puromycin failed to alter this effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Muscle bio-energetics in acute glycolytic block: in vivo phosphorus-nuclear magnetic resonance study of iodo-acetate injected rats.

    PubMed

    Argov, Z; Nagle, D; Giger, U; Leigh, J S

    1989-01-01

    In vivo phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of muscle was performed at rest, during work and during postexercise recovery in rats injected with iodo-acetate (IA) (35-40 mg.kg-1, intra-arterially), in order to follow bio-energetic changes in muscle with acute glycolytic block. Three animals with contracture had very low ratios of phosphocreatine:inorganic phosphate (PCr:Pi) at rest (0.5-0.9). The PCr:Pi were normal at rest (6.9 +/- 2.0, +/- 2 SD) in all other rats. Exercise-induced continuous accumulation of phosphomonoesters (PME), the characteristic finding of glycolytic block, was observed. The end-exercise levels of PME correlated with the degree of block measured in vitro. During steady-state work, induced by nerve stimulation at four frequencies, PCr:Pi values were significantly lower (p less than 0.02) than the control values at 0.25, 1.0 and 2.0 Hz. The ATP levels fell during exercise to reach 75% +/- 7% of initial values. The recovery of PCr:Pi from exercise and the disappearance of PME were slow. Two animals which survived the IA injection demonstrated much lower PME accumulation 18 h later. It is concluded that in acute muscle glycolytic block: (1) energy metabolism is impaired during exercise and also at rest, (2) accumulating PME can serve as an indicator of the degree of glycolytic block, (3) ATP levels fall during work, and (4) postexercise recovery is slow. The findings are compared with 31P-NMR observations in chronic muscle glycolytic disorders.

  2. (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-[125I]iodo- 2-methoxybenzamide hydrochloride, a new selective radioligand for dopamine D-2 receptors.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, T; Janowsky, A; Kessler, R M; Clanton, J A; Smith, H E

    1988-10-01

    From salicyclic acid, the two enantiomers of N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide (6b) were prepared in a five-step synthesis. With use of Heindel's triazene method for introduction of the radionuclide, the iodine-125-labeled substituted benzamide was obtained with a calculated specific activity of 136 Ci/mmol and 14% radiochemical yield. For the preparation of the iodine-125-labeled benzamide with higher specific activity, this method was unsuccessful and utilization of the corresponding tri-n-butyltin derivative was required. Treatment of the latter in dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium iodide-125 and chloramine-T gave [125I](S)-6b in 56% radiochemical yield and at least 97% radiochemical purity. The displacement of [125I](S)-6b and [3H](S)-sulpiride from their respective binding sites in striatal rat brain homogenates using various neuroleptic agents showed that (S)-6b has the same binding profile but more potent binding for dopamine D-2 receptors than has sulpiride. These experiments also indicate that the S enantiomer of 6b is a specific ligand (KD = 1.2 nM) for the D-2 receptor. Further, the octanol-water partition coefficient of (S)-6b as determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was found to be 40 times greater than that for sulpiride. Thus (S)-6b has a lipophilicity that will allow a relatively higher uptake into the brain compared to sulpiride. In vivo experiments with rats show that [125I](S)-6b penetrates readily into the brain and is preferentially localized in the striatum as compared to the cerebellum, the ratio of uptake being 7.2 to 1, 60 min after injection. These observations of good brain penetration and high affinity and selectivity for D-2 receptors indicate that the corresponding iodine-123-labeled benzamide may be a useful ligand for the noninvasive visualization study of dopamine D-2 receptor sites in vivo by single photon emission computed tomography.

  3. In Vivo Differences between Two Optical Isomers of Radioiodinated o-iodo-trans-decalinvesamicol for Use as a Radioligand for the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Izumi; Kozaka, Takashi; Miwa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yoji; Azim, Mohammad Anwar-ul; Ogawa, Kazuma; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo; Shiba, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a superior VAChT imaging probe for SPECT, radiolabeled (-)-OIDV and (+)-OIDV were isolated and investigated for differences in their binding affinity and selectivity to VAChT, as well as their in vivo activities. Procedures Radioiodinated o-iodo-trans-decalinvesamicol ([125I]OIDV) has a high binding affinity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) both in vitro and in vivo. Racemic [125I]OIDV was separated into its two optical isomers (-)-[125I]OIDV and (+)-[125I]OIDV by HPLC. To investigate VAChT binding affinity (Ki) of two OIDV isomers, in vitro binding assays were performed. In vivo biodistribution study of each [125I]OIDV isomer in blood, brain regions and major organs of rats was performed at 2,30 and 60 min post-injection. In vivo blocking study were performed to reveal the binding selectivity of two [125I]OIDV isomers to VAChT in vivo. Ex vivo autoradiography were performed to reveal the regional brain distribution of two [125I]OIDV isomers and (-)-[123I]OIDV for SPECT at 60 min postinjection. Results VAChT binding affinity (Ki) of (-)-[125I]OIDV and (+)-[125I]OIDV was 22.1 nM and 79.0 nM, respectively. At 2 min post-injection, accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV was the same as that of (+)-[125I]OIDV. However, (+)-[125I]OIDV clearance from the brain was faster than (-)-[125I]OIDV. At 30 min post-injection, accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV (0.62 ± 0.10%ID/g) was higher than (+)-[125I]OIDV (0.46 ± 0.07%ID/g) in the cortex. Inhibition of OIDV binding showed that (-)-[125I]OIDV was selectively accumulated in regions known to express VAChT in the rat brain, and ex vivo autoradiography further confirmed these results showing similar accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV in these regions. Furthermore, (-)-[123I]OIDV for SPECT showed the same regional brain distribution as (-)-[125I]OIDV. Conclusion These results suggest that radioiodinated (-)-OIDV may be a potentially useful tool for studying presynaptic cholinergic neurons in the brain. PMID

  4. [125I]2-(2-chloro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-5-methyl-pyrroline (LNP 911), a high-affinity radioligand selective for I1 imidazoline receptors.

    PubMed

    Greney, Hugues; Urosevic, Dragan; Schann, Stephan; Dupuy, Laurence; Bruban, Véronique; Ehrhardt, Jean-Daniel; Bousquet, Pascal; Dontenwill, Monique

    2002-07-01

    The I1 subtype of imidazoline receptors (I1R) is a plasma membrane protein that is involved in diverse physiological functions. Available radioligands used so far to characterize the I(1)R were able to bind with similar affinities to alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARs) and to I1R. This feature was a major drawback for an adequate characterization of this receptor subtype. New imidazoline analogs were therefore synthesized and the present study describes one of these compounds, 2-(2-chloro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-5-methyl-pyrroline (LNP 911), which was of high affinity and selectivity for the I1R. LNP 911 was radioiodinated and its binding properties characterized in different membrane preparations. Saturation experiments with [125I]LNP 911 revealed a single high affinity binding site in PC-12 cell membranes (K(D) = 1.4 nM; B(max) = 398 fmol/mg protein) with low nonspecific binding. [125I]LNP 911 specific binding was inhibited by various imidazolines and analogs but was insensitive to guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate. The rank order of potency of some competing ligands [LNP 911, PIC, rilmenidine, 4-chloro-2-(imidazolin-2-ylamino)-isoindoline (BDF 6143), lofexidine, and clonidine] was consistent with the definition of [125I]LNP 911 binding sites as I1R. However, other high-affinity I1R ligands (moxonidine, efaroxan, and benazoline) exhibited low affinities for these binding sites in standard binding assays. In contrast, when [125I]LNP 911 was preincubated at 4 degrees C, competition curves of moxonidine became biphasic. In this case, moxonidine exhibited similar high affinities on [125I]LNP 911 binding sites as on I1R defined with [125I]PIC. Moxonidine proved also able to accelerate the dissociation of [125I]LNP 911 from its binding sites. These results suggest the existence of an allosteric modulation at the level of the I1R, which seems to be corroborated by the dose-dependent enhancement by LNP 911 of the agonist effects on the adenylate cyclase pathway

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17 -diol and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (17 alpha-(iodovinyl)estradiol derivatives) as high specific activity potential radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, I.; Ferreira, N.L.; Eckelman, W.C.; Francis, B.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.

    1984-10-01

    Two 17 alpha-(/sup 125/I)iodovinyl estradiol derivatives 4b,d possessing high specific activity have been prepared and tested as potential radiopharmaceuticals. The use of the 3-acetyl derivatives 2c,e and the replacement of iodine monochloride with sodium iodide and Chloramine-T in THF/phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) permitted us to synthesize no-carrier-added (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-d iol (4b) and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (4d) with 50% radiochemical yield and high purity. Although the specific activity represents only half of the theoretical value in some cases, this modified approach is a substantial improvement over the previously published method. Our preliminary distribution studies indicate that although both 4b and 4d localize in the tissues known to have a large concentration of estrogen receptors, 4d accumulates in higher amounts in target tissues and provides a high target to nontarget ratio.

  6. Iodination of carbohydrate-derived 1,2-oxazines to enantiopure 5-iodo-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazines and subsequent palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions

    PubMed Central

    Medvecký, Michal; Linder, Igor; Schefzig, Luise

    2016-01-01

    Iodination of carbohydrate-derived 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazines of type 3 using iodine and pyridine in DMF furnished 5-iodo-substituted 1,2-oxazine derivatives 4 with high efficacy. The alkenyl iodide moiety of 1,2-oxazine derivatives syn-4 and anti-4 was subsequently exploited for the introduction of new functionalities at the C-5 position by applying palladium-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions such as Sonogashira, Heck, or Suzuki coupling reactions as well as a cyanation reaction. These cross-coupling reactions led to a series of 5-alkynyl-, 5-alkenyl-, 5-aryl- and 5-cyano-substituted 1,2-oxazine derivatives being of considerable interest for further synthetic elaborations. This was exemplarily demonstrated by the hydrogenation of syn-21 and anti-24 and by a click reaction of a 5-alkynyl-substituted precursor. PMID:28144363

  7. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  8. Evidence for the rapid direct control both in vivo and in vitro of the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation by 3,5,3'-tri-iodo-L-thyronine in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Romero, R; Mowbray, J

    1979-01-01

    1. Examination of the distribution of L-tri-iodothyronine among rat liver tissue fractions after its intravenous injection into thyroidectomized rats focused attention on mitochondria at very short times after administration. By 15 min this fraction contained 18.5% of the tissue pool; however, the content had decreased sharply by 60 min and even further over the next 3 h. By contrast, the content in all other fractions was constant or increased over 4 h. About 60% of tissue hormone was bound to soluble protein. 2. Mitochondria isolated from thyroidectomized rats showed P/O ratios that were about 50% of those found in normal controls, with both succinate and pyruvate plus malate as substrates. There was no evidence of uncoupling; the respiratory-control ratio was about 6. 3. Mitochondria isolated 15 min after injection of tri-iodothyronine into thyroidectomized rats showed P/O ratios and respiratory-control ratios that were indistinguishable from those obtained in mitochondria from euthyroid animals. The oxidation rate was, however, not restored. 4. Incubation of homogenates of livers taken from thyroidectomized animals injected with L-tri-iodothyronine before isolation of the mitochondria restored the P/O ratio to normal; by contrast, direct addition of hormone to isolated mitochondria had no effect. The role of extramitochondrial factors in rapid tri-iodothyronine action is discussed. 5. Possible mechanisms by which tri-iodothyronine might rapidly alter phosphorylation efficiency are considered: it is concluded that control of adenine nucleotide translocase is unlikely to be involved. 6. The amounts of adenine nucleotides in liver were measured both after thyroidectomy and 15 min after intravenous tri-iodo-thyronine administration to thyroidectomized animals. The concentrations found are consistent with a decreased phosphorylation efficiency in thyroidectomized animals. Tri-iodothyronine injection resulted in very significant changes in the amounts of ATP, ADP and

  9. Postmortem detection of 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine] in fluids and tissues determined by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry from a traumatic death

    PubMed Central

    Poklis, Justin L.; Devers, Kelly G.; Arbefeville, Elise F.; Pearson, Julia M.; Houston, Eric; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    We present a traumatic fatality of a 19-year-old man who had ingested blotter paper containing 25INBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine]. Postmortem specimens were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Toxicology findings for fluids based upon blood or urine calibrators were as follows: peripheral blood, 405 pg/mL; heart blood, 410 pg/mL; urine, 2.86 ng/mL; and vitreous humor, 99 pg/mL. While findings based upon the method of standard additions were: gastric contents, 7.1 μg total; bile, 10.9 ng/g; brain, 2.54 ng/g and liver, 7.2 ng/g. To our knowledge the presented case is the first postmortem case of 25I-NBOMe intoxication documented by toxicological analysis of tissues and body fluids. PMID:24215811

  10. Determination of Ultra-trace Rhodium in Water Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Cloud Point Extraction Using 2-(5-Iodo-2-Pyridylazo)-5-Dimethylaminoaniline as a Chelating Agent.

    PubMed

    Han, Quan; Huo, Yanyan; Wu, Jiangyan; He, Yaping; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Longhu

    2017-03-24

    A highly sensitive method based on cloud point extraction (CPE) separation/preconcentration and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection has been developed for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of rhodium in water samples. A new reagent, 2-(5-iodo-2-pyridylazo)-5-dimethylaminoaniline (5-I-PADMA), was used as the chelating agent and the nonionic surfactant TritonX-114 was chosen as extractant. In a HAc-NaAc buffer solution at pH 5.5, Rh(III) reacts with 5-I-PADMA to form a stable chelate by heating in a boiling water bath for 10 min. Subsequently, the chelate is extracted into the surfactant phase and separated from bulk water. The factors affecting CPE were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-6.0 ng/mL, the detection limit was 0.023 ng/mL for rhodium and relative standard deviation was 3.67% (c = 1.0 ng/mL, n = 11).The method has been applied to the determination of trace rhodium in water samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Postmortem detection of 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine] in fluids and tissues determined by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry from a traumatic death.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Devers, Kelly G; Arbefeville, Elise F; Pearson, Julia M; Houston, Eric; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    We present a traumatic fatality of a 19-year-old man who had ingested blotter paper containing 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine]. Postmortem specimens were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Toxicology findings for fluids based upon blood or urine calibrators were as follows: peripheral blood, 405 pg/mL; heart blood, 410 pg/mL; urine, 2.86 ng/mL; and vitreous humor, 99 pg/mL. While findings based upon the method of standard additions were: gastric contents, 7.1 μg total; bile, 10.9 ng/g; brain, 2.54 ng/g and liver, 7.2 ng/g. To our knowledge the presented case is the first postmortem case of 25I-NBOMe intoxication documented by toxicological analysis of tissues and body fluids.

  12. Dopamine D-2 receptor imaging radiopharmaceuticals: synthesis, radiolabeling, and in vitro binding of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N- ((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Kasliwal, R.; Pan, S.G.; Kung, M.P.; Mach, R.H.; Guo, Y.Z.

    1988-05-01

    In developing central nervous system (CNS) dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agents, enantiomers, R-(+) and S-(-) isomers, of 3-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-((1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide, (/sup 125/I)IBZM, were synthesized, and their in vitro binding characteristics were evaluated in rat striatum tissue preparation. The (S)-(-)-(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding (Kd = 0.43 nM, Bmax = 0.48 pmol/mg of protein). Competition data of various ligands for IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than (S)-(-)-IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol much greater than (R)-(+)-IBZM greater than (S)-(-)-BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH23390 much greater than propanolol. The results indicate that (/sup 125/I)IBZM binds specifically to the dopamine D-2-receptor with stereospecificity. The (/sup 125/I)IBZM is potentially useful as an imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-18F-fluoro-5-iodo-3-[2-(S)-3,4-dehydropyrrolinylmethoxy]pyridine (18F-Niofene) as a potential imaging agent for nicotinic α4β2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Sharon A; Hillmer, Ansel T; Wooten, Dustin W; Patel, Ashna; Christian, Bradley T; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic α4β2 acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in various pathophysiologies including neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, 2-18F-A85380 (2-FA) and 5-123I-A85380 (5-IA) are used separately in human PET and SPECT studies respectively and require >4-6 hours of scanning. We have developed 2-fluoro-5-iodo-3-[2-(S)-3-dehydropyrrolinylmethoxy]pyridine (niofene) as a potential PET/SPECT imaging agent for nAChRs with an aim to have rapid binding kinetics similar to that of 18F-nifene used in PET studies. Niofene exhibited a 10-fold better in vitro binding affinity in rat brain than that of nicotine. The relative binding of niofene was similar to that of niodene and twice as better as that of nifene. In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices alongside niodene indicated selective binding of niofene to regions consistent with α4β2 receptor distribution. Niofene, 10 nM, displaced >70% of 3H-cytisine bound to α4β2 receptors in rat brain slices. Radiolabeling of 18F-niofene was achieved in 10-15% radiochemical yield in high specific activities >2 Ci/μmol and showed rapid in vivo kinetics similar to that of 18F-nifene and 18F-nifrolene. In vivo PET in rats showed rapid uptake in the brain and selective localization in receptor regions such as the thalamus (TH). Pseudoequilibrium with 18F-niofene was achieved in 30-40 minutes, which is similar to that of 18F-nifene. Further evaluation of 18F-niofene as a potential PET imaging agent is underway. Future studies will be conducted to radiolabel niofene with iodine-123 for use in SPECT imaging. PMID:24982821

  14. Tetra­phenyl­phospho­nium iodide–1,3,5-tri­fluoro-2,4,6-tri­iodo­benzene–methanol (3/4/1)

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization of a 1:1 molar solution of 1,3,5-tri­fluoro-2,4,6-di­iodo­benzene (TFTIB) and tetra­phenyl­phosponium iodide (TPPI) from methanol produced tetra­gonal needles of pure TPPI and tabular pseudo-hexa­gonal truncated bipyramids of the title compound, 3C24H20P+·3I−·4C6F3I3·CH4O or (TPPI)3(TFTIB)4·MeOH. The asymmetric unit is composed of six TPPI mol­ecules, eight TFTIB mol­ecules and two methanol mol­ecules, overall 16 constituents. The formation of the architecture is essentially guided by a number of C—I⋯I− halogen bonds (XB), whose lengths are in the range 3.276 (1)–3.625 (1) Å. Layers of supra­molecular polyanions are formed parallel to (10-1) wherein iodide anions function as penta-, tetra- or bidentate XB acceptors. The structure is not far from being P21/n, but the centrosymmetry is lost due to a different conformation of a single couple of cations and the small asymmetry in the formed supra­molecular anion. One methanol mol­ecule is hydrogen bonded to an iodide anion, while the second is linked to the first one via an O—H⋯O contact. This second methanol mol­ecule is more loosely pinned in its position than the first and presents very high anisotropic displacement parameters and a seeming shortening of the C—O bond length. The crystal studied was refined as a perfect inversion twin. PMID:23795046

  15. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  16. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of Two 18F-Labeled 6-Iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Derivatives as Prospective Radioligands for β-Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lisheng; Chin, Frederick T.; Pike, Victor W.; Toyama, Hiroshi; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Modell, Kendra; Briard, Emmanuelle; Shetty, H. Umesha; Sinclair, Kathryn; Donohue, Sean; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Kung, Mei-Ping; Dagostin, Claudio; Widdowson, David A.; Green, Michael; Gao, Weiyi; Herman, Mary M.; Ichise, Masanori; Innis, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated 18F-labeled IMPY [6-iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine] derivatives as agents for imaging β-amyloid plaque with positron emission tomography (PET). The precursor for radiolabeling and reference compounds was synthesized in up to five steps from commercially accessible starting materials. One of the two N-methyl groups of IMPY was substituted with either a 3-fluoropropyl (FPM-IMPY) or a 2-fluoroethyl (FEM-IMPY) group. FPM-IMPY and FEM-IMPY were found to have moderate affinity for Aβ- aggregates with Ki = 27 ± 8 and 40 ± 5 nM, respectively. A “one-pot” method for 18F-2-fluoroethylation and 18F-3-fluoropropylation of the precursor was developed. The overall decay-corrected radiochemical yields were 26–51%. In PET experiments with normal mouse, high uptake of activity was obtained in the brain after iv injection of each probe: 6.4% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY at 1.2 min, and 5.7% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY at 0.8 min. These values were similar to those of [123I/125I]IMPY (7.2% ID/g at 2 min). Polar and nonpolar radioactive metabolites were observed in both plasma and brain homogenates after injection of [18F]FEM or [18F]FPM-IMPY. In contrast to the single-exponential washout of [123I/125I]IMPY, the washouts of brain activity for the two fluorinated analogues were biphasic, with an initial rapid phase over 20 min and a subsequent much slower phase. Residual brain activity at 2 h, which may represent polar metabolites trapped in the brain, was 4.5% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY and 2.1% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY. Substantial skull uptake of [18F]fluoride was also clearly observed. With a view to slow the metabolism of [18F]FEM-IMPY, an analogue was prepared with deuteriums substituted for the four ethyl hydrogens. However, D4-[18F]FEM-IMPY showed the same brain uptake and clearance as the protio analogue. Metabolism of the [18F]FEM-IMPY was appreciably slower in rhesus monkey than in mouse. Autoradiography of postmortem brain sections

  18. Crystal structures of 1-bromo-3,5-bis­(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)benzene 0.15-hydrate and 3,5-bis­(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-1-iodo­benzene

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Timo; Hoffmann, Frank; Fröba, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The bromo and iodo derivatives of a meta-bis­(1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-substituted benzene, C16H19BrN2O2·0.15H2O (1) and C16H19IN2O2 (2), have been prepared and studied in terms of their mol­ecular and crystal structures. While the former crystallizes as a sub-hydrate, with 0.15 formula units of water and shows an almost all-planar arrangement of the three ring systems, the latter crystallizes solvate-free with the flanking heterocycles twisted considerably with respect to the central arene. Non-covalent contacts include parallel-displaced π–π inter­actions and (non-classical) hydrogen bonding for both (1) and (2), as well as relatively short I⋯N contacts for (2). PMID:26594388

  19. Crystal structures of 1-bromo-3,5-bis-(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)benzene 0.15-hydrate and 3,5-bis-(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-1-iodo-benzene.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Hoffmann, Frank; Fröba, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The bromo and iodo derivatives of a meta-bis-(1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-substituted benzene, C16H19BrN2O2·0.15H2O (1) and C16H19IN2O2 (2), have been prepared and studied in terms of their mol-ecular and crystal structures. While the former crystallizes as a sub-hydrate, with 0.15 formula units of water and shows an almost all-planar arrangement of the three ring systems, the latter crystallizes solvate-free with the flanking heterocycles twisted considerably with respect to the central arene. Non-covalent contacts include parallel-displaced π-π inter-actions and (non-classical) hydrogen bonding for both (1) and (2), as well as relatively short I⋯N contacts for (2).

  20. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  1. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated

  2. Universal Monitor (UM) for OTEC compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    Universal Monitor (UM), is a device-independent concept to measure, with precision, the initiation and progression of fouling in any given OTEC Compact Heat Exchanger model with or without the application of countermeasures. Design description and supporting analyses for the Universal Monitor for OTEC Compact Heat Exchangers are presented.

  3. Crystal structures of two C,N-disubstituted acetamides: 2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-N-(2-iodo­phen­yl)acetamide and 2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Badiadka; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.; Rathore, Ravindranath; Glidewell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In the crystal of 2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-N-(2-iodo­phen­yl)acetamide, C14H11ClINO, mol­ecules are linked by a combination of N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form a C(4)C(4)[R 2 1(7)] chain of rings and chains of this type are linked by a combination of C—Cl⋯π(arene) and C—I⋯π(arene) inter­actions to form deeply puckered twofold inter­woven sheets. In the crystal of 2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide, C12H10ClN3O, mol­ecules are linked into complex sheets by N—H⋯N, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and by C—H⋯π(arene) inter­actions. PMID:27920915

  4. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  5. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  6. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; ...

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  7. STS-40 Exp. No. 192 urine monitoring system (UMS) on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Experiment No. 192, Fluid-Electrolyte Regulation During Space Flight, urine monitoring system (UMS) is set up on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, at the side hatch. The UMS is attached to OV-102's waste collection system (WCS). The urine specimen tray with sample tubes appears to the right of the UMS equipment.

  8. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  9. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  10. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, & First U.M. Church-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  11. Report to the Maryland General Assembly on UMS Institutional and System Identities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ. System Administration, Adelphi.

    This report examines the use of the name "University of Maryland System" (UMS) to characterize the state's university system and its 13 institutions. It is noted that the UMS name is somewhat misleading, in that it suggests that the system comprises only the seven institutions with "University of Maryland" in their name. The…

  12. Adults Return to Mathematics: A Proposed Project in Uganda by the Uganda Mathematical Society (UMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaahwa, Janet

    This paper provides information on a project by the Uganda Mathematical Society (UMS) that aims to popularize mathematics in Uganda. UMS believes that if parents learn mathematics (primary and secondary), they will be able to help their children themselves instead of hiring others to coach their children as is the practice today. Another way to…

  13. HD 208905: um sistema múltiplo de estrelas quentes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeias, J. P.; Daflon, S.; Cunha, K.

    2003-08-01

    Durante o survey de associações OB do disco Galáctico, foi constatada a multiplicidade do sistema HD 208905, pertencentes à associação de Cep OB2. Este objeto está classificado como uma estrela pertencente a um sistema múltiplo, com magnitude mv = 7.0 e tipo espectral B1V. De fato, os espectros de HD 208905 apresentam perfis de absorção triplicados. Dois dos perfis são bastante similares entre si, e são estreitos e bem definidos, sugerindo que as velocidades rotacionais projetadas (v sin i) das duas estrelas são baixas. Os espectros obtidos também apresentam perfis mais alargados que poderiam ser atribuídos a uma terceira componente estelar com v sin i mais alto. A análise de HD 208905 é baseada no estudo da variação da posição relativa dos perfis espectrais de acordo com a fase do sistema. Nossos dados observacionais são um conjunto de espectros de alta resolução obtidos no McDonald Observatory (Universidade do Texas, Austin), Kitt Peak National Observatory e Palomar Observatory, cobrindo o período de 10/91 até 12/95. Inicialmente, calculamos a velocidade radial de cada componente do sistema, considerando o desvio Doppler sofrido por cada estrela. As velocidades radiais medidas foram, em seguida, corrigidas para velocidades radiais heliocêntricas. O passo seguinte constituiu na determinação da periodicidade da série temporal definida pelas medidas das velocidades radiais heliocêntricas através da análise de Fourier. A nossa base de dados não permitiu definir uma solução única para o sistema HD 208905. As possíveis soluções encontradas têm períodos entre 1 e 27 dias e serão apresentadas e discutidas.

  14. 6-Iodo-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshinobu

    2014-07-01

    In the title compound, C10H5IO3, an iodinated 3-formyl-chromone derivative, the non-H atoms are essentially coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0259 Å), with the largest deviation from the least-squares plane [0.056 (5) Å] being found for the formyl O atom. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked through I⋯O halogen bonds [I⋯O = 3.245 (4) Å, C-I⋯O = 165.95 (13) and C=O⋯I = 169.7 (4)°] along [101]. The supra-molecular chains are assembled into layers via π-π stacking inter-actions along the b axis [shortest centroid-centroid distance between the pyran and benzene rings = 3.558 (3) Å].

  15. Time Variable Associated Absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, F. W.; Barlow, T. A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, R. D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1994-05-01

    We discuss dramatic changes in the z_a ~ z_e absorption system of the z_e = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (Q0150-203). The C IV lambda 1550 and N V lambda 1240 doublets at z_a = 2.1344 strengthened by a factor of ~ 3 between the observations of Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1988, ApJS, 68, 539; measured November 1981) and our earliest measurements (November and December 1990). During this time, C IV in the z_a = 2.0083 system may also have strengthened. The variability of other lines in these systems is unknown. Continued monitoring is in progress. We consider several models of the z_a ~ z_e absorption environment, and conclude that the absorbing clouds are close to the QSO and photoionized by the QSO continuum. The variability timescale (<~2.9 yrs rest) requires gas densities gap 4000 cm(-3) to allow changes in the ionization balance. This minimum density, and the high ionization needed to produce the Ne VIII lambda 774 and O VI lambda 1035 absorptions reported previously (E. M. Burbidge et al., 1993, BAAS, 24, 1135), requires clouds <~200 pc from the QSO. The full range of absorption line ionizations (including C III lambda 977 and N III lambda 989) implies that the clouds are segregated, spanning a factor of gap 10 in distance or gap 100 in density. Across these regions the H I fraction varies from ~ 10(-3) to ~ 10(-6) . The total hydrogen column ranges from a few times 10(18) cm(-2) in the low ionization gas to ~ 10(20) cm(-2) where the Ne VIII lines form. The Lyman continuum is expected to be optically thin throughout, consistent with the measured absence of a Lyman edge. The metal abundances are roughly solar or above. Implications of these results are discussed. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG 5-1630.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Draco nebula Herschel 250um map (Miville-Deschenes+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Salome, Q.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Blagrave, K.; Dassas, K.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Boulanger, F.; Lagache, G.; Lockman, F. J.; Marshall, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    Draco was observed with Herschel PACS (110 and 170um) and SPIRE (250, 350 and 500um) as part of the open-time program "First steps toward star formation: unveiling the atomic to molecular transition in the diffuse interstellar medium" (P.I. M-A Miville-Deschenes). A field of 3.85x3.85 was observed in parallel mode. Unfortunately, an error occurred during the acquisition of the PACS data making them unusable. Therefore, the results presented here are solely based on SPIRE data, especially the 250um map that has the highest angular resolution. (2 data files).

  17. Ground-based observation of the Venus 1.27-um O2 airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, S.; Iwagami, N.; Sagawa, H.; Kasaba, Y.; Ueno, M.; Imamura, T.

    We conducted near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of the nightside of Venus at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Japan on December 11, 2002. The 1.3-um spectra show 1.27-um O_2 IRA (0,0) airglow feature and thermal emission from the lower atmosphere. The brightest airglow feature of 5MR is found at the anti-solar point, which agrees with the previous studies. The hemispheric distribution of 1.3-um thermal emission shows equatorial depression similar to that of the 2-um region in previous studies. The hemispheric distribution of the rotational temperature shows a hot region at around the anti-solar point overlapping the bright region, and which suggests adiabatic heating due to the downward flow.

  18. UM206, a selective Frizzled antagonist, attenuates adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction in swine.

    PubMed

    Uitterdijk, André; Hermans, Kevin C M; de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne P M; Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Reiss, Irwin K; Duncker, Dirk J; Matthijs Blankesteijn, W; Merkus, Daphne

    2016-02-01

    Modulation of Wnt/Frizzled signaling with UM206 reduced infarct expansion and prevented heart failure development in mice, an effect that was accompanied by increased myofibroblast presence in the infarct, suggesting that Wnt/Frizzled signaling has a key role in cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the effects of modulation of Wnt/Frizzled signaling with UM206 in a swine model of reperfused MI. For this purpose, seven swine with MI were treated with continuous infusion of UM206 for 5 weeks. Six control swine were treated with vehicle. Another eight swine were sham-operated. Cardiac function was determined by echo in awake swine. Infarct mass was estimated at baseline by heart-specific fatty acid-binding protein ELISA and at follow-up using planimetry. Components of Wnt/Frizzled signaling, myofibroblast presence, and extracellular matrix were measured at follow-up with qPCR and/or histology. Results show that UM206 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in infarct mass compared with baseline (-41±10%), whereas infarct mass remained stable in the Control-MI group (+3±17%). Progressive dilation of the left ventricle occurred in the Control-MI group between 3 and 5 weeks after MI, while adverse remodeling was halted in the UM206-treated group. mRNA expression for Frizzled-4 and the Frizzled co-receptor LRP5 was increased in UM206-treated swine as compared with Control-MI swine. Myofibroblast presence was significantly lower in infarcted tissue of the UM206-treated animals (1.53±0.43% vs 3.38±0.61%) at 5 weeks follow-up. This study demonstrates that UM206 treatment attenuates adverse remodeling in a swine model of reperfused MI, indicating that Wnt/Frizzled signaling is a promising target to improve infarct healing and limit post-MI remodeling.

  19. 31.5um imaging observations of AGN using SOFIA/FORCAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Lindsay; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Packham, Christopher C.; Los Piratas Team

    2016-01-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGN) requires a toroidal region of optically and geometrically thick dust obscuring a central engine, accounting for various observed spectral features. Our aim is to investigate the overall torus properties to obtain analytical results for its physical parameters. We present 31.5um photometric observations of 12 nearby Seyfert galaxies from the 2.5m SOFIA telescope using the FORCAST camera. We used Clumpy torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the IR (1.2-31.5um) nuclear SEDs and high angular resolution mid-IR (8-13um) spectroscopy. We found that the turnover of the torus emission does not occur at wavelengths <31.5um, which we interpret as a lower-limit for the peak torus emission. Including the 31.5um nuclear flux 1) reduces the dispersion of Clumpy torus models at wavelengths >30um, which better constrains the model parameters, 2) generally decreases the radial extent of the torus. We find torus radii ranging from ~1 - 8.5pc, with an average radius of 2.6pc, which is consistent with interferometric and high-spatial resolution observations.

  20. Spectroscopy of JVI Himalia for detection and characterization of the 3 um water band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    We aim at securely detecting and characterizing the presence of the 3um band for the first time in the reflectance spectrum of a Jovian irregular satellite. Features in the 3um band can unambiguously reveal water ice or past aqueous alteration of the surface material that lead to bound water molecules and hydroxyl groups in minerals. Water ice and hydrated minerals are ubiquitous in the Jovian system and have been found on Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and the inner regular satellite JV Amalthea. In contrast to these neighboring satellites and to two irregular satellites that have been studied at Saturn and Neptune, a detection of water (previously or currently present) on a Jovian irregular satellite has not yet been succeeded due to constraints of ground-based observatories. No dedicated spacecraft mission to the Jovian system has allowed to study them close-up. Their very low albedos and small diameters only allow ground-based spectroscopy up to 2.5um for very few objects. The strong telluric absorption band of the atmosphere between 2.55-2.85um and the increasing IR-background beyond 2.85um makes ground-based spectroscopy for these very faint objects impossible. SOFIA has the unique capability to overcome these limits. Flitecam provides enough sensitivity to conduct spectroscopic investigations between 2.6-3.5um of the largest object of the Jovian irregular satellite population, JVI Himalia. Supplementary high quality spectral data from 0.65-2.55um has already been acquired by Schindler and Reddy using SpeX on NASA IRTF. Three indicators strongly suggest the presence of the 3um band: A shallow absorption feature around 1.1um attributed to magnetite, a weak feature around 0.7 um attributed to phyllosillicates and an average heliocentric distance of 5.2AU where water ice is thought to be stable throughout the history of the Solar System. The results of this study will greatly contribute to understand the origin and history of these objects.

  1. UM-PRS: An implementation of the procedural reasoning system for multirobot applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaeho; Huber, Marcus J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is used in applications where predetermined situations might arise. The UM-PRS provides a reasoning system that represents robotic applications even in unpredictable domains, such as the robotic reconnaissance task domain outlined here. UM-PRS incorporates a changing context, rather than relying solely on a prearranged plan. The UM-PRS here provides representation important in the reasoning and interface between a mission plan and the executable map of an outdoor vehicle that changes its behavior based on what it comes in contact with in its environment. PRS is thus used in the dynamic control of such a vehicle, providing the basis for coordinating the joint task of multiple robotic vehicles by the their individual observations and representation.

  2. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um.

  3. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Churchdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Church-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  4. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  5. Evolution and Persistence of 5-um Hot Spots at the Galileo Probe entry Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study on the longtudinal locations, morphology and evolution of the 5-um hot spots at 6.5 deg. N latitude (planetocentric), from an extensive IRTF-NSFCAM data set spanning more that 3 years, which includes the date of the Galileo Probe entry.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Ochroconis constricta UM 578, Isolated from Human Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-04-17

    Ochroconis constricta is a soilborne dematiaceous fungus that has never been reported to be associated with human infection. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of strain UM 578, isolated from human skin scraping. The genomic information revealed will contribute to a better understanding of this species.

  7. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)) in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Fusco, Roberta; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Crupi, Rosalia; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic condition characterized by progressive scarring of lung parenchyma. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ultramicronized preparation of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)), an endogenous fatty acid amide, in mice subjected to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was induced in male mice by a single intratracheal administration of saline with bleomycin sulphate (1mg/kg body weight) in a volume of 100μL. PEA-um(®) was injected intraperitoneally at 1, 3 or 10mg/kg 1h after bleomycin instillation and daily thereafter. Animals were sacrificed after 7 and 21days by pentobarbitone overdose. One cohort of mice was sacrificed after seven days of bleomycin administration, followed by bronchoalveloar lavage and determination of myeloperoxidase activity, lung edema and histopathology features. In the 21-day cohort, mortality was assessed daily, and surviving mice were sacrificed followed by the above analyses together with immunohistochemical localization of CD8, tumor necrosis factor-α, CD4, interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and basic fibroblast growth factor. Compared to bleomycin-treated mice, animals that received also PEA-um(®) (3 or 10mg/kg) had significantly decreased weight loss, mortality, inflammation, lung damage at the histological level, and lung fibrosis at 7 and 21days. PEA-um(®) (1mg/kg) did not significantly inhibit the inflammation response and lung fibrosis. This study demonstrates that PEA-um(®) (3 and 10mg/kg) reduces the extent of lung inflammation in a mouse model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Genome Sequence of a Typical Ultramicrobacterium, Curvibacter sp. Strain PAE-UM, Capable of Phthalate Ester Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Hao, Zhenyu; Sun, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Curvibacter sp. strain PAE-UM, isolated from river sediment, is a typical ultramicrobacterium capable of phthalate ester degradation. The genome of Curvibacter sp. PAE-UM consists of 3,284,473 bp, and its information will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability. PMID:26769923

  9. Genome Sequence of a Typical Ultramicrobacterium, Curvibacter sp. Strain PAE-UM, Capable of Phthalate Ester Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Hao, Zhenyu; Sun, Rui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-14

    Curvibacter sp. strain PAE-UM, isolated from river sediment, is a typical ultramicrobacterium capable of phthalate ester degradation. The genome of Curvibacter sp. PAE-UM consists of 3,284,473 bp, and its information will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability.

  10. Uh, Um, and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Christina A; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-03-01

    Filler disfluencies--uh and um--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an 'optimal outcome' (OO), as well as in peers with typical development (TD). While uh rates did not differ, participants with ASD produced um less frequently than OO or TD groups. Um rate was associated with autism symptom severity, but not executive function or language abilities, suggesting that um serves a pragmatic, listener-oriented function. Moreover, in contrast to minimal production in ASD, the typical OO um production substantiates the normalization of subtle social communication in this population.

  11. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Activity of 70um-selected galaxies (Symeonidis+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonidis, M.; Rosario, D.; Georgakakis, A.; Harker, J.; Laird, E. S.; Page, M. J.; Willmer, C. N. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first active galactic nuclei (AGN) census in a sample of 61 galaxies selected at 70um, a wavelength which should strongly favour the detection of star-forming systems. For the purpose of this study, we take advantage of deep Chandra X-ray and Spitzer infrared (3.6-160um) data, as well as optical spectroscopy and photometry from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP 2) survey for the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) field, as part of the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey. We investigate spectral line diagnostics ([OIII]/H β and [NeIII]/[OII] ratios, Hδ Balmer absorption line equivalent widths and the strength of the 4000Å break), X-ray luminosities and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (1 data file).

  13. Variability of the broad absorption lines in the QSO UM 232

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Thomas A.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra of UM 232 taken in 1978, 1979, and 1988 at Lick Observatory are presented. Large changes in the Si IV lambda 1397, CIV lambda 1549, and Al III lambda 1857 broad absorption lines are apparent. The decrease in column density in all three ions and an observed brightening of the QSO suggests that these changes are due to an increase in the ionization level driven by an increase in the central source luminosity. This mechanism has been proposed by Smith and Penston to explain small changes in the absorption spectrum of the QSO 1246-057. The spectra of UM 232 show that the fractional decrease in optical depth is smaller at higher outflow velocies. The structure of the broad absorption-line region (BALR) is investigted by estimating an ionization parameter for each ion species as a function of velocity.

  14. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  15. Isoalantolactone inhibits UM-SCC-10A cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jiehua; Weng, Zhiyong; Li, Chenyuan; Li, Hong; Zhao, Yan; Mei, Xifan; Ren, Fu; Li, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Isoalantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the roots of Inula helenium L. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoalantolactone possesses antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic and anti-proliferative properties in a variety of cells, but there are no studies concerning its effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, an MTT assay demonstrated that isoalantolactone has anti-proliferative activity against the HNSCC cell line (UM-SCC-10A). Immunostaining identified that this compound induced UM-SCC-10A cell apoptosis but not necrosis. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects, flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that the apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest during the G1 phase, up-regulation of p53 and p21, and down-regulation of cyclin D. Furthermore, our results revealed that induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway led to up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax), down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression (Bcl-2), mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (Cyto c), reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 (Casp-3). Involvement of the caspase apoptosis pathway was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. Together, our findings suggest that isoalantolactone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and was associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in UM-SCC-10A cells. Therefore, isoalantolactone may become a potential drug for treating HNSCC.

  16. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future.

  17. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-02-02

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis.

  18. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  19. Cliché fabrication method using precise roll printing process with 5 um pattern width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yejin; Kim, Inyoung; Oh, Dong-Ho; Lee, Taik-Min

    2016-09-01

    Among the printing processes for printed electronic devices, gravure offset and reverse offset method have drawn attention for its fine pattern printing possibility. These printing methods use cliché, which has critical effect on the final product precision and quality. In this research, a novel precise cliché replica method is proposed. It consists of copper sputtering, precise mask pattern printing with 5 um width using reverse offset printing, Ni electroplating, lift-off, etching, and DLC coating. We finally compare the fabricated replica cliché with the original one and print out precise patterns using the replica cliché.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic planetary nebulae 24um observations (Phillips+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. P.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have acquired 24um profiles images and fluxes for 224 Galactic PNe. The positions of the sources were taken from the Acker et al. (1992, Cat. V/84), MASH I (Parker et al., 2006MNRAS.373...79P, Cat. V/127) and MASH II (Miszalski et al., 2008MNRAS.384..525M, Cat. V/127) catalogues, and correspond to the so-called 'true' PNe whose identification is regarded as being highly probable. Sources designated as 'likely' or 'possible' are excluded from this analysis. The MISPGAL results were taken between 2005 and 2006 using the mips. (1 data file).

  1. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  2. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  3. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. MIPAS observations of ozone chemiluminescence at 5 um analysed by a new non-lte model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, M.; Toselli, B.; Fernandez, R.; Gil-Lopez, S.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Stiller, G.; Hoffmann, L.; Riese, M.

    The proper characterization of ozone mid-ir radiances under non-LTE conditions is very important for the retrieval of mesospheric constituents such as ozone or carbon monoxide A recent study of Kaufmann et al 2006 indicated very large Envisat-MIPAS radiances at 4 8 um and suggested significant changes to standard non-LTE models of ozone to fit the measurements To verify and extend these results we developed a new ozone non-LTE model for the main vibrational-translational VT relaxation channels of ozone based on the theory of Schwartz-Slawsky-Herzfeld The VT relaxation rates are compared with the standard approach using a Landau-Teller type scaling law In addition to VT relaxation we also consider vibrational-vibrational energy exchange with O2 for various transitions and demonstrate the importance of this relaxation path for many vibrational levels Finally the non-LTE model parameters are constrained by comparing simulated 5um radiances with observations of the MIPAS instrument at stratospheric altitudes where the atmospheric state can be characterized from MIPAS measurements not affected by non-LTE

  5. Detector Technologies for Sub-500um High-Sensitivity PET Imaging via a Novel PET Insert Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2011-12-21

    The objective of this project was to develop detector technologies that would enable an ultrahigh resolution Virtual Pinhole (VP) PET insert device to provide sub-500 um resolution high-sensitivity PET imaging of a mouse in the future. To achieve this goal, we proposed to develop and characterize finely pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors and the associated readout electronics with the following specific aims: 1. Develop pixellated CZT detectors with 350um pitches using 2-5 mm substrates; characterize their spatial, energy and timing performance through experiments; and optimize the anode design with steering grid if found necessary. 2. Develop a high-bandwidth readout system using a novel ASIC that can be directly bonded to CZT detectors with 2048 anodes of 350um pitches; optimize its overall performance for VP-PET applications considering the tradeoffs between spatial resolution (in 3D), count rate capability, timing and energy resolutions. 3. Evaluate the performance of a VP-PET insert based on the proposed detector technology through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation. Overall, we have completed all three specific aims and demonstrated that pixelated CZT detectors of 350um pitches, combined with VP-PET geometry, can provide PET image resolution of ~460 um FWHM for small animal imaging applications.

  6. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Cook, Robert W; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10(-13) and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920).

  7. Is the long case dead? 'Uh, I don't think so': the Uh/Um Index.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Robbert; Veysey, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Current tools for clinical assessment are tedious and time-consuming, particularly the dreadful long case. There is a need for novel instruments that incorporate other aspects of competence. We propose such a method, namely the Uh/Um Index. Our innovation paper describes the rationale for using speech dysfluency and occurrences of filler words such as 'uh' and 'um' as a proxy for competence. This appears to have won initial support from senior clinicians in our institution. Additional research is needed (non-restricted grants are welcomed) to establish rigorous standard setting and to fund our attendance at overseas conferences to make the Uh/Um Index the new buzzword in medical education.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM survey of 12um selected galaxies (Brightman+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Nandra, K.

    2011-11-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of 126 galaxies of the 12um galaxy sample (Rush et al. 1993, Cat. VII/157). By studying this sample at X-ray wavelengths, we aim to determine the intrinsic power, continuum shape and obscuration level in these sources. We improve upon previous works by the use of superior data in the form of higher signal-to-noise ratio spectra, finer spectral resolution and a broader bandpass from XMM-Newton. We pay particular attention to Compton thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the help of new spectral fitting models that we have produced, which are based on Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray radiative transfer, using both a spherical and torus geometry, and taking into account Compton scattering and iron fluorescence. (8 data files).

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium iranicum UM_TJL against representative mycobacterial species suggests its environmental origin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joon Liang; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Hien Fuh; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-11-24

    Mycobacterium iranicum is a newly reported mycobacterial species. We present the first comparative study of M. iranicum UM_TJL and other mycobacteria. We found M. iranicum to have a close genetic association with environmental mycobacteria infrequently associated with human infections. Nonetheless, UM_TJL is also equipped with many virulence genes (some of which appear to be the consequence of transduction-related gene transfer) that have been identified in established human pathogens. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. iranicum is an environmental bacterium adapted for pathogenicity in the human host. This comparative study provides important clues and forms the basis for future functional studies on this mycobacterium.

  10. MiR-222 targeted PUMA to improve sensitization of UM1 cells to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangfang; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Lijie; Liu, Zifeng; Li, Wenqing; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-12-02

    microRNAs have been shown to play critical roles in regulating the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. As a member of the oncogenic miRNAs (oncomiRs), miR-222 has been reported to drive the oncogenesis of many types of malignancies. However, little is known concerning the specific role of miR-222 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study explored the role and mechanism of miR-222 in increasing the expression of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and enhancing the sensitivity of OSCC to cisplatin (CDDP). Results showed that antisense (As)-miR-222 inhibits the expression of miR-222. In contrast, PUMA was dramaticallyup-regulated. IC50 values were significantly decreased in cells treated with As-miR-222 combined with CDDP, to a greater extent than in cells treated with CDDP alone. Furthermore, As-miR-222 enhanced apoptosis and inhibited the invasiveness of UM1 cells. Analysis of the above data suggested that, in UM1 cells, there might be a regulatory loop between miR-222 and PUMA, and that miR-222 inhibition increased the chemosensitivity to CDDP. These findings demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-222 could enhance the chemosensitivity of human OSCC cells to CDDP, and that the combination of As-miR-222 and CDDP could be an effective therapeutic strategy by boosting the expression of PUMA for controlling the growth of OSCC.

  11. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  12. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  13. The fungal UmSrt1 and maize ZmSUT1 sucrose transporters battle for plant sugar resources.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Anke; Dreyer, Ingo; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Sauer, Norbert; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2017-03-15

    The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes the corn smut disease inducing tumor formation in its host Zea mays. Upon infection, the fungal hyphae invaginate the plasma membrane of infected maize cells establishing an interface where pathogen and host are separated only by their plasma membranes. At this interface the fungal and maize sucrose transporters, UmSrt1 and ZmSUT1, compete for extracellular sucrose in the corn smut/maize pathosystem. Here we biophysically characterized ZmSUT1 and UmSrt1 in Xenopus oocytes with respect to their voltage-, pH- and substrate-dependence and determined affinities towards protons and sucrose. In contrast to ZmSUT1, UmSrt1 has a high-affinity for sucrose and is relatively pH- and voltage-independent. Using these quantitative parameters, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the competition for extracellular sucrose at the contact zone between the fungus and the host plant. This approach revealed that UmSrt1 exploits the apoplastic sucrose resource, which forces the plant transporter into a sucrose export mode providing the fungus with sugar from the phloem. Importantly, the high sucrose concentration in the phloem appeared disadvantageous for the ZmSUT1, preventing sucrose recovery from the apoplastic space in the fungus/plant interface.

  14. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  15. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area.

  16. A Report to the Joint Chairs of the Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and the House Appropriations Committee on the Workload of the UMS Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park.

    This report provides data and recommendations on the workload and productivity of University of Maryland System (UMS) faculty. It outlines the state budgetary policy that mandates the report and explains UMS policy on faculty workload. The data in the report reflect teaching standards in place in 1993-94, prior to the adoption of the current UMS…

  17. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  18. Origin and characteristics of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions (N Kuwait)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dousari, Ali. M.; Al-Elaj, Maraheb; Al-Enezi, Eqbal; Al-Shareeda, Abdulaziz

    2009-03-01

    Although Arabia hosts one of the largest deserts in the world, studies regarding aeolian erosional features in general and yardangs in particular are rare. The principal aim of this study is to delineate and investigate the various forms of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions in the northern part of Kuwait. The study area consists of two main depressions connected by neck area made up of continental sediments. Both depressions are surrounded by a dissected escarpment and their floors host muddy playas. On lithological bases, three main types of yardang have been identified: 7 yardangs are sculptured in sandstones of Lower Fars Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), 23 are carved in calcretic rocks of Ghar Formation (Oligocene to Lower Miocene), and 11 yardangs are developed in Quaternary sediments. Their mean orientation NW (297°) coincides with the prevailing direction of the strong local northwesterly wind called the shamal. The average length/width ratio is 1.5:1. The wide geographic distribution of yardangs around the margins of the northern depression is due to sand blasting. This is explained by the annual sand accumulation measured in the study area where the northern depression shows 143 times higher accumulation than the southern depression, the neck area and the platform above the depressions. Also, the field measurements for annual erosional rates show that the sides of the yardangs are more affected by erosion compared to their middle parts. Remarkably slight mineralogical variations were detected within the surface sediments of Um Al-Rimam depressions and the Quaternary muddy yardangs which indicate a common origin. The age of yardangs is unknown but annual erosional rates on a small Quaternary muddy yardang suggest that they range in age between 44 and 1500 years depending on yardang size. It is believed, as indicated from field observation and interpretation of aerial photos, that the majority of yardangs are pre-existing bedrock forms. These

  19. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolnough, S. J.; Bush, S. J.; Schiemann, R.; Turner, A. G.; Martin, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography (see Figure 1) is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Changes in moisture convergence, precipitation and circulation due to improved resolution of the orography then affect precipitation in the wider Indo-Pacific region.

  20. The French Muséum national d’histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset

    PubMed Central

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L.; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R.; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P.; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments. PMID:28195585

  1. The French Muséum national d'histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L.; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R.; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P.; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments.

  2. The French Muséum national d'histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset.

    PubMed

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-02-14

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A dust model for bet Pic from 0.58 to 870um (Ballering+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, N. P.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Gaspar, A.

    2016-08-01

    β Pic was imaged with the HST/STIS CCD in coronagraphic (50CORON) mode under program GO-12551 (PI: Apai), and the results of these observations were published in Apai et al. (2015ApJ...800..136A). The instrument bandpass is set by the response of the CCD and centered at 0.58um. We searched the HST archive and found previously unpublished observations of β Pic with the WFC3 instrument in the IR channel (filter F110W at ~1.16um) from program GO-11150 (PI: Graham). The Spitzer/MIPS observations of β Pic were taken under the Spitzer Guaranteed Time Observing Program 90 (PI: M. Werner). The data at all three bands (24, 70, and 160um) are published here for the first time. Two sets of 24um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 March 20, the second set of data was obtained on 2004 April 11. Two sets of 70um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 April 12. The second set was obtained on 2005 April 4. Herschel/PACS 70um scan map observations of β Pic (PI G. Olofsson, observation IDs 1342186612 and 1342186613) were published by Vandenbussche et al. (2010A&A...518L.133V). We used the ALMA 870um continuum image previously published by Dent et al. (2014Sci...343.1490D). (1 data file).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1-20um observations of Herbig-Haro objects (Molinari+ 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, S.; Liseau, R.; Lorenzetti, D.

    1993-04-01

    For 58 exciting sources of Herbig-Haro objects/jets (HHES) we present a catalogue of photometric data for the infrared spectral bands JHKLMNQ (1-20 um). This catalog is based on our own observations and published information available up to May 1992. For each source, these data are presented in chronological order. In addition to the broad-band data, narrow-band N(8-13 um) photometric data are also provided. The flux calibration for each observational equipment is explicitly noted as the diaphragm sizes are used. The same kind of information for the established members of the FU Ori class is complementing the HHES catalogue. The frequency of observations and the photometric quality of the catalogued data are shortly discussed. (4 data files).

  5. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  6. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  7. Far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the quasar UM 675 with the faint object spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Lyons, Ronald W.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the far-UV spectral properties of a QSO and to look for evidence of He I 584 A emission and absorption the Faint Object Spectrograph aboard the HST was used to observed UM 675. Light is detected down to 520 A in the object in the rest frame and limits are set to He I emission, the He I Gunn-Peterson effect at z = 2.148, and Ly-alpha absorption at z roughly 0.5.

  8. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  10. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  11. The DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test Provides Risk Stratification and Individualized Patient Care in Uveal Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Harbour, J William; Chen, Royce

    2013-04-09

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary cancer of the eye and has a strong propensity for metastasis. Although there have been many recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of UM, and only 2-4% of patients present with detectable metastasis, up to half of patients are at risk for dying of metastatic disease. Clinicopathologic factors are not accurate enough for individualized patient care. Chromosomal alterations have been used for prognostic purposes, but the routine clinical use of these methods is limited by their susceptibility to sampling error resulting from tumor heterogeneity, limited clinical validation, lack of standardized testing platforms, and high technical failure rates. In contrast, the DecisionDx-UM gene expression profile test is a stand-alone platform which requires no other information for maximal prognostic accuracy and which circumvents many of the drawbacks of chromosomal methods through the use of a highly sensitive microfluidics, PCR-based platform that simultaneously measures the expression of 15 carefully selected genes from primary uveal melanoma samples obtained by fine needle biopsy. Low metastatic risk is reported as Class 1, and high metastatic risk as Class 2. The test allows patients to be stratified into risk categories such that high-risk patients can be offered intensive metastatic surveillance and adjuvant therapy while low-risk patients can be spared these interventions. This test is now used as part of the standard of care in many ocular oncology centers.

  12. UM-SCC-104: a new human papillomavirus-16 containing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice L.; Davis, Samantha J.; Owen, John H.; Graham, Martin P.; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Park, Jung Je; Walline, Heather; Stoerker, Jay; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Chepeha, Douglas; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines exist. We established UM-SCC-104, a new HPV(+) HNSCC cell linefrom a recurrent oral cavity tumor, and characterized it for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). METHODS Tumor cells were tested for biomarker expression by immunohistology and the presence of HPV was assessed by several methods. RESULTS UM-SCC-104 has a unique genotype, contains HPV-16 and expresses E6/E7. Inoculation of (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase) ALDH(+) and ALDH(−) cells in an immunocompromised mouse resulted in tumor growth from the ALDH(+) cells after 6 weeks that recapitulated the histology of the primary, while ALDH(−) cells did not produce tumors. CONCLUSIONS UM-SCC-104, a new HPV-16, CSC-containing HNSCC cell line will aid in studying recurrent HPV(+) tumors. The aggressive nature of this tumor is consistent with high uniform expression of EGFR and a functionally significant proportion of ALDH(+) CSC. PMID:22162267

  13. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus.

  14. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  15. Factors affecting the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes during oxidation with chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanhong; Shan, Yingchun; Yang, Xin

    2014-01-15

    Effects of water characteristics, reaction time, temperature, bromide and iodide ion concentrations, oxidant doses, and pH on formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THM) during oxidation of iodide-containing water with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) were investigated. Among the water samples collected from ten water sources, iodoform (CHI3) was the predominant I-THM and trace amount of chlorodiiodomethane (CHClI2) was occasionally found. CHI3 yields correlated moderately with specific UV absorbance (SUVA) (R(2)=0.79), indicating that hydrophobic aromatic content were important precursors. Longer reaction time led to continued formation of CHI3. I-THM containing bromide was also found in waters containing both bromide and iodide, but CHI3 was dominant. The formation of CHI3 was higher at 25°C than 5°C and 35°C. CHI3 formation showed an increase followed by a decrease trend with increasing ClO2 doses and iodide concentrations and the highest yields occurred at iodide to ClO2 molar ratios of 1-2. pH 8 resulted in the highest CHI3 formation. It should be noted that a high iodide concentration was spiked to waters before adding ClO2 and the results may not reflect the formation yields of iodinated THMs in real conditions, but they provide information about formation trend of I-THM during oxidation of ClO2.

  16. Mass analysis of trifluoro-iodo-methane in a Surface Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, J. A.; Greenwood, C. L.; Lundie, D. T.; Seymour, D. L.; Hiden Analytical Team

    2011-10-01

    Surface barrier discharges operated at atmospheric pressure are effective chemical reactors. Mass analysis of the reaction products is possible using suitable high pressure mass spectrometer systems. As an example of the behaviour of simple surface barrier reactor (SBDs), experiments on the decomposition of CF3I are described in which the output from the reactor is admitted via a capillary inlet system into a Hiden HPR20 mass spectrometer. The discharge was operated using helium as the carrier gas. The observed mass spectra are discussed in terms of the plasma dissociation and the subsequent ionisation of the dissociated products in the electron impact ionisation source of the mass spectrometer. When oxygen was added to the gas mixture in the SBD, CFxO species were generated in the plasma. Their influence on the observed mass spectra is shown. The results demonstrate aspects of the capabilities of SBDs for dissociating halocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure and the possibilities of direct mass spectrometric monitoring of such processes.

  17. Synthesis and biodistribution of [125I]iodo- and [75Se]seleno-ergoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sadek, S; Basmadjian, G; Patel, A

    1987-01-01

    (8 beta)-8-([125]Iodomethyl)-6-propylergoline (125I-3) was prepared by refluxing the mesyl analog with Na125I in methyl-ethyl-ketone, followed by HPLC, in a radiochemical yield greater than 70%. [75Se]Selenopergolide (75Se-2) was prepared in 74% yield starting with H75(2) SeO3. The biodistribution studies of the two compounds in male rats show good uptake by the adrenals and the brain. Compound 75Se-2 had higher adrenal uptake and adrenal-to-blood ratios (4.2% dose/g and 70:1) than 125I-3 (3.6% dose/g and 23.8:1) at 15 min post injection. The two compounds had almost equal brain uptake (0.91% dose/g for 75Se-2 and 1.14% dose/g for 125I-3), but 75Se-2 showed higher brain-to-blood ratios (15.2:1 vs 7.3:1) at 15 min post injection. This study indicates that 75Se-2 and 123I-3 may be useful agents for imaging the adrenal and the brain.

  18. Simple, Efficient and Controllable Synthesis of Iodo/Di-iodoarenes via Ipsoiododecarboxylation/Consecutive Iodination Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Lijuan; Deng, Guo-Jun; Gong, Hang

    2017-01-01

    A practical, efficient, and operationally simple strategy for the ipsoiododecarboxylation and di-iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids using the low-cost commercial reagent succinimide (NIS) as iodine source is reported. This iodination or di-iodination process can be easily controlled through reaction conditions, thereby providing corresponding iodination or di-iodination products with high yields. Furthermore, these two reactions can be easily scaled up to gram-scale by using palladium catalyst (0.66 mol%), which provides high isolated yield.

  19. Simple, Efficient and Controllable Synthesis of Iodo/Di-iodoarenes via Ipsoiododecarboxylation/Consecutive Iodination Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Lijuan; Deng, Guo-Jun; Gong, Hang

    2017-01-01

    A practical, efficient, and operationally simple strategy for the ipsoiododecarboxylation and di-iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids using the low-cost commercial reagent succinimide (NIS) as iodine source is reported. This iodination or di-iodination process can be easily controlled through reaction conditions, thereby providing corresponding iodination or di-iodination products with high yields. Furthermore, these two reactions can be easily scaled up to gram-scale by using palladium catalyst (0.66 mol%), which provides high isolated yield. PMID:28091536

  20. 2-Iodo-N-(2-nitro­phenyl­sulfan­yl)aniline

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Iván; Cárdenas, Alejandro; Mundaca, Aldo; López-Rodríguez, Matías; Reyes, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    In title compound, C12H9IN2O2S, the nitro group is rotated slightly, by 8.91 (3)°, out of the plane of the aromatic ring to which it is bonded. Between the two aromatic rings the CSN plane is at a dihedral angle of 84.0 (7)° to the HNC plane. Mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O inter­actions into a double helical supra­molecular architecture. There are no iodo–nitro, π–π or C—H⋯π(arene) inter­actions. PMID:21203107

  1. A 10-watt CW photodissociation laser with IODO perfluoro-tert-butane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher; Venable, Demetrius D.

    1989-01-01

    NASA has been investigating the feasibility of direct solar-pumped laser systems for power beaming in space. Among the various gas, liquid, and solid laser systems being proposed as candidates for solar-pumped lasers, the iodine photodissociation gas laser has demonstrated its potential for space application. Of immediate attention is the determination of system requirements and the choice of lasants to improve the system efficiency. The development of an efficient iodine laser depends on the availability of a suitable iodide which has favorable laser kinetics, chemically reversibility, and solar energy utilization. Among the various alkyliodide lasants comparatively tested in a long-pulse system, perfluoro- tert-butyl iodide, T-C4F9I, was found to be the best. However, the operating conditions for the laser medium in a continuously pumped and continuous-flow iodine laser differ considerably from those in the pulsed regime. The results of the continuous wave (CW)) laser performance from t-C4F9I are reported. Perfluoro- n-propyl iodide, n-C3F7I is used for comparison because of its universal use in photodissociation iodine lasers.

  2. Crystal structure of 7-iodo-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshinobu

    2016-12-01

    In the title compound, C10H5IO3, an iodinated 3-formyl-chromone derivative, the non-H atoms are essentially coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0344 Å), with the largest deviation from the least-squares plane [0.101 (3) Å] being found for the formyl O atom. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked through stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance between the benzene rings = 3.700 (3) Å] and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Halogen bonds between the I atoms at 7-position and the formyl O atoms [I1⋯O3 = 3.056 (2) Å, C6-I1⋯O3 = 173.18 (8)° and I1⋯O3-C10 = 111.12 (18)°] are also formed along [110], resulting in sheets perpendicular to the c axis, constructed by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and I⋯O halogen bonds.

  3. 6,8-Di-iodo-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbalde-hyde.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshinobu

    2014-05-01

    The title compound, C10H4I2O3, is an iodinated 3-formyl-chromone derivative, and the atoms are essentially coplanar [r.m.s. deviation = 0.049 Å, largest deviation from the least-squares plane = 0.111 (9) Å for the CH(=O) C atom]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into a three-dimensional network through halogen bonds [I⋯O = 3.352 (5) and 3.405 (7) Å, C-I⋯O = 144.2 (3) and 154.5 (3)°, and C=O⋯I = 134.9 (6) and 146.0 (6)°], and π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.527 (6) Å].

  4. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  5. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  6. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  7. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-04-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the za approximately equal ze absorption system of the ze = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at za = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from ze strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other za approximately equal ze absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 1018/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 1020/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link za approximately equal to ze systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the Ne VIII absorbing gas would itself produce measurable warm

  8. Sulforaphane retards the growth of UM-UC-3 xenographs, induces apoptosis, and reduces survivin in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqian; Shan, Yujuan

    2012-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that exists exclusively in cruciferous vegetables, may be the most promising preventive agent for bladder cancer (BC) to date. We previously observed that SFN dramatically inhibits human BC T24 cells in vitro. Our hypothesis is that SFN may attenuate BC growth. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the effect of SFN on human BC UM-UC-3 cell xenografts implanted into athymic mice. Sulforaphane extract was routinely prepared in our laboratory, and its content was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Athymic mice were injected subcutaneously with a UM-UC-3 cell suspension (2.0×10(6) cells/200 μL per mouse) and randomly divided into 2 groups. The positive control group was orally gavaged with water, and the treatment group was orally administered SFN from broccoli sprout (12 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. At the end of the experiment, tumor tissues were harvested and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. The average tumor volume decreased from 4.1±1.67 cm(3) in the positive control mice to 1.5±0.72 cm(3) in the SFN-treated mice, evidencing an inhibitory rate of 63%. The SFN extract also reduced the appearance of tumors, including karyopyknosis and angiogenesis. Sulforaphane extract induced caspase 3 and cytochrome c expression but reduced the expression of survivin. Sulforaphane extract retards the growth of UM-UC-3 xenografts in vivo, confirming its future potential in BC therapy.

  9. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M; Al Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods.

  10. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points

  11. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  12. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HI and 250um images of the Virgo cirrus (Bianchi+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S.; Giovanardi, C.; Smith, M. W. L.; Fritz, J.; Davies, J. I.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Baes, M.; Bocchio, M.; Boissier, S.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Casasola, V.; Clark, C. J. R.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Grossi, M.; Jones, A. P.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Pappalardo, C.; Ysard, N.; Zibetti, S.

    2016-10-01

    Images of the Virgo cirrus in the atomic gas HI emission and in the dust emission at 250um from Herschel-SPIRE. Two images are provided for HI emission from low velocity (LVC; -20km/sum: the observations, with large scale offsets removed; the model, obtained from the emissivity values derived in the paper and the two atomic gas maps; the residuals between observations and models. The three images have been obtained from observations/model/residuals for each of the four HeViCS fields, and combined in a single large scale map after removing field-to-field offsets; they are the same presented in Fig. 8 of the paper. In all cases the resolution is 4.8'. (2 data files).

  14. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  15. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  16. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  17. The challenge and scientific application of the CO2 4.3 um atmospheric limb emission of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Piccialli, A.; Giuranna, M.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A. A.; García-Comas, M.; González-Galindo, F.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Jiménez-Monferrer, S.

    2015-10-01

    The atmospheric fluorescent emissions of CO2 at 4.3- um have been observed in the daytime upper atmosphere of Mars from a limb geometry by the instruments OMEGA and PFS on board Mars Express [1, 8]. Initial analysis using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) models show that the emissions are well understood [7, 3, 6]. Yet they have not been exploited to derive important thermospheric parameters, like CO2 densities and temperatures. Our major goals are to improve current NLTE models with a joint study of OMEGA and PFS data, and to build an ambitious state-of-the-art NLTE retreival scheme for Mars. Recent progress has been made in these directions on Mars, Venus and Earth. We will present a summary of these efforts and the difficulties and expectatives for its application to the Mars Express data

  18. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  19. Occurrence and Mammalian Cell Toxicity of Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    An occurrence study was conducted to measure five iodo-acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid) and two iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs), (dichloroiodomethane and b...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 70um-1.2mm and N2H+ maps of IRDC18454 (W43) (Beuther+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Tackenberg, J.; Linz, H.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Ragan, S.; Nielbock, M.; Launhardt, R.; Schmiedeke, A.; Schuller, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Sakai, T.

    2011-11-01

    The cloud complex with a size of ~6'x6' was observed with PACS on Herschel on 2010 March 9. Maps at 250, 350, and 500um were obtained with SPIRE 2010) on 2010 March 11. We observed IRDC18454-1 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer during five nights in October and November 2009 at 93GHz in the C and D configurations. The N2H+ data has been observed using the BEARS receiver at the NRO 45m telescope in Nobeyama, Japan. The different velocity components have been observed one in April 2010 with an average system temperature of Tsys=206K, the second in June, at slightly lower Tsys. The MIPS 24um data (from MIPSGAL) as well as the IRAC 8um observations (from GLIMPSE) are taken from the Spitzer archive. The 1.2mm continuum data were first presented in Beuther et al. (2002, Cat. J/ApJ/566/945) and the APEX 870um data are part of the ATLASGAL survey of the Galactic plane (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S). (2 data files).

  1. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  2. Evaluation of high-resolution MetUM and AMPS forecasts of near-surface meteorological variables over Larsen C ice shelf and northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; King, John; Weeks, Mark; Gadian, Alan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Steffen, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution weather forecasts are an important tool for understanding the detailed patterns of surface melt on the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS), Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the skill of UK Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts with horizontal grid spacing of 4-5 km for a 1 month period during January-February 2011 by comparing near-surface model output to automatic weather station measurements at 5 sites on the LCIS and 3 on the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Forecasts for the range 12-24 h showed a fairly homogeneous performance over the LCIS. The 2 m temperature simulated by AMPS has a correlation with observations of 0.5-0.6 and a systematic cold bias of around -1 degrees centigrade. By comparison, the MetUM had a higher correlation and was less negatively biased. The simulated surface pressure has a correlation of 0.99 and small biases in both models. AMPS yielded better results than the MetUM for 10 m wind speed, being able to capture particularly well synoptically-driven high wind speeds which the MetUM systematically underestimated. Both models struggle to simulate the 10 m wind direction when the wind conditions are highly variable. The simulation of specific humidity by both models was poor. Both models showed a general reduction in performance over the northern Antarctic Peninsula compared to the LCIS. Extending the analysis to consider the 12-36 h forecast range demonstrated a relatively weak dependence of model skill to the length of the forecast. The study focuses particularly on the representation of foehn wind events, which are an important contributor to surface melt over the LCIS, by examining additional ~1 km scale forecasts using the MetUM.

  3. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the

  4. Datação do disco galáctico pela nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; Arany-Prado, L. I.

    2003-08-01

    A nucleocosmocronologia emprega abundâncias de nuclídeos radioativos na datação de escalas de tempo astrofísicas. O 232Th é um nuclídeo radioativo com meia-vida de 14 Gano, enquanto que os dois isótopos mais abundantes do Eu são estáveis. O decaimento radioativo do Th modifica as razões de abundâncias [Th/Eu], fornecendo assim um meio de sondar a escala de formação das populações estelares. O objetivo deste trabalho é averiguar a possibilidade de estimar uma idade para o disco Galáctico através da nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu] e investigar o nível de incerteza associado a esta estimativa. Para tanto, foi selecionada uma amostra de 20 estrelas anãs ou subgigantes de tipos espectrais F5 a G9, com -1,00 £ [Fe/H] £ +0,30 e idade(Gano) £ 13. As abundâncias de Th e Eu foram obtidas por síntese espectral das linhas localizadas em 4019,1 Å e 4129,7 Å, respectivamente. Uma comparação destas abundâncias com outros resultados da literatura demonstra que nossos valores apresentam dispersão 2 a 3 vezes menor que qualquer trabalho anterior. Os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias dos elementos que contaminam as regiões espectrais destas linhas foram determinados por nós, de maneira totalmente autoconsistente, através de análise espectral detalhada diferencial em relação ao Sol. As idades estelares individuais foram determinadas através de curvas isócronas teóricas no diagrama HR. Foi realizada, então, uma análise cronológica dos gráficos [Th/Eu] vs. [Fe/H] e [Th/Eu] vs. idade. Os dados estelares foram comparados a curvas calculadas para 3 idades do disco Galáctico - 9, 12, 15 Gano - e foi estudada a sensibilidade à idade assumida no cálculo do ajuste destas curvas aos dados. Estas curvas foram calculadas com base num modelo analítico de evolução química da Galáxia que leva em consideração a formação de refugos, que são compostos pelos remanescentes da evolução estelar, pelos resíduos da formação de estrelas de

  5. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form.

  6. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  7. Calcareous benthonic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition of Gebel Um El-Ghanayem, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Khalil, Hamza M.

    2014-08-01

    The studies of benthic calcareous foraminifera of the Maastrichtian-early Paleocene Dakhla Formation in Gebel Um El-Ghanayem (Western Desert, Egypt), improve reconstruction of depositional environments of these successions. In total, 68 taxa of benthic foraminifera were identified in the studied succession. The late Maastrichtian assemblages (Zone CF3) are dominated by calcareous foraminifera with tapered tests, this tapered taxon Loxostomum applinae, Lox. tegulatum various dentalinid taxa, and Buliminella cushmani dominate in CF3 Biozone. We thus interpret these faunas as being dominated by infaunal morphogroups, suggesting a moderately eutrophic environment. Danian assemblages are characterized by abundant epifaunal trochospiral species, such as Cibicidoides abudurbensis, Cibicidoides farafraensis, and Gyroidinoides girardanus. The infaunal morphogroups make up 25-47% of fauna in the Danian, in contrast to 62-76% in the Upper Maastrichtian. This dominance of the Danian benthic foraminiferal assemblages by epifaunal or mixed epifaunal/infaunal morphogroups suggests that the food supply to the benthos was less abundant than in the latest Cretaceous. The Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (K/Pg) is within the upper unit of the Lower Kharga Member and marked by a hiatus in at least the top of CF3 Zone of the Upper Maastrichtian to the Lower Paleocene (base Plc Zone).

  8. The Neoproterozoic Kolet Um Kharit bimodal metavolcanic rocks, south Eastern Desert, Egypt: a case of enrichment from plume interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    Neoproterozoic metavolcanic rocks of Kolet Um Kharit (KUKh) in the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt have been traditionally regarded as a bimodal island-arc sequence. However, geological and geochemical arguments presented here make this interpretation doubtful. Geochemically, these rocks are classified into mafic (tholeiitic basalts) and felsic (high-K rhyodacites to rhyolites) groups. Both the KUKh mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks show similar geochemical characteristics, implying a genetic link. They have comparable trace element ratios, such as Zr/Nb (27 30 vs. 20 36), Y/Nb (5.44 6.25 vs. 5.05 5.9), K/Rb (577 1164 vs. 573 937), Ba/La (4.29 25 9 vs. 11.4 16.2), Nb/Yb (1.82 2.03 vs. 1.76 1.99). Similarly both groups have parallel LREE-enriched patterns (La/YbCN=2.37 2.81 vs. 2.55 3.17); and negative Nb and Ta anomalies (Nb/Lapm=0.51 0.58 vs. 0.45 0.52 and Ta/Lapm=0.51 0.62 vs. 0.49 0.55). The observed negative Nb and Ta anomalies in the KUKh metavolcanic rocks cannot be attributed to crustal contamination or fractional crystallization. These rocks could represent either a remnant of break-up LIP or were derived from an enriched mantle source containing subduction components beneath an intraoceanic back-arc basin. The recognition of the KUKh rocks as derived from an enriched mantle source revives interest in models that involve enrichment from “plume” interaction during the evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  9. The NEUF-DIX space project - Non-EquilibriUm Fluctuations during DIffusion in compleX liquids.

    PubMed

    Baaske, Philipp; Bataller, Henri; Braibanti, Marco; Carpineti, Marina; Cerbino, Roberto; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Donev, Aleksandar; Köhler, Werner; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Vailati, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion and thermal diffusion processes in a liquid mixture are accompanied by long-range non-equilibrium fluctuations, whose amplitude is orders of magnitude larger than that of equilibrium fluctuations. The mean-square amplitude of the non-equilibrium fluctuations presents a scale-free power law behavior q(-4) as a function of the wave vector q, but the divergence of the amplitude of the fluctuations at small wave vectors is prevented by the presence of gravity. In microgravity conditions the non-equilibrium fluctuations are fully developed and span all the available length scales up to the macroscopic size of the systems in the direction parallel to the applied gradient. Available theoretical models are based on linearized hydrodynamics and provide an adequate description of the statics and dynamics of the fluctuations in the presence of small temperature/concentration gradients and under stationary or quasi-stationary conditions. We describe a project aimed at the investigation of Non-EquilibriUm Fluctuations during DIffusion in compleX liquids (NEUF-DIX). The focus of the project is on the investigation in micro-gravity conditions of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in complex liquids, trying to tackle several challenging problems that emerged during the latest years, such as the theoretical predictions of Casimir-like forces induced by non-equilibrium fluctuations; the understanding of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in multi-component mixtures including a polymer, both in relation to the transport coefficients and to their behavior close to a glass transition; the understanding of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in concentrated colloidal suspensions, a problem closely related with the detection of Casimir forces; and the investigation of the development of fluctuations during transient diffusion. We envision to parallel these experiments with state-of-the-art multi-scale simulations.

  10. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  11. The resolution sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon and its inter-model comparison between MRI-AGCM and MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Tomomichi; Johnson, Stephanie J.; Schiemann, Reinhard; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Mizuta, Ryo; Yoshida, Kohei; Osamu Arakawa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we compare the resolution sensitivity of the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) in two Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs): the MRI-AGCM and the MetUM. We analyze the MetUM at three different resolutions, N96 (approximately 200-km mesh on the equator), N216 (90-km mesh) and N512 (40-km mesh), and the MRI-AGCM at TL95 (approximately 180-km mesh on the equator), TL319 (60-km mesh), and TL959 (20-km mesh). The MRI-AGCM and the MetUM both show decreasing precipitation over the western Pacific with increasing resolution, but their precipitation responses differ over the Indian Ocean. In MRI-AGCM, a large precipitation increase appears off the equator (5-20°N). In MetUM, this off-equatorial precipitation increase is less significant and precipitation decreases over the equator. Moisture budget analysis demonstrates that a changing in moisture flux convergence at higher resolution is related to the precipitation response. Orographic effects, intra-seasonal variability and the representation of the meridional thermal gradient are explored as possible causes of the resolution sensitivity. Both high-resolution AGCMs (TL959 and N512) can represent steep topography, which anchors the rainfall pattern over south Asia and the Maritime Continent. In MRI-AGCM, representation of low pressure systems in TL959 also contributes to the rainfall pattern. Furthermore, the seasonal evolution of the meridional thermal gradient appears to be more accurate at higher resolution, particularly in the MRI-AGCM. These findings emphasize that the impact of resolution is only robust across the two AGCMs for some features of the ASM, and highlights the importance of multi-model studies of GCM resolution sensitivity.

  12. The Workload of the UMS Faculty. A Report to the Joint Chairs of the Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and the House Appropriations Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ. System Administration, Adelphi.

    This report provides the results of a study of faculty workloads in the University of Maryland System (UMS) during the 1994-95 academic year. It was found that 19,446 course units were taught by full-time (FT) faculty at degree-granting institutions, an increase of 158 course units from the previous year while the number of FT faculty decreased by…

  13. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  14. Connecting spatial and temporal scales of tropical precipitation in observations and the MetUM-GA6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Gill M.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Moise, Aurel F.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses tropical rainfall variability (on a range of temporal and spatial scales) in a set of parallel Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) simulations at a range of horizontal resolutions, which are compared with two satellite-derived rainfall datasets. We focus on the shorter scales, i.e. from the native grid and time step of the model through sub-daily to seasonal, since previous studies have paid relatively little attention to sub-daily rainfall variability and how this feeds through to longer scales. We find that the behaviour of the deep convection parametrization in this model on the native grid and time step is largely independent of the grid-box size and time step length over which it operates. There is also little difference in the rainfall variability on larger/longer spatial/temporal scales. Tropical convection in the model on the native grid/time step is spatially and temporally intermittent, producing very large rainfall amounts interspersed with grid boxes/time steps of little or no rain. In contrast, switching off the deep convection parametrization, albeit at an unrealistic resolution for resolving tropical convection, results in very persistent (for limited periods), but very sporadic, rainfall. In both cases, spatial and temporal averaging smoothes out this intermittency. On the ˜ 100 km scale, for oceanic regions, the spectra of 3-hourly and daily mean rainfall in the configurations with parametrized convection agree fairly well with those from satellite-derived rainfall estimates, while at ˜ 10-day timescales the averages are overestimated, indicating a lack of intra-seasonal variability. Over tropical land the results are more varied, but the model often underestimates the daily mean rainfall (partly as a result of a poor diurnal cycle) but still lacks variability on intra-seasonal timescales. Ultimately, such work will shed light on how uncertainties in modelling small-/short-scale processes relate to uncertainty in climate change

  15. Radiolabeled cycloSaligenyl Monophosphates of 5-Iodo-2′-deoxyuridine, 5-Iodo-3′-fluoro-2′, 3′-dideoxyuridine, and 3′-Fluorothymidine for Molecular Radiotherapy of Cancer: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kortylewicz, Zbigniew P.; Kimura, Yu; Inoue, Kotaro; Mack, Elizabeth; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina

    2012-01-01

    Targeted molecular radiotherapy opens unprecedented opportunities to eradicate cancer cells with minimal irradiation of normal tissues. Described in this study are radioactive cycloSaligenyl monophosphates designed to deliver lethal doses of radiation to cancer cells. These compounds can be radiolabeled with SPECT- and PET-compatible radionuclides as well as radionuclides suitable for Auger electron therapies. This characteristic provides an avenue for the personalized and comprehensive treatment strategy that comprises diagnostic imaging to identify sites of disease, followed by the targeted molecular radiotherapy based on the imaging results. The developed radiosynthetic methods produce no-carrier-added products with high radiochemical yield and purity. The interaction of these compounds with their target, butyrylcholinesterase, depends on the stereochemistry around the P atom. IC50 values are in the nM range. In vitro studies indicate that radiation doses delivered to the cell nucleus are sufficient to kill cells of several difficult to treat malignancies including glioblastoma, and ovarian and colorectal cancers. PMID:22339166

  16. Synthesis, electronic structure and catalytic activity of ruthenium-iodo-carbonyl complexes with thioether containing NNS donor ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Subrata; Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Biswas, Sujan; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The ruthenium carbonyl complexes 1 and 2 with redox noninnocent NNS donor ligand, 1-methyl-2-{(o-thiomethyl)phenylazo}imidazole (L) have been synthesized and characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis and 1H NMR) techniques. The complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 1.11 V for 1 and 0.76 V for 2 along with two successive one electron ligand reductions. Catalytic activity of the compounds has been investigated to the oxidation of PhCH2OH to PhCHO, 2-butanol (C4H9OH) to 2-butanone, 1-phenylethanol (PhC2H4OH) to acetophenone, cyclopentanol (C5H9OH) to cyclopentanone, cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone, cycloheptanol to cycloheptanone and cycloctanol to cycloctanone using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMO) as oxidant. The catalytic efficiency of 2 is greater than complex 1 and well correlate with the metal oxidation potential. DFT, NBO and TDDFT calculations in DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d)/lanL2TZ(f) method are employed to interpret the structural and electronic features of the complexes.

  17. Crystal and molecular structure of alpha-iodo-beta-chlorovinyl phenyl sulfone and ,US -dibromovinyl phenyl sulfone

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'skii, V.K.; Shainyan, B.A.; Mirskova, A.N.

    1986-09-01

    The authors discuss rearrangement and isomerization procedures occurring in the bromination, iodination, and chlorination of the title sulfones and assess their crystal and molecular structure using NMR spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  18. The ultraviolet spectrum of the gravitational lens candidate UM 425 = QSO 1120+019: Evidence for broad absorption line (BAL) structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelitsianos, A. G.; Oliversen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The UV line profile structure of high-ionization resonance lines found with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the brightest of four multiply imaged sources (images-A) in the candidate gravitational lens UM 425 = QSO 1120+019 indicates broad absorption line (BAL) structure. The deep-broad trough associated with the O IV line extends to velocities approiximately -12,000 km/s, and contains disrete features that suggest multicomponent velocity structure. This structure may include contributions from C IV absorption from the early-type galaxy that is believed to lens UM 425. A strong absorption feature in the blue wing of the Lyman-alpha lambda 1216 emission line may be a Lyman alpha absorption system at a Z(sub Ly alpha) = 1.437 +/- 0.003, or it may be formed by the superposition of the broad N V lambda lambda 1238, 1242 absorption trough on the extended blue emission wing of the QSO Lyman-alpha line. We obtained a redshift of Z(sub QSO) = 1.471 +/- 0.003 from Lyman-alpha lambda 1215, consistent with the redshift found by Meylan and Djorgovski in the optical. The Lyman-alpha line appears unusally weak due to the presence of N V lambda 1240 BAL absorption. A Lyman-limit absorption system at lambda 912 was not observed in the QSO rest frame. The detection of BAL structure in the other weaker ground-state resonance lines of N II (l) and S IV (l) was not found, suggesting these lines are formed in a region that is distinct from the BAL component. Detection of BAL structure in the other fainter images in this system with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instrumentation, similar to structure observed here in image A, could provide evidence that UM 425 is a gravitational lens.

  19. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  20. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  1. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  2. Spitzer And Herschel-based Seds Of 24um-bright z 0.3- 3.0 Starbursts And Obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajina, Anna; Yan, L.; Fadda, D.; Dasyra, K.; Huynh, M.

    2012-05-01

    A key legacy of Spitzer are the mid-IR spectra of high-redshift objects - which would not be available again until the JWST. Such spectra have been very useful for disentangling the contribution of AGN and star-formation to the observed dust emission. We have constructed a unique Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopic, nearly 24um flux-limited sample, of 191 sources at z 0.3-2.8 and with log(L_IR/L_sun) 11-13. The size and selection of the sample, allows us to study galaxy evolution from the perspective of the mid-IR where AGN are prominent. Indeed, mid-IR diagnostics suggest that 70% of our sample is AGN-dominated. Without far-IR data however, it is unclear to what degree this conclusion applies to the overall IR emission. Here we extend the earlier mid-IR studies to incorporate Herschel far-IR photometry and address the full IR SED of Spitzer 24um-selected galaxies. This allows for the overall AGN contribution to their power output to be estimated. This also allows for a direct comparison with other populations both locally and at high redshifts - ultimately placing the 24um-bright populations in the wider context of galaxy evolution. Our first conclusion is that indeed mid-IR studies alone underestimate the level of star-formation in these systems -- we now find that only 19% of the sample are AGN-dominated (i.e. where the AGN luminosity is at least 50% of the total L_IR). We also find that sources of comparable L_IR locally, are not good analogs to the our sources -- consistent for example with recent ideas of cold gas accretion vs. mergers as a means of triggering extreme starbursts. Since local sources are not good analogs to high redshift ones, we construct a set of IR SEDs templates for high redshift starbursts and obscured quasars. The templates are public and useful, among others, for interpreting the all-sky mid-IR data from WISE.

  3. An Enhancement of 160um-derived Star-Formation Rates in Active Galaxies to z = 3.2 with the ZFOURGE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Michael; Spitler, L.

    2016-08-01

    ZFOURGE is a new imaging survey, which employs unique near-infrared medium- band filters designed to probe galaxy properties over the last 12 billion years. By supplementing the high-quality ZFOURGE galaxy catalogues with data in radio, X- ray, and infrared wavebands, we have studied the complex interplay between AGNs and their host galaxies to a time when the Universe was only 10-15% of its present age. I will report on our study to compare the 160-um derived star-formation rates in active and non-active galaxies and show that AGN hosts, over all redshifts, tend to exhibit an elevated average star-formation activity compared to their non-active counterparts.

  4. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  5. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  6. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  7. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided.

  8. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  9. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) from 1.25-850um (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.-R.; Lee, C. W.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Kim, G.; Allen, L. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Spitzer Gould Belt Survey (GBS) is a project to survey about 21 square degrees of 11 nearby molecular clouds at 3.6-160um to provide a census of star formation in nearby large clouds (P.I. L. Allen). Spitzer has mapped a total of 11 molecular clouds, CMC, Chamaeleon I, Chamaeleon III, Musca, Lupus V, Lupus VI, Ophiuchus North, Aquila, CrA, Cepheus, and IC 5146 with the IRAC and MIPS between 2004 March and 2008 October. We utilized the data provided by the c2d/GBS projects (Evans et al. 2009, J/ApJS/181/321; Dunham et al. 2015, J/ApJS/220/11). There are two cloud complexes which were not listed in the c2d/GBS projects, but observed by other projects, the Taurus molecular clouds and the Orion molecular clouds. The Taurus molecular clouds have been observed over an area of ~44 square degrees by one of the GTO programs (P.I. D. Padgett) with the IRAC and the MIPS instruments. The Orion molecular clouds have been surveyed in ~9°2 area by Spitzer (P.I. T. Megeath). See section 2.1 for further details. Complementary archive infrared data were retrieved from 2MASS and Herschel PACS and SPIRE and JCMT SCUBA-2; see section 2.2. We observed our sources with the N2H+(1-0) line with the Korean Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (KVN) 21m radio telescopes from 2011 October to 2016 May for the northern hemisphere sources, and the Mopra 22m telescope in 2012 April for the southern hemisphere sources. See section 2.3 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  11. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  12. Tri-iodo thyronine regulates antioxidant enzyme activities in different cell fractions through a mechanism sensitive to actinomycin D in a teleost, Anabas testudineus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Saumya, S M; Sreejith, P; Vijayasree, A S; Divya, L; Manju, M; Oommen, O V

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of hyperthyroid state on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in the crude (CF), post nuclear (PNF) and mitochondrial fractions (MF) of the fish liver. The in vivo injection of T3 (200ng) did not change the lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD), while actinomycin D (10microg), a potent mRNA inhibitor when administered with T3 increased them. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) had an increased activity in CF and MF of hyperthyroid group to compete the increased oxidative stress, but actinomycin D partially inhibited the T3-induced activity. SOD and CAT activities in PNF of hyperthyroid group had no change, the glutathione concentration varied depending on the GPx and GR activity. Hyperthyroidism decreased the protein content, while simultaneous administration of actinomycin D inhibited the T3 action of elevating the protein content. The results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in A. testudineus is modulated by thyroid hormone, through an action sensitive to actinomycin D.

  13. Improved targeting of 5-[125I/131I]iodo-2‧-deoxyuridine to rat hepatoma by using lipiodol emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hung-Man; Yeh, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tien-Kui; Huang, Kuang-Liang; Chuang, Kuo-Tang; Liu, Ren-Shen; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Chen, Fu-Du; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Chen, Chin-Hsiung; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to assess whether emulsion of [ 125/131I]IUdR and lipiodol (IUdR/LP) can improve delivery of IUdR into hepatoma. MethodsIn vitro release profile of IUdR from IUdR/LP to serum was performed. IUdR/LP was injected into N1-S1 hepatoma-bearing SD rat via hepatic artery and IUdR/normal saline (IUdR/NS) was used for comparison. Biodistribution, autoradiography, imaging and tumor DNA incorporation assay were performed. The radioactive metabolites in plasma and urine were analyzed. Radiation doses to tumor and organs were estimated. ResultsIUdR released from lipiodol into serum was fast. There were longer retention, more DNA incorporation and higher radiation dose of IUdR in the tumor by using IUdR/LP. IUdR/LP deposited deep in the hepatomas. Only free iodide was found in the plasma and urine after injection of IUdR/LP. ConclusionsHepatic artery injection of IUdR/LP emulsion could definitely enhance the tumor cell uptake and incorporation to DNA of *IUdR, prolong the tumor retention time and increase radiation dose to tumor. IUdR/LP may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic tumors.

  14. Azido-iodo-N-benzyl derivatives of threo-methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta): Rational design, synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and dopamine transporter photoaffinity labeling.

    PubMed

    Lapinsky, David J; Velagaleti, Ranganadh; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Liu, Yi; Huang, Yurong; Surratt, Christopher K; Lever, John R; Foster, James D; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Deutsch, Howard M

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to tropane-based compounds such as benztropine and cocaine, non-tropane-based photoaffinity ligands for the dopamine transporter (DAT) are relatively unexplored. Towards addressing this knowledge gap, ligands were synthesized in which the piperidine nitrogen of 3- and 4-iodomethylphenidate was substituted with a benzyl group bearing a photoreactive azide. Analog (±)-3a demonstrated modest DAT affinity and a radioiodinated version was shown to bind covalently to rat striatal DAT and hDAT expressed in cultured cells. Co-incubation of (±)-3a with nonradioactive d-(+)-methylphenidate or (-)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (β-CFT, WIN-35,428, a cocaine analog) blocked DAT labeling. Compound (±)-3a represents the first successful example of a DAT photoaffinity ligand based on the methylphenidate scaffold. Such ligands are expected to assist in mapping non-tropane ligand-binding pockets within plasma membrane monoamine transporters.

  15. Azido-Iodo-N-Benzyl Derivatives of threo-Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta): Rational Design, Synthesis, Pharmacological Evaluation, and Dopamine Transporter Photoaffinity Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Lapinsky, David J.; Velagaleti, Ranganadh; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Liu, Yi; Huang, Yurong; Surratt, Christopher K.; Lever, John R.; Foster, James D.; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Deutsch, Howard M.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to tropane-based compounds such as benztropine and cocaine, non-tropane-based photoaffinity ligands for the dopamine transporter (DAT) are relatively unexplored. Towards addressing this knowledge gap, ligands were synthesized in which the piperidine nitrogen of 3- and 4-iodomethylphenidate was substituted with a benzyl group bearing a photoreactive azide. Analog (±)-3a demonstrated modest DAT affinity and a radioiodinated version was shown to bind covalently to rat striatal DAT and hDAT expressed in cultured cells. Co-incubation of (±)-3a with nonradioactive D-(+)-methylphenidate or (−)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (β-CFT, WIN-35,428, a cocaine analog) blocked DAT labeling. Compound (±)-3a represents the first successful example of a DAT photoaffinity ligand based on the methylphenidate scaffold. Such ligands are expected to assist in mapping non-tropane ligand-binding pockets within plasma membrane monoamine transporters. PMID:21129986

  16. UV photolysis of 4-iodo-, 4-bromo-, and 4-chlorophenol: Competition between C-Y (Y = halogen) and O-H bond fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, Alan G.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; King, Graeme A.; Murdock, Daniel; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2013-04-28

    The wavelength dependences of C-Y and O-H bond fission following ultraviolet photoexcitation of 4-halophenols (4-YPhOH) have been investigated using a combination of velocity map imaging, H Rydberg atom photofragment translational spectroscopy, and high level spin-orbit resolved electronic structure calculations, revealing a systematic evolution in fragmentation behaviour across the series Y = I, Br, Cl (and F). All undergo O-H bond fission following excitation at wavelengths {lambda} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 240 nm, on repulsive ((n/{pi}){sigma}*) potential energy surfaces (PESs), yielding fast H atoms with mean kinetic energies {approx}11 000 cm{sup -1}. For Y = I and Br, this process occurs in competition with prompt C-I and C-Br bond cleavage on another (n/{pi}){sigma}* PES, but no Cl/Cl* products unambiguously attributable to one photon induced C-Cl bond fission are observed from 4-ClPhOH. Differences in fragmentation behaviour at longer excitation wavelengths are more marked. Prompt C-I bond fission is observed following excitation of 4-IPhOH at all {lambda}{<=} 330 nm; the wavelength dependent trends in I/I* product branching ratio, kinetic energy release, and recoil anisotropy suggest that (with regard to C-I bond fission) 4-IPhOH behaves like a mildly perturbed iodobenzene. Br atoms are observed when exciting 4-BrPhOH at long wavelengths also, but their velocity distributions suggest that dissociation occurs after internal conversion to the ground state. O-H bond fission, by tunnelling (as in phenol), is observed only in the cases of 4-FPhOH and, more weakly, 4-ClPhOH. These observed differences in behaviour can be understood given due recognition of (i) the differences in the vertical excitation energies of the C-Y centred (n/{pi}){sigma}* potentials across the series Y = I < Br < Cl and the concomitant reduction in C-Y bond strength, cf. that of the rival O-H bond, and (ii) the much increased spin-orbit coupling in, particularly, 4-IPhOH. The present results provide (another) reminder of the risks inherent in extrapolating photochemical behaviour measured for one molecule at one wavelength to other (related) molecules and to other excitation energies.

  17. Extraction spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in natural waters and aluminium alloys using pyridyl azo resorcinol (PAR) and iodo-nitro-tetrazolium chloride (INT).

    PubMed

    Gavazov, K; Simeonova, Z; Alexandrov, A

    2000-06-30

    Extraction-spectrophotometric methods are developed for the determination of vanadium content in natural waters and aluminium alloys. They are based on the formation and subsequent extraction into chloroform of the ternary ion association complex of V(V) with PAR and INT in the presence of CDTA and NH(4)F as masking agents. Optimum pH range of the reaction is 5.5-7.5. Maximum absorbance of the extracted complex is at 560 nm. The method for determination of V(V) in drinking waters can be successfully applied at a concentration level of 3 ppb and higher without additional pre-concentration. Among studied more than 30 foreign ions potentially present in natural waters only Ca(II) can interfere. It is removed by precipitation as CaF(2) and filtration. A 40-fold excess of V(IV) does not interfere with determination of V(V) and can also be determined indirectly (after oxidation to V(V)). The proposed method is applied to analysis of model mixtures as well as to the analysis of tap and mineral waters. Beer's law is obeyed for up to 15 mug of V(V) in 40 ml aqueous phase. The accuracy and precision are reasonable. The RSD is in the range 6.5-23.2% for determination of 6.3 ppb V(V). The procedure for analysis of aluminium alloys differs from the procedure for analysis of waters by the order of introduction of the reagents. The macrocomponent does not interfere and is not separated. Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ti and Zr do not interfere. A 25-fold excess of Ni interferes. The method is tested in the analysis of reference standards containing 0.005 and 0.007% V, respectively. The RSD is 1.4%.

  18. Correlation of hetorogeneous blood flow and uptake of a di-methyl-branched IODO fatty acid in the normal and ischemic dog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Sloof, G.W.; Visser, F.C.; Comans, E.F.I. |

    1995-05-01

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) is heterogeneously distributed in normal and ischemic myocardium (myoc). Methylated iodinated fatty acids, like 15-(p-I-125-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPPA) can be used to study fatty acid metabolism with SPECT. We studied the relationship between DMIPPA uptake and MBF. In 10 open-chest dogs, ischemica was induced in the LAD coronary artery by an extra-corporal bypass system. MBF was measured with Sc-46 labeled microspheres. Fourty min. after DMIPPA iv. (34{plus_minus}4 MBq), hearts were excised and left ventricles were cut into 120 pieces, weighed and radioactivities counted. MBF and DMIPPA uptake were determined by counting in normal and ischemic myoc. Heterogeneity is expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) and agreement as the CV of the DMIPPA uptake to MBF ratio. A control study, normal flow in LAD, in 4 dogs revealed no differences in MBF or DMIPPA uptake between the cannulated versus native perfused myoc. We conclude the DMIPPA detects ischemia, in which it shows a different relation with MBF compared to normal myoc. DMIPPA is less heterogeneously distributed than MBF and agreement between MFB and DMIPPA uptake decreases during ischemia.

  19. New iodo-acetamido cyanines for labeling cysteine thiol residues. A strategy for evaluating plasma proteins and their oxido-redox status.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Grilli, Stefano; Candiano, Giovanni; Fabbroni, Serena; Della Ciana, Leopoldo; Petretto, Andrea; Santucci, Laura; Urbani, Andrea; Gusmano, Rosanna; Scolari, Francesco; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2009-01-01

    Two new iodoacetamide-substituted cyanines, C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3, were synthesized starting from hemicyanine and were utilized for labeling plasma proteins. Specificity, sensitivity and feasibility for SH residues was tested utilizing an equimolar mixture of standard proteins and with normal plasma. Oxidized plasma proteins following H(2)O(2 )exposure and plasma from patients with focal glomerulosclerosis were analyzed as models of altered protein oxido-redox status. Following optimization of the assay (dye/protein ratio, pH), C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3 gave a sensitivity slightly better than N-hydroxysuccinimidyl dyes for plasma proteins and were successfully employed for differential display electrophoresis (DIGE). Twenty-nine proteins were detected in normal plasma after 2-DE while less proteins were detected in plasma of patients with glomerulosclerosis. Following massive 'in vitro' oxidation with H(2)O(2), C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3 failed to detect any residual SH, implicating massive oxidation. In conclusion, this study describes the synthesis of two new iodoacetamide cyanines that can be utilized for the analysis of plasma proteins with 2-DE and DIGE. They are also indicated for the definition of the oxido-redox status of proteins and were successfully utilized to extend the analysis of oxidation damage in patients with glomerulosclerosis.

  20. The spectroscopic characterization, photochromism of cadmium(II)-iodo complexes of 1-alkyl-2-(arylazo)imidazoles and DFT computation of representative complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Chandana; Nandi, Avijit; Mallick, Debashis; Mondal, Sudipa; Sarker, Kamal Krishna; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2015-02-01

    [Cd(Raai-CnH2n+1)(μ-I)I]2 and [Cd(Raai-CnH2n+1)2I2] are synthesized by the reaction of CdI2 with 1-alkyl-2-(arylazo)imidazole (Raai-CnH2n+1, n = 4, 6, 8) in MeOH in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio of salt and ligands, respectively. The complexes have been characterized by spectral data (UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, Mass). The coordinated Raai-CnH2n+1 shows photochromism, E(trans)-to-Z(cis) isomerisation, upon UV light irradiation. The reverse process, Z-to-E, is very slow in visible light irradiation process while the reaction is sensitive to change of reaction temperature. The quantum yields (ϕE→Z) for E-to-Z and the activation energy (Ea) of Z-to-E isomerisation are calculated and found that the complexes show subordinate results compared to free ligand. DFT computations of two representative complexes were carried out to explain the spectral and photochromic phenomena.

  1. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  2. Macrocyclic lactones: A versatile source for omega radiohalogenated fatty acid analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A.H.; Lyster, D.M.; Robertson, K.A.; Vincent, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    For each omega halogenated fatty acid there exists a potential omega hydroxy fatty acid and the corresponding macrocyclic lactone. The authors have utilized such lactones as starting materials for omega /sup 123/I fatty acid analogs intended for myocardial imaging. Macrocyclic musk lactones are industrially available; 120 analogs are described in the literature. The preparation requires saponification, tosylation, and radio-iodide substitution. Iodo-fatty acids are readily separated from tosylate fatty acids on TLC. While providing a secure source of 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid and 17-iodo-heptadecanoic acid, the scheme allows ready access to a large number of untried fatty acid analogs. Examples presented are 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-7-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-12-oxa-hexadecanoic acid, 15-iodo-pentadecanoic acid, and 15-iodo-12-keto-pentadecanoic acid. Metabolic studies are in progress in mice and dogs to assess the utility of these analogs for myocardial imaging.

  3. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  4. Ultrawide bandwidth 1.55-um lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Paul A.; Tanbun-Ek, Tawee; Logan, Ralph A.; Ackerman, David A.; Shtengel, Gleb E.; Yadvish, R. D.; Sergent, A. M.; Sciortino, Paul F., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the essential elements for creating a practical wide bandwidth directly modulated laser source. This includes considerations of the intrinsic limitations of the laser structure, due to the resonant frequency and damping of the laser output, together with carrier transport issues to allow carriers in the device active region to be efficiently modulated at high speeds. the use of a P-doped compressively strained multiple-quantum well active region to provide high intrinsic speed and remove transport limitations is described, together with record setting results of 25 GHz modulation bandwidth for a 1.55 micrometer Fabry-Perot laser and 26 GHz bandwidth for a 1.55 micrometer DFB laser. The challenges of providing high bandwidth electrical connections to the laser on a suitable submount, together with fiber attachment and microwave packaging, are discussed. Results of fully packaged 1.55 micrometer DFB lasers with 25 Ghz modulation bandwidth are shown. Digital modulation of the packaged 1.55 micrometer DFB including impedance matching is described, and the transient wavelength chirp is presented. This low chirp is reduced further using an optical filter, to provide a 10 GBit/s source with chirp similar to that of an external electroabsorption modulator.

  5. Formation of Toxic Iodinated Disinfection By-Products from Compounds Used in Medical Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical cen...

  6. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODINATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  7. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  8. (9S,13R,14S)-7,8-Didehydro-4-(4-iodo-benz-yloxy)-3,7-dimeth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinan-6-one monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-Liang; Jiang, Ning-Fei

    2010-10-20

    In the title compound, C(26)H(28)INO(4)·H(2)O, benzene rings are inclined at a dihedral angle of 69.9 (1)°. The N-containing ring exhibits a chair conformation, while the other rings approximate to envelope conformations. In the crystal, the uncoordinated water mol-ecule forms inter-molecular O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  9. Effect of immunomodulation on the fate of tumor cells in the central nervous system and systemic organs of mice. Distribution of (/sup 125/I)5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled KHT tumor cells after left intracardial injection

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, F.K.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of systemic immunomodulation on tumor cell arrest and retention in the central nervous system was studied by following radioactively labeled tumor cells. KHT mouse sarcoma tumor cells were labeled in vitro with (/sup 125/I)IdUrd, and 1x10/sup 5/ tumor cells were injected into the left side of the hearts of syngeneic C3H mice. Experimental groups consisted of untreated normal mice, mice pretreated iv with Corynebacterium parvum, and mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii; in this model both groups of immunomodulated mice are protected from developing systemic metastatic tumor, but only Toxoplasma-infected mice have protection against metastatic brain tumor. At time intervals from 1 to 96 hours, groups of mice from each experimental group were killed, and the brain and other organs were monitored for radioactivity to determine the number of viable tumor cells that had been present at the time of death. Normal mice demonstrated significant retention of tumor cells in the brain and kidneys plus adrenals at 96 hours. By contrast, in both groups of immunomodulated mice tumor cells were rapidly eliminated from systemic organs, but tumor cells were significantly retained in the central nervous system even at 96 hours after tumor cell injections. The results indicated that generalized immunomodulation had more effect in elimination of tumor cells from systemic organs than from the brain and that the elimination of tumor cells from the brain in Toxoplasma-infected mice was a delayed phenomenon.

  10. Crystal structure of [(2R,3R,4S)-3,4-bis(acet­yloxy)-5-iodo-3,4-di­hydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]methyl acetate

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Caracelli, Ignez; Stefani, Hélio A.; Shamim, Anwar; Tiekink, Edward R.T.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C12H15IO7, the 3,4-di­hydro-2H-pyran ring is in a distorted half-boat conformation with the atom bearing the acet­yloxy group adjacent to the C atom bearing the methyl­acetate group lying 0.633 (6) Å above the plane of the remaining ring atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0907 Å). In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into a supra­molecular chain along the a axis through two C—H⋯O inter­actions to the same acceptor carbonyl O atom; these chains pack with no specific inter­molecular inter­actions between them. PMID:25705505

  11. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  12. Comparative research on medicine application with 0.53-um, 1.06-um, and 1.32-um Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahua; Li, Zhenjia; Zhu, Changhong; Huang, Yizhong

    1996-09-01

    Because of its high power and excellent optical features, laser has almost been applied to everywhere of medical research and clinic. Over the past several years, laser medical has achieved a rapid progress, and laser medical instruments has developed promptly, each new wavelength can be successfully applied in diagnostic and treatment of diseases. Among the medical lasers, Nd:YAG solid-state laser systems have proven useful in surgical use operate, such as neurosurgery, gastroenterology, cardioangiology, urology, gynecology, dermatology and ENT. As with other solid-state lasers, the Nd:YAG laser can be made to emit various wavelengths by means of suitable resonator configurations and some newest solid-state laser technology, pumped by the Krypton lamp, the Nd:YAG laser at room temperature exhibits transition at 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG, using nonlinear crystal and Q-switch to double its frequency can attain 0.53 micrometer green beam. In our laser systems, the efficiency at 1.06 micrometer is more than 3 percent, an efficiency of 0.5 percent at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can be attained. For a power of 100w at 1.06 micrometer, 15w at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can therefore be produced. All of three kinds Nd:YAG laser hold these characteristics: high output power; optical fiber transition that can be cooperated with endoscope. The paper mainly discusses laser operating characteristics and clinic applications of three kinds wavelengths at 0.53 micrometer 1.06 micrometer and 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG laser systems.

  13. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  14. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  15. Grant UM1CA167462 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. High-sensitivity (25-um pitch) microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Asbrock, James F.; Lum, Nancy A.; Kennedy, Adam; Wyles, Jessica; Hewitt, C.; Graham, Glen E.; Horikiri, Tad; Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chin, Richard; Kostrzewa, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    RIO has achieved a significant technical breakthrough in uncooled FPAs by reducing the pixel size by a factor of two while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity. Raytheon has produced high-quality 320 by 240 micro bolometer FPAs with 25 micrometers pitch pixels. The 320 by 240 FPAs have a sensitivity that is comparable to micro bolometer FPAs with 50 micrometers pixels. The average NETD value for these FPAs is about 35 mK with an f/1 aperture and operating at 30 Hz frame rates. Good pixel operability and excellent image quality have been demonstrated. Pixel operability is greater than 99 percent on some FPAs, and uncorrected responsivity nonuniformity is less than 4 percent. The micro bolometer detectors also have a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. This state-of-the-art performance has been achieved as a result of an advanced micromachining fabrication process. The process allows maximization of both the thermal isolation and the optical fill-factor. The reduction in pixel size offers several potential benefits for IR systems. For a given system resolution requirement, the 225 micrometers pixels allow a factor of two reduction in both the focal length and aperture size of the sensor optics. The pixel size reduction facilitates a significant FPA cost reduction since the number of die printed on a wafer can be increased. The pixel size reduction has enabled the development of a large-format 640 by 512 FPA array applicable to wide-field-of-view, long range surveillance and targeting missions, and a 160 by 128 array where applications for miniaturization and temperature invariance are required as well as low cost and low power.

  17. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  18. Handling a Tricky Verb: Es handelt sich um "handeln".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn-Osius, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to establish a practical approach to teaching the various meanings of the German verb "handeln". Exercises that aid advanced students in understanding the verb's meaning include a complete list of all possible meanings of the verb, as well as sample sentences using the verb in a wide range of contexts. (LMO)

  19. Spatial deconvolution of IRAS galaxies at 60 UM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Using IRAS in a slow scan observing mode to increase the spatial sampling rate and a deconvolution analysis to increase the spatial resolution, several bright galaxies were resolved at 60 micron. Preliminary results for M 82, NGC 1068, NGC 3079 and NGC 2623 show partially resolved emission from 10 to 26 arcsec., full width at half maximum, and extended emission from 30 to 90 arcsec. from the center. In addition, the interacting system, Arp 82, along with Mark 231 and Arp 220 were studied using the program ADDSCAN to average all available survey mode observations. The Arp 82 system is well resolved after deconvolution and its brighter component is extended; the two most luminous objects are not resolved with an upper limit of 15 arcsec. for Arp 220.

  20. IUE ultraviolet observations of W UM a Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Preston, S.

    1981-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of four W UMa eclipsing binary systems (44 Boo, VW Cep, W UMa, and epsilon) are discussed. The stars generally show large surface fluxes of high temperature lines (C II, C IV, N V, Si IV) which may result from the high rotational velocities forced by synchronous rotation. High dispersion spectra of the 44 Boo system in the Mg II line enable the individual stellar components to be identified. The line widths and phase variations are consistent with the optically determined spectroscopic orbit. Circumstellar absorption of Mg II may be presented at selected phases.

  1. Thermal levitation of 10 um size particles in low vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Long Fung Frankie; Kowalski, Nicholas; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report on experimental methods for trapping 10 micron-sized ice, glass, ceramic and polyethylene particles with thermophoresis in medium vacuum, at pressures between 5 Torr and 25 Torr. Under appropriate conditions particles can launch and levitate robustly for up to an hour. We describe the experimental setup used to produce the temperature gradient necessary for the levitation, as well as our procedure for generating and introducing ice into the experimental setup. In addition to analyzing the conditions necessary for levitation, and the dependence of levitation on the experimental parameters, we report on the behavior of particles during levitation and ejection, including position and stability, under different pressures and temperatures. We also note a significant discrepancy between theory and data, suggesting the presence of other levitating forces.

  2. Astronomy around 1700. (German Title: Astronomie um 1700)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    The book focuses on Gottfried Kirch und Olaus Römer, two scholars who played a leading role in astronomy around 1700. It contains an annotated edition of the letter by Gottfried Kirch to Olaus Römer of October 25, 1703. Kirch was the astronomer of the Berlin Academy of Sciences since 1700, recognized both as astronomical calculator and as observer - Römer was director of the Copenhagen Observatory and was the first who determined the speed of light. Kirch's letter to Römer of October 1703, given here together with several addenda, was not a letter in the modern sense, but a treatise of broad contents, dealing with different astronomical items of that time: the problem of determining stellar and planetary positions, the subjective view on contemporaries, the methods of astronomical calculations, the discovery of comets and other questions are described in Kirch's vivid words. Numerous annotations by the editor explain the astronomy of that time. The editor leads the reader step by step through the methods of astronomical calculations, which become clear and understandable. A complete bibliography of works by and about Kirch and a list of known archival sources are added.

  3. Grant UM1CA182883 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  5. Electronically modified amine substituted alkynols for regio-selective synthesis of dihydrofuran derivatives.

    PubMed

    V, Vijay; Karkhelikar, Manjusha V; Sridhar, B; Mirzadeh, Nedaossadat; Bhargava, Suresh; Likhar, Pravin R

    2016-01-07

    An efficient and simple approach has been developed for the regio-selective synthesis of iodo-substituted dihydrofurans from amine substituted alkynols. The resulting iodo-substituted dihydrofurans have been further diversified by C-C couplings and C-N coupling reactions to afford a diverse range of substituted dihydrofuran derivatives.

  6. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  7. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  8. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  9. Derivativation of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter using a novel forskolin photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Wadzinski, B.; Shanahan, M.; Ruoho, A.

    1987-05-01

    An iodinated photoaffinity label for the glucose transporter, 3-iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-0-succinyldeacetyl-forskolin (IAPS-Fsk), has been synthesized, purified, and characterized. The K/sub i/ for inhibition of 3-0-methylglucose transport by TAPS-Fsk in human erythrocytes was found to be 0.1 uM. The carrier-free radioiodinated label has been shown to be a highly specific photoaffinity label for the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. Photolysis of erythrocyte membranes with 1-10 nM (I-125)IAPS-Fsk and analysis by SDS-PAGE showed specific derivatization of a broad band with an apparent molecular weight of 40-70 kDa. Photoincorporation using 2 nM (I-125)IAPS-Fsk was protected with D-glucose, cytochalasin B, and forskolin. No protection was observed with L-glucose. Endo-B-galactosidase digestion and trypsinization of (I-125)IAPS-Fsk labelled erythrocytes reduced the specifically radiolabelled transporter to 40 kDa and 18 kDa respectively. (I-125)-IAPS-Fsk will be used to study the structural aspects of the glucose transporter.

  10. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  11. Crystal structures of 3-fluoro-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide, 3-bromo-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide and 3-iodo-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Suchetan, P. A.; Suresha, E.; Naveen, S.; Lokanath, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compounds, C14H9F4NO, (I), C14H9BrF3NO, (II), and C14H9F3INO, (III), the two benzene rings are inclined to one another by 43.94 (8)° in mol­ecule A and 55.66 (7)° in mol­ecule B of compound (I), which crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, but by only 10.40 (12)° in compound (II) and 12.5 (2)° in compound (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules to form chains propagating along the a-axis direction for (I), and along the b-axis direction for (II) and (III). In the crystal of (I), –A–B–A–B– chains are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (010). Within the layers there are weak offset π–π inter­actions present [inter­centroid distances = 3.868 (1) and 3.855 (1) Å]. In the crystals of (II) and (III), the chains are linked via short halogen–halogen contacts [Br⋯Br = 3.6141 (4) Å in (II) and I⋯I = 3.7797 (5) Å in (III)], resulting in the formation of ribbons propagating along the b-axis direction. PMID:27308050

  12. Crystal structures of 3-fluoro-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide, 3-bromo-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide and 3-iodo-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide.

    PubMed

    Suchetan, P A; Suresha, E; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K

    2016-06-01

    In the title compounds, C14H9F4NO, (I), C14H9BrF3NO, (II), and C14H9F3INO, (III), the two benzene rings are inclined to one another by 43.94 (8)° in mol-ecule A and 55.66 (7)° in mol-ecule B of compound (I), which crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, but by only 10.40 (12)° in compound (II) and 12.5 (2)° in compound (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules to form chains propagating along the a-axis direction for (I), and along the b-axis direction for (II) and (III). In the crystal of (I), -A-B-A-B- chains are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (010). Within the layers there are weak offset π-π inter-actions present [inter-centroid distances = 3.868 (1) and 3.855 (1) Å]. In the crystals of (II) and (III), the chains are linked via short halogen-halogen contacts [Br⋯Br = 3.6141 (4) Å in (II) and I⋯I = 3.7797 (5) Å in (III)], resulting in the formation of ribbons propagating along the b-axis direction.

  13. Radiolabeled 5-Iodo-3′-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2′-deoxyuridine and Its 5′-Monophosphate for Imaging and Therapy of Androgen Receptor-Positive Cancers: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kortylewicz, Zbigniew P.; Nearman, Jessica; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina

    2014-01-01

    High levels of androgen receptor (AR) are often indicative of recurrent, advanced, or metastatic cancers. These conditions are also characterized by a high proliferative fraction. 5-Radioiodo-3′-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2′-deoxyuridine 8 and 5-radioiodo-3′-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2′-deoxyuridin-5′-yl monophosphate 13 target AR. They are also degraded intracellularly to 5-radioiodo-2′-deoxyuridine 1 and its monophosphate 20, respectively, which can participate in the DNA synthesis. Both drugs were prepared at the no-carrier-added level. Precursors and methods are readily adaptable to radiolabeling with various radiohalides suitable for SPECT and PET imaging, as well as endoradiotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies confirm the AR-dependent interactions. Both drugs bind to sex hormone binding globulin. This binding significantly improves their stability in serum. Biodistribution and imaging studies show preferential uptake and retention of 8 and 13 in ip xenografts of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells NIH:OVCAR-3, which overexpress AR. When these drugs are administered at therapeutic dose levels, a significant tumor growth arrest is observed. PMID:19653647

  14. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  15. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  16. Iron- and cobalt-catalyzed arylation of azetidines, pyrrolidines, and piperidines with Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Barré, Baptiste; Gonnard, Laurine; Campagne, Rémy; Reymond, Sébastien; Marin, Julien; Ciapetti, Paola; Brellier, Marie; Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2014-12-05

    Iron- and cobalt-catalyzed cross-couplings between iodo-azetidines, -pyrrolidines, -piperidines, and Grignard reagents are disclosed. The reaction is efficient, cheap, chemoselective and tolerates a large variety of (hetero)aryl Grignard reagents.

  17. Properties of Interstellar Medium In Infrared-bright QSOs Probed by [O i] 63 um and [C ii] 158 um Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Yan, Lin; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the host galaxies of nine QSOs at 0.1 < z < 0.2 with black hole masses of 3× {10}7 {M}⊙ to 3× {10}9 {M}⊙ based on the far-IR spectroscopy taken with Herschel Space Observatory. We detect the [O i] 63 μm ([C ii] 158 μm) emission in 6 (8) out of 8 (9) sources. Our QSO sample has far-infrared luminosities ({L}{{FIR}}) ˜ several times {10}11{L}⊙ . The observed line-to-{L}{{FIR}} ratios ({L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} and {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}{{FIR}}) are in the ranges of 2.6 × 10-4 to 10-2 and 2.8 × 10-4 to 2 × 10-3, respectively (including upper limits). These ratios are comparable to the values found in local ULIRGs, but higher than the average value published so far for z\\gt 1 IR-bright QSOs. One target, W0752+19, shows an additional broad velocity component (˜720 km s-1) and exceptionally strong [O i] 63 μm emission with {L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} of 10-2, an order of magnitude higher than the average value found among local (U)LIRGs. Combining with the analyses of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we conclude that the [O i] 63 μm emission in these QSOs is unlikely excited by shocks. We infer that the broad [O i] 63 μm emission in W0752+19 could arise from the warm and dense ISM in the narrow-line region of the central active galactic nucleus. Another possible explanation is the existence of a dense gas outflow with {n}{{H}}˜ {10}4 cm-3, where the corresponding broad [C ii] emission is suppressed. Based on the far-IR [O i] and [C ii] line ratios, we estimate constraints on the ISM density and UV radiation field intensity of {n}{{H}}≲ {10}3.3 cm-3 and {10}3\\lt {G}0≲ {10}4.2, respectively. These values are consistent with those found in local Seyfert 1 ULIRGs. In contrast, the gas with broad velocity width in W0752+19 has {n}{{H}}≳ {10}4.3 cm-3 and {G}0\\gt {10}4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  19. Mild steels coated with 14% manganese covered electrodes (E7-UM-200-K and E1-UM-350): Phenomena at the steel-coating interface

    SciTech Connect

    Molleda, F. . E-mail: fmolleda@etsin.upm.es; Mora, J.; Molleda, F.J.; Carrillo, E.; Mora, E.; Mellor, B.G.

    2006-12-15

    In this work the authors have studied the phenomena in the interface of the coating made on soft carbon steel with electrodes with a high content of manganese. The study has been done with scanning electron microscope and X-rays mapping images. These images show how the alloy elements are distributed in each of the constituent elements presented in the interface, and the nature of these constituents. These results have allowed us to verify that many of the problems that arise in homogeneous joints, as such localised corrosion, low interface resistance, etc., happened, precisely in these regions. As a help to determine the nature of the constituent elements, microhardness measurements have also been made.

  20. Formation of toxic iodinated disinfection by-products from compounds used in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Duirk, Stephen E; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher C; Kormos, Jennifer; Ternes, Thomas A; Attene-Ramos, Matias; Osiol, Jennifer; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D

    2011-08-15

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical centers to enable imaging of soft tissues (e.g., organs, veins, blood vessels) and are designed to be inert substances, with 95% eliminated in urine and feces unmetabolized within 24 h. ICM are not well removed in wastewater treatment plants, such that they have been found at elevated concentrations in rivers and streams (up to 100 μg/L). Naturally occurring iodide in source waters is believed to be a primary source of iodine in the formation of iodo-DBPs, but a previous 23-city iodo-DBP occurrence study also revealed appreciable levels of iodo-DBPs in some drinking waters that had very low or no detectable iodide in their source waters. When 10 of the original 23 cities' source waters were resampled, four ICM were found--iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, and diatrizoate--with iopamidol most frequently detected, in 6 of the 10 plants sampled, with concentrations up to 2700 ng/L. Subsequent controlled laboratory reactions of iopamidol with aqueous chlorine and monochloramine in the absence of natural organic matter (NOM) produced only trace levels of iodo-DBPs; however, when reacted in real source waters (containing NOM), chlorine and monochloramine produced significant levels of iodo-THMs and iodo-acids, up to 212 nM for dichloroiodomethane and 3.0 nM for iodoacetic acid, respectively, for chlorination. The pH behavior was different for chlorine and monochloramine, such that iodo-DBP concentrations maximized at higher pH (8.5) for chlorine, but at lower pH (6.5) for monochloramine. Extracts from chloraminated source waters with and without iopamidol, as well as from chlorinated source waters with iopamidol, were the most cytotoxic samples in mammalian cells. Source waters with iopamidol but no

  1. Fluorescent charge-assisted halogen-bonding macrocyclic halo-imidazolium receptors for anion recognition and sensing in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Fabiola; Caballero, Antonio; White, Nicholas G; Claridge, Tim D W; Costa, Paulo J; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2012-07-18

    The synthesis and anion binding properties of a new family of fluorescent halogen bonding (XB) macrocyclic halo-imidazolium receptors are described. The receptors contain chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-imidazolium motifs incorporated into a cyclic structure using naphthalene spacer groups. The large size of the iodine atom substituents resulted in the isolation of anti and syn conformers of the iodo-imidazoliophane, whereas the chloro- and bromo-imidazoliophane analogues exhibit solution dynamic conformational behavior. The syn iodo-imidazoliophane isomer forms novel dimeric isostructural XB complexes of 2:2 stoichiometry with bromide and iodide anions in the solid state. Solution phase DOSY NMR experiments indicate iodide recognition takes place via cooperative convergent XB-iodide 1:1 stoichiometric binding in aqueous solvent mixtures. (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopic titration experiments with a variety of anions in the competitive CD(3)OD/D(2)O (9:1) aqueous solvent mixture demonstrated the bromo- and syn iodo-imidazoliophane XB receptors to bind selectively iodide and bromide respectively, and sense these halide anions exclusively via a fluorescence response. The protic-, chloro-, and anti iodo-imidazoliophane receptors proved to be ineffectual anion complexants in this aqueous methanolic solvent mixture. Computational DFT and molecular dynamics simulations corroborate the experimental observations that bromo- and syn iodo-imidazoliophane XB receptors form stable cooperative convergent XB associations with bromide and iodide.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 891 70-500um images (Hughes+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, T. M.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Smith, M.; Parkin, T.; Gentile, G.; Bendo, G.; Wilson, C.; Allaert, F.; Bianchi, S.; De Looze, I.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Clements, D.; Davies, J.; Galametz, M.; Madden, S.; Remy-Ruyer, A.; Spinoglio, L.

    2014-02-01

    We present new, reduced Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron observations of NGC 891 taken has part of the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey (P.I.: C. Wilson) and an additional PACS 100 micron image taken from the Herschel EDGE-on galaxy Survey (P.I.: E. Murphy). The PACS 70, 100 and 160 observations were reduced with the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) v.11.0.1 with PACS Calibration v.32 and Scanamorphos v.22.0 (Roussel, 2013PASP..125.1126R). The SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron observations data were reduced with HIPE v.11.0.12 including the latest calibration due for inclusion in HIPE v.12.0 (Bendo et al., 2013MNRAS.433.3062B), and BriGAdE (Smith, in preparation). Complete details on the data reduction may be found in the paper. Image properties are summarised in images.dat. Please note that the FITS images presented here do not include the calibration factors to account for extended sources, nor colour corrections as described in the paper. The raw data can be retrieved from the Herschel Science Archive (ESA). (2 data files).

  3. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WISE and HIP 22um excess stars (Wu+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.-J.; Wu, H.; Lam, M.-I.; Yang, M.; Wen, X.-Q.; Li, S.; Zhang, T.-J.; Gao, L.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a catalog that includes 141 bright candidates (<=10.27mag, V band) showing an excess of infrared (IR) at 22μm. Of these 141 candidates, 38 stars are known IR-excess stars or disks, 23 stars are double or multiple stars, and 4 are Be stars while the remaining more than 70 stars are identified as 22 μm excess candidates in our work. The criterion for selecting candidates is Ks-[22]μm. All these candidates are selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky data cross-correlated with the Hipparcos main catalog and the likelihood-ratio technique is employed. Considering the effect of background, we introduce the IRAS 100μm level to exclude the high background. We also estimate the coincidence probability of these sources. In addition, we present the optical to mid-IR spectral energy distributions and optical images for all the candidates, and give the observed optical spectra of six stars with the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences' 2.16m telescope. To measure for the amount of dust around each star, the fractional luminosity is also provided. We also test whether our method of selecting IR-excess stars can be used to search for extra-solar planets; we cross-match our catalog with known IR-excess stars with planets but found no matches. Finally, we give the fraction of stars showing excess IR for different spectral types of main-sequence stars. (2 data files).

  5. U.S. Court of Claims Deposition of Kish um us tubbee. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondo, Richard A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the expulsion of the Choctaw Indians from their lands in the U.S. southeast as a result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Provides a lesson plan using a primary source document along with accompanying discussion questions. Includes a three-page letter that is the deposition of a Choctaw Indian protesting removal. (CFR)

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGN 2.5-11um spectroscopy (Clavel+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, J.; Schulz, B.; Altieri, B.; Barr, P.; Claes, P.; Heras, A.; Leech, K.; Metcalfe, L.; Salama, A.

    2000-03-01

    We present observations over the 2.5-11μm range, with the ISOPHOT-S spectrometer and the ISOCAM imaging camera, of a sample of 57 AGNs and one non-active SB galaxy. The sample is about equally divided into type I (<=1.5 28 sources) and type II (>1.5 29 sources) objects. (4 data files).

  7. CSHELL: a high spectral resolution 1-5 um cryogenic echelle spectrograph for the IRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Toomey, Douglas W.; Carr, Jonathan B.

    1993-10-01

    A 1 - 5.4 micrometers Cryogenic Echelle Spectrograph (CSHELL) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility is described. It achieves a resolving power of 5,000 to 40,000 using slits ranging from 4.0' to 0.5' in width and 30' long. It operates in a single-order long-slit mode, and a circular variable filter is used as an order sorter. Two infrared arrays are employed to achieve spectral coverage from 1 - 5.4 micrometers : a 256 X 256 HgCdTe NICMOS-3 array for 1 - 2.5 micrometers and a SBRC 58 X 62 InSb array for 2.8 - 5.4 micrometers . A closed- cycle cooler is employed to keep the optics and supporting structure at 73 K and to maintain the detectors at their proper operating temperatures. The entire spectrograph fits within an envelope of 64 cm X 35 cm X 27 cm. The instrument is controlled by a microcomputer mounted on the telescope, but the observer commands the instrument from a UNIX X Windows workstation on the Internet. This use of the Internet for communication between instrument control and user interface computers facilitates remote observing. A limiting magnitude of 12.3 mag is achieved for S/N equals 10 in 1 hour integration time, at resolving power of 20,000 at 2.2 micrometers wavelength.

  8. A Room-Temperature Semiconductor Spaser Operating Near 1.5 um

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-22

    optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010). 4. D . E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D ...2010). 6. D . J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent...waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1211–1221 (2007). 16. M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D . A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon III 870um sources maps (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Parise, B.; Schuller, F.; Andre, P.; Bontemps, S.; Menten, K. M.

    2011-06-01

    The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon III molecular cloud displayed in Fig. 2 is available at CDS in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (1 data file).

  10. Peculiarities of coagulation action of IR lasers (1-3 um) radiation on cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Yuri D.; Boiko, Ernest V.; Volkov, Venjamin V.; Danilichev, Vladimir F.; Ganin, Dmitry V.; Gatzu, Andrey F.; Smirnov, Nicolay N.; Lazo, Victor V.; Tkachuk, Alexandra M.

    1996-04-01

    Antiviral, antibacterial, antitumoral effects of laser coagulation are now of great importance in clinical ophthalmology for different corneal diseases treatment. One can note, that nowadays solid-state free-mode pulsed near-and-mid-infrared lasers with the 1.3 - 3.0 micrometers wavelengths may become widespreadly accepted in this field of ophthalmosurgery. The corneal tissue absorption coefficients for these wavelengths are lying from some parts to several thousand cm-1. Thus, by proper selection of laser wavelength, possibility is appeared to coagulate precisely the seat of pathological alterations without damaging of more deeper, non changed corneal tissue. In our work the comparative experimental study results of rabbit cornea coagulation after exposure with using of different IR lasers (with 1.32; 1.54; 1.96; 2.09 and 2.84 micrometers wavelengths) are presented. Pulse duration was about 10-3 s. The subthreshold, threshold and superthreshold energy levels were studied. Threshold energies were registered if slightly noticed coagulative changes appeared in exposed volume of corneal tissue. The cornea response resulting from laser radiation exposure was evaluated by clinical examination, slit lamp biomicroscopy, light microscopy, fluorescent staining and biochemistry. For all wavelengths initial damage was found within the cornea layers. Superthreshold injury revealed the same picture except that for 1.32 micrometers the threefold increase of the threshold energy caused additionally iris injury. The damages of the cornea were marked near the surface, stretched to more deeper layers, and damage zones were extended from the epithelium for 2.84 micrometers wavelength to whole cornea thickness for 1.32 and 1.54 micrometers wavelengths and have intermediate position for 1.96 and 2.09 micrometers wavelengths, depending on the corneal absorption coefficient. Quantitative results of threshold energy levels were calculated by probit-analysis. The radiant exposure (HD50), that cause the threshold coagulation changes in cornea with 50% probability was determined for the beam diameter (irradiance diameter) of 2 mm and for 1.32; 1.54; 1.96; 2.09 and 2.84 micrometers wavelengths. Values determined were (2.4 +/- 0.2) X 10; 7.2 +/- 0.6; 2.9 +/- 0.5; 3.7 +/- 0.2; (1.9 +/- 0.4) X 10-1 J/cm2. These values are well-correlated to corneal absorption coefficients. The absorption coefficient the higher, the value HD50 the lower and the `danger' for ocular structures damage also the lower. This fact is needed to be taken into account, because of normative documents did not reflect it in 1.3 - 3.0 micrometers wavelength range. The obtained results may be used for development of new clinical laser applications and refinement of the laser safety standards.

  11. Fracture analysis and its relation to radioactivity around Gebel Um Risha, south eastern desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khateeb, S. O.; El Akraby, A. M.

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of radioactive fracture patterns prevailing in the study area revealed that there are a number of tectonic trends which show abnormal radioactivity. These trends can be arranged according to the degree of their importance as NW, NE, EW and NS. Meanwhile, they are applied in delineating interesting structural features that may serve as favourable loci of economic radioactive mineral deposits. Correlation of these radioactive fracture patterns with those deduced from surface geological map of the study area exhibits a good agreement assuring the importance of aeroradiometric survey data as an excellent tool in structural mapping.

  12. Optical detector selection for 1.5-um KTP OPO atmospheric lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamidipudi, Priyavadan; Killinger, Dennis K.

    1999-05-01

    A 1.5 micron wavelength KTP OPO Lidar system has been developed and used to study the sensitivity and the system signal-to-noise ratio for hard target and atmospheric aerosol lidar returns. Optimization of the receiver system was studied that included the use of different sizes, types of detectors, and the effect of laser beam quality factor, M2, on the telescope overlap function. Detectors that were studied included several different sizes of InGaAs APDs, direct photodetectors, a transferred-electron intensified photodiode (TE-IPD), and a PMT. The influence of the diffraction or beam quality factor (M2) of the OPO laser was studied and found to have a significant influence on the overlap of the transmit and receiver field of view. This overlap function is also influenced by the size of the lidar detector since a large M2 value can overfill the detector/telescope field of view so that small (high speed) detectors may be subject to a large reduction in the lidar signal. The size of the photodiodes and APDs used in the initial OPO lidar experiments were of the order of 0.1 mm to 2 mm, while the TE-IPD and the PMT are larger in acceptance area. Some initial experimental measurements with the photodetectors and APD, and projected theoretical comparisons with the TE-IPD and PMT detectors have been made.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dimethyl sulfide laboratory um, mm & FIR spectra (Jabri+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, A.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Tchana, F. K.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-02-01

    DMS was purchased from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Karlsruhe, Germany and used without further purification. The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. (3 data files).

  14. New semiconductor diode laser emitting at 2 um for microsurgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, Pier Giorgio; Ragazzi, D.; Azzolini, Claudio; Trabucchi, Giuseppe; Brancato, Rosario

    1996-01-01

    A surgical laser instrument is presented, based on a semiconductor diode emitting in the spectral region around 2 micrometer, in continuous mode. At this wavelength tissue absorption is via histological water, and the interaction is purely thermal. A portable laser station was built, emitting up to 250 mW of optical power at 1.94 micrometers, out of the tip of a low- hydroxil fused-silica optical fiber of 200 micrometer diameter. Experiments have been performed both in vitro with enucleated porcine eyes and in vivo, on rabbits and rats. In vitreo-retinal surgery, retinectomies and incisions of epiretinal fibrotic membranes have been achieved. At reduced output power the laser radiation has been applied to the welding of tissues, in particular cornea, sclera and skin, with interesting results. This new laser source, characterized by ergonomic advantages like compactness, portability, long lifetime, reduced maintenance, is potentially attractive for a number of microsurgical procedures like micro- incisions, shallow coagulations, and welding of hydrated biological membranes.

  15. Development of a 2.8 um film for scientific balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagami, T.; Isas/Jaxa Balloon Team

    Development of a balloon flying at higher altitudes is one of the most attractive trials in scientific balloon technologies. In 2002, the ISAS balloon group have succeeded in flying a balloon up to the altitude of 53.0 km using a balloon with a volume of 60,000 m^3 made of an ultra-thin polyethylene film with a thickness of 3.4 μm. To go to higher altitudes, it is necessary to make the balloon film much lighter. We started to develop the thinnest film within the current technology. We have made a special die for molding a thin polyethylene film, and formed a film with a thickness of 3.0 μm and a width of 110 cm. Using this film, we have manufactured a balloon with 5,000 m^3 in volume and succeeded in flying the balloon up to an altitude of 47.1 km. Then, we tried to make a thinner film changing the resin density and succeeded in forming a film with a thickness of 2.8 μm and a width of 140 cm. We are going to perform a balloon experiment in this early summer. In this paper, our approach to the 2.8 μm film and the result of the balloon experiment will be described.

  16. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used...

  17. Matching of Bragg condition of holographic phase gratings in 1.3-1.5um region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Hamalainen, Rauno M.

    1991-10-01

    The spectral diffraction efficiency of phase holograms depends on refractive index modulation, grating spacing, and the thickness of a holographic grating, e.g., the refractive index modulation of the dichromatic gelatin grating (DCG) can be increased so that the diffraction efficiency of 90% measured in Bragg angle without refractive index matching can be achieved in the recording wavelength. The use of the same holographic grating in longer wavelength regions in accordance with the Bragg condition demands the refractive index matching. In our applications, holographic phase gratings in hololens form (HOL) are used as a wavelength selective elements in conventional optical multi-/demultiplexing (mux/demux) applications, where various wavelengths are multiplexed to the detectors needed. On the other hand, the novel applications of the HOL element used as a monochromator in the external cavity construction of a semiconductor laser according to the refractive index matching the Bragg condition are theoretically investigated in the wavelength region from 1.3 micrometers to 1.5 micrometers .

  18. Porcine dermal lesions produced by 1.3um laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Winston, Golda C. H.; Burton, Margaret B.; Greene, Willie L.

    2003-07-01

    An increasing number of industries, to include military, medicinal, and technological arenas, are using 1.3 micron laser systems for which current skin and eye guidelines are identical. No skin threshold, ED50 or exposure data are available. The mechanisms of laser-tissue interaction with skin at 1.3 microns are unknown. Together, these facts necessitate increased research to prevent future laser accidents and injuries. This study examines the method of interaction of 1.3 microns laser light with tissue in the Yorkshire pig. Our research addresses laser-tissue interaction through delivery using a Nd:YAG with an intracavity filter producing 1.3 micron light at 0.5 millisecond exposure time and in the range of 137 to 475 J/cm2. Laser exposure to Yorkshire pigs was evaluated for dermal lesion development. Lesions were appraised for acute, one-hour and 24-hour post exposure presentation.

  19. Application of 2-um wavelength holmium lasers for treatment of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Klimov, Igor V.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Nerobeev, Alexander I.; Sadovnikova, Lija B.; Eliseenko, Vladimir I.

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of the efficiency of application of 2 micrometers pulsed holmium laser for cosmetic and plastic surgery and dermatology is carried out. Preliminary experiments were carried out on rats. Solid state 2 micrometers pulsed laser was allowed to operate in free running mode with pulse energy up to 1.5 J and pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz. To deliver emission to the object a flexible quartz fiber without further focusing of 2.5 m in length and 400 micrometers of the core diameter was used. The effect of the different power density emission on the skin was studied. The second stage was the study of the influence of 2 micrometers emission on human skin. The results of the removal of hemangioma, papilloma, telangiectasia, nevus, nevus acantholytic, xanthelasma palpebral, verruca, chloasma, pigmental spots, tattoos, etc. are presented. Precision, simplicity, efficiency, and the high cosmetic effect of these operations is noted.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon I 870um sources (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Schuller, F.; Parise, B.; Andre, P.; Hatchell, J.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Bontemps, S.; Weiss, A.; Menten; K. M.; Muders, D.

    2011-01-01

    Table 2 lists the sources extracted with GAUSSCLUMPS from the filtered 870 micron continuum emission map of Chamaeleon I obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. These sources are listed in the order in which they were found by GAUSSCLUMPS, i.e. roughly in order of decreasing peak flux density. The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud is available in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (6 data files).

  1. Infrared 3-4 um Spectroscopic Investigation of a Large Sample of Nearby Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-27

    servable with small air masses from Mauna Kea , Hawaii, our main observing site. These selection criteria result in 24 ULIRGs classified optically as... Observatory , 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan; masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp C. C. Dudley Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division...data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. 2 Visiting Astronomer at the Infrared Telescope

  2. "Um, They Weren't Thinking about Their Thinking": Children's Talk about Issues of Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

    2008-01-01

    This article presents first and second grade children's talk about issues of language diversity and culture. Children focus on the issue of oppression and initially examine oppressors in their talk within literature circles across a year in a Sheltered English Immersion classroom. Drawing on a critical literacy framework and anti-bias perspective,…

  3. 250 um inner diameter hollow waveguide for Er:YAG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Katsumasa; Matsuura, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    Advanced application of Er:YAG laser radiation in medical treatment requires a suitable, very precise delivery of this light to a target. In some cases (urology, cardiology, or endodontic treatments), thin waveguides are needed. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted with 250/360 μm inner/outer diameter hollow glass waveguides. The waveguide has inner coating made from cyclic olefin polymer and silver layers. All delivery systems were simple and consisted of lens, protector, and the waveguide. The laser source was the Er:YAG system working in a free-running regime and generating radiation at 2.94 μm wavelength. For testing, output laser energy up to 100 mJ with a repetition rate of 1 Hz was chosen. The output laser spatial profile was approximately TEM00 mode, so the structure changes behind the delivery system were readily detected. The energy delivery characteristics were also checked, and the transmission reached 77%. The maximum input fluence into the waveguide was 200 mJ/cm2, and no significant damages to waveguides were observed after the measurements.

  4. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature and timing of paleoclimatic events in the Arctic Ocean. In order to attempt to answer some of these questions, baseline studies are imperative. This report discusses the distribution of benthic foraminifers in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores (figs. 1 and 2, table 1) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). A modern data set of benthic foraminiferal distribution is necessary for interpreting the paleoclimatic and oceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Alors...euh...on parle francais? (So...um...Shall We Speak French?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith G.; Ishikawa, Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Describes a one-semester conversational course taught at Harvard University designed to teach basic oral communication skills in French with the main emphasis on teaching students to pause while speaking. (AM)

  6. Single-mode planar optics for 4-20um wavelengths astronomical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, E.; Kern, P.; Schanen, I.; Rousselet-Perraut, K.

    2002-06-01

    Single-mode planar optics for 4-20 micrometers wavelengths astronomical interferometry. Spatial filtering is a critical issue to achieve nulling interferometry in the framework of spatial missions aimed at the detection of exoplanets. Several working interferometric instruments take benefits of guided optics for spatial filtering in the near IR wavelengths and thus provide accurate visibility measurements. Futhermore planar optics would also provides beam combining functions within a single compact and stable device. Existing telecom technology allows beam combiner realizations for 0.8 to 1.6 micrometers wavelengths. Last works allow us to valid these technologies up to 2.4 micrometers for stellar interferometry in the H and K bands. Technological developments are required to meet the scientific domain of the spatial missions like IRSI/DARWIN and TPF dedicated to thermal infrared wavelengths [4-20 micrometers]. We present the most promising materials with their technologies to manufacture single-mode planar optics for this wavelength range. First set of solutions involved chalcogenide glasses. Channel waveguides could be manufactured by photo-exposition method or thin layer etching process. Another solution is using porous silicon obtained from an acid dissolution of a silicon substrate which allows refractive index modulation. The last set of solution is based on thin films etching of semiconductor materials like silicon, germanium, zinc sulfide and zinc selenide.Test benches for the single-mode behavior are also presented. For each solutions, we present some manufactured waveguides with their optical characterizations.

  7. [The life story of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo: Quincas, Um berro à vida].

    PubMed

    Zancan, Lenira; Matida, Álvaro Hideyoshi

    2015-10-01

    The article seeks to reflect on the contribution of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo (1936-1993) to the field of public health relating his life story and his scientific production with core issues of education and health, present in his time and which remain in debate to this day. His contribution resulted in the production of new meanings for health practices, with the understanding as social and transdisciplinary phenomena. Based on conversations with co-authors and friends and rereading of his texts, it was decided to approach his biography from: (i) his skills and participation in initiatives and practices of preventive medicine and popular education, which fomented the critical analysis of health education; (ii) his presence as an educator in public health courses throughout the country, eliciting the deconstruction of the theories and practices of education and health with managers, students, professionals and teachers; (iii) his availability for transdisciplinary dialogue with the humanities and social sciences in the search for "epistemological sutures" between reason and passion, capable of responding to the dilemmas and challenges of healthcare work. These three trajectories indicate that the performance of "Quincas" must be understood from his restlessness as a health professional and educator, engaged in the production of knowledge and practices related to the complexity of the phenomenon of life.

  8. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  9. Earth's spectral albedo from 0.5 to 4.4 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanes-Rodrig, P.; Palle, E.; Goode, P. R.; Koonin, S. E.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed spectroscopic earthshine data to determine Earth's nightly spectral albedos covering the visible, near and middle infrared spectral ranges. Observations in the visible were undertaken from Palomar Observatory with the spectrograph in the Palomar 60" telescope and with the echelle spectrograph of the InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The observing runs were chosen near the quarter moon to reduce the background glow produced by the moonshine (bright side of the Moon). Although observations were taken on different nights, the similarity of lunar phases and comparable cloud cover conditions for the monitored part of the Earth's surface, allow us to derive, for the first time, an apparent albedo of the Earth covering the entire spectral range from 0.5 to 4.4 microns.

  10. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MIPS 24um calibrators (Engelbracht+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbracht, C. W.; Blaylock, M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rho, J.; Rieke, G. H.; Muzerolle, J.; Padgett, D. L.; Hines, D. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Kelly, D. M.; Latter, W. B.; Hinz, J. L.; Misselt, K. A.; Morrison, J. E.; Stansberry, J. A.; Shupe, D. L.; Stolovy, S.; Wheaton, W. A.; Young, E. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Wachter, S.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Frayer, D. T.; Marleau, F. R.

    2014-07-01

    The data were all obtained using the MIPS small-field photometry mode astronomical observation template (AOT). For most targets, two cycles of photometry using 3s exposures were obtained, resulting in 14 individual images at each of two telescope nod positions (excluding the short exposure that starts the data-taking sequence at each of the two telescope nod positions). Starting with the raw data downloaded from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC), these data were processed using version 3.06 of the MIPS Data Analysis Tool (DAT; Gordon et al., 2005PASP..117..503G), which performs standard processing of infrared detector array data (slope fitting, dark subtraction, linearity correction, flat fielding, and mosaicking), as well as steps specific to the array used in MIPS (droop correction and dynamic range extension using the first difference frame) -- these steps are described in more detail in the paper. (5 data files).

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Dematiaceous Coelomycete Pyrenochaeta sp. Strain UM 256, Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Soo-Hoo, Tuck Soon; Na, Shiang Ling; Ong, Seong Siang; Hassan, Hamimah; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Hoh, Chee Choong; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2013-05-30

    Pyrenochaeta, classified under the order Pleosporales, is known to cause diseases in plants and humans. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a Pyrenochaeta sp. isolated from a skin scraping, with an estimated genome size of 39.4 Mb. Genes associated with the synthesis of proteases, toxins, plant cell wall degradation, and multidrug resistance were found.

  13. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ˜16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ˜6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  14. Experimental study of biological effect by Nd:YAP laser (1.34um)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effect of different power, irradiation time of Nd: YAP laser (1341nm). Method: The canine skin, bronchia, stomach, bladder, uterus were irradiated with different irradiation power and time. The effect was observed by naked eyes, light microscope, and electric microscope. Result: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, the thermal coagulation dose reaching deep derma was 5W 4s, 10w 1s;the thermal coagulation dose puncturing the whole layer was 5W, 6s, 10W, 4s; the thermal coagulation dose reaching whole stratum was 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s, 40-60W 1s on stomach (Thickness 6mm), was 40W, 2s, 30W, 3s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 6s on bladder (Thickness 6mm ,irradiation underwater), was 10W, 4s on bronchia (Thickness 2 mm) and was 30W 3s, 20W 5s, 10W 6s on uterus (Thickness 6mm). Conclusion: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, it is safe when the dose is 5W, and the irradiating time is less than 4s; the dose is 10W, and the irradiating time is less than 1 s. Under these conditions, the gastric area is used to coagulating and ablating. It is safe when the dose is less than 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s. Under these condition, The bladder (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated. It is safe when the dose is no more than 40W, 1s, 30W, 2s, 20W, 3s, 10W, 5s.Under the condition where bronchia (thickness 2mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 10W, 3s.Under the condition where uterus (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 30W, 2s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 5s.

  15. Characterization of iodinated disinfection by-products in chlorinated and chloraminated waters using Orbitrap based gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; Cojocariu, Cristian I; Richardson, Susan D; Silcock, Paul J; Barcelo, Damia

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) have opened up the possibility to use the high resolution-accurate mass (HRAM) Orbitrap mass analyzer to further characterize the volatile and semivolatile fractions of environmental samples. This work describes the utilization of GC Orbitrap MS technology to characterize iodine-containing disinfection by-products (iodo-DBPs) in chlorinated and chloraminated DBP mixture concentrates. These DBP mixtures were generated in lab-scale disinfection reactions using Llobregat river water and solutions containing Nordic Lake natural organic matter (NOM). The DBPs generated were concentrated using XAD resins, and extracts obtained were analyzed in full scan mode with the GC Orbitrap MS. Integration of high resolution accurate mass information and fragment rationalization allowed the characterization of up to 11 different iodo-DBPs in the water extracts analyzed, including one new iodo-DBP reported for the first time. Overall, formation of iodo-DBPs was enhanced during chloramination reactions. As expected, NOM characteristics and iodide and bromide content of the tested waters affected the amount and type of iodo-DBPs generated.

  16. Potential cerebral perfusion agents: synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated vinylalkylbarbituric acid analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Callahan, A.P.; Cunningham, E.B.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    A new iodinated barbiturate has been prepared. Treatment of 5-chloropentyne and propargyl bromide with diethyl 2-ethyl-2-sodiomalonate (DESM) provided diethyl 2-ethyl-2-(1-pentyn-5-yl)malonate (3) and diethyl 2-ethyl-2-propargylmalonate (4), respectively. Similar condensation of DESM with (E)-(5-iodo-1-penten-1-yl)boronic acid (9) or the reaction of catecholborane with 3 provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-borono-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (8). The direct sodium iodide-chloramine-T iodination of 8 or the treatment of (E)-1,5-diiodo-1-pentene (10) with DESM provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (11). The condensation of functionalized malonates 3, 4, and 11 with urea in the presence of a base provided the corresponding barbiturates, 5-ethyl-5-(1-pentyn-5-yl)-(5), 5-ethyl-5-propargyl- (6), and (E)-5-ethyl-5-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)barbituric acid (12), respectively. (E)-6-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylic acid (13) was isolated as the hydrolytic byproduct of 11. Compound 13 decarboxylated under vacuum to provide ethyl (E)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylate (14). The /sup 125/I-labeled congeners of 12 and 13 were synthesized in the same manner and evaluated in rats. The barbiturate 12 exhibited significant brain uptake (approximately 1% dose after 5 min), demonstrating that iodinated barbiturates freely cross the intact blood-brain barrier.

  17. Receptor binding and cell-mediated metabolism of (/sup 125/I)monoiodoglucagon by isolated canine hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hagopian, W.A.; Tager, H.S.

    1984-07-25

    A reverse-phase HPLC method has been developed to purify /sup 125/I-labeled products resulting from the chloramine-T-based iodination of glucagon. In addition the products ((/sup 125/I)iodoTyr/sup 10/ /sup 13/)glucagon, ((/sup 125/I)iodoTyr/sup 13/)glucagon, and ((/sup 125/I)iodoTyr/sup 10/)glucagon) have been used to study the receptor binding of glucagon and the cell-mediated metabolism of the hormone by isolated canine hepatocytes. It was concluded that (a) not withstanding apparent differences in affinities exhibited by the three peptides, the interactions with the glucagon receptor are functionally equivalent, and (b) the cell-mediated metabolism of receptor-bound glucagon involves the formation of hormone-derived peptides in which the biologically important NH/sub 2/-terminal region of the hormone has been modified by limited proteolytic cleavage.

  18. GTE_TRACEP_P3B Parameters 8

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-02-19

    ... (-90, 90)(-180,180) Parameters:  FSSP integral number 0.3 um <= Dp <= 1.0 um 1.0 um <= Dp <= 20.0 um 0.3 um <= Dp <= 20.0 um FSSP integral surface area 0.3 um <= Dp <= 1.0 um 1.0 um <= Dp <= 20.0 um ...

  19. Synthesis of an X-ray opaque biodegradable copolyester by chemical modification of poly (epsilon-caprolactone).

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Coudane, Jean; Vert, Michel

    2006-10-01

    Poly (epsilon-caprolactone-co-alpha-iodo-epsilon-caprolactone) was synthesized by binding iodine to PCL chain bearing carbanionic site on alpha-position of carbonyl groups using lithium diisopropylamide. Copolyesters containing from 10% to 25% of iodo-units were thus obtained. Viscoelastic properties (modulus, loss angle), thermal properties (T(m), T(c), DeltaH(m)), crystallinity and in vitro degradability of this new type of copolymers were measured. Their opacity to X-rays was assessed, and appeared high enough to be of interest for biomedical applications.

  20. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich

    2004-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  1. First Total Synthesis of a Naturally Occurring Iodinated 5′-Deoxyxylofuranosyl Marine Nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianyun; Dou, Yanhui; Ding, Haixin; Yang, Ruchun; Sun, Qi; Xiao, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    4-Amino-7-(5′-deoxy-β-D-xylofuranosyl)-5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1, an unusual naturally occurring marine nucleoside isolated from an ascidan, Diplosoma sp., was synthesized from D-xylose in seven steps with 28% overall yield on 10 g scale. The key step was Vorbrüggen glycosylation of 5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine with 5-deoxy-1,2-O-diacetyl-3-O-benzoyl-D-xylofuranose. Its absolute configuration was confirmed. PMID:22690148

  2. Synthesis and characterization of heteroatom-bridged bisspirobifluorenes for the application of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Chao-Tsen; Chen, Chin-Ti

    2014-10-01

    Pure 2-iodo-9,9'-spirobifluorene was synthesized by an efficient method without troublesome iodination of 9,9- spirobifluorene (SP) or the Sandmeyer reaction of 2-amino-9,9'-spirobifluorene. A series of main group element-bridged bis-9,9'-spirobifluorene derivatives were synthesized via coupling reactions of 2-iodo-9,9'-spirobifluorene and main group element-containing precursors. These heteroatom-bridged bis-spirobifluorenes show large triplet state energy gaps, high glass transition temperatures, and varied charge-transporting properties advantageous to the host materials for blue phosphorescence organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs).

  3. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    level of p27 i n LY2 (Tamoxifen resistant) breast cancer cells exposed to antiestrogens. As shown in Fig. , tamoxifen e xposed LY2 cells...ove rall h ypothesis b ecause i t s hows t hat p27 l evels a re r estored w hen e xposed t o t amoxifen. T hus, t he Results: 6 increase in p27...degradation of p27. This increases t he l evels o f p27 in L Y2 cells e xposed t o tamoxifen which in turn inhibits cell cycle progression. These da ta p

  4. Wartime Requirements for Ammunition, Materiel and Personnel (WARRAMP). Volume III. Ammunition Post Processor User’s Manual (APP-UM).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    147.21 1070.18 2280.10? HELO CREW 41.35 NONCRM 609.6? 1362.92 16.70 47.00 1051.03 203.22 6720.51 ARTILLERY .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 : LS . 19.51...I *,/kU 19 - USL m.C),F I UEtq I L -J IAPPH 1 .41/ 21 MkT LU I.,L:NTLALobaLJJGLii/ / .. tsd) 22 kWALU LO,,FIULNr1AL*37A.I,10F./ / 2.3 613RPT PK 4Ti 24...resolution model that simulates tactical combat between a r , v: d blue force; a production model that produces force on 7.1r--# - Ls . ELCON Equipment

  5. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Antiestrogen resistant cell lines LCC-2 and LY-2 regained sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of antiestrogens Tamoxifen and Fulvestrant by...estrogen therapy . This research is of significant merit because of its clinical relevance to breast cancer. Secondly, the research accomplishments...breast tumor resistance to anti-estrogen therapy . We proposed to investigate how reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced redox signaling pathways in breast

  6. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    proliferation in breast cancer cells upon treatment with antiestrogen Tamoxifen, and the cotreatment with ebselen or overexpression of catalase may restore...compounds to produce ROS were inhibited by overexpression of catalase (CAT) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or treatment with Ebselen (Fig...tumors in soft agar in the presence of tamoxifen, we would expect that the overexpression of ROS modifier TrxR2, catalase or MnSOD, or antioxidant

  7. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership Between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    to breast cancer cells. The abilities of these compounds to produce ROS were inhibited by overexpression of catalase (CAT) or manganese superoxide...modifier TrxR2, catalase or MnSOD, or antioxidant treatment would cause tamoxifen to regain its growth inhibitory effects in this antiestrogen...effect of ROS modifiers catalase and MnSOD had on the protein level of p27 in LCC2 (Tamoxifen resistant) breast cancer cells exposed to

  8. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  9. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  10. Pulsed-laser-induced damage in semiconductors Ge, ZnS, and ZnSe at 10.6um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, Sebastian; Kudriavtsev, Eugene M.; Autric, Michel L.

    1998-04-01

    Laser irradiation induced damage to several materials of interest for use as 10.6 micrometers laser system windows is investigated in this paper. The irradiation source in these single shot experiments was a pulsed TEA CO2 laser. Damage initiation in semiconductors has been studied during the interaction by measuring the variation of the transmitted intensity of a He- Ne and a CO2 cw lasers through the samples. Results show that damages appear at the beginning of the laser-matter interaction process on both surfaces and in the bulk of the materials. The damaged materials have been characterized for various incident fluences by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in terms of topography and morphology. The modified surface chemical analysis and the structural analysis have been carried out using energy dispersive x-ray and Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  12. Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1.3 um

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; KLEM,JOHN F.; FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; FRITZ,IAN J.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; SIEG,ROBERT M.; GEIB,KENT M.; SCOTT,J.W.; NAONE,R.L.

    2000-06-05

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1294 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al{sub 0.94}Ga{sub 0.06}As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the optical cavity, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55 C. These lasers exhibit the longest wavelength reported to date for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown on GaAs substrates.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 24um fluxes of GOODS-S AGN (Garcia-Gonzalez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Hernan-Caballero, A.; Sarajedini, V. L.; Villar, V.

    2015-06-01

    We compiled all the data taken around the GOODS South field with the MIPS instrument at 24μm by querying the Spitzer Heritage Archive.1 This field was observed by Spitzer during several campaigns from 2004 January to 2007 March. We focused our study on a region around RA=03:32:36 (J2000) and DE=-27:48:39 (J2000). These data correspond to different observing proposals from different PI, including the Guaranteed Time Observations programme (GTO, PI: G. Rieke) and the GOODS programme (PI: M. Dickinson). We have obtained 151 AORs (Astronomical Observation Request) but only downloaded 127 because the others were from the SWIRE (Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic) survey and were not sufficiently deep. (2 data files).

  14. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  15. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  16. The Navy of Brazil: An Emerging Power at Sea (Marinha do Brasil: Um Poder Emergente no Mar),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    neighboring countries were solved through diplomacy. Second, the Brazilian economy remained essentially based on agricultural production, with little...emphasis on the industrialization process that took place in other parts of the world. As a result, the technological base gained by the war effort...industrial base , many problems were not solved and dependence on foreign support was almost absolute. These facts became more evident when Brazil, after having

  17. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  18. "Disability Means, um, Dysfunctioning People": A Qualitative Analysis of the Meaning and Experience of Disability among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteleone, Rebecca; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been little qualitative analysis of the experience of stigma, social comparisons and conception of identity among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to develop an understanding of how adults with intellectual disabilities experience their own disability, and any implications relating to self-esteem,…

  19. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  20. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  1. The effect of modification procedures on rigid gas permeable contact lenses: the UM-St. Louis Study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, B W; Henry, V A; Bennett, E S; Caroline, P J

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of frequently performed modification procedures on quality of vision, surface wettability, optical quality and subjective response. One subject was optimally fitted with both silicone/acrylate (S/A) and fluoro-silicone/acrylate (F-S/A) lens materials of identical design. Two methods of surface polishing, edge polishing and repowering were used in addition to three different spindle speeds. Each pair of lenses was worn by the subject for a period of 4 hours and the subjective response was then compared to the baseline or premodification data. In addition, both low magnification photography and Scanning Electron Microscopy (S.E.M.) were performed on each lens. The results showed that the addition of 0.50D minus power reduced visual acuity, contrast sensitivity function and optical quality with one of the methods used. Front surface polish and edge polish procedures did not appear to affect short-term performance. Controlling polish, application and tool pressure on certain procedures resulted in similar findings. Further studies would be beneficial to evaluate the effect of longer wearing periods and the use of other modification procedures. The authors conclude that S/A and F-S/A lens materials can be successfully modified in-office with adherence to recommended guidelines.

  2. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  3. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de Paz, A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  5. Observation of nonlinear optical phenomena in fused silica and air using a 100 GW, 1.54 um source.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, James Van; Law, R. J.; Luk, Ting Shan; Naudeau, Madeline L.; Nelson, Thomas Robert; Cameron, Stewart M.

    2006-02-01

    A 100-GW optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier system is used to study nonlinear effects in the 1.54 {micro}m regime. When focusing this beam in air, strong third-harmonic generation (THG) is observed, and both the spectra and efficiency are measured. Broadening is observed on only the blue side of the third-harmonic signal and an energy conversion efficiency of 0.2% is achieved. When propagated through a 10-cm block of fused silica, a collimated beam is seen to collapse and form multiple filaments. The measured spectral features span 400-2100 nm. The spectrum is dominated by previously unobserved Stokes emissions and broad emissions in the visible.

  6. Synthesis of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-boranomono phosphate as a potential thymidylate synthase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shoeb I; Dobrikov, Mikhail I; Shaw, Barbara Ramsay

    2005-01-01

    The 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine nucleoside and the 5'-boranomonophosphate nucleotide were synthesized as analogs of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate (5-FdUMP), a widely used mechanism-based inhibitor of thymidylate synthase. Synthesis was carried out from protected 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and trimethylsilylacetylene by Sonogashira palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction followed by selective phosphorylation and finally boronation.

  7. Rate of Hydrolysis of Tertiary Halogeno Alkanes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure the relative rate of hydrolysis of the 2-x-2 methylpropanes, where x is bromo, chloro or iodo. The results are plotted on a graph from which the relative rate of hydrolysis can be deduced. (Author/GA)

  8. MICROWAVE-INDUCED, SOLVENT-FREE TRANSFORMATIONS OF BENZOHETERACYCLANONES BY HTIB (KOSER'S REAGENT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microwave-activated reaction of [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene (HTIB) with various chromanones, thiochromanones and dihydroquinolones under solvent-free conditions has been studied. In addition to the common dehydrogenation, 2,3-migration has also been observed in the case of...

  9. Organoselenium and DMAP co-catalysis: regioselective synthesis of medium-sized halolactones and bromooxepanes from unactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Jana, Sadhan; Prasad, Ch Durga; Yadav, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-03-18

    A catalytic system consisting of bis(4-methoxyphenyl)selenide and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) has been developed for the regioselective synthesis of medium-sized bromo/iodo lactones and bromooxepanes possessing high transannular strain. (77)Se NMR, mass spectrometry and theoretical studies reveal that the reaction proceeds via a quaternary selenium intermediate.

  10. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  11. Thyroid carcinoma in children and young adults: retrospective review of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Joana; Ribeiro, Cristina; Melo, Miguel; Gomes, Leonor; Costa, Gracinda; Carrilho, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma da tiróide é raro em crianças e em adultos jovens. A maior parte das orientações clínicas baseia-se em dados obtidos na população adulta. Persistem diversas controvérsias no que se refere à agressividade da apresentação clínica e da abordagem terapêutica.Objectivo: Avaliar todos os doentes com carcinoma da tiróide com menos de 20 anos no momento da apresentação, reflectindo a experiência da nossa unidade relativamente ao diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento desta entidade.Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de revisão retrospectiva dos registos clínicos de todas as crianças e adultos jovens seguidos na Consulta de Oncologia do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra entre 1996 e 2012 .Resultados: Foram estudados 19 doentes, com uma média etária de 16 anos, sendo 13 do sexo feminino. Nenhum dos doentes fora previamente submetido a irradiação da região do pescoço. A queixa de apresentação era a presença de uma massa cervical palpável em 84,6% dos casos. Foi realizada citologia aspirativa em 15 doentes, que foi diagnóstica ou suspeita de neoplasia em 71,4% dos casos. A tiroidectomia total foi levada a cabo em 18 casos (94,7%). Em todos estes foi identificada a presença de um carcinoma papilar. A invasão vascular e multicêntrica ocorreu em 21,1% dos casos. A dimensão tumoral média foi de 2,5 cm. O envolvimento ganglionar cervical foi diagnosticado em 31,6% dos casos e a presença de metástases à distância foi identificada em 5,2% dos casos. Na maior parte dos doentes (18 em 19), o quadro foi classificado como doença em estadio I. Todos os doentes fizeram terapêutica supressora com tiroxina e 84,2% dos doentes foram submetidos a ablação pós-operatória com iodo radioactivo (dose média de 85,7mCi). Durante um seguimento médio de cerca de 6 anos, 16 doentes permaneceram em remissão.Conclusão: Na nossa série, as taxas de metastização ganglionar cervical

  12. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  13. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Eng, W S; Robles, S; Vogt, R G; Wiśniewski, J R; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural 3H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated [125I]12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added 125I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of [125I]12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  14. Dense iodine-rich compounds with low detonation pressures as biocidal agents.

    PubMed

    He, Chunlin; Zhang, Jiaheng; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2013-06-03

    Fifteen iodo compounds and six iodyl compounds with an iodine content between 45.3 and 89.0 % were prepared. The mono, di, and triiodyl compounds were obtained from the corresponding iodo compound by employing Oxone. All the compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, elemental analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The impact sensitivity was measured by using BAM (Bundesamt für Materialforschung) methodology. Based on the calculated heats of formation and experimental densities, the detonation properties and detonation products were predicted by employing Cheetah 6.0. A total percentage of iodine-containing species in wt % (I2, HI, and I in gas phase) ranged from 46.7 (21) to 88.94 % (11) was found in the detonation products. The high concentration and easy accessibility of iodine and/or iodine-containing species is very important in developing materials suitable as Agent Defeat Weapons (ADWs).

  15. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen-Bonding Four-Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Barendt, Timothy A; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2016-09-05

    The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis-iodo triazolium-bis-naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo-triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion-rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the (1) H NMR anion binding results.

  16. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-iodovinyl-branched carbohydrates as potential brain imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiodinated carbohydrates such as 2-deoxy-2-iodo-D-glucose and 3-deoxy-3-iodo-D-glucose undergo facile chemical or in vivo deiodination which precludes their use as radiotracers of glucose metabolism in tissues. To overcome the problems resulting from in vivo deiodination, we explored the concept of stabilizing radioiodide on a model carbohydrate, (E)-C-3-iodovinyl-D-allose (10) as an iodovinyl moiety. This agent did not exhibit brain specificity but showed low in vivo deiodination which demonstrated for the first time that radioiodide can be stabilized on a carbohydrate. The goal of this study was to develop a deoxy-branched carbohydrate with radioiodide stabilized as a vinyliodide with the objective of achieving high brain uptake. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-halogenated-1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylenes as potential estrogen receptor-targeted radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert N; Tongcharoensirikul, Pakamas; Barnsley, Kelton; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Hughes, Alun; DeSombre, Eugene R

    2015-04-01

    A series of three 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylene derivatives was prepared and evaluated as potential estrogen receptor imaging agents. The compounds display high binding affinity compared to estradiol, with the 2-iodo and 2-bromo-derivatives expressing higher affinity than the parent 2-nonhalogenated derivative. Evaluation in immature female rats also indicate that the compounds were all full estrogenic agonists with potencies in the same order of activity (I∼Br>H). Computational analysis of the interactions between the ligands and ERα-LBD demonstrated positive contribution of halide to binding properties. In preparation for studies using the radiohalogenated analogs, the corresponding protected 2-(tributylstannyl) derivative was prepared and converted to the corresponding 2-iodo-product.

  18. Photoaffinity labeling of alpha- and beta- scorpion toxin receptors associated with rat brain sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Darbon, H; Jover, E; Couraud, F; Rochat, H

    1983-09-15

    Azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus, a beta-toxin, and azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin V from Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus, an alpha-toxin, have been covalently linked after binding to their receptor sites that are related to the voltage sensitive sodium channel present in rat brain synaptosomes. Both derivatives labeled two polypeptides of 253000 +/- 20000 and 35000 +/- 2000 mol. wt. Labeling was blocked for each derivative by a large excess of the corresponding native toxin but no cross inhibition was obtained. These results suggest that both alpha - and beta - scorpion toxin receptors are located on or near the same two membrane polypeptides which may be part of the voltage dependent sodium channel.

  19. Confusion about a little observatory: the history of the first high school observatory (German Title: Verwirrung um eine kleine Sternwarte: Die Geschichte der ersten Chemnitzer Schulsternwarte )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Elvira

    By means of a small watercolor, painted by a musicologist, the existence of the highschool observatory of Chemnitz was rediscovered. The small observatory was build in 1893 by means of funds and a donation: after WW I it was also used for popular education. During Nazi times, the observatory fell into neglect, and the mechanical damage made it impossible to put it back into operation after WW II The building was torn down in 1964 and forgotten.

  20. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  1. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble…

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Combined ArTeMiS+SPIRE 350um image of NGC6334 (Andre+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, P.; Reveret, V.; Konyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tige, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-05-01

    High dynamic range dust continuum map of the NGC 6334 star-forming complex at 350 microns obtained by combining high-resolution ground-based observations taken with the ArTeMiS camera on the APEX telescope and Herschel Space Observatory data from the HOBYS key project (Motte et al., 2010A&A...518L..77M; Russeil et al. 2013A&A...554A..42R). The effective angular resolution is ~ 8" (HPBW). (2 data files).

  3. Derivation of a Large Isotopic Diffuse Sky Emission Component at 1.25 and 2.2um from the COBE/DIRBE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained with COBE/DIRBE, we reanalyzed the diffuse sky brightness at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}}, which consists of zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic emission including the extragalactic background light. Our new analysis including an improved estimate of the DGL and the ISL with the 2MASS data showed that deviations of the isotropic emission from isotropy were less than 10% in the entire sky at high Galactic latitude (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). We derived the DGL to 100 μm brightness ratios of ˜4.79 and ˜1.49 n W m-2 MJy-1 at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, respectively. The result of our analysis revealed a significantly large isotropic component at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}} with intensities of 60.15 ± 16.14 and 27.68+/- 6.21 {{n}} {{W}} {{{m}}}-2 {{sr}}-1, respectively. This intensity is larger than the integrated galaxy light, upper limits from γ-ray observation, and potential contribution from exotic sources (i.e., Population III stars, intrahalo light, direct collapse black holes, and dark stars). We therefore conclude that the excess light may originate from the local universe: the Milky Way and/or the solar system.

  4. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  5. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between…

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Library of Spectra (0.5 to 2.5um) of Cool Stars (Lancon+ 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancon, A.; Wood, P. R.

    2000-07-01

    The present catalogue contains 182 low resolution optical spectra, 145 medium resolution (R~1100) near-IR spectra, and 112 merged optical+near-IR spectra that range from about 510 to 2450 nm. The observed stars are luminous cool objects: the sample includes red giants, red supergiants, oxygen rich and carbon rich long period variables (asymptotic giant branch stars), as well as a few Galactic Bulge and LMC/SMC stars. The optical data were acquired on the so-called 74 inch Telescope at Mount Stromlo Observatory. The near-IR data were acquired with the Cryogenic Array Spectrometer and Imager CASPIR on the 2.3 meter Australian National University Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. Optical and near-IR data for variable objects have been merged only when both were taken less than 15 days apart; but both spectral ranges are also provided separately. The spectra are corrected for telluric absorption. However, in regions where the transmission of the Earth atmosphere is close to zero the fluxes recovered remain highly uncertain. The flux calibration is based on a series of reference stars, for which a theoretical intrinsic energy distribution was assumed. An absolute flux calibration (to about 10% accuracy) was only achieved in exceptional cases; in the other cases, the absolute fluxes can be off their real values by an order of magnitude due to slit losses (for the programme star and/or the reference star) and to non-photometric wheather. Uncertainties in the relative values of fluxes along each spectrum are described in the paper. (8 data files).

  7. The FLARE mission: deep and wide-field 1-5um imaging and spectroscopy for the early universe: a proposal for M5 cosmic vision call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgarella, D.; Levacher, P.; Vives, S.; Dohlen, K.; Pascal, S.

    2016-07-01

    FLARE (First Light And Reionization Explorer) is a space mission that will be submitted to ESA (M5 call). Its primary goal (~80% of lifetime) is to identify and study the universe before the end of the reionization at z > 6. A secondary objective (~20% of lifetime) is to survey star formation in the Milky Way. FLARE's strategy optimizes the science return: imaging and spectroscopic integral-field observations will be carried out simultaneously on two parallel focal planes and over very wide instantaneous fields of view. FLARE will help addressing two of ESA's Cosmic Vision themes: a) << How did the universe originate and what is it made of? » and b) « What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? >> and more specifically, << From gas and dust to stars and planets >>. FLARE will provide to the ESA community a leading position to statistically study the early universe after JWST's deep but pin-hole surveys. Moreover, the instrumental development of wide-field imaging and wide-field integral-field spectroscopy in space will be a major breakthrough after making them available on ground-based telescopes.

  8. A temperature-controlled cell for X-ray study of liquid systems using a commercial DRON-UM1 diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Petrun`kin, S.P.; Garavina, E.V.; Trostin, V.N.

    1995-02-01

    A container (cell) and a temperature-control system have been designed enabling one to carry out x-ray diffraction study of liquid samples both at a fixed temperature and within a certain temperature range using a commercial DRON-UMl x-ray diffractometer. Special features of the cell and the materials used for it allow one to study both chemically inert and corrosive liquids.

  9. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  10. Tissue welding for corneal wound suture with a CW 1.9-um diode laser: an in-vivo preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmettre, Thomas; Mordon, Serge R.; Mitchell, Valerie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the interest of a 1.9 micrometer diode laser for corneal wound suture. Six adult albino rabbits were anesthetized. A 7 mm corneal incision was practiced on the right eye. For 3 animals (laser plus stitch) the incision was surgically sutured with 2 stitches of a nylon monofilament and laser impacts were performed between the stitches. For 3 animals (laser only) juxtaposed lasers impacts were realized to suture the wound. After the procedure the animals were examined daily for signs of inflammation, infection and for healing of the corneal wound. Material was obtained for histological examination 1 month after the procedure. Approximation of the edges of the would was successfully obtained in the (laser plus stitch) group. In the (laser only) group this approximation remained troublesome. After the procedure, one cornea of the (laser only) group disclosed a little leakage during 2 days. Histological examination assessed the welding of the corneal wound in the two groups provided structural modifications and some inflammatory signs. Corneal welding using a 1.9 micrometer diode laser is possible either with laser and stitch or with laser only. The approximation of the edges of the wound with additional stitches is an evident drawback. The use of additional stitches should be avoided to keep the theoretical advantages of corneal would suture using laser welding.

  11. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  12. Near-Infrared Continuum and 3.3um PAH Imaging of the Starburst Ring in the Type I Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7469

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzarella, J.; Voit, G.; Soifer, B.; Matthews, K.; Graham, J.; Armus, L.; Shupe, D.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution near-infrared images of the type 1 Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7469 have been obtained to probe its dusty nuclear environment. Direct images are relatively featureless, but residual images created by subtacting a smooth model based on best-fitting elliptical isoophotes reveal a tight inner spiral whose high surface-brightness portions correspond to a previously detected 3.

  13. Resist profile and CD control improvement by using optimized resist thickness and substrate film stack ratio for 0.35-um logic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ming H.; Yu, Raymond; Chu, Ronfu; Lim, Chet Ping

    1997-08-01

    LOCOS is the most widely used method for 0.35 micrometers process isolation. 2000 angstrom silicon nitride on 200 angstrom padoxide was selected as oxidation barrier before process optimization for the need of control the bird's beak and stress which affects the subsequent gate oxide quality. However, resist profile is prone to footing at this film stack. Severe footing could make minimum space CD too small, even not opened, to cause isolation failure. Experiment data shows that if nitride thickness varies from 1.9 K to 2.1 K, line CD variation can be up to 0.08 micrometers for a 0.6 micrometers line, which is about 80 percent of CD variation budget. Based on simulation results, 8 different nitride thickness in the range of 1750 angstrom to 2100 angstrom with step of 50 angstrom were deposited on 200 angstrom padoxide. Swing curve, CD versus nitride thickness for resist Emax and Emin, CD versus different exposure dose charts were obtained. Resist profile cross-sectional SEM pictures were also done to confirm simulation and in-line CD SEM measurement. An optimum combination of substrate film stack and resist thickness was selected. After implementation of this optimization, the sensitivity of CD to the nitride thickness was greatly reduced. Better resist profile and CD control were obtained. This was well confirmed by in-line monitoring data.

  14. Lewis acid catalyzed cascade reaction of 3-(2-benzenesulfonamide)propargylic alcohols to spiro[indene-benzosultam]s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lang; Zhu, Yuanxun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2015-01-16

    A highly efficient and convenient construction of the spiro[indene-benzosultam] skeleton from propargylic alcohols has been developed. The reaction proceeded in a Lewis acid catalyzed cascade process, including the trapping of allene carbocation with sulfonamide, electrophilic cyclization, and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. In the presence of NIS or NBS, iodo/bromo-substituted spiro[indene-benzosultam]s could be prepared in excellent yields.

  15. Bridged Bicyclic Systems and Pretreatment Drugs as Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodojbenzene (Koser Reagent) in CH3CN followed by thiourea and sodium bicarbonate solution, yielded 2-amino-4-phenyt-5-acetyl...acelyloximino Hydroiodide,(.37) Treatment of 2.4-pentanedio~e with (hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodolbenzene (Koser Reagent) in CH3CN, followed by thiourea and sodium ...Hydrochloide (391 2,4-Pentanedione, on treatment with {hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene in CH 3CN followed by thiourea and sodium bicarbonate solution

  16. Pushing TC to 27.5 K in a heavy atom radical ferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Lekin, Kristina; Ogata, Kazuma; Maclean, Adrian; Mailman, Aaron; Winter, Stephen M; Assoud, Abdeljalil; Mito, Masaki; Tse, John S; Desgreniers, Serge; Hirao, Naohisa; Dube, Paul A; Oakley, Richard T

    2016-11-24

    In the solid state the iodo-substituted bisdiselenazolyl radical 1c orders as a ferromagnet with TC = 10.5 K. With the application of pressure TC rises rapidly, reaching a value of 27.5 K at 2.4 GPa. The accompanying structural and magnetic changes have been examined by high resolution powder X-ray diffraction and by DFT calculations of magnetic exchange interactions.

  17. PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander) hepatoma cell line: further characterization and studies of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Alexander, J J; Tully, J G; London, W T; Wong, D C; Purcell, R H

    1980-01-01

    The Alexander hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, was studied for evidence of hepatitis B virus markers and alpha-fetoprotein. Only hepatitis B surface antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were detected. Induction experiments with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and inoculation of chimpanzees with whole cells or tissue culture fluid did not reveal evidence of synthesis of additional hepatitis B virus markers or of production of infectious virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6160110

  18. In vivo evaluation of Z-(R,R)-IQNP as a candidate for the study of M{sub 2} muscarinic receptors by SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Greenbaum, M.; Beets, A.L.

    1997-05-01

    The ability to image alternations of M{sub 2} muscarinic receptors is of importance in the study of dementias and heart failure. We have developed a QNB analogue, Z-(R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl (R)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-alpha-phenylacetate (Z-(R,R)-IQNP), which demonstrates high in vitro binding affinity for both the M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtypes.

  19. Biophysical Optimization of a Therapeutic Protein by Nonstandard Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Phillips, Nelson B.; Cox, Gabriela P.; Yang, Yanwu; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Weiss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin provides a model for the therapeutic application of protein engineering. A paradigm in molecular pharmacology was defined by design of rapid-acting insulin analogs for the prandial control of glycemia. Such analogs, a cornerstone of current diabetes regimens, exhibit accelerated subcutaneous absorption due to more rapid disassembly of oligomeric species relative to wild-type insulin. This strategy is limited by a molecular trade-off between accelerated disassembly and enhanced susceptibility to degradation. Here, we demonstrate that this trade-off may be circumvented by nonstandard mutagenesis. Our studies employed LysB28, ProB29-insulin (“lispro”) as a model prandial analog that is less thermodynamically stable and more susceptible to fibrillation than is wild-type insulin. We have discovered that substitution of an invariant tyrosine adjoining the engineered sites in lispro (TyrB26) by 3-iodo-Tyr (i) augments its thermodynamic stability (ΔΔGu 0.5 ±0.2 kcal/mol), (ii) delays onset of fibrillation (lag time on gentle agitation at 37 °C was prolonged by 4-fold), (iii) enhances affinity for the insulin receptor (1.5 ± 0.1-fold), and (iv) preserves biological activity in a rat model of diabetes mellitus. 1H NMR studies suggest that the bulky iodo-substituent packs within a nonpolar interchain crevice. Remarkably, the 3-iodo-TyrB26 modification stabilizes an oligomeric form of insulin pertinent to pharmaceutical formulation (the R6 zinc hexamer) but preserves rapid disassembly of the oligomeric form pertinent to subcutaneous absorption (T6 hexamer). By exploiting this allosteric switch, 3-iodo-TyrB26-lispro thus illustrates how a nonstandard amino acid substitution can mitigate the unfavorable biophysical properties of an engineered protein while retaining its advantages. PMID:24993826

  20. Attempts to develop radioactive anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.S.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Carpenter, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use a much more effective isotope. 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (diammonium phosphate) - abbreviated 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP - has been synthesized, and in laboratory studies appears more promising. /sup 125/I provides radiations which behave predominately like high LET radiation, despite the accompanying X and gamma radiations. The astatine analogue, 6-/sup 211/At-astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (disodium phosphate) has also been synthesized. Confirming and greatly extending the earlier findings with T-MNDP, in vitro experiments showed that 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP is concentrated selectively in the cells of some human malignant tumors by a factor of about 15 to 20 or more in relation to the cells of normal origin that were studied. Macrodosimetric considerations and comparison with clinical treatments with T-MNDP suggest practical dosage. A typical treatment for a patient of body weight 70 kg with localized inoperable carcinoma of the colon could be 8 intravenous injections each of approximately 120mCi of 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP to a toal of 0.97 Ci in 25 days. Risks of late carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis are calculated to be less than 1%. Clinical indications are discussed briefly. Animal experiments are in progress and further preclinical studies are required.

  1. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.P.; Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-09-01

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for (/sup 125/)iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination.

  2. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.P.; Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-09-01

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination.

  3. Isomeric iodinated analogs of nimesulide: Synthesis, physicochemical characterization, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity, and transport across Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yumi; Arai, Jun; Hisa, Takuya; Saito, Yohei; Mukai, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takashi; Maeda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2016-08-15

    Isomeric iodinated derivatives of nimesulide, with an iodine substituent on the phenoxy ring, were prepared with the aim of identifying potential candidate compounds for the development of imaging agents targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brain. Both the experimental logP7.4 and pKa values for these iodinated analogs were in the acceptable range for passive brain penetration. The para-iodo-substituted analog was a more potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor than nimesulide, with a potency that was comparable to the reference drug, celecoxib. Iodination at the ortho- or meta-position of the phenoxy ring was associated with a substantial loss of COX-2 inhibitory activity. Transport studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence and absence of a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, verapamil, indicated that the para-iodo-substituted analog was not a P-gp transport substrate; this feature is a prerequisite for potential in vivo brain imaging compounds. The para-iodo-substituted analog of nimesulide appears to be an attractive candidate for the development of radioiodine-labeled tracers for in vivo brain imaging of COX-2 levels.

  4. Base-specific spin-labeling of RNA for structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Piton, Nelly; Mu, Yuguang; Stock, Gerhard; Prisner, Thomas F.; Engels, Joachim W.

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate the measurement of intramolecular distances in solvated RNA systems, a combination of spin-labeling, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is presented. The fairly rigid spin label 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolin-1-yloxyl-3-acetylene (TPA) was base and site specifically introduced into RNA through a Sonogashira palladium catalyzed cross-coupling on column. For this purpose 5-iodo-uridine, 5-iodo-cytidine and 2-iodo-adenosine phosphoramidites were synthesized and incorporated into RNA-sequences. Application of the recently developed ACE® chemistry presented the main advantage to limit the reduction of the nitroxide to an amine during the oligonucleotide automated synthesis and thus to increase substantially the reliability of the synthesis and the yield of labeled oligonucleotides. 4-Pulse Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) was then successfully used to measure the intramolecular spin–spin distances in six doubly labeled RNA-duplexes. Comparison of these results with our previous work on DNA showed that A- and B-Form can be differentiated. Using an all-atom force field with explicit solvent, MD simulations gave results in good agreement with the measured distances and indicated that the RNA A-Form was conserved despite a local destabilization effect of the nitroxide label. The applicability of the method to more complex biological systems is discussed. PMID:17452362

  5. Region-selective effects of neuroinflammation and antioxidant treatment on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and NMDA receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Alvarado, M.; Budinger, T.F.; Grossman, R.; Hensley, K.; West, M.S.; Kotake, Y.; Ono, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    2001-12-10

    Following induction of acute neuroinflammation by intracisternal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats, quantitative autoradiography was used to assess the regional level of microglial activation and glutamate (NMDA) receptor binding. The possible protective action of the antioxidant phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone in this model was tested by administering the drug in the drinking water for 6 days starting 24 hours after endotoxin injection. Animals were killed 7 days post-injection and consecutive cryostat brain sections labeled with [3H]PK11195 as a marker of activated microglia and [125I]iodoMK801 as a marker of the open-channel, activated state of NMDA receptors. Lipopolysaccharide increased [3H]PK11195 binding in the brain, with the largest increases (2-3 fold) in temporal and entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. A significant (>50 percent) decrease in [125I]iodoMK801 binding was found in the same brain regions. Phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone treatment resulted in a partial inhibition ({approx}25 percent decrease) of the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in [3H]PK11195 binding but completely reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in [125I]iodoMK80 binding in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. Loss of NMDA receptor function in cortical and hippocampal regions may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in diseases with a neuroinflammatory component, such as meningitis or Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Identification of Metabolite Biomarkers of the Designer Hallucinogen 25I-NBOMe in Mouse Hepatic Microsomal Preparations and Human Urine Samples Associated with Clinical Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Dempsey, Sara K; Liu, Kai; Ritter, Joseph K; Wolf, Carl; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-10-01

    'NBOMe' (dimethoxyphenyl-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) derivatives are a new class of designer hallucinogenic drugs widely available on the Internet. Currently, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) is the most popular abused derivative in the USA. There are little published data on the absorption, metabolism and elimination of 25I-NBOMe, or any of the other NBOMe derivatives. Therefore, there are no definitive metabolite biomarkers. We present the identification of fifteen 25I-NBOMe metabolites in phase I and II mouse hepatic microsomal preparations, and analysis of two human urine samples from 25I-NBOMe-intoxicated patients to test the utility of these metabolites as biomarkers of 25I-NBOMe use. The synthesis of two major urinary metabolites, 2-iodo-4-methoxy-5-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino]ethyl]phenol (2-O-desmethyl-5-I-NBOMe, M5) and 5-iodo-4-methoxy-2-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl]phenol (5-O-desmethyl-2-I-NBOMe), is also presented. Seven phase II glucuronidated metabolites of the O-desmethyl or the hydroxylated phase I metabolites were identified. One human urine sample contained 25I-NBOMe as well as all 15 metabolites identified in mouse hepatic microsomal preparations. Another human urine sample contained no parent 25I-NBOMe, but was found to contain three O-desmethyl metabolites. We recommend β-glucuronidase enzymatic hydrolysis of urine prior to 25I-NBOMe screening and the use of M5 as the primary biomarker in drug testing.

  7. Synthesis and EPR studies of 2'-deoxyuridines with alkynyl, rodlike linkages.

    PubMed

    Sniady, Adam; Sevilla, Michael D; Meneni, Srinivasarao; Lis, Tadeusz; Szafert, Slawomir; Khanduri, Deepthi; Finke, John M; Dembinski, Roman

    2009-08-03

    Sonogashira coupling of diacetyl 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine with diacetyl 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine gave the acylated ethynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridine dimer (3 b; 63%), which was deprotected with ammonia/methanol to give ethynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridines (3 a; 79%). Treatment of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (1 a) with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine gave the furopyrimidine linked to 2'-deoxyuridine (78%). Catalytic oxidative coupling of 1 a (O(2), CuI, Pd/C, N,N-dimethylformamide) gave butadiynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridines (4; 84 %). Double Sonogashira coupling of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine with 1,4-diethynylbenzene gave 1,4-phenylenediethynediyl-bridged 2'-deoxyuridines (5; 83%). Cu-catalyzed cycloisomerization of dimers 4 and 5 gave their furopyrimidine derivatives. One-electron addition to 1 a, 3 a, and 4 gave the anion radical, the EPR spectra of which showed that the unpaired electron is largely localized at C6 of one uracil ring (17 G doublet) at 77 K. The EPR spectra of the one-electron-oxidized derivatives of ethynediyl- and butadiynediyl-linked uridines 3 a and 4 at 77 K showed that the unpaired electron is delocalized over both rings. Therefore, structures 3 a and 4 provide an efficient electronic link for hole conduction between the uracil rings. However, for the excess electron, an activation barrier prevents coupling to both rings. These dimeric structures could provide a gate that would separate hole transfer from electron transport between strands in DNA systems. In the crystal structure of acylated dimer 3 b, the bases were found in the anti position relative to each other across the ethynyl link, and similar anti conformation was preserved in the derived furopyrimidine-deoxyuridine dinucleoside.

  8. Characterization and subcellular distribution of somatogenic receptor in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Husman, B.; Andersson, G.; Norstedt, G.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodobovine GH ((/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH) to rat liver microsomes and Golgi/endosomal fractions isolated from male and female rats has been characterized. Binding of bGH to a pure somatogenic site was suggested by the finding that 50% inhibition of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH binding required 5-130 ng bGH, rGH, or hGH/incubation, while around 500 ng rat PRL/incubation were needed to obtain the same effect. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH to microsomes and Golgi/endosomes was time, temperature, and protein dependent. Maximal specific binding occurred at 15-16 and 15-20 h at 22 C in Golgi and microsomal membranes, respectively. Subcellular distribution studies demonstrated in the Golgi/endosomal fractions compared to the total particulate fraction, while residual microsomes devoid of Golgi/endosomal-derived components were approximately 2-fold enriched. Low levels of somatogenic receptors were detected in lysosome-enriched fractions. Removal of endogenous ligand by treating Golgi/endosomal membranes with 3M MgCl/sub 2/ increased specific binding of bGH about 2- to 3-fold. These results indicate that approximately 50% of specific somatogenic binding sites in the low density fractions represent internalized ligand-receptor complexes. The level of rat liver somatogenic receptors did not show a pronounced sex differentiation; however, an endocrine dependence of somatogenic receptor levels is suggested by the finding that livers from rats in the late stages of pregnancy had a level of somatogenic receptors exceeding that of nonpregnant rats.

  9. Crystal structures of three new N-halo­methyl­ated quaternary ammonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Múnera-Orozco, Carolina; Ocampo-Cardona, Rogelio; Cedeño, David L.; Toscano, Rubén A.; Ríos-Vásquez, Luz Amalia

    2015-01-01

    In the crystals of the title N-halo­methyl­ated quaternary ammonium salts, C19H23IN+·I−, (I) [systematic name: N-(4,4-di­phenyl­but-3-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], C20H25IN+·I−, (II) [systematic name: N-(5,5-di­phenyl­pent-4-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], and C21H27IN+·I−, (III) [systematic name: N-(6,6-di­phenyl­hex-5-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], there are short I⋯I− inter­actions of 3.564 (4), 3.506 (1) and 3.557 (1) Å for compounds (I), (II) and (III), respectively. Compound (I) crystallizes in the Sohncke group P21 as an ‘enanti­opure’ compound and is therefore a potential material for NLO properties. In the crystal of compound (I), mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯I− and C—H⋯π inter­actions which, together with the I⋯I− inter­actions, lead to the formation of ribbons along [100]. In (II), there are only C—H⋯I− inter­actions which, together with the I⋯I− inter­actions, lead to the formation of helices along [010]. In (III), apart from the I⋯I− inter­actions, there are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present. PMID:26594414

  10. A Mouse Model Suggests Two Mechanisms for Thyroid Alterations in Infantile Cystinosis: Decreased Thyroglobulin Synthesis Due to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/Unfolded Protein Response and Impaired Lysosomal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Gaide Chevronnay, H. P.; Janssens, V.; Van Der Smissen, P.; Liao, X. H.; Abid, Y.; Nevo, N.; Antignac, C.; Refetoff, S.; Cherqui, S.; Pierreux, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are released from thyroglobulin (Tg) in lysosomes, which are impaired in infantile/nephropathic cystinosis. Cystinosis is a lysosomal cystine storage disease due to defective cystine exporter, cystinosin. Cystinotic children develop subclinical and then overt hypothyroidism. Why hypothyroidism is the most frequent and earliest endocrine complication of cystinosis is unknown. We here defined early alterations in Ctns−/− mice thyroid and identified subcellular and molecular mechanisms. At 9 months, T4 and T3 plasma levels were normal and TSH was moderately increased (∼4-fold). By histology, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of most follicles preceded colloid exhaustion. Increased immunolabeling for thyrocyte proliferation and apoptotic shedding indicated accelerated cell turnover. Electron microscopy revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation, apical lamellipodia indicating macropinocytic colloid uptake, and lysosomal cystine crystals. Tg accumulation in dilated ER contrasted with mRNA down-regulation. Increased expression of ER chaperones, glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa and protein disulfide isomerase, associated with alternative X-box binding protein-1 splicing, revealed unfolded protein response (UPR) activation by ER stress. Decreased Tg mRNA and ER stress suggested reduced Tg synthesis. Coordinated increase of UPR markers, activating transcription factor-4 and C/EBP homologous protein, linked ER stress to apoptosis. Hormonogenic cathepsins were not altered, but lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 immunolabeling disclosed enlarged vesicles containing iodo-Tg and impaired lysosomal fusion. Isopycnic fractionation showed iodo-Tg accumulation in denser lysosomes, suggesting defective lysosomal processing and hormone release. In conclusion, Ctns−/− mice showed the following alterations: 1) compensated primary hypothyroidism and accelerated thyrocyte turnover; 2) impaired Tg production linked to ER stress/UPR response; and 3) altered

  11. Synthesis and ESR studies of 2'-deoxyuridines tethered with alkynyl, rod-like linkages#

    PubMed Central

    Sniady, Adam; Sevilla, Michael D.; Meneni, Srinivasarao; Lis, Tadeusz; Szafert, Slawomir; Khanduri, Deepthi; Finke, John M.; Dembinski, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Sonogashira coupling of diacetyl 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine with diacetyl 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine gave the acylated ethynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridine dimer (3b) (63%) that was deprotected with ammonia/methanol to ethynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridines (3a) (79%). Reaction of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (1a) with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine gave the furopyrimidine linked to 2'-deoxyuridine (78%). Catalytic oxidative coupling of 1a (O2, CuI, Pd/C, DMF) gave the butadiynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridines (4) (84%). Double Sonogashira coupling of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine with 1,4-bis(ethynyl)benzene gave 1,4-phenylenediethyne-bridged 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridines (5, 83%). Cu-catalyzed cycloisomerization of dimers 4 and 5 gave their furopyrimidine derivatives. One electron addition to 1a, 3a and 4 gave the anion radical whose ESR spectra showed the unpaired electron largely localized at C6 of one uracil ring (17 G doublet) at 77 K. For the ethynediyl- and butadiynyl-linked uridines 3a and 4 the ESR spectra of their one electron oxidized species at 77 K showed that the unpaired electron is delocalized over both rings. Thus structures 3a and 4 provide an efficient electronic link for hole conduction between the uracil rings. However, for the excess electron, an activation barrier prevents coupling to both rings. These dimeric structures could provide a gate that could separate hole transfer from electron transport between strands in DNA systems. In the crystal structure of acylated dimer 3b the bases were found in the anti position to each other across the ethynyl link. Similar anti conformation was preserved in the derived furopyrimidine–deoxyuridine dinucleoside. PMID:19609983

  12. Halide-Mediated Ortho-Deprotonation Reactions Applied to the Synthesis of 1,2- and 1,3-Disubstituted Ferrocene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zirakzadeh, Afrooz; Herlein, Alexander; Groß, Manuela A; Mereiter, Kurt; Wang, Yaping; Weissensteiner, Walter

    2015-08-10

    The ortho-deprotonation of halide-substituted ferrocenes by treatment with lithium tetramethylpiperidide (LiTMP) has been investigated. Iodo-, bromo-, and chloro-substituted ferrocenes were easily deprotonated adjacent to the halide substituents. The synthetic applicability of this reaction was, however, limited by the fact that, depending on the temperature and the degree of halide substitution, scrambling of both iodo and bromo substituents at the ferrocene core took place. Iodoferrocenes could not be transformed selectively into ortho-substituted iodoferrocenes since, in the presence of LiTMP, the iodo substituents scrambled efficiently even at -78 °C, and this process had occurred before electrophiles had been added. Bromoferrocene and certain monobromo-substituted derivatives, however, could be efficiently ortho-deprotonated at low temperature and reacted with a number of electrophiles to afford 1,2- and 1,2,3-substituted ferrocene derivatives. For example, 2-bromo-1-iodoferrocene was synthesized by ortho-deprotonation of bromoferrocene and reaction with the electrophiles diiodoethane and diiodotetrafluoroethane, respectively. In this and related cases the iodide scrambling process and further product deprotonation due to the excess LiTMP could be suppressed efficiently by running the reaction at low temperature and in inverse mode. In contrast to the low-temperature process, at room temperature bromo substituents in bromoferrocenes scrambled in the presence of LiTMP. Chloro- and 1,2-dichloroferrocene could be ortho-deprotonated selectively, but in neither case was scrambling of a chloro substituent observed. As a further application of this ortho-deprotonation reaction, a route for the synthesis of 1,3-disubstituted ferrocenes was developed. 1,3-Diiodoferrocene was accessible from bromoferrocene in four steps. On a multigram scale an overall yield of 41% was achieved. 1,3-Diiodoferrocene was further transformed into symmetrically 1,3-disubstituted ferrocenes

  13. Halogenation of a capsaicin analogue leads to novel vanilloid TRPV1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Appendino, Giovanni; Harrison, Selena; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Daddario, Nives; Bianchi, Federica; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Trevisani, Marcello; Benvenuti, Francesca; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    The C-5 halogenation of the vanillyl moiety of resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent agonist of vanilloid TRPV1 receptors, results in a potent antagonist for these receptors. Here, we have synthesized a series of halogenated derivatives of ‘synthetic capsaicin' (nonanoyl vanillamide=nordihydrocapsaicin) differing for the nature (iodine, bromine–chlorine) and the regiochemistry (C-5, C-6) of the halogenation.The activity of these compounds was investigated on recombinant human TRPV1 receptors overexpressed in HEK-293 cells. None of the six compounds exerted any significant agonist activity, as assessed by measuring their effect on TRPV1-mediated calcium mobilization. Instead, all compounds antagonized, to various extents, the effect of capsaicin in this assay.All 6-halo-nordihydrocapsaicins behaved as competitive antagonists against human TRPV1 according to the corresponding Schild's plots, and were more potent than the corresponding 5-halogenated analogues. The iodo-derivatives were more potent than the bromo- and chloro-derivatives.Using human recombinant TRPV1, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin (IC50=10 nM against 100 nM capsaicin) was about four times more potent than the prototypical TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and was tested against capsaicin also on native TRPV1 in: (i) rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture; (ii) guinea-pig urinary bladder; and (iii) guinea-pig bronchi. In all cases, except for the guinea-pig bronchi, the compound was significantly more potent than capsazepine as a TRPV1 antagonist.In conclusion, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin, a stable and easily prepared compound, is a potent TRPV1 antagonist and a convenient replacement for capsazepine in most of the in vitro preparations currently used to assess the activity of putative vanilloid receptor agonists. PMID:12922928

  14. Identification of Metabolite Biomarkers of the Designer Hallucinogen 25I-NBOMe in Mouse Hepatic Microsomal Preparations and Human Urine Samples Associated with Clinical Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Poklis, Justin L.; Dempsey, Sara K.; Liu, Kai; Ritter, Joseph K.; Wolf, Carl; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    ‘NBOMe’ (dimethoxyphenyl-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) derivatives are a new class of designer hallucinogenic drugs widely available on the Internet. Currently, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) is the most popular abused derivative in the USA. There are little published data on the absorption, metabolism and elimination of 25I-NBOMe, or any of the other NBOMe derivatives. Therefore, there are no definitive metabolite biomarkers. We present the identification of fifteen 25I-NBOMe metabolites in phase I and II mouse hepatic microsomal preparations, and analysis of two human urine samples from 25I-NBOMe-intoxicated patients to test the utility of these metabolites as biomarkers of 25I-NBOMe use. The synthesis of two major urinary metabolites, 2-iodo-4-methoxy-5-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino]ethyl]phenol (2-O-desmethyl-5-I-NBOMe, M5) and 5-iodo-4-methoxy-2-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl]phenol (5-O-desmethyl-2-I-NBOMe), is also presented. Seven phase II glucuronidated metabolites of the O-desmethyl or the hydroxylated phase I metabolites were identified. One human urine sample contained 25I-NBOMe as well as all 15 metabolites identified in mouse hepatic microsomal preparations. Another human urine sample contained no parent 25I-NBOMe, but was found to contain three O-desmethyl metabolites. We recommend β-glucuronidase enzymatic hydrolysis of urine prior to 25I-NBOMe screening and the use of M5 as the primary biomarker in drug testing. PMID:26378134

  15. Visualization of drug-nucleic acid interactions at atomic resolution. IX. Structures of two N,N-dimethylproflavine: 5-iodocytidylyl (3'-5') guanosine crystalline complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandary, K.K.; Sakore, T.D.; Sobell, H.M.; King, D.; Gabbay, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes two complexes containing N,N-dimethylproflavine and the dinucleoside monophosphate, 5-iodocytidylyl(3'-5')guanosine (iodoCpG). The first complex is triclinic, space group P1, with unit cell dimensions a = 11.78 A, b = 14.55 A, c = 15.50 A, ..cap alpha.. = 89.2/sup 0/, ..beta.. 86.2/sup 0/, ..gamma.. = 96.4/sup 0/. The second complex is monoclinic, space group P2/sub 1/, with a = 14.20 A, b = 19.00 A, c = 20.73 A, ..beta.. = 103.6/sup 0/. Both structures have been solved to atomic resolution and refined by Fourier and least squares methods. The first structure has been refined anisotropically to a residual of 0.09 on 5025 observed reflections using block diagonal least squares, while the second structure has been refined isotropically to a residual of 0.13 on 2888 reflections with full matrix least squares. The asymmetric unit in both structures contains two dimethylproflavine molecules and two iodoCpG molecules; the first structure has 16 water molecules (a total of 134 non-hydrogen atoms), while the second structure has 18 water molecules (a total of 136 non-hydrogen atoms). Both structures demonstrate intercalation of dimethylproflavine between base-paired iodoCpG dimers. In addition, dimethylproflavine molecules stack on either side of the intercalated duplex, being related by a unit cell translation along b and a axes, respectively. 16 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.

  16. [LeuB24]insulin and [AlaB24]insulin: altered structures and cellular processing of B24-substituted insulin analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Assoian, R K; Thomas, N E; Kaiser, E T; Tager, H S

    1982-01-01

    We have used insulin analogs having leucine or alanine substitutions at positions B24 and B25 to examine the structural basis for insulin binding and insulin metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes. Apparent receptor binding affinities for the analogs were in the order insulin greater than [LeuB24]insulin greater than [LeuB25]insulin = [AlaB24]insulin. Incubation of the corresponding 125I-labeled peptides with hepatocytes followed by analysis of the cell-associated products showed that [125I]iodoinsulin and [125I]iodo-[LeuB25]insulin were processed to a peptide intermediate which appeared as an ascending shoulder on the peak of cell-associated hormone during gel filtration; similar incubations using [125I]iodo-[LeuB24]insulin or [125I]iodo-[AlaB24]insulin failed to yield detectable amounts of the intermediate. In addition, assessment of the structures of insulin and the three insulin analogs by tyrosine radioiodination showed that [LeuB24]insulin and [AlaB24]insulin maintain similar solution conformations which differ from the conformations taken by insulin and [LeuB25]insulin. We conclude that (a) alterations in side-chain bulk at position B24 result in long-range structural perturbations in the insulin molecule, (b) these structural alterations lead to an altered cellular processing of the two B24 insulin analogs, and (c) the selectivity of this processing arises from events subsequent to ligand-receptor recognition. Images PMID:6752939

  17. Palladium fluoride complexes: one more step toward metal-mediated C-F bond formation.

    PubMed

    Grushin, Vladimir V

    2002-03-01

    The first molecular complexes of palladium containing a Pd-F bond, both fluorides and bifluorides, were synthesized and fully characterized in the solid state and in solution. Reactivity studies of the Pd fluoride complexes revealed their unexpected stability and unusual chemical properties, different from the hydroxo, chloro, bromo, and iodo analogues. A novel efficient method to generate "naked fluoride" was developed using [(Ph(3)P)(2)Pd(F)Ph]. The naked fluoride from the Pd source fluorinated dichloromethane, deprotonated chloroform, and catalyzed di- and trimerization of hexafluoropropene under uncommonly mild conditions.

  18. Effects of Conjugation in Length and Dimension on Spectroscopic Properties of Fluorene-Based Chromophores from Experiment and Theory (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    diethylfluoren-2-yl) benzothiazole (abbreviated as BT-Fl(Etz)-Br). The latter is also a key intermediate used in the preparations of AF-240, AF-270, AF...same Suzuki reagent and 4-(7- benzothiazol -2-yl-9,9-diethylfluoren-2-yl)phenyl]bis(4- bromophenyl)amine, which was prepared via a regio-specific...was prepared from a copper-catalyzed, Ullmann amination reaction of 2-(7- amino-9,9-diethylfluoren-2-yl) benzothiazole with 2 equivalents of 2-(7-iodo

  19. Stereoselective Alkane Oxidation with meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid (MCPBA) Catalyzed by Organometallic Cobalt Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shul'pin, Georgiy B; Loginov, Dmitriy A; Shul'pina, Lidia S; Ikonnikov, Nikolay S; Idrisov, Vladislav O; Vinogradov, Mikhail M; Osipov, Sergey N; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Tyubaeva, Polina M

    2016-11-22

    Cobalt pi-complexes, previously described in the literature and specially synthesized and characterized in this work, were used as catalysts in homogeneous oxidation of organic compounds with peroxides. These complexes contain pi-butadienyl and pi-cyclopentadienyl ligands: [(tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(benzene)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [(C₄Me₄)Co(C₆H₆)]PF₆ (1); diiodo(carbonyl)(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)cobalt, Cp*Co(CO)I₂ (2); diiodo(carbonyl)(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt, CpCo(CO)I₂ (3); (tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(dicarbonyl)(iodo)cobalt, (C₄Me₄)Co(CO)₂I (4); [(tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(acetonitrile)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [(C₄Me₄)Co(bipy)(MeCN)]PF₆ (5); bis[dicarbonyl(B-cyclohexylborole)]cobalt, [(C₄H₄BCy)Co(CO)₂]₂ (6); [(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [Cp*Co(phen)I]PF₆ (7); diiodo(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt, [CpCoI₂]₂ (8); [(cyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [CpCo(bipy)I]PF₆ (9); and [(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [Cp*Co(bipy)I]PF₆ (10). Complexes 1 and 2 catalyze very efficient and stereoselective oxygenation of tertiary C-H bonds in isomeric dimethylcyclohexanes with MCBA: cyclohexanols are produced in 39 and 53% yields and with the trans/cis ratio (of isomers with mutual trans- or cis-configuration of two methyl groups) 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. Addition of nitric acid as co-catalyst dramatically enhances both the yield of oxygenates and stereoselectivity parameter. In contrast to compounds 1 and 2, complexes 9 and 10 turned out to be very poor catalysts (the yields of oxygenates in the reaction with cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane were only 5%-7% and trans/cis ratio 0.8 indicated that the oxidation is not stereoselective). The chromatograms of the reaction mixture obtained before and after reduction with PPh₃ are very similar, which testifies that alkyl

  20. Practical synthetic strategies towards lipophilic 6-iodotetrahydroquinolines and -dihydroquinolines

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, David R; Zhou, Garr-Layy; Pohl, Ehmke; Valentine, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of novel tetrahydroquinolines (THQ) and dihydroquinolines (DHQ) are reported using three practical, scalable synthetic approaches to access highly lipophilic analogues bearing a 6-iodo substituent, each with a different means of cyclisation. A versatile and stable quinolin-2-one intermediate was identified, which could be reduced to the corresponding THQ with borane reagents, or to the DHQ with diisobutylaluminium hydride via a novel elimination that is more favourable at higher temperatures. Coupling these strongly electron-donating scaffolds to electron-accepting moieties caused the resulting structures to exhibit strong fluorescence. PMID:27829891

  1. C5-Modified nucleosides exhibiting anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Park, Sun Min; Kim, Hwan Mook; Park, Song-Kyu; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2009-08-15

    We describe (i) a simple method for the synthesis of C5-modified nucleosides from 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and (ii) their activity against six types of human cancer cell lines (HCT15, MM231, NCI-H23, NUGC-3, PC-3, ACHN). We generated nitrile oxides in situ from oximes using a commercial bleaching agent; their cycloadditions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine yielded isoxazole derivatives possessing activity against the cancer cell lines. We synthesized several azides from benzylic bromides and their click reactions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine provided triazole derivatives.

  2. Synthesis of N-(2-diethylamino-ethyl)-4-(4-fluoro-benzamido)-2-methoxybenzamide (desiodo-MIP-1145) by coupling technique and its radioiodination: a potential melanoma imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Aglan, H; Kandil, S A; El-Kafrawy, A F; Seddik, U

    2016-07-01

    Radioiodinated MIP-1145, which specifically targets melanin, is an ideal candidate for targeted therapy of melanoma. An analogue of MIP-1145 lacking the iodo-substituent (desiodo-MIP-1145) was synthesized as a labeling precursor in three simple steps. The radioiodination of desiodo-MIP-1145 by iodine-125 was carried out via an electrophilic substitution reaction. An optimization study for the iodination reaction was carried out. The labeled compound was isolated and purified by means of electrophoresis and HPLC. The maximum radiochemical yield, 76%, was obtained with radiochemical purity greater than 99%. The log P value for [(125) I]MIP-1145 was measured as 4.5.

  3. Localization of m-lodo(/sup 131/I)benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hattner, R.S.; Huberty, J.P.; Engelstad, B.L.; Gooding, C.A.; Ablin, A.R.

    1984-08-01

    Patient survival and the therapeutic strategy for treatment of neuroblastoma are highly dependent on the stage of the tumor at presentation. For routine staging, the Children's Cancer Study group currently recommends a chest radiograph, abdominal CT scan, radionuclide bone scan, bone marrow biopsy, catecholamine metabolite estimations, and surgical determination of tumor extent. A noninvasive method for detectiton of neuroblastoma that avoids surgery and bone marrow biopsy would be a most welcome addition to the armamentarium of the pediatric oncologist. A case of neuroblastoma demonstrated with m-iodo(/sup 131/I)benzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is reported.

  4. Effect of seven antibiotics on the growth and reproduction of Heliothis subflexa X H. virescens interspecific hydrids and backcross males

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, L.E.; Karpenko, C.P.

    1981-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that a maternally transmitted cytoplasmic microorganism is involved in male hybrid sterility found in H. subflexa (Guenee) X H. virescens (F.) hybrid and backcross progeny, we reared H. subflexa, hybrids and backcross progeny on larval diets containing high concentrations of tetracycline, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, rifampin, and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The insects tolerated relatively high concentrations (from 120 mg/liter to 6 g/liter) of antibiotics in the larval diet and showed virtually no changes in larval or pupal developmental time, adult lifespan, or fertility. Hybrid and backcross males reared on such adulterated diets were as sterile as those reared on conventional diets.

  5. Effective, high-yielding, and stereospecific total synthesis of D-erythro-(2R,3S)-sphingosine from D-ribo-(2S,3S,4R)-phytosphingosine.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Richard J B H N; Korevaar, Cornelius G N; Overkleeft, Herman S; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; van Boom, Jacques H

    2004-08-20

    The synthesis of naturally occurring D-erythro-(2R,3S,4E)-sphingosine from commercially available D-ribo-(2S,3S,4R)-phytosphingosine is described. The key step in the reaction sequence comprises TMSI/DBN promoted regio- and stereoselective oxirane opening of intermediate 2-phenyl-4-(S)-[(1S,2S)-1,2-epoxyhexadecyl]-1,3-oxazoline followed by the in situ trans-elimination of 2-phenyl-4-(S)-[(1S,2R)-1,2-dideoxy-2-iodo-1-trimethylsilyloxyhexadecyl]-1,3-oxazoline.

  6. Supported Palladium Nanoparticles Synthesized by Living Plants as a Catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Helen L.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.; Hunt, Andrew J.; Dodson, Jennifer R.; Taylor, Andrew F.; Bruce, Neil C.; Clark, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The metal accumulating ability of plants has previously been used to capture metal contaminants from the environment; however, the full potential of this process is yet to be realized. Herein, the first use of living plants to recover palladium and produce catalytically active palladium nanoparticles is reported. This process eliminates the necessity for nanoparticle extraction from the plant and reduces the number of production steps compared to traditional catalyst palladium on carbon. These heterogeneous plant catalysts have demonstrated high catalytic activity in Suzuki coupling reactions between phenylboronic acid and a range of aryl halides containing iodo-, bromo- and chloro- moieties. PMID:24489869

  7. Heterobivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and Hepsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-[125I]iodo- benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid ([125I]DCIBzL, 0.01 nM in Figure 1) and [99mTc]L1 (10 nM, in Figure 2...hyperplasia (BPH). Hepsin is composed of 413 amino acids and a 373-residue is in extracellular region. The extracelluar 255 amino acids at the C...dimethylphenol reacted with methyl chloroacetate in DMF in the presence of potassium carbonate at room temperature to give the compound 1 in 75% yield

  8. Iridium-Catalyzed ortho-Arylation of Benzoic Acids with Arenediazonium Salts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liangbin; Hackenberger, Dagmar; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2015-10-19

    In the presence of catalytic [{IrCp*Cl2 }2 ] and Ag2 CO3 , Li2 CO3 as the base, and acetone as the solvent, benzoic acids react with arenediazonium salts to give the corresponding diaryl-2-carboxylates under mild conditions. This C-H arylation process is generally applicable to diversely substituted substrates, ranging from extremely electron-rich to electron-poor derivatives. The carboxylate directing group is widely available and can be removed tracelessly or employed for further derivatization. Orthogonality to halide-based cross-couplings is achieved by the use of diazonium salts, which can be coupled even in the presence of iodo substituents.

  9. Cystic Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Adrenal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Abdulsalam, Mohammed Shafi; Satish, Priyanka; Janakiraman, Raghunath Keddy; Singh, Shivshankar

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are usually solid tumours. But it can present as cystic lesions in the adrenal gland. Cystic lesions in adrenal gland with hypertension needs attention to rule out pheochromocytoma. If ignored, it may lead to hypertensive emergency, multisystem crisis and death. Early diagnosis with biochemistry, Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of abdomen, proper functional imaging like Meta Iodo Benzyl Guanidine (MIBG) scan is essential. Proper preoperative preparation is important to prevent hypertensive crisis during and after surgery. We are reporting a case of cystic pheochromocytoma in a young male. PMID:28050427

  10. Synthesis of uniform cyclodextrin thioethers to transport hydrophobic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisa F; Schwarz, Dennis H

    2014-01-01

    Summary Methyl and ethyl thioether groups were introduced at all primary positions of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrin by nucleophilic displacement reactions starting from the corresponding per-(6-deoxy-6-bromo)cyclodextrins. Further modification of all 2-OH positions by etherification with iodo terminated triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (and tetraethylene glycol monomethyl ether, respectively) furnished water-soluble hosts. Especially the β-cyclodextrin derivatives exhibit very high binding potentials towards the anaesthetic drugs sevoflurane and halothane. Since the resulting inclusion compounds are highly soluble in water at temperatures ≤37 °C they are good candidates for new aqueous dosage forms which would avoid inhalation anaesthesia. PMID:25550759

  11. Tyrosine Deprotonation Yields Abundant and Selective Backbone Cleavage in Peptide Anions upon Negative Electron transfer Dissociation and Ultraviolet Photodissociation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jared B.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Zhang, Xing; Julian, Ryan R.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine deprotonation in peptides yields preferential electron detachment upon NETD or UVPD, resulting in prominent N – Cα bond cleavage N-terminal to the tyrosine residue. UVPD of iodo-tyrosine modified peptides was used to generate localized radicals on neutral tyrosine side chains by homolytic cleavage of the C – I bond. Subsequent collisional activation of the radical species yielded the same preferential cleavage of the adjacent N-terminal N – Cα bond. LC-MS/MS analysis of a tryptic digest of BSA demonstrated that these cleavages are regularly observed for peptides when using high pH mobile phases. PMID:22970927

  12. Tyrosine deprotonation yields abundant and selective backbone cleavage in peptide anions upon negative electron transfer dissociation and ultraviolet photodissociation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jared B; Ledvina, Aaron R; Zhang, Xing; Julian, Ryan R; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2012-09-26

    Tyrosine deprotonation in peptides yields preferential electron detachment upon NETD or UVPD, resulting in prominent N-Cα bond cleavage N-terminal to the tyrosine residue. UVPD of iodo-tyrosine-modified peptides was used to generate localized radicals on neutral tyrosine side chains by homolytic cleavage of the C-I bond. Subsequent collisional activation of the radical species yielded the same preferential cleavage of the adjacent N-terminal N-Cα bond. LC-MS/MS analysis of a tryptic digest of BSA demonstrated that these cleavages are regularly observed for peptides when using high-pH mobile phases.

  13. Pseudo five-component synthesis of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes via a one-pot Sonogashira-Glaser cyclization sequence.

    PubMed

    Urselmann, Dominik; Antovic, Dragutin; Müller, Thomas J J

    2011-01-01

    Based upon a consecutive one-pot Sonogashira-Glaser coupling-cyclization sequence a variety of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes were synthesized in moderate to good yields. A single Pd/Cu-catalyst system, without further catalyst addition, and easily available, stable starting materials were used, resulting in a concise and highly efficient route for the synthesis of the title compounds. This novel pseudo five-component synthesis starting from iodo(hetero)arenes is particularly suitable as a direct access to well-defined thiophene oligomers, which are of peculiar interest in materials science.

  14. Pseudo five-component synthesis of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes via a one-pot Sonogashira–Glaser cyclization sequence

    PubMed Central

    Urselmann, Dominik; Antovic, Dragutin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Based upon a consecutive one-pot Sonogashira–Glaser coupling–cyclization sequence a variety of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes were synthesized in moderate to good yields. A single Pd/Cu-catalyst system, without further catalyst addition, and easily available, stable starting materials were used, resulting in a concise and highly efficient route for the synthesis of the title compounds. This novel pseudo five-component synthesis starting from iodo(hetero)arenes is particularly suitable as a direct access to well-defined thiophene oligomers, which are of peculiar interest in materials science. PMID:22238523

  15. The Development of a Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Addition/Cyclization for Direct Construction of Indole Skeletons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Qi, Linjun; Hu, Kun; Gong, Julin; Cheng, Tianxing; Wang, Qingzong; Chen, Jiuxi; Wu, Huayue

    2017-03-13

    A palladium-catalyzed tandem addition/cyclization of 2-(2-aminoaryl)acetonitriles with arylboronic acids has been developed for the first time, achieving a new strategy for direct construction of indole skeletons. This system shows good functional group tolerance and remarkable chemoselectivity. Especially, the halogen (e.g. bromo and iodo) substituents are amenable for further synthetic elaborations thereby broadening the diversity of the products. Preliminary mechanistic experiments indicate that this transformation involves sequential nucleophilic addition followed by an intramolecular cyclization.

  16. D-glucose- and D-mannose-based antimetabolites. Part 2. Facile synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-halo-D-glucoses and -D-mannoses.

    PubMed

    Fokt, Izabela; Szymanski, Slawomir; Skora, Stanislaw; Cybulski, Marcin; Madden, Timothy; Priebe, Waldemar

    2009-08-17

    Modified D-glucose and D-mannose analogs are potentially clinically useful metabolic inhibitors. Biological evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-halo analogs has been impaired by limited availability and lack of efficient methods for their preparation. We have developed practical synthetic approaches to 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-, 2-chloro-2-deoxy-, 2-bromo-2-deoxy-, and 2-deoxy-2-iodo derivatives of D-glucose and D-mannose that exploit electrophilic addition reactions to a commercially available 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Cross-Coupling/Tandem Reductive Cyclization Route to Key Members of the Uleine Alkaloid Family.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Banwell, Martin G; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-04-01

    The trisubstituted cyclohexenone 12, generated through a palladium-catalyzed Ullmann cross-coupling reaction between o-iodonitrobenzene and a 4,5-trans-disubstituted 2-iodo-2-cyclohexen-1-one, engaged in a tandem reductive cyclization process upon exposure to hydrogen gas in the presence of Raney cobalt. As a result, the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole 13 was obtained and this could be readily elaborated to the racemic modifications of the alkaloids uleine, dasycarpidone, noruleine, and nordasycarpidone (1-4, respectively).

  18. 40 CFR 372.65 - Chemicals and chemical categories to which this part applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chloride 98-87-3 1/1/87 Benzamide 55-21-0 1/1/87 Benzene 71-43-2 1/1/87 Benzidine 92-87-5 1/1/87 Benzo(g,h... Butyraldehyde 123-72-8 1/1/87 C.I. Acid Green 3 4680-78-8 1/1/87 C.I. Basic Green 4 569-64-2 1/1/87 C.I. Acid... Hydroquinone 123-31-9 1/1/87 Imazalil -1H-imidazole] 35554-44-0 1/1/95 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate...

  19. On the cause of low thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates for the thermal decomposition of ethyl halodiazoacetates (halo = Cl, Br, I) have been obtained, and reported herein are their half-lives. The experimental results are supported by DFT calculations, and we provide a possible explanation for the reduced thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates compared to ethyl diazoacetate and for the relative decomposition rates between the chloro, bromo and iodo analogs. We have also briefly studied the thermal, non-catalytic cyclopropanation of styrenes and compared the results to the analogous Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions. PMID:27559411

  20. One pot synthesis of diarylfurans from aryl esters and PhI(OAc)2 via palladium-associated iodonium ylides.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yong-Sheng; Agula, Bao; Zhaorigetu, Bao; Jia, Meilin; Baiyin, Menghe

    2015-04-14

    The example of palladium-catalyzed intermolecular cyclization for the synthesis of various diarylfurans in which one of the aromatic rings originates from the phenolic part of the starting ester and the other one from PhI(OAc)2 has been reported. The reaction is carried out through two steps: the rearrangement of palladium-associated iodonium ylides to form o-iodo diaryl ether and then palladium catalyzed intramolecular direct arylation. This reaction can tolerate a variety of functional groups and is alternative or complementary to the previous methods for the synthesis of diarylfurans.

  1. Functionalized Metallated Cavitands via Imidation and Late-Stage Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanchuan

    2015-01-01

    Efficient methods for the preparation of functionalized metallated cavitands are described. Functional groups can be either introduced by an imidation of metal-oxo complexes or by a late-stage elaboration of the imido ligands. By using diversified iminophosphorane (PPh3=NR) reagents, π-conjugated pyrene, redox active ferrocene and polymerizable norbornene moieties were successfully introduced. Furthermore, the iodo and alkynyl groups on the imido ligands are capable of undergoing efficient Sonogashira cross-coupling and copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition reactions, thereby providing facile access to complex architectures containing metallated cavitands. PMID:26962300

  2. Targeting of lacZ reporter gene expression with radioiodine-labelled phenylethyl-beta- d-thiogalactopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Han; Byun, Sang Sung; Choi, Joon Hun; Paik, Jin-Young; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2004-03-01

    There has recently been increasing interest in the development of radioprobes that specifically target proteins transcribed from expression of reporter genes of interest. The purpose of this study was to develop a radioprobe that targets one of the most widely used reporter genes, the bacterial lacZ gene. We synthesised and purified radioiodine-labelled phenylethyl-beta- d-thiogalactopyranoside (PETG), a competitive inhibitor specific against Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. We showed that [(125)I]iodo-PETG specifically binds to beta-galactosidase as verified by column chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after incubation of radiotracer with the protein. We also showed through enzyme kinetic studies that iodo-PETG retains inhibitory action against beta-galactosidase activity. COS-7 cells infected with a recombinant adenovirus expressing the lacZ gene had viral titre-dependent enhancements in [(125)I]iodo-PETG uptake ( r(2)=0.897; P=0.001), which reached up to 642.5%+/-16.7% of control levels ( P<0.00001). Moreover, the level of uptake was highly correlated to luminescent measurements of beta-galactosidase activity ( r(2)=0.878; P<0.0001). These results confirm that radioiodine-labelled PETG specifically targets beta-galactosidase and that its uptake rates faithfully reflect levels of expression of the lacZ reporter gene. Further investigations were performed in nude mice bearing human neuroblastoma tumours transferred with the lacZ gene. Compared with control tumours, lacZ-expressing tumours were slightly better visualised on [(123)I]iodo-PETG images and had a modest increase in tumour to muscle count ratio (2.6+/-0.2 vs 1.9+/-0.1, P<0.05). The present results provide proof-of-principle for the potential of radiolabelled inhibitors as promising radiotracers to monitor lacZ gene expression levels. Future modifications to improve cell permeability should enhance in vivo contrast levels and may allow the use of radiolabelled beta

  3. Les auditeurs polonais des cours de minéralogie de René Just Haüy au Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarkowski, Radosław; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2006-09-01

    The paper analyses a list of thirty-four Poles, listeners to the mineralogy lectures given by R.-J. Haüy at MNHN in Paris. These students played an important role in the history of Polish Earth Sciences (S. Staszic and F. Drzewiński), but also in other scientific fields (J. Markowski, I. Abłamowicz, F. Drzewiński, M.A. Pawłowicz, J.K. Skrodzki, E.K. Nowicki), and even in political and cultural life of Poland (A. Downarowicz, J. Weyssenhoff, S. Plater, J. Bieliński, F. Potocki). This paper presents later relations between R.-J. Haüy and his Polish students. A possibility of the Poles' attendance to mineralogy lectures given at other Parisian scientific institutions, like the 'École des mines' and the 'College de France', is also discussed. To cite this article: R. Tarkowski, P. Daszkiewicz, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  4. Michael Mästlin's role in the polemic against the calendar reform of pope Gregor XIII. (German Title: Die Rolle Michael Mästlins in der Polemik um die Kalenderreform von Papst Gregor XIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Because of theological resistance, the calendar reform of 1582 was introduced only in countries under catholic rule. Michael Mästlin is found among the spokesmen of opposition against this feared attempted of the pope to gain influence in the protestant church, nevertheless, Mästlin had no doubt that a calendar reform was necessary. This article retraces Mästlin's argumentation and puts it into context with contemporary discussions about a calendar reform.

  5. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  6. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  7. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  8. "Cos Um It like Put a Picture in My Mind of What I Should Write": An Exploration of How Home-School Partnership Might Support the Writing of Lower-Achieving Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines how home and school working together supported the writing of lower-achieving boys. It describes an activity in which parents and children selected artefacts at home to inspire writing in school. This model of home-school partnership permitted different levels of parental involvement and also allowed the child to take a key…

  9. The molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of zinc cadmium selenide/zinc cadmium magnesium selenide-indium phosphide quantum cascade structures for operation in the 3 - 5 um range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, William O.

    The quantum cascade (QC) laser has captured the interest of researchers for almost three decades. In the early stages, researchers were very interested in proving the QC concept1 proposed by Kazarinov and Suris in 1971. This new concept gave researchers hope that very bulky energy inefficient infra-red (IR) lasers would be replaced with ones that are very compact, tunable and portable. Since the proposal of the QC laser concept and its first demonstration by researchers at Bell Laboratories2 in 1994, this technology has progressed to the point where it is now finding commercial applications in a variety of areas such as military counter measures, free space telecommunications, infra-red imaging and chemical spectroscopy.3-5 The success of this technology can be attributed to the coming of age of the techniques of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) semiconductor growth and bandgap engineering. 6,7 Using MBE technology, the temperature of the source material can be stabilized by making use of a combination of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers and thermocouple feedbacks. As a result, the material flux from the effusion cells can achieve stability better than (+/-) 1%. This flux stability together with a well-developed computer controlled shuttering mechanism make it possible to grow multi-quantum well (MQW) structures with excellent layer thickness precision (mono-layer scale) and interface quality. This stringent control of material flux is also a tool that is used by MBE growers to vary the material compositions for the growth of lattice matched and strain compensated QC structures. Today, MBE stands out as one of the premier methods for growing high performing QC lasers. The first successful demonstration of a QC laser2 was done using the InGaAs/InAlAs-InP material system. This demonstration was then repeated a few years later using GaAs/AlGaAs-InP.8 These III-V material systems were extensively studied to establish their material parameters. Given that material parameters are critically important in the process of modeling QC structures, it is not surprising that early success was achieved using these systems. Today, the best performing QC lasers operate in the 4--13 mum range and are produced using lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs-InP. In order to produce short wavelength QC lasers, the well layer thicknesses in the active region of the device must be reduced in an effort to push the lasing energy states further apart. This reduction in well thicknesses results in the movement of the upper lasing state closer to the bandedge. This action increases the probability of the lost of lasing state electrons to the continuum. Therefore, in order to produce high performing short wavelength QC lasers, a large conduction band offset (CBO) is required. The CBO of lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs-InP is 0.52 eV. In an attempt to produce high performing devices below 4 mum many researchers have resorted to the use of strain compensation9-11 . This approach has yielded very little improvement in performance due to electron scattering to the X and L intervalleys. This has lead to the exploration of wide bandgap material systems such as the antominides and nitrides. In this work the wide bandgap II-V Znx'Cd(1-x')Se/Zn xCdyMg(1-x-y)Se-InP will be explored for QC laser fabrication. To this end, QC lasers were designed for operation at 3--5 mum range. A Matlab-based program was written to calculate the energy level spacing within the active region of these devices. This simulation program was based on Schroindger's equation and the transfer matrix technique. Several calibration samples were grown to establish the doping levels and growth rate of the well and barrier materials. The growth rate was measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) oscillations during MBE growth. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to determine the lattice mismatch of the II-VI bulk layers, and therefore predict whether material composition adjustments were required to attain the lattice match condition. The samples that were grown were studied using photoluminescence (PL) to determine the bandgap of the well and barrier material. This information was then used to calculate the CBO of the II-VI MQW structure. In addition, PL studies were also carried out to look for material defects and assess the quality of the well/barrier interface. These II-VI QC samples were also subjected to Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy to determine the energy levels in the grown structures. After optimizing the active regions using simulation data and FTIR results, electroluminescence (EL) structures were grown and processed into QC emitters using a combination photolithography and electron beam contact deposition. The processed structures were then biased and investigated for IR emission at temperatures ranging from 80 K to room temperature.

  10. The controversy between Alexander Friedmann and Albert Einstein about the possibility of a non-static world (German Title: Die Kontroverse zwischen Alexander Friedmann und Albert Einstein um die Möglichkeit einer nichtstatischen Welt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Georg

    Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.

  11. Iraqi Perspectives Project Phase II. Um Al-Ma’arik (The Mother of All Battles): Operational and Strategic Insights from an Iraqi Perspective, Volume 1 (Revised May 2008)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    ISGQ-2003-M0003852 – Audio recording of Saddam meeting with his ministerial council on 4 August 1990. (FOUO) 83 …I would say that Saladin did not...to liberate Jerusalem. Saddam Hussein is [carrying the] Saladin mission from Iraq in order to liberate Jerusalem and Arab occupied lands…203 A...FOUO) Saladin captured Jerusalem shortly after de- feating a combined crusader army at the Battle of Hattin on 4 July 1187 CE. 204 Harmony media file

  12. Bis(3,5-diiodo-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)squaraine photodynamic therapy disrupts redox homeostasis and induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Saneesh Babu, P. S.; Manu, Prasad M.; Dhanya, T. Jayaram; Tapas, Pradhan; Meera, R. Nair; Surendran, Arun; Aneesh, Kumar A.; Vadakkancheril, S. Jisha; Ramaiah, Danaboyina; Nair, S. Asha; Pillai, M. Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically established and highly evolving treatment modality for cancer. PDT utilizes a light responsive drug called photosensitizer that selectively destroys tumor cells upon light irradiation. Squaraines are a class of dyes possessing all favorable characteristics of a photosensitizer and have been considered to be a potent candidate for next generation PDT. In this study we chose an iodo derivative of squaraine called diiodo-squaraine (bis(3, 5-diiodo-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)squaraine) which has been reported for its tumor specificity but least studied for its cellular and molecular functions. Our studies revealed that the iodo derivative of squaraine possess maximum photodynamic activity in human breast cancer cells MDA- MB- 231 and had very little cytotoxicity in normal breast cells MCF-10A. We analyzed its pro and anti-apoptotic events initiated by oxidative stress exploring a proteomic approach and delineated other critical molecular pathways and key proteins involved in regulating the complex network of cellular response upon PDT. Our study showed that, diiodo- squaraines predominantly accumulate in mitochondria and induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Our study also reveals the novel mechanistic role of diiodo-squaraines to induce oxidative stress there by activating both protective and death inducing pathways post PDT. PMID:28169351

  13. Radioimmunoassay of prolactin for the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a cooperatively breeding carnivore.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Nicol, Linda; Young, Andrew J; Parlow, Al F; McNeilly, Alan S

    2003-02-01

    We report the development and validation of a highly specific heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) to measure meerkat prolactin (PRL) by using rabbit antiserum to human prolactin and canine [125I]iodo-PRL. Dilutions of meerkat pituitary standard and plasma gave parallel inhibition curves in the assay. Gel filtration of meerkat pituitary extracts and canine [125I]iodo-PRL run separately on a Sephadex G-100 generated identical peaks of activity, and Western blot analysis of meerkat pituitary extract with the human prolactin antiserum used in the RIA gave a molecular weight similar to canine prolactin (21kDa). We carried out a biological validation of the prolactin assay by administering three different doses each of sulpiride and cabergoline to adult male meerkats. Increasing doses of sulpiride and cabergoline caused substantial increases and decreases, respectively, in the plasma prolactin of the study animals as expected. Activation of the stress response in meerkats by capture and ketamine hydrochloride anesthesia caused short-term but significant increases in prolactin levels in individuals bled repeatedly. The RIA developed and described here was able to determine plasma concentrations of prolactin in all animals sampled. We conclude, however, that it will be important in all future studies to confine blood sampling times to 4-7 min after capture/administration of anesthesia to avoid the confounding effects of the stress response on prolactin levels.

  14. Synthesis of triazafluoranthenones via silver(I)-mediated nonoxidative and oxidative intramolecular palladium-catalyzed cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Koutentis, Panayiotis A; Loizou, Georgia; Lo Re, Daniele

    2011-07-15

    Silver(I) fluoride (AgF)-mediated intramolecular nonoxidative and oxidative palladium-catalyzed cyclizations of 1,3-diphenyl- and 8-iodo-1,3-diphenylbenzo[e][1,2,4]triazin-7(1H)-ones 6a (R = H) and 7a (R = I) afford a new 'alkaloid like' ring system 2-phenyl-6H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6,1-jk]carbazol-6-one 8a (triazafluoranthenone) in 86 and 100% yields, respectively. Furthermore, these cyclization protocols were used to prepare triazafluoranthenone analogues 8b-e bearing dialkylamino, methoxy, and phenylsulfanyl substituents at C-5, which were also independently synthesized from triazafluoranthenone 8a by regioselective nucleophilic addition. Similar AgF-mediated intramolecular nonoxidative and oxidative palladium-catalyzed cyclizations of 8,10-dihydro-1-iodo-10-phenylphenazin-2(7H)-ones 13 gave the new 'alkaloid like' ring system 8H-indolo[1,2,3-mn]phenazin-8-one 14 in 80 and 18% yields, respectively.

  15. A first archetype of boron dipyrromethene-phthalocyanine pentad dye: design, synthesis, and photophysical and photochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Göl, Cem; Malkoç, Mustafa; Yeşilot, Serkan; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2014-05-28

    A novel type of phthalocyanine pentad containing four boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) units at peripheral positions of the phthalocyanine framework has been designed and synthesized for the first time. The Sonogashira coupling reaction between 4,4'-difluoro-8-(4-ethynyl)-phenyl-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (Ethynyl-BODIPY) and 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis(iodo) zinc(ii) phthalocyanine (Iodo-Pc) has been used for the synthesis of the target compound. The BODIPY-phthalocyanine pentad dye (BODIPY-Pc) has been fully characterized by (1)H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis as well. The photoinduced energy transfer process for this dye system was explored in tetrahydrofuran solution. The singlet oxygen generation capability and photodegradation behaviours of this BODIPY-Pc pentad dye were also investigated in DMSO for the determination of the usability of this new type of dye system as a photosensitizer in PDT applications.

  16. Decomposition of reactive oxygen species by copper(II) bis(1-pyrazolyl)methane complexes.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor; Potapov, Andrei; Khlebnikov, Andrei; Korotkova, Elena; Lukina, Anna; Malovichko, Galina; Kirpotina, Lilia; Quinn, Mark T

    2006-06-01

    Two bis(1-pyrazolyl)alkane ligands, bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methane and bis(4-iodo-3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methane, and their copper(II) complexes, bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methanedinitratocopper(II) [CuL1(NO3)2] and bis(4-iodo-3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methanedinitratocopper(II) [CuL2(NO3)2] x 2H2O, were prepared. Physiochemical properties of the copper(II) complexes were studied by spectroscopic (UV-vis, IR, EPR) techniques and cyclic voltammetry. Spectroscopic analysis revealed a 1:1 stoichiometry of ligand:copper(II) ion and a bidentate coordination mode for the nitrate ions in both of the complexes. According to experimental and theoretical ab initio data, the copper(II) ion is located in an octahedral hexacoordinated environment. Both complexes were able to catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion (O2*-) (pH 7.5) and decomposition of H2O2 (pH 7.5) and peroxynitrite (pH 10.9). In addition, both complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity toward extracellular and intracellular reactive oxygen species produced by activated human neutrophils in whole blood. Thus, these complexes represent useful SOD mimetics with a broad range of antioxidant activity toward a variety of reactive oxidants.

  17. Role of chloride channels in bradykinin-induced guinea pig airway vagal C-fibre activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Goo; Macglashan, Donald W; Undem, Bradley J

    2005-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an ionic current carried by chloride ions contributes to bradykinin (BK)-induced membrane depolarization and activation of vagal afferent C-fibres. In an ex vivo innervated trachea/bronchus preparation, BK (1 microM) consistently produced action potential discharge in vagal afferent C-fibres with receptive fields in the trachea or main stem bronchus. The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CLCA) inhibitor, niflumic acid (NFA, 100 microM), significantly reduced BK-induced action potential discharge to 21 +/- 7% of the control BK response. NFA did not inhibit capsaicin-induced or citric-acid-induced action potential discharge in tracheal C-fibres. The inhibitory effect of NFA was mimicked by another CLCA inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB, 100 microM). NFA also inhibited the BK-induced inward current in gramicidin-perforated whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of capsaicin-sensitive jugular ganglion neurones retrogradely labelled from the airways. NFA did not inhibit the BK-induced increase in intracellular free Ca2+. The TRPV1 inhibitor, iodo-resiniferatoxin (1 microM), also partially inhibited BK-induced action potential discharge, and the combination of iodo-resiniferatoxin and NFA virtually abolished the BK-induced action potential discharge. We concluded that in vagal afferent C-fibres, BK evokes membrane depolarization and action potential discharge through the additive effects of TRPV1 and Cl- channel activation.

  18. Asymmetric intramolecular α-cyclopropanation of aldehydes using a donor/acceptor carbene mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chaosheng; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Enantioselective α-alkylation of carbonyl is considered as one of the most important processes for asymmetric synthesis. Common alkylation agents, that is, alkyl halides, are notorious substrates for both Lewis acids and organocatalysts. Recently, olefins emerged as a benign alkylating species via photo/radical mechanisms. However, examples of enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes/ketones are scarce and direct asymmetric dialkylation remains elusive. Here we report an intramolecular α-cyclopropanation reaction of olefinic aldehydes to form chiral cyclopropane aldehydes. We demonstrate that an α-iodo aldehyde can function as a donor/acceptor carbene equivalent, which engages in a formal [2+1] annulation with a tethered double bond. Privileged bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-type scaffolds are prepared in good optical purity using a chiral amine. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated by versatile transformations of the bridgehead formyl functionality. We expect the concept of using α-iodo iminium as a donor/acceptor carbene surrogate will find wide applications in chemical reaction development. PMID:26644194

  19. Effect of caffeine on induction of endogenous type C virus in mouse cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Niwa, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1981-08-01

    The effect of caffeine on the expression of murine endogenous virus in mouse cells induced by radiation and chemicals was studied. Postirradiation treatment of K-BALB cells with caffeine enhanced cell killing as well as the induction of xenotropic virus after ultraviolet light irradiation. The degree of enhancement for the virus induction was comparable to that for cell killing. On the other hand, colony-forming ability and the expression of xenotropic virus of K-BALB cells after X-irradiation were unaffected by caffeine. These data suggest a linear relationship between the degree of endogenous virus expression and the amount of lethal damages after irradiation. For induction by halogenated pyrimidines, a 24-hr incubation of AKR2B cells with caffeine after 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine treatment resulted in marked suppression of the expression of ecotropic virus. On the contrary, in K-BALB cells, caffeine exerted only a small effect on 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-induced expression of ecotropic and xenotropic viruses. These results indicate that, although using the same inducing agent, the pathway of endogenous virus induction may be different for AKR2B cells and for K-BALB cells.

  20. Iodination and stability of somatostatin analogues: comparison of iodination techniques. A practical overview.

    PubMed

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-01-01

    For iodination ((125/127)I) of tyrosine-containing peptides, chloramin-T, Pre-Coated Iodo-Gen(®) tubes and Iodo-Beads(®) (Pierce) are commonly used for in vitro radioligand investigations and there have been reliant vendors hereof for decades. However, commercial availability of these radio-iodinated peptides is decreasing. For continuation of our research in this field we investigated and optimized (radio-)iodination of somatostatin analogues. In literature, radioiodination using here described somatostatin analogues and iodination techniques are described separately. Here we present an overview, including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation and characterisation by mass spectrometry, to obtain mono- and di-iodinated analogues. Reaction kinetics of (125/127)I iodinated somatostatin analogues were investigated as function of reaction time and concentration of reactants, including somatostatin analogues, iodine and oxidizing agent. To our knowledge, for the here described somatostatin analogues, no (127)I iodination and optimization are described. (Radio-)iodinated somatostatin analogues could be preserved with a >90% radiochemical purity for 1 month after reversed phase HPLC-purification.

  1. Comparison of the Reactivity of the Three Distonic Isomers of the Pyridine Radical Cation Toward Tetrahydrofuran in Solution and in the Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    Widjaja, Fanny; Jin, Zhicheng; Nash, John J.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of the three distonic isomers of the pyridine radical cation toward tetrahydrofuran is compared in solution and in the gas phase. In solution, the distonic ions were generated by UV photolysis at 300 nm from iodo-precursors in acidic 50:50 tetrahydrofuran/water solutions. In the gas phase, the ions were generated by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of protonated iodo-precursors in an FT-ICR mass spectrometer, as described in the literature. The same major reaction, hydrogen atom abstraction, was observed in solution and in the gas phase. Attempts to cleave the iodine atom from the 2-iodopyridinium cation in the gas phase and in solution yielded the 2-pyridyl cation in addition to the desired 2-dehydropyridinium cation. In the gas phase, this ion was ejected prior to the examination of the desired ion’s chemical properties. This was not possible in solution. This study suggests that solvation effects are not significant for radical reactions of charged radicals. On the other hand, the even-electron ion studied, the 2-pyridyl cation, shows substantial solvation effects. For example, in solution, the 2-pyridyl cation forms a stable adduct with tetrahydrofuran, whereas in the gas phase, only addition/elimination reactions were observed. PMID:23345033

  2. In vivo demonstration of cell types in bone that harbor epidermal growth factor receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau-Doize, B.; Lai, W.H.; Warshawsky, H.; Bergeron, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    The binding and internalization of (/sup 125/I)iodoepidermal growth factor (EGF) by bone cells of the rat was demonstrated in situ by quantitative radioautography. Specific binding sites were observed on a cell profile enriched in endocytic components, including lysosome-like structures, a rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell profile, and a cell profile that histologically resembles an undifferentiated precursor cell. By the criteria of gel filtration and precipitability by trichloroacetic acid, most of the bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF was considered intact. By morphological criteria none of the cell profiles that bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF corresponded to fully formed osteoclasts or osteoblasts. The endocytic cell was found in the epiphyseal plate between the invading capillary and the transverse and longitudinal cartilage septa as well as near osteoclasts in the zone of mixed spicules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell was present in vacated chondrocyte lacunae of the epiphyseal plate close to the metaphysis, and the poorly differentiated cell was observed between the mixed spicules of the metaphysis. Similar cell types were also found in the alveolar bone surrounding the incisors. These cells may be the origin of established bone cell lines that harbor high concentrations of EGF receptors and may also be responsible for the humoral hypercalcemia in response to the reported actions of injected EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha as well as that of malignancy.

  3. Calmodulin independence of human duodenal adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J A; Griffin, M; Mireylees, S E; Long, R G

    1991-01-01

    The calmodulin and calcium dependence of human adenylate cyclase from the second part of the duodenum was assessed in washed particulate preparations of biopsy specimens by investigating (a) the concentration dependent effects of free [Ca2+] on enzyme activity, (b) the effects of exogenous calmodulin on enzyme activity in ethylene glycol bis (b-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) washed particulate preparations, and (c) the effects of calmodulin antagonists on enzyme activity. Both basal (IC50 = 193.75 (57.5) nmol/l (mean (SEM)) and NaF stimulated (IC50 = 188.0 (44.0) nmol/l) adenylate cyclase activity was strongly inhibited by free [Ca2+] greater than 90 nmol/l. Free [Ca2+] less than 90 nmol/l had no effect on adenylate cyclase activity. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by 50% at 2.5 mmol/l EGTA. This inhibition could not be reversed by free Ca2+. The addition of exogenous calmodulin to EGTA (5 mmol/l) washed particulate preparations failed to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity. Trifluoperazine and N-(8-aminohexyl)-5-IODO-1-naphthalene-sulphonamide (IODO 8) did not significantly inhibit basal and NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity when measured at concentrations of up to 100 mumol/l. These results suggest that human duodenal adenylate cyclase activity is calmodulin independent but is affected by changes in free [Ca2+]. PMID:1752461

  4. Modification of lypophilic groups and replacement of phosphorus by arsenic to study the effect on myocardial specificity of radioiodinated phosphonium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Owen, B.A.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The organic cation, (E-1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)triphenylphosphonium iodide (I), shows attractive myocardial uptake and retention in rats and dogs. The effect of modification of lypophilic groups attached to phosphorus and replacement of phosphorus by arsenic on myocardial specificity and retention of radioiodinated cations has now been evaluated. Triphenylarsonium (II, M=As), dicyclohexylphenylphosphonium (III, M=P) and dimethyl-n-octylphosphonium (IV, M=P) cations ((R/sub 3/M/sup +/-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/-CH=CH*I)I/sup -/) attached to the E-1-(/sup 125/I)iodo-1-pentenyl group were prepared via NaI-chloramine T iodination of the corresponding vinylboronic acid cation substrates. Compounds I-IV and the respective precursors were analyzed (TLC, NMR, and CandH) and /sup 125/I analogs I-IV were evaluated in rats (5/group). All four agents showed good uptake and retention demonstrating that these structural alterations do not greatly affect the myocardial specificity of these interesting new agents.

  5. Synthesis of novel 13α-18-norandrostane-ferrocene conjugates via homogeneous catalytic methods and their investigation on TRPV1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Szánti-Pintér, Eszter; Wouters, Johan; Gömöry, Ágnes; Sághy, Éva; Szőke, Éva; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Kollár, László; Skoda-Földes, Rita

    2015-12-01

    13α-Steroid-ferrocene derivatives were synthesized via two reaction pathways starting from an unnatural 16-keto-18-nor-13α-steroid. The unnatural steroid was converted to ferrocene derivatives via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation. 16-Azido- and 16-N-(prop-2-ynyl)-carboxamido-steroids were synthesized as starting materials for azide-alkyne cycloaddition with the appropriate ferrocene derivatives. Based on our earlier work, aminocarbonylation of 16-iodo-16-ene and 16-iodo-15-ene derivatives was studied with ferrocenylmethylamine. The new products were obtained in moderate to good yields and were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR and MS. The solid state structure of the starting material 13α-18-norandrostan-16-one and two carboxamide products were determined by X-ray crystallography. Evidences were provided that the N-propargyl-carboxamide compound as well as its ferrocenylmethyltriazole derivative are able to decrease the activation of TRPV1 receptor on TRG neurons.

  6. Receptor-mediated DNA-targeted photoimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lobachevsky, Pavel N; Leung, Brenda K Y; White, Jonathan M; Martin, Roger F

    2006-11-01

    We show the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy that combines the potency of a DNA-binding photosensitizer, UV(A)Sens, with the tumor-targeting potential of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The photosensitizer is an iodinated bibenzimidazole, which, when bound in the minor groove of DNA and excited by UV(A) irradiation, induces cytotoxic lesions attributed to a radical species resulting from photodehalogenation. Although reminiscent of photochemotherapy using psoralens and UV(A) irradiation, an established treatment modality in dermatology particularly for the treatment of psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a critical difference is the extreme photopotency of the iodinated bibenzimidazole, approximately 1,000-fold that of psoralens. This feature prompted consideration of combination with the specificity of receptor-mediated targeting. Using two in vitro model systems, we show the UV(A) cytotoxicity of iodo ligand/protein conjugates, implying binding of the conjugate to cell receptors, internalization, and degradation of the conjugate-receptor complex, with release and translocation of the ligand to nuclear DNA. For ligand-transferrin conjugates, phototoxicity was inhibited by coincubation with excess native transferrin. Receptor-mediated UV(A)-induced cytotoxicity was also shown with the iodo ligand conjugate of an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, exemplifying the potential application of the strategy to other cancer-specific targets to thus improve the specificity of phototherapy of superficial lesions and for extracorporeal treatments.

  7. Self-assembled monolayer of organic iodine on a Au surface for attachment of redox-active metal clusters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Dubey, Manish; Bernasek, Steven L; Dismukes, G Charles

    2007-07-17

    The attachment of a bifunctional iodo-organo-phosphinate compound to gold (Au) surfaces via chemisorption of the iodine atom is described and used to chelate a redox-active metal cluster via the phosphinate group. XPS, AFM, and electrochemical measurements show that (4-iodo-phenyl)phenyl phosphinic acid (IPPA) forms a tightly bound self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Au surfaces. The surface coverage of an IPPA monolayer on Au was quantified by an electrochemical method and found to be 0.40 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm2, roughly corresponding to 0.4 monolayers. We show that the Au/IPPA SAM, but not the underivatized Au, adsorbs Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)6 from solution by a phosphinate exchange reaction to yield Au/IPPA/Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)5 SAM. The resulting SAM is firmly bound and not removed by sonication, as confirmed by manganese XPS (Mn 2p1/2) and by AFM. Electrochemistry confirms that Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)6 is anchored on the Au/IPPA surface and that redox chemistry can be mediated between the electrode and the surface-attached complex. Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)6 contains the reactive Mn4O46+ cubane core, a redox-active bioinspired catalyst.

  8. Bis(3,5-diiodo-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)squaraine photodynamic therapy disrupts redox homeostasis and induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Saneesh Babu, P S; Manu, Prasad M; Dhanya, T Jayaram; Tapas, Pradhan; Meera, R Nair; Surendran, Arun; Aneesh, Kumar A; Vadakkancheril, S Jisha; Ramaiah, Danaboyina; Nair, S Asha; Pillai, M Radhakrishna

    2017-02-07

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically established and highly evolving treatment modality for cancer. PDT utilizes a light responsive drug called photosensitizer that selectively destroys tumor cells upon light irradiation. Squaraines are a class of dyes possessing all favorable characteristics of a photosensitizer and have been considered to be a potent candidate for next generation PDT. In this study we chose an iodo derivative of squaraine called diiodo-squaraine (bis(3, 5-diiodo-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)squaraine) which has been reported for its tumor specificity but least studied for its cellular and molecular functions. Our studies revealed that the iodo derivative of squaraine possess maximum photodynamic activity in human breast cancer cells MDA- MB- 231 and had very little cytotoxicity in normal breast cells MCF-10A. We analyzed its pro and anti-apoptotic events initiated by oxidative stress exploring a proteomic approach and delineated other critical molecular pathways and key proteins involved in regulating the complex network of cellular response upon PDT. Our study showed that, diiodo- squaraines predominantly accumulate in mitochondria and induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Our study also reveals the novel mechanistic role of diiodo-squaraines to induce oxidative stress there by activating both protective and death inducing pathways post PDT.

  9. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1991-06-01

    In this report the development of a solvent extraction technique for the efficient separation of iridium radioisotopes from osmium radioisotopes is described. The Os-191 (Os-VIII) was efficiently separated from iridium-192 by extraction of a 1 M HCl solution with <10{sup {minus}2}M tetrahexylamine (THA) in methyl isobutyl ketone. Over 99% of the osmium is extracted in one step, leaving the radioactive iridium in the aqueous acidic solution. This simple extraction technique may be useful for the development of a new Os-194/Ir-194 generator prototype which is currently being explored. Also in this report, biodistribution studies of the two iodine-125 (I-125)-labeled spiroperidol analogues, E-3-N-(iodo-1-propen-3-yl)- and E-3-N-(iodo-1-penten-5-yl)spiroperidol in male Balb C mice are described. Several samples were supplied for collaborative research projects during this period and included I-125 and I-131 methyl-branched fatty acids, samples of tin-117m (Sn-117m), gold-199 (Au-199) and scandium-47 (Sc-47). 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVRI polarisation in NGC 5606 (Orsatti+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Feinstein, C.; Vega, E. I.; Vergne, M. M.

    2007-11-01

    Observations in the UBV(RI)C bands (KC: Kron-Co {lambda}Ueff=0.36um, FWHM=0.05um; {lambda}Beff=0.44um, FWHM=0.06um; {lambda}Veff=0.53um, FWHM=0.06um; {lambda}Reff=0.69um, FWHM=0.18um; {lambda}Ieff=0.83um, FWHM=0.15um) were carried out using the five-channel photopolarimeter of the Torino Astronomical Observatory attached to the 2.15m telescope at the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito (San Juan, Argentina). They were performed on six nights (April 6-9; May 7-8) in 2005. (2 data files).

  11. 2-Substitution of adenine nucleotide analogues containing a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane ring system locked in a northern conformation: enhanced potency as P2Y1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Sung; Ohno, Michihiro; Xu, Bin; Kim, Hea Ok; Choi, Yongseok; Ji, Xiao D; Maddileti, Savitri; Marquez, Victor E; Harden, T Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2003-11-06

    Preference for the northern (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of P2Y(1) receptors was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute (Nandanan et al. J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 829-842). We have now combined the ring-constrained (N)-methanocarba modification with other functionalities at the 2-position of the adenine moiety. A new synthetic route to this series of bisphosphate derivatives was introduced, consisting of phosphorylation of the pseudoribose moiety prior to coupling with the adenine base. The activity of the newly synthesized analogues was determined by measuring antagonism of 2-methylthio-ADP-stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells expressing the recombinant human P2Y(1) receptor and by using the radiolabeled antagonist [(3)H]2-chloro-N(6)-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate 5 in a newly developed binding assay in Sf9 cell membranes. Within the series of 2-halo analogues, the most potent molecule at the hP2Y(1) receptor was an (N)-methanocarba N(6)-methyl-2-iodo analogue 12, which displayed a K(i) value in competition for binding of [(3)H]5 of 0.79 nM and a K(B) value of 1.74 nM for inhibition of PLC. Thus, 12 is the most potent antagonist selective for the P2Y(1) receptor yet reported. The 2-iodo group was substituted with trimethyltin, thus providing a parallel synthetic route for the introduction of an iodo group in this high-affinity antagonist. The (N)-methanocarba-2-methylthio, 2-methylseleno, 2-hexyl, 2-(1-hexenyl), and 2-(1-hexynyl) analogues bound less well, exhibiting micromolar affinity at P2Y(1) receptors. An enzymatic method of synthesis of the 3',5'-bisphosphate from the corresponding 3'-monophosphate, suitable for the preparation of a radiophosphorylated analogue, was explored.

  12. Rational syntheses of cyclic hexameric porphyrin arrays for studies of self-assembling light-harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Lindsey, J S

    2001-11-02

    Two new cyclic hexameric arrays of porphyrins have been prepared in a rational, convergent manner. The porphyrins in each cyclic hexamer are joined by diphenylethyne linkers affording a wheel-like array with a diameter of approximately 35 A. One array is comprised of five zinc (Zn) porphyrins and one free base (Fb) porphyrin (cyclo-Zn(5)FbU) while the other is comprised of an alternating sequence of two Zn porphyrins and one Fb porphyrin (cyclo-Zn(2)FbZn(2)FbU). The prior synthesis employed a one-flask template-directed process and afforded alternating Zn and Fb porphyrins or all Zn porphyrins. More diverse metalation patterns are attractive for manipulating the flow of excited-state energy in the arrays. The rational synthesis of each array employed three Pd-mediated coupling reactions with four tetraarylporphyrin building blocks bearing diethynyl, diiodo, bromo/iodo, or iodo/ethynyl groups. The final ring closure yielding the cyclic hexamer was achieved by reaction of a porphyrin pentamer + porphyrin monomer or the joining of two porphyrin trimers. In the presence of a tripyridyl template, the yields of the 5 + 1 and 3 + 3 reactions ranged from 10 to 13%. The 5 + 1 reaction in the absence of the template proceeded in 3.5% yield, thereby establishing the structure-directed contribution to cyclic hexamer formation. The 3 + 3 route relied on successive ethyne + iodo/bromo coupling reactions. One template-directed route to cyclo-Zn(2)FbZn(2)FbU employed a magnesium porphyrin, affording cyclo-Zn(2)FbZn(2)MgU from which magnesium was selectively removed. The arrays exhibit absorption spectra that are nearly the sum of the spectra of the component parts, indicating weak electronic coupling. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the quantum yield of energy transfer in toluene at room temperature from the Zn porphyrins to the Fb porphyrin(s) was 60% in cyclo-Zn(5)FbU and 90% in cyclo-Zn(2)FbZn(2)FbU. Two dipyridyl-substituted porphyrins, a Zn tetraarylporphyrin and a Fb

  13. Identification, toxicity and control of iodinated disinfection byproducts in cooking with simulated chlor(am)inated tap water and iodized table salt.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine/chloramine residuals are maintained in drinking water distribution systems to prevent microbial contamination and microorganism regrowth. During household cooking processes (e.g., soup making), the residual chlorine/chloramines in tap water may react with the iodide in iodized table salt to form hypoiodous acid, which could react with remaining natural organic matter in tap water and organic matter in food to generate iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs). However, I-DBPs formed during cooking with chloraminated/chlorinated tap water are almost completely new to researchers. In this work, by adopting precursor ion scan of m/z 127 using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, many new polar I-DBPs formed during cooking with chloraminated/chlorinated tap water were detected and proposed with structures, of which 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzoic acid, diiodoacetic acid, 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol, 2,4-diiodo-6-nitrophenol, and 2,4,6-triiodophenol were confirmed with standard compounds. With the aid of ultra fast liquid chromatography/ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry, molecular formula identification of five new I-DBPs (C8H5O4I, C7H4NO4I, C8H5O5I, C7H4NO5I, and C8H6O3I2) was achieved. A developmental toxicity with a recently developed sensitive bioassay was conducted for the newly identified I-DBPs, suggesting that phenolic I-DBPs (except for iodinated carboxyphenols) were about 50-200 times more developmentally toxic than aliphatic I-DBPs. The major I-DBPs in a baseline simulated cooking water sample were determined to be from 0.72 to 7.63 μg/L. Polar I-DBPs formed under various disinfection and cooking conditions were compared, and suggestions for controlling their formation were provided.

  14. D-(Ala1)-peptide T-amide is transported from blood to brain by a saturable system

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, C.M.; Kastin, A.J.; Banks, W.A.

    1987-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier. The entry into the central nervous system of a commercially available analog of Peptide T, an octapeptide derived from the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein 120, was studied in several experiments. It was found that /sup 125/I-Peptide T analog given intravenously in the periphery entered the brain in an intact form, as confirmed by HPLC, to a greater extent than did the labeled albumin control. This entry occurred despite the very low lipid solubility, measured by the octanol/buffer partition coefficient, for the iodinated analog. The rate of entry was decreased by unlabeled Peptide T analog, but not by iodo-tyrosine. Saturable transport out of the brain was not observed after intraventricular administration. Thus, results with /sup 125/I-Peptide T analog indicate that saturable systems can transport peptides from the blood into the central nervous system.

  15. Altered nucleosomes of active nucleolar chromatin contain accessible histone H3 in its hyperacetylated forms

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.M.; Sterner, R.; Allfrey, V.G.

    1987-05-25

    Chromatin of the organism Physarum polycephalum contains a class of conformationally altered nucleosomes previously localized to the transcribing regions of ribosomal genes in nucleoli. When nuclei are treated with 2-iodo(2-tritium)acetate, the histone H3 sulfhydryl group of the altered nucleosomes is derivatized while that of folded nucleosomes is not, and the labeled histones can then be identified by autoradiography of gels that separate H3 isoforms. The H3 derivatized is predominantly of tri- and tetraacetylated forms. In contrast, total free histone reacted with iodoacetate shows no preferential labeling of isoforms. Selective reaction of acetylated H3 is prevalent in both nucleolar and non-nucleolar chromatin. The results link specific patterns of H3 acetylation to changes in nucleosome conformation that occur during transcription.

  16. D-[Ala1]-peptide T-amide is transported from blood to brain by a saturable system.

    PubMed

    Barrera, C M; Kastin, A J; Banks, W A

    1987-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier. The entry into the central nervous system of a commercially available analog of Peptide T, an octapeptide derived from the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein 120, was studied in several experiments. It was found that 125I-Peptide T analog given intravenously in the periphery entered the brain in an intact form, as confirmed by HPLC, to a greater extent than did the labeled albumin control. This entry occurred despite the very low lipid solubility, measured by the octanol/buffer partition coefficient, for the iodinated analog. The rate of entry was decreased by unlabeled Peptide T analog, but not by iodo-tyrosine. Saturable transport out of the brain was not observed after intraventricular administration. Thus, results with 125I-Peptide T analog indicate that saturable systems can transport peptides from the blood into the central nervous system.

  17. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen‐Bonding Four‐Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle

    PubMed Central

    Barendt, Timothy A.; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis‐iodo triazolium‐bis‐naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo‐triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion–rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the 1H NMR anion binding results. PMID:27436297

  18. Synthesis of Functionalized 1H-Indenes and Benzofulvenes through Iodocyclization of o-(Alkynyl)styrenes.

    PubMed

    García-García, Patricia; Sanjuán, Ana M; Rashid, Muhammad A; Martínez-Cuezva, Alberto; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; Rodríguez, Félix; Sanz, Roberto

    2017-01-20

    A convenient method for the preparation of synthetically useful 3-iodoindene derivatives has been developed. This protocol, based on the 5-endo iodocyclization reaction of o-(alkynyl)styrenes, represents one of the scarce examples of halocyclizations using olefins as nucleophilic counterparts and allows the synthesis of both 3-iodo-1H-indenes (from β-alkyl-β-alkyl/aryl-o-(alkynyl)styrenes) and 3-iodobenzofulvenes (from β,β-diaryl-o-(alkynyl)styrenes) in good yields under mild reaction conditions. In addition, related alkoxyiodocyclization processes are described, which are particularly interesting in their intramolecular version because they allow the synthesis of heteropolycyclic structures containing the indene core. Finally, the usefulness of the prepared 3-iodoindenes has been demonstrated by the synthesis of several polysubstituted indene derivatives through conventional palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions and iodine-lithium exchange processes.

  19. Effect of repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine on the behavioral reactivity of the central dopamine and serotonin system in rats.

    PubMed

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we found that repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine for 14 days (but not for 7 days) enhanced the hyperactivity induced by amphetamine or quinpirole (a dopamine D(2/3) agonist), compared to treatment with either drug alone. Whereas repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine for 7 days more potently inhibited the behavioral syndrome evoked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), it did not change the action of the 5-HT(2) receptor agonist (+/-)-1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (/+/-/-DOI). The obtained results support the hypothesis that repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine may evoke more effective antidepressant activity than treatment with fluoxetine alone. Moreover, our results suggest that 5-HT(1A) receptors are useful targets for the development of more rapidly acting and more effective medication.

  20. Increased cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia is not affected by lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus

    SciTech Connect

    Harik, S.I.; Prado, R.; Busto, R.; Ginsberg, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the putative noradrenergic innervation of intraparenchymal cerebral blood vessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus mediates the vasodilatory response to hypercapnia, regional cerebral blood flow was measured by iodo-(/sup 14/C)antipyrine autoradiography in awake and restrained rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus and in unlesioned control rats. Hypercapnia, induced by the inhalation of 5% or 8% CO/sub 2/ in air for 8 minutes caused a 2 to 5-fold increase in regional cerebral blood flow. However, despite a marked reduction of about 90% in cortical norepinephrine levels ipsilateral to the lesion, blood flow to the frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum increased to the same extent in ipsilateral and contralateral regions. Thus, lesion of the locus ceruleus and the resultant depletion of endogenous cortical and hippocampal norepinephrine, does not influence the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia.

  1. Effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under high glucose

    PubMed Central

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk

    2016-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In biological systems, elevation of intracellular calcium can cause calpain activation, leading to cell death. Here, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline or clioquinol and 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline or nitroxoline) on calpain-dependent (calpain-calpastatin) pathways in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was investigated. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives ameliorated high glucose toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The investigated compounds, particularly clioquinol, attenuated the increased expression of calpain, even under high-glucose conditions. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives thus adversely affected the promotion of neuronal cell death by high glucose via the calpain-calpastatin signaling pathways. These findings support the beneficial effects of 8-hydroxyquinolines for further therapeutic development. PMID:27635352

  2. Asymmetric Synthesis of a CBI-Based Cyclic N-Acyl O-Amino Phenol Duocarmycin Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A short, asymmetric synthesis of a cyclic N-acyl O-amino phenol duocarmycin prodrug subject to reductive activation based on the simplified 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-one (CBI) DNA alkylation subunit is described. A key element of the approach entailed treatment of iodo-epoxide 7, prepared by N-alkylation of 6 with (S)-glycidal 3-nosylate, with EtMgBr at room temperature to directly provide the optically pure alcohol 8 in 78% yield (99% ee) derived from an effective metal–halogen exchange and subsequent regioselective intramolecular 6-endo-tet cyclization. Following O-debenzylation, introduction of a protected N-methylhydroxamic acid, direct trannannular spirocyclization, and subsequent stereoelectronically controlled acid-catalyzed cleavage of the resulting cyclopropane (HCl), further improvements in a unique intramolecular cyclization with N–O bond formation originally introduced for formation of the reductively labile prodrug functionality are detailed. PMID:25247380

  3. Astatine-211-labeled biotin conjugates resistant to biotinidase for use in pretargeted radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Foulon, C F; Alston, K L; Zalutsky, M R

    1998-02-01

    We report herein the preparation and biological evaluation of two radioastatinated biotin conjugates, (3-[211At]astatobenzoyl)norbiotinamide and ((5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinyl)carbonyl)norbiotinamide. Both conjugates were stable in the presence of human serum and cerebrospinal fluid as well as murine serum, indicating a resistance to degradation to biotinidase. The normal tissue clearance of (3-[211At]astatobenzoyl)norbiotinamide and ((5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinyl)carbonyl)norbiotinamide was rapid, as observed previously with their iodo analogues. Also reported are the first syntheses of N-succinimidyl 5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinecarboxylate and 3-[211At]astatoaniline, two reagents of potential utility for labeling proteins and peptides with 211At.

  4. 5-Alkynyl-2'-deoxyuridines: Chromatography-free synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation against human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Meneni, Srinivasarao; Ott, Ingo; Sergeant, Craig D.; Sniady, Adam; Gust, Ronald; Dembinski, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Starting with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, a series of 5-alkynyl-2'-deoxyuridines (with n-propyl, cyclopropyl, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl, p-tolyl, p-tert-butylphenyl, p-pentylphenyl, and trimethylsilyl alkyne substituents) have been synthesized via the palladium-catalyzed (Sonogashira) coupling reaction followed by a simplified isolation protocol (76–94% yield). The cytotoxic activity of modified nucleosides against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells has been determined in vitro. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, the only nucleoside in the series containing a terminal acetylene, is the most potent inhibitor with IC50 (μM) 0.4 ± 0.3 for MCF-7 and 4.4 ± 0.4 for MDA-MB-231. PMID:17336074

  5. Glycerol as Precursor of Organoselanyl and Organotellanyl Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Lenardão, Eder J; Borges, Elton L; Stach, Guilherme; Soares, Liane K; Alves, Diego; Schumacher, Ricardo F; Bagnoli, Luana; Marini, Francesca; Perin, Gelson

    2017-03-02

    Herein we describe the synthesis of organoselanyl and organotellanyl alkynes by the addition of lithium alkynylchalcogenolate (Se and Te) to tosyl solketal, easily obtained from glycerol. The alkynylchalcogenolate anions were generated in situ and added to tosyl solketal in short reaction times, furnishing in all cases the respective products of substitution in good yields. Some of the prepared compounds were deprotected using an acidic resin to afford new water-soluble 3-organotellanylpropane-1,2-diols. The synthetic versatility of the new chalcogenyl alkynes was demonstrated in the iodocyclization of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolanylmethyl(2-methoxyphenylethynyl)selane 3f, which afforded 3-iodo-2-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolanylmethyl) selenanylbenzo[b]furan in 85% yield, opening a new way to access water-soluble Se-functionalized benzo[b]furanes.

  6. Deproto-metallation of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles using a mixed lithium–zinc base and regioselectivity-computed CH acidity relationship

    PubMed Central

    Messaoud, Mohamed Yacine Ameur; Hedidi, Madani; Derdour, Aïcha; Chevallier, Floris; Ivashkevich, Oleg A; Matulis, Vadim E; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles is documented, as well as their functionalization by deprotonative metallation using the base in situ prepared from LiTMP and ZnCl2·TMEDA (1/3 equiv). With N-phenylpyrrole and -indole, the reactions were carried out in hexane containing TMEDA which regioselectively afforded the 2-iodo derivatives after subsequent iodolysis. With pyrroles and indoles bearing N-substituents such as 2-thienyl, 3-pyridyl, 4-methoxyphenyl and 4-bromophenyl, the reactions all took place on the substituent, at the position either adjacent to the heteroatom (S, N) or ortho to the heteroatom-containing substituent (OMe, Br). The CH acidities of the substrates were determined in THF solution using the DFT B3LYP method in order to rationalize the experimental results. PMID:26425204

  7. Comparison of the disinfection by-product formation potential of treated waters exposed to chlorine and monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Bougeard, Cynthia M M; Goslan, Emma H; Jefferson, Bruce; Parsons, Simon A

    2010-02-01

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from chlorination and monochloramination of treated drinking waters was determined. Samples were collected after treatment at 11 water treatment works but before exposure to chlorine or monochloramine. Formation potential tests were carried out to determine the DBPs formed by chlorination and monochloramination. DBPs measured were trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloaldehydes (HAs), haloketones (HKs) and iodo-THMs (i-THMs). All waters had the potential to form significant levels of all the DBPs measured. Compared to chlorine, monochloramination generally resulted in lower concentrations of DBPs with the exception of 1,1-dichloropropanone. The concentrations of THMs correlated well with the HAAs formed. The impact of bromine on the speciation of the DBPs was determined. The literature findings that higher bromide levels lead to higher concentrations of brominated DBPS were confirmed.

  8. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439.

    PubMed

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B; Melançon, Charles E

    2016-02-19

    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development.

  9. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indol-1-ones as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Putey, Aurélien; Fournet, Guy; Lozach, Olivier; Perrin, Lionel; Meijer, Laurent; Joseph, Benoît

    2014-08-18

    New series of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indol-1-ones and 3,4,5,10-tetrahydro-2H-diazepino[3,4-b]indol-1-ones have been synthesized through an iodolactonisation/lactone-to-lactam rearrangement sequence. These compounds were evaluated as potential protein kinase inhibitors (CDK1, CDK5 and GSK-3). 11-Iodo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indol-1-one derivatives exhibited sub-micromolar inhibitory activity against cyclin-dependent kinases. Docking studies were realized to determine the binding mode of the inhibitors into the ATP binding domain of the CDK5 catalytic site. Our result highlighted two weak Van-der-Waals bonding interactions established between the iodine atom and both phenyl group of Phe 80 and ammonium end of Lys 33.

  11. Biological mechanism for the toxicity of haloacetic acid drinking water disinfection byproducts.

    PubMed

    Pals, Justin A; Ang, Justin K; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    The halogenated acetic acids are a major class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) with five haloacetic acids regulated by the U.S. EPA. These agents are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. The decreasing toxicity rank order of the monohalogenated acetic acids (monoHAAs) is iodo- > bromo- > chloroacetic acid. We present data that the monoHAAs inhibit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the same rank order as above. The rate of inhibition of GAPDH and the toxic potency of the monoHAAs are highly correlated with their alkylating potential and the propensity of the halogen leaving group. This strong association between GAPDH inhibition and the monoHAA toxic potency supports a comprehensive mechanism for the adverse biological effects by this widely occurring class of regulated DBPs.

  12. Radiation dosimetry of iodine-123 HEAT, an alpha-1 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.D.; Greer, D.M.; Couch, M.W.; Williams, C.M.

    1987-11-01

    Biologic distribution data in the rat were obtained for the alpha-1 adrenoceptor imaging agent (+/-) 2-(beta-(iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminomethyl)tetralone (HEAT) labeled with (/sup 123/I). The major excretory routes were through the liver (67%) and the kidney (33%). Internal radiation absorbed dose estimates to nine source organs, total body, the GI tract, gonads, and red bone marrow were calculated for the human using the physical decay data for (/sup 123/I). The critical organ was found to be the lower large intestine, receiving 1.1 rad per mCi of (/sup 123/I)HEAT administered. The total-body dose was found to be 58 mrad per mCi.

  13. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B.; Melançon, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally-derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development. PMID:26562751

  14. Synthesis of steroid-ferrocene conjugates of steroidal 17-carboxamides via a palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation--copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction sequence.

    PubMed

    Szánti-Pintér, Eszter; Balogh, János; Csók, Zsolt; Kollár, László; Gömöry, Agnes; Skoda-Földes, Rita

    2011-11-01

    Steroids with the 17-iodo-16-ene functionality were converted to ferrocene labeled steroidal 17-carboxamides via a two step reaction sequence. The first step involved the palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of the alkenyl iodides with prop-2-yn-1-amine as the nucleophile in the presence of the Pd(OAc)(2)/PPh(3) catalyst system. In the second step, the product N-(prop-2-ynyl)-carboxamides underwent a facile azide-alkyne cycloaddition with ferrocenyl azides in the presence of CuSO(4)/sodium ascorbate to produce the steroid-ferrocene conjugates. The new compounds were obtained in good yield and were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis.

  15. An ebselen like catalyst with enhanced GPx activity via a selenol intermediate.

    PubMed

    Balkrishna, Shah Jaimin; Kumar, Shailesh; Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Bhakuni, Bhagat Singh; Panini, Piyush; Ahalawat, Navjeet; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh; Detty, Michael R; Kumar, Sangit

    2014-02-28

    The reaction of KSeO(t)Bu with 2-iodo-arylbenzamides gave benzamide ring-substituted, quinine-derived isoselenazolones 1b–1d. The reaction of PhSH with ortho-methyl-substituted isoselenazolone 1b gave selenol 3b, which is oxidized by H2O2 to regenerate 1b. Isoselenazolone 1b shows a high rate (0.33 × 103 μM min(−1)) of oxidation of PhSH with H2O2, which is ∼103-fold more active than ebselen (1a) and ≥30-fold more active than the other isoselenazolones of this study. Compound 1b shows less inhibition of the growth of yeast cells than 1a.

  16. Weak inter­actions in the crystal structures of two indole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jamie R.; Trembleau, Laurent; Storey, John M. D.; Wardell, James L.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the syntheses and crystal structures of two indole derivatives, namely a second monoclinic polymorph of ethyl 5-chloro-1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate C11H10ClNO2, (I), and ethyl 5-chloro-3-iodo-1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate, C11H9ClINO2, (II). In their crystal structures, both compounds form inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate R 2 2(10) loops. The dimers are linked into double chains in (I) and sheets in (II) by a variety of weak inter­actions, including π–π stacking, C—I⋯π, C—Cl—π inter­actions and I⋯Cl halogen bonds. PMID:27555941

  17. Laparoscopic resection of a paraganglioma located on the border of the thoracic and abdominal cavities using a transabdominal-transdiaphragmatic approach.

    PubMed

    Sunose, Yutaka; Hirai, Keitaro; Nakazawa, Seshiru; Yoshinari, Daisuke; Ogawa, Hiroomi; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Norifumi; Yamazaki, Hodaka; Motegi, Yoko; Miyamae, Yohei; Igarashi, Takamichi; Takahashi, Kengo; Katoh, Ryuji; Tanaka, Kazumi; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2015-05-01

    We treated a 64-year-old woman with high blood pressure. Catecholamine metabolite levels were elevated in the blood and urine. CT revealed a densely stained tumor on the right side of the descending aorta dorsal to the inferior vena cava. PET-CT revealed abnormal accumulation of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose, and (123) I-meta-iodo-benzylguanidine uptake was apparent on scintigraphy. The tumor was determined to be a paraganglioma located on the border between the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and laparoscopic tumorectomy was performed. The patient was placed in the left lateral position. The right lobe of the liver was turned over, and we cut the diaphragm to expose the front of the tumor. We resected the straight artery flowing in from the aorta and removed the tumor safely. Herein, we describe the removal of a paravertebral paraganglioma located in the border of the thoracic and abdominal cavities with a laparoscopic transabdominal-transdiaphragmatic approach.

  18. A new cascade reaction: concurrent construction of six and five membered rings leading to novel fused quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Siva; Kumar, P Mahesh; Rao, V Sreenivasa; Jafar, Ahamed A; Meda, Chandana Lakshmi T; Kapavarapu, R; Parsa, Kishore V L; Pal, Manojit

    2012-04-21

    A one-pot cascade reaction has been developed leading to the concurrent construction of six and five membered fused N-heterocyclic rings of indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinones. The methodology involved the reaction of isatoic anhydride, a hydrazine and o-iodo benzaldehyde in the presence of Pd(PPh(3))(4) and BINAP in MeCN. The mechanism of this cascade reaction is discussed. A variety of indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinone derivatives were prepared by using this methodology in good yields, some of which were tested for their PDE4 inhibitory properties in vitro. The dose response and docking study performed using a representative compound is presented.

  19. An expeditious synthesis and anticancer activity of novel 4-(3'-indolyl)oxazoles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dalip; Kumar, N Maruthi; Sundaree, Swapna; Johnson, Emmanuel O; Shah, Kavita

    2010-03-01

    A series of 4-(3'-indolyl)oxazole congeners have been synthesized and studied for their cytotoxicity against six cancer cell lines. Reaction of 3-acetyl-1'-benzenesulfonylindole with [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene afforded pure 3-tosyloxyacetyl-1'-benzenesulfonylindole. Microwave-accelerated neat reaction of 3-tosyloxyacetyl-1-benzenesulfonylindole with amides resulted in the exclusive formation of 4-(1'-benzenesulfonylindol-3'-yl)-2-substituted oxazoles (4) in very good yield. Treatment of 4 with aqueous sodium hydroxide under refluxing conditions afforded pure 4-(3'-indolyl)-2-substituted oxazoles (5) in excellent yield. The 4-(3'-indolyl)oxazoles 5d and 11 were found to be most cytotoxic and selective against various cancer cell lines. Compounds 5g, 5j and 5l showed moderate anticancer activity.

  20. Effect of Electron Transporting Layer on Bismuth-Based Lead-Free Perovskite (CH3NH3)3 Bi2I9 for Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Trilok; Kulkarni, Ashish; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2016-06-15

    Methylammonium iodo bismuthate ((CH3NH3)3Bi2I9) (MBI) perovskite is a promising alternative to rapidly progressing hybrid organic-inorganic lead perovskites because of its better stability and low toxicity compared to lead-based perovskites. Solution-processed perovskite fabricated by single-step spin-coating and subsequent heating produced polycrystalline films of hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9), whose morphology was influenced drastically by the nature of substrates. The optical measurements showed a strong absorption band around 500 nm. The devices made on anatase TiO2 mesoporous layer showed good performance with current density over 0.8 mA cm(-2) while the devices on brookite TiO2 layer and planar (free of porous layer) was inefficient. However, all the MBI devices were stable to ambient conditions for more than 10 weeks.

  1. Mechanism of Oxidative Amidation of Nitroalkanes with Oxygen and Amine Nucleophiles by Using Electrophilic Iodine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lear, Martin J; Kwon, Eunsang; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2016-04-11

    Recently, we developed a direct method to oxidatively convert primary nitroalkanes into amides that entailed mixing an iodonium source with an amine, base, and oxygen. Herein, we systematically investigated the mechanism and likely intermediates of such methods. We conclude that an amine-iodonium complex first forms through N-halogen bonding. This complex reacts with aci-nitronates to give both α-iodo- and α,α-diiodonitroalkanes, which can act as alternative sources of electrophilic iodine and also generate an extra equimolar amount of I(+) under O2. In particular, evidence supports α,α-diiodonitroalkane intermediates reacting with molecular oxygen to form a peroxy adduct; alternatively, these tetrahedral intermediates rearrange anaerobically to form a cleavable nitrite ester. In either case, activated esters are proposed to form that eventually reacts with nucleophilic amines in a traditional fashion.

  2. A Study of the Conformational Isomerism of 1-Iodobutane by High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Arsenault, Eric A.; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Blake, Thomas A.; ...

    2017-03-24

    The first microwave study of 1-iodobutane, performed by Steinmetz et al. in 1977, led to the determination of the B+C parameter for the anti-anti- and gauche-anti-conformers. Nearly 40 years later, in this paper this reinvestigation of 1-iodobutane, by high-resolution microwave spectroscopy, led to the determination of rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCCs), and nuclear-spin rotation constants belonging to both of the two previously mentioned conformers, in addition to the gauche-gauche-conformer, which was observed in this frequency regime for the first time. Finally, comparisons between the three conformers of 1-iodobutane and other iodo- and bromoalkanes are made,more » specifically through an analysis of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants belonging to the iodine and bromine atoms in the respective chemical environments.« less

  3. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of uridines on polystyrene-based solid supports.

    PubMed

    Aucagne, Vincent; Berteina-Raboin, Sabine; Guenot, Pierre; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the solid-phase synthesis of various substituted pyrimidine nucleosides is described starting from 2'-deoxyuridine, which has been attached through a base labile linker to polystyrene resins. The utility of the Pd(0) cross-coupling to functionalized pyrimidine nucleosides is expanded herein to include reactions of resin-supported 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine under Sonogashira, Stille, Heck, and Suzuki conditions. Upon cleavage with MeONa, a library of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides was obtained in good (under Sonogashira and Stille conditions) to moderate (under Heck or Suzuki conditions) yields and high purity. Except the Suzuki-type reactions, the presented methods exhibit a significant improvement and facilitate the synthetic procedure with respect to purification and yields (determined after filtration over silica gel).

  4. 1-Ethyl-2-phenyl-3-[2-(tri-methyl-sil-yl)ethyn-yl]-1H-indole.

    PubMed

    Baglai, Iaroslav; Maraval, Valérie; Duhayon, Carine; Chauvin, Remi

    2013-06-01

    The title compound, C21H23NSi, was synthesized by Sonogashira-type reaction of 1-ethyl-3-iodo-2-phenyl-1H-indole with tri-methyl-silyl-acetyl-ene. The indole ring system is nearly planar [maximum atomic deviation = 0.0244 (15) Å] and is oriented at a dihedral angle of 51.48 (4)° with respect to the phenyl ring. The supramolecular aggregation is completed by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions of the methylene and phenyl groups with the benzene and pyrrole rings of the indole ring system. The methyl groups of the tri-methyl-silyl unit are equally disordered over two sets of sites.

  5. 1-Ethyl-2-phenyl-3-[2-(tri­methyl­sil­yl)ethyn­yl]-1H-indole

    PubMed Central

    Baglai, Iaroslav; Maraval, Valérie; Duhayon, Carine; Chauvin, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C21H23NSi, was synthesized by Sonogashira-type reaction of 1-ethyl-3-iodo-2-phenyl-1H-indole with tri­methyl­silyl­acetyl­ene. The indole ring system is nearly planar [maximum atomic deviation = 0.0244 (15) Å] and is oriented at a dihedral angle of 51.48 (4)° with respect to the phenyl ring. The supramolecular aggregation is completed by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions of the methylene and phenyl groups with the benzene and pyrrole rings of the indole ring system. The methyl groups of the tri­methyl­silyl unit are equally disordered over two sets of sites. PMID:23795091

  6. Isolation and synthesis of a bioactive benzenoid derivative from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pi-Yu; Wu, Jen-Der; Tang, Kai-Yih; Yu, Chieh-Chou; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Zhong, Wen-Bin; Lee, Ching-Kuo

    2013-06-28

    A new enynyl-benzenoid, antrocamphin O (1,4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(3'-methylbut-3-en-1-ynyl)benzo[d][1,3]dioxide), and the known benzenoids antrocamphin A and 7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata (Taiwanofungus camphoratus). The structure of antrocamphin O was unambiguously assigned by the analysis of spectral data (including 1D and 2D NMR, high-resolution MS, IR, and UV) and total synthesis. Compound 1 was prepared through the Sonogashira reaction of 5-iodo-4,7-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzene and 2-methylbut-1-en-3-yne as the key step. The benzenoids were tested for cytotoxicity against the HT29, HTC15, DLD-1, and COLO 205 colon cancer cell lines, and activities are reported herein.

  7. Structure-function relationships in scorpion neurotoxins. Identification of the supperreactive lysine residue in toxin I of Androctonus australis Hector.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, F; Habersetzer-Rochat, C

    1978-07-21

    In a previous article (Habersetzer-Rochat, C. and Sampieri, R. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 2254--2261) it was demonstrated that the toxin I of the North African Scorpion Androctonus australis Hector was inactivated after reaction with iodoacetate; the toxicity loss in mice was correlated with the carboxymethylation of one superreactive residue. In the present work, alkylation of toxin I was performed with iodo[14C]-acetate. Hence, it was possible, after reduction, S-methylation and chymotryptic hydrolysis of this toxin, to isolate the peptide containing the labelled lysine residue. By automatic Edman degradation, this residue was identified as being the penultimate lysine at position 56 in the primary sequence. Comparison of three primary structures of scorpion neurotoxins and comparison in different kinds of activity seem to indicate that this lysine residue is mainly important for toxicity in mice.

  8. Ortho-Functionalized Aryltetrazines by Direct Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Halogenation: Application to Fast Electrophilic Fluorination Reactions.

    PubMed

    Testa, Christelle; Gigot, Élodie; Genc, Semra; Decréau, Richard; Roger, Julien; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille

    2016-04-25

    A general catalyzed direct C-H functionalization of s-tetrazines is reported. Under mild reaction conditions, N-directed ortho-C-H activation of tetrazines allows the introduction of various functional groups, thus forming carbon-heteroatom bonds: C-X (X=I, Br, Cl) and C-O. Based on this methodology, we developed electrophilic mono- and poly-ortho-fluorination of tetrazines. Microwave irradiation was optimized to afford fluorinated s-aryltetrazines, with satisfactory selectivity, within only ten minutes. This work provides an efficient and practical entry for further accessing highly substituted tetrazine derivatives (iodo, bromo, chloro, fluoro, and acetate precursors). It gives access to ortho-functionalized aryltetrazines which are difficult to obtain by classical Pinner-like syntheses.

  9. Stable polymeric carbon radicals. Part 2: Attempts at the preparation of polyradicals of the triphenylmethyl type linked by P-phenylene units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D.; Lehmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    As starting materials for the preparation of polyradicals of triphenylmethyl type linked by p-phenylene units bis(4-iodophenylmethane) and bis(4-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-phenylmethane) were synthesized by a Sandmeyer reaction from the corresponding diamino compounds and subsequently transformed into the corresponding polymeric hydrocarbons 6a and 6b by an Ullmann condensation. In the following step 6a and 6b were brominated at the tert. carbon atom by means of N-bromosuccinimide. The reaction of the resulting poly (4,4'-biphenylylen-alpha-bromobenzylidene)s (7a and 7b) with mercury afforded the corresponding radicals, the ESR spectra of which were recorded. From the methyl substituted polymer 7b poly (2,2'5,5-tetramethyl-4,4'-bi-phenylylen)phenylmethylidyne was formed, whereas the unsubstituted product 7a was transformed into a para-quinoide polymer with radical properties.

  10. Protein-specific localization of a rhodamine-based calcium-sensor in living cells.

    PubMed

    Best, Marcel; Porth, Isabel; Hauke, Sebastian; Braun, Felix; Herten, Dirk-Peter; Wombacher, Richard

    2016-06-28

    A small synthetic calcium sensor that can be site-specifically coupled to proteins in living cells by utilizing the bio-orthogonal HaloTag labeling strategy is presented. We synthesized an iodo-derivatized BAPTA chelator with a tetramethyl rhodamine fluorophore that allows further modification by Sonogashira cross-coupling. The presented calcium sensitive dye shows a 200-fold increase in fluorescence upon calcium binding. The derivatization with an aliphatic linker bearing a terminal haloalkane-function by Sonogashira cross-coupling allows the localization of the calcium sensor to Halo fusion proteins which we successfully demonstrate in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The herein reported highly sensitive tetramethyl rhodamine based calcium indicator, which can be selectively localized to proteins, is a powerful tool to determine changes in calcium levels inside living cells with spatiotemporal resolution.

  11. Dairy-impacted wastewater is a source of iodinated disinfection byproducts in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are among the most toxic DBPs, but they are not typically measured in treated water. Iodinated DBPs can be toxic to humans, and they also have the potential to affect aquatic communities. Because of the specific use of iodine and iodine-containing compounds in dairies, such livestock operations can be a potential source of iodinated DBPs in corresponding receiving water bodies. DBPs [trihalomethanes (THMs), including iodinated THMs] were measured within dairy processing facilities (milking and cheese manufacturing) and surface waters that receive dairy-impacted effluents [either directly from the dairy or through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)] in three areas of the United States (California, New York, and Wisconsin). Iodo-THMs comprised 15−29% of the total THMs in surface water near WWTP effluents that were impacted by dairy waste and 0−100% of the total THMs in samples from dairy processing facilities.

  12. Beta-adrenoceptors in kidney tubules of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Struyker-Boudier, H.A.J.; Vervoort-Peters, L.H.T.M.; Rousch, M.J.M.; Smits, J.F.M.; Thijssen, H.H.W.

    1986-01-13

    Beta-adrenoceptor binding characteristics were determined in different fractions of rat kidney tubules using a (/sup 125/Iodo)-(-)-cyanopindolol (ICYP) binding assay. The highest amount of binding sites was found in a fraction containing predominantly distal tubular fragments. In a separate series of experiments the ICYP binding characteristics were compared in whole tubular fractions from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) of different ages. The maximum number of binding sites was significantly higher both in young (3 weeks) and adult (14 weeks) SHR when compared to age-matched WKY. These studies showed the presence of beta-adrenoceptor binding sites in rat kidney tubules and support the potential importance of tubular beta-adrenoceptors in the development of spontaneous hypertension and in the mechanism of antihypertensive action of beta-blockers. 35 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  13. Preclinical Evaluation and First Patient Application of 99mTc-PSMA-I&S for SPECT Imaging and Radioguided Surgery in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Robu, Stephanie; Schottelius, Margret; Eiber, Matthias; Maurer, Tobias; Gschwend, Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Initial studies in patients have demonstrated the suitability of (111)In-PSMA-I&T ((111)In-DOTAGA-(3-iodo-y)-f-k-Sub(KuE)) (PSMA is prostate-specific membrane antigen and I&T is imaging and therapy) for radioguided surgery (RGS) of small metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) soft-tissue lesions. To meet the clinical need for a more cost-effective alternative, the PSMA-I&T-based tracer concept was adapted to (99m)Tc-labeling chemistry. Two PSMA-I&T-derived inhibitors with all-L-serine- (MAS3) and all-D-serine- (mas3) chelating moieties were evaluated in parallel, and a kit procedure for routine (99m)Tc labeling was developed.

  14. Radiolabelled D/sub 2/ agonists as prolactinoma imaging agents: Progress report for period February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, C.A.

    1987-11-07

    Three D/sub 2/ agonists, /sup 3/H-DHEC, /sup 3/H-BrCr and /sup 3/H-ADTN, were evaluated with /sup 3/H-DHEC showing the most promise as a potential prolactinoma imaging agent. Concentration vs time plots for all three compounds in normal and in DES-treated pituitary tissue are reported. The exceptional D/sub 2/ receptor affinity of N-0437 has prompted synthetic efforts towards preparation of iodo-N-0437 in spite of a lack of preliminary tissue distribution data. An evaluation of /sup 18/F-FDG uptake in the prolactinoma model and as a muscarinic ligand in control animals were evaluated. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Halogen- and hydrogen-bonding catenanes for halide-anion recognition.

    PubMed

    Gilday, Lydia C; Beer, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Halogen-bonding (XB) interactions were exploited in the solution-phase assembly of anion-templated pseudorotaxanes between an isophthalamide-containing macrocycle and bromo- or iodo-functionalised pyridinium threading components. (1)H NMR spectroscopic titration investigations demonstrated that such XB interpenetrated assemblies are more stable than analogous hydrogen bonding (HB) pseudorotaxanes. The stability of the anion-templated halogen-bonded pseudorotaxane architectures was exploited in the preparation of new halogen-bonding interlocked catenane species through a Grubbs' ring-closing metathesis (RCM) clipping methodology. The catenanes' anion recognition properties in the competitive CDCl(3)/CD(3) OD 1:1 solvent mixture revealed selectivity for the heavier halides iodide and bromide over chloride and acetate.

  16. 5(6)-anti-Substituted-2-azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes. A Nucleophilic Displacement Route

    PubMed Central

    Krow, Grant R.; Edupuganti, Ram; Gandla, Deepa; Choudhary, Amit; Lin, Guoliang; Sonnet, Philip E.; DeBrosse, Charles; Ross, Charles W.; Cannon, Kevin C.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleophilic displacements of 5(6)-anti-bromo substituents in 2-azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes (methanopyrrolidines) have been accomplished. These displacements have produced 5-anti-X-6-anti-Y-difunctionalized-2-azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes containing bromo, fluoro, acetoxy, hydroxy, azido, imidazole, thiophenyl, and iodo substituents. Such displacements of anti-bromide ions require an amine nitrogen and are a function of the solvent and the choice of metal salt. Reaction rates were faster and product yields were higher in DMSO when compared to DMF and with CsOAc compared to NaOAc. Sodium or lithium salts gave products, except with NaF, where silver fluoride in nitromethane was best for substitution by fluoride. The presence of electron-withdrawing F, OAc, N3, Br, or SPh substituents in the 6-anti-position slows bromide displacements at the 5-anti-position. PMID:19799411

  17. Cyclization of nitriles. XXIV. Reactions of cyanamide derivatives of thiocarbamic acids with cyanothioacetamide. Crystal structure of 2-allylamino-4-amino-5-benzoyl-1,3-thiazole

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterov, V.N.; Sharanin, Yu.A.; Shestopalov, A.M.; Shklover, V.E.; Struchkov, Yu.T.

    1988-09-20

    2-Allylamino-4-amino-5-aroyl-1,3-thiazoles were obtained from S-alkylisoureas. An x-ray crystallographic investigation of 2-allylamino-4-amino-5-benzoyl-1,3-thiazole was undertaken. Dimethyl dithiocarbamate was used in the synthesis of 2-amino-4-methylthio-5-cyano-1H-pyrimidine-6-thione and, from the latter, 4-allylthio-2-amino-6-methylthio-5-cyanopyrimidine. The latter is easily quaternized by the action of iodine to 4-amino-3-iodomethyl-7-methylthio-8-cyano-2,3-dihydrothiazolo(3,2-c)pyrimidinium triiodide. In reaction with iodine 2-allyl-amino-1,3-thiazoles form N-allyl-N-iodo derivatives of 1,3-thiazole and not imidazo(2,3-b)thiazolium salts.

  18. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of some triazole Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Chohan, Zahid H

    2013-12-01

    The condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with methoxy-, chloro-, bromo-, iodo- and nitro-substituted 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes formed triazole Schiff bases (L(1))-(L(6)). The synthesized ligands have been characterized through physical, spectral and analytical data. Furthermore, the reaction of synthesized Schiff bases with the oxovanadium(IV) sulphate in (1:2) (metal:ligand) molar ratio afforded the oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(6). All the complexes were non-electrolytic and showed a square-pyramidal geometry. The synthesized compounds have been screened for in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and brine shrimp bioassay. The bioactivity data showed the complexes to be more active than the original Schiff bases.

  19. Intramolecular effects of /sup 125/I decay in o-iodotyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Berridge, M.S.; Jiang, V.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1980-06-01

    As a model for iodinated proteins, 3-(/sup 125/I)iodo(U-/sup 14/C)tyrosine was synthesized by the chloramine-T method from (U-/sup 14/C)tyrosine. The products remaining after the iodine had decayed were characterized chromatographically. A reference system was used to correct for hydrolysis and secondary radiolytic effects. All products due to /sup 125/I decay were small polar molecules. The results demonstrate that after the Auger cascade accompanying /sup 125/I decay, a distribution of charge throughout the molecule occurs before disruption of the molecule. A coulombic explosion mechanism with some contributions due to internal radiolysis and charge neutralization is proposed for the destruction of the aromatic ring. Implications of these results for proteins labeled with /sup 125/I are also discussed.

  20. An exploratory evaluation of tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition in planaria as a model for parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Prokai, David; Nguyen, Thinh; Kamrowski, Kurt; Chandra, Ashwin; Talamantes, Tatjana; Baxter, Lewis R; Prokai, Laszlo

    2013-11-26

    Planaria are the simplest organisms with bilateral symmetry and a central nervous system (CNS) with cephalization; therefore, they could be useful as model organisms to investigate mechanistic aspects of parkinsonism and to screen potential therapeutic agents. Taking advantage of the organism's anti-tropism towards light, we measured a significantly reduced locomotor velocity in planaria after exposure to 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase that is an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines. A simple semi-automatic assay using videotaped experiments and subsequent evaluation by tracking software was also implemented to increase throughput. The dopaminergic regulation of locomotor velocity was confirmed by bromocriptine, a drug whose mechanisms of action to treat Parkinson's disease is believed to be through the stimulation of nerves that control movement.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of potent and selective human V1a receptor antagonists as potential ligands for PET or SPECT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Karine; Guillon, Christophe; Lacey, Carl J.; Lu, Shi-fang; Heindel, Ned D.; Ferris, Craig F.; Placzek, Michael; Jones, Graham; Brownstein, Michael J.; Simon, Neal G.

    2012-01-01

    SRX246 is a potent, highly selective human vasopressin V1a antagonist that crosses the blood–brain barrier in rats. CNS penetration makes SRX246 an ideal candidate for potential radiolabeling and use in visualization and characterization of the role of the V1a receptor in multiple stress-related disorders. Before radiolabeling studies, cold reference analogs of SRX246 were prepared. This study describes the synthesis and in vitro screening for human V1a receptor binding and permeability of fluoro, iodo, and methyl reference compounds for SRX246 and the preparation of a tin precursor. For each compound, the potential utility of corresponding radiolabeled analogs for PET and SPECT imaging is discussed. PMID:22249122

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting as pseudopheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898

  3. Syntheses of L-tyrosine-related amino acids by tyrosine phenol-lyase of Citrobacter intermedius.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, T; Utagawa, T; Goto, J; Kim, C J; Tani, Y; Kumagai, H; Yamada, H

    1981-06-01

    Degradation of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate and ammonia by tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter intermedius (formerly named Escherichia intermedia) is readily reversible at high concentrations of pyruvate and ammonia. Spectrophotometric studies indicate that ammonia is the first substrate which interacts with bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Kinetic results show that pyruvate is the second substrate bound, hence phenol must be the third. When an appropriate phenol derivative is substituted for phenol, the corresponding tyrosine analogue can be synthesized. 3-Fluoro-, 2-fluoro-, 3-chloro-, 2-chloro-, 3-bromo-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 3-methyl-, 2-methyl- and 2-methoxy-L-tyrosines have been synthesized by this reaction. By using various phenol derivatives or tyrosine analogues as substrates, the substrate specificity of tyrosine phenol-lyase is investigated and the situation of its active site is discussed.

  4. Ionic Attachment as a Feasible Approach to Heterogenizing Anionic Solution Catalysts. The Carbonylation of Methanol,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    at19 8 a d2060cm - i n (16) 1988 and CH3COOH ). However, isolation of the yellow catalyst derived from RhCl33H30 in excess CO and iodide resulted in an...CH30H ! (no Dowex) I (P) 0.390 0.31(HI) 90 15 30ml CH3COOH 20ml CH30H 5.00g BioRex 9(CI form) 9 (H) filtrate from 0.31(HI) 180 0 30ml CH3COOH run 3...lO0m]. CH30H +7.Og sieves(2lmmole H) 15 0.28 0.01l(an Dowex beads) 24 0 60rn] CH3COOH 60m1 CH30H 42m1 H20 4.00g Dowex (iodo form) 16 0.190 0.013(on

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopy of a series of substituted N-confused tetraphenylporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Janet L; Garrison, Shana A; Alemán, Elvin A; Ziegler, Christopher J; Modarelli, David A

    2004-10-29

    A series of N-confused tetraphenylporphyrins (H(2)NCTPPs) with substituents on either the para- or the 3,5-positions of the meso phenyl rings were prepared using Lindsey conditions. Both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups were chosen in order to probe the effects of peripheral substitution on the properties of the macrocycles. The series includes 5,10,15,20-tetra-(4-R-phenyl) N-confused porphyrins (where R = bromo (1), iodo (2), cyano (3), methoxy (4), 2',5'-dimethoxyphenyl (5), or ethynyl (6)) and 5,10,15,20-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl) N-confused porphyrin (7). Absorption and steady-state fluorescence measurements were carried out, and quantum yields were measured for all compounds in both dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) and dimethylacetamide (DMAc).

  6. Rectifying behaviour of spin coated pn hetero-junction

    SciTech Connect

    Yogamalar, N. Rajeswari; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-24

    Rectifying pn hetero- junction is fabricated with an acceptor p-type organic semiconductor namely tetra- chloro dihydroxy tetra-iodo fluorescein (Rose Bengal (RB)) followed by an inorganic n-type ZnO semiconductor on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The n-type ZnO films are formed by unintentional doping and doping with aluminium (Al) and yttrium (Y) donors. The surface morphology and the distribution of grains are observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the rectifying diode is measured to characterize the junction properties. The I-V plots obtained from the hetero- junction with electric contact shows a diode characteristic different from that of an ideal behavior. The overall efficiency of the diode exhibits a greater dependency on the film crystallinity, carrier concentration, and reverse saturation current.

  7. Synthesis of a polymerizable fluorosurfactant for the construction of stable nanostructured proton-conducting membranes.

    PubMed

    Wadekar, Mohan N; Jager, Wolter F; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Picken, Stephen J

    2010-10-15

    The synthesis of the polymerizable fluorinated surfactant sodium 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-2-(4-vinylphenyl)ethoxy)ethanesulfonate (1) and a number of related fluorocarbon compounds is described. Compound 1 is synthesized using a copper-mediated cross-coupling reaction of 4-bromobenzaldehyde and sodium 5-iodooctafluoro-3-oxapentanesulfonate. The resulting benzaldehyde is converted to a styrene unit using a Wittig reaction with methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide in acetonitrile, using DBU as a base. This strategy for converting an iodo-functionalized fluorosurfactant to a styrene-containing fluorosurfactant is highly efficient because both reactions are performed in polar solvents and are compatible with the sulfonate moiety. In addition, the copper-mediated cross-coupling reaction is most efficient with electron-poor aryl bromides like 4-bromobenzaldehyde. We wish to employ 1 for the construction of nanostructured membranes by polymerization of 1 in a microemulsion or in lyotropic liquid crystalline phases.

  8. Microbial transformations of halolactones with p-menthane system.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Marcelina; Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2015-01-01

    Biologically active piperitone-derived racemic iodo-, bromo- and chlorolactones (1-3) were transformed with the use of microbial enzymatic systems. Four strains of filamentous fungi Absidia glauca AM254, Absidia cylindrospora AM336, Mortierella vinaceae AM149 and Nigrospora oryzae AM8 transformed halolactones (1-3) to four new halohydroxylactones (4-7). In all biotransformations the hydroxy group was incorporated in inactivated methine carbon atom at isopropyl substituent. In N. oryzae AM8 culture the bromolactone with additional hydroxy group in α-position, relative to CO bond in γ-lactone ring, was also formed as a product. The structures of new compounds were established on the basis of spectral data.

  9. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SULFUR COMPOUNDS SHOWING STRUCTURAL ANALOGY WITH COMBRETASTATIN A-4

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edson dos A.; Prado, Paulo C.; de Carvalho, Wanderley R.; de Lima, Ricardo V.; Beatriz e, Adilson; de Lima, Dênis P.; Hamel, Ernest; Dyba, Marzena A.; Albuquerque, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We extended our previous exploration of sulfur bridges as bioisosteric replacements for atoms forming the bridge between the aromatic rings of combretastatin A-4. Employing coupling reactions between 5-iodo-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene and substituted thiols, followed by oxidation to sulfones with m-CPBA, different locations for attaching the sulfur atom to ring A through the synthesis of nine compounds were examined. Antitubulin activity was performed with electrophoretically homogenous bovine brain tubulin, and activity occurred with the 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene (12), while the other compounds were inactive. The compounds were also tested for leishmanicidal activity using promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR175/M2904), and the greatest activity was observed with 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-(phenylthio)benzene (10) and 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl) sulfinyl]benzene (15). PMID:23766547

  10. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SULFUR COMPOUNDS SHOWING STRUCTURAL ANALOGY WITH COMBRETASTATIN A-4.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Edson Dos A; Prado, Paulo C; de Carvalho, Wanderley R; de Lima, Ricardo V; Beatriz E, Adilson; de Lima, Dênis P; Hamel, Ernest; Dyba, Marzena A; Albuquerque, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    We extended our previous exploration of sulfur bridges as bioisosteric replacements for atoms forming the bridge between the aromatic rings of combretastatin A-4. Employing coupling reactions between 5-iodo-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene and substituted thiols, followed by oxidation to sulfones with m-CPBA, different locations for attaching the sulfur atom to ring A through the synthesis of nine compounds were examined. Antitubulin activity was performed with electrophoretically homogenous bovine brain tubulin, and activity occurred with the 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene (12), while the other compounds were inactive. The compounds were also tested for leishmanicidal activity using promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR175/M2904), and the greatest activity was observed with 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-(phenylthio)benzene (10) and 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl) sulfinyl]benzene (15).

  11. Thyroid hormones affect the membrane dipolar organization. Is it a general event in their non-genomic action?

    PubMed

    Isse, B; Fidelio, G; Farías, R N

    2003-02-01

    The surface balance technique was employed to study the interactions of 3,5,3',5' tetraiodo L-thyronine, 3,5,3' triiodo L-thyronine, and 3,5-diiodothyronine with monomolecular phospholipid monolayers spread at the air-water interface. With this technique the insertion of thyroid hormones into egg yolk phosphatidylcholine was investigated. An increase of surface pressure and a substantial decrement in surface potential were observed after the injection of these hormones beneath a phospholipid monolayer. The negative dipole contribution upon hormone interaction opposes the well-known positive contribution of phospholipids. These effects correlated with iodo content of the thyroid molecule analogues 3,5,3',5' tetraiodo L-thyronine >3,5,3' triiodo L-thyronine >3,5-diiodothyronine. To our knowledge, these observations suggest a new and surprising effect of thyroid hormones on the regulation of transmembrane dipolar organization.

  12. Construction of Poxviruses as Cloning Vectors: Insertion of the Thymidine Kinase Gene from Herpes Simplex Virus into the DNA of Infectious Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicali, Dennis; Paoletti, Enzo

    1982-08-01

    We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus. The gene was inserted into the genome of a variant of vaccinia virus that had undergone spontaneous deletion as well as into the 120-megadalton genome of the large prototypic vaccinia variant. This was accomplished via in vivo recombination by contransfection of eukaryotic tissue culture cells with cloned BamHI-digested thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus containing flanking vaccinia virus DNA sequences and infectious rescuing vaccinia virus. Pure populations of the recombinant viruses were obtained by replica filter techniques or by growth of the recombinant virus in biochemically selective medium. The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, as an insert in vaccinia virus, is transcribed in vivo and in vitro, and the fidelity of in vivo transcription into a functional gene product was detected by the phosphorylation of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxycytidine.

  13. Method for recording spinal reflexes in mice: effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, DOI, tolperisone and baclofen on monosynaptic spinal reflex potentials.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Honda, M; Ono, H

    2001-05-01

    Mice were used to record the spinal reflex potentials and to examine the effects of some drugs upon them. In anesthetized mice, laminectomy was performed in the lumbo-sacral region, and monosynaptic reflex potential (MSR) and polysynaptic reflex potential were recorded from the L5 ventral root after stimulation of the L5 dorsal root. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) produced transient and long-lasting increases in the MSR amplitude, respectively. Tolperisone hydrochloride and baclofen produced transient and long-lasting MSR depressions, respectively. These results show that mice can be used to record spinal reflex potentials, and that it may be possible to study the spinal cord function of mutant and knockout mice using this method.

  14. Efficient Reassignment of a Frequent Serine Codon in Wild-Type Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joanne M; Reynolds, Noah M; Rivera, Keith; Connolly, Morgan; Guo, Li-Tao; Ling, Jiqiang; Pappin, Darryl J; Church, George M; Söll, Dieter

    2016-02-19

    Expansion of the genetic code through engineering the translation machinery has greatly increased the chemical repertoire of the proteome. This has been accomplished mainly by read-through of UAG or UGA stop codons by the noncanonical aminoacyl-tRNA of choice. While stop codon read-through involves competition with the translation release factors, sense codon reassignment entails competition with a large pool of endogenous tRNAs. We used an engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase to incorporate 3-iodo-l-phenylalanine (3-I-Phe) at a number of different serine and leucine codons in wild-type Escherichia coli. Quantitative LC-MS/MS measurements of amino acid incorporation yields carried out in a selected reaction monitoring experiment revealed that the 3-I-Phe abundance at the Ser208AGU codon in superfolder GFP was 65 ± 17%. This method also allowed quantification of other amino acids (serine, 33 ± 17%; phenylalanine, 1 ± 1%; threonine, 1 ± 1%) that compete with 3-I-Phe at both the aminoacylation and decoding steps of translation for incorporation at the same codon position. Reassignments of different serine (AGU, AGC, UCG) and leucine (CUG) codons with the matching tRNA(Pyl) anticodon variants were met with varying success, and our findings provide a guideline for the choice of sense codons to be reassigned. Our results indicate that the 3-iodo-l-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)/tRNA(Pyl) pair can efficiently outcompete the cellular machinery to reassign select sense codons in wild-type E. coli.

  15. The binding of platinum hexahalides (Cl, Br and I) to hen egg-white lysozyme and the chemical transformation of the PtI{sub 6} octahedral complex to a PtI{sub 3} moiety bound to His15

    SciTech Connect

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Starkey, Laurina-Victoria; Lamplough, Lucinda; Kaenket, Surasek; Helliwell, John R.

    2014-08-29

    The platinum hexahalides have an octahedral arrangement of six halogen atoms bound to a Pt centre, thus having an octahedral shape that could prove to be useful in interpreting poor electron-density maps. In a detailed characterization, PtI{sub 6} chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI{sub 3} complex bound to the N{sup δ} atom of His15 of HEWL was also observed, which was not observed for PtBr{sub 6} or PtCl{sub 6}. This study examines the binding and chemical stability of the platinum hexahalides K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}, K{sub 2}PtBr{sub 6} and K{sub 2}PtI{sub 6} when soaked into pre-grown hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals as the protein host. Direct comparison of the iodo complex with the chloro and bromo complexes shows that the iodo complex is partly chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI{sub 3} complex bound to the N{sup δ} atom of His15, a chemical behaviour that is not exhibited by the chloro or bromo complexes. Each complex does, however, bind to HEWL in its octahedral form either at one site (PtI{sub 6}) or at two sites (PtBr{sub 6} and PtCl{sub 6}). As heavy-atom derivatives of a protein, the octahedral shape of the hexahalides could be helpful in cases of difficult-to-interpret electron-density maps as they would be recognisable ‘objects’.

  16. Neurochemical Profiles of some novel psychoactive substances

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Les; Gibbons, Simon; Treble, Ric; Setola, Vincent; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen substances from the class of drugs sometimes known as “legal highs” were screened against a battery of human receptors in binding assays, and their potencies as inhibitors of monoamine uptake determined in functional in vitro assays. Thirteen of the test substances acted as inhibitors of monoamine uptake at submicromolar concentrations, including 9 potent inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT), 12 potent inhibitors of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and 4 potent inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT). Seven compounds acted as submicromolar inhibitors of both DAT and NET, and three substances 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)propan-2-amine (5-APB),1-naphthalen-2-yl-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylpentan-1-one hydrochloride, (“naphyrone”) and 1-naphthalen-1-yl-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylpentan-1-one hydrochloride, (“1-naphyrone”) were submicromolar inhibitors of all three monoamine transporters. There was a lack of correlation between results of functional uptake experiments and in vitro binding assays for the monoamine transporters. There was also no correlation between the human behavioural effects of the substances and the results of bindings assays for a range of receptor targets, although 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)propan-2-amine(5-APB), 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine hydrochloride(6-APB) and 5-iodo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-amine hydrochloride,(5-iodo-aminoindane) exhibited <100nM affinities for 5HT2B and α2C receptors. Functional assays revealed that 5-APB and 6-APB were potent full agonists at 5HT2B receptors. PMID:23261499

  17. Three-dimensional contrasted visualization of pancreas in rats using clinical MRI and CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Coudyzer, Walter; Peeters, Ronald; Liu, Yewei; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Xia, Qian; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Yansheng; Dymarkowski, Steven; Huang, Gang; Chen, Feng; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to visualize the pancreas in post-mortem rats with local contrast medium infusion by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) using clinical imagers. A total of 16 Sprague Dawley rats of about 300 g were used for the pancreas visualization. Following the baseline imaging, a mixed contrast medium dye called GadoIodo-EB containing optimized concentrations of Gd-DOTA, iomeprol and Evens blue was infused into the distally obstructed common bile duct (CBD) for post-contrast imaging with 3.0 T MRI and 128-slice CT scanners. Images were post-processed with the MeVisLab software package. MRI findings were co-registered with CT scans and validated with histomorphology, with relative contrast ratios quantified. Without contrast enhancement, the pancreas was indiscernible. After infusion of GadoIodo-EB solution, only the pancreatic region became outstandingly visible, as shown by 3D rendering MRI and CT and proven by colored dissection and histological examinations. The measured volume of the pancreas averaged 1.12 ± 0.04 cm(3) after standardization. Relative contrast ratios were 93.28 ± 34.61% and 26.45 ± 5.29% for MRI and CT respectively. We have developed a multifunctional contrast medium dye to help clearly visualize and delineate rat pancreas in situ using clinical MRI and CT scanners. The topographic landmarks thus created with 3D demonstration may help to provide guidelines for the next in vivo pancreatic MRI research in rodents.

  18. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  19. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  20. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.; Romstedt, K.J.; Doyle, K.; Harrold, M.W.; Gerhardt, M.A.; Miller, D.D.; Patil, P.N.; Feller, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ) is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of (3H)SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg.