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Sample records for iodo radioativo um

  1. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  2. [125/123I] 5-Iodo-3-pyridyl ethers. syntheses and binding to neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Fan, H; Scheffel, U A; Rauseo, P; Xiao, Y; Dogan, A S; Yokoi, F; Hilton, J; Kellar, K J; Wong, D F; Musachio, J L

    2001-11-01

    Three 3-pyridyl ether nicotinic ligands-(S)-5-Iodo-3-[(2-pyrrolidinyl)-methoxy]pyridine (5-iodo-A-85865), (S)-5-Iodo-3-[1-(methyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl-methoxy]pyridine (5-Iodo-A-84543), and (S)-5-iodo-3-[1-methyl-(2-azetidinyl)-methoxy]pyridine (5-iodo-N-Me-A-85380) were labeled with I-125/I-123, and their ability to label high-affinity brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was evaluated. The most promising ligand, [123/125I] 5-iodo-A-85865, showed approximately 65% inhibition of radioactivity uptake in thalamus in mice pretreated with cytisine. Preliminary SPECT imaging studies with [123I] 5-iodo-A-85865 revealed a distribution profile consistent with nAChRs (thalamus > frontal cortex > cerebellum) and a more rapid pharmacokinetic profile relative to azetidinyl 3-pyridyl ether based ligands.

  3. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  4. SOLVENT-FREE FACILE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL α-TOSYLOXY β-KETO SULFONES USING [HYDROXY(TOSYLOXY)IODO]BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile, general and high yielding protocol for the synthesis of novel α-tosyloxy β-keto sulfones is described utilizing relatively non-toxic, [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene, under solvent-free conditions at room temperature.

  5. Molecular imaging of inflammation in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis with IodoDPA

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, Catherine A.; Bedja, Djahida; Mease, Ronnie C.; Wang, Haofan; Kass, David A.; Chatterjee, Subroto; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-05-22

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a common and serious vascular disease predisposing individuals to myocardial infarction and stroke. Intravascular plaques, the pathologic lesions of atherosclerosis, are largely composed of cholesterol-laden luminal macrophage-rich infiltrates within a fibrous cap. The ability to detect those macrophages non-invasively within the aorta, carotid artery and other vessels would allow physicians to determine plaque burden, aiding management of patients with atherosclerosis. Methods and results: We previously developed a low-molecular-weight imaging agent, [{sup 125}I]iodo-DPA-713 (iodoDPA), which selectively targets macrophages. Here we use it to detect both intravascular macrophages and macrophage infiltrates within the myocardium in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT data were confirmed by echocardiography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging and histology. SPECT images showed focal uptake of radiotracer at the aortic root in all ApoE -/- mice, while the age-matched controls were nearly devoid of radiotracer uptake. Focal radiotracer uptake along the descending aorta and within the myocardium was also observed in affected animals. Conclusions: IodoDPA is a promising new imaging agent for atherosclerosis, with specificity for the macrophage component of the lesions involved. - Highlights: • [{sup 125}I]iodoDPA SPECT detects atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE -/- mice with high contrast. • Plaques are detected in ApoE -/- mice regardless of diet with iodoDPA. • iodoDPA has very low uptake in healthy tissue including healthy TSPO + tissues at 24 h.

  6. Unfairly forgotten member of the iodocarborane family: synthesis and structural characterization of 8-iodo-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane, its precursors, and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Safronov, Alexander V; Sevryugina, Yulia V; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Kennedy, Robert D; Barnes, Charles L; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2012-02-20

    8-Iodo-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane (7) was prepared in three steps starting from decaborane-14 with 20% overall yield. In the presence of nucleophiles, compound 7 undergoes selective removal of the boron vertex in the position para to the iodine substituent to form the anionic nido-carborane 1-iodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate. Capping of the corresponding dicarbollide dianion with BI(3) led to formation of the new carborane, 3,10-diiodo-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane (15). The same dicarbollide dianion reacts with cobalt and nickel acetylacetonates in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran to form the corresponding bis(dicarbollide) complexes with excellent yields. All compounds were characterized by multinuclear NMR and high-resolution mass spectroscopy. Structures of 2-iododecaborane (2), 8-iodo-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane (7), 1-ethoxycarbonyl-8-iodo-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane (10), cesium 1-iodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate (13), 3,10-diiodo-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane (15), and cesium 3,3'-commo-(10-iodo-1,2-dicarba-3-cobalta-closo-dodecaborane)-(10'-iodo-1',2'-dicarba-3'-cobalta-closo-dodecaborane) (16) were established by X-ray analysis of single crystals.

  7. Proteomic Quantification and Site-Mapping of S-Nitrosylated Proteins Using Isobaric iodoTMT Reagents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based protein post-translational modification in response to nitric oxide signaling and is involved in a wide range of biological processes. Detection and quantification of protein S-nitrosylation have been challenging tasks due to instability and low abundance of the modification. Many studies have used mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods with different thiol-reactive reagents to label and identify proteins with S-nitrosylated cysteine (SNO-Cys). In this study, we developed a novel iodoTMT switch assay (ISA) using an isobaric set of thiol-reactive iodoTMTsixplex reagents to specifically detect and quantify protein S-nitrosylation. Irreversible labeling of SNO-Cys with the iodoTMTsixplex reagents enables immune-affinity detection of S-nitrosylated proteins, enrichment of iodoTMT-labeled peptides by anti-TMT resin, and importantly, unambiguous modification site-mapping and multiplex quantification by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Additionally, we significantly improved anti-TMT peptide enrichment efficiency by competitive elution. Using ISA, we identified a set of SNO-Cys sites responding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in murine BV-2 microglial cells and revealed effects of S-allyl cysteine from garlic on LPS-induced protein S-nitrosylation in antioxidative signaling and mitochondrial metabolic pathways. ISA proved to be an effective proteomic approach for quantitative analysis of S-nitrosylation in complex samples and will facilitate the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of nitrosative stress in disease. PMID:24926564

  8. Synthesis of [125I]IodoDPA-713, a New Probe for Imaging Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haofan; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2009-01-01

    [125I]IodoDPA-713 [125I]1, which targets the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 KDa), was synthesized in seven steps from methyl-4-methoxybenzoate as a tool for quantification of inflammation in preclinical models. Preliminary in vitro autoradiography and in vivo small animal imaging were performed using [125I]1 in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and in a murine model of lung inflammation, respectively. The radiochemical yield of [125I]1 was 44 ± 6% with a specific radioactivity of 51.8 GBq/μmol (1,400 mCi/μmol) and > 99% radiochemical purity. Preliminary studies showed that [125I]1 demonstrated increased specific binding to TSPO in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the lungs of an experimental inflammation model of lung inflammation. Compound [125I]1 is a new, convenient probe for preclinical studies of TSPO activity. PMID:19703411

  9. Synthesis of [{sup 125}I]iodoDPA-713: A new probe for imaging inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haofan; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2009-11-06

    [{sup 125}I]IodoDPA-713 [{sup 125}I]1, which targets the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa), was synthesized in seven steps from methyl-4-methoxybenzoate as a tool for quantification of inflammation in preclinical models. Preliminary in vitro autoradiography and in vivo small animal imaging were performed using [{sup 125}I]1 in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and in a murine model of lung inflammation, respectively. The radiochemical yield of [{sup 125}I]1 was 44 {+-} 6% with a specific radioactivity of 51.8 GBq/{mu}mol (1400 mCi/{mu}mol) and >99% radiochemical purity. Preliminary studies showed that [{sup 125}I]1 demonstrated increased specific binding to TSPO in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the lungs of an experimental inflammation model of lung inflammation. Compound [{sup 125}I]1 is a new, convenient probe for preclinical studies of TSPO activity.

  10. Characterization of (123)I-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine transport in rat lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Matte, Gilbert; Sangster, Shirley M; Acker, Matthew; Hudgins, Marlene; Too, Catherine K L

    2005-01-01

    (123)I-Iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine (IMT) transport into lymphomas has not been fully characterized. In rat Nb2-11C and Nb2-Sp lymphoma cell lines, linear uptake of (123)I-IMT occurred rapidly within 5-10 min. Eadie-Hoftee plots of (123)I-IMT uptake gave apparent Km's of 8.34+/-1.17 and 9.64+/-1.05 microM for Nb2-11C and Nb2-Sp cells, respectively, and involved the L and B(0,+) systems. In lymphoma-bearing rats, injected (123)I-IMT accumulated rapidly in the primary tumors but gave a low tumor-to-background ratio of 2:1. (123)I-IMT was transported rapidly into lymphoma cells both in vitro and in vivo, but low target-to-nontarget ratio may not make (123)I-IMT practical for scanning in vivo.

  11. Biophysical and antisense properties of oligodeoxynucleotides containing 7-propynyl-, 7-iodo- and 7-cyano-7-deaza-2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosines.

    PubMed Central

    Balow, G; Mohan, V; Lesnik, E A; Johnston, J F; Monia, B P; Acevedo, O L

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis of 7-propynyl-, 7-iodo- and 7-cyano-7-deaza-2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosines is described. The nucleosides were synthesized, functionalized into the phosphoramidites and incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides. Spectroscopic melting experiments against complementary RNA showed increases of 3-4 degreesC per modification for single substitutions and smaller increases per incorporation for multiple substitutions relative to unmodified control sequences. The 7-propyne and 7-iodo nucleosides were incorporated into antisense sequences targeting the 3'-UTR of murine C- raf mRNA. Both nucleosides demonstrated substitution-dependent potency. The sequences with three and four substitutions of the 7-propyne-7-deaza-2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosine exhibited a 2-3-fold increase in potency over unmodifed controls. PMID:9649618

  12. Crystal structures of two bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene derivatives: similarities and differences in the crystal packing.

    PubMed

    McAdam, C John; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C; Simpson, Jim

    2015-12-01

    The isomeric derivatives 1,2-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene, (I), and 1,3-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene (II), both C8H8I2, were prepared by metathesis from their di-bromo analogues. The ortho-derivative, (I), lies about a crystallographic twofold axis that bis-ects the C-C bond between the two iodo-methyl substituents. The packing in (I) relies solely on C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds supported by weak parallel slipped π-π stacking inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 4.0569 (11) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3789 (8) Å and slippage = 2.245 Å]. While C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds are also found in the packing of (II), type II, I⋯I halogen bonds [I⋯I = 3.8662 (2) Å] and C-H⋯π contacts feature prominently in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure. PMID:26870415

  13. Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in the ApoE −/− Mouse Model of Atherosclerosis with IodoDPA

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Catherine A.; Bedja, Djahida; Mease, Ronnie C.; Wang, Haofan; Kass, David A.; Chatterjee, Subroto; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a common and serious vascular disease predisposing individuals to myocardial infarction and stroke. Intravascular plaques, the pathologic lesions of atherosclerosis, are largely composed of cholesterol-laden luminal macrophage-rich infiltrates within a fibrous cap. The ability to detect those macrophages non-invasively within the aorta, carotid artery and other vessels would allow physicians to determine plaque burden, aiding management of patients with atherosclerosis. Methods and Results We previously developed a low-molecular-weight imaging agent, [125I]iodo-DPA-713 (iodoDPA), which selectively targets macrophages. Here we use it to detect both intravascular macrophages and macrophage infiltrates within the myocardium in the ApoE−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT data were confirmed by echocardiography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging and histology. SPECT images showed focal uptake of radiotracer at the aortic root in all ApoE−/− mice, while the age-matched controls were nearly devoid of radiotracer uptake. Focal radiotracer uptake along the descending aorta and within the myocardium was also observed in affected animals. Conclusions IodoDPA is a promising, new imaging agent for atherosclerosis, with specificity for the macrophage component of the lesions involved. PMID:25858322

  14. Radiolabeled n-substituted-6-iodo-3, 14-dihydroxy-4, 5alpha-epoxymorphinans, intermediates for producing the same, and a process for the preparation and methods of detecting opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    de Costa, B.R.; Iadarola, M.J.; Rothman, R.B.; Berman, K.F.; Rice, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to radiolabeled N-substituted-6-iodo-3,14-dihydroxy-4,5 alpha-epoxymorphinans, intermediates for producing the same, and a process for the preparation and methods of detecting opioid receptors, wherein Iodo is selected from the group consisting of (123)I and (125)I; and where the N substitution is alkyl, cycloalkylloweralkyl or allyl.

  15. 5-Iodo-2-aminoindan, a nonneurotoxic analogue of p-iodoamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.E.; Johnson, M.P.; Oberlender, R. )

    1991-01-01

    A rigid analogue, 5-iodo-2-aminoindan (5-IAI), of the serotonin neurotoxic halogenated amphetamine p-iodoamphetamine (PIA) was pharmacologically evaluated for production of serotonin neurotoxicity. A comparison was also made between 5-IAI and PIA in the two-lever drug discrimination paradigm in rats trained to discriminate saline from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or saline from the alpha-ethyl homologue of MDMA, MBDB. PIA and 5-IAI were both behaviorally active, and fully substituted in both groups of animals, but were considerably less potent than p-chloroamphetamine (PCA). PIA had about twice the potency of PCA as an inhibitor of {sup 3}H-5-HT uptake in rat brain cortical synaptosomes, while 5-IAI was only about 75% as potent as PCA in this assay. A single 40 mg/kg dose of PIA resulted in a 40% reduction of 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and in the number of 5-HT uptake sites in rat cortex at one week sacrifice. The same dose of 5-IAI with one week sacrifice led to about a 15% decrease in 5-HIAA levels and number of 5-HT uptake sites, but only the latter was statistically significant. In rat hippocampus, PIA gave significant decreases in all serotonin markers examined, while 5-IAI slightly but significantly decreased only 5-HT levels. Neither compound produced any change in catecholamine or catecholamine metabolite levels. The results confirm earlier reports of the selective serotonin neurotoxicity of PIA, which is less severe than that of PCA, and also demonstrate that its rigid analogue 5-IAI does not appear to cause significant serotonin deficits in the rat.

  16. An Experiment on the Methane-Methanol-Iodo-methane Cycle to Produce Nuclear Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Youngjoon, Shin; Wonjae, Lee; Kiyoung, Lee; Jonghwa, Chang; Sangbong, Lee

    2006-07-01

    Steam reforming is a mature and well-established technology on an industrial scale, and its research and development have focused on a high efficiency and low cost through the use of a cheaper material and production methods. However the new task presented due to the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 1997 is how to overcome the carbon dioxide generation problem in this technology. One of several CO{sub 2}-free alternatives based on a steam reforming of methane were introduced conceptually, named as the closed Methane-Methanol-Iodo-methane (MMI) cycle. We have calculated the thermodynamic properties as a function of the temperature on the chemical reactions that are supporting this CO{sub 2}- free process and evaluated theoretically the realization of each chemical reaction step. By analyzing the Gibbs free energy change, it has been found that most reactions are available within the temperature range of 298 K - 1,298 K except for the conversion of methanol to methyl iodide. In order to obtain methyl iodide from methanol to satisfy the closed MMI cycle, a SO{sub 2}-catalytic chemical reaction pathway during the step of an iodizing of methanol is possible. The experimental confirmation has been performed in an I{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}OH-SO{sub 2} system. The sulfuric acid produced as a byproduct can be thermally decomposed to SO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and then the H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} are recycled in the MMI cycle, respectively. The productivity of methyl iodide has been confirmed at up to 86% for a typical chemical reaction condition. (authors)

  17. Sulphydryl groups and iodo-(/sup 3/H)acetic acid labeling in proteolipids from Torpedo electroplax

    SciTech Connect

    Criado, M.; Aguilar, J.S.; De Robertis, E.

    1983-05-01

    Several fractions of proteolipids from Torpedo electroplax were separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography in organic solvents, and the sulphydryl groups were determined by a spectrophotometric method. On the same fractions the covalent labeling with iodo-(/sup 3/H)acetic acid to sulphydryl groups was studied. In total proteolipids there were 30.3 nmol/mg protein of sulphydryl groups of which 20.6 nmoles were in the form of disulfide bonds and 10.9 nmol as free--SH groups. The highest content of sulphydryl groups (36.7 nmol/mg protein) was found in fraction II; while fraction I, that binds the cholinergic ligands, has a lower content (23.7 nmol/mg protein). The 42 Kdaltons polypeptide, which is the major band in Fraction II, has the strongest labeling with iodo-(/sup 3/H)acetic acid, while the 39 Kdaltons cholinergic polypeptide shows a lower labeling. The importance of proteolipids as channel-forming macromolecules is discussed in connection with the possible significance of the 42 Kdaltons polypeptide.

  18. Role of NOM molecular size on iodo-trihalomethane formation during chlorination and chloramination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Dan-Dan; Li, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the major precursor for the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during disinfection, but the role of the NOM molecular size on the formation of iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the function of the NOM molecular size on the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (I-THMs) during chlorination and chloramination. Humic acid was adopted as the NOM matrix and fractionated into four molecular weight (MW) groups. Various parameters, including iodide, bromide, NOM concentrations, pH, and pre-chlorination time, were investigated for each MW fraction. During chlorination, high MW fractions (i.e., MW > 100 K Da and 50 K < MW < K00 K Da) produced more I-THMs compared with small MW fractions (i.e., MW < 3 K Da and 3 K < MW < 50 K Da). With the increase in the I(-) or NOM concentration, the formation of I-THMs increased for small MW fractions, while a slight reduction occurred for high MW fractions during chlorination. Higher pH resulted in more I-THM formation for small MW fractions, while the opposite was true for high MW fractions during chlorination. Compared to small MW fractions, bromide was relatively more reactive with high MW fractions in the formation of I-THMs during chlorination. During chloramination, the I-THM yields decreased with the increasing NOM concentration for high MW fractions. The concentration of bromine-containing I-THMs decreased with increasing pH for all MW fractions during chloramination. Additionally, with the prolongation of pre-chlorination time, the total amount of I-THMs decreased remarkably for MWs higher than 3 K Da, while a slight change for MW lower than 3 K Da occurred during chloramination. The results from this study suggest that the molecular weight of the NOM plays an important role in the formation of I-THMs during chlorination and chloramination. PMID:27423047

  19. Whole-body kinetics and dosimetry of L-3--123I-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, D; Langen, K J; Herzog, H; Wirths, J; Holschbach, M; Kiwit, J C; Ziemons, K; Coenen, H H; Müller-Gärtner, H

    1997-09-01

    The synthetic amino acid L-3--123I-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine (IMT) is currently under clinical evaluation as a single-photon emission tomography (SPET) tracer of amino acid uptake in brain tumours. So far, dosimetric data in respect of IMT are not available. Therefore we investigated the whole-body distribution of IMT in six patients with cerebral gliomas and the radiation doses were estimated. Whole-body scans were acquired at 1.5, 3 and 5 h after i.v. injection of 370-550 MBq IMT. The bladder was voided prior to each scan and the radioactivity excreted in the urine was measured. Based on the MIRD-11 method and the updated MIRDOSE3, the mean absorbed doses for various organs and the effective dose were calculated from geometric means of the anterior and posterior whole-body scans using seven source organs and the residence time. IMT was predominantly excreted by the kidneys (52.8%+/-11.5% at 1.5 h p.i., 63.0%+/-15.7% at 3 h p.i. and 74.6%+/-9.8% at 5 h p.i.). No organ system other than the urinary tract showed significant retention of the tracer. Early whole-body scans revealed slightly increased tracer uptake in the liver and in the bowel. Highest absorbed doses were found for the urinary bladder wall (0.047 mGy/MBq), the kidneys (0.010 mGy/MBq), the lower large intestinal wall (0.011 mGy/MBq) and the upper large intestinal wall (0.008 mGy/MBq). The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was estimated to be 0.0073 mSv/MBq for adults. This leads to an effective dose of 3.65 mSv in a typical brain SPET study using 500 MBq IMT. The MIRDOSE3 scheme yielded similar results. Thus, in spite of the relatively high tracer dose required for optimal brain scanning, radiation exposure in SPET studies with IMT is in the normal range of routine nuclear medicine investigations. PMID:9283111

  20. Synthesis of 5-iodo-1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles mediated by in situ generated copper(I) catalyst and electrophilic triiodide ion.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Wendy S; Clark, Ronald J; Zhu, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Mixing copper(II) perchlorate and sodium iodide solutions results in copper(I) species and the electrophilic triiodide ions, which collectively mediate the cycloaddition reaction of organic azide and terminal alkyne to afford 5-iodo-1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles. One molar equivalent of an amine additive is required for achieving a full conversion. Excessive addition of the amine compromises the selectivity for 5-iodo-1,2,3-triazole by promoting the formation of 5-proto-1,2,3-triazole. Based on preliminary kinetic and structural evidence, a mechanistic model is formulated in which a 5-iodo-1,2,3-triazole is formed via iodination of a copper(I) triazolide intermediate by the electrophilic triiodide ions (and possibly triethyliodoammonium ions). The experimental evidence explains the higher reactivity of the in situ generated copper(I) species and triiodide ion in the formation of 5-iodo-1,2,3-triazoles than that of the pure forms of copper(I) iodide and iodine.

  1. Synthesis of 5-iodo-1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles mediated by in situ generated copper(I) catalyst and electrophilic triiodide ion.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Wendy S; Clark, Ronald J; Zhu, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Mixing copper(II) perchlorate and sodium iodide solutions results in copper(I) species and the electrophilic triiodide ions, which collectively mediate the cycloaddition reaction of organic azide and terminal alkyne to afford 5-iodo-1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles. One molar equivalent of an amine additive is required for achieving a full conversion. Excessive addition of the amine compromises the selectivity for 5-iodo-1,2,3-triazole by promoting the formation of 5-proto-1,2,3-triazole. Based on preliminary kinetic and structural evidence, a mechanistic model is formulated in which a 5-iodo-1,2,3-triazole is formed via iodination of a copper(I) triazolide intermediate by the electrophilic triiodide ions (and possibly triethyliodoammonium ions). The experimental evidence explains the higher reactivity of the in situ generated copper(I) species and triiodide ion in the formation of 5-iodo-1,2,3-triazoles than that of the pure forms of copper(I) iodide and iodine. PMID:22780866

  2. Biodistribution and dosimetry of [123I]iodo-PK 11195: a potential agent for SPET imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor.

    PubMed

    Versijpt, J; Dumont, F; Thierens, H; Jansen, H; De Vos, F; Slegers, G; Santens, P; Dierckx, R A; Korf, J

    2000-09-01

    The highest concentrations of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) are found in the kidneys and heart. In addition, the PBR has been reported to reflect neuro-inflammatory damage by co-localisation with activated microglia. PK 11195 is a high-affinity ligand for the PBR. The aim of this study was to investigate in humans the biodistribution and dosimetry of [123I]iodoPK 11195, a potential single-photon emission tomography tracer for the PBR. Five healthy volunteers were injected with 112 MBq of [123I]iodo-PK 11195. Sequential whole-body scans were performed up to 72 h post injection. Multiple blood samples were taken, and urine was collected to measure the fraction voided by the renal system. Decay-corrected regions of interest of the whole-body images were analysed, and geometric mean count rates were used to determine organ activity. Organ absorbed doses and effective dose were calculated using the MIRD method. [123I]iodo-PK 11195 was rapidly cleared from the blood, mainly by the hepatobiliary system. Approximately 22% was voided in urine after 48 h. Average organ residence times were 0.74, 0.44 and 0.29 h for the liver, upper large intestine and lower large intestine, respectively. The testes received the highest dose, 109.4 microGy/MBq. All other organs investigated received doses of less than 50 microGy/MBq. The effective dose was 40.3 microSv/MBq. In conclusion, [123I]iodo-PK 11195 is a suitable agent for the visualisation of the PBR and indirectly for the imaging of neuro-inflammatory lesions. Taking into account the radiation burden of 7.46 mSv following an administration of 185 MBq, a [123I]iodo-PK 11195 investigation has to be considered an ICRP risk category IIb investigation. PMID:11007514

  3. Effect of 3,5-di-iodo-L-thyronine on the mitochondrial energy-transduction apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, A; Lanni, A; Moreno, M; Brand, M D; Goglia, F

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effect of a single injection of 3,5-di-iodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) (150 microg/100 g body weight) on the rat liver mitochondrial energy-transduction apparatus. We applied 'top-down' elasticity analysis, which allows identification of the site of action of an effector within a metabolic pathway. This kinetic approach considers oxidative phosphorylation as two blocks of reactions: those generating the mitochondrial inner-membrane potential (DeltaPsi; 'substrate oxidation') and those 'consuming' it ('proton leak' and 'phosphorylating system'). The results show that 1 h after the injection of 3,5-T2, state 4 (respiratory state in which there is no ATP synthesis and the exogenous ADP added has been exhausted) and state 3 (respiratory state in which ATP synthesis is at maximal rate) of mitochondrial respiration were significantly increased (by approx. 30%). 'Top-down' elasticity analysis revealed that these increases were due to the stimulation of reactions involved in substrate oxidation; neither 'proton leak' nor the 'phosphorylating system' was influenced by 3,5-T2. Using the same approach we divided the respiratory chain into two blocks of reactions: cytochrome c reducers and cytochrome c oxidizers. We found that both cytochrome c reducers and cytochrome c oxidizers are targets for 3,5-T2. The rapidity with which 3,5-T2 acts in stimulating the mitochondrial respiration rate suggests to us that di-iodo-L-thyronine may play an important role in the physiological conditions in which rapid energy utilization is required, such as cold exposure or overfeeding. PMID:9461551

  4. Direct carbon-carbon bond formation via reductive soft enolization: a syn-selective Mannich addition of α-iodo thioesters.

    PubMed

    Truong, Ngoc; Sauer, Scott J; Seraphin-Hatcher, Cyndie; Coltart, Don M

    2016-08-16

    The β-amino carboxylic acid moiety is a key feature of numerous important biologically active compounds. We describe a syn-selective direct Mannich addition reaction that uses α-iodo thioesters and sulfonyl imines and produces β-amino thioesters. Enolate formation is achieved by reductive soft enolization. The products of the reaction provide straightforward access to biologically important β-lactams through a variety of known reactions. PMID:27492274

  5. Two saturable recognition sites for (-) (125I)iodo-N6-(4-hydroxyphenyl-isopropyl)-adenosine binding on purified cardiac sarcolemma

    SciTech Connect

    Hausleithner, V.; Freissmuth, M.; Schuetz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of (-) (125)iodo-N6-(4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl)-adenosine (( /sup 125/I)HPIA) binding to purified sarcolemmal preparations of guinea pig and bovine hearts revealed two classes of binding sites when unlabeled iodo-HPIA (100 mumol/l) was used as non-specific binding marker. In the presence of 1 mmol/l theophylline, however, only the high affinity component was detected. Adenosine receptor agonists caused biphasic displacement of (/sup 125/I)HPIA binding, with a high affinity potency rank order typical of interaction with A1-adenosine receptors. Biphasic competition curves were also observed with 8-phenyltheophylline and isobutylmethylxanthine, whereas the theophylline curve was monophasic up to 1 mmol/l. In brain membranes, specific binding of (/sup 125/I)HPIA as well as of (/sup 3/H)PIA was further reduced when unlabeled iodo-HPIA replaces theophylline as the non-specific binding marker. These results suggest the presence of two (/sup 125/I)HPIA binding sites on cardiac sarcolemma and brain membranes, but receptor function can only be ascribed to the high affinity sites. The low affinity site probably represents an artefact, which is often observed when non-specific binding is defined with the unlabeled counterpart or a structurally related ligand of the radioligand used.

  6. Diaqua-bis-(2-iodo-benzoato-κO)bis-(nicotinamide-κN(1))cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Aydın, Omür; Caylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Necefoğlu, Hacali; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2012-04-01

    In the title complex, [Co(C(7)H(4)IO(2))(2)(C(6)H(6)N(2)O)(2)(H(2)O)(2)], the Co(II) cation is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two monodentate 2-iodo-benzoate (IB) anions, two nicotin-amide (NA) ligands and two water mol-ecules. The four O atoms in the equatorial plane around the Co(II) cation form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement, while the slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination is completed by the two N atoms of the NA ligands in the axial positions. The dihedral angle between the carboxyl-ate group and the adjacent benzene ring is 22.3 (3)°, while the pyridine ring and the benzene ring are oriented at a dihedral angle of 84.59 (13)°. Intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding occurs between the carboxyl-ate group and coordinated water mol-ecule. In the crystal, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. PMID:22589871

  7. Scope and Limitations of 3-Iodo-Kdo Fluoride-Based Glycosylation Chemistry using N-Acetyl Glucosamine Acceptors.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Barbara; Kosma, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The ketosidic linkage of 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) to lipid A constitutes a general structural feature of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide core. Glycosylation reactions of Kdo donors, however, are challenging due to the absence of a directing group at C-3 and elimination reactions resulting in low yields and anomeric selectivities of the glycosides. While 3-iodo-Kdo fluoride donors showed excellent glycosyl donor properties for the assembly of Kdo oligomers, glycosylation of N-acetyl-glucosamine derivatives was not straightforward. Specifically, oxazoline formation of a β-anomeric methyl glycoside, as well as iodonium ion transfer to an allylic aglycon was found. In addition, dehalogenation of the directing group by hydrogen atom transfer proved to be incompatible with free hydroxyl groups next to benzyl groups. In contrast, glycosylation of a suitably protected methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside derivative and subsequent deiodination proceeded in excellent yields and α-specificity, and allowed for subsequent 4-O-phosphorylation. This way, the disaccharides α-Kdo-(2→6)-α-GlcNAcOMe and α-Kdo-(2→6)-α-GlcNAcOMe-4-phosphate were obtained in good overall yields. PMID:27308198

  8. Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N

    2010-09-01

    Flubendiamide belongs to a novel class of insecticide which controls lepidopteran pest complex of cabbage such as diamondback moth, cabbage white butterfly, cluster caterpillar etc. Being a newly introduced insecticide no information is available on its residue persistence in cabbage. A study was undertaken to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in cabbage and soil following 2 applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at the recommended and double the recommended dose of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide in cabbage were 0.33 and 0.49 mg kg(-1) respectively. The residues persisted for 10 days from the both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life of 3.9 and 4.45 days, respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite of flubendiamide, was not detected in cabbage at any time during the study period. Soil sample collected from the treated field after 15 days was free from any residue of flubendiamide or its metabolite.

  9. Reduced posterior cingulate binding of I-123 iodo-dexetimide to muscarinic receptors in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Boundy, K L; Barnden, L R; Katsifis, A G; Rowe, C C

    2005-05-01

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) allows timely pharmacological and social interventions. Alteration in muscarinic receptor binding was evaluated with I-123 iodo-dexetimide (IDEX) in early clinical stage AD. We studied 11 mild AD patients (Folstein Minimental State Examination Score 24-27, Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5-1.0) and 10 age- and sex-matched normal subjects with SPECT brain imaging after injection of 185 MBq of IDEX and 750 MBq of 99mTc-HMPAO. Using a voxel based approach (Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99) software), a deficit in IDEX binding was found in the posterior cingulate cortex in the mild AD group with p (corrected)=0.06 for the most significant voxel and p=0.0003 for the voxel cluster. Region of interest (ROI) analysis confirmed the SPM99 results. SPM99 found no deficit in the HMPAO scans, suggesting that neither atrophy nor hypoperfusion were major factors in the reduced IDEX binding. This study provides further evidence of the involvement of the posterior cingulate region and of muscarinic receptors in early Alzheimer's disease and suggests that this change may precede an alteration in blood flow. PMID:15925773

  10. 5-Iodo-2-deoxyuridine administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of disseminated glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Rewers, A.B.; Redgate, E.S.; Fisher, E.R.; Boggs, S.S. )

    1989-09-06

    A rat brain tumor model (Fischer 344 rats) with the clinical and pathological features of dissemination via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways was used to demonstrate the efficacy of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer when it is administered directly into the CSF. Stereotaxic implantation of 9L gliosarcoma cells (5 X 10(5)) into the CSF of the lateral cerebral ventricle resulted in widespread dissemination and median survival of 18.5 and 20 days (range, 10-22) in two experiments. A continuous 7-day infusion of IUDR into the CSF starting on the day of tumor implantation did not provide any beneficial effect. Irradiation of the cranial spinal axis with 800 rad on days 4, 6, and 7 after implantation achieved an increase in survival time that was modest but statistically significant. However, the combination of IUDR infusion and radiotherapy resulted in marked improvement in survival time and a 10% cure rate (two of 20 rats). This is the first demonstration in vivo that IUDR administered into the CSF can be a potent radiosensitizer.

  11. Mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10,MetO17)-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Preparation, characterization, and use for radioimmunoassay and receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.; Rose, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Magistretti, P.J.

    1986-04-25

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was labeled with sodium (125I)iodide using the chloramine-T method and subsequently purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography.Three main 125I-labeled peaks designated A, B, and C resulted from the radioiodination and purification procedures. They were characterized by electrophoresis of tryptic fragments; Edman degradation (for Peaks A and C); enzymatic digestion to amino acids by leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase Y and Pronase; and treatment with cyanogen bromide. Peak A corresponds to VIP monoiodinated on Tyr10 and with the Met17 residue oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. This (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10,MetO17)VIP displays the following characteristics. 1) It constitutes quantitatively the major product of the iodination procedure (62.5%); 2) it is well resolved from other labeled and unlabeled products; 3) it is stable (2 months at -20 degrees C); 4) it possesses a high specific activity (2050 Ci/mmol); 5) it maintains the biological activity of native VIP; and 6) it binds to antibody and membrane recognition sites in a specific, saturable, and reversible manner. Reduction of (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10, Met-O17)VIP to (mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10)VIP does not improve the performance of the tracer in a radioimmunoassay. The method described in this article is simple and rapid and yields a molecular form of 125I-labeled VIP that has been fully characterized and is suitable for use in biological studies.

  12. High- and low-temperature phases in isostructural 4-chloro-3-nitroaniline and 4-iodo-3-nitroaniline.

    PubMed

    Fábry, Jan; Dušek, Michal; Vaněk, Přemysl; Rafalovskyi, Iegor; Hlinka, Jiří; Urban, Jiří

    2014-12-01

    The structures of 4-chloro-3-nitroaniline, C6H5ClN2O2, (I), and 4-iodo-3-nitroaniline, C6H5IN2O2, (II), are isomorphs and both undergo continuous (second order) phase transitions at 237 and 200 K, respectively. The structures, as well as their phase transitions, have been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and difference scanning calorimetry experiments. Both high-temperature phases (293 K) show disorder of the nitro substituents, which are inclined towards the benzene-ring planes at two different orientations. In the low-temperature phases (120 K), both inclination angles are well maintained, while the disorder is removed. Concomitantly, the b axis doubles with respect to the room-temperature cell. Each of the low-temperature phases of (I) and (II) contains two pairs of independent molecules, where the molecules in each pair are related by noncrystallographic inversion centres. The molecules within each pair have the same absolute value of the inclination angle. The Flack parameter of the low-temperature phases is very close to 0.5, indicating inversion twinning. This can be envisaged as stacking faults in the low-temperature phases. It seems that competition between the primary amine-nitro N-H···O hydrogen bonds which form three-centred hydrogen bonds is the reason for the disorder of the nitro groups, as well as for the phase transition in both (I) and (II). The backbones of the structures are formed by N-H···N hydrogen bonding of moderate strength which results in the graph-set motif C(3). This graph-set motif forms a zigzag chain parallel to the monoclinic b axis and is maintained in both the high- and the low-temperature structures. The primary amine groups are pyramidal, with similar geometric values in all four determinations. The high-temperature phase of (II) has been described previously [Garden et al. (2004). Acta Cryst. C60, o328-o330].

  13. 5-Iodo-2-Pyrimidinone-2'-Deoxyribose-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Radiosensitization in U87 Human Glioblastoma Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Timothy J. Kinsella, Michael T.; Seo, Yuji; Berk, Gregory

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: 5-Iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2'-deoxyribose (IPdR) is a novel orally administered (p.o.) prodrug of 5-iododeoxyuridine. Because p.o. IPdR is being considered for clinical testing as a radiosensitizer in patients with high-grade gliomas, we performed this in vivo study of IPdR-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in a human glioblastoma xenograft model, U87. Methods and Materials: Groups of 8 or 9 athymic male nude mice (6-8 weeks old) were implanted with s.c. U87 xenograft tumors (4 x 10{sup 6} cells) and then randomized to 10 treatment groups receiving increasing doses of p.o. IPdR (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/d) administered once daily (q.d.) x 14 days with or without radiotherapy (RT) (0 or 2 Gy/d x 4 days) on days 11-14 of IPdR treatment. Systemic toxicity was determined by body weight measurements during and after IPdR treatment. Tumor response was assessed by changes in tumor volumes. Results: IPdR alone at doses of {>=}500 mg/kg/d resulted in moderate inhibition of tumor growth. The combination of IPdR plus RT resulted in a significant IPdR dose-dependent tumor growth delay, with the maximum radiosensitization using {>=}500 mg/kg/d. IPdR doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/d resulted in transient 5-15% body weight loss during treatment. Conclusions: In U87 human glioblastoma s.c. xenografts, p.o. IPdR given q.d. x 14 days and RT given 2 Gy/d x 4 days (days 11-14 of IPdR treatment) results in a significant tumor growth delay in an IPdR dose-dependent pattern. The use of p.o. IPdR plus RT holds promise for Phase I/II testing in patients with high-grade gliomas.

  14. Gold(I)-catalyzed hydroarylation reaction of aryl (3-iodoprop-2-yn-1-yl) ethers: synthesis of 3-iodo-2H-chromene derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Morán-Poladura, Pablo; Rubio, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Summary An efficient entry to the preparation of elusive 4-unsubstituted-3-iodo-2H-chromenes has been accomplished as result of a catalytic cyclization. Thus, upon exposition of [(3-iodoprop-2-yn-1-yl)oxy]arenes to IPrAuNTf2 (3 mol %), in 1,4-dioxane at 100 °C, the desired heterocyclic motif is readily assembled. This process nicely tolerates a variety of functional groups and, interestingly, it is compatible with the presence of strong electron-withdrawing groups attached to the arene. The overall transformation can be termed as a new example of a migratory cycloisomerization and, formally, it involves well-blended 1,2-iodine shift and hydroarylation steps. PMID:24204424

  15. A strategy for the study of cerebral amino acid transport using iodine-123-labeled amino acid radiopharmaceutical: 3-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, K.; Fujibayashi, Y.; Saji, H.; Yonekura, Y.; Konishi, J.; Kubodera, A.; Yokoyama, A. )

    1991-05-01

    We examined the brain accumulation of iodine-123-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine ({sup 123}I-L-AMT) in mice and rats. I-L-AMT showed high brain accumulation in mice, and in rats; rat brain uptake index exceeded that of {sup 14}C-L-tyrosine. The brain uptake index and the brain slice studies indicated the affinity of I-L-AMT for carrier-mediated and stereoselective active transport systems, respectively; both operating across the blood-brain barrier and cell membranes of the brain. The tissue homogenate analysis revealed that most of the accumulated radioactivity belonged to intact I-L-AMT, an indication of its stability. Thus, {sup 123}I-L-AMT appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for the selective measurement of cerebral amino acid transport.

  16. Metal and base free synthesis of primary amines via ipso amination of organoboronic acids mediated by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nachiketa; Goswami, Avijit

    2015-08-01

    A metal and base free synthesis of primary amines has been developed at ambient temperature through ipso amination of diversely functionalized organoboronic acids, employing a combination of [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA)-N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and methoxyamine hydrochloride as the aminating reagent. The amines were primarily obtained as their trifluoroacetate salts which on subsequent aqueous alkaline work up provided the corresponding free amines. The combination of PIFA-NBS is found to be the mildest choice compared to the commonly used strong bases (e.g. n-BuLi, Cs2CO3) for activating the aminating agent. The reaction is expected to proceed via activation of the aminating reagent followed by B-N 1,2-aryl migration.

  17. Synthesis and Ring Opening Polymerization of a New Functional Lactone, α-Iodo-ε-caprolactone: A Novel Route to Functionalized Aliphatic Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Habnouni, Sarah El; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2009-02-01

    A new functional lactone, α-iodo-ε-caprolactone (αIεCL), was synthesized from ε-caprolactone by anionic activation using a non-nucleophilic strong base (lithium diisopropylamide) followed by an electrophilic substitution with iodine chloride. Ring-opening (co)polymerizations of the resulting monomer with ε-caprolactone were carried out using tin 2-ethylhexanoate as a catalyst in toluene at 100 °C. Homopolymerization of αIεCL was achieved, and poly(αIεCL) was fully characterized by SEC, (1) H NMR and elemental analysis. Random copolymerizations of αIεCL with εCL were controlled with experimental molecular weights close to the theoretical values, narrow molecular weight distributions and a good agreement between experimental and theoretical molar compositions of αIεCL. PMID:21706593

  18. Determination of protolytic equilibria for methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside by ab initio and spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowska, Aleksandra; Makowski, Mariusz; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chylewska, Agnieszka; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2008-12-01

    UV absorption spectra of methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside were recorded over a wide pH range. On this basis, a relationship between absorbance and pH was plotted, from which deprotonation equilibrium constants of this compound were determined. Further, quantum-mechanical calculations were performed at the ab initio level both in the gas phase by using the Restricted Hartree Fock (RHF), Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods and under consideration of solvation effects within the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM), which enabled location of preferred protonation and deprotonation centers of this compound. The results provided the basis for discussion of the influence of substituents in the sugar ring on protolytic equilibria occurring in aqueous solutions of 3-azido-2,3-dideoxy sugars.

  19. Simultaneous and high-throughput analysis of iodo-trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes in drinking water using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: an optimization of sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Chen, Xichao; Wei, Zi; Xu, Xiong; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2014-10-24

    When iodide and natural organic matter are present in raw water, the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (Iodo-THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and halonitromethanes (HNMs) pose a potential health risk because they have been reported to be more toxic than their brominated or chlorinated analogs. In the work, simultaneous analysis of Iodo-THMs, HANs, and HNMs in drinking water samples in a single cleanup and chromatographic analysis was proposed. The DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber was found to be the most suitable for all target compounds, although 75μm CAR/PDMS was better for chlorinated HANs and 65μm PDMS/DVB for brominated HNMs. After optimization of the SPME parameters (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction time of 30min at 40°C, addition of 40% w/v of salt, (NH4)2SO4 as a quenching agent, and desorption time of 3min at 170°C), detection limits ranged from 1 to 50ng/L for different analogs, with a linear range of at least two orders of magnitude. Good recoveries (78.6-104.7%) were obtained for spiked samples of a wide range of treated drinking waters, demonstrating that the method is applicable for analysis of real drinking water samples. Matrix effects were negligible for the treated water samples with total organic carbon concentration of less than 2.9mg/L. An effective survey conducted by two drinking water treatment plants showed the highest proportion of Iodo-THMs, HANs, and HNMs occurred in treated water, and concentrations of 13 detected compounds ranged between the ng/L and the μg/L levels.

  20. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor binding 4{prime}-IODO-PK11195: A new radioiodinated ligand for detecting lesioned brain areas

    SciTech Connect

    Saji, H.; Iida, Y.; Nakatsuka, I.

    1995-05-01

    An increase in the peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites (PBBS) has recently been reported in excitotoxic and ischaemic lesions in the brain. Thus, PBBS visualization has been of greater interest due to the possibility of imaging the lesioned area as positive image. In this study, our interest is focussed in the development of a radioiodinated compound for the SPECT study of PBBS function. Taking account of the environment of binding sites and the stability in vivo, we selected the 4{prime}position of C-1 phenyl moiety of the isoqunoline derivative PK11195 as the best exploitable site for the iodination. The no-carrier-added I-125 labeled 4{prime}-iodo-PK11195 (IPK) was synthesized by the bromine-iodine exchange reaction in 60% radiochemical yield and > 98% radiochemical purity. In vitro competitive binding studies with H-3-PI11195 using rat kidney membranes shows that IPK has high affinity for PBBS as much as PK11195. The in vivo biodistribution in mice showed high uptake of I-125-IPK in the kidney, lung, heart and adrenal, organs reported as containing high PBBS, which were reduced by the treatment with cold PK11195. Furthermore, autoradiographic studies in transient middle cerebral arteries occlusion in rats showed high accumulation of I-125-IPK in lesioned sites, in contrast to the decease of radioactivity of Tc-99m-HM-PAO. Gathered data indicated that the newly designed IPK holds to great potential for detecting the lesioned brain areas as positive image.

  1. Diaqua­bis­(2-iodo­benzoato-κO)bis­(nicotinamide-κN 1)cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Ömür; Çaylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Necefoğlu, Hacali; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    In the title complex, [Co(C7H4IO2)2(C6H6N2O)2(H2O)2], the CoII cation is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two monodentate 2-iodo­benzoate (IB) anions, two nicotin­amide (NA) ligands and two water mol­ecules. The four O atoms in the equatorial plane around the CoII cation form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement, while the slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination is completed by the two N atoms of the NA ligands in the axial positions. The dihedral angle between the carboxyl­ate group and the adjacent benzene ring is 22.3 (3)°, while the pyridine ring and the benzene ring are oriented at a dihedral angle of 84.59 (13)°. Intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding occurs between the carboxyl­ate group and coordinated water mol­ecule. In the crystal, N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. PMID:22589871

  2. 10-Iodo-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic Acids Are Selective Inhibitors of DYRK1A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase DYRK1A has been suggested to act as one of the intracellular regulators contributing to neurological alterations found in individuals with Down syndrome. For an assessment of the role of DYRK1A, selective synthetic inhibitors are valuable pharmacological tools. However, the DYRK1A inhibitors described in the literature so far either are not sufficiently selective or have not been tested against closely related kinases from the DYRK and the CLK protein kinase families. The aim of this study was the identification of DYRK1A inhibitors exhibiting selectivity versus the structurally and functionally closely related DYRK and CLK isoforms. Structure modification of the screening hit 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid revealed structure–activity relationships for kinase inhibition and enabled the design of 10-iodo-substituted derivatives as very potent DYRK1A inhibitors with considerable selectivity against CLKs. X-ray structure determination of three 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids cocrystallized with DYRK1A confirmed the predicted binding mode within the ATP binding site. PMID:25730262

  3. The use of tetrabutylammonium fluoride to promote N- and O-(11) C-methylation reactions with iodo[(11) C]methane in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Minegishi, Katsuyuki; Hashimoto, Hiroki; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Kato, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    The N- or O-methylation reactions of compounds bearing amide, aniline, or phenol moieties using iodo[(11) C]methane (1) with the aid of a base are frequently applied to the preparation of (11) C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Although sodium hydride and alkaline metal hydroxides are commonly employed as bases in these reactions, their poor solubility properties in organic solvents and hydrolytic activities have sometimes limited their application and made the associated (11) C-methylation reactions difficult. In contrast to these bases, tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) is moderately basic, highly soluble in organic solvents, and weakly nucleophilic. Although it was envisaged that TBAF could be used as the preferred base for (11) C-methylation reactions using 1, studies concerning the use of TBAF to promote (11) C-methylation reactions are scarce. Herein, we have evaluated the efficiency of the (11) C-methylation reactions of 13 model compounds using TBAF and 1. In most cases, the N-(11) C-methylations were efficiently promoted by TBAF in dimethyl sulfoxide at ambient temperature, whereas the O-(11) C-methylations required heating in some cases. Comparison studies revealed that the efficiencies of the (11) C-methylation reactions with TBAF were comparable or sometimes greater than those conducted with sodium hydride. Based on these results, TBAF should be considered as the preferred base for (11) C-methylation reactions using 1. PMID:25196029

  4. 10-iodo-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids are selective inhibitors of DYRK1A.

    PubMed

    Falke, Hannes; Chaikuad, Apirat; Becker, Anja; Loaëc, Nadège; Lozach, Olivier; Abu Jhaisha, Samira; Becker, Walter; Jones, Peter G; Preu, Lutz; Baumann, Knut; Knapp, Stefan; Meijer, Laurent; Kunick, Conrad

    2015-04-01

    The protein kinase DYRK1A has been suggested to act as one of the intracellular regulators contributing to neurological alterations found in individuals with Down syndrome. For an assessment of the role of DYRK1A, selective synthetic inhibitors are valuable pharmacological tools. However, the DYRK1A inhibitors described in the literature so far either are not sufficiently selective or have not been tested against closely related kinases from the DYRK and the CLK protein kinase families. The aim of this study was the identification of DYRK1A inhibitors exhibiting selectivity versus the structurally and functionally closely related DYRK and CLK isoforms. Structure modification of the screening hit 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid revealed structure-activity relationships for kinase inhibition and enabled the design of 10-iodo-substituted derivatives as very potent DYRK1A inhibitors with considerable selectivity against CLKs. X-ray structure determination of three 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids cocrystallized with DYRK1A confirmed the predicted binding mode within the ATP binding site. PMID:25730262

  5. SPECT studies of brain tumors with L-3-( sup 123 I) iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine: Comparison with PET, 124IMT and first clinical results

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, K.J.; Coenen, H.H.; Roosen, N.; Kling, P.; Muzik, O.; Herzog, H.; Kuwert, T.; Stoecklin, G.F.; Feinendegen, L.E. )

    1990-03-01

    L-3-({sup 123}I)iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine ({sup 123}IMT) like tyrosine has been reported previously to have a high affinity for a transport system in the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). We examined the kinetic behavior of {sup 124}IMT in brain and plasma in two patients with glioblastoma using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET). {sup 124}IMT accumulated in brain and tumor tissue, reaching a maximum after 15 min, with a washout of 20% to 35% at 60 min postinjection. Animal experiments confirmed the accumulation of the intact tracer in murine brain, but there was no incorporation into proteins. SPECT studies with {sup 123}IMT in patients with different types of brain tumors showed increased uptake in 26 of 32 tumors. Although nonspecific uptake in tumors must be considered, the accumulation of IMT in normal brain and in some tumors with intact BBB suggests a specific uptake of IMT. As transport is the main determinant of initial amino acid uptake, {sup 123}IMT appears to be a suitable SPECT tracer of amino acid uptake although it is not incorporated into protein.

  6. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (Ki = 24–227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [3H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested against Ser438Thr hSERT, all three PALs showed dramatic rightward shifts in inhibitory potency, with Ki values ranging from 3.8 to 9.9 μM, consistent with the role of Ser438 as a key residue for high-affinity binding of many SSRIs, including (S)-citalopram. Photoactivation studies demonstrated irreversible adduction to hSERT by all ligands, but the reduced (S)-citalopram inhibition of labeling by [125I]15 compared to that by [125I]22 and [125I]26 suggests differences in binding mode(s). These radioligands will be useful for characterizing the drug–protein binding interactions for (S)-citalopram at hSERT. PMID:26153715

  7. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  8. Pilot clinical trial of 5-[{sup 125}I] iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine in the treatment of colorectal cancer metastic to the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Macapinlac, H.A.; Kemeny, N.; Daghighian, F.

    1996-04-01

    The thymidine analog, 5-iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine (IUdR), is incorporated in the DNA of cell sin the S phase. When incorporated in the DNA, short-range Auger electrons emitted by {sup 125}I-labeled IUdR can cause double-strand breaks, delivering a lethal radiation dose to the cell. We conducted therapeutic trial to evaluate [{sup 125}I/{sup 131}I]IUdR pharmacokinetics in liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Dosimetry, safety, and therapeutic potential were assessed. Four patients were each infused with 5 mCi [{sup 125}I]IUdR and 10 mCi [{sup 131}I]IUdR through the sideport of a hepatic artery pump. Iodine-131 images were quantitated and used for pharmacokinetic studies. The radioactivity in the DNA of biopsy samples of tumor, normal liver and bone marrow, obtained 24 or 48 hr after injection, was counted. All patients had [{sup 125}I]IUdR and [{sup 131}I]IUdR uptake in tumor, with a biexponential clearance. Repeat injections in individual patients showed little variation in tumor uptake, especially in the slow clearance component. On planar images, no long-term retention was seen in bone marrow or other activity dividing normal tissues. Radioactivity in the DNA of one marrow sample taken at 24 hr was above background, but in another taken at 48 hr it was equal to background levels. No side effects were noted, no hematologic toxicity was observed in any patients and no tumor responses were seen. There is persisten uptake of [{sup 125}I]IUdR in hepatic tumors, thereby making hepatic artery infusion a suitable mode of delivery for therapy. Repeat injections will be needed because only 15%-50% of tumor cells are in the S phase. Based on results from this pilot study, a therapeutic regimen is being planned. 43 refs. 2 figs.

  9. Experimental and ab Initio Study of Catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I)) under Pressure: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Electronic, and Luminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Aguirrechu-Comerón, Amagoia; Hernández-Molina, Rita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Plácida; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Ulises R; Lavín, Vı́ctor; Angel, Ross J; Gonzalez-Platas, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Copper(I) iodine compounds can exhibit interesting mechanochromic and thermochromic luminescent properties with important technological applications. We report the synthesis and structure determination by X-ray diffraction of a new polymeric staircase copper(I) iodine compound catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I), [C10H9CuIN]. The structure is composed of isolated polymeric staircase chains of copper-iodine coordinated to organic ligands through Cu-N bonds. High pressure X-ray diffraction to 6.45 GPa shows that the material is soft, with a bulk modulus K0 = 10.2(2)GPa and a first derivative K'0 = 8.1(3), typical for organometallic compounds. The unit-cell compression is very anisotropic with the stiffest direction [302] arising from a combination of the stiff CuI ladders and the shear of the planar quinolone ligands over one another. Full structure refinements at elevated pressures show that pressures reduce the Cu···Cu distances in the compound. This effect is detected in luminescence spectra with the appearance of four sub-bands at 515, 600, 647, and 712 nm above 3.5 GPa. Red-shifts are observed, and they are tentatively associated with interactions between copper(I) ions due to the shortening of the Cu···Cu distances induced by pressure, below twice the van der Waals limit (2.8 Å). Additionally, ab initio simulations were performed, and they confirmed the structure and the results obtained experimentally for the equation of state. The simulation allowed the band structure and the electronic density of states of this copper(I) iodine complex to be determined. In particular, the band gap decreases slowly with pressure in a quadratic way with dEg/dP = -0.011 eV/GPa and d(2)Eg/dP(2) = 0.001 eV/GPa(2).

  10. Pharmacokinetics of ( sup 125 I)-2-iodo-3,7,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in mice: Analysis with a physiological modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, H.W.; Poland, A.; Paustenbach, D.J.; Murray, F.J.; Andersen, M.E. )

    1990-05-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent inducer of hepatic microsomal enzymes. The influence of an inducing dose of TCDD on tissue distribution and other pharmacokinetic behavior of a TCDD analog in the mice was examined by employing a high specific activity radioligand. (125I)-2-iodo-3,7,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (ITCDD). Female C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with 0.1 mumol/kg of TCDD or the vehicle only, followed by 0.1 nmol ITCDD/kg 3 days later. The control animals had the highest concentration of ITCDD-derived radioactivity in the fat, but the TCDD-pretreated animals had the highest concentration in their livers. Whole-body elimination of ITCDD approximated first-order behavior, and induction by pretreatment with the inducing dose of TCDD almost doubled the rate of excretion (control mice, t1/2 = 14.2 days; pretreated mice, t1/2 = 8.0 days). All disposition results in naive and pretreated mice were satisfactorily described by a consistent physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in which induction increased the amount of microsomal ITCDD-binding protein from 1.75 to 20 nmol/liver and increased the rate constant for metabolism of free ITCDD from 1 to 3/hr/kg liver. The binding affinity of the microsomal ITCDD-binding protein was the same (20 nM) in both induced and noninduced mice. Model simulations indicated a time delay in the elimination of nonparent ITCDD metabolites from the body and a more rapid absorption of the parent ligand in the pretreated mice. Consistent with previous physiological modeling with TCDD in different mouse strains, the primary factor influencing the liver/fat concentration ratio appears to be the affinity and capacity of the microsomal TCDD-binding proteins, which are altered by induction.

  11. Molecular interconversion of cold-sensitive cytosolic 3,3',5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine-binding proteins from human erythrocytes: effect of cold, heat and pH treatments.

    PubMed

    Fanjul, A N; Farías, R N

    1993-03-01

    Cytosolic 3,3',5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine-binding proteins (CTBP I, II and IV species) from human red blood cells undergo rapid loss of activity at low temperatures. Cold treatment of CTBPs was accompanied by dissociation of the polymeric protein to the 60 kDa inactive monomer. Re-activation of the cold-inactivated CTBP IV by warming resulted in association of the monomer to the active polymeric form. A similar association-dissociation phenomenon was also obtained isothermically, though pH changes. We conclude that CTBP I and CTBP II are polymeric forms of CTBP IV. PMID:8452548

  12. Preparation of 1,7- and 3,9-dideazapurines from 2-amino-3-iodo- and 3-amino-4-iodopyridines and activated acetylenes by conjugate addition and copper-catalyzed intramolecular arylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Back, Thomas G

    2014-11-21

    The conjugate addition of N-formyl derivatives of 2-amino-3-iodo- and 3-amino-4-iodopyridines to acetylenes activated by sulfone, ester, or ketone groups, followed by intramolecular arylation, affords variously substituted 1,7- and 3,9-dideazapurines. The method employs DMF-water as the solvent and copper(II) acetate as the catalyst for the cyclization step. Neither added ligands nor the exclusion of oxygen is necessary. The process therefore provides a simple, convenient, and inexpensive route to this biologically interesting class of products. PMID:25333726

  13. Synthesis of novel 17-(5'-iodo)triazolyl-3-methoxyestrane epimers via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditon, and an evaluation of their cytotoxic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gyula; Görbe, Tamás; Mernyák, Erzsébet; Wölfling, János; Holczbauer, Tamás; Czugler, Mátyás; Sohár, Pál; Minorics, Renáta; Zupkó, István

    2015-06-01

    The regioselective Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 3-methoxyestrane 17α- and 17β-azide epimers (3 and 5) with different terminal alkynes afforded novel 1,4-substituted triazolyl derivatives (8a-f and 11a-f). If the Ph3P in the classical CuAAC process was replaced by Et3N, the formation of small quantities of 5-iodotriazoles (9a-f and 11a-f) was observed. For the preparation of 5-iodo-1,2,3-triazoles (9a-f and 11a-f), an improved method was developed, directly from steroidal azides and terminal alkynes, in reactions mediated by CuI and ICl as iodinating agents. The antiproliferative activities of the structurally related triazoles were determined in vitro with the microculture tetrazolium assay on six malignant human cell lines of gynecological origin (HeLa, A2780, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361 and T47D). X-ray analysis revealed the presence of the iodo substituent on the 1,2,3-triazole ring. PMID:25732071

  14. In Vivo Differences between Two Optical Isomers of Radioiodinated o-iodo-trans-decalinvesamicol for Use as a Radioligand for the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Izumi; Kozaka, Takashi; Miwa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yoji; Azim, Mohammad Anwar-ul; Ogawa, Kazuma; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo; Shiba, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a superior VAChT imaging probe for SPECT, radiolabeled (-)-OIDV and (+)-OIDV were isolated and investigated for differences in their binding affinity and selectivity to VAChT, as well as their in vivo activities. Procedures Radioiodinated o-iodo-trans-decalinvesamicol ([125I]OIDV) has a high binding affinity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) both in vitro and in vivo. Racemic [125I]OIDV was separated into its two optical isomers (-)-[125I]OIDV and (+)-[125I]OIDV by HPLC. To investigate VAChT binding affinity (Ki) of two OIDV isomers, in vitro binding assays were performed. In vivo biodistribution study of each [125I]OIDV isomer in blood, brain regions and major organs of rats was performed at 2,30 and 60 min post-injection. In vivo blocking study were performed to reveal the binding selectivity of two [125I]OIDV isomers to VAChT in vivo. Ex vivo autoradiography were performed to reveal the regional brain distribution of two [125I]OIDV isomers and (-)-[123I]OIDV for SPECT at 60 min postinjection. Results VAChT binding affinity (Ki) of (-)-[125I]OIDV and (+)-[125I]OIDV was 22.1 nM and 79.0 nM, respectively. At 2 min post-injection, accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV was the same as that of (+)-[125I]OIDV. However, (+)-[125I]OIDV clearance from the brain was faster than (-)-[125I]OIDV. At 30 min post-injection, accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV (0.62 ± 0.10%ID/g) was higher than (+)-[125I]OIDV (0.46 ± 0.07%ID/g) in the cortex. Inhibition of OIDV binding showed that (-)-[125I]OIDV was selectively accumulated in regions known to express VAChT in the rat brain, and ex vivo autoradiography further confirmed these results showing similar accumulation of (-)-[125I]OIDV in these regions. Furthermore, (-)-[123I]OIDV for SPECT showed the same regional brain distribution as (-)-[125I]OIDV. Conclusion These results suggest that radioiodinated (-)-OIDV may be a potentially useful tool for studying presynaptic cholinergic neurons in the brain. PMID

  15. Experimental and ab Initio Study of Catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I)) under Pressure: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Electronic, and Luminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Aguirrechu-Comerón, Amagoia; Hernández-Molina, Rita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Plácida; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Ulises R; Lavín, Vı́ctor; Angel, Ross J; Gonzalez-Platas, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Copper(I) iodine compounds can exhibit interesting mechanochromic and thermochromic luminescent properties with important technological applications. We report the synthesis and structure determination by X-ray diffraction of a new polymeric staircase copper(I) iodine compound catena(bis(μ2-iodo)-6-methylquinoline-copper(I), [C10H9CuIN]. The structure is composed of isolated polymeric staircase chains of copper-iodine coordinated to organic ligands through Cu-N bonds. High pressure X-ray diffraction to 6.45 GPa shows that the material is soft, with a bulk modulus K0 = 10.2(2)GPa and a first derivative K'0 = 8.1(3), typical for organometallic compounds. The unit-cell compression is very anisotropic with the stiffest direction [302] arising from a combination of the stiff CuI ladders and the shear of the planar quinolone ligands over one another. Full structure refinements at elevated pressures show that pressures reduce the Cu···Cu distances in the compound. This effect is detected in luminescence spectra with the appearance of four sub-bands at 515, 600, 647, and 712 nm above 3.5 GPa. Red-shifts are observed, and they are tentatively associated with interactions between copper(I) ions due to the shortening of the Cu···Cu distances induced by pressure, below twice the van der Waals limit (2.8 Å). Additionally, ab initio simulations were performed, and they confirmed the structure and the results obtained experimentally for the equation of state. The simulation allowed the band structure and the electronic density of states of this copper(I) iodine complex to be determined. In particular, the band gap decreases slowly with pressure in a quadratic way with dEg/dP = -0.011 eV/GPa and d(2)Eg/dP(2) = 0.001 eV/GPa(2). PMID:27429246

  16. 1-Iodo­triptycene

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Richard; McCleland, Cedric; Scheffer, André

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C20H13I, is a halogenated derivative of triptycene. The mol­ecule shows crystallographic as well as non-crystallographic C 3 symmetry. The asymmetric unit comprises one third of the mol­ecule. Dispersive I⋯I contacts [I⋯I = 3.6389 (3) Å] connect the mol­ecules into dimers. The shortest centroid–centroid distance between two π-systems is 3.8403 (12) Å. PMID:22058974

  17. Severe poisoning after self-reported use of 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, a novel substituted amphetamine: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hieger, M A; Rose, S R; Cumpston, K L; Stromberg, P E; Miller, S; Wills, B K

    2015-12-01

    Significant toxicity from amphetamine and cathinone derivatives is being increasingly reported. We describe a series of self-reported exposures to 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25-I-NBOME or 25-I), a novel amphetamine derivative. Ten patients with an average age of 17 years presented to local emergency departments (EDs) in our community after ingestion and/or insufflation of a drug referred to as "25-I." Of 10 patients, 6 reported taking 25-I alone; other substances included ethanol; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine; marijuana; and ketamine. Most common effects included tachycardia (90%), hypertension (70%), agitation (60%), and hallucinations (50%). The average heart rate was 123 beats per minute. Two patients were found in status epilepticus, and another was found unresponsive. One patient who had a seizure had multiple, discrete intraparenchymal hemorrhages and acute kidney injury. Six patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, two were treated in the ED and released, and 1 each was admitted to psychiatry or managed in a clinical decision unit and subsequently discharged. Three patients required emergent intubation, and all admitted patients (7/10) were given intravenous benzodiazepines for sedation. Urine and blood specimens were obtained from 1 patient, which showed analytic confirmation of 25-I. In addition to sympathomimetic effects, methoxy and other substituent groups impart serotonergic effects, resulting in hallucinogenic properties. 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine appears to be extremely potent with a reported "dose" of 500 μg resulting in increased potential for inadvertent overdose. This case series describes significant morbidity in a local cluster of young patients after self-reported use of 25-I, a newly identified drug of abuse.

  18. Severe poisoning after self-reported use of 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, a novel substituted amphetamine: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hieger, M A; Rose, S R; Cumpston, K L; Stromberg, P E; Miller, S; Wills, B K

    2015-12-01

    Significant toxicity from amphetamine and cathinone derivatives is being increasingly reported. We describe a series of self-reported exposures to 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25-I-NBOME or 25-I), a novel amphetamine derivative. Ten patients with an average age of 17 years presented to local emergency departments (EDs) in our community after ingestion and/or insufflation of a drug referred to as "25-I." Of 10 patients, 6 reported taking 25-I alone; other substances included ethanol; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine; marijuana; and ketamine. Most common effects included tachycardia (90%), hypertension (70%), agitation (60%), and hallucinations (50%). The average heart rate was 123 beats per minute. Two patients were found in status epilepticus, and another was found unresponsive. One patient who had a seizure had multiple, discrete intraparenchymal hemorrhages and acute kidney injury. Six patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, two were treated in the ED and released, and 1 each was admitted to psychiatry or managed in a clinical decision unit and subsequently discharged. Three patients required emergent intubation, and all admitted patients (7/10) were given intravenous benzodiazepines for sedation. Urine and blood specimens were obtained from 1 patient, which showed analytic confirmation of 25-I. In addition to sympathomimetic effects, methoxy and other substituent groups impart serotonergic effects, resulting in hallucinogenic properties. 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine appears to be extremely potent with a reported "dose" of 500 μg resulting in increased potential for inadvertent overdose. This case series describes significant morbidity in a local cluster of young patients after self-reported use of 25-I, a newly identified drug of abuse. PMID:25983267

  19. Postmortem detection of 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine] in fluids and tissues determined by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry from a traumatic death.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Devers, Kelly G; Arbefeville, Elise F; Pearson, Julia M; Houston, Eric; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    We present a traumatic fatality of a 19-year-old man who had ingested blotter paper containing 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine]. Postmortem specimens were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Toxicology findings for fluids based upon blood or urine calibrators were as follows: peripheral blood, 405 pg/mL; heart blood, 410 pg/mL; urine, 2.86 ng/mL; and vitreous humor, 99 pg/mL. While findings based upon the method of standard additions were: gastric contents, 7.1 μg total; bile, 10.9 ng/g; brain, 2.54 ng/g and liver, 7.2 ng/g. To our knowledge the presented case is the first postmortem case of 25I-NBOMe intoxication documented by toxicological analysis of tissues and body fluids.

  20. Postmortem detection of 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine] in fluids and tissues determined by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry from a traumatic death

    PubMed Central

    Poklis, Justin L.; Devers, Kelly G.; Arbefeville, Elise F.; Pearson, Julia M.; Houston, Eric; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    We present a traumatic fatality of a 19-year-old man who had ingested blotter paper containing 25INBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine]. Postmortem specimens were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Toxicology findings for fluids based upon blood or urine calibrators were as follows: peripheral blood, 405 pg/mL; heart blood, 410 pg/mL; urine, 2.86 ng/mL; and vitreous humor, 99 pg/mL. While findings based upon the method of standard additions were: gastric contents, 7.1 μg total; bile, 10.9 ng/g; brain, 2.54 ng/g and liver, 7.2 ng/g. To our knowledge the presented case is the first postmortem case of 25I-NBOMe intoxication documented by toxicological analysis of tissues and body fluids. PMID:24215811

  1. Synthesis and structure-affinity relationships of new 4-(6-iodo-H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-2-yl)-N-dimethylbenzeneamine derivatives as ligands for human beta-amyloid plaques.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lisheng; Cuevas, Jessica; Temme, Sebastian; Herman, Mary M; Dagostin, Claudio; Widdowson, David A; Innis, Robert B; Pike, Victor W

    2007-09-20

    A new and extensive set of 4-(6-iodo-H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-2-yl)-N-dimethylbenzeneamine (IMPY) derivatives was synthesized and assayed for affinity toward human Abeta plaques. 6-Ethylthio- (12h), 6-cyano- (12e), 6-nitro- (12f), and 6-p-methoxybenzylthio- (15d) analogues were discovered to have high affinity (KI < 10 nM). However, introduction of a hydrophilic thioether group in the 6-position (15a-c, 15e-g) reduced or abolished affinity. In secondary N-methyl analogues, a bromo substituent in the adjacent ring position (14a) imparted high affinity (KI = 7.4 nM) whereas a methyl substituent did not (14c). The tolerance for nonhydrophilic thioether substituents in the 6-position opens up the possibility of developing new sensitive positron emission tomography radioligands for imaging human Abeta plaques in Alzheimer's disease, especially in view of the amenability of thioethers to be labeled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 through S-alkylation reactions. The structure-activity relationships revealed in this study extends insight into the topography of the binding site for IMPY-like ligands in human Abeta plaques. PMID:17722900

  2. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  3. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  4. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena.

  5. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena. PMID:16341914

  6. Universal Monitor (UM) for OTEC compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    Universal Monitor (UM), is a device-independent concept to measure, with precision, the initiation and progression of fouling in any given OTEC Compact Heat Exchanger model with or without the application of countermeasures. Design description and supporting analyses for the Universal Monitor for OTEC Compact Heat Exchangers are presented.

  7. Paleozoic vertical movements in Um Bogma area, southwestern Sinai

    SciTech Connect

    Beyth, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Wadi Khaboba-Gebel Nukhul high, in the Um Bogma area of southwestern Sinai, underwent a small-scale uplift-subsidence cycle during the Paleozoic. The trend of this structure is close to and almost parallel with the Suez rift, indicating that the young rift is related to older structures.

  8. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  9. Synthesis, in vitro pharmacologic characterization, and preclinical evaluation of N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]-3-[125I]iodo-4-methoxybenzamide (P[125I]MBA) for imaging breast cancer.

    PubMed

    John, C S; Bowen, W D; Fisher, S J; Lim, B B; Geyer, B C; Vilner, B J; Wahl, R L

    1999-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential use of a radioiodinated benzamide, N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]-3-iodo[125I]-4-methoxybenzamide (P[125I]MBA), a sigma receptor binding radioligand for imaging breast cancer. The chemical and radiochemical syntheses of PIMBA are described. The pharmacological evaluation of PIMBA was carried out for sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptor sites. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the radioiodinated benzamide were determined in rats and comparison of P[125I]MBA with Tc-99m sestamibi were made in a rat mammary tumor model. Sigma-1 affinity (Ki) for PIMBA in guinea pig brain membranes using [3H](+)pentazocine was found to be 11.82 +/- 0.68 nM, whereas sigma-2 affinity in rat liver using [3H]DTG (1,3-o-di-tolylguanidine) was 206 +/- 11 nM. Sites in guinea pig brain membranes labeled by P[125I]MBA showed high affinity for haloperidol, (+)-pentazocine, BD1008, and PIMBA (Ki = 4.87 +/- 1.49, 8.81 +/- 1.97, 0.057 +/- 0.005, 46.9 +/- 1.8 nM, respectively). Competition binding studies were carried out in human ductal breast carcinoma cells (T47D). A dose-dependent inhibition of specific binding was observed with several sigma ligands. Ki values for the inhibition of P[125I]MBA binding in T47D cells for haloperidol, N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)]ethyl]4-iodobenzamide (IPAB), N-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-4-iodobenzamide (4-IBP), and PIMBA were found to be 1.30 +/- 0.07, 13 +/- 1.5, 5.19 +/- 2.3, 1.06 +/- 0.5 nM, respectively. The in vitro binding data in guinea pig brain membranes and breast cancer cells confirmed binding to sigma sites. The saturation binding of P[125I]MBA in T47D cells as studied by Scatchard analysis showed saturable binding, with a Kd = 94 +/- 7 nM and a Bmax = 2035 +/- 305 fmol/mg of proteins. Biodistribution studies in Sprague-Dawley rats showed a rapid clearance of P[125I]MBA from the normal organs. The potential of PIMBA in imaging breast cancer was evaluated in Lewis rats bearing syngeneic RMT breast cancers, a cancer that

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of Two 18F-Labeled 6-Iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Derivatives as Prospective Radioligands for β-Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lisheng; Chin, Frederick T.; Pike, Victor W.; Toyama, Hiroshi; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Modell, Kendra; Briard, Emmanuelle; Shetty, H. Umesha; Sinclair, Kathryn; Donohue, Sean; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Kung, Mei-Ping; Dagostin, Claudio; Widdowson, David A.; Green, Michael; Gao, Weiyi; Herman, Mary M.; Ichise, Masanori; Innis, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated 18F-labeled IMPY [6-iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine] derivatives as agents for imaging β-amyloid plaque with positron emission tomography (PET). The precursor for radiolabeling and reference compounds was synthesized in up to five steps from commercially accessible starting materials. One of the two N-methyl groups of IMPY was substituted with either a 3-fluoropropyl (FPM-IMPY) or a 2-fluoroethyl (FEM-IMPY) group. FPM-IMPY and FEM-IMPY were found to have moderate affinity for Aβ- aggregates with Ki = 27 ± 8 and 40 ± 5 nM, respectively. A “one-pot” method for 18F-2-fluoroethylation and 18F-3-fluoropropylation of the precursor was developed. The overall decay-corrected radiochemical yields were 26–51%. In PET experiments with normal mouse, high uptake of activity was obtained in the brain after iv injection of each probe: 6.4% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY at 1.2 min, and 5.7% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY at 0.8 min. These values were similar to those of [123I/125I]IMPY (7.2% ID/g at 2 min). Polar and nonpolar radioactive metabolites were observed in both plasma and brain homogenates after injection of [18F]FEM or [18F]FPM-IMPY. In contrast to the single-exponential washout of [123I/125I]IMPY, the washouts of brain activity for the two fluorinated analogues were biphasic, with an initial rapid phase over 20 min and a subsequent much slower phase. Residual brain activity at 2 h, which may represent polar metabolites trapped in the brain, was 4.5% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY and 2.1% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY. Substantial skull uptake of [18F]fluoride was also clearly observed. With a view to slow the metabolism of [18F]FEM-IMPY, an analogue was prepared with deuteriums substituted for the four ethyl hydrogens. However, D4-[18F]FEM-IMPY showed the same brain uptake and clearance as the protio analogue. Metabolism of the [18F]FEM-IMPY was appreciably slower in rhesus monkey than in mouse. Autoradiography of postmortem brain sections

  11. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  12. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  13. Crystal structures of 1-bromo-3,5-bis­(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)benzene 0.15-hydrate and 3,5-bis­(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-1-iodo­benzene

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Timo; Hoffmann, Frank; Fröba, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The bromo and iodo derivatives of a meta-bis­(1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)-substituted benzene, C16H19BrN2O2·0.15H2O (1) and C16H19IN2O2 (2), have been prepared and studied in terms of their mol­ecular and crystal structures. While the former crystallizes as a sub-hydrate, with 0.15 formula units of water and shows an almost all-planar arrangement of the three ring systems, the latter crystallizes solvate-free with the flanking heterocycles twisted considerably with respect to the central arene. Non-covalent contacts include parallel-displaced π–π inter­actions and (non-classical) hydrogen bonding for both (1) and (2), as well as relatively short I⋯N contacts for (2). PMID:26594388

  14. Nerves and psychosomatic illness: the case of Um Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L

    1989-01-01

    Belief in the unity of mind and body among poor working class women in metropolitan Cairo is exemplified by the "state of being upset." The Egyptian women of this study use physical symptoms that they believe derive from emotional causes to negotiate and give meaning to relationships with neighbors, friends, and relatives; to jockey for power; to fill emotional needs; to manage presentation of self; and to weave the political fabric of interpersonal life. A detailed case study of Um Ramadan, a woman whose misuse by her husband made her nerfiza, illustrates the relationship between emotional upset and physical illness and the use of psychosomatic illness to gain sympathy and exact revenge. The expression of Um Ramadan's symptoms is further analyzed in terms of the underlying cultural constraints placed on Muslim women and the tensions inherent in local gender role relations.

  15. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  16. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  17. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  18. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  19. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, & First U.M. Church-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  20. Resolution and in vitro and initial in vivo evaluation of isomers of iodine-125-labeled 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-alpha-phenylacetate: a high-affinity ligand for the muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    McPherson, D W; Lambert, C R; Jahn, K; Sood, V; McRee, R C; Zeeberg, B; Reba, R C; Knapp, F F

    1995-09-29

    1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)- alpha-phenylacetate (IQNP, 1), is a highly selective ligand for the muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor (mAChR). There are eight stereoisomers in the racemic mixture. The optical isomers of alpha-hydroxy-alpha-phenyl-alpha-(1-propyn-3-yl)acetic acid were resolved as the alpha-methylbenzylamine salts, and the optical isomers of 3-quinuclidinol were resolved as the tartrate salts. The E and Z isomers were prepared by varying the reaction conditions for the stannylation of the triple bond followed by purification utilizing flash column chromatography. In vitro binding assay of the four stereoisomers containing the (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinyl ester demonstrated that each isomer of 1 bound to mAChR with high affinity. In addition, (E)-(-)-(-)-IQNP demonstrated the highest receptor subtype specificity between the m1 molecular subtype (KD, nM, 0.383 +/- 0.102) and the m2 molecular subtype (29.6 +/- 9.70). In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that iodine-125-labeled (E)-(-)-(+)-1 cleared rapidly from the brain and heart. In contrast, iodine-125-labeled (E)-(-)-(-)-, (Z)-(-)-(-)-, and (Z)-(-)-(+)-1 have high uptake and retention in mAChR rich areas of the brain. It was also observed that (E)-(-)-(-)-IQNP demonstrated an apparent subtype selectivity in vivo with retention in M1 (m1, m4) mAChR areas of the rain. In addition, (Z)-(-)-(-)-IQNP also demonstrated significant uptake in tissues containing the M2 (m2) mAChR subtype. These results demonstrate that the iodine-123-labeled analogues of the (E)-(-)-(-)- and (Z)-(-)-(-)-IQNP isomers are attractive candidates for single-photon emission-computed tomographic imaging of cerebral and cardiac mAChR receptor densities.

  1. 31.5um imaging observations of AGN using SOFIA/FORCAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Lindsay; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Packham, Christopher C.; Los Piratas Team

    2016-01-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGN) requires a toroidal region of optically and geometrically thick dust obscuring a central engine, accounting for various observed spectral features. Our aim is to investigate the overall torus properties to obtain analytical results for its physical parameters. We present 31.5um photometric observations of 12 nearby Seyfert galaxies from the 2.5m SOFIA telescope using the FORCAST camera. We used Clumpy torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the IR (1.2-31.5um) nuclear SEDs and high angular resolution mid-IR (8-13um) spectroscopy. We found that the turnover of the torus emission does not occur at wavelengths <31.5um, which we interpret as a lower-limit for the peak torus emission. Including the 31.5um nuclear flux 1) reduces the dispersion of Clumpy torus models at wavelengths >30um, which better constrains the model parameters, 2) generally decreases the radial extent of the torus. We find torus radii ranging from ~1 - 8.5pc, with an average radius of 2.6pc, which is consistent with interferometric and high-spatial resolution observations.

  2. Spectroscopy of JVI Himalia for detection and characterization of the 3 um water band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    We aim at securely detecting and characterizing the presence of the 3um band for the first time in the reflectance spectrum of a Jovian irregular satellite. Features in the 3um band can unambiguously reveal water ice or past aqueous alteration of the surface material that lead to bound water molecules and hydroxyl groups in minerals. Water ice and hydrated minerals are ubiquitous in the Jovian system and have been found on Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and the inner regular satellite JV Amalthea. In contrast to these neighboring satellites and to two irregular satellites that have been studied at Saturn and Neptune, a detection of water (previously or currently present) on a Jovian irregular satellite has not yet been succeeded due to constraints of ground-based observatories. No dedicated spacecraft mission to the Jovian system has allowed to study them close-up. Their very low albedos and small diameters only allow ground-based spectroscopy up to 2.5um for very few objects. The strong telluric absorption band of the atmosphere between 2.55-2.85um and the increasing IR-background beyond 2.85um makes ground-based spectroscopy for these very faint objects impossible. SOFIA has the unique capability to overcome these limits. Flitecam provides enough sensitivity to conduct spectroscopic investigations between 2.6-3.5um of the largest object of the Jovian irregular satellite population, JVI Himalia. Supplementary high quality spectral data from 0.65-2.55um has already been acquired by Schindler and Reddy using SpeX on NASA IRTF. Three indicators strongly suggest the presence of the 3um band: A shallow absorption feature around 1.1um attributed to magnetite, a weak feature around 0.7 um attributed to phyllosillicates and an average heliocentric distance of 5.2AU where water ice is thought to be stable throughout the history of the Solar System. The results of this study will greatly contribute to understand the origin and history of these objects.

  3. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um. PMID:26844976

  4. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Churchdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Church-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1.1-2.4um spectra of 7 young M and L dwarfs (Manjavacas+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Bonnefoy, M.; Schlieder, J. E.; Allard, F.; Rojo, P.; Goldman, B.; Chauvin, G.; Homeier, D.; Lodieu, N.; Henning, T.

    2014-02-01

    Our targets were observed with the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) ath the UT3 telescope. The instrument was operated in low-resolution mode with the 0.3" slit at central wavelengths 1.25um, 1.65um, and 2.2um. This setup provides spectra with resolving powers of ~1700, 1600, and 1500 from 1.1-1.4um (J band), 1.42-1.82um (H band), and 1.82-2.5um (K band). (2 data files).

  6. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Baeza-Montañez, Lourdes; García-Pedrajas, María D; Tapia-Moreno, Alejandro; Gold, Scott; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2012-05-20

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used to understand the mechanisms governing this differentiation process. In this study we used suppression subtractive hybridization to generate a cDNA library of U. maydis genes up-regulated in the filamentous form induced in vitro at acid pH. Expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the induction of two unigenes identified in this library coincided with the establishment of filamentous growth in the acid pH medium. This expression pattern suggested that they were specifically associated to hyphal development rather than merely acid pH-induced genes. One of these genes, UmRrm75, encodes a protein containing three RNA recognition motifs and glycine-rich repeats and was selected for further study. The UmRrm75 gene contains 4 introns, and produces a splicing variant by a 3'-alternative splicing site within the third exon. Mutants deleted for UmRrm75 showed a slower growth rate than wild type strains in liquid and solid media, and their colonies showed a donut-like morphology on solid medium. Interestingly, although ΔUmRrm75 strains were not affected in filamentous growth induced by acid pH and oleic acid, they exhibited reduced mating, post-mating filamentous growth and virulence. Our data suggest that UmRrm75 is probably involved in cell growth, morphogenesis, and pathogenicity in U. maydis.

  7. 5-Iodo-3-phenyl-2,1-benzoxazole.

    PubMed

    Teslenko, Yuriy; Matiychuk, Vasyl S; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Lis, Tadeusz; Obushak, Mykola D

    2013-04-01

    The title compound, C13H8INO, was prepared by a condensation reaction of 4-nitro-benzene with phenyl-acetonitrile in NaOH-ethanol solution. There are two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, in which the dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the benzoisoxazole unit are 4.2 (3) and 4.1 (3)°. The crystal packing is governed by C-H⋯N, C-I⋯π and C-I⋯O inter-actions.

  8. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  9. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  10. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  11. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  12. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  13. The UM-Dearborn Observatory: Variable-object Research from an Urban Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, Elisabeth; Clarkson, William I.; Rasmussen, Eric J; Bord, Donald J.; Dage, Kristen; Matzke, David; Swift, Carrie

    2014-06-01

    Since its construction in 2007, the UM-Dearborn Observatory has provided a valuable educational tool both for students at UM-Dearborn and our neighbor-institution the Henry Ford Community College, and for the public at-large. We have recently (Jan 2014) added a systematic long-term research program with our 0.4m main telescope, to photometrically monitor a number of bright variable objects, including X-ray binaries and chemically-peculiar metal-poor stars over long timescales. We ultimately envision assembling a photometric database of (at least) four-color photometry over years-decades (i.e., many hundreds of orbital timescales for close binaries), with the preponderance of datapoints taken by undergraduates. To conduct this program, we have had to overcome a number of site challenges, the solutions of which will be useful to many programs using small telescopes at urban sites. The 0.4m telescope lies on a shared building within UM-Dearborn's main Fairlane campus - i.e., is about 20 meters above sea level, near several sources of water vapor (including an active steam vent less than 15 meters away), experiences significant mechanical vibrations from other building functions, and lies about 6 miles from central Detroit, well within the Detroit-Ann Arbor conurbation. Observing conditions are thus highly variable, with 5 arcsecond seeing typical and significant transparency variations observed even during a clear night. Nevertheless, we are now able to make scientifically useful observations in a semi-automatic way, to which our chosen scientific niche is well-suited. We present here our solutions to these challenges, along with initial results from our ongoing monitoring program.

  14. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  15. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  16. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800246

  17. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10−13 and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  19. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  20. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  1. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. PMID:27514485

  2. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  3. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    PubMed

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good.

  4. Dual graphs realized in the compounds di-{mu}{sub 3}-4-mercaptopyridine catena-di-{mu}{sub 2}-iodo-di-{mu}{sub 3}-iodo-{mu}{sub 4}-iodo penta copper(I) and di-{mu}{sub 3}-4-mercaptopyridine-di-catena-iodo-di-{mu}{sub 3}-iodo tri copper(I)

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian, Ehsan; Lidin, Sven

    2010-11-15

    Two compounds, [Cu5I5](SNC5H4)2 [i] and [Cu3I3](SNC5H4)2 [ii], were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and the crystal structures were solved. Both compounds crystallized in space group I41/a. The iodide and the sulphur from mercaptopyridine are connected to copper atom, giving the copper atoms tetrahedral coordination geometry. The pyridine end of the organic moiety is non-bonding and fills the empty space around the tetrahedra formed from copper, sulphur and iodide. - Graphical Abstract: A comparison of the central core in both compounds. Display Omitted

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A dust model for bet Pic from 0.58 to 870um (Ballering+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, N. P.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Gaspar, A.

    2016-08-01

    β Pic was imaged with the HST/STIS CCD in coronagraphic (50CORON) mode under program GO-12551 (PI: Apai), and the results of these observations were published in Apai et al. (2015ApJ...800..136A). The instrument bandpass is set by the response of the CCD and centered at 0.58um. We searched the HST archive and found previously unpublished observations of β Pic with the WFC3 instrument in the IR channel (filter F110W at ~1.16um) from program GO-11150 (PI: Graham). The Spitzer/MIPS observations of β Pic were taken under the Spitzer Guaranteed Time Observing Program 90 (PI: M. Werner). The data at all three bands (24, 70, and 160um) are published here for the first time. Two sets of 24um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 March 20, the second set of data was obtained on 2004 April 11. Two sets of 70um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 April 12. The second set was obtained on 2005 April 4. Herschel/PACS 70um scan map observations of β Pic (PI G. Olofsson, observation IDs 1342186612 and 1342186613) were published by Vandenbussche et al. (2010A&A...518L.133V). We used the ALMA 870um continuum image previously published by Dent et al. (2014Sci...343.1490D). (1 data file).

  6. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  9. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  10. The response of chemistry and climate to the 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Ewa; Telford, Paul; Maycock, Amanda; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    It is now generally agreed that the UV variability associated with the 11-year solar cycle leads to changes in ozone and temperature in the upper stratosphere. In addition, a range of observational and modelling studies suggest that such changes are the starting point for a chain of processes (including feedbacks) resulting in circulation changes in many areas of the atmosphere. However, precise details of the interactions between chemistry and meteorology induced by solar variability remain under question. In our study, we use a version of the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with consistent spectrally-resolved solar variability. While the solar cycle in heating rates has been applied with the method used in HadGEM2-ES, fine spectrally-resolved solar variability has been uniquely incorporated into the Fast-JX photolysis scheme. We perform two 50-year-long perpetual year solar maximum and solar minimum integrations and complement them with a three member ensemble of a transient 1960-2010 integration in which boundary conditions correspond by and large to the CCMI Ref-C1 scenario. We show how the inferred solar signals vary between the individual experiments. This indicates high natural variability and the resulting contamination of the solar signal with contributions from other processes as well as the existence of possible non-linearities between the solar cycle and other atmospheric forcings. Therefore, we highlight that long data series are needed to ensure correct attribution of the modelled and observed anomalies. In addition, we present results from two perpetual year experiments in which the solar cycle was applied exclusively in either short-wave heating or photolysis. We find large non-linearities in the modelled anomalies as compared to the realistic integration with both modulations included. This highlights the subtle nature of the dynamical response to the solar cycle forcing and indicates the need for interactive chemistry with a detailed photolysis

  11. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  12. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  13. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  14. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  15. UM-SCC-104: a new human papillomavirus-16 containing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice L.; Davis, Samantha J.; Owen, John H.; Graham, Martin P.; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Park, Jung Je; Walline, Heather; Stoerker, Jay; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Chepeha, Douglas; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines exist. We established UM-SCC-104, a new HPV(+) HNSCC cell linefrom a recurrent oral cavity tumor, and characterized it for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). METHODS Tumor cells were tested for biomarker expression by immunohistology and the presence of HPV was assessed by several methods. RESULTS UM-SCC-104 has a unique genotype, contains HPV-16 and expresses E6/E7. Inoculation of (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase) ALDH(+) and ALDH(−) cells in an immunocompromised mouse resulted in tumor growth from the ALDH(+) cells after 6 weeks that recapitulated the histology of the primary, while ALDH(−) cells did not produce tumors. CONCLUSIONS UM-SCC-104, a new HPV-16, CSC-containing HNSCC cell line will aid in studying recurrent HPV(+) tumors. The aggressive nature of this tumor is consistent with high uniform expression of EGFR and a functionally significant proportion of ALDH(+) CSC. PMID:22162267

  16. User's manual (UM) for the enhanced logistics intratheater support tool (ELIST) database utility segment version 8.1.0.0 for solaris 7.

    SciTech Connect

    Dritz, K.

    2002-03-06

    This document is the User's Manual (UM) for the Enhanced Logistics Intratheater Support Tool (ELIST) Database Utility Segment. It tells how to use its features to administer ELIST database user accounts.

  17. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  18. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  19. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  20. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  1. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  2. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points

  3. The short form of the recombinant CAL-A-type lipase UM03410 from the smut fungus Ustilago maydis exhibits an inherent trans-fatty acid selectivity.

    PubMed

    Brundiek, Henrike; Saß, Stefan; Evitt, Andrew; Kourist, Robert; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-04-01

    The Ustilago maydis lipase UM03410 belongs to the mostly unexplored Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-A) subfamily. The two lipases with [corrected] the highest identity are a lipase from Sporisorium reilianum and the prototypic CAL-A. In contrast to the other CAL-A-type lipases, this hypothetical U. maydis lipase is annotated to possess a prolonged N-terminus of unknown function. Here, we show for the first time the recombinant expression of two versions of lipase UM03410: the full-length form (lipUMf) and an Nterminally truncated form (lipUMs). For comparison to the prototype, the expression of recombinant CAL-A in E. coli was investigated. Although both forms of lipase UM03410 could be expressed functionally in E. coli, the N-terminally truncated form (lipUMs) demonstrated significantly higher activities towards p-nitrophenyl esters. The functional expression of the N-terminally truncated lipase was further optimized by the appropriate choice of the E. coli strain, lowering the cultivation temperature to 20 °C and enrichment of the cultivation medium with glucose. Primary characteristics of the recombinant lipase are its pH optimum in the range of 6.5-7.0 and its temperature optimum at 55 °C. As is typical for lipases, lipUM03410 shows preference for long chain fatty acid esters with myristic acid ester (C14:0 ester) being the most preferred one.More importantly, lipUMs exhibits an inherent preference for C18:1Δ9 trans and C18:1Δ11 trans-fatty acid esters similar to CAL-A. Therefore, the short form of this U. maydis lipase is the only other currently known lipase with a distinct trans-fatty acid selectivity.

  4. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid metamorphic complex, Sinai, Egypt: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Zaky

    2013-08-01

    The Um Zariq and Malhaq formations occupy roughly the northern half of the Kid metamorphic complex of SE Sinai, in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an old sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813 ± 6 Ma), whereas the Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma). The Um Zariq Formation is mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists, while the Malhaq Formation comprises a series of structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded with mica-rich phyllites and schists. The Um Zariq metasediments are depleted in SiO2, CaO and K2O and enriched in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of the Malhaq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. The source rocks of the Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of the Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq Formation metasediments. They are collectively geochemically immature and have suffered minor sedimentary recycling, with the experience of the Malhaq Formation metasediments from higher degree of sorting and reworking. The Malhaq and Um Zariq metasediments were originally deposited in a continental arc setting, most probably back

  5. Quantitation of deposition, clearance and routes of elimination of 3 um insoluble particles in the sheep lung

    SciTech Connect

    Langenback, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    This study is the first to completely determine the number of particles deposited in the lung, the number of particles cleared over a period of a hundred days and the pathways by which the particles exit the lungs. The study uses long lived radioactively (/sup 57/Co) tagged 3 um insoluble polystyrene particles to follow clearance in a sheep animal model. Particle clearance was characterized by 4 phases. Periodic sacrifice and autopsy showed no particle accumulation in regional lymph nodes draining the lung and no particle accumulation in the liver, spleen or kidneys. Urine and blood samples throughout clearance were devoid of particles, but fecal excretion of particles matched lung elimination of particles and mirrored clearance closely. Thus the avenues of long-term clearance of a 3 um polystrene particle has been established from the alveolar portion of the lung: virtually all particles cleared in 101 days were removed by transport from the alveoli to the mucociliary escalator, either as free particles and/or associated with macrophages and subsequently swallowed and excreted. Particles remaining in the lungs after 101 days continued to be cleared from the lungs via the mucociliary escalator with a t/sub 1/2/ = 38 days. This suggests that particles leave a sequestered state, re-enter the airways and are cleared.

  6. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  7. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505.

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, C; Ohtake, H; Chu, L; Misra, T K; Silver, S

    1990-01-01

    The chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505 was cloned into broad-host-range vector pSUP104. The hybrid plasmid containing an 11.1-kilobase insert conferred chromate resistance and reduced uptake of chromate in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Resistance to chromate was not expressed in Escherichia coli. Contiguous 1.6- and 6.3-kilobase HindIII fragments from this plasmid hybridized to pUM505 but not to P. aeruginosa chromosomal DNA and only weakly to chromate resistance plasmids pLHB1 and pMG6. Further subcloning produced a plasmid with an insert of 2,145 base pairs, which was sequenced. Analysis of deletions revealed that a single open reading frame was sufficient to determine chromate resistance. This open reading frame encodes a highly hydrophobic polypeptide, ChrA, of 416 amino acid residues that appeared to be expressed in E. coli under control of the T7 promoter. No significant homology was found between ChrA and proteins in the amino acid sequence libraries, but 29% amino acid identity was found with the ChrA amino acid sequence for another chromate resistance determinant sequenced in this laboratory from an Alcaligenes eutrophus plasmid (A. Nies, D. Nies, and S. Silver, submitted for publication). Images FIG. 3 FIG. 5 PMID:2152903

  8. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  9. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  10. The challenge and scientific application of the CO2 4.3 um atmospheric limb emission of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Piccialli, A.; Giuranna, M.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A. A.; García-Comas, M.; González-Galindo, F.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Jiménez-Monferrer, S.

    2015-10-01

    The atmospheric fluorescent emissions of CO2 at 4.3- um have been observed in the daytime upper atmosphere of Mars from a limb geometry by the instruments OMEGA and PFS on board Mars Express [1, 8]. Initial analysis using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) models show that the emissions are well understood [7, 3, 6]. Yet they have not been exploited to derive important thermospheric parameters, like CO2 densities and temperatures. Our major goals are to improve current NLTE models with a joint study of OMEGA and PFS data, and to build an ambitious state-of-the-art NLTE retreival scheme for Mars. Recent progress has been made in these directions on Mars, Venus and Earth. We will present a summary of these efforts and the difficulties and expectatives for its application to the Mars Express data

  11. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  12. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  13. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  14. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt: implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Z.

    2013-04-01

    The Kid Metamorphic Complex of SE Sinai represents a thick volcano-sedimentary succession that underwent polyphase deformation and greenschist to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The Malhaq and Um Zariq Formations, the target of this study, occupy roughly the northern half of this complex. The Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma), whereas Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an older sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813±6 Ma). The Malhaq Formation comprises a series of dark gray structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded and intercalated with fine- to medium-grained foliated mica-rich phyllites and schists, while the Um Zariq Formation is a dominantly metasedimentary sequence, mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists. Malhaq metasediments are enriched in SiO2, CaO and K2O and depleted in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of Um Zariq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies in all samples, and general enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. Geochemical investigations have revealed that the source rocks of Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq

  15. Evaluation of high-resolution MetUM and AMPS forecasts of near-surface meteorological variables over Larsen C ice shelf and northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; King, John; Weeks, Mark; Gadian, Alan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Steffen, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution weather forecasts are an important tool for understanding the detailed patterns of surface melt on the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS), Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the skill of UK Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts with horizontal grid spacing of 4-5 km for a 1 month period during January-February 2011 by comparing near-surface model output to automatic weather station measurements at 5 sites on the LCIS and 3 on the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Forecasts for the range 12-24 h showed a fairly homogeneous performance over the LCIS. The 2 m temperature simulated by AMPS has a correlation with observations of 0.5-0.6 and a systematic cold bias of around -1 degrees centigrade. By comparison, the MetUM had a higher correlation and was less negatively biased. The simulated surface pressure has a correlation of 0.99 and small biases in both models. AMPS yielded better results than the MetUM for 10 m wind speed, being able to capture particularly well synoptically-driven high wind speeds which the MetUM systematically underestimated. Both models struggle to simulate the 10 m wind direction when the wind conditions are highly variable. The simulation of specific humidity by both models was poor. Both models showed a general reduction in performance over the northern Antarctic Peninsula compared to the LCIS. Extending the analysis to consider the 12-36 h forecast range demonstrated a relatively weak dependence of model skill to the length of the forecast. The study focuses particularly on the representation of foehn wind events, which are an important contributor to surface melt over the LCIS, by examining additional ~1 km scale forecasts using the MetUM.

  16. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the

  17. Calcareous benthonic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition of Gebel Um El-Ghanayem, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Khalil, Hamza M.

    2014-08-01

    The studies of benthic calcareous foraminifera of the Maastrichtian-early Paleocene Dakhla Formation in Gebel Um El-Ghanayem (Western Desert, Egypt), improve reconstruction of depositional environments of these successions. In total, 68 taxa of benthic foraminifera were identified in the studied succession. The late Maastrichtian assemblages (Zone CF3) are dominated by calcareous foraminifera with tapered tests, this tapered taxon Loxostomum applinae, Lox. tegulatum various dentalinid taxa, and Buliminella cushmani dominate in CF3 Biozone. We thus interpret these faunas as being dominated by infaunal morphogroups, suggesting a moderately eutrophic environment. Danian assemblages are characterized by abundant epifaunal trochospiral species, such as Cibicidoides abudurbensis, Cibicidoides farafraensis, and Gyroidinoides girardanus. The infaunal morphogroups make up 25-47% of fauna in the Danian, in contrast to 62-76% in the Upper Maastrichtian. This dominance of the Danian benthic foraminiferal assemblages by epifaunal or mixed epifaunal/infaunal morphogroups suggests that the food supply to the benthos was less abundant than in the latest Cretaceous. The Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (K/Pg) is within the upper unit of the Lower Kharga Member and marked by a hiatus in at least the top of CF3 Zone of the Upper Maastrichtian to the Lower Paleocene (base Plc Zone).

  18. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  19. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-11-30

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed.

  20. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form.

  1. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  2. The UmGcn5 gene encoding histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis is involved in dimorphism and virulence.

    PubMed

    González-Prieto, Juan Manuel; Rosas-Quijano, Raymundo; Domínguez, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2014-10-01

    We isolated a gene encoding a histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis (DC.) Cda., which is orthologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN5 gene. The gene was isolated from genomic clones identified by their specific hybridization to a gene fragment obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This gene (Umgcn5; um05168) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1421bp that encodes a putative protein of 473 amino acids with a Mr. of 52.6kDa. The protein exhibits a high degree of homology with histone acetyltransferases from different organisms. Null a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were constructed by substitution of the region encoding the catalytic site with a hygromycin B resistance cassette. Null a1b1 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were isolated from genetic crosses of a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 and a1b1 wild-type strains in maize. Mutants displayed a slight reduction in growth rate under different conditions, and were more sensitive than the wild type to stress conditions, but more important, they grew as long mycelial cells, and formed fuzz-like colonies under all conditions where wild-type strains grew in the yeast-like morphology and formed smooth colonies. This phenotype was not reverted by cAMP addition. Mutants were not virulent to maize plants, and were unable to form teliospores. These phenotypic alterations of the mutants were reverted by their transformation with the wild-type gene.

  3. Datação do disco galáctico pela nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; Arany-Prado, L. I.

    2003-08-01

    A nucleocosmocronologia emprega abundâncias de nuclídeos radioativos na datação de escalas de tempo astrofísicas. O 232Th é um nuclídeo radioativo com meia-vida de 14 Gano, enquanto que os dois isótopos mais abundantes do Eu são estáveis. O decaimento radioativo do Th modifica as razões de abundâncias [Th/Eu], fornecendo assim um meio de sondar a escala de formação das populações estelares. O objetivo deste trabalho é averiguar a possibilidade de estimar uma idade para o disco Galáctico através da nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu] e investigar o nível de incerteza associado a esta estimativa. Para tanto, foi selecionada uma amostra de 20 estrelas anãs ou subgigantes de tipos espectrais F5 a G9, com -1,00 £ [Fe/H] £ +0,30 e idade(Gano) £ 13. As abundâncias de Th e Eu foram obtidas por síntese espectral das linhas localizadas em 4019,1 Å e 4129,7 Å, respectivamente. Uma comparação destas abundâncias com outros resultados da literatura demonstra que nossos valores apresentam dispersão 2 a 3 vezes menor que qualquer trabalho anterior. Os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias dos elementos que contaminam as regiões espectrais destas linhas foram determinados por nós, de maneira totalmente autoconsistente, através de análise espectral detalhada diferencial em relação ao Sol. As idades estelares individuais foram determinadas através de curvas isócronas teóricas no diagrama HR. Foi realizada, então, uma análise cronológica dos gráficos [Th/Eu] vs. [Fe/H] e [Th/Eu] vs. idade. Os dados estelares foram comparados a curvas calculadas para 3 idades do disco Galáctico - 9, 12, 15 Gano - e foi estudada a sensibilidade à idade assumida no cálculo do ajuste destas curvas aos dados. Estas curvas foram calculadas com base num modelo analítico de evolução química da Galáxia que leva em consideração a formação de refugos, que são compostos pelos remanescentes da evolução estelar, pelos resíduos da formação de estrelas de

  4. Crystal structure of 1-ethyl-5-iodo­indolin-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Man; Shen, Yu-Xiang; Fang, Qi; Wang, Lei; Li, Da-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    In the title indolinone derivative, C10H10INO, all the non-H atoms, except the terminal methyl C atom, are almost coplanar. The mol­ecules are arranged into columns extending along the a-axis direction and inter­act with the mol­ecules in adjacent columns via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds [H⋯O distance = 2.57 (3) Å] and I⋯I short contacts of 3.8986 (3) Å. A one-dimensional zigzag iodine chain along the a axis is apparent between two neighbouring columns. PMID:26090158

  5. Singlet oxygen generation from [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Catir, Mustafa; Kilic, Hamdullah; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie; Kazaz, Cavit

    2009-06-19

    Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with a hypervalent iodine compound was examined. The results indicate that treatment of a hypervalent iodine compound with hydrogen peroxide produces singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)). Convergent evidence for the production of singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)) by decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with a hypervalent iodine compound comes from chemical trapping experiments and the specific chemiluminescence detection of (1)O(2) at 1270 nm. Substantial evidence demonstrates that hydroperoxyl radical produced from hydrogen peroxide with hypervalent iodine reacts via a tetraoxidane intermediate, decomposing to give singlet molecular oxygen. PMID:19449850

  6. A 10-watt CW photodissociation laser with IODO perfluoro-tert-butane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher; Venable, Demetrius D.

    1989-01-01

    NASA has been investigating the feasibility of direct solar-pumped laser systems for power beaming in space. Among the various gas, liquid, and solid laser systems being proposed as candidates for solar-pumped lasers, the iodine photodissociation gas laser has demonstrated its potential for space application. Of immediate attention is the determination of system requirements and the choice of lasants to improve the system efficiency. The development of an efficient iodine laser depends on the availability of a suitable iodide which has favorable laser kinetics, chemically reversibility, and solar energy utilization. Among the various alkyliodide lasants comparatively tested in a long-pulse system, perfluoro- tert-butyl iodide, T-C4F9I, was found to be the best. However, the operating conditions for the laser medium in a continuously pumped and continuous-flow iodine laser differ considerably from those in the pulsed regime. The results of the continuous wave (CW)) laser performance from t-C4F9I are reported. Perfluoro- n-propyl iodide, n-C3F7I is used for comparison because of its universal use in photodissociation iodine lasers.

  7. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as solu

  8. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  9. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  10. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  11. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  12. An Enhancement of 160um-derived Star-Formation Rates in Active Galaxies to z = 3.2 with the ZFOURGE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Michael; Spitler, L.

    2016-08-01

    ZFOURGE is a new imaging survey, which employs unique near-infrared medium- band filters designed to probe galaxy properties over the last 12 billion years. By supplementing the high-quality ZFOURGE galaxy catalogues with data in radio, X- ray, and infrared wavebands, we have studied the complex interplay between AGNs and their host galaxies to a time when the Universe was only 10-15% of its present age. I will report on our study to compare the 160-um derived star-formation rates in active and non-active galaxies and show that AGN hosts, over all redshifts, tend to exhibit an elevated average star-formation activity compared to their non-active counterparts.

  13. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  14. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  15. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  16. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  17. Synthesis, electronic structure and catalytic activity of ruthenium-iodo-carbonyl complexes with thioether containing NNS donor ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Subrata; Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Biswas, Sujan; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The ruthenium carbonyl complexes 1 and 2 with redox noninnocent NNS donor ligand, 1-methyl-2-{(o-thiomethyl)phenylazo}imidazole (L) have been synthesized and characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis and 1H NMR) techniques. The complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 1.11 V for 1 and 0.76 V for 2 along with two successive one electron ligand reductions. Catalytic activity of the compounds has been investigated to the oxidation of PhCH2OH to PhCHO, 2-butanol (C4H9OH) to 2-butanone, 1-phenylethanol (PhC2H4OH) to acetophenone, cyclopentanol (C5H9OH) to cyclopentanone, cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone, cycloheptanol to cycloheptanone and cycloctanol to cycloctanone using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMO) as oxidant. The catalytic efficiency of 2 is greater than complex 1 and well correlate with the metal oxidation potential. DFT, NBO and TDDFT calculations in DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d)/lanL2TZ(f) method are employed to interpret the structural and electronic features of the complexes.

  18. 2,2,2-Tri­fluoro-N-(2-iodo­phen­yl)acetamide

    PubMed Central

    Ruchun, Yang; Hui, Zhang; BanPeng, Cao

    2013-01-01

    The three F atoms in the title compound, C8H5F3INO, are disordered over two sets of sites [relative occupancies = 0.615 (14):0.385 (14)]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains running along the c-axis direction. The dihedral angle between the ring and the amide group is 62.1 (3)°. PMID:24454204

  19. Selenium-centered, undecanuclear silver cages surrounded by iodo and dialkyldiselenophosphato ligands. Syntheses, structures, and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Shang, Iu-Jie; Fu, Rei-Jen; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Wang, Ju-Chun; Chang, I-Jy

    2006-03-01

    Three clusters [Ag11(mu9-Se)(mu3-I)3{Se2P(OR)2}6] (R = Et, 1; iPr, 2; 2Bu, 3) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH3CN)4](PF6), NH4[Se2P(OR)2], and Bu4NI in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH2Cl2 in 47-55% yield. Compounds 1 and 2 can also be synthesized with high yield from the reaction of Ag10(Se)[Se2P(OR)2]8 with 8 equiv of Bu4NI. In the positive fast atom bombardment mass spectra of 1-3, two major peaks that correspond to the intact molecule with the loss of an iodide ion, [Ag11(mu9-Se)(mu3-I)(2){Se2P(OR)2}6]+, and a diselenophosphate ligand, [Ag11(mu9-Se)(mu3-I)3{Se2P(OR)2}5]+, were identified. Single-crystal X-ray analyses of 2 and 3 reveal an Ag11Se core stabilized by three iodide anions and six diselenophosphato ligands in a tetrametallic tetraconnective (mu2,mu2) coordination mode. The central core adopts the geometry of a 3,3,4,4,4-pentacapped trigonal prism with a selenium atom in the center. In addition, weak intermolecular Se...I interactions exist in 2 and form a one-dimensional polymeric chain structure. Furthermore, all compounds exhibit orange-red luminescence in both the solid state and solution. PMID:16499400

  20. 2-(5-Iodo-2-oxoindolin-3-yl­idene)hydrazinecarbo­thio­amide including an unknown solvate

    PubMed Central

    Conceição Duarte de Bittencourt, Viviane; Carratu Gervini, Vanessa; Rosa de Menezes Vicenti, Juliano; Maciel Velasques, Jecika; Jussiane Zambiazi, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C9H7IN4OS, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0373 Å). In the mol­ecule, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate, respectively, S(5) and S(6) ring motifs. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. These chains are linked via S⋯I contacts [3.4915 (16) Å], forming sheets lying parallel to (100). A region of disordered electron density, probably a disordered tetra­hydro­furan solvent mol­ecule, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. The formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during refinement. PMID:24940248

  1. Steric Effects of the Initiator Substituent Position on the Externally Initiated Polymerization of 2-Bromo-5-iodo-3-hexylthiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Doubina, Natalia; Paniagua, Sergio A.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Jen, Alex K. Y.; Marder, Seth R.; Luscombe, Christine K.

    2011-01-12

    Externally initiated polymerization of 2-bromo-3-hexyl-5-iodothiophene was attempted from four aryl and thiophene based small molecule initiators functionalized with a phosphonate moiety. Initiated poly(3-hexylthiophene) product was obtained in various yields depending on the nature of the initiating molecule. Reaction intermediates for the oxidative addition and the ligand exchange steps were analyzed utilizing both experimental and theoretical methods. It was observed that an ortho substituent plays a crucial role in the outcome of the polymerization mechanism and that aryl based initiators are generally more stable than thiophene based initiators. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed the importance of the steric effects on the success of the externally initiated chain growth polymerization mechanism.

  2. 2-(5-Iodo-2-oxoindolin-3-yl-idene)hydrazinecarbo-thio-amide including an unknown solvate.

    PubMed

    Conceição Duarte de Bittencourt, Viviane; Carratu Gervini, Vanessa; Rosa de Menezes Vicenti, Juliano; Maciel Velasques, Jecika; Jussiane Zambiazi, Priscilla

    2014-06-01

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, C9H7IN4OS, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0373 Å). In the mol-ecule, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate, respectively, S(5) and S(6) ring motifs. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. These chains are linked via S⋯I contacts [3.4915 (16) Å], forming sheets lying parallel to (100). A region of disordered electron density, probably a disordered tetra-hydro-furan solvent mol-ecule, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. The formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during refinement. PMID:24940248

  3. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  4. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  5. Enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy amides via Umpolung amide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leighty, Matthew W; Shen, Bo; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2012-09-19

    α-Oxy amides are prepared through enantioselective synthesis using a sequence beginning with a Henry addition of bromonitromethane to aldehydes and finishing with Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Key to high enantioselection is the finding that ortho-iodo benzoic acid salts of the chiral copper(II) bis(oxazoline) catalyst deliver both diastereomers of the Henry adduct with high enantiomeric excess, homochiral at the oxygen-bearing carbon. Overall, this approach to α-oxy amides provides an innovative complement to alternatives that focus almost entirely on the enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy carboxylic acids. PMID:22967461

  6. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  7. 2-{(E)-[(3-Iodo-4-methyl­phen­yl)imino]­meth­yl}-4-(trifluoro­meth­oxy)phenol

    PubMed Central

    Pekdemir, Merve; Işık, Şamil; Alaman Ağar, Ayşen

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C15H11F3INO2, adopts the enol–imine tautomeric form. The mol­ecule displays an E conformation with respect to the imine C=N double bond. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 12.4 (2)°. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond, which generates an S(6) ring motif. The trifluoro­meth­oxy­phenyl group is disordered over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.621 (6):0.379 (6). The crystal structure features C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22798821

  8. Treatment of neuroblastoma stage 4 with 131I-meta-iodo-benzylguanidine, high-dose chemotherapy and immunotherapy. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Klingebiel, T; Bader, P; Bares, R; Beck, J; Hero, B; Jürgens, H; Lang, P; Niethammer, D; Rath, B; Handgretinger, R

    1998-08-01

    Disseminated neuroblastoma after infancy has a prognosis of approximately 10-20% with conventional therapy. We investigated the role of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue in combination with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ([131I-m]IBG). 11 children with neuroblastoma stage 4 were pretreated within the German Neuroblastoma Trial NB90 and included in a high-dose concept for consolidation. Remission was documented by ultrasound, CT, NMR, or [123I-m]IBG scanning. HDCT was a combination of melphalan (180 mg/m2), carboplatin (1,500 mg/m2) and etoposide (40 mg/kg). All children were treated by [131I-m]IBG (0.58 GBq/kg) prior to high-dose treatment. All 11 children were additionally treated with antiGD2 murine- or chimeric-antibody (ch14.18). 4 children had no change to their remission status but three achieved a complete response (from a partial response to first line) and one a partial response (from no response to first line). The other 3 children progressed, 2 dying of their disease. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the probability of progression-free survival was 0.70 +/- 0.15 with a median observation time of 19 months. 9/11 children are alive, 8 without progression or relapse, whilst 2 have died of their disease. The combination of mIBG plus high-dose chemotherapy with PBSC support supplemented by immunotherapy with antiGD2 antibody appears to be a feasible and effective treatment regimen for disseminated neuroblastoma in this limited series. Larger numbers of patients should be treated to confirm these results.

  9. The spectroscopic characterization, photochromism of cadmium(II)-iodo complexes of 1-alkyl-2-(arylazo)imidazoles and DFT computation of representative complexes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Chandana; Nandi, Avijit; Mallick, Debashis; Mondal, Sudipa; Sarker, Kamal Krishna; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2015-02-25

    [Cd(Raai-C(n)H(2n+1))(μ-I)I]2 and [Cd(Raai-C(n)H(2n+1))2I2] are synthesized by the reaction of CdI2 with 1-alkyl-2-(arylazo)imidazole (Raai-C(n)H(2n+1), n=4, 6, 8) in MeOH in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio of salt and ligands, respectively. The complexes have been characterized by spectral data (UV-Vis, IR, (1)H NMR, Mass). The coordinated Raai-C(n)H(2n+1) shows photochromism, E(trans)-to-Z(cis) isomerisation, upon UV light irradiation. The reverse process, Z-to-E, is very slow in visible light irradiation process while the reaction is sensitive to change of reaction temperature. The quantum yields (ϕE→Z) for E-to-Z and the activation energy (Ea) of Z-to-E isomerisation are calculated and found that the complexes show subordinate results compared to free ligand. DFT computations of two representative complexes were carried out to explain the spectral and photochromic phenomena.

  10. UV photolysis of 4-iodo-, 4-bromo-, and 4-chlorophenol: Competition between C-Y (Y = halogen) and O-H bond fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, Alan G.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; King, Graeme A.; Murdock, Daniel; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2013-04-28

    The wavelength dependences of C-Y and O-H bond fission following ultraviolet photoexcitation of 4-halophenols (4-YPhOH) have been investigated using a combination of velocity map imaging, H Rydberg atom photofragment translational spectroscopy, and high level spin-orbit resolved electronic structure calculations, revealing a systematic evolution in fragmentation behaviour across the series Y = I, Br, Cl (and F). All undergo O-H bond fission following excitation at wavelengths {lambda} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 240 nm, on repulsive ((n/{pi}){sigma}*) potential energy surfaces (PESs), yielding fast H atoms with mean kinetic energies {approx}11 000 cm{sup -1}. For Y = I and Br, this process occurs in competition with prompt C-I and C-Br bond cleavage on another (n/{pi}){sigma}* PES, but no Cl/Cl* products unambiguously attributable to one photon induced C-Cl bond fission are observed from 4-ClPhOH. Differences in fragmentation behaviour at longer excitation wavelengths are more marked. Prompt C-I bond fission is observed following excitation of 4-IPhOH at all {lambda}{<=} 330 nm; the wavelength dependent trends in I/I* product branching ratio, kinetic energy release, and recoil anisotropy suggest that (with regard to C-I bond fission) 4-IPhOH behaves like a mildly perturbed iodobenzene. Br atoms are observed when exciting 4-BrPhOH at long wavelengths also, but their velocity distributions suggest that dissociation occurs after internal conversion to the ground state. O-H bond fission, by tunnelling (as in phenol), is observed only in the cases of 4-FPhOH and, more weakly, 4-ClPhOH. These observed differences in behaviour can be understood given due recognition of (i) the differences in the vertical excitation energies of the C-Y centred (n/{pi}){sigma}* potentials across the series Y = I < Br < Cl and the concomitant reduction in C-Y bond strength, cf. that of the rival O-H bond, and (ii) the much increased spin-orbit coupling in, particularly, 4-IPhOH. The present results provide (another) reminder of the risks inherent in extrapolating photochemical behaviour measured for one molecule at one wavelength to other (related) molecules and to other excitation energies.

  11. The spectroscopic characterization, photochromism of cadmium(II)-iodo complexes of 1-alkyl-2-(arylazo)imidazoles and DFT computation of representative complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Chandana; Nandi, Avijit; Mallick, Debashis; Mondal, Sudipa; Sarker, Kamal Krishna; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2015-02-01

    [Cd(Raai-CnH2n+1)(μ-I)I]2 and [Cd(Raai-CnH2n+1)2I2] are synthesized by the reaction of CdI2 with 1-alkyl-2-(arylazo)imidazole (Raai-CnH2n+1, n = 4, 6, 8) in MeOH in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio of salt and ligands, respectively. The complexes have been characterized by spectral data (UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, Mass). The coordinated Raai-CnH2n+1 shows photochromism, E(trans)-to-Z(cis) isomerisation, upon UV light irradiation. The reverse process, Z-to-E, is very slow in visible light irradiation process while the reaction is sensitive to change of reaction temperature. The quantum yields (ϕE→Z) for E-to-Z and the activation energy (Ea) of Z-to-E isomerisation are calculated and found that the complexes show subordinate results compared to free ligand. DFT computations of two representative complexes were carried out to explain the spectral and photochromic phenomena.

  12. Crystal structure of (E)-1-(4-tert-butyl­phen­yl)-2-(4-iodo­phen­yl)ethene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Moxey, Graeme J.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C18H19I, crystallized with two independent mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. Both mol­ecules have an E conformation about the bridging C=C bond. They differ in the orientation of the two benzene rings; the dihedral angle being 12.3 (5)° in mol­ecule A, but only 1.0 (6)° in mol­ecule B. In the crystal, the individual mol­ecules are linked by C—I⋯π inter­actions forming zigzag A and zigzag B chains propagating along [001]. The structure was refined as an inversion twin [Flack parameter = 0.48 (2)]. PMID:25995920

  13. Interferon induced by UV-irradiated murine cytomegalovirus decreases type C virus expression in BALB/c cells treated by 5-iodo-deoxyuridine or cycloheximide

    SciTech Connect

    Sergiescu, D.

    1983-01-01

    UV-irradiated mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) activates at low incidence (2.0 X 10(-4) - 8.0 X 10(-4)) a xenotropic type C virus in Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed nonproducer BALB 3T3 (KBALB) cells. When KBALB cells are treated with UV-MCMV and subsequently with potent chemical inducers, such as 5-Iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) or cycloheximide, the activation frequencies of type C virus are significantly lower than in controls exposed to the chemical inducers alone: 60% for IdUrd and 44% for cycloheximide. This decrease of activation appears to be mediated by endogenous interferon (IFN) induced by UV-MCMV in KBALB cells, as could be proven by neutralization of the inhibitory activity. Indeed, after exposure of UV-MCMV-infected cells to anti-IFN gamma globulin, the level of C type virus increases, reaching values obtained with IdUrd or cycloheximide in the absence of UV-MCMV. The inhibitory activity associated with UV-MCMV is dose-dependent and the xenotropic type C virus appears to be more sensitive than the ecotropic (N-tropic) retrovirus of BALB/c cells.

  14. N-[2-(N-Cyclo­hexyl­carbamo­yl)propan-2-yl]-N-(2-iodo­phen­yl)prop-2-ynamide

    PubMed Central

    Balalaie, Saeed; Haghighatnia, Yaghoub; Rominger, Frank; Amani, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H23IN2O2, the cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation, and the mean plane of the propiolamide unit is approximately perpendicular to the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 88.12 (13)°]. Weak intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is observed between the carbonyl group and the benzene ring. In the crystal, classical N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions are present. PMID:22346914

  15. Azido-iodo-N-benzyl derivatives of threo-methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta): Rational design, synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and dopamine transporter photoaffinity labeling.

    PubMed

    Lapinsky, David J; Velagaleti, Ranganadh; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Liu, Yi; Huang, Yurong; Surratt, Christopher K; Lever, John R; Foster, James D; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Deutsch, Howard M

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to tropane-based compounds such as benztropine and cocaine, non-tropane-based photoaffinity ligands for the dopamine transporter (DAT) are relatively unexplored. Towards addressing this knowledge gap, ligands were synthesized in which the piperidine nitrogen of 3- and 4-iodomethylphenidate was substituted with a benzyl group bearing a photoreactive azide. Analog (±)-3a demonstrated modest DAT affinity and a radioiodinated version was shown to bind covalently to rat striatal DAT and hDAT expressed in cultured cells. Co-incubation of (±)-3a with nonradioactive d-(+)-methylphenidate or (-)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (β-CFT, WIN-35,428, a cocaine analog) blocked DAT labeling. Compound (±)-3a represents the first successful example of a DAT photoaffinity ligand based on the methylphenidate scaffold. Such ligands are expected to assist in mapping non-tropane ligand-binding pockets within plasma membrane monoamine transporters.

  16. Crystal structure of 1-iodo-3-{[4-(tert-butyl­sulfan­yl)phen­yl]ethyn­yl}azulene

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Sebastian; Seichter, Wilhelm; Weber, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C20H19IS, features a 1,3-disubstituted azulene involving an ethynylene elongated 4-(tert-butyl­sulfanyl)­phenyl sidearm and an iodine atom as the substituents. The azulene ring system is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.012 Å) and subtends a dihedral angle of 35.7 (1)° with the benzene ring. As a result of the inherent dipole character of the azulene core, a supra­molecular π–π dimer [separation between the centroids of the five- and seven-membered rings = 3.7632 (10) Å] with anti­parallel orientated mol­ecules can be observed in the crystal. The packing is consolidated by an unusual I⋯π(acetyl­ene) contact [I⋯Cg = 3.34 Å, C—I⋯Cg = 173.3°], and a very weak C—H⋯π inter­action is also found in the structure, with the azulene five-membered ring as the acceptor. PMID:26396788

  17. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  18. UM 425: a new gravitational lens candidate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylan, G.; Djorgovski, S.

    1988-12-01

    Since the first theoretical discussions more than 50 years ago on the phenomenon of light rays bent by intervening mass in the universe (Eddington 1920, Einstein 1936, Zwicky 1937 a, b), gravitational lensing has steadily grown to become one of the most active fields of research in extragalactic astronomy today. There are numerous theoretical investigations (Refsdal 1964, 1966, Turner et al. 1984, Blandford and Narayan 1986, Blandford and Kochanek 1987a, b), but the observations of good gravitationallens candidates are still rare. It is only during the last decade that a few quasar systems have been found in reasonable agreement with the gravitational lensing interpretation, viz., 0957 + 561 (Walsh et al. 1979), 1115 + 080 (Weymann et al. 1980), 2016 + 112 (Lawrence et al. 1983), 2237 + 030 (Huchra et al. 1985), 0142-100 (Surdej et al. 1987), and 1413+ 117 (Magain et al. 1988). In other possible cases, e.g., 2345+007 ryveedman et al. 1982), and 1635+267 (Djorgovski and Spinrad 1984), there has so far been no detection of lensing galaxies, and thus they should possibly be considered as genuine pairs of interacting quasars, similar to the probable binary quasar PKS 1145-071 (Djorgovski et al. 1987). Recently, so-called giant luminous arcs have been observed in a few clusters of galaxies. They are interpreted as segments of Einstein rings, created because of an almost perfect alignment of the lensing cluster potential weil with the lensed background object (Soucail et al. 1988, Lynds and Petrosian 1988). Blandford and Kochanek (1987) provide the most comprehensive and updated review on these subjects.

  19. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  20. Macrocyclic lactones: A versatile source for omega radiohalogenated fatty acid analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A.H.; Lyster, D.M.; Robertson, K.A.; Vincent, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    For each omega halogenated fatty acid there exists a potential omega hydroxy fatty acid and the corresponding macrocyclic lactone. The authors have utilized such lactones as starting materials for omega /sup 123/I fatty acid analogs intended for myocardial imaging. Macrocyclic musk lactones are industrially available; 120 analogs are described in the literature. The preparation requires saponification, tosylation, and radio-iodide substitution. Iodo-fatty acids are readily separated from tosylate fatty acids on TLC. While providing a secure source of 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid and 17-iodo-heptadecanoic acid, the scheme allows ready access to a large number of untried fatty acid analogs. Examples presented are 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-7-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-12-oxa-hexadecanoic acid, 15-iodo-pentadecanoic acid, and 15-iodo-12-keto-pentadecanoic acid. Metabolic studies are in progress in mice and dogs to assess the utility of these analogs for myocardial imaging.

  1. Formation of Toxic Iodinated Disinfection By-Products from Compounds Used in Medical Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical cen...

  2. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  3. Comparative research on medicine application with 0.53-um, 1.06-um, and 1.32-um Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahua; Li, Zhenjia; Zhu, Changhong; Huang, Yizhong

    1996-09-01

    Because of its high power and excellent optical features, laser has almost been applied to everywhere of medical research and clinic. Over the past several years, laser medical has achieved a rapid progress, and laser medical instruments has developed promptly, each new wavelength can be successfully applied in diagnostic and treatment of diseases. Among the medical lasers, Nd:YAG solid-state laser systems have proven useful in surgical use operate, such as neurosurgery, gastroenterology, cardioangiology, urology, gynecology, dermatology and ENT. As with other solid-state lasers, the Nd:YAG laser can be made to emit various wavelengths by means of suitable resonator configurations and some newest solid-state laser technology, pumped by the Krypton lamp, the Nd:YAG laser at room temperature exhibits transition at 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG, using nonlinear crystal and Q-switch to double its frequency can attain 0.53 micrometer green beam. In our laser systems, the efficiency at 1.06 micrometer is more than 3 percent, an efficiency of 0.5 percent at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can be attained. For a power of 100w at 1.06 micrometer, 15w at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can therefore be produced. All of three kinds Nd:YAG laser hold these characteristics: high output power; optical fiber transition that can be cooperated with endoscope. The paper mainly discusses laser operating characteristics and clinic applications of three kinds wavelengths at 0.53 micrometer 1.06 micrometer and 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG laser systems.

  4. (E)-1-(5-Iodo­thio­phen-2-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimeth­oxy­phen­yl)prop-2-en-1-one

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vijayan; Srinivasan, Thothadri; Thirunarayanan, Ayyavu; Rajakumar, Perumal; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H15IO4S, the dihedral angle between the thio­phene and benzene rings is 11.50 (2)°. The methoxy O atoms deviate by 0.0060 (2), −0.1319 (2) and 0.0426 (2) Å from the phenyl ring plane. The crystal packing features C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into C(11) chains propagating in [100xxx]. PMID:23125711

  5. Synthesis, Polymorphism, and Insecticidal Activity of Methyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-iodo-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-Carboxylate Against Anopheles arabiensis Mosquito.

    PubMed

    Venugopala, Katharigatta N; Nayak, Susanta K; Gleiser, Raquel M; Sanchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Garcia, Daniel A; Odhav, Bharti

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vectors of pathogens and parasites including those causing malaria, the most deadly vector-borne disease. The negative environmental effects of most synthetic compounds combined with widespread development of insecticide resistance encourage an interest in finding and developing alternative products against mosquitoes. In this study, pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline derivative DHPM3 has been synthesized by three-step chemical reaction and screened for larvicide, adulticide, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis, one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. The title compound emerged as potential larvicide agent for further research and development, because it exerted 100% mortality, while adulticide activity was considered moderate.

  6. Effect of immunomodulation on the fate of tumor cells in the central nervous system and systemic organs of mice. Distribution of (/sup 125/I)5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled KHT tumor cells after left intracardial injection

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, F.K.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of systemic immunomodulation on tumor cell arrest and retention in the central nervous system was studied by following radioactively labeled tumor cells. KHT mouse sarcoma tumor cells were labeled in vitro with (/sup 125/I)IdUrd, and 1x10/sup 5/ tumor cells were injected into the left side of the hearts of syngeneic C3H mice. Experimental groups consisted of untreated normal mice, mice pretreated iv with Corynebacterium parvum, and mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii; in this model both groups of immunomodulated mice are protected from developing systemic metastatic tumor, but only Toxoplasma-infected mice have protection against metastatic brain tumor. At time intervals from 1 to 96 hours, groups of mice from each experimental group were killed, and the brain and other organs were monitored for radioactivity to determine the number of viable tumor cells that had been present at the time of death. Normal mice demonstrated significant retention of tumor cells in the brain and kidneys plus adrenals at 96 hours. By contrast, in both groups of immunomodulated mice tumor cells were rapidly eliminated from systemic organs, but tumor cells were significantly retained in the central nervous system even at 96 hours after tumor cell injections. The results indicated that generalized immunomodulation had more effect in elimination of tumor cells from systemic organs than from the brain and that the elimination of tumor cells from the brain in Toxoplasma-infected mice was a delayed phenomenon.

  7. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  8. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  9. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  10. A Winter Walk at Ho-Nee-Um.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the lower primary grades. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  11. Predictive process control for sub-0.2-um lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavecz, Terrence E.; Blanquies, Rene M.

    2000-06-01

    An advanced control system providing modeling and predictive data simulation for pass-fail criteria of overlay production control has been used in 0.18 micrometer Design Rule production facilities for over a year. During this period overlay was measured on both product wafers and during periodic process qualification tests. The resulting raw data is modeled using exposure tool specific and layer-focused models. Modeled results, measured process statistics and tool signatures are combined in a real-time simulation to calculate the true overlay distribution over the entire wafer and lot. All results and raw data are automatically gathered and stored in a database for on-going analysis. In this manner, tool, product technology and process performance data are gathered for every overlay process-step. The data provides valuable insights into not only tool stability but also the process- step characteristic errors that contribute to the overlay spectrum of distortions. Data gathered in this manner is very stable and can be used to predict a feed-forward correction for all correctable coefficients. The technique must take into consideration algorithm modeled coefficient variations resulting from: (1) Reticle pattern-to-alignment mark design errors. (2) Process film variations. (3) Tool-to-tool static matching. (4) Tool-to-tool dynamic matching errors which are match-residual, process or time induced. This extensive database has resulted in a method of conducting Predictive Process Control (PPC) for overlay lithography within an advanced semiconductor line. Using PPC the wafer production facility experiences: (1) Improved Yield: Lots are always exposed with optimum setup. Optimized setups reduce rework levels and therefore wafer handling. (2) Capacity Improvement: Elimination of rework tacitly improves capacity in the facility. WIP is also simplified because lots do not have to wait for a dedicated exposure tool to become available. (3) Dynamic MatchingTM: Matching of multiple exposure tools is continuously monitored by the use of the feedback loop. Tool precision can be monitored as well as the setup systematic offsets. In this manner, the need to remove an exposure tool from production for match-maintenance can be predicted and scheduled. Residual matching errors can also be removed from the production cycle. The benefits of full production lot modeling and the contributors to production errors are presented. Process and Tool interactions as well as control- factor coefficient stability indicate the level of control to be well beyond manual methods. Calculations show that these contributors are predictable, stable and are a necessary tool for competitive sub-0.2 micron production. An analysis of the overlay error sources within two facilities results in consistent facility process response and a well-defined error budget derivation. From this analysis, the control added to semiconductor overlay is shown capable of extending mix-and- match exposure tool operations in production down to 0.12 micrometer design rules.

  12. Grant UM1CA182883 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. High-sensitivity (25-um pitch) microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Asbrock, James F.; Lum, Nancy A.; Kennedy, Adam; Wyles, Jessica; Hewitt, C.; Graham, Glen E.; Horikiri, Tad; Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chin, Richard; Kostrzewa, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    RIO has achieved a significant technical breakthrough in uncooled FPAs by reducing the pixel size by a factor of two while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity. Raytheon has produced high-quality 320 by 240 micro bolometer FPAs with 25 micrometers pitch pixels. The 320 by 240 FPAs have a sensitivity that is comparable to micro bolometer FPAs with 50 micrometers pixels. The average NETD value for these FPAs is about 35 mK with an f/1 aperture and operating at 30 Hz frame rates. Good pixel operability and excellent image quality have been demonstrated. Pixel operability is greater than 99 percent on some FPAs, and uncorrected responsivity nonuniformity is less than 4 percent. The micro bolometer detectors also have a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. This state-of-the-art performance has been achieved as a result of an advanced micromachining fabrication process. The process allows maximization of both the thermal isolation and the optical fill-factor. The reduction in pixel size offers several potential benefits for IR systems. For a given system resolution requirement, the 225 micrometers pixels allow a factor of two reduction in both the focal length and aperture size of the sensor optics. The pixel size reduction facilitates a significant FPA cost reduction since the number of die printed on a wafer can be increased. The pixel size reduction has enabled the development of a large-format 640 by 512 FPA array applicable to wide-field-of-view, long range surveillance and targeting missions, and a 160 by 128 array where applications for miniaturization and temperature invariance are required as well as low cost and low power.

  14. Thermal levitation of 10 um size particles in low vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Long Fung Frankie; Kowalski, Nicholas; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report on experimental methods for trapping 10 micron-sized ice, glass, ceramic and polyethylene particles with thermophoresis in medium vacuum, at pressures between 5 Torr and 25 Torr. Under appropriate conditions particles can launch and levitate robustly for up to an hour. We describe the experimental setup used to produce the temperature gradient necessary for the levitation, as well as our procedure for generating and introducing ice into the experimental setup. In addition to analyzing the conditions necessary for levitation, and the dependence of levitation on the experimental parameters, we report on the behavior of particles during levitation and ejection, including position and stability, under different pressures and temperatures. We also note a significant discrepancy between theory and data, suggesting the presence of other levitating forces.

  15. Grant UM1CA167462 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  17. 3-Halo Chloroquine Derivatives Overcome Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter-Mediated Drug Resistance in P. falciparum.

    PubMed

    Edaye, Sonia; Tazoo, Dagobert; Bohle, D Scott; Georges, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) was shown to cause chloroquine resistance. In this report, we examined the antimalarial potential of novel 3-halo chloroquine derivatives (3-chloro, 3-bromo, and 3-iodo) against chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum. All three derivatives inhibited the proliferation of P. falciparum; with 3-iodo chloroquine being most effective. Moreover, 3-iodo chloroquine was highly effective at potentiating and reversing chloroquine toxicity of drug-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum.

  18. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  19. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  20. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  1. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  2. Derivativation of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter using a novel forskolin photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Wadzinski, B.; Shanahan, M.; Ruoho, A.

    1987-05-01

    An iodinated photoaffinity label for the glucose transporter, 3-iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-0-succinyldeacetyl-forskolin (IAPS-Fsk), has been synthesized, purified, and characterized. The K/sub i/ for inhibition of 3-0-methylglucose transport by TAPS-Fsk in human erythrocytes was found to be 0.1 uM. The carrier-free radioiodinated label has been shown to be a highly specific photoaffinity label for the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. Photolysis of erythrocyte membranes with 1-10 nM (I-125)IAPS-Fsk and analysis by SDS-PAGE showed specific derivatization of a broad band with an apparent molecular weight of 40-70 kDa. Photoincorporation using 2 nM (I-125)IAPS-Fsk was protected with D-glucose, cytochalasin B, and forskolin. No protection was observed with L-glucose. Endo-B-galactosidase digestion and trypsinization of (I-125)IAPS-Fsk labelled erythrocytes reduced the specifically radiolabelled transporter to 40 kDa and 18 kDa respectively. (I-125)-IAPS-Fsk will be used to study the structural aspects of the glucose transporter.

  3. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  4. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  5. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  6. Properties of Interstellar Medium In Infrared-bright QSOs Probed by [O i] 63 um and [C ii] 158 um Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Yan, Lin; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the host galaxies of nine QSOs at 0.1 < z < 0.2 with black hole masses of 3× {10}7 {M}ȯ to 3× {10}9 {M}ȯ based on the far-IR spectroscopy taken with Herschel Space Observatory. We detect the [O i] 63 μm ([C ii] 158 μm) emission in 6 (8) out of 8 (9) sources. Our QSO sample has far-infrared luminosities ({L}{{FIR}}) ˜ several times {10}11{L}ȯ . The observed line-to-{L}{{FIR}} ratios ({L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} and {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}{{FIR}}) are in the ranges of 2.6 × 10‑4 to 10‑2 and 2.8 × 10‑4 to 2 × 10‑3, respectively (including upper limits). These ratios are comparable to the values found in local ULIRGs, but higher than the average value published so far for z\\gt 1 IR-bright QSOs. One target, W0752+19, shows an additional broad velocity component (˜720 km s‑1) and exceptionally strong [O i] 63 μm emission with {L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} of 10‑2, an order of magnitude higher than the average value found among local (U)LIRGs. Combining with the analyses of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we conclude that the [O i] 63 μm emission in these QSOs is unlikely excited by shocks. We infer that the broad [O i] 63 μm emission in W0752+19 could arise from the warm and dense ISM in the narrow-line region of the central active galactic nucleus. Another possible explanation is the existence of a dense gas outflow with {n}{{H}}˜ {10}4 cm‑3, where the corresponding broad [C ii] emission is suppressed. Based on the far-IR [O i] and [C ii] line ratios, we estimate constraints on the ISM density and UV radiation field intensity of {n}{{H}}≲ {10}3.3 cm‑3 and {10}3\\lt {G}0≲ {10}4.2, respectively. These values are consistent with those found in local Seyfert 1 ULIRGs. In contrast, the gas with broad velocity width in W0752+19 has {n}{{H}}≳ {10}4.3 cm‑3 and {G}0\\gt {10}4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the new psychoactive designer drug 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) in human and rat urine using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-HR-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Achim T; Helfer, Andreas G; Michely, Julian A; Auwärter, Volker; Brandt, Simon D; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-09-01

    25I-NBOMe, a new psychoactive substance, is a potent 5-HT2A receptor agonist with strong hallucinogenic potential. Recently, it was involved in several fatal and non-fatal intoxication cases. The aim of the present work was to study its phase I and II metabolism and its detectability in urine screening approaches. After application of 25I-NBOMe to male Wistar rats, urine was collected over 24 h. The phase I and II metabolites were identified by LC-HR-MS/MS in urine after suitable workup. For the detectability studies, standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) by GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-HR-MS/MS were applied to rat and also to authentic human urine samples submitted for toxicological analysis. Finally, an initial CYP activity screening was performed to identify CYP isoenzymes involved in the major metabolic steps. 25I-NBOMe was mainly metabolized by O-demethylation, O,O-bis-demethylation, hydroxylation, and combinations of these reactions as well as by glucuronidation and sulfation of the main phase I metabolites. All in all, 68 metabolites could be identified. Intake of 25I-NBOMe was detectable mainly via its metabolites by both LC-MS approaches, but not by the GC-MS SUSA. Initial CYP activity screening revealed the involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in hydroxylation and CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in O-demethylation. The presented study demonstrated that 25I-NBOMe was extensively metabolized and could be detected only by the LC-MS screening approaches. Since CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 are involved in initial metabolic steps, drug-drug interactions might occur in certain constellations.

  8. Crystal structures of 3-fluoro-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide, 3-bromo-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide and 3-iodo-N-[2-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Suchetan, P. A.; Suresha, E.; Naveen, S.; Lokanath, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compounds, C14H9F4NO, (I), C14H9BrF3NO, (II), and C14H9F3INO, (III), the two benzene rings are inclined to one another by 43.94 (8)° in mol­ecule A and 55.66 (7)° in mol­ecule B of compound (I), which crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, but by only 10.40 (12)° in compound (II) and 12.5 (2)° in compound (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules to form chains propagating along the a-axis direction for (I), and along the b-axis direction for (II) and (III). In the crystal of (I), –A–B–A–B– chains are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (010). Within the layers there are weak offset π–π inter­actions present [inter­centroid distances = 3.868 (1) and 3.855 (1) Å]. In the crystals of (II) and (III), the chains are linked via short halogen–halogen contacts [Br⋯Br = 3.6141 (4) Å in (II) and I⋯I = 3.7797 (5) Å in (III)], resulting in the formation of ribbons propagating along the b-axis direction. PMID:27308050

  9. Crystal structures of 3-fluoro-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide, 3-bromo-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide and 3-iodo-N-[2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]benzamide.

    PubMed

    Suchetan, P A; Suresha, E; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K

    2016-06-01

    In the title compounds, C14H9F4NO, (I), C14H9BrF3NO, (II), and C14H9F3INO, (III), the two benzene rings are inclined to one another by 43.94 (8)° in mol-ecule A and 55.66 (7)° in mol-ecule B of compound (I), which crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, but by only 10.40 (12)° in compound (II) and 12.5 (2)° in compound (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules to form chains propagating along the a-axis direction for (I), and along the b-axis direction for (II) and (III). In the crystal of (I), -A-B-A-B- chains are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (010). Within the layers there are weak offset π-π inter-actions present [inter-centroid distances = 3.868 (1) and 3.855 (1) Å]. In the crystals of (II) and (III), the chains are linked via short halogen-halogen contacts [Br⋯Br = 3.6141 (4) Å in (II) and I⋯I = 3.7797 (5) Å in (III)], resulting in the formation of ribbons propagating along the b-axis direction. PMID:27308050

  10. Structure elucidation via stereoselective synthesis of the acetate center of 1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP). A high affinity muscarinic imaging agent for SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1996-11-15

    A facile stereoselective synthesis of {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}-(1-propyn-3-yl)acetic acid in high enantiomeric excess has been developed and allows determination of the (R/S) conformation at this center. In addition, comparison of the specific rotation, HPLC, and NMR data of (E)-(R,R)-and (E)-(R,S)-IQNP to those prepared by a classical resolution of the acetate moiety allows the assignment of (E)-(R,R)-IQNP as the isomer demonstrating binding to the M{sub 1} mAChR subtype and (Z)-(R,R)-IQNP as the isomer binding to both the M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} mAChR subtypes.

  11. (2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-Amino-5-iodo-7H-pyrrolo­[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(hy­droxy­meth­yl)tetra­hydro­furan-3-ol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yang, Ruchun; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C11H12FIN4O3, is composed of a 7-carbapurine moiety connected via an N atom to 2-de­oxy-2-fluoro-β-d-ribose. The conformation about the N-glycosydic bond is −anti with χ = −129.0 (11)°. The glycosydic N—C bond length is 1.435 (14) Å. The sugar ring adopts an Nconformation with an unsymmetrical twist O-endo-C-exo (oT4). The conformation around the C—C bond is +sc, with a torsion angle of 53.0 (12)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the a axis. These chains are linked via O—H⋯I and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the c axis. PMID:24764849

  12. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  13. Lack of dentin acid resistance following 9.3 um CO2 laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Charles Q.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that laser irradiation of dental enamel by specific carbon dioxide laser conditions can inhibit subsequent acid dissolution of the dental enamel surface. The purpose of this study was to determine whether similar carbon dioxide laser conditions would have a protective effect on dentin. Blocks of human dentin roots (3x3 mm2) were irradiated at 9.3 µm wavelength with a 15-18 µs pulse duration laser and fluences of 0.50-1.50 J/cm2. A motion controller system was used to ensure uniform irradiation of the entire dentin surface. Surface acid dissolution profiles following irradiation were acquired for the five study groups, control group (Non-irradiated) and four laser-treated groups. Dissolution profiles of low fluence groups (0.50 and 0.75 J/cm2) exhibited similar profiles to the control group. Dissolution profiles of higher fluence groups (1.0 and 1.5 J/cm2) showed an increased dissolution rate over the control group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that the application of carbon dioxide laser irradiation significantly alters the surface of dentin but did not decrease the acid dissolution rate.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ISO FIRBACK Source Catalog at 170um (Dole+, 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, H.; Gispert, R.; Lagache, G.; Puget, J.-L.; Bouchet, F. R.; Cesarsky, C.; Ciliegi, P.; Clements, D. L.; Dennefeld, M.; Desert, F.-X.; Elbaz, B.; Franceschini, A.; Guiderdon, B.; Harwit, M.; Lemke, D.; Moorwood, A. F. M.; Oliver, S.; Reach, W. T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Stickel, M.

    2001-05-01

    The FIRBACK (Far Infrared BACKground) survey is one of the deepest imaging surveys carried out at 170μm with ISOPHOT onboard ISO, and is aimed at the study of the structure of the Cosmic Far Infrared Background. This paper provides the analysis of resolved sources. After a validated process of data reduction and calibration, we perform intensive simulations to optimize the source extraction, measure the confusion noise (σc=45mJy), and give the photometric and astrometric accuracies. 196 galaxies with flux S>3σc are detected in the area of 3.89 square degrees. Counts of sources with flux S>4σc present a steep slope of 3.3+/-0.6 on a differential ``logN-logS'' plot between 180 and 500mJy. As a consequence, the confusion level is high and will impact dramatically on future IR deep surveys. This strong evolution, compared with a slope of 2.5 from Euclidian geometry, is in line with models implying a strongly evolving Luminous Infrared Galaxy population. The resolved sources account for less than 10% of the Cosmic Infrared Background at 170μm, which is expected to be resolved into sources in the 1 to 10mJy range. (6 data files).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon I 870um sources (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Schuller, F.; Parise, B.; Andre, P.; Hatchell, J.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Bontemps, S.; Weiss, A.; Menten; K. M.; Muders, D.

    2011-01-01

    Table 2 lists the sources extracted with GAUSSCLUMPS from the filtered 870 micron continuum emission map of Chamaeleon I obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. These sources are listed in the order in which they were found by GAUSSCLUMPS, i.e. roughly in order of decreasing peak flux density. The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud is available in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (6 data files).

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon III 870um sources maps (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Parise, B.; Schuller, F.; Andre, P.; Bontemps, S.; Menten, K. M.

    2011-06-01

    The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon III molecular cloud displayed in Fig. 2 is available at CDS in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (1 data file).

  17. Experimental study of biological effect by Nd:YAP laser (1.34um)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effect of different power, irradiation time of Nd: YAP laser (1341nm). Method: The canine skin, bronchia, stomach, bladder, uterus were irradiated with different irradiation power and time. The effect was observed by naked eyes, light microscope, and electric microscope. Result: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, the thermal coagulation dose reaching deep derma was 5W 4s, 10w 1s;the thermal coagulation dose puncturing the whole layer was 5W, 6s, 10W, 4s; the thermal coagulation dose reaching whole stratum was 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s, 40-60W 1s on stomach (Thickness 6mm), was 40W, 2s, 30W, 3s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 6s on bladder (Thickness 6mm ,irradiation underwater), was 10W, 4s on bronchia (Thickness 2 mm) and was 30W 3s, 20W 5s, 10W 6s on uterus (Thickness 6mm). Conclusion: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, it is safe when the dose is 5W, and the irradiating time is less than 4s; the dose is 10W, and the irradiating time is less than 1 s. Under these conditions, the gastric area is used to coagulating and ablating. It is safe when the dose is less than 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s. Under these condition, The bladder (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated. It is safe when the dose is no more than 40W, 1s, 30W, 2s, 20W, 3s, 10W, 5s.Under the condition where bronchia (thickness 2mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 10W, 3s.Under the condition where uterus (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 30W, 2s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 5s.

  18. Application of 2-um wavelength holmium lasers for treatment of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Klimov, Igor V.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Nerobeev, Alexander I.; Sadovnikova, Lija B.; Eliseenko, Vladimir I.

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of the efficiency of application of 2 micrometers pulsed holmium laser for cosmetic and plastic surgery and dermatology is carried out. Preliminary experiments were carried out on rats. Solid state 2 micrometers pulsed laser was allowed to operate in free running mode with pulse energy up to 1.5 J and pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz. To deliver emission to the object a flexible quartz fiber without further focusing of 2.5 m in length and 400 micrometers of the core diameter was used. The effect of the different power density emission on the skin was studied. The second stage was the study of the influence of 2 micrometers emission on human skin. The results of the removal of hemangioma, papilloma, telangiectasia, nevus, nevus acantholytic, xanthelasma palpebral, verruca, chloasma, pigmental spots, tattoos, etc. are presented. Precision, simplicity, efficiency, and the high cosmetic effect of these operations is noted.

  19. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  20. Das Wort von der "inneren Differenzierung" geht um (The Word on "Internal Differentiation" Takes a Turn)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woltmann, Joachim

    1975-01-01

    Since "external differentiation" (grouping by ability) has created difficulties, especially in larger schools, comprehensive schools, and orientation courses, a trend toward individualized instruction has arisen. The difficulties in implementing this are discussed here. Improving the external differentiation is advocated as preferable to…

  1. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ˜16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ˜6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  2. The optimization of zero-spaced microlenses for 2.2um pixel CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyun hee; Park, Jeong Lyeol; Choi, Jea Sung; Lee, Jeong Gun

    2007-03-01

    In CMOS image sensor, microlens arrays are generally used as light propagation carrier onto photo diode to increase collection efficiency and reduce optical cross-talk. Today, the scaling trend of CMOS technology drives reduction of the pixel size for higher integration density and resolution improvement. Microlenses are typically formed by photo resist patterning and thermal reflowing, and the space between photo resist is necessary to avoid merging of microlenses during thermal reflow process. With the shrinking sizes, microlenses become more and more difficult to manufacture without their merging. Hence, the key of light loss free microlens fabrication is still zero-space between microlenses. In this paper, we report the selection of the optimum shape of microlens by the dead space and the curvature of radius. The improvements of critical dimension and thickness uniformities of microlens are also reported.

  3. Alice's adventures in um-derland: Psycholinguistic sources of variation in disfluency production

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred most often when difficult material was already being produced and could be repeated, but fillers and silent pauses occurred most when difficult material was still being planned. Fillers were associated only with conceptual difficulties, consistent with the proposal that they reflect a communicative signal whereas silent pauses and repeats were also related to lexical and phonological difficulties. These differences are discussed in terms of different strategies available to the language production system. PMID:25339788

  4. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature and timing of paleoclimatic events in the Arctic Ocean. In order to attempt to answer some of these questions, baseline studies are imperative. This report discusses the distribution of benthic foraminifers in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores (figs. 1 and 2, table 1) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). A modern data set of benthic foraminiferal distribution is necessary for interpreting the paleoclimatic and oceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean.

  5. 1.55 um aluminum gallium indium arsenide strained MQW laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi

    At the 1.55 mum eye-safe, telecommunications operating wavelength, semiconductor diode lasers must have low threshold currents and operate at high temperatures without thermoelectric coolers. Existing diode lasers in this wavelength range based on the GaInAsP/InP materials system are very sensitive to operating temperature. To obtain high temperature, high power 1.55 mum semiconductor diode lasers, the AlGaInAs/InP materials system with strained quantum well (QW) active regions was investigated with the goal of improving temperature performance. A set of lasers with active regions consisting of different numbers of QWs (2 to 4) and different QW strains (1.2% and 1.6%) were designed taking into account the quaternary alloy bandgap of AlGaInAs, the effect of strain on the bandgap, and the quantum size effects within the QW. The active region growth temperature was optimized using photoluminescence intensity. The wafers were first processed into broad-area lasers and measured under pulsed injection. The characteristic threshold current temperature, T0, for all AlGaInAs lasers was higher (60-70 K) than for GaInAsP lasers. No strong dependence of temperature parameters on strain was observed, while properties varied significantly with the number of QWs. With more QWs, both internal efficiency and T0 increases, but internal loss increases, reducing the characteristic temperature of the differential efficiency T1. The results show that uncooled laser operation at 1.55 mum is very promising with strained AlGaInAs QWs. Ridge waveguide devices demonstrated low threshold and high output power as well as good temperature performance under continuous wave operation. Devices with different ridge heights were fabricated from one wafer and their performance was compared. It was found that current spreading was significant in these devices and a simple current density-versus-applied voltage analysis was developed to determine the spreading factor. The analysis shows that the current spreading was not effectively limited until etching went below the doped cladding layer. A recombination coefficient analysis was performed to investigate the effect of strain on Auger recombination predicted by theory. An indirect method to infer both the nonradiative recombination coefficient and the Auger recombination coefficient was initially used. The measured values of the recombination coefficients were consistent with theoretical predictions and measurements based on other material systems. The Auger recombination was lower than expected, indicating that Auger recombination is reduced in these strained QWs. To understand the carrier dynamics, impedance measurements were carried out for the first time in AlGaInAs strained QW lasers. A small-signal, sub-threshold equivalent circuit model was derived from the laser rate equations to model the measured laser impedance. Several characteristic carrier lifetimes were obtained directly from these electrical impedance measurements. From the temperature dependence of the QW escape time, it was found that hole rather than electron leakage is dominant in the AlGaInAs system due to the relatively low valence band offset. This may explain why the improvement of T0 in AlGaInAs QW 1.55 mum active regions is limited.

  6. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  7. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used...

  8. Synchronous and asynchronous multiplexer circuits for medical imaging realized in CMOS 0.18um technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Długosz, R.; Iniewski, K.

    2007-05-01

    Multiplexers are one of the most important elements in readout front-end ASICs for multi-element detectors in medical imaging. The purpose of these ASICs is to detect signals appearing randomly in many channels and to collect the detected data in an ordered fashion (de-randomization) in order to send it to an external ADC. ASIC output stage functionality can be divided into two: pulse detection and multiplexing. The pulse detection block is responsible for detecting maximum values of signals arriving from the shaper, sending a flag signal indicating that the peak signal has been detected and storing the pulse in an analog memory until read by ADC. The multiplexer in turn is responsible for searching for active flags, controlling the channel that has detected the peak signal and performing reset functions after readout. There are several types of multiplexers proposed in this paper, which can be divided into several classes: synchronous, synchronized and asynchronous. Synchronous circuits require availability of the multiphase clock generator, which increases the power dissipation, but simultaneously provide very convenient mechanism that enables unambiguous choice of the active channel. This characteristics leads to 100% effectiveness in data processing and no data loss. Asynchronous multiplexers do not require clock generators and because of that have simpler structure, are faster and more power efficient, especially when data samples occur seldom at the ASIC's inputs. The main problem of the asynchronous solution is when data on two or more inputs occur almost at the same time, shorter than the multiplexer's reaction time. In this situation some data can be lost. In many applications loss of the order of 1% of the data is acceptable, which makes use of asynchronous multiplexers possible. For applications when the lower loss is desirable a new hierarchy mechanism has been introduced. One of proposed solutions is a synchronized binary tree structure, that uses many simple asynchronous clock generators. This circuit joins advantages of synchronous and asynchronous solutions resulting in low power dissipation, high speed of operation and 100% effectiveness.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MIPS 24um calibrators (Engelbracht+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbracht, C. W.; Blaylock, M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rho, J.; Rieke, G. H.; Muzerolle, J.; Padgett, D. L.; Hines, D. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Kelly, D. M.; Latter, W. B.; Hinz, J. L.; Misselt, K. A.; Morrison, J. E.; Stansberry, J. A.; Shupe, D. L.; Stolovy, S.; Wheaton, W. A.; Young, E. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Wachter, S.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Frayer, D. T.; Marleau, F. R.

    2014-07-01

    The data were all obtained using the MIPS small-field photometry mode astronomical observation template (AOT). For most targets, two cycles of photometry using 3s exposures were obtained, resulting in 14 individual images at each of two telescope nod positions (excluding the short exposure that starts the data-taking sequence at each of the two telescope nod positions). Starting with the raw data downloaded from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC), these data were processed using version 3.06 of the MIPS Data Analysis Tool (DAT; Gordon et al., 2005PASP..117..503G), which performs standard processing of infrared detector array data (slope fitting, dark subtraction, linearity correction, flat fielding, and mosaicking), as well as steps specific to the array used in MIPS (droop correction and dynamic range extension using the first difference frame) -- these steps are described in more detail in the paper. (5 data files).

  10. Erbium laser with 2.69-um wavelength for use in the odontopreparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balin, Victor N.; Guk, Alexey S.; Jordanishwily, A. K.; Kropotov, Sergey P.; Maday, Dimitry Y.; Kusovkova, Tatyana A.; Serebryakov, Victor A.; Frolov, Sergey V.

    1995-04-01

    The paper presents the main results of the clinical study of the laser radiation with the wavelength 2.69 micrometers usage for the teeth caries preparation. This laser prospects for the dentistry are shown.

  11. Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse

    2012-03-01

    The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected observations such as these. The result was that the search for the possible explanations of this rise-and-fall phenomenon intensified. The generally favoured explanation was that there was an active sinking of sea level in the Baltic rather than an active rising of the land surface in Fennoscandia. This was because water was seen as mobile, in contrast to a „terra firma". The relevant discussion was often emotional, and here, we try to illustrate it using material from the Geologenarchiv Freiburg (von Hoff, von Buch and Goethe). No more than a few decades later, it became obvious by the theory of Ice Age that both the sea level and the land could be mobile (eustatic sea level changes—glacial isostasy). Additionally, of course, plate tectonics had some influence: Norway is situated at the western end of the Eurasian plate and is part of a passive continental margin. There are still open research problems, many of which can be addressed using modern methods of satellite-based geophysics and geodesy. Some other aspects as the permanent uplift trend of Scandinavia since the Cambrium or the rhythmic to and fro of magma in the upper mantle during the Pleistocene are mentioned.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dimethyl sulfide laboratory um, mm & FIR spectra (Jabri+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, A.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Tchana, F. K.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-02-01

    DMS was purchased from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Karlsruhe, Germany and used without further purification. The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. (3 data files).

  13. 250 um inner diameter hollow waveguide for Er:YAG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Katsumasa; Matsuura, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    Advanced application of Er:YAG laser radiation in medical treatment requires a suitable, very precise delivery of this light to a target. In some cases (urology, cardiology, or endodontic treatments), thin waveguides are needed. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted with 250/360 μm inner/outer diameter hollow glass waveguides. The waveguide has inner coating made from cyclic olefin polymer and silver layers. All delivery systems were simple and consisted of lens, protector, and the waveguide. The laser source was the Er:YAG system working in a free-running regime and generating radiation at 2.94 μm wavelength. For testing, output laser energy up to 100 mJ with a repetition rate of 1 Hz was chosen. The output laser spatial profile was approximately TEM00 mode, so the structure changes behind the delivery system were readily detected. The energy delivery characteristics were also checked, and the transmission reached 77%. The maximum input fluence into the waveguide was 200 mJ/cm2, and no significant damages to waveguides were observed after the measurements.

  14. Formation of toxic iodinated disinfection by-products from compounds used in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Duirk, Stephen E; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher C; Kormos, Jennifer; Ternes, Thomas A; Attene-Ramos, Matias; Osiol, Jennifer; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D

    2011-08-15

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical centers to enable imaging of soft tissues (e.g., organs, veins, blood vessels) and are designed to be inert substances, with 95% eliminated in urine and feces unmetabolized within 24 h. ICM are not well removed in wastewater treatment plants, such that they have been found at elevated concentrations in rivers and streams (up to 100 μg/L). Naturally occurring iodide in source waters is believed to be a primary source of iodine in the formation of iodo-DBPs, but a previous 23-city iodo-DBP occurrence study also revealed appreciable levels of iodo-DBPs in some drinking waters that had very low or no detectable iodide in their source waters. When 10 of the original 23 cities' source waters were resampled, four ICM were found--iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, and diatrizoate--with iopamidol most frequently detected, in 6 of the 10 plants sampled, with concentrations up to 2700 ng/L. Subsequent controlled laboratory reactions of iopamidol with aqueous chlorine and monochloramine in the absence of natural organic matter (NOM) produced only trace levels of iodo-DBPs; however, when reacted in real source waters (containing NOM), chlorine and monochloramine produced significant levels of iodo-THMs and iodo-acids, up to 212 nM for dichloroiodomethane and 3.0 nM for iodoacetic acid, respectively, for chlorination. The pH behavior was different for chlorine and monochloramine, such that iodo-DBP concentrations maximized at higher pH (8.5) for chlorine, but at lower pH (6.5) for monochloramine. Extracts from chloraminated source waters with and without iopamidol, as well as from chlorinated source waters with iopamidol, were the most cytotoxic samples in mammalian cells. Source waters with iopamidol but no

  15. Potential cerebral perfusion agents: synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated vinylalkylbarbituric acid analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Callahan, A.P.; Cunningham, E.B.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    A new iodinated barbiturate has been prepared. Treatment of 5-chloropentyne and propargyl bromide with diethyl 2-ethyl-2-sodiomalonate (DESM) provided diethyl 2-ethyl-2-(1-pentyn-5-yl)malonate (3) and diethyl 2-ethyl-2-propargylmalonate (4), respectively. Similar condensation of DESM with (E)-(5-iodo-1-penten-1-yl)boronic acid (9) or the reaction of catecholborane with 3 provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-borono-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (8). The direct sodium iodide-chloramine-T iodination of 8 or the treatment of (E)-1,5-diiodo-1-pentene (10) with DESM provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (11). The condensation of functionalized malonates 3, 4, and 11 with urea in the presence of a base provided the corresponding barbiturates, 5-ethyl-5-(1-pentyn-5-yl)-(5), 5-ethyl-5-propargyl- (6), and (E)-5-ethyl-5-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)barbituric acid (12), respectively. (E)-6-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylic acid (13) was isolated as the hydrolytic byproduct of 11. Compound 13 decarboxylated under vacuum to provide ethyl (E)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylate (14). The /sup 125/I-labeled congeners of 12 and 13 were synthesized in the same manner and evaluated in rats. The barbiturate 12 exhibited significant brain uptake (approximately 1% dose after 5 min), demonstrating that iodinated barbiturates freely cross the intact blood-brain barrier.

  16. Synthesis and Pharmacology of 1-Alkyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles: Steric and Electronic Effects of 4- and 8-Halogenated Naphthoyl Substituents.

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Smith, Valerie J.; Chen, Jianhong; Martin, Billy R.; Huffman, John W.

    2012-01-01

    To develop SAR at both the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors for 3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles bearing moderately electron withdrawing substituents at C-4 of the naphthoyl moiety, 1-propyl and 1-pentyl-3-(4-fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl) derivatives were prepared. To study the steric and electronic effects of substituents at the 8-position of the naphthoyl group, the 3-(4-chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl)indoles were also synthesized. The affinities of both groups of compounds for the CB1 and CB2 receptors were determined and several of them were evaluated in vivo in the mouse. The effects of these substituents on receptor affinities and in vivo activity are discussed and structure-activity relationships are presented. Although many of these compounds are selective for the CB2 receptor, only three JWH-423, 1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, JWH-422, 2-methyl-1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, the 2-methyl analog of JWH-423 and JWH-417, 1-pentyl-3-(8-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, possess the desirable combination of low CB1 affinity and good CB2 affinity. PMID:22341572

  17. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  18. In-line charge-trapping characterization of dielectrics for sub-0.5-um CMOS technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pradip K.; Chacon, Carlos M.; Ma, Yi; Horner, Gregory

    1997-09-01

    The advent of ultra-large and giga-scale-integration (ULSI/GSI) has placed considerable emphasis on the development of new gate oxides and interlevel dielectrics capable of meeting strict performance and reliability requirements. The costs and demands associated with ULSI fabrication have in turn fueled the need for cost-effective, rapid and accurate in-line characterization techniques for evaluating dielectric quality. The use of non-contact surface photovoltage characterization techniques provides cost-effective rapid feedback on dielectric quality, reducing costs through the reutilization of control wafers and the elimination of processing time. This technology has been applied to characterize most of the relevant C-V parameters, including flatband voltage (Vfb), density of interface traps (Dit), mobile charge density (Qm), oxide thickness (Tox), oxide resistivity (pox) and total charge (Qtot) for gate and interlevel (ILO) oxides. A novel method of measuring tunneling voltage by this technique on various gate oxides is discussed. For ILO, PECVD and high density plasma dielectrics, surface voltage maps are also presented. Measurements of near-surface silicon quality are described, including minority carrier generation lifetime, and examples of their application in diagnosing manufacturing problems.

  19. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  20. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  1. Laser-tissue interactions (bone and cartilage) at the 2.9-um erbium:YAG wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Kirk E.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1994-09-01

    A new flexible handheld delivery system for the Erbium:YAG laser has recently been developed. We studied the ability of this system to deliver energy levels sufficient to cut human cadaveric femoral condylar bone and meniscal tissue, and evaluated the histologic effects and quality of those cuts. Furrowing cuts were made with the 2.9-micrometers Erbium:YAG laser in human cadaveric femoral condylar bone and meniscal tissue. Multiple cuts were delivered through a flexible handpiece with a focusing tip using five different energy settings ranging from 200 mj to 1000 mj at 10 Hz. The tissue samples were fixed and stained with HE and Trichrome. Microscopic analysis was completed and data is reported as direct measurements of histologic damage based on differential staining characteristics. This study shows that sufficient energy to cut cartilage and bone can be delivered through a flexible handheld device. The cut surfaces showed outstanding quality and minimal tissue damage, especially when compared to the Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, and the CO2 lasers, none of which adequately cut bone at the present time.

  2. 1.9-um diode-laser-assisted anastomoses in reconstructive microsurgery: preliminary results in 12 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Schoffs, Michel; Martinot, Veronique L.; Buys, Bruno; Patenotre, Philippe; Lesage, Jean C.; Dhelin, Guy

    1998-01-01

    The authors reported an original 1.9 micrometer diode laser assisted microvascular anastomosis (LAMA) in human. This technique has been applied in 12 patients during reconstructive surgery for digital replantations (n equals 2), for digital revascularizations (n equals 3) and for free flap transfers (n equals 7). Fourteen end-to-end anastomoses (10 arteries, 4 veins) were performed. LAMA were always performed on vessel which did not impede the chance of success of the surgical procedure in case of thrombosis. LAMA was performed with a 1.9 micrometer diode laser after placement of 2 equidistant stitches. The didoes spot was obtained by means of an optic fiber transmitted to the vessel wall via a pencil size hand piece. The used parameters were as followed: spot size equals 400 micrometer, power equals 70 to 220 mW, time equals 0.7 to 2 seconds, mean fluence equals 115 J/cm2. The mechanism involved is a thermal effect on the collagen of the adventitia and media leading to a phenomena which the authors have termed 'heliofusion.' This preliminary trial has permitted to define the modalities of its use in human. The technique is simple, rapid and easily learned. The equipment is not cumbersome, sterilizable and very ergonomic. LAMA does not replace sutures but is complementary, thanks to a reduction in the number of stitches used and to an access to surgical areas which are not easily accessible. This study must be completed by a larger scale study to confirm this technique and its reliability. Others uses could performed on different tissues such as biliary and urinary track, specially under laparoscopic conditions.

  3. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  4. Development of a 1- to 1.7-um image intensifier tube using a Generation III configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.; Lambert, Steve; Passmore, Keith T.; Phillips, David L.; Vernon, Stan M.; Glosser, Robert; Flynt, William E.; Rector, M. A.

    1993-11-01

    We present the development of a near infrared image intensifier tube based on a Generation III configuration. The photocathode driving this tube is based on a negative-electron-affinity (NEA) InGaAs design. The surface and crystalline quality of the InGaAs active layer for this device is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-rays (EDX), and Auger spectroscopy. Room temperature and 77 K photoluminescence (PL) and transmission measurements indicate the near infrared responsivity (1.2 - 1.7 micrometers ) of the InGaAs active layer. Reflection mode measurements of the photoresponse (PR) in an ultra high vacuum environment produced white light sensitivities of 100 (mu) A/lumen and quantum efficiencies of approximately 1% for wavelengths of 1300 - 1600 nm at 300 K. Sealed image tubes were created, and early sealed tube results show low quantum efficiencies (approximately 0.1% 1550 nm) due to nonoptimized active layer thickness.

  5. Beta-adrenoceptor mediated signal transduction in congestive heart failure in cardiomyopathic (UM-X7.1) hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kaura, D; Takeda, N; Sethi, R; Wang, X; Nagano, M; Dhalla, N S

    In view of the lack of information regarding the status of beta-adrenoceptor mediated signal transduction mechanisms at severe stages of congestive heart failure, the status of beta-adrenoceptors, G-proteins and adenylyl cyclase activities was examined in 220-275 day old cardiomyopathic hamster hearts. Although no changes in the Kd values for beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors were seen, the number of beta 1-adrenoceptors, unlike that of beta 2-adrenoceptors, was markedly decreased in cardiac membranes from failing hearts. The activation of adenylyl cyclase in the failing hearts by different concentrations of isoproterenol was also attenuated in comparison to the control preparations. The basal adenylyl cyclase activity in cardiac membranes from the failing hearts was not altered; however, the stimulated enzyme activities, when measured in the presence of forskolin, NaF or Gpp(NH)p were depressed significantly. The functional activity of Gs-proteins (measured by cholera toxin stimulation of adenylyl cyclase) was depressed whereas that of Gi-proteins (measured by pertussis toxin stimulation of adenylyl cyclase) was increased in the failing hearts. Not only were the Gs- and Gi-protein contents (measured by immunoblotting) increased, the bioactivities of these proteins as determined by ADP-ribosylations in the presence of cholera toxin and pertussis toxin, respectively, were also higher in failing hearts in comparison to the control values. Northern blot analysis revealed that the signals for Gs- and Gi-protein mRNAs were augmented at this stage of heart failure. These results indicate that the loss of adrenergic support at severe stages of congestive heart failure in cardiomyopathic hamsters may involve a reduction in the number of beta 1-adrenoceptors, and an increase in Gi-protein contents as well as bioactivities in addition to an uncoupling of Gs-proteins from the catalytic site of adenylyl cyclase in cardiac membrane. PMID:8739246

  6. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  7. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  8. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de, Paz A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  10. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  11. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  12. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  13. Interaction of insulin-like growth factor I with porcine thyroid cells cultured in monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Saji, M.; Tsushima, T.; Isozaki, O.; Murakami, H.; Ohba, Y.; Sato, K.; Arai, M.; Mariko, A.; Shizume, K.

    1987-08-01

    The interaction of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with porcine thyroid cells cultured in monolayer was studied. Specific binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I to thyroid cells was a reversible process dependent on the time and temperature of incubation. A steady state was achieved in 18 h at 4 C and averaged 14.2 +/- 2% (mean +/- SD)/10(6) cells. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I was inhibited by unlabeled IGF-I; half-maximal inhibition occurred at concentrations of 2-5 ng/ml. Multiplication-stimulating activity (rat IGF-II) and pork insulin had relative potencies of 1:20 and 1:300 compared with IGF-I. Scatchard analysis of binding data revealed a single class of IGF-I receptors with a Ka of 4.3 X 10(10) M-1, 49,000 binding sites were estimated per cell. Affinity cross-linking and autoradiography demonstrated the presence of type I IGF receptors. Thyroid cells also had specific receptors for insulin, but specific binding of (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin was much lower than that of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I. Preincubation of thyroid cells with IGF-I or insulin caused a concentration-dependent decrease in (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I binding due to an apparent loss of receptors. Preincubation with epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or TSH did not alter subsequent binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I. Low concentrations of IGF-I stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation of thyroid cells and acted synergistically with epidermal growth factor. Multiplication-stimulating activity and insulin had relative potencies in stimulating DNA synthesis comparable to their abilities to inhibit the binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I to thyroid cells.

  14. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect

    Roman Vladimirovich Rozhkov

    2004-12-19

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a {beta}-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in {beta}-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the {alpha}-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  15. Synthesis of 5-bromopyridyl-2-magnesium chloride and its application in the synthesis of functionalized pyridines.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinhua J; Yee, Nathan K; Tan, Zhulin; Xu, Jinghua; Kapadia, Suresh R; Senanayake, Chris H

    2004-12-23

    [reaction: see text] The 5-bromopyridyl-2-magnesium chloride (2), which was not accessible previously, was efficiently synthesized for the first time via an iodo-magnesium exchange reaction with 5-bromo-2-iodopyridine (1). This reactive intermediate was allowed to react with a variety of electrophiles to afford a range of useful functionalized pyridine derivatives. Application of this methodology to 5-bromo-2-iodo-3-picoline provided a simple and economical synthesis of a key intermediate for the preparation of Lonafarnib, a potent anticancer agent.

  16. Total Synthesis and Structural Revision of the Cytotoxin Aruncin B.

    PubMed

    Ribaucourt, Aubert; Hodgson, David M

    2016-09-01

    The sodium salts E-15 and Z-15 of the originally proposed dihydropyran acid structure of aruncin B (1) were prepared through ring-closing alkene metathesis (RCM) and ethoxyselenation-selenoxide elimination, but acid sensitivity of these salts, together with inconsistencies in the spectral data, suggested a significant structural misassignment. A β-iodo Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction to give Z-iodo ester 24, followed by Sonogashira cross-coupling-5-exo-dig lactonization, provided concise access to a Z-γ-alkylidenebutenolide 18, which possessed data corresponding to those originally reported for aruncin B. PMID:27529438

  17. Atypical responses of rat ileum to pindolol, cyanopindolol and iodocyanopindolol.

    PubMed

    Hoey, A; Jackson, C; Pegg, G; Sillence, M

    1996-02-01

    1. Pindolol, cyanopindolol (CYP) and iodocyanopindolol (IodoCYP) have been reported to act either as antagonists, agonists or partial agonists at the beta 3-adrenoceptor in different preparations. A comprehensive investigation has not yet been described with these compounds tested in one tissue from one species. This study was conducted to delineate the pharmacological effects of pindolol, CYP and IodoCYP and to provide data on their affinities at the predominant beta-adrenoceptor in rat ileum. 2. The beta-adrenoceptors present in rat ileum were characterized in the presence of CGP 20712A and ICI 118 551, atropine and corticosterone, with (-)-isoprenaline used as an agonist. The role of the beta 1 and beta 2-adrenoceptors was determined by the omission of either CGP 20712A, ICI 118 551, or both, from the buffers. Conversely, the effectiveness of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade was examined by use of the beta 1-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, RO 363 and the beta 2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, salbutamol. 3. There was no evidence for the presence of functional beta 1-adrenoceptors, and no strong evidence that beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation contributed to the relaxant effects of (-)-isoprenaline. (-)-Phenylephrine did not produce relaxation of the tissue and 5-hydroxytryptamine produced contraction. 4. The beta 3-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, BRL 37344 and (-)-isoprenaline were potent full agonists (pD2 8.35 +/- 0.04 and 7.76 +/- 0.14 respectively), whereas ICI D7114 was less potent (pseudo pD2 6.92 +/- 0.15). These results indicate that the predominant functional beta-adrenoceptors in rat ileum are beta 3-adrenoceptors. 5. Partial agonist effects were produced by CYP (pD2 5.28 +/- 0.26) and IodoCYP (pD2 7.0 +/- 0.26), but not pindolol. All three compounds antagonized the effects of (-)-isoprenaline with pKb values of 6.68 +/- 0.10, 7.59 +/- 0.07 and 7.59 +/- 0.11 for pindolol, CYP and IodoCYP respectively. Likewise, CYP and IodoCYP antagonized the

  18. Atypical responses of rat ileum to pindolol, cyanopindolol and iodocyanopindolol.

    PubMed Central

    Hoey, A.; Jackson, C.; Pegg, G.; Sillence, M.

    1996-01-01

    1. Pindolol, cyanopindolol (CYP) and iodocyanopindolol (IodoCYP) have been reported to act either as antagonists, agonists or partial agonists at the beta 3-adrenoceptor in different preparations. A comprehensive investigation has not yet been described with these compounds tested in one tissue from one species. This study was conducted to delineate the pharmacological effects of pindolol, CYP and IodoCYP and to provide data on their affinities at the predominant beta-adrenoceptor in rat ileum. 2. The beta-adrenoceptors present in rat ileum were characterized in the presence of CGP 20712A and ICI 118 551, atropine and corticosterone, with (-)-isoprenaline used as an agonist. The role of the beta 1 and beta 2-adrenoceptors was determined by the omission of either CGP 20712A, ICI 118 551, or both, from the buffers. Conversely, the effectiveness of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade was examined by use of the beta 1-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, RO 363 and the beta 2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, salbutamol. 3. There was no evidence for the presence of functional beta 1-adrenoceptors, and no strong evidence that beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation contributed to the relaxant effects of (-)-isoprenaline. (-)-Phenylephrine did not produce relaxation of the tissue and 5-hydroxytryptamine produced contraction. 4. The beta 3-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, BRL 37344 and (-)-isoprenaline were potent full agonists (pD2 8.35 +/- 0.04 and 7.76 +/- 0.14 respectively), whereas ICI D7114 was less potent (pseudo pD2 6.92 +/- 0.15). These results indicate that the predominant functional beta-adrenoceptors in rat ileum are beta 3-adrenoceptors. 5. Partial agonist effects were produced by CYP (pD2 5.28 +/- 0.26) and IodoCYP (pD2 7.0 +/- 0.26), but not pindolol. All three compounds antagonized the effects of (-)-isoprenaline with pKb values of 6.68 +/- 0.10, 7.59 +/- 0.07 and 7.59 +/- 0.11 for pindolol, CYP and IodoCYP respectively. Likewise, CYP and IodoCYP antagonized the

  19. Thyroid carcinoma in children and young adults: retrospective review of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Joana; Ribeiro, Cristina; Melo, Miguel; Gomes, Leonor; Costa, Gracinda; Carrilho, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma da tiróide é raro em crianças e em adultos jovens. A maior parte das orientações clínicas baseia-se em dados obtidos na população adulta. Persistem diversas controvérsias no que se refere à agressividade da apresentação clínica e da abordagem terapêutica.Objectivo: Avaliar todos os doentes com carcinoma da tiróide com menos de 20 anos no momento da apresentação, reflectindo a experiência da nossa unidade relativamente ao diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento desta entidade.Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de revisão retrospectiva dos registos clínicos de todas as crianças e adultos jovens seguidos na Consulta de Oncologia do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra entre 1996 e 2012 .Resultados: Foram estudados 19 doentes, com uma média etária de 16 anos, sendo 13 do sexo feminino. Nenhum dos doentes fora previamente submetido a irradiação da região do pescoço. A queixa de apresentação era a presença de uma massa cervical palpável em 84,6% dos casos. Foi realizada citologia aspirativa em 15 doentes, que foi diagnóstica ou suspeita de neoplasia em 71,4% dos casos. A tiroidectomia total foi levada a cabo em 18 casos (94,7%). Em todos estes foi identificada a presença de um carcinoma papilar. A invasão vascular e multicêntrica ocorreu em 21,1% dos casos. A dimensão tumoral média foi de 2,5 cm. O envolvimento ganglionar cervical foi diagnosticado em 31,6% dos casos e a presença de metástases à distância foi identificada em 5,2% dos casos. Na maior parte dos doentes (18 em 19), o quadro foi classificado como doença em estadio I. Todos os doentes fizeram terapêutica supressora com tiroxina e 84,2% dos doentes foram submetidos a ablação pós-operatória com iodo radioactivo (dose média de 85,7mCi). Durante um seguimento médio de cerca de 6 anos, 16 doentes permaneceram em remissão.Conclusão: Na nossa série, as taxas de metastização ganglionar cervical

  20. 75 FR 50914 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Federal Register of March 19, 2010 (75 FR 13277-13280) (FRL- 8813-2), EPA issued a notice pursuant to...-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl-3-iodo- N\\1\\- phenyl]- 1,2-benzenedicarboxamide, in/on pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6B at 0.04 parts per million (ppm); pea and bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C at...

  1. Rate of Hydrolysis of Tertiary Halogeno Alkanes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure the relative rate of hydrolysis of the 2-x-2 methylpropanes, where x is bromo, chloro or iodo. The results are plotted on a graph from which the relative rate of hydrolysis can be deduced. (Author/GA)

  2. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  3. Pyridine-promoted dediazoniation of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates: Application to the synthesis of SF5-substituted phenylboronic esters and iodobenzenes

    PubMed Central

    Iakobson, George; Du, Junyi; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pyridine promotes dediazoniation of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates. The formed aryl radicals were trapped with B2pin2, iodine, or tetrahydrofuran to afford boronic esters, iodobenzenes and benzenes, respectively. The application to the synthesis of (pentafluorosulfanyl)phenylboronic esters, iodo(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes and (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene is shown. PMID:26425206

  4. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 2'-C-methyl analogues of 5-alkynyl- and 6-alkylfurano- and pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine ribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Januszczyk, Piotr; Fogt, Joanna; Boryski, Jerzy; Izawa, Kunisuke; Onishi, Tomoyuki; Neyts, Johan; De Clercq, Erik

    2009-05-01

    A series of novel 2'-C-methylribonucleosides, involving 5-iodo and 5-alkynyl uridine analogues as well as related bicyclic furano- and pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidinone compounds, has been synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effect on replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The new nucleoside analogues did not show meaningful anti-HCV activity. PMID:20183611

  5. Synthesis of highly fluorinated 2,2'-biphenols and 2,2'-bisanisoles.

    PubMed

    Francke, Robert; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2010-10-01

    Multiply fluorine-substituted iodo anisoles are efficiently coupled in an Ullmann-type reaction to provide the corresponding bisanisoles. The coupling is selective and even tolerates bromo moieties. Subsequent deprotection of hydroxy groups gives access to highly fluorinated biphenols. PMID:20804172

  6. Total synthsis of (+)-ambuic acid: α-bromination with 1,2-dibromotetrachloroethane.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun Hee; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Lee, Sung Il; Ryu, Do Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Total synthesis of (+)-ambuic acid has been accomplished from the readily available stereocontrolled Diels-Alder adduct of cyclopentadiene and iodo-1,4-benzoquinone monoketal through an efficient series of steps. A new method for the highly commendable synthesis of α-brominated Diels-Alder adduct is described. PMID:22280015

  7. MICROWAVE-INDUCED, SOLVENT-FREE TRANSFORMATIONS OF BENZOHETERACYCLANONES BY HTIB (KOSER'S REAGENT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microwave-activated reaction of [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene (HTIB) with various chromanones, thiochromanones and dihydroquinolones under solvent-free conditions has been studied. In addition to the common dehydrogenation, 2,3-migration has also been observed in the case of...

  8. A building block approach to the synthesis of a family of S-linked α-1,6-oligomannosides.

    PubMed

    Belz, Tyson; Williams, Spencer J

    2016-06-24

    The syntheses of α-1,6-S-linked methyl di-, tetra- and hexamannosides are reported. The sulfur linkages are generated through coupling of thiolates (derived from anomeric thioacetates or isothiouronium bromides) with 6-deoxy-6-iodo sugars. Two approaches are detailed that involve [2 + 2 + 2] construction from either the reducing end or the non-reducing end. In constructing from the reducing end, coupling of a disaccharide thioacetate with a 6'-iodo reducing end disaccharide, followed by activation of the resulting tetrasaccharide to a 6'''-iodide, and iterative coupling with the same disaccharide thioacetate afforded the S-linked hexasaccharide, as well as the intermediate di- and tetrasaccharides. On the other hand, construction from the non-reducing end involved coupling of the above disaccharide thioacetate with an anomeric S-trityl protected 6'-iodo disaccharide. The resulting S-trityl tetrasaccharide was converted to a tetrasaccharide thioacetate, which was coupled with the same anomeric S-trityl protected 6'-iodo disaccharide to afford the hexasaccharide, which was elaborated to the methyl thioglycoside. The developed methodology may prove useful for the construction of other S-linked oligosaccharides. PMID:27129668

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene Isobutyl alcohol (1-Propanol...-) Methylene chloride (Methane, dichloro-) Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (2-Butanone) Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (2-Butanone, peroxide) Methyl hydrazine (Hydrazine, methyl-) Methyl iodide (Methane, iodo-)...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene Isobutyl alcohol (1-Propanol...-) Methylene chloride (Methane, dichloro-) Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (2-Butanone) Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (2-Butanone, peroxide) Methyl hydrazine (Hydrazine, methyl-) Methyl iodide (Methane, iodo-)...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene Isobutyl alcohol (1-Propanol...-) Methylene chloride (Methane, dichloro-) Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (2-Butanone) Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (2-Butanone, peroxide) Methyl hydrazine (Hydrazine, methyl-) Methyl iodide (Methane, iodo-)...

  12. Modular Approach to 9-Monosubstituted Fluorene Derivatives Using Mo(V) Reagents.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, Peter; Trosien, Simon; Schubert, Moritz; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative coupling using molybdenum(V) reagents provides fast access to highly functionalized 9-monosubstituted fluorenes. This synthetic approach is highly modular, is high yielding, and tolerates a variety of labile moieties, e.g. amides or iodo groups. The established protocol leads to promising precursors for pharmacologically important analogues of melatonin. PMID:26913835

  13. Reaction of polyfluoroalkyl fluorosulfates with N-nucleophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Fokin, A.V.; Rapkin, A.I.; Tatarinov, A.S.; Titov, V.A.; Studnev, Yu.N.

    1986-08-20

    Polyfluoroalkyl fluorosulfates react with hydrazines and ammonia to form hydrazines and amides of the corresponding polyfluorocarboxylic acids. Treatment of ethereal solutions of ..beta..-iodo- and ..beta..-bromooctafluoroisobutyl fluorosulfates by ammonia leads to the halogenation of the ester and formation of the ethyl ester of ..cap alpha..-hydrohexafluoroisobutyric acid, and correspondingly, ethyl iodide or ethyl bromide.

  14. Halide exchanged Hoveyda-type complexes in olefin metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Wappel, Julia; Urbina-Blanco, César A; Abbas, Mudassar; Albering, Jörg H; Saf, Robert; Nolan, Steven P

    2010-01-01

    Summary The aims of this contribution are to present a straightforward synthesis of 2nd generation Hoveyda-type olefin metathesis catalysts bearing bromo and iodo ligands, and to disclose the subtle influence of the different anionic co-ligands on the catalytic performance of the complexes in ring opening metathesis polymerisation, ring closing metathesis, enyne cycloisomerisation and cross metathesis reactions. PMID:21160566

  15. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  16. Receptor-mediated mechanism for the transport of prolactin from blood to cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, R.J.; Slaby, F.J.; Posner, B.I.

    1987-05-01

    Prolactin (PRL) interacts with areas of the central nervous system which reside behind the blood-brain barrier. While vascular PRL does not cross this barrier, it is readily accessible to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from which it may gain access to the PRL-responsive areas of the brain. Studies were undertaken to characterize the mechanism responsible for the translocation of PRL from blood to CSF. Rats were given external jugular vein injections of (/sup 125/-I)iodo-PRL in the presence or absence of an excess of unlabeled ovine PRL (oPRL), human GH, bovine GH, or porcine insulin. CSF and choroid plexus were removed 60 min later. CSF samples were electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gels and resultant autoradiographs were analyzed with quantitative microdensitometry. The data revealed that unlabeled lactogenic hormones, viz. oPRL and human GH, caused a statistically significant inhibition of (/sup 125/I)iodo-PRL transport from blood to CSF. In contrast, nonlactogenic hormones, viz bovine GH and insulin, had no effect on (/sup 125/I)iodo-PRL transport into the CSF. An identical pattern of competition was observed in the binding of hormone to the choroid plexus. Furthermore, vascular injections of (/sup 125/I)iodo-PRL administered with a range of concentrations of unlabeled oPRL revealed a dose-response inhibition in the transport of (/sup 125/I)iodo-PRL from blood to CSF. The study demonstrates that PRL enters the CSF by a specific, PRL receptor-mediated transport mechanism. The data is consistent with the hypothesis that the transport mechanism resides at the choroid plexus. The existence of this transport mechanism reflects the importance of the cerebroventricular system in PRL-brain interactions.

  17. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  18. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  19. A temperature-controlled cell for X-ray study of liquid systems using a commercial DRON-UM1 diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Petrun`kin, S.P.; Garavina, E.V.; Trostin, V.N.

    1995-02-01

    A container (cell) and a temperature-control system have been designed enabling one to carry out x-ray diffraction study of liquid samples both at a fixed temperature and within a certain temperature range using a commercial DRON-UMl x-ray diffractometer. Special features of the cell and the materials used for it allow one to study both chemically inert and corrosive liquids.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Library of Spectra (0.5 to 2.5um) of Cool Stars (Lancon+ 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancon, A.; Wood, P. R.

    2000-07-01

    The present catalogue contains 182 low resolution optical spectra, 145 medium resolution (R~1100) near-IR spectra, and 112 merged optical+near-IR spectra that range from about 510 to 2450 nm. The observed stars are luminous cool objects: the sample includes red giants, red supergiants, oxygen rich and carbon rich long period variables (asymptotic giant branch stars), as well as a few Galactic Bulge and LMC/SMC stars. The optical data were acquired on the so-called 74 inch Telescope at Mount Stromlo Observatory. The near-IR data were acquired with the Cryogenic Array Spectrometer and Imager CASPIR on the 2.3 meter Australian National University Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. Optical and near-IR data for variable objects have been merged only when both were taken less than 15 days apart; but both spectral ranges are also provided separately. The spectra are corrected for telluric absorption. However, in regions where the transmission of the Earth atmosphere is close to zero the fluxes recovered remain highly uncertain. The flux calibration is based on a series of reference stars, for which a theoretical intrinsic energy distribution was assumed. An absolute flux calibration (to about 10% accuracy) was only achieved in exceptional cases; in the other cases, the absolute fluxes can be off their real values by an order of magnitude due to slit losses (for the programme star and/or the reference star) and to non-photometric wheather. Uncertainties in the relative values of fluxes along each spectrum are described in the paper. (8 data files).

  1. Commissioning results of MMT-POL: the 1-5um imaging polarimeter leveraged from the AO secondary of the 6.5m MMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Warner, C.; Krejny, M.; Shenoy, D.; Vonderharr, T.; Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; DeWahl, K.

    2012-09-01

    MMT-POL is an adaptive optics optimized imaging polarimeter designed for use at the 6.5m MMT. By taking full advantage of the adaptive optics secondary mirror of the MMT, this polarimeter offers diffraction-limited polarimetry with very low instrumental polarization and minimal thermal background. MMT-POL permits observations as diverse as protoplanetary discs, comets, red giant winds, (super)novae and ejecta, galaxies, and AGN. We report on the initial on-sky commissioning results of the instrument including a description of the instrument.

  2. A Synchrotron-Based Facility for the in-situ Location, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of ~10 um Particles Captured in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.; Sutton, S; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust mission collected dust from the coma of Comet Wild-2 on January 2nd, 2004, by direct capture into aerogel cells that flew through the dust coma at 6 km/s. Stardust collected several hundred comet particles >10 {mu}m in size. These comet samples were delivered to Earth on January 15th, 2006. We developed a facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY, USA) for the in-situ characterization of 10 {mu}m particles collected in aerogel. These analytical instruments allow us to perform extensive chemical, mineralogical, and size-frequency characterization of particles captured in aerogel. These analyses are conducted without any invasive extraction, minimizing the possibility of contamination or particle loss during preparation. This facility was used to determine the chemical composition, the oxidation state, the mineralogy and to provide an indication of the grain size of the Wild-2 particles before they were removed from the aerogel. This information provides a catalog of particle types, allowing a more reasoned allocation of the particles to subsequent investigators based on a relatively detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and mineralogy of each particle. These measurements allowed a comparison of the chemical and mineralogical properties of the Wild-2 particles with other types of extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The success of in-situ analysis for Wild 2 particles demonstrates that synchrotron-based facilities will be important for the analysis of particles collected in aerogel on future earth-orbiting satellites and spacecraft.

  3. Effects of resist strip processing damage on the electrical characteristics of 0.8-um a-Si antifuse circuit elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, Felix; Vines, Landon B.; Ravindhran, K. S.; Han, Yu-Pin; Echtle, Danny; Garcia, Annette; Richardson, Brian; Weling, Milind; Hickey, James; Loh, Ying-Tsong

    1994-09-01

    Field-programmable ASICs have been implemented using a variety of programmable circuit elements, including SRAM, EPROM, E2PROM, and antifuse cells. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) antifuse cells offer greater packing densities and superior performance compared to cells based on memory elements, and they can be integrated into conventional multi-layer integrated circuits with the addition of several process modules. Despite their advantages, a potential yield issue with a-Si antifuses is that their electrical characteristics can be affected by damage from manufacturing processes. In this study, it is found that the programming voltage is reduced when a solvent-based post-resist strip solution is applied to the bottom electrode layer of TiW. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) shows that the resist strip solution increases the micro-roughness of TiW films. It is also found that the `off-'state leakage current increases when the solution is applied to the a-Si antifuse layer. The amount of the leakage current increase is related to the amount of a-Si loss due to the strip solution.

  4. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  5. The FLARE mission: deep and wide-field 1-5um imaging and spectroscopy for the early universe: a proposal for M5 cosmic vision call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgarella, D.; Levacher, P.; Vives, S.; Dohlen, K.; Pascal, S.

    2016-07-01

    FLARE (First Light And Reionization Explorer) is a space mission that will be submitted to ESA (M5 call). Its primary goal (~80% of lifetime) is to identify and study the universe before the end of the reionization at z > 6. A secondary objective (~20% of lifetime) is to survey star formation in the Milky Way. FLARE's strategy optimizes the science return: imaging and spectroscopic integral-field observations will be carried out simultaneously on two parallel focal planes and over very wide instantaneous fields of view. FLARE will help addressing two of ESA's Cosmic Vision themes: a) << How did the universe originate and what is it made of? » and b) « What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? >> and more specifically, << From gas and dust to stars and planets >>. FLARE will provide to the ESA community a leading position to statistically study the early universe after JWST's deep but pin-hole surveys. Moreover, the instrumental development of wide-field imaging and wide-field integral-field spectroscopy in space will be a major breakthrough after making them available on ground-based telescopes.

  6. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  7. Derivation of a Large Isotopic Diffuse Sky Emission Component at 1.25 and 2.2um from the COBE/DIRBE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained with COBE/DIRBE, we reanalyzed the diffuse sky brightness at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}}, which consists of zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic emission including the extragalactic background light. Our new analysis including an improved estimate of the DGL and the ISL with the 2MASS data showed that deviations of the isotropic emission from isotropy were less than 10% in the entire sky at high Galactic latitude (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). We derived the DGL to 100 μm brightness ratios of ˜4.79 and ˜1.49 n W m-2 MJy-1 at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, respectively. The result of our analysis revealed a significantly large isotropic component at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}} with intensities of 60.15 ± 16.14 and 27.68+/- 6.21 {{n}} {{W}} {{{m}}}-2 {{sr}}-1, respectively. This intensity is larger than the integrated galaxy light, upper limits from γ-ray observation, and potential contribution from exotic sources (i.e., Population III stars, intrahalo light, direct collapse black holes, and dark stars). We therefore conclude that the excess light may originate from the local universe: the Milky Way and/or the solar system.

  8. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  9. High Resolution Spectroscopy of H212C16O in the 1.9 to 2.56 um Spectral Range

    SciTech Connect

    Flaud, J-M; Lafferty, Walter J.; Sams, Robert L.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    2006-06-20

    Infrared spectra of H2CO covering the 1.9 ? 2.5 ?m spectral domain have been recorded at very high resolution (0.005 cm-1) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of this spectral region has led to the observation and analysis of the v1+v6, v2+v4+v6, 2v3+ v6, v3+v5, v1+v2, v2+v5, 2v2+ v6 and 3v2 bands. The line frequencies were calculated using effective (empirical) Hamiltonian models which account for the main Coriolis and vibrational interactions. Using an interactive scheme it was then possible to least-squares fit the observed energy levels to within a few thousandths of a wavenumber. The Obs. ? Calc. differences do not match the spectral precision ({approx}0.0008 cm-1), but given the congestion in the spectrum resulting from the density of the vibrational states as well as the large centrifugal distortion and Coriolis and anharmonic coupling effects, we believe that a reasonable agreement was obtained.

  10. Leo de Ball and his contributions to international astronomical projects around 1900. (German Title: Leo de Ball und seine Beiträge zu internationalen Astronomieprojekten um 1900)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1891 until 1916 Leo de Ball was the director of the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. Born in Germany in 1853, he studied at Berlin and Bonn. After having received his doctorate in 1877, he became assistant at Gotha. From 1881 to 1882 he worked at the observatory in Bothkamp, where he discovered the minor planet ``Athamantis''. In 1883, he followed an invitation to the Ougrée Observatory in Belgium. Here he published some quite remarkable papers on the mass of Saturn and was also introduced to meridian circle astronomy. In 1891 he received a call to Moriz von Kuffner's observatory in Vienna. During that time the Astronomische Gesellschaft called for an extension of the ``Zonenunternehmen'' to southern declinations from -2 ° to -23°. De Ball took over the zone -5°50´ to -10°50´. This work occupied most of his time from 1892 to 1896. In 1900 Leo de Ball initiated a project for determining relative parallaxes of 252 stars in collaboration with four observatories. Although the project was only partly executed, Leo de Ball published relative parallaxes of 16 stars, observed from 1901 to 1907 with the Vienna heliometer.

  11. Confusion about a little observatory: the history of the first high school observatory (German Title: Verwirrung um eine kleine Sternwarte: Die Geschichte der ersten Chemnitzer Schulsternwarte )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Elvira

    By means of a small watercolor, painted by a musicologist, the existence of the highschool observatory of Chemnitz was rediscovered. The small observatory was build in 1893 by means of funds and a donation: after WW I it was also used for popular education. During Nazi times, the observatory fell into neglect, and the mechanical damage made it impossible to put it back into operation after WW II The building was torn down in 1964 and forgotten.

  12. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  13. Diode-laser-pumped 1.065-um Nd:Sr5(VO4)3F laser and its intracavity frequency doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shengzhi; Wang, Qingpu; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Songtao; Zhao, Lu; Sun, Lianke; Zhang, Shaojun

    1996-12-01

    Nd:Sr5(VO4)3F, known as Nd:S-VAP, is a new material for efficient and miniature diode-pumped solid state lasers. By using a laser-diode pump operating at 809 nm, Nd:S-VAP is successfully lased at 1.065 micrometers . A slope efficiency of 43.5% and a laser threshold of only 11 mW are measured. The theoretical formulas for threshold power and slope efficiency are written and the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental results. In addition, by using KTP as an intracavity-doubling crystal, the intracavity frequency of the Nd:S-VAP laser at 0.5325 micrometers is also realized. The threshold power is 13.2 mW and the TEM00 mode green laser output power is 25.6 mW at 200 mW incident pump power, corresponding to an optical efficiency of 12.8%. In addition a way to improve efficiency is discussed.

  14. Dental hard tissue modification and removal using sealed transverse excited atmospheric-pressure lasers operating at lambda=9.6 and 10.6 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Akrivou, Maria; Featherstone, John D.; Murray, Michael W.; Dickenson, Kevin M.

    2001-04-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have been shown to be effective for both removal and modification of dental hard tissue for the treatment of dental caries. In this study, sealed transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) laser systems optimally tuned to the highly absorbed 9.6 micrometers wavelength were investigated for application on dental hard tissue. Conventional TEA lasers produce an initial high energy spike at the beginning of the laser pulse of submicrosecond duration followed by a long tail of about 1 - 4 microsecond(s) . The pulse duration is well matched to the 1 - 2 microsecond(s) thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at 9.6 micrometers and effectively heats the enamel to the temperatures required for surface modification at absorbed fluences of less than 0.5 J/cm2. Thus, the heat deposition in the tooth and the corresponding risk of pulpal necrosis from excessive heat accumulation is minimized. At higher fluences, the high peak power of the laser pulse rapidly initiates a plasma that markedly reduces the ablation rate and efficiency, severely limiting applicability for hard tissue ablation. By lengthening the laser pulse to reduce the energy distributed in the initial high energy spike, the plasma threshold can be raised sufficiently to increase the ablation rate by an order of magnitude. This results in a practical and efficient CO2 laser system for caries ablation and surface modification.

  15. Tissue welding for corneal wound suture with a CW 1.9-um diode laser: an in-vivo preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmettre, Thomas; Mordon, Serge R.; Mitchell, Valerie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the interest of a 1.9 micrometer diode laser for corneal wound suture. Six adult albino rabbits were anesthetized. A 7 mm corneal incision was practiced on the right eye. For 3 animals (laser plus stitch) the incision was surgically sutured with 2 stitches of a nylon monofilament and laser impacts were performed between the stitches. For 3 animals (laser only) juxtaposed lasers impacts were realized to suture the wound. After the procedure the animals were examined daily for signs of inflammation, infection and for healing of the corneal wound. Material was obtained for histological examination 1 month after the procedure. Approximation of the edges of the would was successfully obtained in the (laser plus stitch) group. In the (laser only) group this approximation remained troublesome. After the procedure, one cornea of the (laser only) group disclosed a little leakage during 2 days. Histological examination assessed the welding of the corneal wound in the two groups provided structural modifications and some inflammatory signs. Corneal welding using a 1.9 micrometer diode laser is possible either with laser and stitch or with laser only. The approximation of the edges of the wound with additional stitches is an evident drawback. The use of additional stitches should be avoided to keep the theoretical advantages of corneal would suture using laser welding.

  16. Induced Production of Halogenated Epidithiodiketopiperazines by a Marine-Derived Trichoderma cf. brevicompactum with Sodium Halides.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Rotinsulu, Henki; Narita, Reika; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Namikoshi, Michio

    2015-10-23

    Marine-derived Trichoderma sp. TPU199 (cf. T. brevicompactum) produced gliovirin (1), pretrichodermamide A (2), and trichodermamide A (3) in a freshwater medium. Compounds 1 and 2 are rare epidithiodiketopiperazines possessing an unusual disulfide linkage. In the seawater medium, the strain biosynthesized the 5-chloro-5-deoxy derivatives (4 and 5) of 3 and 2. The production of 5 was proportional to the concentration of seawater (NaCl). Therefore, 5-bromo-5-deoxy (6) and 5-deoxy-5-iodo (7) derivatives were biosynthesized in the freshwater media supplemented with NaBr and NaI, respectively. The structure of a new iodo derivative (7) was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data. PMID:26439145

  17. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen-Bonding Four-Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Barendt, Timothy A; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis-iodo triazolium-bis-naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo-triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion-rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the (1) H NMR anion binding results.

  18. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen-Bonding Four-Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Barendt, Timothy A; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis-iodo triazolium-bis-naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo-triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion-rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the (1) H NMR anion binding results. PMID:27436297

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel N-α-haloacylated homoserine lactones as quorum sensing modulators

    PubMed Central

    Syrpas, Michail; Ruysbergh, Ewout; Stevens, Christian V; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Novel N-α-haloacylated homoserine lactones, in which a halogen atom was introduced at the α-position of the carbonyl function of the N-acyl chain, have been studied as quorum sensing (QS) modulators and compared with a library of natural N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). The series of novel analogues consists of α-chloro, α-bromo and α-iodo AHL analogues. Furthermore, the biological QS activity of the synthetic AHL analogues compared to the natural AHLs was evaluated. Halogenated analogues demonstrated a reduced activity in the Escherichia coli JB523 bioassay, with the α-iodo lactones being the less active ones and the α-chloro AHLs the most potent QS agonists. Most of the α-haloacylated analogues did not exhibit a significant reduction when tested in the QS inhibition test. Therefore, these novel analogues could be utilized as chemical probes for QS structure–activity studies. PMID:25383125

  20. Divinyl-end-functionalized polyethylenes: ready access to a range of telechelic polyethylenes through thiol-ene reactions.

    PubMed

    Norsic, Sebastien; Thomas, Coralie; D'Agosto, Franck; Boisson, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Telechelic α,ω-iodo-vinyl-polyethylenes (Vin-PE-I) were obtained by catalytic ethylene polymerization in the presence of [(C5 Me5 )2 NdCl2 Li(OEt2 )2 ] in combination with a functionalized chain-transfer agent, namely, di(10-undecenyl)magnesium, followed by treatment of the resulting di(vinylpolyethylenyl)magnesium compounds ((vinyl-PE)2 Mg) with I2 . The iodo-functionalized vinylpolyethylenes (Vin-PE-I) were transformed into unique divinyl-functionalized polyethylenes (Vin-PE-Vin) by simple treatment with tBuOK in toluene at 95 °C. Thiol-ene reactions were then successfully performed on Vin-PE-Vin with functionalized thiols in the presence of AIBN. A range of homobifunctional telechelic polyethylenes were obtained on which a hydroxy, diol, carboxylic acid, amine, ammonium chloride, trimethoxysilyl, chloro, or fluoroalkyl group was installed quantitatively at each chain end. PMID:25688747

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-halogenated-1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylenes as potential estrogen receptor-targeted radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert N; Tongcharoensirikul, Pakamas; Barnsley, Kelton; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Hughes, Alun; DeSombre, Eugene R

    2015-04-01

    A series of three 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylene derivatives was prepared and evaluated as potential estrogen receptor imaging agents. The compounds display high binding affinity compared to estradiol, with the 2-iodo and 2-bromo-derivatives expressing higher affinity than the parent 2-nonhalogenated derivative. Evaluation in immature female rats also indicate that the compounds were all full estrogenic agonists with potencies in the same order of activity (I∼Br>H). Computational analysis of the interactions between the ligands and ERα-LBD demonstrated positive contribution of halide to binding properties. In preparation for studies using the radiohalogenated analogs, the corresponding protected 2-(tributylstannyl) derivative was prepared and converted to the corresponding 2-iodo-product.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-halogenated-1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylenes as potential estrogen receptor-targeted radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert N; Tongcharoensirikul, Pakamas; Barnsley, Kelton; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Hughes, Alun; DeSombre, Eugene R

    2015-04-01

    A series of three 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylene derivatives was prepared and evaluated as potential estrogen receptor imaging agents. The compounds display high binding affinity compared to estradiol, with the 2-iodo and 2-bromo-derivatives expressing higher affinity than the parent 2-nonhalogenated derivative. Evaluation in immature female rats also indicate that the compounds were all full estrogenic agonists with potencies in the same order of activity (I∼Br>H). Computational analysis of the interactions between the ligands and ERα-LBD demonstrated positive contribution of halide to binding properties. In preparation for studies using the radiohalogenated analogs, the corresponding protected 2-(tributylstannyl) derivative was prepared and converted to the corresponding 2-iodo-product. PMID:25637676

  3. Total Synthesis of (+)-Batzelladine A and (−)-Batzelladine D via [4 + 2]-Annulation of Vinyl Carbodiimides with N-Alkyl Imines

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Michael A.; Day, Kenneth A.; Durón, Sergio G.; Gin, David Y.

    2008-01-01

    A diastereoselective [4 + 2]-annulation of vinyl carbodiimides with chiral N-alkyl imines has been developed to access the stereochemically rich polycyclic guanidine cores of the batzelladine alkaloids. Application of this strategy, together with additional key steps such as long-range directed hydrogenation and diastereoselective intramolecular iodo-amination, led to highly convergent total syntheses of (−)-batzelladine D and (+)-batzelladine A with excellent stereocontrol. PMID:17017806

  4. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.P.; Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-09-01

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for (/sup 125/)iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination.

  5. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.P.; Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-09-01

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination.

  6. Involvement of microtubules in lipoprotein degradation and utilization for steroidogenesis in cultured rat luteal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.

    1985-12-01

    Cells isolated from superovulated rat ovaries metabolize low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) of human or rat origin and use the lipoprotein-derived cholesterol as a precursor for progesterone production. Under in vitro conditions, both lipoproteins are internalized and degraded in the lysosomes, although degradation of HDL is of lower magnitude than that of LDL. In this report we have examined the role of cellular microtubules in the internalization and degradation of human LDL and HDL in cultured rat luteal cells. The microtubule depolymerizing agents colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and nocodazole as well as taxol, deuterium oxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide, which are known to rapidly polymerize cellular tubulin into microtubules, were used to block the function of microtubules. When these antimicrotubule agents were included in the incubations, degradation of the apolipoproteins of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by the luteal cells was inhibited by 50-85% compared to untreated control values. Maximum inhibitory effects were observed when the cells were preincubated with the inhibitor for at least 4 h at 37 C before treatment with the labeled lipoprotein. Lipoprotein-stimulated progesterone production by luteal cells was also inhibited by 50% or more in the presence of antimicrotubule agents. However, basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone production were unaffected by these inhibitors. The binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL to luteal cell plasma membrane receptors was not affected by the microtubule inhibitors. Although binding was unaffected and degradation was impaired in the presence of the inhibitors, there was no detectable accumulation of undegraded lipoprotein within the cells during the 24 h of study.

  7. Oxidative Dehydrogenative Couplings of Pyrazol-5-amines Selectively Forming Azopyrroles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    New oxidative dehydrogenative couplings of pyrazol-5-amines for the selective synthesis of azopyrrole derivatives have been described. The former reaction simultaneously installs C–I and N–N bonds through iodination and oxidation, whereas the latter involved a copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling process. The resulting iodo-substituted azopyrroles were employed by treatment with various terminal alkynes through Sonogashira cross-coupling leading to new azo compounds. PMID:24731223

  8. In vivo evaluation of Z-(R,R)-IQNP as a candidate for the study of M{sub 2} muscarinic receptors by SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Greenbaum, M.; Beets, A.L.

    1997-05-01

    The ability to image alternations of M{sub 2} muscarinic receptors is of importance in the study of dementias and heart failure. We have developed a QNB analogue, Z-(R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl (R)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-alpha-phenylacetate (Z-(R,R)-IQNP), which demonstrates high in vitro binding affinity for both the M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtypes.

  9. An engineered bacterium auxotrophic for an unnatural amino acid: a novel biological containment system.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Biological containment is a genetic technique that programs dangerous organisms to grow only in the laboratory and to die in the natural environment. Auxotrophy for a substance not found in the natural environment is an ideal biological containment. Here, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain that cannot survive in the absence of the unnatural amino acid 3-iodo-L-tyrosine. This synthetic auxotrophy was achieved by conditional production of the antidote protein against the highly toxic enzyme colicin E3. An amber stop codon was inserted in the antidote gene. The translation of the antidote mRNA was controlled by a translational switch using amber-specific 3-iodo-L-tyrosine incorporation. The antidote is synthesized only when 3-iodo-L-tyrosine is present in the culture medium. The viability of this strain rapidly decreased with less than a 1 h half-life after removal of 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, suggesting that the decay of the antidote causes the host killing by activated colicin E3 in the absence of this unnatural amino acid. The contained strain grew 1.5 times more slowly than the parent strains. The escaper frequency was estimated to be 1.4 mutations (95% highest posterior density 1.1-1.8) per 10(5) cell divisions. This containment system can be constructed by only plasmid introduction without genome editing, suggesting that this system may be applicable to other microbes carrying toxin-antidote systems similar to that of colicin E3. PMID:26401457

  10. Application of crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation to a general, scalable method for the resolution of 2,8-disubstituted Tröger's base derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Donald L; Field, Thomas; Schmidt, Monica R; DeStefano, Alyson K; Stiteler, Christopher J; Venditto, Vincent J; Krovic, Brooke; Hoffman, Christopher M; Ondisco, Matthew T; Belowich, Matthew E

    2013-11-15

    A general method for the gram scale resolution of 2-substituted and 2,8-disubstituted Tröger's base (TB) derivatives in 63-91% yield has been achieved through the application of crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation (CIAT). Enantiomeric ratios of the resolved TB derivatives range from 99.1:0.9 to >99.5:0.5. Among the Tröger's base compounds resolved are four synthetically valuable bromo and iodo derivatives. PMID:24116701

  11. Advances in biophysics. Volume 19

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains five chapters. They are: Phosphorylation of Chicken Gizzard Myosin: Myosin Filament Hypothesis of Calcium Regulation; Structural and Functional Organization of Gizzard Myosin Molecules: Proteolytic Digestion and N-Iodo-Acetyl-N'-(5-Sulflo-1-Naphthyl) Ethylene Diamine Modification; Role of Microtubules and Axolinin in Membrane Excitation of the Squid Giant Axon; Protein Structures and Split Genes; and Effects of the ..cap alpha..-Helix Dipole Upon the Functioning and Structure of Proteins and Peptides.

  12. Lewis acid catalyzed cascade reaction of 3-(2-benzenesulfonamide)propargylic alcohols to spiro[indene-benzosultam]s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lang; Zhu, Yuanxun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2015-01-16

    A highly efficient and convenient construction of the spiro[indene-benzosultam] skeleton from propargylic alcohols has been developed. The reaction proceeded in a Lewis acid catalyzed cascade process, including the trapping of allene carbocation with sulfonamide, electrophilic cyclization, and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. In the presence of NIS or NBS, iodo/bromo-substituted spiro[indene-benzosultam]s could be prepared in excellent yields. PMID:25541815

  13. An engineered bacterium auxotrophic for an unnatural amino acid: a novel biological containment system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biological containment is a genetic technique that programs dangerous organisms to grow only in the laboratory and to die in the natural environment. Auxotrophy for a substance not found in the natural environment is an ideal biological containment. Here, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain that cannot survive in the absence of the unnatural amino acid 3-iodo-L-tyrosine. This synthetic auxotrophy was achieved by conditional production of the antidote protein against the highly toxic enzyme colicin E3. An amber stop codon was inserted in the antidote gene. The translation of the antidote mRNA was controlled by a translational switch using amber-specific 3-iodo-L-tyrosine incorporation. The antidote is synthesized only when 3-iodo-L-tyrosine is present in the culture medium. The viability of this strain rapidly decreased with less than a 1 h half-life after removal of 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, suggesting that the decay of the antidote causes the host killing by activated colicin E3 in the absence of this unnatural amino acid. The contained strain grew 1.5 times more slowly than the parent strains. The escaper frequency was estimated to be 1.4 mutations (95% highest posterior density 1.1–1.8) per 105 cell divisions. This containment system can be constructed by only plasmid introduction without genome editing, suggesting that this system may be applicable to other microbes carrying toxin-antidote systems similar to that of colicin E3. PMID:26401457

  14. 3,4-Homoadamantadiene: generation and regioselective [2+2] cycloaddition of a novel tricyclic bridgehead allene.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kohei; Okazaki, Takao; Kinoshita, Tomomi

    2003-02-21

    Dehalogenation of 3-bromo-4-iodo-4-homoadamantene with n-BuLi gave rise to 3,4-homoadamantadiene, a novel tricyclic bridgehead allene, which readily dimerized to head-to-head and head-to-tail [2+2] cycloadducts in a ratio of 96:4. Trapping with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran was successful to yield the corresponding Diels-Alder adduct.

  15. Copper-catalysed intramolecular O-arylation: a simple and efficient method for benzoxazole synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengtian; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Qianbing; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jianwei; Jiang, Haojie; Dai, Bin

    2014-12-21

    A wide range of 2-substituted benzoxazoles can be efficiently synthesized from N-(2-iodo-/bromo-phenyl)benzamides, and even the less reactive N-(2-chlorophenyl)benzamides, via Cu-catalysed intramolecular coupling cyclization reactions using methyl 2-methoxybenzoate as the ligand under mild reaction conditions. In addition, the benzoxazoles can be easily prepared from the primary amides coupling with o-dihalobenzenes in a single step.

  16. Copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of (phenylethynyl)di-p-tolylstibane with organic azides

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mizuki; Matsumura, Mio; Uchida, Yuki; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Murata, Yuki; Kakusawa, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Trisubstituted 5-stibano-1H-1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields by the Cu-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of a ethynylstibane with organic azides in the presence of CuBr (5 mol %) under aerobic conditions. The reaction of 5-stibanotriazole with HCl, I2, and NOBF4 afforded 1-benzyl-4-phenyltriazole, 1-benzyl-5-iodo-4-phenyltriazole, and a pentavalent organoantimony compound, respectively. PMID:27559379

  17. Attempts to develop radioactive anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.S.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Carpenter, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use a much more effective isotope. 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (diammonium phosphate) - abbreviated 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP - has been synthesized, and in laboratory studies appears more promising. /sup 125/I provides radiations which behave predominately like high LET radiation, despite the accompanying X and gamma radiations. The astatine analogue, 6-/sup 211/At-astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (disodium phosphate) has also been synthesized. Confirming and greatly extending the earlier findings with T-MNDP, in vitro experiments showed that 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP is concentrated selectively in the cells of some human malignant tumors by a factor of about 15 to 20 or more in relation to the cells of normal origin that were studied. Macrodosimetric considerations and comparison with clinical treatments with T-MNDP suggest practical dosage. A typical treatment for a patient of body weight 70 kg with localized inoperable carcinoma of the colon could be 8 intravenous injections each of approximately 120mCi of 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP to a toal of 0.97 Ci in 25 days. Risks of late carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis are calculated to be less than 1%. Clinical indications are discussed briefly. Animal experiments are in progress and further preclinical studies are required.

  18. Copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of (phenylethynyl)di-p-tolylstibane with organic azides.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mizuki; Matsumura, Mio; Uchida, Yuki; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Murata, Yuki; Kakusawa, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Yasuike, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Trisubstituted 5-stibano-1H-1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields by the Cu-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of a ethynylstibane with organic azides in the presence of CuBr (5 mol %) under aerobic conditions. The reaction of 5-stibanotriazole with HCl, I2, and NOBF4 afforded 1-benzyl-4-phenyltriazole, 1-benzyl-5-iodo-4-phenyltriazole, and a pentavalent organoantimony compound, respectively. PMID:27559379

  19. PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander) hepatoma cell line: further characterization and studies of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Alexander, J J; Tully, J G; London, W T; Wong, D C; Purcell, R H

    1980-01-01

    The Alexander hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, was studied for evidence of hepatitis B virus markers and alpha-fetoprotein. Only hepatitis B surface antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were detected. Induction experiments with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and inoculation of chimpanzees with whole cells or tissue culture fluid did not reveal evidence of synthesis of additional hepatitis B virus markers or of production of infectious virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6160110

  20. Effective synthesis of photosensitive oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Masayuki; Taya, Yuta; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of various vinyl substituted photosensitive pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides is described; starting from 5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU) or oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing IdU, which has been attached using an automated batch stop-flow microwave apparatus. The utility of the Pd(0) cross-coupling to photosensitive pyrimidine is expanded herein to include the reaction of glass-supported ODN containing IdU under Heck and Suzuki conditions.

  1. Substituted quinazolines, part 3. Synthesis, in vitro antitumor activity and molecular modeling study of certain 2-thieno-4(3H)-quinazolinone analogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaid, Abdulrahman M; Abdel-Hamide, Sami G; El-Kashef, Hassan A; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A-M; El-Azab, Adel S; Al-Khamees, Hamad A; El-Subbagh, Hussein I

    2009-06-01

    The synthesis of some new 2-thieno-4(3H)-quinazolinone derivatives and their biological evaluation as antitumor agents using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) disease oriented antitumor screen protocol are investigated. Compounds 2-(2-thienylcarbonylamino)-5-iodo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-benzamide (16), 2-(2-thieno)-6-iodo-3-phenylamino-3,4-dihydro-quina-zolin-4-one (26), and 2-(2-thieno)-4-[4-sulfonamidobenzylamino]-6-iodo-quinazoline (42), with GI(50) values of 12.7, 10.3, 16.9 microM, respectively, proved to be the most active members in this study, as compared to the known drug 5-FU. Conformational analysis of the most active molecules using molecular modeling and QSAR techniques enabled the understanding of the pharmacophoric requirements for 2-thieno-quinzolinone derivatives as antitumor agents. These three quinazolinone analogs (16, 26, 42) could be considered as useful templates for future development to obtain more potent antitumor agents.

  2. Hydrogen and halogen bonding patterns and π-π aromatic interactions of some 6,7-disubstituted 1,3-benzothiazoles studied by X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čičak, Helena; Đaković, Marijana; Mihalić, Zlatko; Pavlović, Gordana; Racané, Livio; Tralić-Kulenović, Vesna

    2010-06-01

    The structures of five 6,7-disubstituted 1,3-benzothiazole (1,3-benzothiazole = bta) derivatives: 6-chloro-7-nitro-bta ( 3), 6-iodo-7-nitro-bta ( 5), 6-amino-7-iodo-bta ( 6), 6-acetylamino-7-iodo-bta ( 7) and 6-amino-7-bromo-bta ( 8) are reported and investigated by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. The crystal structures of 3 and 5- 8 are characterized by: (i) relatively weak C sbnd H⋯O/N/Br and N sbnd H⋯O/N/S hydrogen bonds, (ii) C sbnd Cl⋯O and C sbnd I⋯O/N halogen bonds and Br⋯Br interactions and (iii) π-π interactions. DFT optimized structures of 3, 5, 6 and 8 are in a good agreement with the corresponding X-ray molecular data. Calculated structure of 7 deviates from the experimental geometry because of more favourable intermolecular hydrogen bonding in crystal phase compared to the weak intramolecular hydrogen bond in the gas phase. The molecular electrostatic potential maps were used for predicting possible hydrogen and halogen bonding sites in structures of 3, 5, 6 and 8, and AIM analysis in order to characterize the nature and strength of intermolecular interactions in all of the examined crystal structures. Experimental results agree well with AIM analysis suggesting that the detected hydrogen and halogen bonds are weak and mostly of electrostatic origin.

  3. Region-selective effects of neuroinflammation and antioxidant treatment on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and NMDA receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Alvarado, M.; Budinger, T.F.; Grossman, R.; Hensley, K.; West, M.S.; Kotake, Y.; Ono, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    2001-12-10

    Following induction of acute neuroinflammation by intracisternal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats, quantitative autoradiography was used to assess the regional level of microglial activation and glutamate (NMDA) receptor binding. The possible protective action of the antioxidant phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone in this model was tested by administering the drug in the drinking water for 6 days starting 24 hours after endotoxin injection. Animals were killed 7 days post-injection and consecutive cryostat brain sections labeled with [3H]PK11195 as a marker of activated microglia and [125I]iodoMK801 as a marker of the open-channel, activated state of NMDA receptors. Lipopolysaccharide increased [3H]PK11195 binding in the brain, with the largest increases (2-3 fold) in temporal and entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. A significant (>50 percent) decrease in [125I]iodoMK801 binding was found in the same brain regions. Phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone treatment resulted in a partial inhibition ({approx}25 percent decrease) of the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in [3H]PK11195 binding but completely reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in [125I]iodoMK80 binding in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. Loss of NMDA receptor function in cortical and hippocampal regions may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in diseases with a neuroinflammatory component, such as meningitis or Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Synthesis and mesomorphic properties of novel three-armed star-shaped mesogens of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) containing Schiff-base moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, Guan-Yeow; Ooi, Yew-Hong; Kenji, Kubo; Ito, Masato M.

    2013-04-01

    A series of symmetrical three-armed star-shaped mesogens based on phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) as a core unit containing (4-benzylidene-substituted-aniline-4‧-oxy)-6-bromohexane as peripheral arm where the 4-position at one end consisting different terminal substituent, X (X = fluoro, chloro, bromo, iodo and ethyl) was synthesized and characterized. The chemical structure of the title compounds were studied using FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR while their thermal behavior and mesomorphic properties were investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The results indicate that the three-armed compounds containing F, Cl, Br, and C2H5 substituents exhibit mesophase except for the analog having iodo substituent which is found to be non-mesogenic. The absence of liquid crystalline properties for iodo-substituted analog could be due to the influence of the substituent of which the lamellar packing of these compounds will be disrupted when the size of substituent is increased.

  5. Novel synthetic approach to charge-compensated phosphonio-nido-carboranes. Synthesis and structural characterization of neutral mono and bis(phosphonio) nido-ortho-carboranes.

    PubMed

    Kabytaev, Kuanysh Z; Safronov, Alexander V; Sevryugina, Yulia V; Barnes, Charles L; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2015-04-20

    A number of monosubstituted n-(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaboranes (2a, n = 1; 2b, n = 3; 2c, n = 5; 2d, n = 9) were prepared via a cross-coupling reaction between the tetrabutylammonium iodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborates (1a-d) and PPh3 in the presence of a Pd(PPh3)4 catalyst. The substitution rate was found to depend on the iodine position in the carborane cage. Under similar conditions, the reaction of 5,6-diiodo- (3) and 9,11-diiodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate (5) anions exclusively yielded the monosubstitution products 5-iodo-6-(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborane (4) and 9-iodo-11-(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborane (6), respectively. The reaction of tetrabutylammonium 6,9-diiodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate (7) exclusively produced the phosphine substitution product in the open face of the nido-carborane, 6-iodo-9-triphenylphosphonio-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborane (8). The addition of a base (Cs2CO3, NaH) to the reactions of 3 and 5 with PPh3 afforded the corresponding bis(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaboranes, 9 and 10. Compound 10 was also prepared from 6 using the general procedure. The reaction of the triiodocarborane tetrabutylammonium 5,6,9-triiodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate (11) with excess PPh3 in the presence of Cs2CO3 and Pd(PPh3)4 only produced neutral 5-iodo-6,9-bis(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborane (12); no positively charged tris(phosphonio) species formed. The compositions of all prepared compounds were determined by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structures of compounds 2c, 6, 8, 9, and 12 were established by the X-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals.

  6. Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de uma Escola da Rede Estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.

    2007-06-01

    Being the Astronomy one of the oldest sciences of the humanity, and considering its historical and cultural importance, it is of extreme relevance that topics related to it are taught and studied at schools. Although the National Curriculum Parameters of the Senior High School (PCN-EM) and the Complementary Orientations to the Parameters (PCN+) indicate the importance of a significant approach of concepts related to the Astronomy in the Physics classes, many students finish the Senior High School (EM) without understanding the reason of certain events of celestial origin, although these are part of their daily lives and are a subject of natural curiosity for the youngsters. From the perception of the natural curiosity of the students of a São Paulo's Public School in the city of Suzano, came up the interest to investigate the basic knowledge in Astronomy of the Senior High School students at this school, becoming this the main goal of this research. A questionnaire of multiple choices was elaborated and initially applied to 34 students of the first grade and later, to more 310 students. It was distributed among the three grades of the Senior High School in the morning and night periods. In the way, it was observed that 73.9% of the students identified the Sun as a star, 67.1% demonstrated to understand the succession between the day and the night and 52.3% related the Big Bang to the origin of the Universe. In compensation, only 34.5% related the seasons of the year to the inclination of the rotation axis of the Earth, 21.3% indicated the simultaneous gravitational influence of the Moon and the Sun as responsible for the tides phenomenon, 24.5% correctly indicated which are the closest celestial objects to the Earth, 36.1% identified the light-year as a distance measure and only 34.2% recognized the shooting stars as meteors, being evidenced the small discernment of the students about the phenomena and astronomical terms of the daily life. Besides, the answers of different grade students and periods were compared, being observed, among other things, that the third grade students present a percentile of correct answers similar to the performance of the first grade students, demonstrating that the approach of topics related to the astronomy in the Senior High School has not been contributing in a significant way to a better understanding of the phenomena and the concepts.

  7. The molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of zinc cadmium selenide/zinc cadmium magnesium selenide-indium phosphide quantum cascade structures for operation in the 3 - 5 um range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, William O.

    The quantum cascade (QC) laser has captured the interest of researchers for almost three decades. In the early stages, researchers were very interested in proving the QC concept1 proposed by Kazarinov and Suris in 1971. This new concept gave researchers hope that very bulky energy inefficient infra-red (IR) lasers would be replaced with ones that are very compact, tunable and portable. Since the proposal of the QC laser concept and its first demonstration by researchers at Bell Laboratories2 in 1994, this technology has progressed to the point where it is now finding commercial applications in a variety of areas such as military counter measures, free space telecommunications, infra-red imaging and chemical spectroscopy.3-5 The success of this technology can be attributed to the coming of age of the techniques of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) semiconductor growth and bandgap engineering. 6,7 Using MBE technology, the temperature of the source material can be stabilized by making use of a combination of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers and thermocouple feedbacks. As a result, the material flux from the effusion cells can achieve stability better than (+/-) 1%. This flux stability together with a well-developed computer controlled shuttering mechanism make it possible to grow multi-quantum well (MQW) structures with excellent layer thickness precision (mono-layer scale) and interface quality. This stringent control of material flux is also a tool that is used by MBE growers to vary the material compositions for the growth of lattice matched and strain compensated QC structures. Today, MBE stands out as one of the premier methods for growing high performing QC lasers. The first successful demonstration of a QC laser2 was done using the InGaAs/InAlAs-InP material system. This demonstration was then repeated a few years later using GaAs/AlGaAs-InP.8 These III-V material systems were extensively studied to establish their material parameters. Given that material parameters are critically important in the process of modeling QC structures, it is not surprising that early success was achieved using these systems. Today, the best performing QC lasers operate in the 4--13 mum range and are produced using lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs-InP. In order to produce short wavelength QC lasers, the well layer thicknesses in the active region of the device must be reduced in an effort to push the lasing energy states further apart. This reduction in well thicknesses results in the movement of the upper lasing state closer to the bandedge. This action increases the probability of the lost of lasing state electrons to the continuum. Therefore, in order to produce high performing short wavelength QC lasers, a large conduction band offset (CBO) is required. The CBO of lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs-InP is 0.52 eV. In an attempt to produce high performing devices below 4 mum many researchers have resorted to the use of strain compensation9-11 . This approach has yielded very little improvement in performance due to electron scattering to the X and L intervalleys. This has lead to the exploration of wide bandgap material systems such as the antominides and nitrides. In this work the wide bandgap II-V Znx'Cd(1-x')Se/Zn xCdyMg(1-x-y)Se-InP will be explored for QC laser fabrication. To this end, QC lasers were designed for operation at 3--5 mum range. A Matlab-based program was written to calculate the energy level spacing within the active region of these devices. This simulation program was based on Schroindger's equation and the transfer matrix technique. Several calibration samples were grown to establish the doping levels and growth rate of the well and barrier materials. The growth rate was measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) oscillations during MBE growth. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to determine the lattice mismatch of the II-VI bulk layers, and therefore predict whether material composition adjustments were required to attain the lattice match condition. The samples that were grown were studied using photoluminescence (PL) to determine the bandgap of the well and barrier material. This information was then used to calculate the CBO of the II-VI MQW structure. In addition, PL studies were also carried out to look for material defects and assess the quality of the well/barrier interface. These II-VI QC samples were also subjected to Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy to determine the energy levels in the grown structures. After optimizing the active regions using simulation data and FTIR results, electroluminescence (EL) structures were grown and processed into QC emitters using a combination photolithography and electron beam contact deposition. The processed structures were then biased and investigated for IR emission at temperatures ranging from 80 K to room temperature.

  8. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  9. "Cos Um It like Put a Picture in My Mind of What I Should Write": An Exploration of How Home-School Partnership Might Support the Writing of Lower-Achieving Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines how home and school working together supported the writing of lower-achieving boys. It describes an activity in which parents and children selected artefacts at home to inspire writing in school. This model of home-school partnership permitted different levels of parental involvement and also allowed the child to take a key…

  10. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  11. The controversy between Alexander Friedmann and Albert Einstein about the possibility of a non-static world (German Title: Die Kontroverse zwischen Alexander Friedmann und Albert Einstein um die Möglichkeit einer nichtstatischen Welt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Georg

    Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.

  12. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  13. Michael Mästlin's role in the polemic against the calendar reform of pope Gregor XIII. (German Title: Die Rolle Michael Mästlins in der Polemik um die Kalenderreform von Papst Gregor XIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Because of theological resistance, the calendar reform of 1582 was introduced only in countries under catholic rule. Michael Mästlin is found among the spokesmen of opposition against this feared attempted of the pope to gain influence in the protestant church, nevertheless, Mästlin had no doubt that a calendar reform was necessary. This article retraces Mästlin's argumentation and puts it into context with contemporary discussions about a calendar reform.

  14. Identification of Metabolite Biomarkers of the Designer Hallucinogen 25I-NBOMe in Mouse Hepatic Microsomal Preparations and Human Urine Samples Associated with Clinical Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Poklis, Justin L.; Dempsey, Sara K.; Liu, Kai; Ritter, Joseph K.; Wolf, Carl; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    ‘NBOMe’ (dimethoxyphenyl-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) derivatives are a new class of designer hallucinogenic drugs widely available on the Internet. Currently, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) is the most popular abused derivative in the USA. There are little published data on the absorption, metabolism and elimination of 25I-NBOMe, or any of the other NBOMe derivatives. Therefore, there are no definitive metabolite biomarkers. We present the identification of fifteen 25I-NBOMe metabolites in phase I and II mouse hepatic microsomal preparations, and analysis of two human urine samples from 25I-NBOMe-intoxicated patients to test the utility of these metabolites as biomarkers of 25I-NBOMe use. The synthesis of two major urinary metabolites, 2-iodo-4-methoxy-5-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino]ethyl]phenol (2-O-desmethyl-5-I-NBOMe, M5) and 5-iodo-4-methoxy-2-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl]phenol (5-O-desmethyl-2-I-NBOMe), is also presented. Seven phase II glucuronidated metabolites of the O-desmethyl or the hydroxylated phase I metabolites were identified. One human urine sample contained 25I-NBOMe as well as all 15 metabolites identified in mouse hepatic microsomal preparations. Another human urine sample contained no parent 25I-NBOMe, but was found to contain three O-desmethyl metabolites. We recommend β-glucuronidase enzymatic hydrolysis of urine prior to 25I-NBOMe screening and the use of M5 as the primary biomarker in drug testing. PMID:26378134

  15. Crystal structures of three new N-halo-methyl-ated quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Múnera-Orozco, Carolina; Ocampo-Cardona, Rogelio; Cedeño, David L; Toscano, Rubén A; Ríos-Vásquez, Luz Amalia

    2015-10-01

    In the crystals of the title N-halo-methyl-ated quaternary ammonium salts, C19H23IN(+)·I(-), (I) [systematic name: N-(4,4-di-phenyl-but-3-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], C20H25IN(+)·I(-), (II) [systematic name: N-(5,5-di-phenyl-pent-4-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], and C21H27IN(+)·I(-), (III) [systematic name: N-(6,6-di-phenyl-hex-5-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], there are short I⋯I(-) inter-actions of 3.564 (4), 3.506 (1) and 3.557 (1) Å for compounds (I), (II) and (III), respectively. Compound (I) crystallizes in the Sohncke group P21 as an 'enanti-opure' compound and is therefore a potential material for NLO properties. In the crystal of compound (I), mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯I(-) and C-H⋯π inter-actions which, together with the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, lead to the formation of ribbons along [100]. In (II), there are only C-H⋯I(-) inter-actions which, together with the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, lead to the formation of helices along [010]. In (III), apart from the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, there are no significant inter-molecular inter-actions present. PMID:26594414

  16. Identification of Metabolite Biomarkers of the Designer Hallucinogen 25I-NBOMe in Mouse Hepatic Microsomal Preparations and Human Urine Samples Associated with Clinical Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Dempsey, Sara K; Liu, Kai; Ritter, Joseph K; Wolf, Carl; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-10-01

    'NBOMe' (dimethoxyphenyl-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) derivatives are a new class of designer hallucinogenic drugs widely available on the Internet. Currently, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) is the most popular abused derivative in the USA. There are little published data on the absorption, metabolism and elimination of 25I-NBOMe, or any of the other NBOMe derivatives. Therefore, there are no definitive metabolite biomarkers. We present the identification of fifteen 25I-NBOMe metabolites in phase I and II mouse hepatic microsomal preparations, and analysis of two human urine samples from 25I-NBOMe-intoxicated patients to test the utility of these metabolites as biomarkers of 25I-NBOMe use. The synthesis of two major urinary metabolites, 2-iodo-4-methoxy-5-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino]ethyl]phenol (2-O-desmethyl-5-I-NBOMe, M5) and 5-iodo-4-methoxy-2-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl]phenol (5-O-desmethyl-2-I-NBOMe), is also presented. Seven phase II glucuronidated metabolites of the O-desmethyl or the hydroxylated phase I metabolites were identified. One human urine sample contained 25I-NBOMe as well as all 15 metabolites identified in mouse hepatic microsomal preparations. Another human urine sample contained no parent 25I-NBOMe, but was found to contain three O-desmethyl metabolites. We recommend β-glucuronidase enzymatic hydrolysis of urine prior to 25I-NBOMe screening and the use of M5 as the primary biomarker in drug testing.

  17. Synthesis and ESR studies of 2'-deoxyuridines tethered with alkynyl, rod-like linkages#

    PubMed Central

    Sniady, Adam; Sevilla, Michael D.; Meneni, Srinivasarao; Lis, Tadeusz; Szafert, Slawomir; Khanduri, Deepthi; Finke, John M.; Dembinski, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Sonogashira coupling of diacetyl 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine with diacetyl 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine gave the acylated ethynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridine dimer (3b) (63%) that was deprotected with ammonia/methanol to ethynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridines (3a) (79%). Reaction of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (1a) with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine gave the furopyrimidine linked to 2'-deoxyuridine (78%). Catalytic oxidative coupling of 1a (O2, CuI, Pd/C, DMF) gave the butadiynediyl-linked 2'-deoxyuridines (4) (84%). Double Sonogashira coupling of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine with 1,4-bis(ethynyl)benzene gave 1,4-phenylenediethyne-bridged 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridines (5, 83%). Cu-catalyzed cycloisomerization of dimers 4 and 5 gave their furopyrimidine derivatives. One electron addition to 1a, 3a and 4 gave the anion radical whose ESR spectra showed the unpaired electron largely localized at C6 of one uracil ring (17 G doublet) at 77 K. For the ethynediyl- and butadiynyl-linked uridines 3a and 4 the ESR spectra of their one electron oxidized species at 77 K showed that the unpaired electron is delocalized over both rings. Thus structures 3a and 4 provide an efficient electronic link for hole conduction between the uracil rings. However, for the excess electron, an activation barrier prevents coupling to both rings. These dimeric structures could provide a gate that could separate hole transfer from electron transport between strands in DNA systems. In the crystal structure of acylated dimer 3b the bases were found in the anti position to each other across the ethynyl link. Similar anti conformation was preserved in the derived furopyrimidine–deoxyuridine dinucleoside. PMID:19609983

  18. On the Route to the Photogeneration of Heteroaryl Cations. The Case of Halothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Raviola, Carlotta; Chiesa, Francesco; Protti, Stefano; Albini, Angelo; Fagnoni, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    2-Chloro-, 2-bromo-, and 2-iodothiophenes undergo photochemical dehalogenation via the triplet state. In the presence of suitable π-bond nucleophiles, thienylation occurs with modest yield from chloro and bromo derivatives (via photogenerated triplet 2-thienyl cation). Specific trapping by using oxygen along with computational analysis carried out by means of a density functional method support that, in the case of iodo derivatives, homolytic thienyl-I bond fragmentation occurs first and heteroaryl cations are formed by electron transfer within the triplet radical pair, thus opening an indirect access to such cations. PMID:27383725

  19. Solution-Phase Synthesis of a Highly Substituted Furan Library

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chul-Hee; Shi, Feng; Jung, Dai-Il; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H.; Larock, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    A library of furans has been synthesized by iodocyclization and further diversified by palladium-catalyzed coupling processes. The key intermediate 3-iodofurans have been prepared by the electrophilic iodocyclization of 2-iodo-2-alken-1-ones in the presence of various nucleophiles in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. These 3-iodofurans are the key components for library generation through subsequent elaboration by palladium-catalyzed processes, such as Suzuki–Miyaura, Sonagashira, Heck, aminocarbonylation and carboalkoxylation chemistry to afford a diverse set of 2,3,4,5-tetrasubstituted furans. PMID:22612549

  20. S-Ribosylhomocysteine analogues with the carbon-5 and sulfur atoms replaced by a vinyl or (fluoro)vinyl unit

    PubMed Central

    Wnuk, Stanislaw F.; Lalama, Jennifer; Garmendia, Craig A.; Robert, Jenay; Zhu, Jinge; Pei, Dehua

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of the protected ribose or xylose 5-aldehyde with sulfonyl-stabilized fluorophosphonate gave (fluoro)vinyl sulfones. Stannyldesulfonylation followed by iododestannylation afforded 5,6-dideoxy-6-fluoro-6-iodo-d-ribo or xylo-hex-5-enofuranoses. Coupling of the hexenofuranoses with alkylzinc bromides gave ten-carbon ribosyl- and xylosylhomocysteine analogues incorporating a fluoroalkene. The fluoroalkenyl and alkenyl analogues were evaluated for inhibition of Bacillus subtilis S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS). One of the compounds, 3,5,6-trideoxy-6-fluoro-d-erythro-hex-5-enofuranose, acted as a competitive inhibitor of moderate potency (KI = 96 µM). PMID:18375129

  1. Synthesis of N-(2-diethylamino-ethyl)-4-(4-fluoro-benzamido)-2-methoxybenzamide (desiodo-MIP-1145) by coupling technique and its radioiodination: a potential melanoma imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Aglan, H; Kandil, S A; El-Kafrawy, A F; Seddik, U

    2016-07-01

    Radioiodinated MIP-1145, which specifically targets melanin, is an ideal candidate for targeted therapy of melanoma. An analogue of MIP-1145 lacking the iodo-substituent (desiodo-MIP-1145) was synthesized as a labeling precursor in three simple steps. The radioiodination of desiodo-MIP-1145 by iodine-125 was carried out via an electrophilic substitution reaction. An optimization study for the iodination reaction was carried out. The labeled compound was isolated and purified by means of electrophoresis and HPLC. The maximum radiochemical yield, 76%, was obtained with radiochemical purity greater than 99%. The log P value for [(125) I]MIP-1145 was measured as 4.5.

  2. Iodine-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Amidation of β,γ-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Chloramine Salts Leading to Allylic Amides.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kojima, Takumi; Hishikawa, Yusuke; Minakata, Satoshi

    2015-10-26

    The iodine-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with chloramine salts is described. This method enables the regioselective synthesis of allylic amides from various types of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids containing substituents at the α- and β-positions. In the reaction, N-iodo-N-chloroamides, generated by the reaction of a chloramine salt with I2 , function as a key active species. The reaction provides an attractive alternative to existing methods for the synthesis of useful secondary allylic amine derivatives. PMID:26493878

  3. Iodinated (Perfluoro)alkyl Quinoxalines by Atom Transfer Radical Addition Using ortho-Diisocyanoarenes as Radical Acceptors.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Dirk; Studer, Armido

    2016-09-12

    A simple method for the preparation of functionalized quinoxalines is reported. Starting from readily accessible ortho-diisocyanoarenes and (perfluoro)alkyl iodides, the quinoxaline core is constructed during (perfluoro)alkylation by atom transfer radical addition (ATRA), resulting in 2-iodo-3-(perfluoro)alkylquinoxalines. The radical cascades are readily initiated either with visible light or by using α,α'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The heteroarene products are obtained in high yields (up to 94 %), and the method can be readily scaled up. Useful follow-up chemistry documents the value of the novel radical quinoxaline synthesis.

  4. Generation of Benzyne Species from Diphenylphosphoryl Derivatives: Simultaneous Exchange of Three Functional Groups.

    PubMed

    Gorobets, Evgueni; Parvez, Masood; Derksen, Darren J; Keay, Brian A

    2016-06-13

    Interaction of (2-diphenylphosphoryl-3-iodo-4-methoxy-phenyl) methanol with NaH in DMF at ambient temperature results in the generation of benzyne intermediates that can be trapped by furan or DMF. Trapping with DMF forms 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzaldehyde demonstrating the simultaneous exchange of three functionalities in a single step. The presence of the alkoxy substituent adjacent to iodine is critical for high regioselectivity addition of DMF. The corresponding bromide or triflate can be used in place of the iodide with equal efficiency. This methodology was used to synthesize the reported structure of gigasol and leading to a structural reassignment of this biscoumarin natural product.

  5. Effect of seven antibiotics on the growth and reproduction of Heliothis subflexa X H. virescens interspecific hydrids and backcross males

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, L.E.; Karpenko, C.P.

    1981-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that a maternally transmitted cytoplasmic microorganism is involved in male hybrid sterility found in H. subflexa (Guenee) X H. virescens (F.) hybrid and backcross progeny, we reared H. subflexa, hybrids and backcross progeny on larval diets containing high concentrations of tetracycline, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, rifampin, and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The insects tolerated relatively high concentrations (from 120 mg/liter to 6 g/liter) of antibiotics in the larval diet and showed virtually no changes in larval or pupal developmental time, adult lifespan, or fertility. Hybrid and backcross males reared on such adulterated diets were as sterile as those reared on conventional diets.

  6. Twist does a twist to the reactivity: stoichiometric and catalytic oxidations with twisted tetramethyl-IBX.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha; Senapati, Kalyan; Parida, Keshaba Nanda; Jhulki, Samik; Sooraj, Kunnikuruvan; Nair, Nisanth N

    2011-12-01

    The methyl groups in TetMe-IBX lower the activation energy corresponding to the rate-determining hypervalent twisting (theoretical calculations), and the steric relay between successive methyl groups twists the structure, which manifests in significant solubility in common organic solvents. Consequently, oxidations of alcohols and sulfides occur at room temperature in common organic solvents. In situ generation of the reactive TetMe-IBX from its precursor iodo-acid, i.e., 3,4,5,6-tetramethyl-2-iodobenzoic acid, in the presence of oxone as a co-oxidant facilitates the oxidation of diverse alcohols at room temperature.

  7. Iodinated (Perfluoro)alkyl Quinoxalines by Atom Transfer Radical Addition Using ortho-Diisocyanoarenes as Radical Acceptors.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Dirk; Studer, Armido

    2016-09-12

    A simple method for the preparation of functionalized quinoxalines is reported. Starting from readily accessible ortho-diisocyanoarenes and (perfluoro)alkyl iodides, the quinoxaline core is constructed during (perfluoro)alkylation by atom transfer radical addition (ATRA), resulting in 2-iodo-3-(perfluoro)alkylquinoxalines. The radical cascades are readily initiated either with visible light or by using α,α'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The heteroarene products are obtained in high yields (up to 94 %), and the method can be readily scaled up. Useful follow-up chemistry documents the value of the novel radical quinoxaline synthesis. PMID:27510610

  8. One pot synthesis of diarylfurans from aryl esters and PhI(OAc)2 via palladium-associated iodonium ylides.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yong-Sheng; Agula, Bao; Zhaorigetu, Bao; Jia, Meilin; Baiyin, Menghe

    2015-04-14

    The example of palladium-catalyzed intermolecular cyclization for the synthesis of various diarylfurans in which one of the aromatic rings originates from the phenolic part of the starting ester and the other one from PhI(OAc)2 has been reported. The reaction is carried out through two steps: the rearrangement of palladium-associated iodonium ylides to form o-iodo diaryl ether and then palladium catalyzed intramolecular direct arylation. This reaction can tolerate a variety of functional groups and is alternative or complementary to the previous methods for the synthesis of diarylfurans.

  9. Flexible double-headed cytosine-linked 2'-deoxycytidine nucleotides. Synthesis, polymerase incorporation to DNA and interaction with DNA methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kielkowski, Pavel; Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2016-03-15

    New types of double-headed 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-O-triphosphates (dC(XC)TPs) bearing another cytosine or 5-fluorocytosine linked through a flexible propargyl, homopropargyl or pent-1-ynyl linker to position 5 were prepared by the aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of 5-iodo-dCTP with the corresponding (fluoro)cytosine-alkynes. The modified dC(XC)TPs were good substrates for DNA polymerases and were used for enzymatic synthesis of cytosine-functionalized DNA by primer extension or PCR. The cytosine- or fluorocytosine-linked DNA probes did not significantly inhibit DNA methyltransferases and did not cross-link to these proteins.

  10. The effect of prolactin on the Dunning R3327H rat prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, A; Slaunwhite, W R

    The Dunning R3327 rat prostatic adenocarcinoma contains specific binding sites for iodo-oPRL (ovine prolactin) in the membrane fraction (100,000 X g pellet). These are normally present at a low level, but immunization with oPRL produces a dramatic increase in tumor binding in either sex (females bear an implant of testosterone propionate pellet). Under these experimental conditions, the ventral prostate of rats bearing the tumors have no detectable PRL receptors. 5 alpha-Reductase activity, on the other hand, is lower in the tumors than in the normal prostates. Immunization also decreased somewhat the rate of growth of the tumors. PMID:6323127

  11. Synthesis of nucleoside and nucleotide conjugates of bile acids, and polymerase construction of bile acid-functionalized DNA.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Satu; Macícková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Sanda, Miloslav; Hocek, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of 5-iodopyrimidine or 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine nucleosides with bile acid-derived terminal acetylenes linked via an ester or amide tether gave the corresponding bile acid-nucleoside conjugates. Analogous reactions of halogenated nucleoside triphosphates gave directly bile acid-modified dNTPs. Enzymatic incorporation of these modified nucleotides to DNA was successfully performed using Phusion polymerase for primer extension. One of the dNTPs (dCTP bearing cholic acid) was also efficient for PCR amplification. PMID:20165813

  12. Beryllium derivatives of a phenyl-substituted β-diketiminate: a well-defined ring opening reaction of tetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, Merle; Crimmin, Mark R; Hill, Michael S; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele

    2013-07-14

    The phenyl-substituted β-diketiminate ligand precursor (Ph)LH, [(Dipp)NC(Ph)CHC(Ph)NH(Dipp)] (Dipp = 2,6-di-isopropylphenyl) and its lithium and beryllium halide derivatives [(Ph)LLi(OEt2)], [(Ph)LBeCl] and [(Ph)LBeI] have been synthesised and characterised by NMR and X-ray structural analysis. The iodoberyllium complex [(Ph)LBeI] reacts with THF in a well-defined ring-opening insertion reaction to form the 4-iodo-n-butoxide complex [(Ph)LBeO(CH2)4I].

  13. A method to assess safety and resilience in radiopharmaceuticals production process.

    PubMed

    Grecco, Cláudio H S; Vidal, Mario C R; Santos, Isaac J A L; Carvalho, Paulo V R

    2012-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzylguanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluordesoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuropsychiatry. This paper presents a method to access safety and resilience in radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The method uses resilience indicators in order to proactively evaluate and manage the safety.

  14. Functionalized Metallated Cavitands via Imidation and Late-Stage Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanchuan

    2015-01-01

    Efficient methods for the preparation of functionalized metallated cavitands are described. Functional groups can be either introduced by an imidation of metal-oxo complexes or by a late-stage elaboration of the imido ligands. By using diversified iminophosphorane (PPh3=NR) reagents, π-conjugated pyrene, redox active ferrocene and polymerizable norbornene moieties were successfully introduced. Furthermore, the iodo and alkynyl groups on the imido ligands are capable of undergoing efficient Sonogashira cross-coupling and copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition reactions, thereby providing facile access to complex architectures containing metallated cavitands. PMID:26962300

  15. On the cause of low thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates for the thermal decomposition of ethyl halodiazoacetates (halo = Cl, Br, I) have been obtained, and reported herein are their half-lives. The experimental results are supported by DFT calculations, and we provide a possible explanation for the reduced thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates compared to ethyl diazoacetate and for the relative decomposition rates between the chloro, bromo and iodo analogs. We have also briefly studied the thermal, non-catalytic cyclopropanation of styrenes and compared the results to the analogous Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions. PMID:27559411

  16. Skeletal diversification via heteroatom linkage control: preparation of bicyclic and spirocyclic scaffolds from N-substituted homopropargyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas O; Bunn, Jonathon R; Schoenen, Frank J; Douglas, Justin T; Day, Victor W; Santini, Conrad

    2013-04-19

    The discovery and application of a new branching pathway synthesis strategy that rapidly produces skeletally diverse scaffolds is described. Two different scaffold types, one a bicyclic iodo-vinylidene tertiary amine/tertiary alcohol and the other, a spirocyclic 3-furanone, are each obtained using a two-step sequence featuring a common first step. Both scaffold types lead to intermediates that can be orthogonally diversified using the same final components. One of the scaffold types was obtained in sufficiently high yield that it was immediately used to produce a 97-compound library.

  17. General formula for accurate calculation of halofullerenes polarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabirov, D. Sh.; Garipova, R. R.; Bulgakov, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    At the first time mean polarizabilities of fluoro-, chloro-, bromo[60]fullerenes have been calculated. The dependences of halofullerenes polarizabilities on the structure and the number of halogen atoms in a molecule have been analyzed. The phenomenon of polarizability depression is typical for all compounds under study. General formula for calculation of all classes of halofullerenes mean polarizabilities has been derived based on polarizability depression. Its applicability to related compounds (C70 fullerene choro-derivatives and hypothetical iodo[60]fullerenes) has been shown.

  18. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and radioiodination of halogenated closo-carboranyl thymidine analogues1

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rohit; Toppino, Antonio; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Huo, Tianyao; Byun, Youngjoo; Gallucci, Judith; Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Khalil, Ahmed; Goudah, Ayman; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Darby, Michael V.; Barth, Rolf. F.; Tjarks, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and initial biological evaluation of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogues (3CTAs) that are (radio)halogenated at the closo-carborane cluster is described. Radiohalogenated 3CTAs have the potential to be used in the radiotherapy and imaging of cancer, as they may be selectively entrapped in tumor cells through monophosphorylation by human thymidine kinase 1 (hTK1). Two strategies for the synthesis of a 127I-labeled form of a specific 3CTA, previously designated as N5, are described: 1) direct iodination of N5 with iodine monochloride (ICl) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) to obtain N5-127I and 2) initial monoiodination of o-carborane to 9-iodo-o-carborane followed by its functionalization to N5-127I. The former strategy produced N5-127I in low yields along with di-, tri-, and tetra-iodinated N5 as well as decomposition products, whereas the latter method produced only N5-127I in high yields. N5-127I was subjected to nucleophilic halogen- and isotope exchange reactions using Na79/81Br and Na125I, respectively, in the presence of Herrmann's catalyst to obtain N5-79/81Br and N5-125I, respectively. Two intermediate products formed using the second strategy, 1-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-9-iodo-o-carborane and 1-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-12-iodo-o-carborane, were subjected to x-ray diffraction studies to confirm that substitution at a single carbon atom of 9-iodo-o-carborane resulted in the formation of two structural isomers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of halogen and isotope exchange reactions of B-halocarboranes that have been conjugated to a complex biomolecule. Human TK1 phosphorylation rates of N5, N5-127I, and N5-79/81Br ranged from 38.0 % to 29.6% relative to that of thymidine, the endogenous hTK1 substrate. The in vitro uptake of N5, N5-127I, and N5-79/81Br in L929 TK1 (+) cells was 2.0 ×, 1.8 ×, and 1.4 × greater than that in L929 TK1 (−) cells. PMID:22175713

  19. Pseudo five-component synthesis of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes via a one-pot Sonogashira-Glaser cyclization sequence.

    PubMed

    Urselmann, Dominik; Antovic, Dragutin; Müller, Thomas J J

    2011-01-01

    Based upon a consecutive one-pot Sonogashira-Glaser coupling-cyclization sequence a variety of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes were synthesized in moderate to good yields. A single Pd/Cu-catalyst system, without further catalyst addition, and easily available, stable starting materials were used, resulting in a concise and highly efficient route for the synthesis of the title compounds. This novel pseudo five-component synthesis starting from iodo(hetero)arenes is particularly suitable as a direct access to well-defined thiophene oligomers, which are of peculiar interest in materials science. PMID:22238523

  20. Pseudo five-component synthesis of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes via a one-pot Sonogashira–Glaser cyclization sequence

    PubMed Central

    Urselmann, Dominik; Antovic, Dragutin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Based upon a consecutive one-pot Sonogashira–Glaser coupling–cyclization sequence a variety of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes were synthesized in moderate to good yields. A single Pd/Cu-catalyst system, without further catalyst addition, and easily available, stable starting materials were used, resulting in a concise and highly efficient route for the synthesis of the title compounds. This novel pseudo five-component synthesis starting from iodo(hetero)arenes is particularly suitable as a direct access to well-defined thiophene oligomers, which are of peculiar interest in materials science. PMID:22238523

  1. Certain Metal Ions are Inhibitors of Cytochrome b (6) f Complex 'Rieske' Iron-Sulfur Protein Domain Movements

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Arthur G.; Bowman, Michael K.; Kramer, David M.

    2002-03-26

    1Abbreviations: cyt, cytochrome; cyt bL, low potential b cytochrome; cyt bH, high potential b cytochrome; DBMIB, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropylbenzoquinone; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; DNP-INT, 2'-iodo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-2',4,4'-trinitrodiphenylether; EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance; HEPES, n-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-n'-(2-ethanesulfonic acid); NQNO, 2-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline n-oxide; ISP, iron-sulfur protein; MOA, E-b-methoxyacrylate; pmf, proton motive force; PC, plastocyanin; PQ, plastoquinone; PQH2, plastoquinol; PS, photosystem; Qi, quinol reductase; Qo, quinol oxidase; UHDBT, 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole.

  2. Antimalarial and antimicrobial activities of 8-Aminoquinoline-Uracils metal complexes

    PubMed Central

    Phopin, Kamonrat; Sinthupoom, Nujarin; Treeratanapiboon, Lertyot; Kunwittaya, Sarun; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    8-Aminoquinoline (8AQ) derivatives have been reported to have antimalarial, anticancer, and antioxidant activities. This study investigated the potency of 8AQ-5-substituted (iodo and nitro) uracils metal (Mn, Cu, Ni) complexes (1-6) as antimalarial and antimicrobial agents. Interestingly, all of these metal complexes (1-6) showed fair antimalarial activities. Moreover, Cu complexes 2 (8AQ-Cu-5Iu) and 5 (8AQ-Cu-5Nu) exerted antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria including P. shigelloides and S. dysenteriae. The results reveal application of 8AQ and its metal complexes as potential compounds to be further developed as novel antimalarial and antibacterial agents. PMID:27103894

  3. Synthesis of 5-alkenylated D4T analogues via the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, A; Fossey, C; Benzaria, S; Gavriliu, D; Delbederi, Z; Lelong, B; Ladurée, D; Aubertin, A M; Kirn, A

    2001-09-01

    The target compounds 5-[N-(6-amino-hexyl)-acrylamide]-2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxy-uridine (12) and 5-[N-[5-(methoxycarbonyl)-pentyl]-acrylamide]-2',3'-didehydro-2',3'- dideoxy-uridine (15) were prepared by the palladium acetate-triphenylphosphine-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-O-acetyl-5-iodo-d4T analogue (3). These compounds 12 and 15 can be used to prepare nucleotide probes carrying fluorescent labels and were nevertheless screened for their anti-HIV activity. The biological data demonstrated that none of them were active against HIV-1. PMID:11580192

  4. Synthesis of uniform cyclodextrin thioethers to transport hydrophobic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisa F; Schwarz, Dennis H

    2014-01-01

    Summary Methyl and ethyl thioether groups were introduced at all primary positions of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrin by nucleophilic displacement reactions starting from the corresponding per-(6-deoxy-6-bromo)cyclodextrins. Further modification of all 2-OH positions by etherification with iodo terminated triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (and tetraethylene glycol monomethyl ether, respectively) furnished water-soluble hosts. Especially the β-cyclodextrin derivatives exhibit very high binding potentials towards the anaesthetic drugs sevoflurane and halothane. Since the resulting inclusion compounds are highly soluble in water at temperatures ≤37 °C they are good candidates for new aqueous dosage forms which would avoid inhalation anaesthesia. PMID:25550759

  5. Uncooled 10μm FPA development at DRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, George D.

    2016-05-01

    The benefit of 10um pitch uncooled detectors is demonstrated through the use of image emulation. The image emulation uses the theoretical image of point sources for 10um wavelength radiation, then integrates the energy from multiple sources which fall into FPA pixel areas and produces representative images. Arrays of pixel pitches of 25um, 17um, 12um, 10um, 5um, and 4um are included. These images, and movies when presented live at the conference, make evident why array pitches smaller than the wavelength of radiation are useful and being considered. While the argument for sub-wavelength pixel pitches is already made by other authors, this representation might be clearer to a larger audience. Representative images, and movies when presented live at the conference, from a DRS 1280x1024 format, 10um pitch array are shown. Details of the DRS 10um pitch UFPA family are shown.

  6. On the disulphide bonds of rhodopsins.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saleh, S; Gore, M; Akhtar, M

    1987-01-01

    Carboxymethylation using 14C- or 3H-labelled iodoacetic acid has been used to identify the cysteine residues in bovine rhodopsin involved in the formation of the two intramolecular disulphide bridges. Iodo[2-14C]acetic acid was used to modify 5.8-5.9 residues of cysteine under non-reducing conditions. After dialysis and reduction of disulphide bridges by 2-mercaptoethanol, iodo[2-3H]acetic acid was employed to covalently modify 3.3-3.6 residues of cysteine. Peptide purification and sequencing has unambiguously shown that cysteine residues 322 and 323 are only carboxymethylated after reduction of disulphide bridges. Indirect evidence presented, now coupled with the earlier finding [Findlay & Pappin (1986) Biochem. J. 238, 625-642] suggests that the other disulphide bridge is formed between cysteine residues 110 and 187. A comparison is made of all the sequences of mammalian rhodopsins and colour pigments and attention is drawn to the fact that whereas Cys-322 and Cys-323 are conserved only in three rhodopsins (bovine, ovine and human), the residues corresponding to Cys-110 and Cys-187 are found in all the visual proteins (from rods as well as human cones). PMID:3675552

  7. Effects of alkyl and aryl substitution on the myocardial specificity of radioiodinated phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Hay, H.G.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Several radioiodinated iodopentenyl-trisubstituted phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium iodides have been prepared and evaluated in rats to determine the effects of structural variations of the cations on myocardial uptake and retention. The synthesis of (E)-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)-trisubstituted phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium iodides via the condensation of trisubstituted phosphine, arsine, and amine precursors, respectively, with (E)-1,5-diiodopentene is described. In some cases a second route involved condensation with (E)-1-borono-5-iodo-1-pentene followed by iodination. In the phosphonium series, the compounds triphenyl 1, dicyclohexylphenyl 5, tricyclohexyl 6, and dimethyl-n-octyl 8 were prepared. The triphenylarsonium 10 and triethylammonium 11 compounds were also prepared. The corresponding radioiodinated analogues were prepared and tissue distribution studies performed in rats. The results (percent dose/gram, 30 min) demonstrate that replacement of phosphorus with arsenic (1, 3.99%; 10, 3.17%) or the replacement of the phenyl ring with the cyclohexyl ring system (6, 2.67%) has no apparent effect on heart uptake. In the series of compounds studied, replacement of the cyclic ring system with alkyl groups, however, significantly decreased heart uptake with both the phosphorus (8, 1.95%) and nitrogen agents (11, 1.11%). Gamma camera imaging studies with (/sup 123/I)-5 and (/sup 123/I)-8 further substantiated the decreased heart uptake with alkyl substitution and the apparent hepatobiliary clearance of 8.

  8. Hepatic targeting and hypocholesterolemic effect of lactosaminated Fab against low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bernini, F.; Bocan, T.M.A.; Via, D.P.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Smith, L.C.

    1986-03-01

    Lactosaminated Fab (lac-Fab) specific for human LDL induces plasma clearance and uptake of circulating (/sup 125/-I)-iodo-LDL in rat, a process mediated by galactose receptors of the liver. This study demonstrates that lac-Fab is a specific carrier of LDL to the liver parenchymal cells and exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in vivo. Rats were injected with fluorescent 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine-LDL (diI-LDL) or 6 mg of LDL plus tracer amounts of (/sup 125/I)-iodo-LDL. After 10-20 min, the animals received 3-10 mg of lac-Fab. Histologic examination of the liver sections showed the uptake of diI-LDL in the parenchymal cells, as compared to diI-acetyl-LDL which was localized in sinusoidal cells. More than 85% of human LDL disappeared within 2.5 hr after lac-Fab injection, reducing plasma cholesterol from 133.0 +/- 12.6 mg/dl to 66.4 +/- 8.0 mg/dl, the basal value in the rat. In control rats, only about 20% of radioactivity and cholesterol disappeared at 2.5 hr. HDL levels were unaffected. The authors conclude that lac-Fab is a specific carrier of LDL to hepatocytes and can lower plasma LDL-cholesterol in vivo. Lac-Fab specific for other antigens may act as specific carriers of molecule or macromolecules to hepatocytes.

  9. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1991-06-01

    In this report the development of a solvent extraction technique for the efficient separation of iridium radioisotopes from osmium radioisotopes is described. The Os-191 (Os-VIII) was efficiently separated from iridium-192 by extraction of a 1 M HCl solution with <10{sup {minus}2}M tetrahexylamine (THA) in methyl isobutyl ketone. Over 99% of the osmium is extracted in one step, leaving the radioactive iridium in the aqueous acidic solution. This simple extraction technique may be useful for the development of a new Os-194/Ir-194 generator prototype which is currently being explored. Also in this report, biodistribution studies of the two iodine-125 (I-125)-labeled spiroperidol analogues, E-3-N-(iodo-1-propen-3-yl)- and E-3-N-(iodo-1-penten-5-yl)spiroperidol in male Balb C mice are described. Several samples were supplied for collaborative research projects during this period and included I-125 and I-131 methyl-branched fatty acids, samples of tin-117m (Sn-117m), gold-199 (Au-199) and scandium-47 (Sc-47). 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Low toxic dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using halosolvents for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.

    PubMed

    Leong, Mei-I; Chang, Chu-Chi; Fuh, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shang-Da

    2010-08-20

    A low toxic dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LT-DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) had been developed for the extraction and determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. In normal DLLME assay, chlorosolvent had been widely used as extraction solvents; however, these solvents are environmental-unfriendly. In order to solve this problem, we proposed to use low toxic bromosolvent (1-bromo-3-methylbutane, LD(50) 6150mg/kg) as the extraction solvent. In this study we compared the extraction efficiency of five chlorosolvents and thirteen bromo/iodo solvents. The results indicated that some of the bromo/iodo solvents showed better extraction and had much lower toxicity than chlorosolvents. We also found that propionic acid is used as the disperser solvent, as little as 50microL is effective. Under optimum conditions, the range of enrichment factors and extraction recoveries of tap water samples are ranging 372-1308 and 87-105%, respectively. The linear range is wide (0.01-10.00microgL(-1)), and the limits of detection are between 0.0003 and 0.0078microgL(-1) for most of the analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for 0.01microgL(-1) of PAHs in tap water were in the range of 5.1-10.0%. The performance of the method was gauged by analyzing samples of tap water, sea water and lake water samples.

  11. Substituted pyrazinecarboxamides as abiotic elicitors of flavolignan production in Silybum marianum (L.) gaertn cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tůmová, Lenka; Tůma, Jirí; Megusar, Klara; Dolezal, Martin

    2010-01-14

    Substituted pyrazinecarboxamides markedly influenced production of flavonolignans in Silybum marianum callus and suspension cultures. In this study the effect of two compounds, N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)-5-tert-butyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), as abiotic elicitors on flavono-lignan production in callus culture of S. marianum was investigated. Silymarin complex compounds have hepatoprotective, anticancer and also hypocholesterolemic activity. In vitro flavonolignan concentration in cells is very low and the elicitation is one of the methods to increase production. Elicitors were tested at three concentrations and at different culture times. In the case of elicitation with 1, the greatest increase of flavonolignan and taxifoline production was observed at concentration c(1a) after 6-hours of elicitation and after 24 and 72-hours at concentration c(1b). However, increased production of silychristin, one of the compounds in the silymarin complex, was achieved after only 6-hours elicitation with c(1a) (2.95 x 10(-4) mol/L). The content of silychristin was 2-times higher compared to the control sample. An increased production of silychristin was reached with compound 2 at the concentration c(2) (2.53 x 10(-3) mol/L) after 72 h of elicitation. The production of silychristin in this case was increased 12-times compared to control.

  12. Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    The design and chemical synthesis of new media for solar pumped iodine molecule lasers are explored. In an effort to prepare an iodo fluorocarbon compound absorbing strongly at 300 nm or above, the synthesis of perfluoro allylic iodides was investigated. These compounds furnish especially stable allylic radicals upon photodissociation. The desired red shift is anticipated in the absorption maximum could correlate with increasing radical stability. This expectation was based upon the analysis, previously reported, of the structures and absorption maxima of compounds studied earlier. A previously unknown substance was prepared, a prototypical target molecule, perfluoro-3-iodocyclopent-1-ene. It was obtained by reaction of perfluorocyclopentene with sulfur trioxide under the influence of antimony pentafluoride catalyst, followed by treatment of the resulting allylic fluorosulfonate with sodium iodide in sulfoland solvent. Preliminary data indicate that the absorption maximum for the iodo fluorocarbon is not shifted significantly to longer wavelength. It is not certain whether this result reflects an unexpected influence of the cyclic structure upon the position of the absorption maximum.

  13. A first archetype of boron dipyrromethene-phthalocyanine pentad dye: design, synthesis, and photophysical and photochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Göl, Cem; Malkoç, Mustafa; Yeşilot, Serkan; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2014-05-28

    A novel type of phthalocyanine pentad containing four boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) units at peripheral positions of the phthalocyanine framework has been designed and synthesized for the first time. The Sonogashira coupling reaction between 4,4'-difluoro-8-(4-ethynyl)-phenyl-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (Ethynyl-BODIPY) and 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis(iodo) zinc(ii) phthalocyanine (Iodo-Pc) has been used for the synthesis of the target compound. The BODIPY-phthalocyanine pentad dye (BODIPY-Pc) has been fully characterized by (1)H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis as well. The photoinduced energy transfer process for this dye system was explored in tetrahydrofuran solution. The singlet oxygen generation capability and photodegradation behaviours of this BODIPY-Pc pentad dye were also investigated in DMSO for the determination of the usability of this new type of dye system as a photosensitizer in PDT applications.

  14. Synthesis of novel 13α-18-norandrostane-ferrocene conjugates via homogeneous catalytic methods and their investigation on TRPV1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Szánti-Pintér, Eszter; Wouters, Johan; Gömöry, Ágnes; Sághy, Éva; Szőke, Éva; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Kollár, László; Skoda-Földes, Rita

    2015-12-01

    13α-Steroid-ferrocene derivatives were synthesized via two reaction pathways starting from an unnatural 16-keto-18-nor-13α-steroid. The unnatural steroid was converted to ferrocene derivatives via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation. 16-Azido- and 16-N-(prop-2-ynyl)-carboxamido-steroids were synthesized as starting materials for azide-alkyne cycloaddition with the appropriate ferrocene derivatives. Based on our earlier work, aminocarbonylation of 16-iodo-16-ene and 16-iodo-15-ene derivatives was studied with ferrocenylmethylamine. The new products were obtained in moderate to good yields and were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR and MS. The solid state structure of the starting material 13α-18-norandrostan-16-one and two carboxamide products were determined by X-ray crystallography. Evidences were provided that the N-propargyl-carboxamide compound as well as its ferrocenylmethyltriazole derivative are able to decrease the activation of TRPV1 receptor on TRG neurons.

  15. Hemolytic potential of structurally related aniline halogenated hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Purnell, Elissa T

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hemolytic potential of several structurally related aniline halogenated phenylhydroxylamines based on their decreasing electro negativity. The compounds compared are phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) and para-fluoro-, para-bromo-, and para-iodo-phenylhydroxylamines. Red blood cells of male Sprague-Dawley rats were labeled with radioactive chromium-51 and exposed to the test agent before being infused into the tail vein of isologous rats. The time course of blood radioactivity was monitored. The stability of some selected halogenated aniline analogs was also determined in blood. All four tested hydroxylamines produced dose-dependent reduction in the circulating labeled red blood cells indicating their destruction and loss. The most pronounced reduction was observed at doses from 175 to 250 microM. The dose of 100 microM appeared to be the threshold limit. The para-iodo-PHA was two times more toxic than para-fluoro-PHA in the destruction of red blood cells in rats.

  16. Silver Ions in Non-canonical DNA Base Pairs: Metal-Mediated Mismatch Stabilization of 2'-Deoxyadenosine and 7-Deazapurine Derivatives with 2'-Deoxycytidine and 2'-Deoxyguanosine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haozhe; Seela, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Novel silver-mediated dA-dC, dA*-dC, and dA*-dG base pairs were formed in a natural DNA double helix environment (dA* denotes 7-deaza-dA, 7-deaza-7-iodo-dA, and 7-cyclopropyl-7-deaza-dA). 7-Deazapurine nucleosides enforce silver ion binding and direct metal-mediated base pair formation to their Watson-Crick face. New phosphoramidites were prepared from 7-deaza-dA, 7-deaza-7-iodo-dA, and 7-cyclopropyl-7-deaza-dA, which contain labile isobutyryl protecting groups. Solid-phase synthesis furnished oligonucleotides that contain mismatches in near central positions. Increased thermal stabilities (higher Tm values) were observed for oligonucleotide duplexes with non-canonical dA*-dC and dA-dC pairs in the presence of silver ions. The stability of the silver-mediated base pairs was pH dependent. Silver ion binding was not observed for the dA-dG mismatch but took place when mismatches were formed between 7-deazaadenine and guanine. The specific binding of silver ions was confirmed by stoichiometric UV titration experiments, which proved that one silver ion is captured by one mismatch. The stability increase of canonical DNA mismatches might have an impact on cellular DNA repair. PMID:27492501

  17. [Chemical and pharmacological aspects of cerebral cellular tracers].

    PubMed

    Rapin, J R; Duterte, D; Le Poncin-Lafitte, M; Coornaert, S; Desplanches, G; Bardy, A; Askienazy, S; Moretti, J L; Raynaud, C

    1983-12-22

    Among the iodophenylalkylamines studied and labelled with iodine 125 or iodine 123, N-isopropyl-iodo-amphetamin (IAMP) was selected and proposed as tracer for blood flow, a "chemical embolus" having almost 100% extraction in the brain. A new way of obtaining N-isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamin is proposed and the easily-applied exchange reaction with iodine 125 or 123 gives a product with a radiochemical purity of more than 96% and an unexchanged radioactive iodine content of less than 1%. The pharmacokinetic study of this product in the Wistar rat showed distribution in three compartments and the appearance of a steady state by the fourth minute. The target organs are the lungs, liver and brain. The latter receives 3% of the radioactivity and the autoradiographic study shows that the early distribution in the brain for IAMP closely equals the blood flow as found by a diffusible indicator. In the first hour, the redistribution is very low and at this time although IAMP is proposed for the study of regional blood flow, it does not exactly determine the flow but rather mirrors cell activity. PMID:6318360

  18. Effect of caffeine on induction of endogenous type C virus in mouse cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Niwa, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1981-08-01

    The effect of caffeine on the expression of murine endogenous virus in mouse cells induced by radiation and chemicals was studied. Postirradiation treatment of K-BALB cells with caffeine enhanced cell killing as well as the induction of xenotropic virus after ultraviolet light irradiation. The degree of enhancement for the virus induction was comparable to that for cell killing. On the other hand, colony-forming ability and the expression of xenotropic virus of K-BALB cells after X-irradiation were unaffected by caffeine. These data suggest a linear relationship between the degree of endogenous virus expression and the amount of lethal damages after irradiation. For induction by halogenated pyrimidines, a 24-hr incubation of AKR2B cells with caffeine after 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine treatment resulted in marked suppression of the expression of ecotropic virus. On the contrary, in K-BALB cells, caffeine exerted only a small effect on 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-induced expression of ecotropic and xenotropic viruses. These results indicate that, although using the same inducing agent, the pathway of endogenous virus induction may be different for AKR2B cells and for K-BALB cells.

  19. Identification of binding sites for an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) in the median eminence of the rat brain by quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bohannon, N.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Porte, D. Jr.; Baskin, D.G.

    1986-08-01

    The microanatomical location of IGF-I binding in the rat brain was determined by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen brain. Sections incubated in 0.1 nM (/sup 125/I)-iodo-IGF-I produced a dense grain concentration in regions of the autoradiographic image corresponding to the external palisade zone of the median eminence; other hypothalamic regions were not so heavily labeled. This reaction was significantly reduced in the presence of 100 nM IGF-I. Measurement of binding by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images showed that specific binding for IGF-I in the median eminence was 41.3 +/- 8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2 (mean +/- SEM); nonspecific binding was 11.9 +/- 1.8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In contrast, specific binding to other hypothalamic regions was uniformly lower. In a separate experiment, 1000 nM unlabeled insulin was added. Without insulin, specific binding was 23 +/- 0.9 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2; nonspecific binding was 8 +/- 0.5 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In the presence of 1000 nM unlabeled insulin, specific binding for (/sup 125/I)-iodo-IGF-I was 23 +/- 1 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. The results suggest that a high concentration of receptors for an IGF-I-like molecule is present in the median eminence.

  20. Human Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 8-Specific Agonistic Activity in Substituted Pyrimidine-2,4-diamines.

    PubMed

    Beesu, Mallesh; Salyer, Alex C D; Trautman, Kathryn L; Hill, Justin K; David, Sunil A

    2016-09-01

    Activation of human toll-like receptor-8 (TLR8) evokes a distinct cytokine profile favoring the generation of Type 1 helper T cells. A multiplexed high-throughput screen had led to the identification of N(4)-butyl-5-iodo-6-methylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine as a pure TLR8 agonist, and a detailed structure-activity relationship study of this chemotype was undertaken. A butyl substituent at N(4) was optimal, and replacement of the 5-iodo group with chloro, bromo, or fluoro groups led to losses in potency, as did the introduction of aromatic bulk. Drawing from our previous structure-based design, several 5-alkylamino derivatives were evaluated. Significant enhancement of potency was achieved in 5-(4-aminobutyl)-N(4)-butyl-6-methylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine. This compound potently induced Th1-biasing IFN-γ and IL-12 in human blood, but lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. These results suggest that the inflammatory and reactogenic propensities of this compound could be considerably more favorable than other TLR8 agonists under evaluation. PMID:27513008

  1. Radioimmunoassay of prolactin for the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a cooperatively breeding carnivore.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Nicol, Linda; Young, Andrew J; Parlow, Al F; McNeilly, Alan S

    2003-02-01

    We report the development and validation of a highly specific heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) to measure meerkat prolactin (PRL) by using rabbit antiserum to human prolactin and canine [125I]iodo-PRL. Dilutions of meerkat pituitary standard and plasma gave parallel inhibition curves in the assay. Gel filtration of meerkat pituitary extracts and canine [125I]iodo-PRL run separately on a Sephadex G-100 generated identical peaks of activity, and Western blot analysis of meerkat pituitary extract with the human prolactin antiserum used in the RIA gave a molecular weight similar to canine prolactin (21kDa). We carried out a biological validation of the prolactin assay by administering three different doses each of sulpiride and cabergoline to adult male meerkats. Increasing doses of sulpiride and cabergoline caused substantial increases and decreases, respectively, in the plasma prolactin of the study animals as expected. Activation of the stress response in meerkats by capture and ketamine hydrochloride anesthesia caused short-term but significant increases in prolactin levels in individuals bled repeatedly. The RIA developed and described here was able to determine plasma concentrations of prolactin in all animals sampled. We conclude, however, that it will be important in all future studies to confine blood sampling times to 4-7 min after capture/administration of anesthesia to avoid the confounding effects of the stress response on prolactin levels.

  2. Safety evaluation of flubendiamide and its metabolites on cabbage and persistence in soil in different agroclimatic zones of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K K; Mohapatra, Saudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagdish, G K; Rashmi, N; Battu, R S; Sharma, S K; Singh, Balwinder; Parihar, N S; Sharma, B N; Kale, V D; Nakat, R V; Walnuj, A R; Singh, Geeta; Ravivanshi, Kuldeep K; Devi, Suneeta; Noniwal, Rajbir

    2014-06-01

    Supervised field trials following good agricultural practices were conducted at the research farms of four agricultural universities located at four different agroclimatic zones of India to evaluate the persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, on cabbage. Two spray applications of flubendiamide 480 SC of standard and double dose at the rate of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1) were given to the crop at a 15-day interval, and the residues of flubendiamide 2 h after spray were found in the range of 0.107-0.33 and 0.20-0.49 mg kg(-1) at respective doses. Residue of des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in any cabbage sample during study period. No residues were found in the soil samples collected from all treated fields after 15 days of application. On the basis of data generated under All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues, a preharvest interval (PHI) of 10 days has been recommended, and the flubendiamide 480 SC has been registered for its use on cabbage by Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The maximum residue limit (MRL) of flubendiamide on cabbage has been fixed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, under Food Safety Standard Authority of India as 0.05 μg/g after its risk assessment.

  3. Emerging Disinfection Byproducts, Halobenzoquinones: Effects of Isomeric Structure and Halogen Substitution on Cytotoxicity, Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species, and Genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Moe, Birget; Vemula, Sai; Wang, Wei; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are a structurally diverse class of water disinfection byproducts. Here, we report a systematic study on the effects of isomeric structure and the type and number of halogen substitutions of HBQs on their cytotoxicity, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and genotoxicity. Dynamic responses and IC50 histograms were obtained using real-time cell analysis, clearly ranking the cytotoxicity of the HBQs in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Strong isomeric structure effects were shown with 2,5-HBQ isomers inducing greater cytotoxicity than their corresponding 2,6-HBQ isomers (P < 0.05). HBQ-halogen substitution groups also influence cytotoxicity, as cytotoxicity increases across the dihalogenated HBQs: iodo- > bromo- > chloro-HBQs (P < 0.05). Determination of HBQ-induced ROS further supports isomeric structure and halogen substitution effects. HBQ-induced genotoxicity was shown as increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and p53 protein. Pearson correlation analysis of the HBQ toxicity measurements with their physicochemical parameters demonstrates that dipole moment and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy are two major structural influences on toxicity (r = -0.721 or -0.766, P < 0.05). Dipole moment also correlates with isomer toxicity. This study suggests that formation and occurrence of highly toxic iodo-HBQs and 2,5-HBQs warrant further investigation to fully assess the impact of HBQs in drinking water. PMID:26812484

  4. Low toxic dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using halosolvents for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.

    PubMed

    Leong, Mei-I; Chang, Chu-Chi; Fuh, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shang-Da

    2010-08-20

    A low toxic dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LT-DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) had been developed for the extraction and determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. In normal DLLME assay, chlorosolvent had been widely used as extraction solvents; however, these solvents are environmental-unfriendly. In order to solve this problem, we proposed to use low toxic bromosolvent (1-bromo-3-methylbutane, LD(50) 6150mg/kg) as the extraction solvent. In this study we compared the extraction efficiency of five chlorosolvents and thirteen bromo/iodo solvents. The results indicated that some of the bromo/iodo solvents showed better extraction and had much lower toxicity than chlorosolvents. We also found that propionic acid is used as the disperser solvent, as little as 50microL is effective. Under optimum conditions, the range of enrichment factors and extraction recoveries of tap water samples are ranging 372-1308 and 87-105%, respectively. The linear range is wide (0.01-10.00microgL(-1)), and the limits of detection are between 0.0003 and 0.0078microgL(-1) for most of the analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for 0.01microgL(-1) of PAHs in tap water were in the range of 5.1-10.0%. The performance of the method was gauged by analyzing samples of tap water, sea water and lake water samples. PMID:20663510

  5. Base-Mediated Stereospecific Synthesis of Aryloxy and Amino substituted Ethyl Acrylates

    PubMed Central

    Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Verma, Ranjit; Lorenz, Michael; Tiruveedhula, V. V. N. Phani Babu; Monte, Aaron; Bertz, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted E- and Z-ethyl-3-acrylates is of interest because of their potential in the polymer industry and in medicinal chemistry. During work on a copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of E- and Z-ethyl-3-iodo-acrylates with phenols and N-heterocycles, we discovered a very simple (non-metallic) method for the stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted acrylates. To study this long standing problem on the stereoselectivity of aryloxy and amino substituted acrylates, a series of O- and N-substituted nucleophiles was allowed to react with E- and Z-ethyl-3-iodo-acrylates. Screening of different bases indicated that DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) afforded successful conversion of E- and Z- ethyl-3-iodoacrylates into aryloxy and amino substituted ethyl acrylates in a stereospecific manner. Herein are the details of this DABCO-mediated stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted E- or Z-acrylates. PMID:22073965

  6. Asymmetric intramolecular α-cyclopropanation of aldehydes using a donor/acceptor carbene mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chaosheng; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Enantioselective α-alkylation of carbonyl is considered as one of the most important processes for asymmetric synthesis. Common alkylation agents, that is, alkyl halides, are notorious substrates for both Lewis acids and organocatalysts. Recently, olefins emerged as a benign alkylating species via photo/radical mechanisms. However, examples of enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes/ketones are scarce and direct asymmetric dialkylation remains elusive. Here we report an intramolecular α-cyclopropanation reaction of olefinic aldehydes to form chiral cyclopropane aldehydes. We demonstrate that an α-iodo aldehyde can function as a donor/acceptor carbene equivalent, which engages in a formal [2+1] annulation with a tethered double bond. Privileged bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-type scaffolds are prepared in good optical purity using a chiral amine. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated by versatile transformations of the bridgehead formyl functionality. We expect the concept of using α-iodo iminium as a donor/acceptor carbene surrogate will find wide applications in chemical reaction development. PMID:26644194

  7. Deprotometalation-iodolysis and computed CH acidity of 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazoles. Application to the synthesis of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Nagaradja, Elisabeth; Bentabed-Ababsa, Ghenia; Scalabrini, Mathieu; Chevallier, Floris; Philippot, Stéphanie; Fontanay, Stéphane; Duval, Raphaël E; Halauko, Yury S; Ivashkevich, Oleg A; Matulis, Vadim E; Roisnel, Thierry; Mongin, Florence

    2015-10-01

    1-Aryl- and 2-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized by N-arylation of the corresponding azoles using aryl iodides. The deprotometalations of 1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole and -1,2,4-triazole were performed using a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidino-based mixed lithium-zinc combination and occurred at the most acidic site, affording by iodolysis the 5-substituted derivatives. Dideprotonation was noted from 1-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-triazole by increasing the amount of base. From 2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazoles, and in particular from 2-(4-trifluoromethoxy)phenyl-1,2,3-triazole, reactions at the 4 position of the triazolyl, but also ortho to the triazolyl on the phenyl group, were observed. The results were analyzed with the help of the CH acidities of the substrates, determined in THF solution using the DFT B3LYP method. 4-Iodo-2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole and 4-iodo-2-(2-iodophenyl)-1,2,3-triazole were next involved in Suzuki coupling reactions to furnish the corresponding 4-arylated and 4,2'-diarylated derivatives. When evaluated for biological activities, the latter (which are resveratrol analogues) showed moderate antibacterial activity and promising antiproliferative effect against MDA-MB-231 cell line.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of prolactin for the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a cooperatively breeding carnivore.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Nicol, Linda; Young, Andrew J; Parlow, Al F; McNeilly, Alan S

    2003-02-01

    We report the development and validation of a highly specific heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) to measure meerkat prolactin (PRL) by using rabbit antiserum to human prolactin and canine [125I]iodo-PRL. Dilutions of meerkat pituitary standard and plasma gave parallel inhibition curves in the assay. Gel filtration of meerkat pituitary extracts and canine [125I]iodo-PRL run separately on a Sephadex G-100 generated identical peaks of activity, and Western blot analysis of meerkat pituitary extract with the human prolactin antiserum used in the RIA gave a molecular weight similar to canine prolactin (21kDa). We carried out a biological validation of the prolactin assay by administering three different doses each of sulpiride and cabergoline to adult male meerkats. Increasing doses of sulpiride and cabergoline caused substantial increases and decreases, respectively, in the plasma prolactin of the study animals as expected. Activation of the stress response in meerkats by capture and ketamine hydrochloride anesthesia caused short-term but significant increases in prolactin levels in individuals bled repeatedly. The RIA developed and described here was able to determine plasma concentrations of prolactin in all animals sampled. We conclude, however, that it will be important in all future studies to confine blood sampling times to 4-7 min after capture/administration of anesthesia to avoid the confounding effects of the stress response on prolactin levels. PMID:12568792

  9. Safety evaluation of flubendiamide and its metabolites on cabbage and persistence in soil in different agroclimatic zones of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K K; Mohapatra, Saudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagdish, G K; Rashmi, N; Battu, R S; Sharma, S K; Singh, Balwinder; Parihar, N S; Sharma, B N; Kale, V D; Nakat, R V; Walnuj, A R; Singh, Geeta; Ravivanshi, Kuldeep K; Devi, Suneeta; Noniwal, Rajbir

    2014-06-01

    Supervised field trials following good agricultural practices were conducted at the research farms of four agricultural universities located at four different agroclimatic zones of India to evaluate the persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, on cabbage. Two spray applications of flubendiamide 480 SC of standard and double dose at the rate of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1) were given to the crop at a 15-day interval, and the residues of flubendiamide 2 h after spray were found in the range of 0.107-0.33 and 0.20-0.49 mg kg(-1) at respective doses. Residue of des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in any cabbage sample during study period. No residues were found in the soil samples collected from all treated fields after 15 days of application. On the basis of data generated under All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues, a preharvest interval (PHI) of 10 days has been recommended, and the flubendiamide 480 SC has been registered for its use on cabbage by Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The maximum residue limit (MRL) of flubendiamide on cabbage has been fixed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, under Food Safety Standard Authority of India as 0.05 μg/g after its risk assessment. PMID:24497081

  10. Cell Cycle Regulating Kinase Cdk4 as a Potential Target for Tumor Cell Treatment and Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Franziska; Koehler, Lena; Kniess, Torsten; Wuest, Frank; Mosch, Birgit; Pietzsch, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-cyclin D/retinoblastoma (pRb)/E2F cascade, which controls the G1/S transition of cell cycle, has been found to be altered in many neoplasias. Inhibition of this pathway by using, for example, selective Cdk4 inhibitors has been suggested to be a promising approach for cancer therapy. We hypothesized that appropriately radiolabeled Cdk4 inhibitors are suitable probes for tumor imaging and may be helpful studying cell proliferation processes in vivo by positron emission tomography. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological, biochemical, and radiopharmacological characterizations of two 124I-labeled small molecule Cdk4 inhibitors (8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-7-one (CKIA) and 8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(5-(piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-2-yl-amino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (CKIB)). Our data demonstrate a defined and specific inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through CKIA and CKIB by inhibition of the Cdk4/pRb/E2F pathway emphasizing potential therapeutic benefit of CKIA and CKIB. Furthermore, radiopharmacological properties of [124I]CKIA and [124I]CKIB observed in human tumor cells are promising prerequisites for in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies. PMID:19551155

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a novel radioiodinated phenylacetamide and its homolog as theranostic agents for malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chao; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Shen, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2016-01-01

    Melanin is an attractive target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma. This study reports the preparation and biological characterizations of N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-2-(3-(123/131)I-iodo-4- hydroxyphenyl)acetamide and N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-3-(3-(123/131)I-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propanamide (123/131)I-IHPA and 123/131I-IHPP) as novel melanin-specific theranostic agents. These two tracers were hydrophilic, exhibited good serum stability and high binding affinity to melanin. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed rapid, high and tenacious uptakes of both 131I-IHPA and 131I-IHPP in melanotic B16F0 cell line and in C57BL/6 mice bearing B16F0 melanoma, but not in amelanonic A375 cell line and tumors. Small-animal SPECT imaging also clearly delineate B16F0 melanoma since 1 h postinjection of 123I-IHPA and 123I-IHPP in tumor-bearing mice. Owing to the favorable biodistribution of 131I-IHPA and 131I-IHPP after intravenous administration, the estimated absorption dose was low in most normal organs and relatively high in melanotic tumor. The melanin-specific binding ability, sustained tumor retention, fast normal tissues clearance and acceptable projected human dosimetry supported that these two tracers are promising theranostic agents for melanin-positive melanoma. PMID:26517961

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR polarimetry in the Central Molecular Zone (Yoshikawa+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nishiyama, S.; Tamura, M.; Kwon, J.; Nagata, T.

    2014-09-01

    We conducted near-infrared (NIR) polarimetric observations of the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) with the SIRPOL camera attached to the 1.4m telescope IRSF (Infrared Survey Facility). This enables simultaneous observations in the J (central wavelength λJ=1.25um), H (λH=1.63um), and Ks (λKs=2.14um) bands. The image scale of the arrays is 0.45"/pixel, yielding a field of view of 460"x460". From 2010 to 2012, we observed 35 fields toward the boundary of the CMZ (See Figures 1-3). We obtain the data of point sources at 3.6um, 4.5um, 5.8um, 8.0um (Ramirez et al. 2008, Cat. II/295), and 24um (Hinz et al. 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/181/227) from the Spitzer archive, and we merge the mid-infrared data with our data matching within radii of 1" for 3.6um, 4.5um, 5.8um, and 8.0um, and 3" for 24um. (2 data files).

  13. Identification, toxicity and control of iodinated disinfection byproducts in cooking with simulated chlor(am)inated tap water and iodized table salt.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine/chloramine residuals are maintained in drinking water distribution systems to prevent microbial contamination and microorganism regrowth. During household cooking processes (e.g., soup making), the residual chlorine/chloramines in tap water may react with the iodide in iodized table salt to form hypoiodous acid, which could react with remaining natural organic matter in tap water and organic matter in food to generate iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs). However, I-DBPs formed during cooking with chloraminated/chlorinated tap water are almost completely new to researchers. In this work, by adopting precursor ion scan of m/z 127 using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, many new polar I-DBPs formed during cooking with chloraminated/chlorinated tap water were detected and proposed with structures, of which 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzoic acid, diiodoacetic acid, 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol, 2,4-diiodo-6-nitrophenol, and 2,4,6-triiodophenol were confirmed with standard compounds. With the aid of ultra fast liquid chromatography/ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry, molecular formula identification of five new I-DBPs (C8H5O4I, C7H4NO4I, C8H5O5I, C7H4NO5I, and C8H6O3I2) was achieved. A developmental toxicity with a recently developed sensitive bioassay was conducted for the newly identified I-DBPs, suggesting that phenolic I-DBPs (except for iodinated carboxyphenols) were about 50-200 times more developmentally toxic than aliphatic I-DBPs. The major I-DBPs in a baseline simulated cooking water sample were determined to be from 0.72 to 7.63 μg/L. Polar I-DBPs formed under various disinfection and cooking conditions were compared, and suggestions for controlling their formation were provided.

  14. Radioiodinated Phenylalkyl Malonic Acid Derivatives as pH-Sensitive SPECT Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Bauwens, Matthias; De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; Cleynhens, Jan; Brams, Laura; Devos, Ellen; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Verbruggen, Alfons

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In vivo pH imaging has been a field of interest for molecular imaging for many years. This is especially important for determining tumor acidity, an important driving force of tumor invasion and metastasis formation, but also in the process of apoptosis. Methods 2-(4-[123I]iodophenethyl)-2-methylmalonic acid (IPMM), 2-(4-[123I]iodophenethyl)-malonic acid (IPM), 2-(4-[123I]iodobenzyl)-malonic acid (IBMM) and 4-[123I]iodophthalic acid (IP) were radiolabeled via the Cu+ isotopic nucleophilic exchange method. All tracers were tested in vitro in buffer systems to assess pH driven cell uptake. In vivo biodistribution of [123I]IPMM and [123I]IPM was determined in healthy mice and the pH targeting efficacy in vivo of [123I]IPM was evaluated in an anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) apoptosis model. In addition a mouse RIF-1 tumor model was explored in which tumor pH was decreased from 7.0 to 6.5 by means of induction of hyperglycemia in combination with administration of meta-iodobenzylguanidine. Results Radiosynthesis resulted in 15–20% for iodo-bromo exchange and 50–60% yield for iodo-iodo exchange while in vitro experiments showed a pH-sensitive uptake for all tracers. Shelf-life stability and in vivo stability was excellent for all tracers. [123I]IPMM and [123I]IPM showed a moderately fast predominantly biliary clearance while a high retention was observed in blood. The biodistribution profile of [123I]IPM was found to be most favorable in view of pH-specific imaging. [123I]IPM showed a clear pH-related uptake pattern in the RIF-1 tumor model. Conclusion Iodine-123 labeled malonic acid derivates such as [123I]IPM show a clearly pH dependent uptake in tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo which allows to visualize regional acidosis. However, these compounds are not suitable for detection of apoptosis due to a poor acidosis effect. PMID:22719886

  15. Identification, toxicity and control of iodinated disinfection byproducts in cooking with simulated chlor(am)inated tap water and iodized table salt.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine/chloramine residuals are maintained in drinking water distribution systems to prevent microbial contamination and microorganism regrowth. During household cooking processes (e.g., soup making), the residual chlorine/chloramines in tap water may react with the iodide in iodized table salt to form hypoiodous acid, which could react with remaining natural organic matter in tap water and organic matter in food to generate iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs). However, I-DBPs formed during cooking with chloraminated/chlorinated tap water are almost completely new to researchers. In this work, by adopting precursor ion scan of m/z 127 using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, many new polar I-DBPs formed during cooking with chloraminated/chlorinated tap water were detected and proposed with structures, of which 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzoic acid, diiodoacetic acid, 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol, 2,4-diiodo-6-nitrophenol, and 2,4,6-triiodophenol were confirmed with standard compounds. With the aid of ultra fast liquid chromatography/ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry, molecular formula identification of five new I-DBPs (C8H5O4I, C7H4NO4I, C8H5O5I, C7H4NO5I, and C8H6O3I2) was achieved. A developmental toxicity with a recently developed sensitive bioassay was conducted for the newly identified I-DBPs, suggesting that phenolic I-DBPs (except for iodinated carboxyphenols) were about 50-200 times more developmentally toxic than aliphatic I-DBPs. The major I-DBPs in a baseline simulated cooking water sample were determined to be from 0.72 to 7.63 μg/L. Polar I-DBPs formed under various disinfection and cooking conditions were compared, and suggestions for controlling their formation were provided. PMID:26474150

  16. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-07-04

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action.

  17. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... factor. The Respondent attempted to mislead the University of Michigan (UM) police by initially denying... eventually made an admission only after the UM police informed him that his actions in the laboratory...

  18. Assessment of Teams and Teamwork in the University of Maryland Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Teams play an important role in the University of Maryland (UM) Libraries. Since 1998, teams and collaborative teamwork have become the way librarians address the myriad of issues affecting the needs of UM's faculty, students, and staff. There has been much change in the UM Libraries over the past nine years, and the development is ongoing.…

  19. Portal Monitor Future Development Work: Hardware Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, Michael C.

    2012-07-03

    LANL portal monitor was a modification of a previously installed (permanent) unattended monitoring system (UMS). Modifications to the UMS to make the portal were sometimes based on mistaken assumptions about exercise-specific installation and access. Philosophical approach to real-time portal differs in some areas from UMS.

  20. Utopia Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  1. "Was für Grün in der Stadt?". Politische Aushandlungsprozesse um städtische Grün- und Freiräume am Beispiel des urbanen Gärtnerns in Schweizer Städten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöti, Tanja; Tappert, Simone; Drilling, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Urban green space is a key subject of actual urban negotiation processes on how the city shall develop. Visions of the ideal city are reflected in the meanings currently ascribed to urban gardening. Thereby the relation between human and nature as well as between build and natural environment in the city plays a central role. Results from different Swiss cities show that allotment gardens as well as newer forms of urban gardening are oscillating between a compensatory and a complementary understanding of nature, and they equally combine the desire for pristine nature with the demand for functional green space in the city.

  2. Resolving the Youngest Episode of Zircon Rim Growth with High-Spatial Resolution SIMS: U-Pb Ages and Trace Element Analyses from <1 um Thick Metamorphic Zircon Rims from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, M. A.; Leech, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Dating the youngest phase of metamorphic or magmatic zircon growth by in-situ techniques on sectioned zircons can be challenging when rims are only a few microns thick; in the worst case, geologically meaningless measurements result from mixing between different age and/or compositional growth domains. This is especially true for zircons from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya, which contain Eocene to Miocene rims that grew over Paleozoic and Proterozoic protolith cores during peak and retrograde metamorphism. These metamorphic rims are typically only 0.5 to 3.0 microns thick and require high-spatial resolution to resolve. We used the SHRIMP-RG ion-microprobe to perform new U-Pb depth-profiling analyses on zircon surfaces (non-polished) pressed into indium metal. Zircons from a leucogranite dike from Malung Tokpo along the Zanskar Shear Zone, which have 2000-5000 ppm U rims, were selected for detailed depth-profiling to evaluate the depth-resolution by SIMS for U-Pb and trace element analyses. Due to the high U concentration, we were able to decrease the primary beam intensity (sputter rate) and the count times for U and Pb isotopes, and increase the number of cycles through the run-table (45 peak-hopping scans). As a result, each cycle yielded a 0.04 micron depth-resolved zircon age and trace element composition. The youngest 13 scans yielded a U-Pb age of 21.3 ± 0.5 Ma, representing a 0.6 micron rim with uniform U, Th, and Hf concentrations. At 1.15 microns, the primary beam sputtered into a ~600 Ma core; this older age is complicated by the fact that it reflects mixing between the bottom of the sputter volume and the Miocene ages of the pit margins and rim, because the diameter of the spot tends to increase with time. Trace element analyses on zircon surfaces from the Tso Morari UHP Complex are highly reproducible, showing enriched HREE profiles with negative Eu anomalies - a result that is difficult to reproduce by analyses of sectioned crystals.

  3. Educacao Intercultural e a Dificuldade de sua Pratica: Um Estudo da Imagem do Migrante e sua Familia em Livros Didaticos Alemaes. (Intercultural Education and the Difficulty of Its Practice: A Study of the Image of the Migrant and His Family in German Textbooks.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Wivian

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief historical report on pedagogical efforts to improve the integration of migrants and their families into German society. Examines the way in which the migrants' social situation has been dealt with in textbooks, particularly in books on politics, history, geography, and occupational education. (PA)

  4. Interactions between a surface-active cationic 3H-indole molecular probe and β-cyclodextrin. Design of a novel type of rotaxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinghai; Belletête, Michel; Durocher, Gilles

    1999-02-01

    We report herein the interactions of a cationic surface-active molecular probe having long aliphatic chains, i.e., iodo-methyldioctadecyl 2-( p-hexylaminophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-5-carboethoxy-3H-indole ammonium, with β-CD investigated by spectral and photophysical characterizations. It is found through lifetime measurements that only two species exist within the whole range of β-CD concentrations. Both the steady-state and the time-resolved fluorescence results further show that the stoichiometry of the inclusion complex is 1:3. It is also suggested that an interaction of the aliphatic chains of the cationic 3H-indole with β-CD takes place. Finally it is shown that a new rotaxane forms spontaneously in solution.

  5. Correlation of pancreatic secretion and plasma cholecystokinin concentrations after various stimuli in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a sensitive, specific, and reliable radioimmunoassay for plasma cholecystokinin and to use the cholecystokinin radioimmunoassay (CCK RIA) to determine the role of CCK in stimulating exocrine pancreatic secretion. Three rabbits were immunized with synthetic sulfated CCK-10 conjugated to keyholed limpet hemocyanin. Using /sup 125/I-CCK-39 (iodo-gen) as tracer, it was found that antiserum R016 (titer = 1:256,000) recognized short and long forms of CCK and had negligible cross-reactivity with gastrin and other peptides. Plasma CCK levels and pancreatic secretion in fasted dogs (N = 6) were measured in response to a meat meal, intestinal perfusion with saline, graded amounts of sodium oleate (+/-atropine), a mixture of tryptophan/phenylalanine (Trp/Phe), or HCl, and i.v. infusion of graded doses of CCK-8 or CCK-39.

  6. Weak inter-actions in the crystal structures of two indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jamie R; Trembleau, Laurent; Storey, John M D; Wardell, James L; Harrison, William T A

    2016-07-01

    We describe the syntheses and crystal structures of two indole derivatives, namely a second monoclinic polymorph of ethyl 5-chloro-1H-indole-2-carboxyl-ate C11H10ClNO2, (I), and ethyl 5-chloro-3-iodo-1H-indole-2-carboxyl-ate, C11H9ClINO2, (II). In their crystal structures, both compounds form inversion dimers linked by pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate R 2 (2)(10) loops. The dimers are linked into double chains in (I) and sheets in (II) by a variety of weak inter-actions, including π-π stacking, C-I⋯π, C-Cl-π inter-actions and I⋯Cl halogen bonds. PMID:27555941

  7. Biological mechanism for the toxicity of haloacetic acid drinking water disinfection byproducts.

    PubMed

    Pals, Justin A; Ang, Justin K; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    The halogenated acetic acids are a major class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) with five haloacetic acids regulated by the U.S. EPA. These agents are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. The decreasing toxicity rank order of the monohalogenated acetic acids (monoHAAs) is iodo- > bromo- > chloroacetic acid. We present data that the monoHAAs inhibit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the same rank order as above. The rate of inhibition of GAPDH and the toxic potency of the monoHAAs are highly correlated with their alkylating potential and the propensity of the halogen leaving group. This strong association between GAPDH inhibition and the monoHAA toxic potency supports a comprehensive mechanism for the adverse biological effects by this widely occurring class of regulated DBPs.

  8. Halogen and Hydrogen Bonding Benzothiophene Diol Derivatives: A Study Using ab initio Calculations and X-Ray Crystal Structure Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Cadoni, Enzo; Ferino, Giulio; Pitzanti, Patrizia; Secci, Francesco; Fattuoni, Claudia; Nicolò, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and compare the supramolecular interactions, in the solid state, of chloro-, bromo-, and iodobenzothiophene diols. The compounds were obtained through organo-catalyzed reactions starting from 3-substituted halobenzothiophene carbaldehydes. Energies of the noncovalent interactions were obtained by density functional theory calculations. Bond distances and angles were found to be in accordance with those determined by X-ray structure analysis. anti-Bromobenzothiophene derivatives showed strong halogen⋅⋅⋅π interactions between bromine and the heterocyclic phenyl ring, corresponding to an energy of 7.5 kcal mol−1. syn-Bromo and syn-iodo derivatives appeared to be isostructural, showing X⋅⋅⋅O (carbonyl) interactions, π stacking, and formation of extended hydrogen bonding networks. In contrast, the chloro derivatives displayed no halogen bonding interactions. PMID:25969814

  9. Deproto-metallation of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles using a mixed lithium–zinc base and regioselectivity-computed CH acidity relationship

    PubMed Central

    Messaoud, Mohamed Yacine Ameur; Hedidi, Madani; Derdour, Aïcha; Chevallier, Floris; Ivashkevich, Oleg A; Matulis, Vadim E; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles is documented, as well as their functionalization by deprotonative metallation using the base in situ prepared from LiTMP and ZnCl2·TMEDA (1/3 equiv). With N-phenylpyrrole and -indole, the reactions were carried out in hexane containing TMEDA which regioselectively afforded the 2-iodo derivatives after subsequent iodolysis. With pyrroles and indoles bearing N-substituents such as 2-thienyl, 3-pyridyl, 4-methoxyphenyl and 4-bromophenyl, the reactions all took place on the substituent, at the position either adjacent to the heteroatom (S, N) or ortho to the heteroatom-containing substituent (OMe, Br). The CH acidities of the substrates were determined in THF solution using the DFT B3LYP method in order to rationalize the experimental results. PMID:26425204

  10. Identification and optimization of anthranilic sulfonamides as novel, selective cholecystokinin-2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Allison, Brett D; Phuong, Victor K; McAtee, Laura C; Rosen, Mark; Morton, Magda; Prendergast, Clodagh; Barrett, Terry; Lagaud, Guy; Freedman, Jamie; Li, Lina; Wu, Xiaodong; Venkatesan, Hariharan; Pippel, Marna; Woods, Craig; Rizzolio, Michèle C; Hack, Michael; Hoey, Kenway; Deng, Xiaohu; King, Christopher; Shankley, Nigel P; Rabinowitz, Michael H

    2006-10-19

    A high throughput screening approach to the identification of selective cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK-2R) ligands resulted in the discovery of a novel series of antagonists, represented by 1-[2-[(2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4-ylsulfonyl)amino]-5-chlorobenzoyl]-piperidine (1; CCK-2R, pK(I) = 6.4). Preliminary exploration of the structure-activity relationships around the anthranilic ring and the amide and sulfonamide moieties led to a nearly 50-fold improvement of receptor affinity and showed a greater than 1000-fold selectivity over the related cholecystokinin-1 receptor. Pharmacokinetic evaluation led to the identification of 4-[4-iodo-2-[(5-quinoxalinylsulfonyl)amino]benzoyl]-morpholine, 26d, a compound that demonstrates promising pharmacokinetic properties in the rat and dog with respect to plasma clearance and oral bioavailability and is a potent inhibitor in vivo of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion in the rat when dosed orally.

  11. Synthesis of new, base-modified PNA monomers.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Ferenc; Sági, Gyula

    2007-01-01

    A number of N-Boc-protected peptide nucleic acids (PNA) monomers containing 5-aryl- and 5-alkynyl-uracil bases have been synthesized using different palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Starting from the base-unprotected 5-iodo-uracil PNA monomer, only the Stille couplings were accomplished successfully, while Suzuki couplings with boronic acids containing the same aryl groups failed. During Sonogashira couplings with terminal alkynes, significant amounts of unrequired furano[2,3-d]pyrimidine by-products were formed. Protection of the lactam function by p-methoxybenzylation prevented the opportunity for intramolecular cyclization as well as formation of a negative charge on the 4-O atom, making it possible to reach almost quantitative yields at Sonogashira couplings and acceptable conversions in Suzuki reactions. PMID:18066879

  12. Reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorobenzoate to 4-chlorobenzoate and hydrolytic dehalogenation of 4-chloro-, 4-bromo-, and 4-iodobenzoate by Alcaligenes denitrificans NTB-1.

    PubMed Central

    van den Tweel, W J; Kok, J B; de Bont, J A

    1987-01-01

    Alcaligenes denitrificans NTB-1, previously isolated on 4-chlorobenzoate, also utilized 4-bromo-, 4-iodo-, and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate but not 4-fluorobenzoate as a sole carbon and energy source. During growth, stoichiometric amounts of halide were released. Experiments with whole cells and cell extracts revealed that 4-bromo- and 4-iodobenzoate were metabolized like 4-chlorobenzoate, involving an initial hydrolytic dehalogenation yielding 4-hydroxybenzoate, which in turn was hydroxylated to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. The initial step in the metabolism of 2,4-dichlorobenzoate was catalyzed by a novel type of reaction for aerobic organisms, involving inducible reductive dechlorination to 4-chlorobenzoate. Under conditions of low and controlled oxygen concentrations, A. denitrificans NTB-1 converted all 4-halobenzoates and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate almost quantitatively to 4-hydroxybenzoate. PMID:3579283

  13. An exploratory evaluation of tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition in planaria as a model for parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Prokai, David; Nguyen, Thinh; Kamrowski, Kurt; Chandra, Ashwin; Talamantes, Tatjana; Baxter, Lewis R; Prokai, Laszlo

    2013-11-26

    Planaria are the simplest organisms with bilateral symmetry and a central nervous system (CNS) with cephalization; therefore, they could be useful as model organisms to investigate mechanistic aspects of parkinsonism and to screen potential therapeutic agents. Taking advantage of the organism's anti-tropism towards light, we measured a significantly reduced locomotor velocity in planaria after exposure to 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase that is an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines. A simple semi-automatic assay using videotaped experiments and subsequent evaluation by tracking software was also implemented to increase throughput. The dopaminergic regulation of locomotor velocity was confirmed by bromocriptine, a drug whose mechanisms of action to treat Parkinson's disease is believed to be through the stimulation of nerves that control movement.

  14. Rectifying behaviour of spin coated pn hetero-junction

    SciTech Connect

    Yogamalar, N. Rajeswari; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-24

    Rectifying pn hetero- junction is fabricated with an acceptor p-type organic semiconductor namely tetra- chloro dihydroxy tetra-iodo fluorescein (Rose Bengal (RB)) followed by an inorganic n-type ZnO semiconductor on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The n-type ZnO films are formed by unintentional doping and doping with aluminium (Al) and yttrium (Y) donors. The surface morphology and the distribution of grains are observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the rectifying diode is measured to characterize the junction properties. The I-V plots obtained from the hetero- junction with electric contact shows a diode characteristic different from that of an ideal behavior. The overall efficiency of the diode exhibits a greater dependency on the film crystallinity, carrier concentration, and reverse saturation current.

  15. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of some triazole Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Chohan, Zahid H

    2013-12-01

    The condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with methoxy-, chloro-, bromo-, iodo- and nitro-substituted 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes formed triazole Schiff bases (L(1))-(L(6)). The synthesized ligands have been characterized through physical, spectral and analytical data. Furthermore, the reaction of synthesized Schiff bases with the oxovanadium(IV) sulphate in (1:2) (metal:ligand) molar ratio afforded the oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(6). All the complexes were non-electrolytic and showed a square-pyramidal geometry. The synthesized compounds have been screened for in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and brine shrimp bioassay. The bioactivity data showed the complexes to be more active than the original Schiff bases.

  16. Effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under high glucose.

    PubMed

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In biological systems, elevation of intracellular calcium can cause calpain activation, leading to cell death. Here, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline or clioquinol and 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline or nitroxoline) on calpain-dependent (calpain-calpastatin) pathways in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was investigated. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives ameliorated high glucose toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The investigated compounds, particularly clioquinol, attenuated the increased expression of calpain, even under high-glucose conditions. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives thus adversely affected the promotion of neuronal cell death by high glucose via the calpain-calpastatin signaling pathways. These findings support the beneficial effects of 8-hydroxyquinolines for further therapeutic development. PMID:27635352

  17. Isolation, identification, and plaque titration of parvovirus from Muscovy ducks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takehara, K; Hyakutake, K; Imamura, T; Mutoh, K; Yoshimura, M

    1994-01-01

    Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) showed abnormal feathering, leg weakness, and high mortality. A virus was isolated from these ducks after several blind passages in embryonating Muscovy duck eggs. The isolate was resistant to chloroform, to pH 3.2, and to 65 C for 30 min. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an icosahedral and nonenveloped virus 20-22 nm in diameter. The isolate reacted with an antiserum against a goose parvovirus in agar gel precipitation tests. After 15 passages of the isolate in embryonating eggs, the isolate was adapted to Muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts. The adapted virus developed cytopathic effects and made clear plaques on sheets of the fibroblasts. When 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine was added to the culture medium, virus growth was inhibited. From the data shown above, the isolate was identified as a goose parvovirus.

  18. Accurate quantification of two key time points used in the determination of hydroxyl polyaluminum species by ferron timed spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Yong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Dongyan; Shi, Qiuyi

    2015-01-01

    The content of mononuclear Al (Ala%) changed with its determination time (ta) under different dosages of Ferron (7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, [Ferron]), and the change of Ala% with [Ferron] at different ta was systematically investigated for the first time. Thus, the most appropriate ta was found with the optimal [Ferron]. Also, the judgment of the platform (flat or level portion) of the complete reaction on the absorption-time curve determined in the hydroxyl polyaluminum solution by Ferron timed spectrophotometry (Ferron assay) was first digitized. The time point (tb) of complete reaction between the medium polyaluminum (Alb) and Ferron reagent depended on the reaction extent, and time could not be used only to judge. Thus, the tb was accurately determined and reduced to half of original, which improved the experiment efficiency significantly. The Ferron assay was completely optimized.

  19. A simple and sensitive colorimetric assay of zinc in serum using cationic porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Makino, T

    1999-04-01

    A direct colorimetric method is presented for simple and sensitive determination of serum zinc in 0.05-ml samples, using a cationic porphyrin, alpha,beta,gamma,delta-tetrakis(4-N-trimethylaminophenyl) porphine tetratoluenesulfonate salt (ttmapp, epsilon = 41.5 x 10(4) l/mol per cm at 421 nm). 7-Iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (Ferron) as an accelerator for the incorporation of zinc into ttmapp was most effective. Interference of iron, copper and conjugated bilirubin in serum can be eliminated in the presence of proteins such as albumin in serum. Within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CV) were in the ranges of 0.76-3.59 and 2.08-5.20%. A good correlation was observed between this method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  20. Methyl tunnelling in trihalogeno-trimethyl-benzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinnel, J.; Häusler, W.; Mani, M.; Tazi, M.; Nusimovici, M.; Sanquer, M.; Wyncke, B.; Heidemann, A.; Carlile, C. J.; Tomkinson, J.; Hennion, B.

    1992-06-01

    Results of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) from 1,3,5-trihalogeno-2,4,6-trimethyl-benzenes are reported for the chloro-, the bromo- and the iodo-case. For the whole family the spectra show numerous similarities, in the μeV as well as in the meV range. We observe three tunnelling lines of equal intensity corresponding to three crystallographically inequivalent methyl rotors. The observed librational peaks are at much lower energies than expected from a pure threefold potential. Within the halogen family a systematic reduction of the barrier height is found with larger halogen sizes. The temperature dependence of the tunnelling energies shows the most pronounced difference between TBM and TIM, where the corresponding tunnelling lines even shift in opposite directions.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting as pseudopheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898

  2. Dairy-impacted wastewater is a source of iodinated disinfection byproducts in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are among the most toxic DBPs, but they are not typically measured in treated water. Iodinated DBPs can be toxic to humans, and they also have the potential to affect aquatic communities. Because of the specific use of iodine and iodine-containing compounds in dairies, such livestock operations can be a potential source of iodinated DBPs in corresponding receiving water bodies. DBPs [trihalomethanes (THMs), including iodinated THMs] were measured within dairy processing facilities (milking and cheese manufacturing) and surface waters that receive dairy-impacted effluents [either directly from the dairy or through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)] in three areas of the United States (California, New York, and Wisconsin). Iodo-THMs comprised 15−29% of the total THMs in surface water near WWTP effluents that were impacted by dairy waste and 0−100% of the total THMs in samples from dairy processing facilities.

  3. Mechanism of Oxidative Amidation of Nitroalkanes with Oxygen and Amine Nucleophiles by Using Electrophilic Iodine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lear, Martin J; Kwon, Eunsang; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2016-04-11

    Recently, we developed a direct method to oxidatively convert primary nitroalkanes into amides that entailed mixing an iodonium source with an amine, base, and oxygen. Herein, we systematically investigated the mechanism and likely intermediates of such methods. We conclude that an amine-iodonium complex first forms through N-halogen bonding. This complex reacts with aci-nitronates to give both α-iodo- and α,α-diiodonitroalkanes, which can act as alternative sources of electrophilic iodine and also generate an extra equimolar amount of I(+) under O2. In particular, evidence supports α,α-diiodonitroalkane intermediates reacting with molecular oxygen to form a peroxy adduct; alternatively, these tetrahedral intermediates rearrange anaerobically to form a cleavable nitrite ester. In either case, activated esters are proposed to form that eventually reacts with nucleophilic amines in a traditional fashion.

  4. Stable polymeric carbon radicals. Part 2: Attempts at the preparation of polyradicals of the triphenylmethyl type linked by P-phenylene units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D.; Lehmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    As starting materials for the preparation of polyradicals of triphenylmethyl type linked by p-phenylene units bis(4-iodophenylmethane) and bis(4-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-phenylmethane) were synthesized by a Sandmeyer reaction from the corresponding diamino compounds and subsequently transformed into the corresponding polymeric hydrocarbons 6a and 6b by an Ullmann condensation. In the following step 6a and 6b were brominated at the tert. carbon atom by means of N-bromosuccinimide. The reaction of the resulting poly (4,4'-biphenylylen-alpha-bromobenzylidene)s (7a and 7b) with mercury afforded the corresponding radicals, the ESR spectra of which were recorded. From the methyl substituted polymer 7b poly (2,2'5,5-tetramethyl-4,4'-bi-phenylylen)phenylmethylidyne was formed, whereas the unsubstituted product 7a was transformed into a para-quinoide polymer with radical properties.

  5. Asymmetric Synthesis of a CBI-Based Cyclic N-Acyl O-Amino Phenol Duocarmycin Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A short, asymmetric synthesis of a cyclic N-acyl O-amino phenol duocarmycin prodrug subject to reductive activation based on the simplified 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-one (CBI) DNA alkylation subunit is described. A key element of the approach entailed treatment of iodo-epoxide 7, prepared by N-alkylation of 6 with (S)-glycidal 3-nosylate, with EtMgBr at room temperature to directly provide the optically pure alcohol 8 in 78% yield (99% ee) derived from an effective metal–halogen exchange and subsequent regioselective intramolecular 6-endo-tet cyclization. Following O-debenzylation, introduction of a protected N-methylhydroxamic acid, direct trannannular spirocyclization, and subsequent stereoelectronically controlled acid-catalyzed cleavage of the resulting cyclopropane (HCl), further improvements in a unique intramolecular cyclization with N–O bond formation originally introduced for formation of the reductively labile prodrug functionality are detailed. PMID:25247380

  6. Radiation dosimetry of iodine-123 HEAT, an alpha-1 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.D.; Greer, D.M.; Couch, M.W.; Williams, C.M.

    1987-11-01

    Biologic distribution data in the rat were obtained for the alpha-1 adrenoceptor imaging agent (+/-) 2-(beta-(iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminomethyl)tetralone (HEAT) labeled with (/sup 123/I). The major excretory routes were through the liver (67%) and the kidney (33%). Internal radiation absorbed dose estimates to nine source organs, total body, the GI tract, gonads, and red bone marrow were calculated for the human using the physical decay data for (/sup 123/I). The critical organ was found to be the lower large intestine, receiving 1.1 rad per mCi of (/sup 123/I)HEAT administered. The total-body dose was found to be 58 mrad per mCi.

  7. Formation of Benzimidazoisoquinolinium and Benzimidazoisoindolinum Cyclic Systems by the Reaction of 2-(2-Alkynylphenyl)benzimidazoles with Iodine and Iodine-Iodine Interaction Including Halogen Bonding in Their Crystal Structures.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shoji; Kikuchi, Shu; Norita, Naoto; Masu, Hyuma; Akazome, Motohiro

    2016-07-01

    The reaction of 2-(2-alkynylphenyl)benz[d]imidazoles with molecular iodine constructed 5- and 6-membered rings as novel organic salts in high yield. The constituted number of ring systems was influenced by the substituent at the triple bond: 6-membered rings were formed from compounds bearing aryl substituents, whereas 5-membered ones were obtained from compounds with hydrogen or alkyl substituents. The products were obtained with triiodide as a counteranion; however, compounds with iodide were also obtainable under certain conditions. We also revealed that they had an iodine-iodine interaction included in halogen bonding between an iodo moiety of the cation and a triiodide or iodide of the counteranion. The iodine-iodine interaction was formed with greater preference than the electrostatic interaction between the cationic atom and triiodide or iodide. PMID:27258839

  8. Radiolabelled D/sub 2/ agonists as prolactinoma imaging agents: Progress report for period February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, C.A.

    1987-11-07

    Three D/sub 2/ agonists, /sup 3/H-DHEC, /sup 3/H-BrCr and /sup 3/H-ADTN, were evaluated with /sup 3/H-DHEC showing the most promise as a potential prolactinoma imaging agent. Concentration vs time plots for all three compounds in normal and in DES-treated pituitary tissue are reported. The exceptional D/sub 2/ receptor affinity of N-0437 has prompted synthetic efforts towards preparation of iodo-N-0437 in spite of a lack of preliminary tissue distribution data. An evaluation of /sup 18/F-FDG uptake in the prolactinoma model and as a muscarinic ligand in control animals were evaluated. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Crystal structure of ({4-[(4-bromo­phen­yl)ethyn­yl]-3,5-di­ethyl­phen­yl}ethyn­yl)triiso­propyl­silane

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Caiyun; Moxey, Graeme J.; Barlow, Adam; Morshedi, Mahbod

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C29H37BrSi, was synthesized by the Sonogashira coupling of [(3,5-diethyl-4-ethynylphen­yl)ethyn­yl]triiso­propyl­silane with 4-bromo-1-iodo­benzene. In the structure, the two phenyl rings are nearly parallel to each other with a dihedral angle of 4.27 (4)°. In the crystal, π–π inter­actions between the terminal and central phenyl rings of adjacent mol­ecules link them in the a-axis direction [perpendicular distance = 3.5135 (14); centroid–centroid distance = 3.7393 (11) Å]. In addition, there are weak C—H⋯π inter­actions between the isopropyl H atoms and the phenyl rings of adjacent mol­ecules. PMID:25995927

  10. Astatine-211-labeled biotin conjugates resistant to biotinidase for use in pretargeted radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Foulon, C F; Alston, K L; Zalutsky, M R

    1998-02-01

    We report herein the preparation and biological evaluation of two radioastatinated biotin conjugates, (3-[211At]astatobenzoyl)norbiotinamide and ((5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinyl)carbonyl)norbiotinamide. Both conjugates were stable in the presence of human serum and cerebrospinal fluid as well as murine serum, indicating a resistance to degradation to biotinidase. The normal tissue clearance of (3-[211At]astatobenzoyl)norbiotinamide and ((5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinyl)carbonyl)norbiotinamide was rapid, as observed previously with their iodo analogues. Also reported are the first syntheses of N-succinimidyl 5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinecarboxylate and 3-[211At]astatoaniline, two reagents of potential utility for labeling proteins and peptides with 211At.

  11. Synthesis of 5-iodopyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines and indolo[1,2-a]quinolines via iodine-mediated electrophilic and regioselective 6-endo-dig ring closure.

    PubMed

    Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Shukla, Satya Prakash; Singh, Jaspal; Rustagi, Vineeta

    2011-07-15

    The endo-cyclic ring closure of 1-(2-(substituted ethynyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrroles 3a-t and 1-(2-(substituted ethynyl)phenyl)-H-indole 4a-o mediated by Lewis acid (I(2)) under mild conditions afforded substituted 5-iodopyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines 5a-t and 5-iodoindolo[1,2-a]quinolines 6a-o in good to excellent yields. The reaction shows selective C-C bond formation on the more electrophilic alkynyl carbon, resulting in the regioselective 6-endo-dig-cyclized product. Iodo derivatives of pyrrolo- and indoloquinolines allow functional group diversification on the quinoline nucleus, which proves to be highly advantageous for structural and biological activity assessments.

  12. Effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under high glucose

    PubMed Central

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk

    2016-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In biological systems, elevation of intracellular calcium can cause calpain activation, leading to cell death. Here, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline or clioquinol and 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline or nitroxoline) on calpain-dependent (calpain-calpastatin) pathways in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was investigated. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives ameliorated high glucose toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The investigated compounds, particularly clioquinol, attenuated the increased expression of calpain, even under high-glucose conditions. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives thus adversely affected the promotion of neuronal cell death by high glucose via the calpain-calpastatin signaling pathways. These findings support the beneficial effects of 8-hydroxyquinolines for further therapeutic development. PMID:27635352

  13. Thermal and optical characterization of a novel series of supramolecular liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya Prabu, N. Pongali; Potukuchi, D. M.; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.

    2012-09-01

    Supramolecular hydrogen bonded liquid crystal (SMHBLC) homologous series is synthesized and characterized. Hydrogen bond is formed between p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acids (nOBA, where n=7 to 12) and Iodo substituted benzoic acid (ImBA) respectively. The isolated homologs are characterized by various techniques like Polarizing Optical Microscopy (POM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). From the POM and DSC studies phase diagram has been constructed and discussed. A new smectic ordering, labeled as smectic R, has been characterized which exhibits a ribbon like texture. This phase is observed in a complex pertaining to the undecyloxy carbon number. Tilt angle in smectic R phase and in traditional smectic C of all the complexes have been experimentally deduced and the results are fitted and so obtained β value concurrences with the Mean field theory predicted value.

  14. Weak inter­actions in the crystal structures of two indole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jamie R.; Trembleau, Laurent; Storey, John M. D.; Wardell, James L.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the syntheses and crystal structures of two indole derivatives, namely a second monoclinic polymorph of ethyl 5-chloro-1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate C11H10ClNO2, (I), and ethyl 5-chloro-3-iodo-1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate, C11H9ClINO2, (II). In their crystal structures, both compounds form inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate R 2 2(10) loops. The dimers are linked into double chains in (I) and sheets in (II) by a variety of weak inter­actions, including π–π stacking, C—I⋯π, C—Cl—π inter­actions and I⋯Cl halogen bonds. PMID:27555941

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Environmentally Benign Acylation.

    PubMed

    Suchand, Basuli; Satyanarayana, Gedu

    2016-08-01

    Recent trends in research have gained an orientation toward developing efficient strategies using innocuous reagents. The earlier reported transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylations involved either toxic carbon monoxide (CO) gas as carbonylating agent or functional-group-assisted ortho sp(2) C-H activation (i.e., ortho acylation) or carbonylation by activation of the carbonyl group (i.e., via the formation of enamines). Contradicting these methods, here we describe an environmentally benign process, [Pd]-catalyzed direct carbonylation starting from simple and commercially available iodo arenes and aldehydes, for the synthesis of a wide variety of ketones. Moreover, this method comprises direct coupling of iodoarenes with aldehydes without activation of the carbonyl and also without directing group assistance. Significantly, the strategy was successfully applied to the synthesis n-butylphthalide and pitofenone. PMID:27377566

  16. Novel Polycarbo-Substituted Imidazo[1,2-c]quinazolines: Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Study.

    PubMed

    Khoza, Tebogo Ankie; Makhafola, Tshepiso Jan; Mphahlele, Malose Jack

    2015-01-01

    Amination of the 2-aryl-6-bromo-4-chloro-8-iodoquinazolines with 2-aminoethanol followed by acid-promoted cyclodehydration of the incipient 2-((6,8-dihalo-2-phenylquinazolin-4-yl)amino)ethanols afforded the corresponding novel 5-aryl-9-bromo-7-iodo-2,3-dihydro-2H-imidazo[1,2-c]quinazolines. The latter were, in turn, subjected to sequential (Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura) and one-pot two-step (Sonogashira/Stille) cross-coupling reactions to afford diversely functionalized polycarbo-substituted 2H-imidazo[1,2-c]quinazolines. The imidazoquinazolines were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. PMID:26694336

  17. Mechanism of Oxidative Amidation of Nitroalkanes with Oxygen and Amine Nucleophiles by Using Electrophilic Iodine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lear, Martin J; Kwon, Eunsang; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2016-04-11

    Recently, we developed a direct method to oxidatively convert primary nitroalkanes into amides that entailed mixing an iodonium source with an amine, base, and oxygen. Herein, we systematically investigated the mechanism and likely intermediates of such methods. We conclude that an amine-iodonium complex first forms through N-halogen bonding. This complex reacts with aci-nitronates to give both α-iodo- and α,α-diiodonitroalkanes, which can act as alternative sources of electrophilic iodine and also generate an extra equimolar amount of I(+) under O2. In particular, evidence supports α,α-diiodonitroalkane intermediates reacting with molecular oxygen to form a peroxy adduct; alternatively, these tetrahedral intermediates rearrange anaerobically to form a cleavable nitrite ester. In either case, activated esters are proposed to form that eventually reacts with nucleophilic amines in a traditional fashion. PMID:26938791

  18. Iodoindazoles with Selective Magnesiation at Position 3: A Route to Highly Functionalized Indazoles.

    PubMed

    Lam, Bao Vy; Berhault, Yohann; Stiebing, Silvia; Fossey, Christine; Cailly, Thomas; Collot, Valérie; Fabis, Frédéric

    2016-03-18

    A unique route to highly functionalized indazoles is described. A regioselective magnesiation at position 3 of 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-iodo-2-THP-indazoles (THP=tetrahydropyranyl) has been developed using TMPMgCl⋅LiCl (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl). The obtained magnesiate can be trapped by different electrophiles to introduce a wide range of functional groups including halogens, thioalkyls, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, or esters at position 3. Once this position is functionalized, the iodine atoms can be further reacted through metal-halogen exchange or cross-coupling strategies. Finally, N-substitution reactions allow the synthesis of a variety of highly functionalized indazoles giving access to these valuable scaffolds through a simple and unique route. PMID:26879134

  19. Vitamins as radioprotectors in vivo. I. Protection by vitamin C against internal radionuclides in mouse testes: Implications to the mechanism of damage caused by the Auger effect

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, V.R.; Harapanhalli, R.S.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V. ); Sastry, K.S.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The potential of vitamin C, an antioxidant, to protect the radiosensitive spermatogonial cells in mouse testes against the effects of chronic irradiation by radionuclides incorporated into tissue was investigated. Interestingly, when injected intratesticularly, a small and nontoxic amount of vitamin C (1.5 [mu]g in 3 [mu]l saline) protected the spermatogonia against the damage associated with high-LET radiation caused by Auger electrons from similarly administered 5-([sup 125]I)-iodo-2[prime]-deoxyuridine ([sup 125]IdU). A dose modification factor (DMF) of 2.3 was obtained. In contrast, no protection was observed when [sup 210]Po, an [alpha]-particle emitter, was administered similarly. These findings suggest that the mechanism of action of the Auger effect is of an indirect nature, which is in contrast to the direct action generally believed to be responsible for biological damage caused by high-LET radiations. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. D-(Ala1)-peptide T-amide is transported from blood to brain by a saturable system

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, C.M.; Kastin, A.J.; Banks, W.A.

    1987-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier. The entry into the central nervous system of a commercially available analog of Peptide T, an octapeptide derived from the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein 120, was studied in several experiments. It was found that /sup 125/I-Peptide T analog given intravenously in the periphery entered the brain in an intact form, as confirmed by HPLC, to a greater extent than did the labeled albumin control. This entry occurred despite the very low lipid solubility, measured by the octanol/buffer partition coefficient, for the iodinated analog. The rate of entry was decreased by unlabeled Peptide T analog, but not by iodo-tyrosine. Saturable transport out of the brain was not observed after intraventricular administration. Thus, results with /sup 125/I-Peptide T analog indicate that saturable systems can transport peptides from the blood into the central nervous system.

  1. Potent anti-viral 5-(2-bromovinyl) uracil nucleosides are inactive at inducing gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium and V79 Chinese hamster cells and unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, H; Westendorf, J; De Clercq, E; Marquardt, H

    1985-08-01

    (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BDVU), one of the most potent and selective anti-herpes agents described to date, and its close congeners (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (BVaraU) and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (BVU), as well as the reference compounds 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IDU) and 5-trifluoro-2'-deoxythymidine (TFT) were examined for their genotoxic potential. With the exception of a weak activity of TFT in the newly developed strain TA 102, none of the compounds was active in a bacterial cell mutagenesis (Salmonella/microsome) assay. Nor did they induce DNA repair (unscheduled DNA synthesis) in primary rat hepatocytes. In a mammalian cell mutagenesis assay using V79 Chinese hamster cells, the reference compounds IDU and TFT proved highly cytotoxic and mutagenic, whereas BVDU, BVaraU and BVU were neither cytotoxic nor mutagenic.

  2. Properties of lactase produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from diarrhoeic children.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, O; Olutiola, P O

    1989-09-01

    The quantity of lactase produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than that produced by non-EPEC. The enzyme production was induced by lactose but repressed by glucose and galactose. The lactase from EPEC which was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel permeation chromatography had a molecular weight of 56 kD and apparent Km of approximately 2.78 mM for lactose. The lactase exhibited optimum activity at pH 7.0 at 40 degree C and was stimulated by Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+ and inhibited by Ba2+, Ca+, Cu2+, EDTA, iodo acetic acid (IAA) and Hg2+ and U2+ ions. The higher production of lactase by EPEC may be linked to its pathogenic role in childhood diarrhoea.

  3. Effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under high glucose

    PubMed Central

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk

    2016-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In biological systems, elevation of intracellular calcium can cause calpain activation, leading to cell death. Here, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline or clioquinol and 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline or nitroxoline) on calpain-dependent (calpain-calpastatin) pathways in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was investigated. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives ameliorated high glucose toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The investigated compounds, particularly clioquinol, attenuated the increased expression of calpain, even under high-glucose conditions. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives thus adversely affected the promotion of neuronal cell death by high glucose via the calpain-calpastatin signaling pathways. These findings support the beneficial effects of 8-hydroxyquinolines for further therapeutic development.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting as pseudopheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898

  5. 6-Alkylquinolone-3-carboxylic acid tethered to macrolides synthesis and antimicrobial profile.

    PubMed

    Kapić, Samra; Cipcić Paljetak, Hana; Alihodzić, Sulejman; Antolović, Roberto; Eraković Haber, Vesna; Jarvest, Richard L; Holmes, David J; Broskey, John P; Hunt, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Two series of clarithromycin and azithromycin derivatives with terminal 6-alkylquinolone-3-carboxylic unit with central ether bond in the linker were prepared and tested for antimicrobial activity. Quinolone-linker intermediates were prepared by Sonogashira-type C(6)-alkynylation of 6-iodo-quinolone precursors. In the last step, 4'' site-selective acylation of 2'-protected macrolides was completed with the EDC reagent, which selectively activated a terminal, aliphatic carboxylic group in dicarboxylic intermediates. Antimicrobial activity of the new series of macrolones is discussed. The most potent compound, 4''-O-{6-[3-(3-carboxy-1-ethyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-6-yl)-propoxy]-hexanoyl}-azithromycin (10), is highly active against bacterial respiratory pathogens resistant to macrolide antibiotics and represents a promising lead for further investigation.

  6. 5(6)-anti-Substituted-2-azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes. A Nucleophilic Displacement Route

    PubMed Central

    Krow, Grant R.; Edupuganti, Ram; Gandla, Deepa; Choudhary, Amit; Lin, Guoliang; Sonnet, Philip E.; DeBrosse, Charles; Ross, Charles W.; Cannon, Kevin C.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleophilic displacements of 5(6)-anti-bromo substituents in 2-azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes (methanopyrrolidines) have been accomplished. These displacements have produced 5-anti-X-6-anti-Y-difunctionalized-2-azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes containing bromo, fluoro, acetoxy, hydroxy, azido, imidazole, thiophenyl, and iodo substituents. Such displacements of anti-bromide ions require an amine nitrogen and are a function of the solvent and the choice of metal salt. Reaction rates were faster and product yields were higher in DMSO when compared to DMF and with CsOAc compared to NaOAc. Sodium or lithium salts gave products, except with NaF, where silver fluoride in nitromethane was best for substitution by fluoride. The presence of electron-withdrawing F, OAc, N3, Br, or SPh substituents in the 6-anti-position slows bromide displacements at the 5-anti-position. PMID:19799411

  7. An HIV reverse transcriptase-selective nucleoside chain terminator.

    PubMed

    Fraley, Andrew W; Chen, Dongli; Johnson, Kenneth; McLaughlin, Larry W

    2003-01-22

    The synthesis of a 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside cytidine analogue, but one that lacks the O2-carbonyl, is described from 2-aminopyridine in an overall yield of 60%. The synthesis of the 2-pyridone C-nucleoside relies upon the use of a Heck-type coupling between an appropriately protected sugar glycal and the 5-iodo derivative of 2-aminopyridone. Upon conversion of the dideoxynucleoside to the corresponding 5'-triphosphate, the analogue ddNTP is observed to be a reasonable substrate with HIV reverse transcriptase (for a template dG residue), but is not a substrate for calf thymus DNA polymerase alpha or for human DNA polymerase beta. With the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase the analogue functions as a poor substrate. The observed polymerase selectivities appear to arise from the absence of the O2-carbonyl, which either results in a destabilized Watson-Crick base pair or represents a critical contact for some polymerases.

  8. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  9. New peptide architectures through C–H activation stapling between tryptophan–phenylalanine/tyrosine residues

    PubMed Central

    Mendive-Tapia, Lorena; Preciado, Sara; García, Jesús; Ramón, Rosario; Kielland, Nicola; Albericio, Fernando; Lavilla, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Natural peptides show high degrees of specificity in their biological action. However, their therapeutical profile is severely limited by their conformational freedom and metabolic instability. Stapled peptides constitute a solution to these problems and access to these structures lies on a limited number of reactions involving the use of non-natural amino acids. Here, we describe a synthetic strategy for the preparation of unique constrained peptides featuring a covalent bond between tryptophan and phenylalanine or tyrosine residues. The preparation of such peptides is achieved in solution and on solid phase directly from the corresponding sequences having an iodo-aryl amino acid through an intramolecular palladium-catalysed C–H activation process. Moreover, complex topologies arise from the internal stapling of cyclopeptides and double intramolecular arylations within a linear peptide. Finally, as a proof of principle, we report the application to this new stapling method to relevant biologically active compounds. PMID:25994485

  10. The effects of electronegative substituent atoms on structural, vibrational, electronic and NLO properties of some 4-nitrostilbene derivates.

    PubMed

    Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Organic compounds which have one or more aromatic systems in conjugated positions show charge transfer interactions which are responsible for the non-linear properties of the compounds. A conjugated π electron system enables a pathway for the entire length of conjugation under the perturbation of an external electric field. When electron donating and withdrawing moieties are located at terminal position of conjugated backbone, nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been increased significantly which involve the correlated and high delocalized π electron states. Recently synthesized organic complexes, 1-(4-fluorostyryl)-4-nitrostilbene (1), 4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (2), 4-Bromo 4-nitrostilbene (3) and 4-Iodo 4-nitrostilbene (4), were simulated using density functional theory (DFT). Based on the optimized geometries, spectroscopic and NLO properties of these complexes were discussed as compared with each other.

  11. Solvent-dependent oxidations of 5- and 6-azaindoles to trioxopyrrolopyridines and functionalised azaindoles.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, Zahia; Lomberget, Thierry; Goncalves, Sylvie; Barret, Roland

    2008-04-21

    A regioselective synthesis of 4,7-dimethoxy 5- and 6-azaindoles 2 has been achieved, based on the appropriate choice of ortho-directing or ortho-repulsing groups in the formylation of a pyridine ring. Studies on the regioselectivity of the formylation step and on the preparation of azidoacrylate intermediates 4 are described in this paper. The reactivity of the 5- and 6-azaindole structures towards BBr3-mediated selective monodemethylation and oxidative demethylation reactions were also investigated. The regioselectivity of the deprotection was confirmed using a chemical approach. Oxidation reactions were then carried out on either dimethoxy- or hydroxymethoxyazaindoles, in different solvents, using [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene. In acetonitrile-water, trioxopyrrolopyridines 12 were obtained, whereas the formation of functionalised azaindoles 17 was observed in acetonitrile-methanol. The tautomeric structure of the trioxopyrrolopyridines was proved by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  12. Natural and non-natural antenna chromophores in the DNA photolyase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Klar, Tobias; Kaiser, Gebhard; Hennecke, Ulrich; Carell, Thomas; Batschauer, Alfred; Essen, Lars-Oliver

    2006-11-01

    X-ray crystallographic and functional analysis of the class I DNA photolyase from Thermus thermophilus revealed the binding of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as an antenna chromophore. The binding mode of FMN closely coincides with the binding of a deazaflavin-like chromophore in the related class I DNA photolyase from Anacystis nidulans. Compared to the R46E mutant, which lacks a conserved arginine in the binding site for the antenna chromophore, the FMN-comprising holophotolyase exhibits an eightfold higher activity at 450 nm. The facile incorporation of the flavin cofactors 8-hydroxy-deazariboflavin and 8-iodo-8-demethyl-riboflavin into the binding site for the antenna chromophore paves the way for wavelength-tuning of the activity spectra of DNA photolyases by using synthetic flavins.

  13. Synthesis of steroid-ferrocene conjugates of steroidal 17-carboxamides via a palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation--copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction sequence.

    PubMed

    Szánti-Pintér, Eszter; Balogh, János; Csók, Zsolt; Kollár, László; Gömöry, Agnes; Skoda-Földes, Rita

    2011-11-01

    Steroids with the 17-iodo-16-ene functionality were converted to ferrocene labeled steroidal 17-carboxamides via a two step reaction sequence. The first step involved the palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of the alkenyl iodides with prop-2-yn-1-amine as the nucleophile in the presence of the Pd(OAc)(2)/PPh(3) catalyst system. In the second step, the product N-(prop-2-ynyl)-carboxamides underwent a facile azide-alkyne cycloaddition with ferrocenyl azides in the presence of CuSO(4)/sodium ascorbate to produce the steroid-ferrocene conjugates. The new compounds were obtained in good yield and were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis. PMID:21787798

  14. Laparoscopic resection of a paraganglioma located on the border of the thoracic and abdominal cavities using a transabdominal-transdiaphragmatic approach.

    PubMed

    Sunose, Yutaka; Hirai, Keitaro; Nakazawa, Seshiru; Yoshinari, Daisuke; Ogawa, Hiroomi; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Norifumi; Yamazaki, Hodaka; Motegi, Yoko; Miyamae, Yohei; Igarashi, Takamichi; Takahashi, Kengo; Katoh, Ryuji; Tanaka, Kazumi; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2015-05-01

    We treated a 64-year-old woman with high blood pressure. Catecholamine metabolite levels were elevated in the blood and urine. CT revealed a densely stained tumor on the right side of the descending aorta dorsal to the inferior vena cava. PET-CT revealed abnormal accumulation of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose, and (123) I-meta-iodo-benzylguanidine uptake was apparent on scintigraphy. The tumor was determined to be a paraganglioma located on the border between the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and laparoscopic tumorectomy was performed. The patient was placed in the left lateral position. The right lobe of the liver was turned over, and we cut the diaphragm to expose the front of the tumor. We resected the straight artery flowing in from the aorta and removed the tumor safely. Herein, we describe the removal of a paravertebral paraganglioma located in the border of the thoracic and abdominal cavities with a laparoscopic transabdominal-transdiaphragmatic approach.

  15. Construction of Poxviruses as Cloning Vectors: Insertion of the Thymidine Kinase Gene from Herpes Simplex Virus into the DNA of Infectious Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicali, Dennis; Paoletti, Enzo

    1982-08-01

    We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus. The gene was inserted into the genome of a variant of vaccinia virus that had undergone spontaneous deletion as well as into the 120-megadalton genome of the large prototypic vaccinia variant. This was accomplished via in vivo recombination by contransfection of eukaryotic tissue culture cells with cloned BamHI-digested thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus containing flanking vaccinia virus DNA sequences and infectious rescuing vaccinia virus. Pure populations of the recombinant viruses were obtained by replica filter techniques or by growth of the recombinant virus in biochemically selective medium. The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, as an insert in vaccinia virus, is transcribed in vivo and in vitro, and the fidelity of in vivo transcription into a functional gene product was detected by the phosphorylation of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxycytidine.

  16. A Metal and Base-Free Chemoselective Primary Amination of Boronic Acids Using Cyanamidyl/Arylcyanamidyl Radical as Aminating Species: Synthesis and Mechanistic Studies by Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nachiketa; Arfeen, Minhajul; Bharatam, Prasad V; Goswami, Avijit

    2016-06-17

    An efficient, metal and base-free, chemoselective synthesis of aryl-, heteroaryl-, and alkyl primary amines from the corresponding boronic acids has been achieved at ambient temperature mediated by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) using cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radicals as the aminating species. The primary amine compounds were initially obtained as their corresponding ammonium trifluoroacetate salts which, on treatment with aq NaOH, provide the free amines. Finally, the primary amines were isolated through column chromatography over silica-gel using hexane-EtOAc solvent system as the eluent. The reactions are sufficiently fast, completing within 1 h. Quantum chemical calculations in combination with experimental observations validate that the ipso amination of substituted boronic acids involves the formation of cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radical, followed by regiospecific interaction of its nitrile-N center with boron atom of the boronic acids, leading to chemoselective primary amination.

  17. Synthesis of prostaglandin models and prostaglandins by conjugate addition of a functionalized organocopper reagent.

    PubMed

    Kluge, A F; Untch, K G; Fried, J H

    1972-11-01

    2 methods are described for the preparation of an oxygen functionalized vinylcopper reagent. Reactions of this reagent with cyclic and acyclic enones give products of 1,4 addition. The labile methoxyisopropyl group was used as an alcohol protecting group for ease of formation and removal. The influence of reaction conditions such as solvents and temperature on the mode of addition and yield is discussed. (S)-1-Iodo-trans-1-octen-3-ol (16a) was prepared from (S)-1-octyn-3-ol (17). The optically pure iodovinylcarbinol was converted to the cuprate 2 and 1,4 addition to the hydroxy-protected cyclopentenone 14c afforded (-)-PGE1 (18b). PMID:5076755

  18. The in vitro selective concentration of an /sup 125/I-iodinated compound in human tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.N.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Mitchell, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Uptake studies of the potential endoradiotherapeutic agent, 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis(diammonium phosphate) have been carried out in vitro on a wide range of normal and malignant human cells. In general, for a standardized dose of 0.1 ..mu..Ci/ml, the uptake of the compound into normal cells was 0.0015-0.135 pCi/cell. Uptake into malignant cells was significantly higher than normal cells; uptakes of 0.89-11.3 pCi/cell were noted for melanoma, teratoma of testis, osteosarcoma and adenocarcinoma of colon and pancreas. Comparative uptake ratios for melanoma:Chang liver cells and testicular teratoma:normal testis were 29 and 23, respectively. Larger uptake ratios are usually observed with higher doses.

  19. Structure-function relationships in scorpion neurotoxins. Identification of the supperreactive lysine residue in toxin I of Androctonus australis Hector.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, F; Habersetzer-Rochat, C

    1978-07-21

    In a previous article (Habersetzer-Rochat, C. and Sampieri, R. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 2254--2261) it was demonstrated that the toxin I of the North African Scorpion Androctonus australis Hector was inactivated after reaction with iodoacetate; the toxicity loss in mice was correlated with the carboxymethylation of one superreactive residue. In the present work, alkylation of toxin I was performed with iodo[14C]-acetate. Hence, it was possible, after reduction, S-methylation and chymotryptic hydrolysis of this toxin, to isolate the peptide containing the labelled lysine residue. By automatic Edman degradation, this residue was identified as being the penultimate lysine at position 56 in the primary sequence. Comparison of three primary structures of scorpion neurotoxins and comparison in different kinds of activity seem to indicate that this lysine residue is mainly important for toxicity in mice.

  20. [Research on Fenton treatment of the biochemical processes effluent of bamboo industry wastewater].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Zhong; Wu, Dong-Lei

    2013-06-01

    The decolorization and organic matter reduction of bamboo wastewater using Fenton oxidation was studied. Considering the cost and the removal efficiency, the optimal conditions were t = 30 degrees C, pH = 3.5, p(H2O2) = 1 665 mg x L(-1), c(Fe2+)/c(H2O2) = 0.072 and reaction time 3 h, with an initial COD and color concentration of wastewater of 430 mg x L(-1) and 1 500 times, under these conditions, the removal efficiency of COD and color could achieve 87.5% and 94.4%, respectively. It was found that the color reduction was higher than that of organics, and less affected by operation factors. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the chromophoric groups and auxochromic groups were greatly removed after Fenton treatment. The intermediates were mainly ester derivatives, and the by-products included 1-iodo-tridecane and 1,1'-oxybisoctane.

  1. Efficient Reassignment of a Frequent Serine Codon in Wild-Type Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joanne M; Reynolds, Noah M; Rivera, Keith; Connolly, Morgan; Guo, Li-Tao; Ling, Jiqiang; Pappin, Darryl J; Church, George M; Söll, Dieter

    2016-02-19

    Expansion of the genetic code through engineering the translation machinery has greatly increased the chemical repertoire of the proteome. This has been accomplished mainly by read-through of UAG or UGA stop codons by the noncanonical aminoacyl-tRNA of choice. While stop codon read-through involves competition with the translation release factors, sense codon reassignment entails competition with a large pool of endogenous tRNAs. We used an engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase to incorporate 3-iodo-l-phenylalanine (3-I-Phe) at a number of different serine and leucine codons in wild-type Escherichia coli. Quantitative LC-MS/MS measurements of amino acid incorporation yields carried out in a selected reaction monitoring experiment revealed that the 3-I-Phe abundance at the Ser208AGU codon in superfolder GFP was 65 ± 17%. This method also allowed quantification of other amino acids (serine, 33 ± 17%; phenylalanine, 1 ± 1%; threonine, 1 ± 1%) that compete with 3-I-Phe at both the aminoacylation and decoding steps of translation for incorporation at the same codon position. Reassignments of different serine (AGU, AGC, UCG) and leucine (CUG) codons with the matching tRNA(Pyl) anticodon variants were met with varying success, and our findings provide a guideline for the choice of sense codons to be reassigned. Our results indicate that the 3-iodo-l-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)/tRNA(Pyl) pair can efficiently outcompete the cellular machinery to reassign select sense codons in wild-type E. coli.

  2. Nuclear-medicine progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Butler, T.A.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1983-10-01

    Studies with several recently developed /sup 123/-I-labeled fatty acids are described. Well defined planar images have been obtained in a dog study utilizing (E)-18-(/sup 123/I)iodo-17-octadecenoic acid, a new alkenoic fatty acid containing the radioiodide stabilized as a vinyl iodide. Studies are now in progress to prepare (E)-18-borono-17-octadecenoic acid as a kit for rapid iodination to prepare the /sup 123/I-labeled fatty acid which will allow investigators to radiolabel this agent on site for further preclinical studies. The first single photon tomographic images have been obtained with 15-(/sup 123/I)iodophenyl-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid. This agent was readily obtained from a new kit involving the H/sup 123/I decomposition of the piperidinyl triazene derivative of 15-(p-aminophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid. The evaluation of this agent and several radioiodinated fatty acids in the in vitro beating rat heart cell system is described. The recent evaluation of radioiodinated phosphonium cations has now been extended to the preparation and testing of (E)-(-1-(/sup 125/I)iodo-1-penten-5-yl)triphenylarsonium iodide. Several shipments of raidolabeled agents were made to Medical Cooperative investigators, including three shipments of /sup 191/Os for further developing and clinical testing of the /sup 191/Os//sup 191m/Ir radionuclide generator. In addition, two shipments of cis-dichlorodiammine (/sup 195m/Pt)platinum(II) were made to participants in collaborative programs. Several radiolabeled fatty acids including 15-(p-(/sup 131/I)iodophenyl-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid and 15-(p-(/sup 131/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid were made for collaborative studies investigating the properties of these new agents.

  3. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    In this report the excitation functions for production of gallium-66 via {alpha}-induced nuclear reactions on enriched zinc-66 have been measured with E{sub {alpha}}{le}27.3 Mev and E{sub {alpha}}{le}43.7 MeV employing the stack thin-target technique. In addition, the induced activity of gallium-67 in the same sets of targets allowed an evaluation of the excitation functions of the corresponding nuclear reactions. These preliminary studies have demonstrated that sufficient levels of gallium-66 can be produced by {alpha}-induced reactions on enriched zinc targets. A series of radioiodinated analogues of 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}, {alpha}-diphenylacetate (QNB) have been prepared. These new analogues include 1-azabicyclo-(2.2.2)oct-3-yl{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(4-iodophenyl)-{alpha}-methylacetate(2,I-WNA), 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl (3-iodo)-xanthene-9-carboxylate (3,I-QNX), and 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(E-1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (4,I-QNP), which have also been radiolabeled with iodine-125 with high specific activity. The biodistribution, brain uptake, and receptor specificity of these new analogues are currently being studied. Shipments of radioactive agents made to collaborators during this period included. One shipment of iodine-125-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Radiotracer method for residence time distribution study in multiphase flow system.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, S; Su'ud, Z; Kurniadi, R; Wibisono, W; Abidin, Z

    2009-01-01

    [(131)I] isotope in different chemical compounds have been injected into 24in hydrocarbon transmission pipeline containing approximately 95% water, 3% crude oil, 2% gas and negligible solid material, respectively. The system is operated at the temperature around 70 degrees C enabling fluids flow is easier in the pipeline. The segment of measurement was chosen far from the junction point of the pipeline, therefore, it was reasonably to assume that the fluids in such multiphase system were separated distinctively. Expandable tubing of injector was used to ensure that the isotopes were injected at the proper place in the sense that [(131)I]Na isotope was injected into water layer and iodo-benzene, ([131])IC(6)H(5,) was injected into crude oil regime. The radiotracer selection was based on the compatibility of radiotracer with each of fluids under investigation. [(131)I]Na was used for measuring flow of water while iodo-benzene, ([131])IC(6)H(5,) was used for measuring flow of crude oil. Two scintillation detectors were used and they are put at the distances 80 and 100m, respectively, from injection point. The residence time distribution data were utilized for calculation water and crude oil flows. Several injections were conducted in the experiments. Although the crude oil density is lighter than the density of water, the result of measurement shows that the water flow is faster than the crude oil flow. As the system is water-dominated, water may act as carrier and the movement of crude oil is slowed due to friction between crude oil with water and crude oil with gas at top layer. Above of all, this result was able to give answer on the question why crude oil always arrives behind water as it is checked at gathering station. In addition, the flow patterns of the water in the pipeline calculated by Reynolds number and predicted by simple tank-in-series model is turbulence in character.

  5. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.; Romstedt, K.J.; Doyle, K.; Harrold, M.W.; Gerhardt, M.A.; Miller, D.D.; Patil, P.N.; Feller, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ) is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of (3H)SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg.

  6. Exploring the effect of the Ln(III)/Ln(II) redox potential on C-F activation and on oxidation of some lanthanoid organoamides.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Kelly, Rory P; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-28

    The divalent europium complexes, and (L(Me/Et) = p-HC6F4N(CH2)2NMe2/Et2), have been prepared from redox-transmetallation/protolysis (RTP) reactions between Eu metal, Hg(C6F5)2 and L(Me/Et)H in thf. The complexes exhibit close (C)F-Ln interactions and the amide ligands feature tridentate N,N',F chelation. The complexes are thermally robust but on exposure to light they undergo C-F activation. From exposure of to light, the Eu(III) mixed fluoride/oxide cluster, was isolated, but other well-defined C-F activation products have proven elusive due to the stability of Eu(II). Oxidation of [Ln(L(R))2(thf)2] (Ln = Eu, R = Me; Ln = Yb, R = Et) with I2 afforded the heteroleptic iodo complexes, [Ln(L(R))2I(thf)n] (Ln = Eu, n = 1; Ln = Yb, n = 0), and the homoleptic complexes, [Ln(L(R))3]. The formation of the iodo complexes and the heteroleptic complexes appear to occur by different routes. shows interesting structural differences from reported [Ln(L(Et))3] (Ln = La, Ce, Nd) complexes, and highlights an incomplete shift towards N,N' chelation to the much smaller Yb ion. was prepared from a protolysis reaction between [Sm(CH2C6H4-NMe2-o)3] and L(Me)H. Heating a solution of in toluene at 110 °C for three days did not afford any samarium fluoride complex. An RTP reaction with Sm afforded the heteroleptic samarium complex, , in very low yield. From an attempted protolysis reaction between [Sm(DippForm)2(thf)2] and L(Me)H, the mixed ligand samarium fluoride complex, , was isolated. Overall, the instability of Sm(II) precludes control over the C-F activation reactions.

  7. Modeling the Geometric Electronic and Redox Properties of Iron(lll)-Containing Amphiphiles with Asymmetric [NNO] Headgroups

    SciTech Connect

    R Shakya; M Allard; M Johann; M Heeg; E Rentschler; J Shearer; B McGarvey; C Verani

    2011-12-31

    Two iron(III)-containing amphiphiles 1 and 2 have been synthesized with the [NN'O] ligands HL{sup tBu-ODA} (2-((octadecyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol) and HL{sup I-ODA} (2-((octadecyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4,6-diiodophenol), respectively. Compound 1 is monometallic, whereas EXAFS data suggest that 2 is a mixture of mono- and bimetallic species. The archetypical [Fe{sup III}(L{sup NN'O}){sub 2}]{sup +} complexes 3-9 have been isolated and characterized in order to understand the geometric, electronic, and redox properties of the amphiphiles. Preference for a monometallic or bimetallic nuclearity is dependent on (i) the nature of the solvent used for synthesis and (ii) the type of the substituent in the phenol moiety. In methanol, the tert-butyl-, methoxy-, and chloro-substituted 3, 4, and 5 are monometallic species, whereas the bromo- and iodo-substituted 6 and 7 form bimetallic complexes taking advantage of stabilizing methoxo bridges generated by solvent deprotonation. In dichloromethane, the bromo- and iodo-substituted 8 and 9 are monometallic species; however, these species favor meridional coordination in opposition to the facial coordination observed for the tert-butyl- and methoxy-substituted compounds. Molecular structures for species 5, 7, 8, and 9 have been solved by X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the electronic spectrum of the amphiphile 1 was expected to be similar to those of facial/cis archetypes with similar substituents, but close resemblance was observed with the profile for those meridional/cis species, suggesting a similar coordination mode. This trend is discussed based on DFT calculations, where preference for the meridional/cis coordination mode appears related to the presence of tertiary amine nitrogen on the ligand, as when a long alkyl chain is attached to the [NN'O] headgroup.

  8. Exploring the effect of the Ln(III)/Ln(II) redox potential on C-F activation and on oxidation of some lanthanoid organoamides.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Kelly, Rory P; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-28

    The divalent europium complexes, and (L(Me/Et) = p-HC6F4N(CH2)2NMe2/Et2), have been prepared from redox-transmetallation/protolysis (RTP) reactions between Eu metal, Hg(C6F5)2 and L(Me/Et)H in thf. The complexes exhibit close (C)F-Ln interactions and the amide ligands feature tridentate N,N',F chelation. The complexes are thermally robust but on exposure to light they undergo C-F activation. From exposure of to light, the Eu(III) mixed fluoride/oxide cluster, was isolated, but other well-defined C-F activation products have proven elusive due to the stability of Eu(II). Oxidation of [Ln(L(R))2(thf)2] (Ln = Eu, R = Me; Ln = Yb, R = Et) with I2 afforded the heteroleptic iodo complexes, [Ln(L(R))2I(thf)n] (Ln = Eu, n = 1; Ln = Yb, n = 0), and the homoleptic complexes, [Ln(L(R))3]. The formation of the iodo complexes and the heteroleptic complexes appear to occur by different routes. shows interesting structural differences from reported [Ln(L(Et))3] (Ln = La, Ce, Nd) complexes, and highlights an incomplete shift towards N,N' chelation to the much smaller Yb ion. was prepared from a protolysis reaction between [Sm(CH2C6H4-NMe2-o)3] and L(Me)H. Heating a solution of in toluene at 110 °C for three days did not afford any samarium fluoride complex. An RTP reaction with Sm afforded the heteroleptic samarium complex, , in very low yield. From an attempted protolysis reaction between [Sm(DippForm)2(thf)2] and L(Me)H, the mixed ligand samarium fluoride complex, , was isolated. Overall, the instability of Sm(II) precludes control over the C-F activation reactions. PMID:26673146

  9. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  10. After-effects of lithium-mediated alumination of 3-iodoanisole: isolation of molecular salt elimination and trapped-benzyne products.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Elaine; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; Robertson, Stuart D

    2012-02-14

    Gaining a deeper understanding of the modus operandi of heterometallic lithium aluminate bases towards deprotonative metallation of substituted aromatic substrates, we have studied the reactions and their aftermath between our recently developed bis-amido base '(i)Bu(2)Al(μ-TMP)(2)Li'3 and 3-halogenated anisoles. Ortho-metallation of 3-iodoanisole with 3 results in a delicately poised heterometallic intermediate whose breakdown into homometallic species and benzyne cannot be suppressed, even at low temperature or in a non-polar solvent (hexane). Homometallic components [LiI·TMP(H)](4) (5) and (i)Bu(2)Al(TMP)·THF (6) have been isolated while the reactive benzyne intermediate has been trapped via Diels-Alder cyclization with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran yielding 1-methoxy-9-10-diphenyl-9-10-epoxyanthracene (7). In polar THF solution, nucleophilic addition of LiTMP across the benzyne functionality followed by electrophilic quenching with iodine yields the trisubstituted aromatic species 1-(2-iodo-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (8). Compounds 5-8 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the solid state and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy in solution. By considering these collated results, a plausible reaction mechanism has been proposed for the breakdown of the aforementioned intermediate bimetallic framework. Interestingly, the metallation reaction can be controlled by changing to 3-chloroanisole with an excess of base 3, as evidenced by electrophilically trapping the deprotonated aromatic with iodine to give 2-iodo-3-chloroanisole (9).

  11. A denuder-impinger system with in situ derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of gaseous iodine-containing halogen species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2008-11-14

    Reactive iodine species have been suggested to play an important role in the atmosphere (e.g. tropospheric ozone depletion, coastal new particle formation). However, there still exist major uncertainties about their atmospheric chemistry, mostly due to the lack of analytical approaches for the accurate speciation of certain key compounds. In this study, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene (1,3,5-TMB)-coated denuder proved to be suitable for the differentiation between gaseous interhalogens (iodine monochloride (ICl), iodine monobromide (IBr)) and molecular iodine (I2) based on a selective collection/derivatization method. The results of the denuder sampling were compared with the results of impinger sampling in water, methanol and carbon tetrachloride solutions of 1,3,5-TMB. ICl and IBr are converted into 1-iodo-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene (1-iodo-2,4,6-TMB) and 1-bromo-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene (1-bromo-2,4,6-TMB), respectively, in the denuder systems. The respective collection efficiency is 99.2% for ICl and 92.6% for IBr, at 500mLmin(-1) gas flow rate. The collection efficiency for I2 is lower than 1% in the same denuder system, but significantly increases to about 90% in the aqueous 1,3,5-TMB loaded impinger. The denuder-impinger coupled system was then used to differentiate and to collect the ICl, IBr and I2 gas mixtures, followed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The precision of the method is in general better than 9.1%. The parameters affecting denuder operation including sampling flow rate, sampling duration, and relative humidity have been evaluated. The presented method provides an attractive protocol for iodine species analysis for atmospheric chemistry research.

  12. The binding of platinum hexahalides (Cl, Br and I) to hen egg-white lysozyme and the chemical transformation of the PtI{sub 6} octahedral complex to a PtI{sub 3} moiety bound to His15

    SciTech Connect

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Starkey, Laurina-Victoria; Lamplough, Lucinda; Kaenket, Surasek; Helliwell, John R.

    2014-08-29

    The platinum hexahalides have an octahedral arrangement of six halogen atoms bound to a Pt centre, thus having an octahedral shape that could prove to be useful in interpreting poor electron-density maps. In a detailed characterization, PtI{sub 6} chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI{sub 3} complex bound to the N{sup δ} atom of His15 of HEWL was also observed, which was not observed for PtBr{sub 6} or PtCl{sub 6}. This study examines the binding and chemical stability of the platinum hexahalides K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}, K{sub 2}PtBr{sub 6} and K{sub 2}PtI{sub 6} when soaked into pre-grown hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals as the protein host. Direct comparison of the iodo complex with the chloro and bromo complexes shows that the iodo complex is partly chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI{sub 3} complex bound to the N{sup δ} atom of His15, a chemical behaviour that is not exhibited by the chloro or bromo complexes. Each complex does, however, bind to HEWL in its octahedral form either at one site (PtI{sub 6}) or at two sites (PtBr{sub 6} and PtCl{sub 6}). As heavy-atom derivatives of a protein, the octahedral shape of the hexahalides could be helpful in cases of difficult-to-interpret electron-density maps as they would be recognisable ‘objects’.

  13. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level.

  14. Three-dimensional contrasted visualization of pancreas in rats using clinical MRI and CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Coudyzer, Walter; Peeters, Ronald; Liu, Yewei; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Xia, Qian; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Yansheng; Dymarkowski, Steven; Huang, Gang; Chen, Feng; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to visualize the pancreas in post-mortem rats with local contrast medium infusion by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) using clinical imagers. A total of 16 Sprague Dawley rats of about 300 g were used for the pancreas visualization. Following the baseline imaging, a mixed contrast medium dye called GadoIodo-EB containing optimized concentrations of Gd-DOTA, iomeprol and Evens blue was infused into the distally obstructed common bile duct (CBD) for post-contrast imaging with 3.0 T MRI and 128-slice CT scanners. Images were post-processed with the MeVisLab software package. MRI findings were co-registered with CT scans and validated with histomorphology, with relative contrast ratios quantified. Without contrast enhancement, the pancreas was indiscernible. After infusion of GadoIodo-EB solution, only the pancreatic region became outstandingly visible, as shown by 3D rendering MRI and CT and proven by colored dissection and histological examinations. The measured volume of the pancreas averaged 1.12 ± 0.04 cm(3) after standardization. Relative contrast ratios were 93.28 ± 34.61% and 26.45 ± 5.29% for MRI and CT respectively. We have developed a multifunctional contrast medium dye to help clearly visualize and delineate rat pancreas in situ using clinical MRI and CT scanners. The topographic landmarks thus created with 3D demonstration may help to provide guidelines for the next in vivo pancreatic MRI research in rodents.

  15. Axial Ligand Effects on the Structures of Self-Assembled Gallium-Porphyrin Monolayers on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite.

    PubMed

    Kamm, Judith M; Iverson, Cameron P; Lau, Wing-Yeung; Hopkins, Michael D

    2016-01-19

    Monolayers of five-coordinate gallium octaethylporphyrin complexes (Ga(OEP)X; X = Cl, Br, I, O3SCF3, CCPh) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite were studied at the solid-liquid (1-phenyloctane) interface using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to probe the dependence of their properties on the nature of the axial X ligand. Density functional theory calculations of the gas-phase structures of the free molecules reveal that the gallium atom is positioned above the plane of the porphyrin macrocycle, with this pyramidal distortion increasing in magnitude according to X = O3SCF3 (displacement = 0.35 Å) < Cl, Br, I (∼0.47 Å) < CCPh (0.54 Å). All compounds exhibit pseudohexagonal close-packed structures in which the porphyrin is oriented coplanar with the surface and the axial ligand is oriented perpendicular to it, and with unit-cell parameters that are within experimental error of each other (a, b = 1.34 (3)-1.39 (2) nm, Γ = 66 (2)-68 (1)°). In contrast to these close similarities, the stabilities of the monolayers are sensitive to the nature of the axial ligand: the monolayers of Ga(OEP)(O3SCF3) and Ga(OEP)(CCPh) exhibit damage during the STM experiment upon repeated scanning and upon toggling the sign of the bias potential, but monolayers of Ga(OEP)Cl, Ga(OEP)Br, and Ga(OEP)I do not. A second important ligand-influenced property is that Ga(OEP)I forms bilayer structures, whereas the other Ga(OEP)X compounds form monolayers exclusively under identical conditions. The top layer of the Ga(OEP)I bilayer is oriented with the iodo ligand directed away from the surface, like the bottom layer, but the molecules pack in a square, lower-density geometry. The comparatively large polarizability of the iodo ligand is suggested to be important in stabilizing the bilayer structure.

  16. Novel radioiodinated neuroreceptor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Musachio, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Since many bioactive compounds do not readily undergo direct labeling with radioisotopes of iodine, the novel prosthetic groups, p-toluenesulfonate esters of (E)- and (Z)-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)prop-2-en-1-ol, were designed to complement existing methods for radioiodine incorporation. The preparation and synthetic utility of these bifunctional reagents are described. These vinylstannylated alkylating agents were coupled with nucleophilic functionalities (amide nitrogen, secondary amine, tertiary alcohol) in acceptable to excellent yields. Regio- and stereospecific radioiododestannylation with retention of configuration occurred under mild, no-carrier-added conditions to give the corresponding radiolabeled N- or O-iodoallyl analogs in good radiochemical yields with high specific radioactivities. The methodology is versatile and well-suited to selective labeling of small molecules with radioisotopes of iodine. Of particular importance are the N-iodoallyl analogs of spiperone and the O-iodoallyl analog of diprenorphine for in vitro and in vivo studies of dopamine D[sub 2] and opioid receptors. For in vivo studies of central serotonin 5-HT[sub 2] receptors via single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), novel radioiodinated N1-alkyl-2-iodo-LSD derivatives were synthesized. These target radioligands were prepared in moderate radiochemical yields. D-(+)-N1-ethyl-2-iodo-LSD, EIL, was identified as the most promising candidate of this series. [[sup 125]I]-EIL binds to central 5-HT[sub 2] receptors with high affinity and selectivity in vitro and labels 5-HT[sub 2] receptors in vivo with high specificity. For preparation of EIL labeled with [sup 123]I, an optimized procedure was developed that gave [[sup 123]I]-EIL in acceptable yields. This radioligand allowed visualization of serotonin 5-HT[sub 2] sites in living baboon brain via SPECT. [[sup 123]I]-EIL may serve as an agent for tomographic studies of human cerebral 5-HT[sub 2] receptors in normal and disease states.

  17. 1,3-Diiodocalix[4]arene: synthesis by Ullmann-type iodination of 1,3-bistriflate ester of calix[4]arene, conformational analysis, and transformation into 1,3-dicarboxy-, diformyl-, and dialkylcalix[4]arenes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinya; Umetsu, Takafumi; Nebuya, Satoru; Morohashi, Naoya; Hattori, Tetsutaro

    2015-01-16

    A facile synthesis of 1,3-diiodocalix[4]arene 6 has been achieved by copper-catalyzed iodination of the 1,3-bistriflate ester 2a of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene. After protection of the hydroxy groups with iodomethane, diiodide 6 is subjected to halogen–lithium exchange with butyllithium, followed by carbonation with CO2 or formylation with N-formylpiperidine and subsequent deprotection of the hydroxy groups to give novel dicarboxylic acid 11 or dialdehyde 16 in practical yields. The iodo groups of diiodide 6 pass through the calixarene macrocycle; the activation free energy for the conversion of the more stable syn conformer 6syn to the less stable anti conformer 6anti is ΔG(⧧) = 104 kJ mol(–1) at 298 K. Dialdehyde 16 shows fast self-exchange between two equivalent species with a cone conformation, ΔG(⧧), being 63.2 kJ mol(–1). Dicarboxylic acid 11 adopts a cone conformation and forms a dimer in solution as suggested by 1H NMR and X-ray crystallographic analyses. The arrangement of the iodide groups of compound 6 can be fixed predominantly to anti (17a and 17b) by introducing bulky alkyl groups (e.g., propyl groups) onto the hydroxy groups. The stereospecific alkylation of the iodo groups of the resulting di-O-alkylated anti-1,3-diiodides provides access to the anti-1,3-dialkylcalixarenes 19, which is otherwise difficult to obtain.

  18. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  19. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  20. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  1. Rapid vascular escape of arterially injected 16alpha-radioiodo, 17beta-estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Scharl, A.; Holt, J.A. )

    1993-03-20

    The authors undertook this study because confirmation of a rapid vascular escape and slow release back into the circulatory system suggests that arterial injection of radiohalogenated steroid receptor ligands might provide an efficacious route of administration for imaging or treatment of receptor-rich malignant tumors in peripheral tissues. The authors injected radiolabeled 16alpha-iodo, 17beta-estradiol ([I]-E) into the femoral artery of swine in a solution that contained [[sup 125]I]-E in a known ratio to [[sup 99]Tc]-labeled red blood cells. Fractions of femoral venous blood were collected at short intervals during 10 min. They looked for changes in the ratio of the radiolabeles. [[sup 99m]Tc]-labeled red blood cells are known to remain in the vascular system for an hour or more. After passage of the injectate through the capillary bed of the swine leg, a dramatic decrease of the initial [sup 125]I:[sup 99m]Tc ratio to only 10% was observed in the femoral venous blood. This ratio increased gradually during the next 10 min to approximately 30% of that in the injectate, indicating that a significant portion (approximately 90%) of the [[sup 125]I]-E was initially trapped in the limb and then slowly re-entered the vascular system. To obtain visual confirmation of the rapid vascular escape of iodo-estrogen, they injected either an imageable form of [I]-E ([[sup 123]I]-E) or [[sup 99m]Tc]-labeled red blood cells into the dorsal aorta of superovulated rabbits, whose smaller size allowed whole-body imaging. The biodistributions of these radiopharmaceuticals were surveyed continuously by real-time planar gamma imaging. A large fraction of [I]-E escapes from the vascular system during the first pass through an organ or limb, without regard to the estrogen receptor content of the tissue. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database: improving public access.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junfeng; Ellis, Lynda B M; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2010-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM-BBD, http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/) began in 1995 and now contains information on almost 1200 compounds, over 800 enzymes, almost 1300 reactions and almost 500 microorganism entries. Besides these data, it includes a Biochemical Periodic Table (UM-BPT) and a rule-based Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS) (http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/predict/) that predicts plausible pathways for microbial degradation of organic compounds. Currently, the UM-PPS contains 260 biotransformation rules derived from reactions found in the UM-BBD and scientific literature. Public access to UM-BBD data is increasing. UM-BBD compound data are now contributed to PubChem and ChemSpider, the public chemical databases. A new mirror website of the UM-BBD, UM-BPT and UM-PPS is being developed at ETH Zürich to improve speed and reliability of online access from anywhere in the world.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio and mid-IR counterpart of submm galaxies (Biggs+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Ibar, E.; Wardlow, J. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Smail, I.; Walter, F.; Weiss, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; De Breuck, C.; Dickinson, M.; Knudsen, K. K.; Mainieri, V.; Menten, K.; Papovich, C.

    2011-11-01

    We present radio and infrared (3.6-24um) counterparts to submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South with the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA) 870um bolometer camera on the 12m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. Using the Very Large Array at .4GHz and Spitzer, we have identified secure counterparts to 79 of the 126 SMGs [signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)>3.7, S870>4.4mJy] in the field, 62 via their radio and/or 24um emission, the remainder using a colour-flux cut on Infrared Array Camera 3.6um and 5.8um sources chosen to maximize the number of secure, coincident radio and 24um counterparts. (4 data files).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Perseus dust optical depth and column density maps (Zari+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zari, E.; Lombardi, M.; Alves, J.; Lada, C.; Bouy, H.

    2015-11-01

    We present optical depth and temperature maps of the Perseus Molecular Cloud, created combining Planck and Herschel data. The maps were obtained using Herschel SPIRE 250um, SPIRE 350um, SPIRE 500um, and, where available, PACS 160um data. The file planckherschelfit.fits reports the results of a full SED fit (with free parameters the optical depth and the temperature), at the SPIRE 500um resolution (36-arcsec). The file planckherschelfit2-a.fits uses the temperature from planckherschelfit.fits and the flux at SPIRE 250um to infer the optical depth with a resolution of 18 arcsec. Finally, the catalogue of Class I/0 protostars reports WISE magnitudes for the sources used to estimate the Schmidt law. (3 data files).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AKARI observations of SMC Cepheids (Ngeow+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngeow, C.-C.; Citro, D. M.; Kanbur, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    The AKARI data used in this work is based on the SMC bright point source catalogue presented in Ita et al. (2010, Cat. J/PASJ/62/273). Photometry in 3.2um (N3, 12899 sources), 4.1um (N4, 9748 sources), 7um (S7, 1838 sources), 11um (S11, 1045 sources), 15um (L15, 479 sources) and 24um (L24, 356 sources) bands provided from the AKARI catalogue. This catalogue was matched to the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment III (OGLE-III) SMC fundamental mode (FU) Cepheid catalogue from Soszynski et al. (2010, Cat. J/AcA/60/17). (1 data file).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DR 21 Chandra source catalogue (Rivilla+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2014-11-01

    In our analysis, we used archival stellar catalogues in X-rays, optical and IR wavelengths. We also made use of the Spitzer 4.6um and 8um images (Cygnus-X Legacy Project), and the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) 850um data (Matthews et al. 2009ApJS..182..143M, Cat. J/ApJS/182/143). (1 data file).

  7. Somatic embryogenesis in immature cotyledons of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from immature cotyledon explants that were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins with 5.4 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 uM thidiazuron (TDZ) plus a 4x4 factorial combination of 0,9.8, 34.6, or 49.2 uM indole-3-butyric acid ...

  8. A Subset of Nuclear Receptors are Uniquely Expressed in Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kenneth Edward; Carstens, Ryan; Martinez, Elisabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. Nearly 50% of UM patients develop untreatable and fatal metastases. The 48-member nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily represents a therapeutically targetable group of transcription factors known for their regulation of key cancer pathways in numerous tumor types. Here, we profiled the expression of the 48 human NRs by qRT-PCR across a melanoma cell line panel including 5 UM lines, 9 cutaneous melanoma (CM) lines, and normal primary melanocytes. NR expression patterns identified a few key features. First, in agreement with our past studies identifying RXRg as a CM-specific marker, we found that UM cells also exhibit high levels of RXRg expression, making it a universal biomarker for melanoma tumors. Second, we found that LXRb is highly expressed in both UM and CM lines, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic target in a UM metastatic setting as it has been in CM models. Third, we found that RARg, PPARd, EAR2, RXRa, and TRa expressions could subdivide UM from CM. Previous studies of UM cancers identified key mutations in three genes: GNAQ, GNA11, and BRAF. We found unique NR expression profiles associated with each of these UM mutations. We then performed NR-to-NR and NR-to-genome expression correlation analyses to find potential NR-driven transcriptional programs activated in UM and CM. Specifically, RXRg controlled gene networks were identified that may drive melanoma-specific signaling and metabolism. ERRa was identified as a UM-defining NR and genes correlated with its expression confirm the role of ERRa in metabolic control. Given the plethora of available NR agonists, antagonists, and selective receptor modulators, pharmacologic manipulation of these NRs and their transcriptional outputs may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of key UM pathways and how we can leverage them for better therapeutic alternatives. PMID:26217306

  9. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    We occasionally include projects in our learner-centered introductory astronomy college course to enable non-science major students explore some astronomical concepts in more detail than otherwise. Such projects also highlight ongoing or upcoming astronomical events. We hope that students will feel more interested in astronomy through projects tied to astronomical events. In Spring 2012, we offered short essays focused on eclipses, transits and occultations to promote the rare transit of Venus that occurred on June 5th, 2012. We asked students to write two short essays from three that were offered. The essays contained descriptive and conceptual parts. They were meant to serve as teaching tools. 62% of 106 essays from 55 students earned A, B or C grades. 21% of 47 feedback survey respondents felt the essays increased their interest in astronomy. 49% of respondents felt that the essays were not educationally beneficial and should not be offered again. The most common written response to our survey indicated that students need more guidance and better preparation in writing successful essays. Since students found the conceptual parts of the essays difficult, in the future we will provide relevant activities prior to essay deadlines to help students create successful essays. Ocasionalmente, incluimos proyectos en nuestro curso de introducción a la astronomía universitario centrado en el alumno para permitir que los estudiantes de carreras no científicas exploren algunos conceptos astronómicos en más detalle que lo habitual. Estos proyectos también ponen en relevancia eventos astronómicos en curso o futuros. Esperamos que los estudiantes se sientan más interesados en la astronomía a través de proyectos vinculados a eventos astronómicos. En el período de primavera de 2012 (EUA), propusimos breves ensayos centrados en los eclipses, tránsitos y ocultaciones para promover el raro tránsito de Venus que se produjo el 5 de junio de 2012. Le pedimos a los estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os ensaios não eram benéficos para a educação e que não devem ser propostos novamente. As respostas escritas mais comuns da nossa pesquisa indicaram que os alunos precisam de mais orientação e melhor preparação para escrever ensaios bem sucedidos. Como os alunos consideraram difíceis os aspectos conceituais dos ensaios, no futuro iremos fornecer atividades relevantes antes dos ensaios para ajudar os alunos a escrevê-los com sucesso.

  10. Automated metal-free multiple-column nanoLC for improved phosphopeptide analysis sensitivity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Rui; Ding, Shi-Jian; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Livesay, Eric A.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-15

    We report on the development and characterization of an automated metal-free nanoscale multiple-capillary system for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of phosphopeptides. The system incorporates a capillary column (50 um i.d. × 30 cm, packed with 5 um C18 particles) coupled on-line to a solid phase extraction column (150 um i.d. × 4 cm, packed with 5 um C18 particles). Electrospray ionization tips are constructed on the packed capillary column to couple the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation to a linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometer.

  11. Biological properties and molecular targets of umbelliprenin--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    7-Prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites found mainly in plants belonging to the families Rutaceae and Apiaceae. Auraptene, umbelliprenin (UM), and 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin are some examples of prenylated coumarins. UM occurs in various edible plant species including celery, coriander, angelica, lemon, and particularly, Ferula species. Although UM was isolated more than 50 years ago, its biological activities have been studied since the last two decades. Besides anticancer activities, biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antileishmanial activities have been reported from this natural compound. The present mini-review deals with the biological activities and mechanism of actions reported for UM.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Reflectance spectra of 12 Trojans and Hildas (Marsset+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsset, M.; Vernazza, P.; Gourgeot, F.; Dumas, C.; Birlan, M.; Lamy, P.; Binzel, R. P.

    2014-07-01

    We present 17 reflectance spectra of 12 high albedo (pv>0.14) Trojans (8 objects) and Hildas (4 objects) obtained with the ESO/VLT Echelle spectrograph X-SHOOTER in the 0.3-2.2um spectral range (14 spectra) and with the NASA/IRTF spectrograph SpeX in the 0.8-2.5um spectral range (3 spectra). X-SHOOTER spectra were normalized to unity at 0.55um and SpeX spectra were normalized to unity at 2.2um . The spectra presented in this work were collected between April and December 2013. (18 data files).

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young clumps embedded in IRDC (Traficante+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traficante, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Peretto, N.; Pineda, J. E.; Molinari, S.

    2015-06-01

    Photometric parameters for 667 starless clumps (sources identified at 160um with a counterpart at 250 and 350um) and 1056 protostellar clumps (sources identified at 160um with a counterpart at 70, 250 and 350um). Photometric parameters obtained with Hyper photometry code (2015A&A...574A.119T). The photometry is corrected for aperture and colour corrections. The parameter list is the standard Hyper output (see description below). SED fit parameters for 650 starless clumps and 1034 protostellar clumps (all clumps with good SED fitting: Chi2<10, Temperature<40K. See the paper for details) (4 data files).

  14. A Pinhole Camera for SPEAR 2

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, James

    2002-08-23

    A new pinhole camera system has been installed on Spear 2 to measure its vertical emittance. The hard X-rays from a bending magnet source point are imaged on a phosphor screen through a 30 um x 25 um pinhole aperture. The resolution of the system for 8 keV photons is limited to 31.2 um by Fraunhoffer diffraction and is much smaller than the 340 um FWHM vertical beam size corresponding to 0.9% vertical coupling. Measurements are presented. Optimal pinhole location and hole size are discussed.

  15. Mathematik semantologisch verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Rudolf

    Um zu verstehen, was Mathematik ist und bedeutet, reicht es nicht aus, mathematisches Denken und Wissen vielseitig zu erwerben. Hinzukommen muss stets ein angemessenes Verständnis der jeweiligen Bedeutungen mathematischer Denkformen, die in der aktual-realen Welt wirksam werden können. Beim Mathematik-Verstehen sollte es vor allem um ein Vermitteln des Selbstverständnisses der Mathematik, um ein Reflektieren des Bezugs der Mathematik zur realen Welt und um ein Beurteilen von Sinn, Bedeutung und Zusammenhang des Mathematischen in der Welt gehen.

  16. Cataloging the Youngest Protostars in NGC2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jonathan; Brown, Arianna; Terebey, Susan; CSI2264

    2016-06-01

    Protostars are young stars in their earliest stages of development. We can determine the current stage of development of a young star depending on its relative brightness at varying wavelengths. Protostars are brightest at far-infrared wavelengths, typically peaking at 70-100um. A previous catalog of young stars in NGC 2264 is based on Spitzer data with 24um being the longest available wavelength data. Herschel data at 70um was used to improve the census of protostars. We found 11 new class 0 and 1 protostar candidates that were previously not found in the Spitzer catalog and are bright at 70um. We describe the properties of these candidates.

  17. Heterogeneity revealed by integrated genomic analysis uncovers a molecular switch in malignant uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Mark J; van Pelt, Sake I; Versluis, Mieke; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Kroes, Wilma G M; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Luyten, Grégorius P M; van Hall, Thorbald; Jager, Martine J; van der Velden, Pieter A

    2015-11-10

    Gene expression profiles as well as genomic imbalances are correlated with disease progression in uveal melanoma (UM). We integrated expression and genomic profiles to obtain insight into the oncogenic mechanisms in development and progression of UM. We used tumor tissue from 64 enucleated eyes of UM patients for profiling. Mutations and genomic imbalances were quantified with digital PCR to study tumor heterogeneity and molecular pathogenesis. Gene expression analysis divided the UM panel into three classes. Class I presented tumors with a good prognosis and a distinct genomic make up that is characterized by 6p gain. The UM with a bad prognosis were subdivided into class IIa and class IIb. These classes presented similar survival risks but could be distinguished by tumor heterogeneity. Class IIa presented homogeneous tumors while class IIb tumors, on average, contained 30% of non-mutant cells. Tumor heterogeneity coincided with expression of a set of immune genes revealing an extensive immune infiltrate in class IIb tumors. Molecularly, class IIa and IIb presented the same genomic configuration and could only be distinguished by 8q copy number. Moreover, UM establish in the void of the immune privileged eye indicating that in IIb tumors the infiltrate is attracted by the UM. Combined our data show that chromosome 8q contains the locus that causes the immune phentotype of UM. UM thereby provides an unique opportunity to study immune attraction by tumors. PMID:26462151

  18. Using optical coherence tomography to assess the role of age and region in corneal epithelium and palisades of vogt

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsuan-Chieh; Tew, Teck Boon; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Huai-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chen, Wei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to observe the morphology and epithelial thickness (ET) of the palisades of Vogt (POV), and to evaluate the role of age and region on these structures. One hundred twelve eyes of 112 healthy subjects were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: A (0–19), B (20–39), C (40–59), and D (≥60 years old). RTvue-100 OCT was applied on the cornea and the limbus. The morphology of the subepithelial stroma underneath the epithelium of POV was classified into typical and atypical types. Maximum ET of POV was measured manually from OCT images. The positive rate of typical POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 100%, 69.2%, 65.4%, 100%; Group B: 100%, 73.5%, 61.8%, 94.1%; Group C: 95.8%, 41.7%, 37.5%, 83.3%; Group D: 67.9%, 0%, 3.6%, 25%, showing a significant decreasing tendency with age. The maximum ET of POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 103.5 ± 10.1 um, 89.2 ± 9.7 um, 87.9 ± 13.6 um, 104.7 ± 14.1 um; Group B: 111.4 ± 15.8 um, 85.3 ± 9.9 um, 88.2 ± 8.6 um, 112.6 ± 19.7 um; Group C: 116.4 ± 16.4 um, 82.8 ± 11.6 um, 87.0 ± 11.6 um, 120.0 ± 25.6 um; Group D: 96.3 ± 17.9 um, 73.8 ± 15.9 um, 79.2 ± 16.7 um, 87.4 ± 18.5 um. Age-dependent change was observed. In general, the maximum ET of POV in superior/inferior quadrants was thicker than the other 2 quadrants. Spectral-domain OCT is a useful tool to observe the limbal microstructure and provide invaluable information. Aging and anatomic regions had significant effects on the microstructure of these areas. PMID:27583846

  19. D- and L-[123I]-2-I-phenylalanine show a long tumour retention compared with D- and L-[123I]-2-I-tyrosine in R1M rhabdomyosarcoma tumour-bearing Wag/Rij rats.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Lahoutte, Tony; Kersemans, Ken; Caveliers, Vicky; Bossuyt, Axel; Mertens, John

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of the tumour uptake and the long-term retention of [(123)I]-2-I-L-phenylalanine and [(123)I]-2-I-D-phenylalanine with those of [(123)I]-2-I-L-tyrosine and [(123)I]-2-I-D-tyrosine in R1M rhabdomyosarcoma tumour-bearing rats. The biodistribution of the radioactivity as a function of time in R1M tumour-bearing rats was measured by planar gamma camera imaging (dynamic and static). If dissection was applied, the activity in the tumours and tissues of interest was measured by gamma counting. [(123)I]-2-iodo-L-phenylalanine, [(123)I]-2-iodo-D-phenylalaine, [(123)I]-2-I-L-tyrosine showed a considerable tumour uptake reaching a maximum between 10 and 30 min. At 30 min p.i. the differential uptake ratio values of this uptake were, respectively, 2.1, 2.3, 2.5 and 1.7. The activity in the tumour was shown to be related to a tumour cell uptake and not to an increased blood pool activity. All the tracers showed a clearance from the blood to the bladder without renal retention. At longer times both L- and D- [(123)I]-2-I-tyrosine were cleared for a large part from the tumours and the body. [(123)I]-2-I-L-Phe and [(123)I]-2-I-D-Phe showed a considerable and equal retention in the tumours: as compared with 0.5 h, 91% at 24 h and 80% at 48 h. This was related to the longer retention of activity in the blood pool noticed for these compounds (81% at 24 h and 65% at 48 h). The tumour-to-background ratio increased with 25% at those longer times. At short times all the tracers were taken up to a considerable extent in the tumours. In the R1M-bearing Wag/Rij rat model only [(123)I]-2-I-L-phenylalanine and [(123)I]-2-I-D-phenylalanine showed an especially high retention at long times without any significant difference between the enantiomers. PMID:17683118

  20. Tribromopyrrole, brominated acids, and other disinfection byproducts produced by disinfection of drinking water rich in bromide.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Susan D; Thruston, Alfred D; Rav-Acha, Chaim; Groisman, Ludmila; Popilevsky, Inna; Juraev, Olga; Glezer, Victor; McKague, A Bruce; Plewa, Michael J; Wagner, Elizabeth D

    2003-09-01

    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation of DBPs formed by chlorine dioxide under high bromide conditions. Drinking water from full-scale treatment plants in Israel was studied, along with source water (Sea of Galilee) treated under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Select DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, aldehydes, chlorite, chlorate, and bromate) were quantified. Many of the DBPs identified have not been previously reported, and several of the identifications were confirmed through the analysis of authentic standards. Elevated bromide levels in the source water caused a significant shift in speciation to bromine-containing DBPs; bromoform and dibromoacetic acid were the dominant DBPs observed, with very few chlorine-containing compounds found. Iodo-trihalomethanes were also identified, as well as a number of new brominated carboxylic acids and 2,3,5-tribromopyrrole, which represents the first time a halogenated pyrrole has been reported as a DBP. Most of the bromine-containing DBPs were formed during pre-chlorination at the initial reservoir, and were not formed by chlorine dioxide itself. An exception wasthe iodo-THMs, which appeared to be formed by a combination of chlorine dioxide with chloramines or chlorine (either added deliberately or as an impurity in the chlorine dioxide). A separate laboratory study was also conducted to quantitatively determine the contribution of fulvic acids and humic acids (from isolated natural organic matter in the Sea of Galilee) as precursor material to several of the DBPs identified. Results showed that fulvic acid plays a greater role in the formation of THMs, haloacetic acids, and aldehydes, but 2,3,5-tribromopyrrole was produced primarily from humic