Science.gov

Sample records for ion beam development

  1. Development of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, B. A.; Alton, G. D.; Auble, R. L.; Beene, J. R.; Dowling, D. T.; Haynes, D. L.; Juras, R. C.; Meigs, M. J.; Mills, G. D.; Mosko, S. W.; Mueller, P. E.; Olsen, D. K.; Shapira, D.; Sinclair, J. W.; Carter, H. K.; Welton, R. F.; Williams, C. E.; Bailey, J. D.; Stracener, D. W.

    1997-05-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) construction project has been completed and the first radioactive ion beam has been successfully accelerated. The project, which began in 1992, has involved numerous facility modifications. The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron has been converted from an energy booster for heavy ion beams to a light ion accelerator with internal ion source. A target-ion source and mass analysis system have been commissioned as key components of the facility's radioactive ion beam injector to the 25MV tandem electrostatic accelerator. Beam transport lines have been completed, and new diagnostics for very low intensity beams have been developed. Work continues on a unified control system. Development of research quality radioactive beams for the nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics communities continues. The HRIBF was formally dedicated on December 12, 1996, and approved for high intensity operation as a National User Facility, the first of its kind in North America. This paper describes facility development to date.

  2. Development of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) construction project has been completed and the first radioactive ion beam has been successfully accelerated. The project, which began in 1992, has involved numerous facility modifications. The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron has been converted from an energy booster for heavy ion beams to a light ion accelerator with internal ion source. A target-ion source and mass analysis system have been commissioned as key components of the facility`s radioactive ion beam injector to the 25MV tandem electrostatic accelerator. Beam transport lines have been completed, and new diagnostics for very low intensity beams have been developed. Work continues on a unified control system. Development of research quality radioactive beams for the nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics communities continues. This paper details facility development to date.

  3. Development of an external beam ion milliprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, Stephan A.

    1990-05-01

    The goals of this Trident Project were the design, construction, testing, and initial application of an external beam ion milliprobe. The ion milliprobe is a tool for elemental analysis that employs the 1.7 million volt tandem electrostatic accelerator in Michelson C-7 to provide a beam of charged particles. The mechanism used for the analysis of elemental concentration is particle induced x ray emission (PIXE). This technique involves detecting and counting the x rays produced when the focused beam of charged particles strikes the sample to be analyzed. The design and construction of several essential specialized devices is described including an electrostatic quadrupole triplet lens, a current measuring collimator, an exit tip, and a sample enclosure. The procedures necessary to align, focus, and determine the size of the beam are discussed. Finally, the results of the initial analysis are evaluated and presented.

  4. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  5. Development of a beam ion velocity detector for the heavy ion beam probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fimognari, P. J.; Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R.

    2016-11-01

    In an axisymmetric plasma, the conservation of canonical angular momentum constrains heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) trajectories such that measurement of the toroidal velocity component of secondary ions provides a localized determination of the poloidal flux at the volume where they originated. We have developed a prototype detector which is designed to determine the beam angle in one dimension through the detection of ion current landing on two parallel planes of detecting elements. A set of apertures creates a pattern of ion current on wires in the first plane and solid metal plates behind them; the relative amounts detected by the wires and plates determine the angle which beam ions enter the detector, which is used to infer the toroidal velocity component. The design evolved from a series of simulations within which we modeled ion beam velocity changes due to equilibrium and fluctuating magnetic fields, along with the ion beam profile and velocity dispersion, and studied how these and characteristics such as the size, cross section, and spacing of the detector elements affect performance.

  6. Development of a beam ion velocity detector for the heavy ion beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Fimognari, P. J. Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R.

    2016-11-15

    In an axisymmetric plasma, the conservation of canonical angular momentum constrains heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) trajectories such that measurement of the toroidal velocity component of secondary ions provides a localized determination of the poloidal flux at the volume where they originated. We have developed a prototype detector which is designed to determine the beam angle in one dimension through the detection of ion current landing on two parallel planes of detecting elements. A set of apertures creates a pattern of ion current on wires in the first plane and solid metal plates behind them; the relative amounts detected by the wires and plates determine the angle which beam ions enter the detector, which is used to infer the toroidal velocity component. The design evolved from a series of simulations within which we modeled ion beam velocity changes due to equilibrium and fluctuating magnetic fields, along with the ion beam profile and velocity dispersion, and studied how these and characteristics such as the size, cross section, and spacing of the detector elements affect performance.

  7. Developments in focused ion beam metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salen, Jesse A.; Athas, Gregory J.; Barnes, Drew; Bassom, Neil J.; Yansen, Don E.

    1998-09-01

    We present the ability of a focused ion beam system (FIB) to perform as an effective metrology tool. This feature is a benefit in areas where FIB technology is or can be used, or where pre-measurement cross-sectioning is required, such as the case in thin film head trimming, integrated circuit inspection, and micro-electromechanical device (MEMS) development. The FIB is a proven tool for taking high- resolution images, performing mills and depositions, and cross-sectioning samples. We demonstrate the FIB's ability to perform these tasks in a repeatable manner and take accurate measurements independently of the operator. First, we find a quantitative method for analyzing the image quality in order to remove any operator discrepancy. We show that this task can be achieved by analyzing the FIB's Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The MTF is a proven method for measuring the quality of light optics, but has never been used as a standard in FIB imaging because sub- 100m pitch resolution targets can not easily be fabricated; however, we demonstrate a new method for obtaining the MTF. By correlating changes in FIB parameters to changes in the MTF, we have a FIB image standard, as well as an image calibration tool that is transparent to the operator. Second, we describe how current FIB software can use an automated 'measure tool' to take accurate measurements independently of the operator. We show that when using both these methods, the FIB is a repeatable metrology tool for a variety of applications.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF EMITTANCE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR ION BEAM CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, M. J.; Liu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a fi gure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally a high quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifi eld Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profi les, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fi tting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplifi ed, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate.

  9. Development of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, G. H.; Nishida, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Kawashita, M.

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a new type of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials such as octane and ethanol, which consists of a capillary type of nozzle, an ionizer, a mass-separator and a substrate holder. Ion current extracted after ionization was 430 μA for octane and 200 μA for ethanol, respectively. The mass-analysis was realized using a compact E × B mass filter, and the mass-analyzed ion beams were transferred toward the substrate. The ion current density at the substrate was a few μA/cm2 for the mass-separated ion species. Interactions of polyatomic ion beams with silicon (Si) surfaces were investigated by utilizing the ellipsometry measurement. It was found that the damaged layer thickness irradiated by the polyatomic ions with a mass number of about 40 was smaller than that by Ar ion irradiation at the same incident energy and ion fluence. The result indicated that the rupture of polyatomic ions occurred upon its impact on the Si surface with an incident energy larger than a few keV. In addition, the chemical modification of Si surfaces such as wettability could be achieved by adjusting the incident energy for the ethanol ions, which included all the fragment ions.

  10. National negative-ion-based neutral-beam development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.S.; Pyle, R.V.

    1983-08-01

    The plan covers facilities required, program milestones, and decision points. It includes identification of applications, experiments, theoretical research areas, development of specific technologies and reactor development and demonstration facilities required to bring about the successful application of negative-ion-based neutral beams. Particular emphasis is placed on those activities leading to use on existing plasma confinement experiments or their upgrades.

  11. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  12. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  13. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-15

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  14. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  15. Development of laser-ion beam photodissociation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.H.

    1990-08-01

    During this report period our research efforts have concentrated on studies of the dissociation reactions of model peptides and other biologically important molecules. In addition, a considerable amount of research effort has been directed toward improving the apparatus used for laser-ion beam photodissociation. The instrumental improvements include some changes on the original apparatus, but most of this effort involved designing a second generation laser-ion beam photodissociation instrument.

  16. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

    2013-04-01

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide "cocktails", a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  17. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

    2013-04-19

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  18. Development and Commissioning of an External Beam Facility in the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Clark, Morgan; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an external beam facility for the 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory. The beam is extracted from an aluminum pipe through a 1 / 4 ' ' diameter window with a 7.5- μm thick Kapton foil. This external beam facility allows us to perform ion beam analysis on samples that cannot be put under vacuum, including wet samples and samples too large to fit into the scattering chamber. We have commissioned the new facility by performing proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of several samples of environmental interest. These include samples of artificial turf, running tracks, and a human tooth with an amalgam filling. A 1.7-MeV external proton beam was incident on the samples positioned 2 cm from the window. The resulting X-rays were measured using a silicon drift detector and were analyzed using GUPIX software to determine the concentrations of elements in the samples. The results on the human tooth indicate that while significant concentrations of Hg, Ag, and Sn are present in the amalgam filling, only trace amounts of Hg appear to have leached into the tooth. The artificial turf and running tracks show rather large concentrations of a broad range of elements and trace amounts of Pb in the turf infill.

  19. Development of a laser ion source for production of high-intensity heavy-ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Yamada, K.; Kurashima, S.

    2017-09-01

    A laser ion source has been developed as a high-intensity source for the ion implanter and the single pulsed beam of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron at TIARA. Highly charged beams of C5+ and C6+ ions and low-charged beams of heavy ions such as C, Al, Ti, Cu, Au, and Pt are required for the single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron and for the ion implanter, respectively. In the vacuum chamber of the ion source, a target holder on a three-dimensional linear-motion stage provides a fresh surface for each laser shot. A large-sized target with a maximum size of 300 mm × 135 mm is mounted on the holder for long-term operation. The ion current (ion charge flux) in the laser-produced plasma is measured by a Faraday cup and time-of-flight spectra of each charge state are measured using a 90° cylindrical electrostatic analyzer just behind the Faraday cup. Carbon-plasma-generation experiments indicate that the source produces intense high- and low-charged pulsed ion beams. At a laser energy of 483 mJ (2.3 × 1013 W/cm2), average C6+ current of 13 mA and average C5+ current of 23 mA were obtained over the required time duration for single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron (49 ns for C6+ and 80 ns for C5+). Furthermore, at 45 mJ (2.1 × 1012 W/cm2), an average C2+ current of 1.6 mA over 0.88 μs is obtained.

  20. Development of a lithium liquid metal ion source for MeV ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Maskrey, J.T.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Lithium liquid metal ion sources are an attractive complement to the existing gaseous ion sources that are extensively used for ion beam analysis. This is due in part to the high brightness of the liquid metal ion source and in part to the availability of a lithium ion beam. High brightness is of particular importance to MeV ion microprobes which are now approaching current density limitations on targets determined by the ion source. The availability of a lithium beam provides increased capabilities for hydrogen profiling and high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. This paper describes the design and performance of a lithium liquid metal ion source suitable for use on a 5MV Laddertron accelerator. Operational experience with the source and some of its uses for ion beam analysis are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Nonpropulsive applications of ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    Eight centimeter ion beam sources utilizing xenon and argon have been developed that operate over a wide range of beam energies and currents. Three types of processes have been studied: sputter deposition, ion beam machining, and ion beam surface texturing. The broad range of source operating conditions allows optimum sputter deposition of various materials. An ion beam source was used to ion mill laser reflection holograms using photoresist patterns on silicon. Ion beam texturing was tried with many materials and has a multitude of potential applications.

  2. Development of an energy analyzer as diagnostic of beam-generated plasma in negative ion beam systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, E.; Carozzi, G.; Veltri, P.; Spolaore, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.

    2017-08-01

    The measurement of the plasma potential and the energy spectrum of secondary particles in the drift region of a negative ion beam offers an insight into beam-induced plasma formation and beam transport in low pressure gasses. Plasma formation in negative-ion beam systems, and the characteristics of such a plasma are of interest especially for space charge compensation, plasma formation in neutralizers, and the development of improved schemes of beam-induced plasma neutralisers for future fusion devices. All these aspects have direct implications in the ITER Heating Neutral Beam and the operation of the prototypes, SPIDER and MITICA, and also have important role in the conceptual studies for NBI systems of DEMO, while at present experimental data are lacking. In this paper we present the design and development of an ion energy analyzer to measure the beam plasma formation and space charge compensation in negative ion beams. The diagnostic is a retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA), and will measure the transverse energy spectra of plasma molecular ions. The calculations that supported the design are reported, and a method to interpret the measurements in negative ion beam systems is also proposed. Finally, the experimental results of the first test in a magnetron plasma are presented.

  3. Development of a pepper pot emittance probe and its application for ECR ion beam studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Vinogradov, N.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2009-07-21

    A pepper pot-scintillator screen system has been developed and used to measure the emittance of DC ion beams extracted from a high-intensity permanent magnet ECR ion source. The system includes a fast beam shutter with a minimum dwell time of 18 ms to reduce the degradation of the CsI(Tl) scintillator by DC ion beam irradiation and a CCD camera with a variable shutter speed in the range of 1 {micro}s-65 s. On-line emittance measurements are performed by an application code developed on a LabVIEW platform. The sensitivity of the device is sufficient to measure the emittance of DC ion beams with current densities down to about 100 nA/cm{sup 2}. The emittance of all ion species extracted from the ECR ion source and post-accelerated to an energy of 75-90 keV/charge have been measured downstream of the LEBT. As the mass-to-charge ratio of ion species increases, the normalized RMS emittances in both transverse phase planes decrease from 0.5-1.0 {pi} mm mrad for light ions to 0.05-0.09 {pi} mm mrad for highly charged {sup 209}Bi ions. The dependence of the emittance on ion's mass-to-charge ratio follows very well the dependence expected from beam rotation induced by decreasing ECR axial magnetic field. The measured emittance values cannot be explained by only ion beam rotation for all ion species and the contribution to emittance of ion temperature in plasma, non-linear electric fields and non-linear space charge is comparable or even higher than the contribution of ion beam rotation.

  4. Development of Laser-Ion Beam Photodissociation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Russell

    2004-05-11

    stabilized) ions. It is difficult to probe 2o/3o structure of gas-phase ions using fragmentation chemistry, because the energy barriers to inter-conversion of different structural forms lie below the fragmentation threshold, studies of low internal energy ions are more suited for these studies. A major challenge for gas-phase ion research is the design of experimental structural probes that can be used in parallel with computational chemistry, molecular modeling and/or classical structural diagnostic tools to aid interpretation of the experimental data. Our experimental design and selection of research problems is guided by this philosophy. The following section of the progress report focus on three main issues: (i) technique and instrument development, and (ii) studies of ion structure and ion chemistry.

  5. Development of Laser-Ion Beam Photodissociation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Russell

    2004-03-31

    stabilized) ions. It is difficult to probe 2o/3o structure of gas-phase ions using fragmentation chemistry, because the energy barriers to inter-conversion of different structural forms lie below the fragmentation threshold, studies of low internal energy ions are more suited for these studies. A major challenge for gas-phase ion research is the design of experimental structural probes that can be used in parallel with computational chemistry, molecular modeling and/or classical structural diagnostic tools to aid interpretation of the experimental data. Our experimental design and selection of research problems is guided by this philosophy. The following section of the progress report focus on three main issues: (i) technique and instrument development, and (ii) studies of ion structure and ion chemistry.

  6. Development of a negative ion-based neutral beam injector in Novosibirsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Abdrashitov, G. F.; Anashin, V. V.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Burdakov, A. V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P. P.; Dimov, G. I.; Dranichnikov, A. N.; Kapitonov, V. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Stupishin, N. V.; Sorokin, A. V.; Popov, S. S.; Tiunov, M. A.; Belov, V. P.; Gorbovsky, A. I.; Kobets, V. V.; Binderbauer, M.; Putvinski, S.; Smirnov, A.; Sevier, L.

    2014-02-01

    A 1000 keV, 5 MW, 1000 s neutral beam injector based on negative ions is being developed in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk in collaboration with Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. The innovative design of the injector features the spatially separated ion source and an electrostatic accelerator. Plasma or photon neutralizer and energy recuperation of the remaining ion species is employed in the injector to provide an overall energy efficiency of the system as high as 80%. A test stand for the beam acceleration is now under construction. A prototype of the negative ion beam source has been fabricated and installed at the test stand. The prototype ion source is designed to produce 120 keV, 1.5 A beam.

  7. Development of a negative ion-based neutral beam injector in Novosibirsk.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Abdrashitov, G F; Anashin, V V; Belchenko, Yu I; Burdakov, A V; Davydenko, V I; Deichuli, P P; Dimov, G I; Dranichnikov, A N; Kapitonov, V A; Kolmogorov, V V; Kondakov, A A; Sanin, A L; Shikhovtsev, I V; Stupishin, N V; Sorokin, A V; Popov, S S; Tiunov, M A; Belov, V P; Gorbovsky, A I; Kobets, V V; Binderbauer, M; Putvinski, S; Smirnov, A; Sevier, L

    2014-02-01

    A 1000 keV, 5 MW, 1000 s neutral beam injector based on negative ions is being developed in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk in collaboration with Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. The innovative design of the injector features the spatially separated ion source and an electrostatic accelerator. Plasma or photon neutralizer and energy recuperation of the remaining ion species is employed in the injector to provide an overall energy efficiency of the system as high as 80%. A test stand for the beam acceleration is now under construction. A prototype of the negative ion beam source has been fabricated and installed at the test stand. The prototype ion source is designed to produce 120 keV, 1.5 A beam.

  8. Niobium resonator development for high-brightness ion beam acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Two niobium resonant cavities for high-brightness ion beam acceleration have been constructed and tested. The first was based on a coaxial quarter-wave geometry and was optimized for phase velocity {beta}{sub o} = 0.15. This cavity, which resonates at 400 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average (wall-to-wall) accelerating gradient of 12.9 MV/m under continuous-wave (cw) fields. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.4 {times} 10{sup 8} was measured. The second was based on a coaxial half-wave geometry and was optimized for {beta}{sub o} = 0.12. This cavity, which resonates at 355 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average accelerating gradient of 18.0 MV/m under cw fields. This is the highest average accelerating gradient achieved to date in low-velocity structures designed for cw operation. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 8} was measured.

  9. Development of hydrophobicity of mica surfaces by ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metya, Amaresh; Ghose, Debabrata; Ray, Nihar Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    The hydrophilic mica surface can be made hydrophobic by low energy Ar+ ion sputtering. The ion sputtering leads to both topographical and physicochemical changes of the surface which are thought to be responsible for the water repelling behavior. The sessile drop method is used to evaluate the wetting properties of the sputtered mica surfaces. It has been shown that the sputter-pattern at the nano-length scale has little influence on the development of hydrophobicity. On the other hand, the wettability appears to be strongly connected with the chemistry of the bombarded surface. We have also studied the temporal evolution of contact angle as the water evaporates due to difference in vapor pressures between the droplet surface and the surroundings. The analysis offers a simple method to estimate the diffusion coefficient of water vapor.

  10. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-10-08

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes. 6 figs.

  11. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

  12. Ion source developments for the production of radioactive isotope beams at TRIUMF

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, F. Bricault, P.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Mjøs, A.; Raeder, S.; Teigelhöfer, A.

    2014-02-15

    At the ISAC facility at TRIUMF radioactive ions are produced by bombarding solid targets with up to 100 μA of 500 MeV protons. The reaction products have to diffuse out of the hot target into an ion source. Normally, singly charged ions are extracted. They can be transported either directly to experiments or via an ECR charge state breeder to a post accelerator. Several different types of ion sources have to be used in order to deliver a large variety of rare isotope beams. At ISAC those are surface ion sources, forced electron beam arc discharge (FEBIAD) ion sources and resonant laser ionization sources. Recent development activities concentrated on increasing the selectivity for the ionization to suppress isobaric contamination in the beam. Therefore, a surface ion rejecting resonant laser ionization source (SIRLIS) has been developed to suppress ions from surface ionization. For the FEBIAD ion source a cold transfer line has been introduced to prevent less volatile components from reaching the ion source.

  13. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.; /UC, San Diego

    2010-06-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  14. Development of An Ion Beam Cooler and Buncher for the SCRIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togasaki, Mamoru; Enokizono, Akitomo; Kurita, Kazuyoshi; Matsuo, Saki; Hara, Masahiro; Hori, Toshitada; Ichikawa, Shin'ichi; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Wakasugi, Masanori; Haraguchi, Yuji; Suda, Toshimi; Tamae, Tadaaki; Tsukada, Kyo; Tsuru, Teruaki; Yoneyama, Shunpei; Wang, Shuo

    2014-09-01

    The SCRIT (Self-Confining RI Ion Target) is an internal target forming technique for electron scattering off short lived unstable nuclei. In the SCRIT electron scattering facility at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, we constructed an ISOL-type RI beam generator named ERIS (Electron-beam-driven RI separator for SCRIT). ERIS supplys continuous RI ion beam with the energy of 50 keV at maximum. In order to efficiently inject the RI beam into SCRIT, it is necessary to provide a pulsed beam. Therefore, we are developing a cooler buncher system. The principle of this device is based on a linear radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) trap. Required performance for the device is to convert 1-s continuous beam into 500- μs pulsed beam with high efficiency. Experiment for the performance study is now going on using the stable 133Cs and 23Na ions. In this talk, we will report the latest status of the development and the study of the cooler buncher.

  15. Development of a novel reaction chamber for ion beam analysis of large samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuee, O. R.; Fathollahi, V.; Agha-Aligol, D.; Farmahini-Farahani, M.; Oliaiy, P.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2008-04-01

    A novel vacuum chamber for ion beam analysis of large-size industrial samples - whose analysis are not feasible in conventional ion beam analysis reaction chambers - has been designed, fabricated and successfully tested. Using the newly developed chamber, both PIXE and RBS analyses could be carried out at the same time and on the same point of the samples. Ion beam analysis using this novel chamber lacks the disadvantages of external beam analysis and benefits the advantages of in-vacuum analysis. This has been achieved by designing a tiny open port in the wall of the reaction chamber to be sealed with a small flat area of sample body where its analysis is of interest. As a case study, two samples of gas turbine blades, a corroded one at highly corrosive environment and a refurbished one after application of certain coatings are analysed using the novel chamber. Experimental results confirm the performance and capability of the reaction chamber.

  16. Intense ion beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, Jr., Stanley; Sudan, Ravindra N.

    1977-08-30

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation.

  17. Approaches to develop targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W. L.; Drake, D. M.; Wilson, M. T.; Walker, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.

    1999-06-10

    Approaches to develop targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been evaluated over the past five years. It is acknowledged that many desired physics objectives using RIBs can be met only by using production beams of energetic protons with currents up to 100 {mu}A. Such beams can be made available at future spallation neutron facilities. The production targets will require active cooling to control operational temperatures due to internal heating caused by the production beam. A target concept has been selected, and calculational analyses of the target concept have been performed to guide the design of a prototype target for an in-beam test of the actual thermal behavior. For this test, a high-power test facility is needed; fortunately, the beam currents required exist at the TRIUMF accelerator facility. An experimental proposal has been approved for such a test.

  18. Progress and future developments of high current ion source for neutral beam injector in the ASIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Zhimin; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Sheng, Peng; Jiang, Caichao

    2015-04-01

    A high current hot cathode bucket ion source, which based on the US long pulse ion source is developed in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The ion source consists of a bucket plasma generator with multi-pole cusp fields and a set of tetrode accelerator with slit apertures. So far, four ion sources are developed and conditioned on the ion source test bed. 4 MW hydrogen beam with beam energy of 80 keV is extracted. In Aug. 2013, EAST NBI 1 with two ion source installed on the EAST, and achieved H-mode plasma with NBI injection for the first time. In order to achieve stable long pulse operation of high current ion source and negative ion source research, the RF ion source with 200 mm diameter and 120 mm depth driver is designed and developed. The first RF plasma generated with 2 kW power of 1 MHz frequency. More of the RF plasma tests and negative source relative research need to do in the future.

  19. Progress and future developments of high current ion source for neutral beam injector in the ASIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Zhimin; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Sheng, Peng; Jiang, Caichao

    2015-04-08

    A high current hot cathode bucket ion source, which based on the US long pulse ion source is developed in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The ion source consists of a bucket plasma generator with multi-pole cusp fields and a set of tetrode accelerator with slit apertures. So far, four ion sources are developed and conditioned on the ion source test bed. 4 MW hydrogen beam with beam energy of 80 keV is extracted. In Aug. 2013, EAST NBI 1 with two ion source installed on the EAST, and achieved H-mode plasma with NBI injection for the first time. In order to achieve stable long pulse operation of high current ion source and negative ion source research, the RF ion source with 200 mm diameter and 120 mm depth driver is designed and developed. The first RF plasma generated with 2 kW power of 1 MHz frequency. More of the RF plasma tests and negative source relative research need to do in the future.

  20. Development of a Computer Control System for Heavy Ion Beam Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. K.; Roberts, S. L.; Westervelt, E. R.; Schoch, P. M.; Schatz, J. G.

    1996-11-01

    Enhanced computer control of heavy ion beam probes would increase the reproducability of experimental conditions by automation and feedback control of some system parameters. Also, operation from a remote site would then be feasible. Computer control has been implemented on a variety of Rensselaer heavy ion beam probe systems. However, no system to date has allowed complete remote operation. This has been primarily due to the limitations of the user interface. The next generation of HIBP control systems software is being created with National Instruments' graphical language, LabVIEW. The virtual instruments allow detailed monitoring and control of the injected beam conditions. The control and monitoring of the ion beam, including filament current and Pierce, focusing, quadrupole lens, and sweep electrodes' voltages has been tested on RPI's vertical test stand. A feedback routine to focus the beam using the quadrupole lens is currently being developed. When this capability is available, it will be implemented on a heavy ion beam probe diagnostic operating on a magnetic confinement device.

  1. Development of NIRS pencil beam scanning system for carbon ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, T.; Hara, Y.; Mizushima, K.; Saotome, N.; Tansho, R.; Saraya, Y.; Inaniwa, T.; Mori, S.; Iwata, Y.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.

    2017-09-01

    At Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), more than 9000 patients have been successfully treated by carbon ion beams since 1994. The successful results of treatments have led us to construct a new treatment facility equipped with a three-dimensional pencil beam scanning irradiation system, which is one of sophisticated techniques for cancer therapy with high energetic ion beam. This new facility comprises two treatment rooms having fixed beam lines and one treatment room having rotating gantry line. The challenge of this project is to realize treatment of a moving target by scanning irradiation. Thus, to realize this, the development of the fast scanning system is one of the most important issues in this project. After intense commissioning and quality assurance tests, the treatment with scanned ion beam was started in May 2011. After treatment of static target starts, we have developed related technologies. As a result, we can start treatment of moving target and treatment without range shifter plates since 2015. In this paper, the developments of the scanning irradiation system are described.

  2. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

  3. Recent developments of target and ion sources to produce ISOL beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stora, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this review on target and ion sources for ISOL (Isotope Separation OnLine) beams, important developments from the past five years are highlighted. While at precedent EMIS conferences, a particular focus was given to a single topics, for instance specifically on ion sources or on chemical purification techniques, here each of the important elements present in an ISOL production unit is discussed. Fast diffusing nanomaterials, uranium-based targets, high power targets for next generation facilities, purification by selective adsorption, new ion sources are all part of this review. For each of these selected topics, the reported results lead to significant gains in intensity, purity, or quality of the delivered beam, or in the production of new isotope beams. Often the outcome resulted from the combination of original ideas with state-of-the-art investigations; this was carried out using very different scientific disciplines, leading to understanding of the underlying chemical or physical mechanisms at the origin of the improvements.

  4. Ion Beam Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, Taneli

    2005-11-08

    IBSimu(Ion Beam Simulator) is a computer program for making two and three dimensional ion optical simulations. The program can solve electrostatic field in a rectangular mesh using Poisson equation using Finite Difference method (FDM). The mesh can consist of a coarse and a fine part so that the calculation accuracy can be increased in critical areas of the geometry, while most of the calculation is done quickly using the coarse mesh. IBSimu can launch ion beam trajectories into the simulation from an injection surface or fomo plasma. Ion beam space charge of time independent simulations can be taken in account using Viasov iteration. Plasma is calculated by compensating space charge with electrons having Boltzmann energy distribution. The simulation software can also be used to calculate time dependent cases if the space charge is not calculated. Software includes diagnostic tools for plotting the geometry, electric field, space charge map, ion beam trajectories, emittance data and beam profiles.

  5. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  6. Ion beam thruster shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion thruster beam shield is provided that comprises a cylindrical housing that extends downstream from the ion thruster and a plurality of annular vanes which are spaced along the length of the housing, and extend inwardly from the interior wall of the housing. The shield intercepts and stops all charge exchange and beam ions, neutral propellant, and sputter products formed due to the interaction of beam and shield emanating from the ion thruster outside of a fixed conical angle from the thruster axis. Further, the shield prevents the sputter products formed during the operation of the engine from escaping the interior volume of the shield.

  7. Development of ion source with a washer gun for pulsed neutral beam injection.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Yamaguchi, N; Kajiya, H; Takahashi, T; Imanaka, H; Takase, Y; Ono, Y; Sato, K N

    2008-06-01

    A new type of economical neutral beam source has been developed by using a single washer gun, pulsed operation, and a simple electrode system. We replaced the conventional hot filaments for arc-discharge-type plasma formation with a single stainless-steel washer gun, eliminating the entire dc power supply for the filaments and the cooling system for the electrodes. Our initial experiments revealed successful beam extraction up to 10 kV and 8.6 A, based on spatial profile measurements of density and temperature in the plasma source. The system also shows the potential to control the beam profile by controlling the plasma parameters in the ion accumulation chamber.

  8. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited).

    PubMed

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  9. Development of a plasma generator for a long pulse ion source for neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, B. R.; Seo, C. S.; Jin, J. T.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.; Oh, B. H.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y. S.

    2011-06-15

    A plasma generator for a long pulse H{sup +}/D{sup +} ion source has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A H{sup +}/D{sup +} beams at an energy of 120 keV from an ion extraction area of 12 cm in width and 45 cm in length. Configuration of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp bucket type with SmCo permanent magnets. Dimension of a plasma chamber is 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 32.5 cm in depth. The plasma generator was designed and fabricated at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Source plasma generation and beam extraction tests for hydrogen coupling with an accelerator of the KSTAR ion source have been performed at the KSTAR neutral beam test stand under the agreement of Japan-Korea collaborative experiment. Spatial uniformity of the source plasma at the extraction region was measured using Langmuir probes and {+-}7% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density was obtained. A long pulse test of the plasma generation up to 200 s with an arc discharge power of 70 kW has been successfully demonstrated. The arc discharge power satisfies the requirement of the beam production for the KSTAR NBI. A 70 keV, 41 A, 5 s hydrogen ion beam has been extracted with a high arc efficiency of 0.9 -1.1 A/kW at a beam extraction experiment. A deuteron yield of 77% was measured even at a low beam current density of 73 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Development of a high intensity 48Ca ion beam for the heavy element program

    SciTech Connect

    Wutte, Daniela; Leitner, Mattheus; Lyneis, Claude

    2002-02-02

    A high intensity {sup 48}Ca ion beam has been developed at the 88 Inch Cyclotron for the synthesis of {sup 283}112 using the reaction {sup 238}U({sup 48}Ca, 3n). An ion beam intensity of {approx} 700 pnA was delivered on target, resulting in a total dose of 2 x 10{sup 18} ions over a six day period. Since {sup 48}Ca is a very expensive and rare isotope minimal consumption is essential. Therefore a new oven [1] and special tantalum liner [2] have been developed for the AECR-U ion source during the last year to improve the metal ion beam efficiency. Both the LBL ECR and the AECR-U ion sources are built with radial access. Six radial slots between the sextupole magnet bars provide additional pumping and easy access to the plasma chamber for ovens and feedthroughs. Two types of radial ovens have been used at LBNL in the past, operating at temperatures up to 2100 C.

  11. Ion beam probe diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickok, R. L.; Jennings, W. C.; Woo, J. T.; Connor, K. A.

    1980-07-01

    Tokomak plasmas suitable for diagnostic development were produced in RENTOR following technological improvements in the vacuum chamber and discharge cleaning systems. Secondary ion signals were obtained from the heavy ion beam probe on RENTOR leading to initial estimates of the plasma space potential, which appears to vary by several hundred volts during the plasma pulse. The principle of measuring space potential in a minimum-B geometry was established using an ion gun mounted at the center of the ALEX baseball coil. The neutral beam probe was installed for measuring the space potential using actual secondary ion signals from a hollow cathode arc in ALEX and preliminary tests have begun. The ion beam test stand was significantly altered to allow more flexibility in testing energy analyzers, ion guns, and ion focusing concepts.

  12. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  13. Ion recombination correction in carbon ion beams.

    PubMed

    Rossomme, S; Hopfgartner, J; Lee, N D; Delor, A; Thomas, R A S; Romano, F; Fukumura, A; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H

    2016-07-01

    In this work, ion recombination is studied as a function of energy and depth in carbon ion beams. Measurements were performed in three different passively scattered carbon ion beams with energies of 62 MeV/n, 135 MeV/n, and 290 MeV/n using various types of plane-parallel ionization chambers. Experimental results were compared with two analytical models for initial recombination. One model is generally used for photon beams and the other model, developed by Jaffé, takes into account the ionization density along the ion track. An investigation was carried out to ascertain the effect on the ion recombination correction with varying ionization chamber orientation with respect to the direction of the ion tracks. The variation of the ion recombination correction factors as a function of depth was studied for a Markus ionization chamber in the 62 MeV/n nonmodulated carbon ion beam. This variation can be related to the depth distribution of linear energy transfer. Results show that the theory for photon beams is not applicable to carbon ion beams. On the other hand, by optimizing the value of the ionization density and the initial mean-square radius, good agreement is found between Jaffé's theory and the experimental results. As predicted by Jaffé's theory, the results confirm that ion recombination corrections strongly decrease with an increasing angle between the ion tracks and the electric field lines. For the Markus ionization chamber, the variation of the ion recombination correction factor with depth was modeled adequately by a sigmoid function, which is approximately constant in the plateau and strongly increasing in the Bragg peak region to values of up to 1.06. Except in the distal edge region, all experimental results are accurately described by Jaffé's theory. Experimental results confirm that ion recombination in the investigated carbon ion beams is dominated by initial recombination. Ion recombination corrections are found to be significant and cannot be

  14. Ion beam surface modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwight, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The essential details of a study on the practical applications and mechanisms of polymer sputtering via Argon ion impact are summarized. The potential to modify the properties of polymer surfaces to improve their adherence, durability, biocompatibility, or other desirable properties by ion beam sputtering was emphasized. Ion beam milling can be of benefit as an analytical tool to obtain composition versus depth information. Ion impact from a directed ion gun source specifically etches polymer structures according to their morphologies, therefore this technique may be useful to study unknown or new morphological features. Factors addressed were related to: (1) the texture that arises on a polymer target after ion impact; (2) the chemistry of the top surface after ion impact; (3) the chemistry of sputtered films of polymeric material deposited on substrates placed adjacent to targets during ion impact; and (4) practical properties of textured polymer targets, specifically the wettability and adhesive bonding properties.

  15. Z-petawatt driven ion beam radiography development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schollmeier, Marius; Geissel, Matthias; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Sefkow, Adam B.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-driven proton radiography provides electromagnetic field mapping with high spatiotemporal resolution, and has been applied to many laser-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. Our report addresses key questions about the feasibility of ion radiography at the Z-Accelerator (%E2%80%9CZ%E2%80%9D), concerning laser configuration, hardware, and radiation background. Charged particle tracking revealed that radiography at Z requires GeV scale protons, which is out of reach for existing and near-future laser systems. However, it might be possible to perform proton deflectometry to detect magnetic flux compression in the fringe field region of a magnetized liner inertial fusion experiment. Experiments with the Z-Petawatt laser to enhance proton yield and energy showed an unexpected scaling with target thickness. Full-scale, 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, coupled to fully explicit and kinetic 2D particle-in-cell simulations running for over 10 ps, explain the scaling by a complex interplay of laser prepulse, preplasma, and ps-scale temporal rising edge of the laser.

  16. Development of an applied-magnetic-field diode for ion-beam-transport experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Young, F.C.; Neri, J.M.; Boller, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    An applied-magnetic-field ion diode (ABD) is being developed to study the transport of intense ion beams for light-ion inertial confinement fusion. Initially, the beam from this diode will be used to test the concept of self-pinched transport (SPT). The design goal is diode operation at 1.5 MV and 250-kA total current on the Gamble 2 generator at NRL. For SPT experiments, the beam is extracted from the diode and focused into a transport channel. The ATHETA code is used to calculate B-field configurations in the diode and ion-beam trajectories. Shaping of the anode surface to aim the beam and to counteract focusing due to self B-field and solenoidal-lens effects results in a convex anode surface. Most of the beam can be focused within a spot size of 1.4-cm diameter at 65 cm from the anode. The B-field is generated with inner and outer cathode coils connected in series and driven by a 100-{micro}s risetime, 50-kA pulse. A shunt inductor in parallel with the outer coil is used to control the ratio of the currents in the two coils. To cancel flux penetration of the aluminum anode by the main B-field, a current pulse of opposite polarity with a 1-ms risetime is applied prior to the main pulse. This current is adjusted to place the B-field separatrix on the ion emission surface in the diode gap, accounting for anode plasma expansion. A grooved-anode flashover source is planned for initial experiments. Preliminary results are presented.

  17. Negative ion source development for a photoneutralization based neutral beam system for future fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, A.; Agnello, R.; Bechu, S.; Bernard, J. M.; Blondel, C.; Boeuf, J. P.; Bresteau, D.; Cartry, G.; Chaibi, W.; Drag, C.; Duval, B. P.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Fubiani, G.; Furno, I.; Grand, C.; Guittienne, Ph; Howling, A.; Jacquier, R.; Marini, C.; Morgal, I.

    2016-12-01

    In parallel to the developments dedicated to the ITER neutral beam (NB) system, CEA-IRFM with laboratories in France and Switzerland are studying the feasibility of a new generation of NB system able to provide heating and current drive for the future DEMOnstration fusion reactor. For the steady-state scenario, the NB system will have to provide a high NB power level with a high wall-plug efficiency (η ˜ 60%). Neutralization of the energetic negative ions by photodetachment (so called photoneutralization), if feasible, appears to be the ideal solution to meet these performances, in the sense that it could offer a high beam neutralization rate (>80%) and a wall-plug efficiency higher than 60%. The main challenge of this new injector concept is the achievement of a very high power photon flux which could be provided by 3 MW Fabry-Perot optical cavities implanted along the 1 MeV D- beam in the neutralizer stage. The beamline topology is tall and narrow to provide laminar ion beam sheets, which will be entirely illuminated by the intra-cavity photon beams propagating along the vertical axis. The paper describes the present R&D (experiments and modelling) addressing the development of a new ion source concept (Cybele source) which is based on a magnetized plasma column. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize and compare the plasma parameters in the source column with different plasma generators, such as filamented cathodes, radio-frequency driver and a helicon antenna specifically developed at SPC-EPFL satisfying the requirements for the Cybele (axial magnetic field of 10 mT, source operating pressure: 0.3 Pa in hydrogen or deuterium). The paper compares the performances of the three plasma generators. It is shown that the helicon plasma generator is a very promising candidate to provide an intense and uniform negative ion beam sheet.

  18. The Development of High-Intensity Negative Ion Sources and Beams in the USSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    ion beams as the basis for creating neutral beams for injection into mirror traps and tokamaks , for inertial confinement fusion, and possibly for...ion beams relates directly to the creation of intense neutral beams for injection into magnetic traps and tokamaks , for inertial confine- ment fusion...create intense neutral beams for injection systems for mirror traps and tokamaks and for inertial confinement fusion. These applications require high

  19. Latest developments at GANIL for stable and radioactive ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, P.; Barue, C.; Bajeat, O.; Canet, C.; Clement, E.; Cornell, J. C.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J. L.; Fraanberg, H.; Frigot, R.; Leboucher, C.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Mery, A.; and others

    2010-02-15

    In the frame of the SPIRAL II (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne Partie II) project, several developments of stable and radioactive ion production systems have been started up. In parallel, GANIL has the ambition to preserve the existing stable and radioactive beams and also to increase its range by offering new ones. In order to identify the best directions for this development, a new group called GANISOL has been formed. Its preliminary conclusions and the latest developments at GANIL are presented.

  20. Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Jumpei; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-09-01

    We developed an ion beam figuring system that utilizes electrostatic deflection. The system can produce an arbitrary shape by deterministically scanning the ion beam. The scan of the ion beam, which can be precisely controlled using only an electrical signal, enables us to avoid degradation of the mirror shape caused by imperfect acceleration or deceleration of a mechanically scanning stage. Additionally, this surface figuring method can easily be combined with X-ray metrology because the workpiece remains fixed during the figuring. We evaluated the figuring accuracy of the system by fabricating a plano-elliptical mirror for X-ray focusing. A mirror with a shape error of 1.4 nm root mean square (RMS) with a maximum removal depth of 992 nm, which corresponds to figuring accuracy of 0.14% RMS, was achieved. After the second shape corrections, an elliptical shape with a shape error of approximately 1 nm peak-to-valley, 0.48 nm RMS could be fabricated. Then, the mirror surface was smoothed by a low-energy ion beam. Consequently, a micro-roughness of 0.117 nm RMS, measured by atomic force microscopy, was achieved over an area of 1 × 1 μm2.

  1. Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Jumpei; Matsuyama, Satoshi Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-09-15

    We developed an ion beam figuring system that utilizes electrostatic deflection. The system can produce an arbitrary shape by deterministically scanning the ion beam. The scan of the ion beam, which can be precisely controlled using only an electrical signal, enables us to avoid degradation of the mirror shape caused by imperfect acceleration or deceleration of a mechanically scanning stage. Additionally, this surface figuring method can easily be combined with X-ray metrology because the workpiece remains fixed during the figuring. We evaluated the figuring accuracy of the system by fabricating a plano-elliptical mirror for X-ray focusing. A mirror with a shape error of 1.4 nm root mean square (RMS) with a maximum removal depth of 992 nm, which corresponds to figuring accuracy of 0.14% RMS, was achieved. After the second shape corrections, an elliptical shape with a shape error of approximately 1 nm peak-to-valley, 0.48 nm RMS could be fabricated. Then, the mirror surface was smoothed by a low-energy ion beam. Consequently, a micro-roughness of 0.117 nm RMS, measured by atomic force microscopy, was achieved over an area of 1 × 1 μm{sup 2}.

  2. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  3. Focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  4. Ion beam texturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    A microscopic surface texture is created by sputter etching a surface while simultaneously sputter depositing a lower sputter yield material onto the surface. A xenon ion beam source has been used to perform this texturing process on samples as large as three centimeters in diameter. Ion beam textured surface structures have been characterized with SEM photomicrographs for a large number of materials including Cu, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Fe, Stainless steel, Au, and Ag. Surfaces have been textured using a variety of low sputter yield materials - Ta, Mo, Nb, and Ti. The initial stages of the texture creation have been documented, and the technique of ion beam sputter removal of any remaining deposited material has been studied. A number of other texturing parameters have been studied such as the variation of the texture with ion beam power, surface temperature, and the rate of texture growth with sputter etching time.

  5. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  6. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1997-01-01

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  7. Recent developments in rf superconductivity for high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-02-01

    Recent progress in on-going development program leading to the design of superconducting continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high-brightness ion beams is reviewed. A new spoke-resonator geometry incorporating a half-wavelength resonant line was fabricated and tested. This geometry serves as the basis for the constituent cavities of a superconducting section being designed for high-current testing with a deuterium beam. Considerable progress has been made in the design of this section. A multi-phased program leading to the development of a superconducting radio-frequency quadrupole (SCRFQ) has been initiated. Design considerations and test results from the various activities are presented.

  8. Recent developments in rf superconductivity for high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in on-going development program leading to the design of superconducting continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high-brightness ion beams is reviewed. A new spoke-resonator geometry incorporating a half-wavelength resonant line was fabricated and tested. This geometry serves as the basis for the constituent cavities of a superconducting section being designed for high-current testing with a deuterium beam. Considerable progress has been made in the design of this section. A multi-phased program leading to the development of a superconducting radio-frequency quadrupole (SCRFQ) has been initiated. Design considerations and test results from the various activities are presented.

  9. Development of a universal serial bus interface circuit for ion beam current integrators.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M

    2007-08-01

    A universal serial bus (USB) interface circuit has been developed to enable easy interfacing of commercial as well as custom-built ion beam current integrators to personal computer (PC) based automated experimental setups. Built using the popular PIC16F877A reduced instruction set computer and a USB-universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter/first in, first out controller, DLP2232, this USB interface circuit virtually emulates the ion beam current integrators on a host PC and uses USB 2.0 protocol to implement high speed bidirectional data transfer. Using this interface, many tedious and labor intensive ion beam irradiation and characterization experiments can be redesigned into PC based automated ones with advantages of improved accuracy, rapidity, and ease of use and control. This interface circuit was successfully used in carrying out online in situ resistivity measurement of 70 keV O(+) ion irradiated tin thin films using four probe method. In situ electrical resistance measurement showed the formation of SnO(2) phase during ion implantation.

  10. Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.; Foosland, D. W.; Smith, C. W.; Lee, M. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The linear theory of electromagnetic instabilities driven by an energetic ion beam streaming parallel to a magnetic field in a homogeneous Vlasov plasma is considered. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation are presented. At propagation parallel to the magnetic field, there are four distinct instabilities. A sufficiently energetic beam gives rise to two unstable modes with right-hand polarization, one resonant with the beam, the other nonresonant. A beam with sufficiently large T (perpendicular to B)/T (parallel to B) gives rise to the left-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability at relatively small beam velocities, and a sufficiently hot beam drives unstable a left-hand beam resonant mode. The parametric dependences of the growth rates for the three high beam velocity instabilities are presented here. In addition, some properties at oblique propagation are examined. It is demonstrated that, as the beam drift velocity is increased, relative maxima in growth rates can arise at harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance for both right and left elliptically polarized modes.

  11. Accelerated Nuclear Energy Materials Development with Multiple Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M J; Bench, G

    2009-08-19

    A fundamental issue in nuclear energy is the changes in material properties as a consequence of time, temperature, and neutron fluence. Usually, candidate materials for nuclear energy applications are tested in nuclear reactors to understand and model the changes that arise from a combination of atomic displacements, helium and hydrogen production, and other nuclear transmutations (e.g. fission and the production of fission products). Experiments may be carried out under neutron irradiation conditions in existing nuclear materials test reactors (at rates of 10 to 20 displacements per atom (DPA) per year or burn-up rates of a few percent per year for fertile fuels), but such an approach takes much too long for many high neutron fluence scenarios (300 DPA for example) expected in reactors of the next generation. Indeed it is reasonable to say that there are no neutron sources available today to accomplish sufficiently rapid accelerated aging let alone also provide the temperature and spectral characteristics of future fast spectrum nuclear energy systems (fusion and fission both). Consequently, materials research and development progress continues to be severely limited by this bottleneck.

  12. Ion-beam technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  13. Radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE/CERN recent developments and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Georg, U.; Catherall, R.; Giles, T.; Jonsson, O. C.; Koester, U.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Nilsson, T.; Ravn, H.; Simon, H.; Tamburella, C.; Bennett, J. R. J.; Drumm, P.; Bergmann, U. C.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Junghans, A. R.; Mishin, V. I.; Schmidt, K.-H.

    1999-11-16

    Since the move of ISOLDE from CERN's synchrocyclotron (SC) to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in 1992 extensive work has been devoted to the development of new beams, i.e. the production of new isotopes, beams of higher intensity and the ionization of further elements. Most of these developments were driven by the particular needs of the physics community proposing new experiments. The main achievements were the adaption of liquid metal targets to the pulsed proton beam to prevent shockwaves and splashing inside the target container and systematic studies on the time structure of the release of the isotopes from the target. Furthermore the work on laser ion-sources already started at ISOLDE-2 was continued, the so-called RIST target was developed, and most recently first tests on the isotope production while increasing the proton energy from 1 GeV to 1.4 GeV were done. The latter topics are discussed in this paper.

  14. Radioactive Ion Beams at ISOLDE/CERN Recent Developments and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    U. Georg; J.R.J. Bennett; U.C. Bergmann; R. Catherall; P. Drumm; V.N. Fedoseyev; T. Giles; O.C. Jonsson; A.R. Junghans; U. Koester; E. Kugler; J. Lettry; V.I. Mishin; T. Nilsson; H. Ravn; K.-H. Schmidt; H. Simon; C. Tamburella

    1999-12-31

    Since the move of ISOLDE from CERN's synchrocyclotron (SC) to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in 1992 extensive work has been devoted to the development of new beams, i.e. the production of new isotopes, beams of higher intensity and the ionization of further elements. Most of these developments were driven by the particular needs of the physics community proposing new experiments. The main achievements were the adaption of liquid metal targets to the pulsed proton beam to prevent shockwaves and splashing inside the target container and systematic studies on the time structure of the release of the isotopes from the target. Furthermore the work on laser ion-sources already started at ISOLDE-2 was continued, the so-called RIST target was developed, and most recently first tests on the isotope production while increasing the proton energy from 1 GeV to 1.4 GeV were done. The latter topics are discussed in this paper.

  15. Development of a radio-frequency ion beam source for fast-ion studies on the large plasma device.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S K P; Pribyl, P; Gekelman, W

    2011-09-01

    A helium ion beam source (23 kV/2.0 A) has been constructed for studying fast-ion physics in the cylindrical magnetized plasma of the large plasma device (LAPD). An inductive RF source produces a 10(19) m(-3) density plasma in a ceramic dome. A multi-aperture, rectangular (8 cm × 8 cm) three-grid system extracts the ion beam from the RF plasma. The ion beam is injected at a variety of pitch angles with Alfvénic speeds in the LAPD. The beam current is intense enough to excite magnetic perturbations in the ambient plasma. Measurements of the ion beam profile were made to achieve an optimum beam performance and a reliable source operation was demonstrated on the LAPD. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  17. Ion Beam and Plasma Technology Development for Surface Modification at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Munson, C.P.; Wood, B.P.; Bitteker, L.J.; Nastasi, M.A.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J.; Walter, K.C.; Coates, D.M.; Schleinitz, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    We are developing two high-throughput technologies for materials modification. The first is a repetitive intense ion beam source for materials modification through rapid surface melt and resolidification (up to 10{sup 10} deg/sec cooling rates) and for ablative deposition of coatings. The short range of the ions (typically 0.1 to 5 micrometers) allows vaporization or melting at moderate beam energy density (typically 1-50 J/cm{sup 2}). A new repetitive intense ion beam accelerator called CHAMP is under development at Los Alamos. The design beam parameters are: E=200 keV, I=15 kA, {tau}=1 {micro}s, and 1 Hz. This accelerator will enable applications such as film deposition, alloying and mixing, cleaning and polishing, corrosion and wear resistance, polymer surface treatments, and nanophase powder synthesis. The second technology is plasma source ion implantation (PSII) using plasmas generated from both gas phase (using radio frequency excitation) and solid phase (using a cathodic arc) sources. We have used PSII to directly implant ions for surface modification or as method for generating graded interfaces to enhance the adhesion of surface coatings. Surfaces with areas of up to 16 m{sup 2} and weighing more than a thousand kilograms have been treated in the Los Alamos PSII chamber. In addition, PSII in combination with cathodic source deposition has been used to form highly adherent, thick Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings on steel for reactive metal containment in casting. These coatings resist delamination under extreme mechanical and thermal stress.

  18. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2012-02-15

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

  19. Ion beam mixing by focused ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, Árpád; Kotis, László; Lábár, János L.; Osváth, Zoltán; Tóth, Attila L.; Menyhárd, Miklós; Zalar, Anton; Panjan, Peter

    2007-09-01

    Si amorphous (41 nm)/Cr polycrystalline (46 nm) multilayer structure was irradiated by 30 keV Ga+ ions with fluences in the range of 25-820 ions/nm2 using a focused ion beam. The effect of irradiation on the concentration distribution was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The ion irradiation did not result in roughening on the free surface. On the other hand, the Ga+ irradiation produced a strongly mixed region around the first Si/Cr interface. The thickness of mixed region depends on the Ga+ fluence and it is joined to the pure Cr matrix with an unusual sharp interface. With increasing fluence the width of the mixed region increases but the interface between the mixed layer and pure Cr remains sharp. TRIDYN simulation failed to reproduce this behavior. Assuming that the Ga+ irradiation induces asymmetric mixing, that is during the mixing process the Cr can enter the Si layer, but the Si cannot enter the Cr layer, the experimental findings can qualitatively be explained.

  20. Development of a reference database for Ion Beam Analysis and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abriola, D.; Barradas, N. P.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Chiari, M.; Gurbich, A. F.; Jeynes, C.; Kokkoris, M.; Mayer, M.; Ramos, A. R.; Shi, L.; Vickridge, I.

    2011-12-01

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is a set of material characterization techniques using energetic ion beams. IBA provides information about composition and the depth profile of elements in the near-surface layers of a sample, from the energy spectra of backscattered primary particles, recoils, nuclear reaction products or emitted γ-radiation. All IBA methods presuppose knowledge of the differential cross-section data however, only for strict Rutherford scattering is the cross-section known exactly. In order to address the data needs of the IBA community, the IAEA initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis" in 2005 which will conclude in 2010. The project focuses on the measurement, assessment, evaluation and benchmarking of elastic scattering and reaction cross sections. Data measured in this work have been incorporated in the IBANDL database ( http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl/), whereas the evaluated cross-sections (calculated from the fit to the data of a nuclear model) are made available to the community through the on-line calculator SigmaCalc ( http://www-nds.iaea.org/sigmacalc/). A summary of the results of the CRP activity is presented, and ways to further develop nuclear data for IBA are indicated. In particular, a newly proposed CRP devoted to particle induced gamma-ray emission is described.

  1. Development of laser-ion beam photodissociation methods. Progress report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    During this report period our research efforts have concentrated on the continued development of the tandem magnetic sector (EB)/reflectron-time-of-flight (TOF) instrument, preliminary experiments with the tandem TOF/TOF E/R-TOF instrument, developing the methodology for performing photodissociation with pulsed lasers on the EB/R-TOF instrument, preliminary experiments with laser ionization on the aerosol-particle beam apparatus, development of a vacuum ultra-violet laser for photoionization/photoexcitation of gas phase ions, and fundamental studies on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI).

  2. Ion beam lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-08-02

    A maskless plasma-formed ion beam lithography tool provides for patterning of sub-50 nm features on large area flat or curved substrate surfaces. The system is very compact and does not require an accelerator column and electrostatic beam scanning components. The patterns are formed by switching beamlets on or off from a two electrode blanking system with the substrate being scanned mechanically in one dimension. This arrangement can provide a maskless nano-beam lithography tool for economic and high throughput processing.

  3. Development of a low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the MARA separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, Philippos; Moore, Iain; Pohjalainen, Ilkka; Sarén, Jan; Uusitalo, Juha

    2016-12-01

    A low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the production and study of nuclei produced close to the proton drip line is under development at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The facility will take advantage of the mass selectivity of the recently commissioned MARA vacuum-mode mass separator. The ions selected by MARA will be stopped and thermalised in a small-volume gas cell prior to extraction and further mass separation. The gas cell design allows for resonance laser ionisation/spectroscopy both in-gas-cell and in-gas-jet. The facility will include experimental setups allowing ion counting, mass measurement and decay spectroscopy.

  4. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Hanada, M. Kojima, A.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-15

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  5. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  6. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  7. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  8. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  9. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  10. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. Y. Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10{sup 13} W cm{sup −2} in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  11. Development of radioactive ion beam production systems for Tokai Radioactive Ion Acceleration Complex--High temperature ion source for short-lived isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Sato, T. K.; Matsuda, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Jeong, S. C.

    2010-02-15

    We have developed a new ion source system in the isotope separator on-line at Japan Atomic Energy Agency, for separation of short-lived isotopes produced by proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U. The ion source system is a forced electron beam induced arc discharge version E type ion source with a target container. We successfully operated this system at 2000 deg. C as a result of reductions in volume of the ion source and the target container, introduction of heating method by electron bombardment, and improvement to the heat shield. This new ion source system was tested using {sup 238}U of 640 mg/cm{sup 2} with a proton primary beam of 30 MeV, 350 nA. Release times were measured for Kr, In, and Xe. The values of release times are 2.6 s for Kr, 1.8 s for In, and 4.6 s for Xe. In this work, the ion source system enabled us to mass-separate short-lived isotopes such as {sup 93}Kr(T{sub 1/2}=1.286 s), {sup 129}In(T{sub 1/2}=0.61 s), and {sup 141}Xe(T{sub 1/2}=1.73 s) with intensity of 10{sup 3} ions/s.

  12. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  13. Resolution improvement and pattern generator development for the maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ximan

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies

  14. Introduction to Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martisikova, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Presently, ion beam therapy reaches an increasing interest within the field of radiation therapy, which is caused by the promising clinical results obtained in the last decades. Ion beams enable higher dose conformation to the tumor and increased sparing of the surrounding tissue in comparison to the standard therapy using high energy photons. Heavy ions, like carbon, offer in addition increased biological effectiveness, which makes them suitable for treatment of radioresistant tumors. This contribution gives an overview over the physical and biological properties of ion beams. Common fundamental principles of ion beam therapy are summarized and differences between standard therapy with high energy photons, proton and carbon ion therapy are discussed. The technologies used for the beam production and delivery are introduced, with emphasis to the differences between passive and active beam delivery systems. The last part concentrates on the quality assurance in ion therapy. Specialties of dosimetry in medical ion beams are discussed.

  15. Status report on the development of a tubular electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Becker, R.; Liljeby, L.; Rensfelt, K.-G.; Beebe, E. N.; Pikin, A. I.

    2004-05-01

    The theoretical estimations and numerical simulations of tubular electron beams in both beam and reflex mode of source operation as well as the off-axis ion extraction from a tubular electron beam ion source (TEBIS) are presented. Numerical simulations have been done with the use of the IGUN and OPERA-3D codes. Numerical simulations with IGUN code show that the effective electron current can reach more than 100 A with a beam current density of about 300-400 A/cm2 and the electron energy in the region of several KeV with a corresponding increase of the ion output. Off-axis ion extraction from the TEBIS, being the nonaxially symmetric problem, was simulated with OPERA-3D (SCALA) code. The conceptual design and main parameters of new tubular sources which are under consideration at JINR, MSL, and BNL are based on these simulations.

  16. Development of a compact permanent magnet helicon plasma source for ion beam bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Kerdtongmee, P; Srinoum, D; Nisoa, M

    2011-10-01

    A compact helicon plasma source was developed as a millimeter-sized ion source for ion beam bioengineering. By employing a stacked arrangement of annular-shaped permanent magnets, a uniform axial magnetic flux density up to 2.8 kG was obtained. A cost effective 118 MHz RF generator was built for adjusting forward output power from 0 to 40 W. The load impedance and matching network were then analyzed. A single loop antenna and circuit matching elements were placed on a compact printed circuit board for 50 Ω impedance matching. A plasma density up to 1.1 × 10(12) cm(-3) in the 10 mm diameter tube under the magnetic flux density was achieved with 35 W applied RF power.

  17. Development of a magnetic vector potential profile measurement using a Heavy Ion Beam Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fimognari, P. J.; Demers, D. R.; Crowley, T. P.

    2015-11-01

    Measurement of the plasma current density profile remains a fundamental need in toroidal confinement. Establishing this unique capability within the fusion program is invaluable to stability and transport studies. Inference of localized values of the magnetic vector potential, which will enable current density profile studies, can be accomplished through measurement of the toroidal velocity of secondary ions produced through electron-impact ionization of a heavy ion beam in an axisymmetric plasma. We are developing a specialized detector to measure particle velocity and the techniques necessary to unfold the magnetic vector potential profile, and hence the poloidal flux and current density profiles. Initial modeling of the velocity detector has been performed. Simulations are enabling estimation of anticipated sensitivity to, and resolution of, equilibrium and fluctuating quantities. Results of this work and forward looking plans will be presented. This work is supported by US DoE award no. DE-SC0006077.

  18. Development of a compact permanent magnet helicon plasma source for ion beam bioengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kerdtongmee, P.; Srinoum, D.; Nisoa, M.

    2011-10-15

    A compact helicon plasma source was developed as a millimeter-sized ion source for ion beam bioengineering. By employing a stacked arrangement of annular-shaped permanent magnets, a uniform axial magnetic flux density up to 2.8 kG was obtained. A cost effective 118 MHz RF generator was built for adjusting forward output power from 0 to 40 W. The load impedance and matching network were then analyzed. A single loop antenna and circuit matching elements were placed on a compact printed circuit board for 50 {Omega} impedance matching. A plasma density up to 1.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} in the 10 mm diameter tube under the magnetic flux density was achieved with 35 W applied RF power.

  19. Ion beam sputter etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1986-01-01

    An ion beam etching process which forms extremely high aspect ratio surface microstructures using thin sputter masks is utilized in the fabrication of integrated circuits. A carbon rich sputter mask together with unmasked portions of a substrate is bombarded with inert gas ions while simultaneous carbon deposition occurs. The arrival of the carbon deposit is adjusted to enable the sputter mask to have a near zero or even slightly positive increase in thickness with time while the unmasked portions have a high net sputter etch rate.

  20. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-06-09

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  1. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2016-07-12

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  2. Ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D. )

    1990-01-01

    A new ion beam analysis facility has recently been installed at a Van de Graaff accelerator. Its use is expected to support many energy and environmental research projects. Material composition and spatial distribution analyses at the facility are based upon Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, particle-induced X-ray emission, and particle-induced gamma-ray emission analysis. An overview of these three techniques is presented in this article.

  3. Stability of colliding ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, E.A.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1980-11-01

    We determine conditions for stability of two identical colliding ion beams in the presence of neutralizing electrons, but no background ions. Such a situation is envisioned for the Counterstreaming Ion Torus. The ion beams are taken to be Maxwellian in their frames of reference. The approximation of electrostatic and electromagnetic modes is made. The stability of the electrostatic modes depends on the relation between the ion electron temperature ratio and the relative beam velocities. The stability of the electromagnetic mode depends on the relation between the ion plasma ..beta.. and the relative beam velocities.

  4. Development of long-lived thick carbon stripper foils for high energy heavy ion accelerators by a heavy ion beam sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-04-19

    In the past decade, we have developed extremely long-lived carbon stripper foils of 1-50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} thickness prepared by a heavy ion beam sputtering method. These foils were mainly used for low energy heavy ion beams. Recently, high energy negative Hydrogen and heavy ion accelerators have started to use carbon stripper foils of over 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} in thickness. However, the heavy ion beam sputtering method was unsuccessful in production of foils thicker than about 50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} because of the collapse of carbon particle build-up from substrates during the sputtering process. The reproduction probability of the foils was less than 25%, and most of them had surface defects. However, these defects were successfully eliminated by introducing higher beam energies of sputtering ions and a substrate heater during the sputtering process. In this report we describe a highly reproducible method for making thick carbon stripper foils by a heavy ion beam sputtering with a Krypton ion beam.

  5. Ion Beam Therapy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style

  6. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Qing

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The

  7. A Multicusp Ion Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutte, D.; Freedman, S.; Gough, R.; Lee, Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K. N.; Lyneis, C.; Picard, D. S.; Sun, L.; Williams, M. D.; Xie, Z. Q.

    1997-05-01

    In order to produce a radioactive ion beam of (14)O+, a 10-cm-diameter, 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) driven multicusp ion source is now being developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In this paper we describe the specific ion source design and the basic ion source characteristics using Ar, Xe and a 90types of measurements have been performed: extractable ion current, ion species distributions, gas efficiency, axial energy spread and ion beam emittance measurements. The source can generate ion current densities of approximately 60 mA/cm2 . In addition the design of the ion beam extraction/transport system for the actual experimental setup for the radioactive beam line will be presented.

  8. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  9. Ion beams for materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, J.R.; Williams, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Concepts and Principles of Ion Beam Analysis; Overview of Techniques and Equipment; High Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry; Nuclear Reactions. Ion Induced X-Ray Emission; Channeling; Depth Profiling of Surface Layers During Ion Bombardment; Low Energy Ion Scattering from Surfaces and Interfaces; Microprobe Analysis; and Critical Assessment of Analysis Capabilities.

  10. Ion beam deposited protective films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Single or dual ion beam sources were used to deposit thin films for different applications. Metal and metal oxide films were evaluated as protective coatings for the materials. Film adherence was measured and the most promising films were then tested under environments similar to operating conditions. It was shown that some materials do protect die material (H-13 steel) and do reduce thermal fatigue. Diamondlike films have many useful applications. A series of experiments were conducted to define and optimize new approaches to the manufacture of such films. A dual beam system using argon and methane gases was developed to generate these films.

  11. Status of the development of electron beam ion sources at Frankfurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinod, M.; Becker, R.; Höltermann, H.; Mücke, M.; Rao, R.; Weidenmüller, M.; Zipfel, B.

    1998-02-01

    The Frankfurt superconducting electron beam ion source (EBIS) is under reconstruction for higher ion yield by employing an immersed gun with a 2-mm-diam cathode for a 3 A electron beam. The trap electrode construction is as simple as possible to avoid any rf production. The ion extraction will be similar to the one applied in our MEDEBIS, using tapered electrodes to create a high axial extraction gradient. Research was continued on the use of oscillating electrons to reduce the power requirements of the beam, investigating the formation of a virtual cathode by decelerating the beam at full magnetic field strength while operating the gun under immersed flow conditions with adjustable compression. The MEDEBIS has proven its quality and reliability for the application as an injector for a medically dedicated synchrotron. To improve its yield of bare nuclei, better vacuum conditions are provided by drilling out the inner windings of the warm solenoid to allow for the installation of higher vacuum conductance. After the successful presentation of our XEBIST principle that delivers highly charged ions as Ar18+ and Ba46+ we have now shown its application for the production of singly charged ions as an injector of metallic ions. Finally, an EBIS/T with an internal Penning trap has been constructed to prepare selected ion species and charge states inside the ionization region. This new device will allow the study of electron-ion interactions in well-defined initial and final charge states, i.e., to be able to distinguish between single and multiple step ionization. If the homogeneity of the magnetic field in the trap region will reach 10-9, the determination of binding energies of highly charged ions may be better than a 1 eV accuracy.

  12. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  13. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of second generation high temperature superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, I. O.; Arendt, P. N.; Foltyn, S. R.; Stan, L.; DePaula, R. F.; Holesinger, T. G.

    2010-06-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer-layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and intermediate layer providing a suitable lattice match to the superconducting Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO film. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffer layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer-layer architecture as a whole.

  14. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Koivisto, H. Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laulainen, J.; Kronholm, R.; Ranttila, K.; Tuunanen, J.; Thuillier, T.; Machicoane, G.

    2016-02-15

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  15. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, H; Kalvas, T; Tarvainen, O; Komppula, J; Laulainen, J; Kronholm, R; Ranttila, K; Tuunanen, J; Thuillier, T; Xie, D; Machicoane, G

    2016-02-01

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  16. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laulainen, J.; Kronholm, R.; Ranttila, K.; Tuunanen, J.; Thuillier, T.; Xie, D.; Machicoane, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  17. Development of Small Multiaperture Negative Ion Beam Sources and Related Simulation Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S.

    2009-03-12

    In the design of extraction systems for negative ion sources several fundamental questions still deserve further investigation, as the distribution of particles near the extraction sheath, the optimal magnetic structure and the space charge compensation length after acceleration. Large (and undesired) deflection differences may develop between beamlets of a multiaperture source, so that equalization of the magnetic field effect is necessary. To guarantee an uniform strength of filter field at extraction and in the acceleration, several configuration of arrays of permanent magnets were studied and fast simulation tools were developed. As an example of optimized magnetic configuration and as a possible experimental tool, the design of NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization try 1) is here discussed. This project consists of a 3x3 matrix of 8 mm extraction holes, aimed at a total H{sup -} current about 130 mA with an extraction voltage V{sub s} = -60 kV. A modular design is used, so several parts (the extraction grid, the acceleration grid, the filter assembly, the source multipoles) can be rotated by 90 degrees for versatility. Space charge compensation was included into a two dimensional self consistent code for negative beams, here used for NIO1 simulation.

  18. Development of external electron-beam enhancement of the Penning ionization gauge ion source

    SciTech Connect

    He, W.; Zhao, H.W.; Liu, Zh.W.; Zhao, H.Y.; Cao, Y.; Zhang, Z.M.; Sun, L.T.; Zhang, X.Zh.; Guo, X.H.; Wang, H.; Ma, B.H.; Li, J.Y.; Feng, Y.Ch.; Ma, L.; Li, X.X.

    2006-03-15

    To study the injection of additional electrons from an external electron gun into the plasma of a Penning ionization gauge (PIG) ion source, a test bench for the external electron-beam enhancement of the PIG (E-PIG) ion source was set up. A source magnet assembly was built to satisfy the request for magnetic field configuration of the E-PIG ion source. Numerical calculations have been done to optimize the magnetic field configuration so as to fit the primary electrons to be fed into the PIG discharge chamber along the spreading magnetic field lines. Many possible methods for improving the performance and stability of the PIG ion source have been used in the E-PIG ion source, including the use of multicrystal LaB{sub 6} cathode and optimized axial magnetic field. This article presents a detailed design of the E-PIG ion source. Substantial enhancement of ion charge state is expected to be observed which demonstrates that the E-PIG is a viable alternative to other much more costly and difficult to operate devices for the production of intense ion beams of higher charge state.

  19. Development and testing of an ion probe for tightly-bunched particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, M.; Pasour, J.

    1996-06-01

    Many high-energy physics experiments require a high-quality and well-diagnosed charged-particle beam (CPB). Precise knowledge of beam size, position, and charge distribution is often crucial to the success of the experiment. It is also important in many applications that the diagnostic used to determine the beam parameters be nonintercepting and nonperturbing. This requirement rules out many diagnostics, such as wire scanners, thin foils which produce Cerenkov or transition radiation, and even some rf cavity diagnostics. Particularly difficult to diagnose are tightly-focused (r{sub b} << 1 mm), short-duration (psec) beams, such as those in state-of-the-art or next-generation particle colliders. In this paper we describe an ion probe that is capable of penetrating the space-charge field of densely bunched CPBs without perturbation, thereby enabling the measurement of the microstructure of the bunch. This diagnostic probe uses a finely-focused stream of ions to interact with the CPB. Related techniques have been discussed in the literature. In fact, the present work evolved from an electron deflection diagnostic for CPBs that we previously described. A similar electron probe was tested even earlier at TRIUMF and in the Former Soviet Union. Electron probes have also been used to measure plasma sheaths and potentials and the neutralization of heavy ion beams. Also, Mendel has used an ion beam (22 keV He{sup +}) to probe rapidly varying fields in plasmas. The probe ions are injected across the beam tube and into the path of the high-energy CPB. The ions are deflected by the CPB, and the direction and magnitude of the deflection are directly related to the spatial and temporal charge distribution of the CPB. Easily-resolved deflections can be produced by microbunches having total charge on the order of a nCoul and pulse durations of a few psec. The deflected ions are monitored with a suitable detector, in this case a microchannel plate capable of detecting single ions.

  20. Development of Functional Surfaces on High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) via Gas-Assisted Etching (GAE) Using Focused Ion Beams.

    PubMed

    Sezen, Meltem; Bakan, Feray

    2015-12-01

    Irradiation damage, caused by the use of beams in electron and ion microscopes, leads to undesired physical/chemical material property changes or uncontrollable modification of structures. Particularly, soft matter such as polymers or biological materials is highly susceptible and very much prone to react on electron/ion beam irradiation. Nevertheless, it is possible to turn degradation-dependent physical/chemical changes from negative to positive use when materials are intentionally exposed to beams. Especially, controllable surface modification allows tuning of surface properties for targeted purposes and thus provides the use of ultimate materials and their systems at the micro/nanoscale for creating functional surfaces. In this work, XeF2 and I2 gases were used in the focused ion beam scanning electron microscope instrument in combination with gallium ion etching of high-density polyethylene surfaces with different beam currents and accordingly different gas exposure times resulting at the same ion dose to optimize and develop new polymer surface properties and to create functional polymer surfaces. Alterations in the surface morphologies and surface chemistry due to gas-assisted etching-based nanostructuring with various processing parameters were tracked using high-resolution SEM imaging, complementary energy-dispersive spectroscopic analyses, and atomic force microscopic investigations.

  1. Focused Ion Beam Technology for Optoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reithmaier, J. P.; Bach, L.; Forchel, A.

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution proximity free lithography was developed using InP as anorganic resist for ion beam exposure. InP is very sensitive on ion beam irradiation and show a highly nonlinear dose dependence with a contrast function comparable to organic electron beam resists. In combination with implantation induced quantum well intermixing this new lithographic technique based on focused ion beams is used to realize high performance nano patterned optoelectronic devices like complex coupled distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW Dosimetry for ion beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Christian P.; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2010-11-01

    Recently, ion beam radiotherapy (including protons as well as heavier ions) gained considerable interest. Although ion beam radiotherapy requires dose prescription in terms of iso-effective dose (referring to an iso-effective photon dose), absorbed dose is still required as an operative quantity to control beam delivery, to characterize the beam dosimetrically and to verify dose delivery. This paper reviews current methods and standards to determine absorbed dose to water in ion beam radiotherapy, including (i) the detectors used to measure absorbed dose, (ii) dosimetry under reference conditions and (iii) dosimetry under non-reference conditions. Due to the LET dependence of the response of films and solid-state detectors, dosimetric measurements are mostly based on ion chambers. While a primary standard for ion beam radiotherapy still remains to be established, ion chamber dosimetry under reference conditions is based on similar protocols as for photons and electrons although the involved uncertainty is larger than for photon beams. For non-reference conditions, dose measurements in tissue-equivalent materials may also be necessary. Regarding the atomic numbers of the composites of tissue-equivalent phantoms, special requirements have to be fulfilled for ion beams. Methods for calibrating the beam monitor depend on whether passive or active beam delivery techniques are used. QA measurements are comparable to conventional radiotherapy; however, dose verification is usually single field rather than treatment plan based. Dose verification for active beam delivery techniques requires the use of multi-channel dosimetry systems to check the compliance of measured and calculated dose for a representative sample of measurement points. Although methods for ion beam dosimetry have been established, there is still room for developments. This includes improvement of the dosimetric accuracy as well as development of more efficient measurement techniques.

  3. Ion beam microtexturing of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Some recent work in surface microtecturing by ion beam sputtering is described. The texturing is accomplished by deposition of an impurity onto a substrate while simultaneously bombarding it with an ion beam. A summary of the theory regarding surface diffusion of impurities and the initiation of cone formation is provided. A detailed experimental study of the time-development of individual sputter cones is described. A quasi-liquid coating was observed that apparently reduces the sputter rate of the body of a cone compared to the bulk material. Experimental measurements of surface diffusion activation energies are presented for a variety of substrate-seed combinations and range from about 0.3 eV to 1.2 eV. Observations of apparent crystal structure in sputter cones are discussed. Measurements of the critical temperature for cone formation are also given along with a correlation of critical temperature with substrate sputter rate.

  4. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y. Simon

    1991-01-01

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

  5. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  6. Features of Fast Ion Instability of Partly Compensated Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2000-10-01

    Compensation of a space charge of particle beams by ions have some significant features very different of the electrons compensation. Heavier ions have longer lifetime in the beam and it is possible to reach overcompensation with transformation of repulse forces to the focusing. This feature help to the long distance beam transportation inside a small apertures. But, an ability of heavy ions to keep coherent motion can be a reason of strong coherent instabilities of particle beams with a space charge compensation by ions. A strong coherent focusing of ions in space charge potential of the beam during accumulation can create very high local density of compensating ions with a very picked distribution (Christmas tree distribution). "Fast ion instability" have been observed recently in some storage rings.Very fast development of transverse instability have been observed during a first production of high intense negative ion beam from surface-plasma sources. This instability was observed as oscillation of the local current density of negative ion beam with low fluctuation of beam intensity.

  7. Recent progress in the development of a circular ion induction accelerator for space charge dominated beams at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L; Autrey, D; Barnard, J; Berners, D; Craig, G; Debeling, A; Eylon, S; Friedman, A; Fritz, W; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Hanks, R L; Hernandez, M; Judd, D L; Kirbie, H C; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Mant, G; Molvik, A W; Reginato, L; Sangster, T C; Sharp, W M

    1998-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world's first circular ion induction accelerator. This machine has recently been extended to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with full beam transport. In addition, induction cores have been installed on five of the HLP's, each with an independent arbitrary waveform pulser. An arbitrary waveform pulser for the bending electrostatic dipoles has also been enabled. Together, they have allowed the first attempts at coordinated bending and acceleration of the beam. The results of these first attempts will be reported on in the paper by examining the output of various diagnostic devices, such as the capacitive Beam Probes (C-probes), slit scanners, and the Gated Beam Imager(GBI).

  8. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Pickard, D. S.; Weber, M.; Williams, M. D.

    1996-03-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source is planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of a rf-generated plasma.

  9. Ion Beam Modification of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, B; de la Rubia, T D; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V; Rehn, L E

    2005-10-10

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, IBMM 2004, and is published by Elsevier-Science Publishers as a special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods B. The conference series is the major international forum to present and discuss recent research results and future directions in the field of ion beam modification, synthesis and characterization of materials. The first conference in the series was held in Budapest, Hungary, 1978, and subsequent conferences were held every two years at locations around the Globe, most recently in Japan, Brazil, and the Netherlands. The series brings together physicists, materials scientists, and ion beam specialists from all over the world. The official conference language is English. IBMM 2004 was held on September 5-10, 2004. The focus was on materials science involving both basic ion-solid interaction processes and property changes occurring either during or subsequent to ion bombardment and ion beam processing in relation to materials and device applications. Areas of research included Nanostructures, Multiscale Modeling, Patterning of Surfaces, Focused Ion Beams, Defects in Semiconductors, Insulators and Metals, Cluster Beams, Radiation Effects in Materials, Photonic Devices, Ion Implantation, Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine including New Materials, Imaging, and Treatment.

  10. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Kondrashev, S; Dickerson, C; Levand, A; Ostroumov, P N; Pardo, R C; Savard, G; Vondrasek, R; Alessi, J; Beebe, E; Pikin, A; Kuznetsov, G I; Batazova, M A

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs(+) surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved ∼70% injection∕extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of ∼17%.

  11. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgradea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs+ surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved ˜70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of ˜17%.

  12. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  13. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  14. Development of laser-ion beam photodissociation methods. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on developing the tandem magnetic sector (EB)/reflection-time-of-flight (TOF) instrument, preliminary experiments with tandem TOF/TOF instruments, developing method for performing photodissociation with pulsed lasers, experiments with laser ionization of aerosol particles, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), and ion-molecule reaction chemistry of ground and excited state transition metal ions. This progress report is divided into: photodissociation, MALDI (including aerosols), and ion chemistry fundamentals.

  15. Ion beam sputtering of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Etching and deposition of fluoropolymers are of considerable industrial interest for applications dealing with adhesion, chemical inertness, hydrophobicity, and dielectric properties. This paper describes ion beam sputter processing rates as well as pertinent characteristics of etched targets and films. An argon ion beam source was used to sputter etch and deposit the fluoropolymers PTFE, FEP, and CTFE. Ion beam energy, current density, and target temperature were varied to examine effects on etch and deposition rates. The ion etched fluoropolymers yield cone or spire-like surface structures which vary depending upon the type of polymer, ion beam power density, etch time, and target temperature. Also presented are sputter target and film characteristics which were documented by spectral transmittance measurements, X-ray diffraction, ESCA, and SEM photomicrographs.

  16. Development of 3D Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) Etching Methods for Fabricating Micro- and Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Jae; Yamashita, Tsutomu; Nagao, Masanori; Sato, Mitsunori; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2002-06-01

    We report the development of 3D focused-ion-beam (FIB) etching methods for fabricating micro- and nanodevices. The stacks of layered structures in Bi2Sr2CuO6+d (Bi-2201) and Bi2Sr2CuCu2O8+d (Bi-2212) were fabricated by a 3-D FIB etching method. First, a microbridge was patterned in a required junction width by etching into the substrate normal direction. By tilting the sample stage to 90°, two grooves on the bridge were, then, etched from the lateral direction in order to create the required junction size. The fabricated 3D three terminal devices consist of source, drain and gate electrodes on the same chip. The gate electrode is capacitively coupled to the central island between two ultrasmall tunnel junctions with S=0.25 μm2 in series. Two stacks including an island structure show a Coulomb blocked region of 15 mV at zero gate potential. The effects are not smeared out by thermal fluctuations until temperatures greater than 150 K are reached.

  17. Development and characterization of a 2D scintillation detector for quality assurance in scanned carbon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborini, A.; Raffaele, L.; Mirandola, A.; Molinelli, S.; Viviani, C.; Spampinato, S.; Ciocca, M.

    2016-04-01

    At the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO Foundation), a two-dimensional high resolution scintillating dosimetry system has been developed and tested for daily Quality Assurance measurements (QA) in carbon ion radiotherapy with active scanning technique, for both single pencil beams and scanned fields produced by a synchrotron accelerator. The detector consists of a thin plane organic scintillator (25×25 cm2, 2 mm thick) coupled with a high spatial resolution CCD camera (0.25 mm) in a light-tight box. A dedicated Labview software was developed for image acquisition triggered with the beam extraction, data post-processing and analysis. The scintillator system was preliminary characterized in terms of short-term reproducibility (found to be within±0.5%), linearity with the number of particles (linear fit χ2 = 0.996) and dependence on particle flux (measured to be < 1.5 %). The detector was then tested for single beam spot measurements (Full Width at Half Maximum and position) and for 6×6 cm2 reference scanned field (determination of homogeneity) for carbon ions with energy from 115 MeV/u up to 400 MeV/u. No major differences in the investigated beam parameters measured with scintillator system and the radiochromic EBT3 reference films were observed. The system allows therefore real-time monitoring of the carbon ion beam relevant parameters, with a significant daily time saving with respect to films currently used. The results of this study show the suitability of the scintillation detector for daily QA in a carbon ion facility with an active beam delivery system.

  18. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm.

  19. Future Directions in Ion Beam Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermehl, Daniel; Combs, Stephanie; Debus, Jürgen

    There is a growing interest in ion beam therapy (IBT) worldwide which has led to an increasing number of new treatment facilities. This development is accompanied by intensive radiobiological, physical and clinical research of both proton therapy (PT) and carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). Current developments in IBT with high impact for future challenges will be summarized in this chapter.

  20. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Ryne, R.D.

    2005-03-15

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV.For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  1. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    2005-03-01

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV. For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  2. Applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelerinter, E.; Spielberg, N.

    1980-01-01

    Wire adhesion in steel belted radial tires; carbon fibers and composite; cold welding, brazing, and fabrication; hydrogen production, separation, and storage; membrane use; catalysis; sputtering and texture; and ion beam implantation are discussed.

  3. Ion-beam technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Robson, R. R.; Sovey, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Ion propulsion research and development yields a mature technology that is transferable to a wide range of nonpropulsive applications, including terrestrial and space manufacturing. A xenon ion source was used for an investigation into potential ion-beam applications. The results of cathode tests and discharge-chamber experiments are presented. A series of experiments encompassing a wide range of potential applications is discussed. Two types of processes, sputter deposition, and erosion were studied. Some of the potential applications are thin-film Teflon capacitor fabrication, lubrication applications, ion-beam cleaning and polishing, and surface texturing.

  4. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  5. Dynamics of the ion-ion acoustic instability in the thermalization of ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.H.; Horton, W.; Leboeuf, J.N.

    1992-07-01

    Particle simulation using a nonlinear adiabatic electron response with two streaming ion species and nonlinear theory are used to study the collisionless thermalization of ion beams in a hot electron plasma. The slow beam or subsonic regime is investigated and the criterion for the transition from predominantly light ion to predominantly heavy ion heating is developed. Long-lived ion hole structures a-re observed in the final state.

  6. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  7. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 107 A m-2 sr-1 eV-1 and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 107 A m-2 sr-1 eV-1. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  8. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-28

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  9. A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Hermann; Strobele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar

    2012-11-01

    To develop a flexible pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy. Dose distributions were calculated using the newly developed pencil beam algorithm and validated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. The algorithm was based on the established theory of fluence weighted elemental pencil beam (PB) kernels. Using a new real-time splitting approach, a minimization routine selects the optimal shape for each sub-beam. Dose depositions along the beam path were determined using a look-up table (LUT). Data for LUT generation were derived from MC simulations in water using GATE 6.1. For materials other than water, dose depositions were calculated by the algorithm using water-equivalent depth scaling. Lateral beam spreading caused by multiple scattering has been accounted for by implementing a non-local scattering formula developed by Gottschalk. A new nuclear correction was modelled using a Voigt function and implemented by a LUT approach. Validation simulations have been performed using a phantom filled with homogeneous materials or heterogeneous slabs of up to 3 cm. The beams were incident perpendicular to the phantoms surface with initial particle energies ranging from 50 to 250 MeV/A with a total number of 10(7) ions per beam. For comparison a special evaluation software was developed calculating the gamma indices for dose distributions. In homogeneous phantoms, maximum range deviations between PB and MC of less than 1.1% and differences in the width of the distal energy fall off of the Bragg-Peak from 80% to 20% of less than 0.1 mm were found. Heterogeneous phantoms using layered slabs satisfied a γ-index criterion of 2%/2mm of the local value except for some single voxels. For more complex phantoms using laterally arranged bone-air slabs, the γ-index criterion was exceeded in some areas giving a maximum γ-index of 1.75 and 4.9% of the voxels showed γ-index values larger than one. The calculation precision of the presented algorithm was considered to be sufficient

  10. A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Hermann; Stroebele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a flexible pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy. Dose distributions were calculated using the newly developed pencil beam algorithm and validated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Methods: The algorithm was based on the established theory of fluence weighted elemental pencil beam (PB) kernels. Using a new real-time splitting approach, a minimization routine selects the optimal shape for each sub-beam. Dose depositions along the beam path were determined using a look-up table (LUT). Data for LUT generation were derived from MC simulations in water using GATE 6.1. For materials other than water, dose depositions were calculated by the algorithm using water-equivalent depth scaling. Lateral beam spreading caused by multiple scattering has been accounted for by implementing a non-local scattering formula developed by Gottschalk. A new nuclear correction was modelled using a Voigt function and implemented by a LUT approach. Validation simulations have been performed using a phantom filled with homogeneous materials or heterogeneous slabs of up to 3 cm. The beams were incident perpendicular to the phantoms surface with initial particle energies ranging from 50 to 250 MeV/A with a total number of 10{sup 7} ions per beam. For comparison a special evaluation software was developed calculating the gamma indices for dose distributions. Results: In homogeneous phantoms, maximum range deviations between PB and MC of less than 1.1% and differences in the width of the distal energy falloff of the Bragg-Peak from 80% to 20% of less than 0.1 mm were found. Heterogeneous phantoms using layered slabs satisfied a {gamma}-index criterion of 2%/2mm of the local value except for some single voxels. For more complex phantoms using laterally arranged bone-air slabs, the {gamma}-index criterion was exceeded in some areas giving a maximum {gamma}-index of 1.75 and 4.9% of the voxels showed {gamma}-index values larger than one. The calculation precision of the

  11. Model development of plasma implanted hydrogenic diffusion and trapping in ion beam damaged tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, J. L.; Wang, Y. Q.; Doerner, R. P.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A Cu ion beam is used to induce controlled levels of damage (10-3, 10-2, and 10-1 dpa) in room temperature W samples. A single 5 MeV beam energy yielding a peaked damage profile 0.8 μm into the material, or three beam energies (0.5, 2, and 5 MeV) producing a relatively uniform damage profile from the near surface up to 0.8 μm were used. The W samples were then exposed to a D plasma ion fluence of 1024 ions m-2 at 380 K, and the resulting D retention was measured using the D(3He,p)4He reaction analysis (NRA) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). We observe that within experimental error there is no significant difference in retention whether the damage profile is peaked or uniform. The increase in retention is observed to increase proportional to \\text{dp}{{\\text{a}}0.66} estimated from the dpa peak calculated from the SRIM program. A simplified retention model is proposed that provides concentration profiles that can be directly compared to NRA data and total retention measurements. Taking the trapping energies due to three defect types calculated from density functional theory (DFT), the only free-parameters are three defect densities of in-grain monovacancies, dislocations, and grain boundary vacancies, and we assume these defects to be the dominant trapping locations. The model can fit D retention data in a pristine W sample within the experimental error of the measurements, and in subsequent modeling these intrinsic defect densities are then fixed. We model the retention profile after ion damage by adding the SRIM predicted vacancy profile to the intrinsic monovacancy defect density. Since the increase in retention, and therefore the increase in vacancy production, does not increase linearly with dpa, a correction factor is multiplied to the predicted vacancy profile to fit the data. A new diffusion coefficient is calculated with the model that is a function of the concentration of trapped atoms. This calculation may resolve discrepancies of various

  12. Transfer Casting From Ion-Beam-Textured Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Sovey, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Textured surfaces created on metals, ceramics, and polymers. Electron-bombardment ion thrustor used as neutralized-ion-beam source. Beam of directed, energetic ions alter surface chemistry and/or morphology of many materials. By adjusting ion energy and ion-beam current density impinging upon target, precise surface modifications obtained without risk of targetmaterial melting or bulk decomposition. Technique developed to generate precise, controllable, surface microstructures on metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  13. Transfer Casting From Ion-Beam-Textured Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Sovey, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Textured surfaces created on metals, ceramics, and polymers. Electron-bombardment ion thrustor used as neutralized-ion-beam source. Beam of directed, energetic ions alter surface chemistry and/or morphology of many materials. By adjusting ion energy and ion-beam current density impinging upon target, precise surface modifications obtained without risk of targetmaterial melting or bulk decomposition. Technique developed to generate precise, controllable, surface microstructures on metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  14. Development of a pepper-pot device to determine the emittance of an ion beam generated by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmeier, M.; Benitez, J. Y.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Todd, D. S.; Bantel, M.

    2010-02-15

    This paper describes the recent development and commissioning of a pepper-pot emittance meter at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It is based on a potassium bromide (KBr) scintillator screen in combination with a charged coupled device camera. Pepper-pot scanners record the full four-dimensional transverse phase space emittances which are particularly interesting for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. The strengths and limitations of evaluating emittances using optical pepper-pot scanners are described and systematic errors induced by the optical data acquisition system will be presented. Light yield tests of KBr exposed to different ion species and first emittance measurement data using ion beams extracted from the 6.4 GHz LBNL electron cyclotron resonance ion source are presented and discussed.

  15. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  16. Rhenium ion beam for implantation into semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Seleznev, D. N.; Alyoshin, M. E.; Kraevsky, S. V.; Yakushin, P. E.; Khoroshilov, V. V.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Smirnov, D. I.; Fedorov, P. A.; Temirov, A. A.

    2012-02-15

    At the ion source test bench in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics the program of ion source development for semiconductor industry is in progress. In framework of the program the Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc ion source for germanium and rhenium ion beam generation was developed and investigated. It was shown that at special conditions of ion beam implantation it is possible to fabricate not only homogenous layers of rhenium silicides solid solutions but also clusters of this compound with properties of quantum dots. At the present moment the compound is very interesting for semiconductor industry, especially for nanoelectronics and nanophotonics, but there is no very developed technology for production of nanostructures (for example quantum sized structures) with required parameters. The results of materials synthesis and exploration are presented.

  17. Ion Beam Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-13

    ure are only those which had the greatest effect . Several features of this periodic chart are worth not- ing: i) some elements improve more than one...from nearly all the groups of the periodic table can have beneficial effects on a given property. iv) Ions which improve properties are highlighted...here, but ions which have deleterious effects may also be implanted which facilitates the study of mechanisms of wear and corrosion. v) Elements to

  18. Ion sources and targets for radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Back, B.B.; Ahmad, I.

    1995-08-01

    A high-intensity ISOL-type radioactive beam facility depends critically on the performance of the target/ion source system. We developed a concept for producing high-intensity secondary beams of fission fragments, such as {sup 132}Sn, using a two-part target and ion source combination. The idea involves stopping a 1000-kW beam of 200-MeV deuterons in a target of Be or U to produce a secondary beam of neutrons. Just behind the neutron production target is a second target, typically a porous form of UC, coupled to an ISOL-type ion source. In December 1994, we tested this concept with 200-MeV deuterons at low intensity in an experiment at the NSCL. The yields of characteristic gamma rays were measured and confirmed our predictions.

  19. Electron Cooling of Intense Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, J.; Kamerdjiev, V.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stein, J.; Stockhorst, H.; Korotaev, Yu.; Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2006-03-20

    Results of experimental studies of the electron cooling of a proton beam at COSY (Juelich, Germany) are presented. Intensity of the proton beam is limited by two general effects: particle loss directly after the injection and development of instability in a deep cooled ion beam. Results of the instability investigations performed at COSY during last years are presented in this report in comparison with previous results from HIMAC (Chiba, Japan) CELSIUS (Uppsala, Sweden) and LEAR (CERN). Methods of the instability suppression, which allow increasing the cooled beam intensity, are described. This work is supported by RFBR grant no. 05-02-16320 and INTAS grant no. 03-54-5584.

  20. Direct micropatterning of Si and GaAs using electrochemical development of focused ion beam implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmuki, P.; Erickson, L. E.

    1998-11-01

    Focused ion beam implantation of Si++ was used to write defined surface damage/implant patterns into n-type GaAs (100) and Si (100) substrates. These implant sites represent initiation sites for dissolution processes when electrochemically polarized in HCl or HF electrolytes, respectively. Selective dissolution within the patterns is achieved if anodic polarization of the n-type material is carried out in the dark at potentials below (cathodic to) the onset of dissolution potential of the unimplanted surface. Uniform etching within the implanted region takes place, when local electropolishing conditions are established. Thus, highly defined etch patterns, e.g., lines, gratings, or pits, can be produced in the submicron range. The depth of the etched patterns corresponds to the implant/damage profile created in the implantation process and etch stop occurs at less reactive crystal planes.

  1. Fundamental Concepts of Ion-Beam Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averback, R. S.; Bellon, P.

    The basic concepts underlying the response of materials to ion-beam irradiation are outlined. These include the slowing of energetic ions, the creation of defects, sputtering, ion-beam mixing, the acceleration of kinetic processes, and phase transformations. Several examples are cited to illustrate how each of these concepts can be exploited to modify materials in ways not easily achieved, or not even possible, by more conventional processing methods. The chapter attempts to provide a physical understanding of the basic effects of ion-beam irradiation on materials, to enable readers in other areas of research to better understand the more technical chapters that follow, and to develop ideas relevant to their own disciplines. We provide references to more quantitative treatments of the topics covered here.

  2. Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Status

    SciTech Connect

    Stracener, Daniel W; Beene, James R; Dowling, Darryl T; Juras, Raymond C; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha J; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Mueller, Paul Edward; Sinclair, John William; Tatum, B Alan; Sinclair IV, John W

    2009-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produces high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes for nuclear science research, and is currently unique worldwide in the ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier. HRIBF is undergoing a multi-phase upgrade. Phase I (completed 2005) was construction of the High Power Target Laboratory to provide the on-going Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) development program with a venue for testing new targets, ion sources, and radioactive ion beam (RIB) production techniques with high-power beams. Phase II, which is on schedule for completion in September 2009, is the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), a second RIB production station that will improve facility reliability and accommodate new ion sources, new RIB production targets, and some innovative RIB purification techniques, including laser applications. The Phase III goal is to substantially improve facility performance by replacing or supplementing the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) production accelerator with either a high-power 25-50 MeV electron accelerator or a high-current multi-beam commercial cyclotron. Either upgrade is applicable to R&D on isotope production for medical or other applications.

  3. Electron beam diagnostic for space charge measurement of an ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Shuman, Derek B.; Ludvig, Jozsef; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Waldron, William L.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Vanecek, David L.; Hannink, Ryan; Amezcua, Monserrat

    2004-09-25

    A non-perturbing electron beam diagnostic system for measuring the charge distribution of an ion beam is developed for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam physics studies. Conventional diagnostics require temporary insertion of sensors into the beam, but such diagnostics stop the beam, or significantly alter its properties. In this diagnostic a low energy, low current electron beam is swept transversely across the ion beam; the measured electron beam deflection is used to infer the charge density profile of the ion beam. The initial application of this diagnostic is to the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), which is exploring the physics of space-charge-dominated beam focusing onto a small spot using a neutralizing plasma. Design and development of this diagnostic and performance with the NTX ion beamline is presented.

  4. Surface modification using ionic liquid ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Gikan H.; Hamaguchi, Takuya; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ryuto, Hiromichi

    2014-12-01

    We developed an ionic liquid (IL) ion source using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6) and produced IL ion beams by applying a high electric field between the tip and the extractor. Time-of-flight measurements showed that small cluster and fragment ions were contained in the positive and negative ion beams. The positive and negative cluster ions were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed that the composition of the deposited layers was similar to that of an IL solvent. This suggests that a cation (A+) or an anion (B-) was attached to an IL cluster (AB)n, resulting in the formation of positive cluster ions (AB)nA+ or negative cluster ions (AB)nB-, respectively. The surfaces of the IL layers deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates were flat at an atomic level for positive and negative cluster ion irradiation. Moreover, the contact angles of the deposited layers were similar to that of the IL solvent. Thus, surface modification of Si(1 0 0) substrates was successfully demonstrated with BMIM-PF6 cluster ion beams.

  5. Numerical simulation of ion rings and ion beam propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manofsky, A.

    The development of numerical simulation techniques for studying the physics of ion beams and rings in a background plasma as applicable to certain problems in magnetic and inertial confinement fusion is presented. Two codes were developed for these purposes: RINGA and CIDER. The 2 and 1/2 dimensional particle code RINGA follows the trajectories of ions in their self consistent magnetic field. The code assumes strict charge neutrality and admits currents only in the azimuthal direction. The injection and resistive trapping of ion rings was with RINGA. Modifications to RINGA to include finite pressure of confined plasma and beam ion electron slowing down collisions are discussed. In the CIDER hybrid code, ions are represented by particles and electrons by an inertialess thermal fluid which obeys a generalized Ohm's law. Fields are solved in the quasineutral Darwin approximation. Several collisional and atomic processes are included.

  6. Intense ion beam optimization and characterization with thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Bartsch, R.R.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have developed thermal imaging of beam targets to optimize and characterize intense ion beams. The technique, which measures the beam energy-density distribution on each machine firing, has been used to rapidly develop and characterize two very different beams--a 400 kV beam used to study materials processing, and an 80 kV beam use for magnetic fusion diagnostics.

  7. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for theMaskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ximan

    2006-05-18

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies

  8. Advanced Penning-type ion source development and passive beam focusing techniques for an associated particle imaging neutron generator with enhanced spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, Amy Vong

    The use of accelerator-based neutron generators for non-destructive imaging and analysis in commercial and security applications is continuously under development, with improvements to available systems and combinations of available techniques revealing new capabilities for real-time elemental and isotopic analysis. The recent application of associated particle imaging (API) techniques for time- and directionally-tagged neutrons to induced fission and transmission imaging methods demonstrates such capabilities in the characterization of fissile material configurations and greatly benefits from improvements to existing neutron generator systems. Increased neutron yields and improved spatial resolution can enhance the capabilities of imaging methods utilizing the API technique. The work presented in this dissertation focused on the development of components for use within an API neutron generator with enhanced system spatial resolution. The major focus areas were the ion source development for plasma generation, and passive ion beam focusing techniques for the small ion beam widths necessary for the enhanced spatial resolution. The ion source development focused on exploring methods for improvement of Penning-type ion sources that are used in conventional API neutron generator systems, while the passive beam focusing techniques explored both ion beam collimation and ion guiding with tapered dielectric capillaries for reduced beam widths at the neutron production target.

  9. Neutral Beam Ion Loss Modeling for NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mikkelsen; D.S. Darrow; L. Grisham; R. Akers; S. Kaye

    1999-06-01

    A numerical model, EIGOL, has been developed to calculate the loss rate of neutral beam ions from NSTX and the resultant power density on the plasma facing components. This model follows the full gyro-orbit of the beam ions, which can be a significant fraction of the minor radius. It also includes the three-dimensional structure of the plasma facing components inside NSTX. Beam ion losses from two plasma conditions have been compared: {beta} = 23%, q{sub 0} = 0.8, and {beta} = 40%, q{sub 0} = 2.6. Global losses are computed to be 4% and 19%, respectively, and the power density on the rf antenna is near the maximum tolerable levels in the latter case.

  10. Development of micro-contact printing of osteosarcoma cells using MeV ion beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangyuenyongpipat, Somjai; Marjomäki, Varpu; Ikonen, Stiina; Sajavaara, Timo; Ananda Sagari, A. R.; Gorelick, Sergey; Laitinen, Mikko; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2009-06-01

    For investigation of spatial effects in signalling between cells and also signal substances that trigger cell proliferation and behaviour we are developing a micro Contact Printing process (μCP). In order to allow printing of cells stamps with high aspect ratio are required and these have been fabricated using Programmed Proximity Aperture Lithography (PPAL) with 3 MeV 4He ions to produce PMMA masters for casting the stamps in PDMS. A simple printing device was developed and the first results using this to print human osteosarcoma cells is demonstrated.

  11. Recent Progress in the Development of a Multi-Layer Green's Function Code for Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, John; Walker, Steven A.; Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2008-01-01

    To meet the challenge of future deep space programs, an accurate and efficient engineering code for analyzing the shielding requirements against high-energy galactic heavy radiation is needed. To address this need, a new Green's function code capable of simulating high charge and energy ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of the Neumann-asymptotic expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss due to straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshifts. Previous reports show that the new code accurately models the transport of ion beams through a single slab of material. Current research efforts are focused on enabling the code to handle multiple layers of material and the present paper reports on progress made towards that end.

  12. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2013-07-01

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from ˜20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  13. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2013-07-03

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from {approx}20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  14. ION BEAM FOCUSING MEANS FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1959-06-01

    An ion beam focusing arrangement for calutrons is described. It provides a virtual focus of origin for the ion beam so that the ions may be withdrawn from an arc plasma of considerable width providing greater beam current and accuracy. (T.R.H.)

  15. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  16. Beam Control for Ion Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T.C.; Ahle, L.

    2000-02-17

    Coordinated bending and acceleration of an intense space-charge-dominated ion beam has been achieved for the first time. This required the development of a variable waveform, precision, bi-polar high voltage pulser and a precision, high repetition rate induction core modulator. Waveforms applied to the induction cores accelerate the beam as the bi-polar high voltage pulser delivers a voltage ramp to electrostatic dipoles which bend the beam through a 90 degree permanent magnet quadrupole lattice. Further work on emittance minimization is also reported.

  17. Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Morton, A. C.; Schaffer, P.

    2014-02-01

    Experiments performed at radioactive ion beam facilities shed new light on nuclear physics and nuclear structure, as well as nuclear astrophysics, materials science and medical science. The many existing facilities, as well as the new generation of facilities being built and those proposed for the future, are a testament to the high interest in this rapidly expanding field. The opportunities inherent in radioactive beam facilities have enabled the search for radioisotopes suitable for medical diagnosis or therapy. In this article, an overview of the production techniques and the current status of RIB facilities and proposals will be presented. In addition, accelerator-generated radiopharmaceuticals will be reviewed.

  18. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  19. Development of laser-ion beam photodissociation methods. Progress report, December 1991--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.H.

    1994-06-01

    This project emphasizes the development of laser mass spectrometry methods for fundamental and applied studies of gas-phase processes. The current studies are focussed on the photochemistry and photophysics of peptides and other biological molecules. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is used to produce ions that are subsequently subjected to photoexcitation and dissociation. MALDI is still very much in the developmental stages, thus a significant portion of this research focusses on fundamental studies of the MALDI ion formation/energy transfer process. The authors view is that excited state H+-transfer reactions play an important role in MALDI, consequently a significant portion of their research activities are focussed on such studies. Fundamental studies of the role of the matrix in MALDI are an integral part of this project. A new MALDI experiment, MALDI of aerosol particles generated from solutions, has been demonstrated and new developmental research in this area is planned. The authors are also actively pursuing a research program on gas-phase H+-transfer processes that mimic the MALDI process. In addition, they are developing photodissociation experiments, based on tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometers, for structural characterization of complex organic molecules. The photodissociation studies use MALDI as the ionization method. These research areas involve the development of new instrumentation, new instrument methodologies, and data processing.

  20. Ion beam effects in diacetylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elman, B. S.; Blackburn, Gary F.; Thakur, M. K.; Sandman, D. J.; Samuelson, L. A.; Kenneson, D. G.

    Due to their unique backbone structure and crystalline organization, polydiacetylenes (PDAs) are considered to be prototype one-dimensional systems. They were shown to have properties considered important to realize concepts of all-optical signal processing. Macroscopic, nearly defect-free, highly anisotropic PDA single crystals are prepared by exposure of diacteylene monomers to various forms of radiation. These materials can also be prepared as thin film crystals and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) assemblies. We have studied and compared the effects of ion beam irradiation on different configurations of diacetylenes: bulk crystals, thin films and LB structures. Exposure of monomeric diacetylene films to very low fiuence ion beams results in their polymerization and in the formation of good quality anisotropic films of controlled thickness. Significant changes in optical and electrical properties of PDAs were observed and studied by optical absorption and do temperature dependent conductivity measurements.

  1. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-02-15

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST.

  2. Ion beam inertial confinement target

    DOEpatents

    Bangerter, Roger O.; Meeker, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    A target for implosion by ion beams composed of a spherical shell of frozen DT surrounded by a low-density, low-Z pusher shell seeded with high-Z material, and a high-density tamper shell. The target has various applications in the inertial confinement technology. For certain applications, if desired, a low-density absorber shell may be positioned intermediate the pusher and tamper shells.

  3. Ion-beam etching enhances adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Mirtich, M. J.; Sovey, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Metals and fluoropolymers exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 keV argon ions at current densities of 0.2 to 1.5 mA/sq cm develop surface texturing that increases tensile and shear strength of epoxy bonds. Bonds are 46 to 100 percent stronger than those of chemically etched surfaces. Metals require 3 to 4 hours of bombardment to become properly textured. Fluoropolymers require 5 seconds to 30 minutes. Ion beam will not texture nickel. Unlike chemical treatments, bonding of fluoropolymers can be done days or months after ion treatment.

  4. Neutralized ion beam modification of cellulose membranes for study of ion charge effect on ion-beam-induced DNA transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Wanichapichart, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-02-01

    Low-energy ion beam biotechnology (IBBT) has recently been rapidly developed worldwide. Ion-beam-induced DNA transfer is one of the important applications of IBBT. However, mechanisms involved in this application are not yet well understood. In this study plasma-neutralized ion beam was applied to investigate ion charge effect on induction of DNA transfer. Argon ion beam at 7.5 keV was neutralized by RF-driven plasma in the beam path and then bombarded cellulose membranes which were used as the mimetic plant cell envelope. Electrical properties such as impedance and capacitance of the membranes were measured after the bombardment. An in vitro experiment on plasmid DNA transfer through the cellulose membrane was followed up. The results showed that the ion charge input played an important role in the impedance and capacitance changes which would affect DNA transfer. Generally speaking, neutral particle beam bombardment of biologic cells was more effective in inducing DNA transfer than charged ion beam bombardment.

  5. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense- ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A.; Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Lovberg, R.H.; Greenly, J.B.

    1996-07-01

    A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. We are developing a 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 {mu}s duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator to address these applications.

  6. Development of high resolution linear-cut beam position monitor for heavy-ion synchrotron of KHIMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Yang, Tae-Keun; Forck, Peter; Noh, Seon Yeong; Hahn, Garam; Choi, Minkyoo

    2017-04-01

    A beam position monitor with high precision and resolution is required to control the beam trajectory for matching to the injection orbit and acceleration in a heavy-ion synchrotron. It will be also used for measuring the beta function, tune, and chromaticity. Since the bunch length at heavy ion synchrotron is relatively long, a few meters, a boxlike device with plates of typically 20 cm length is used to enhance the signal strength and to get a precise linear dependence with respect to the beam displacement. Especially, the linear-cut beam position monitor is adopted to satisfy the position resolution of 100 μm and accuracy of 200 μm for a nominal beam intensity in the KHIMA synchrotron of ∼ 7 ×108 particles for the carbon beams and ∼ 2 ×1010 for the proton beams. In this paper, we show the electromagnetic design of the electrode and surroundings to satisfy the resolution of 100 μm, the criteria for mechanical aspect to satisfy the position accuracy of 200 μm, the measurement results by using wire test-bench, design and measurement of a high input impedance pre-amplifier, and the beam-test results with long (∼1.6 μs) electron beam in Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL).

  7. Neurosurgical applications of ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrikant, Jacob I.; Levy, Richard P.; Phillips, Mark H.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Lyman, John T.

    1989-04-01

    The program at Donner Pavilion has applied nuclear medicine research to the diagnosis and radiosurgical treatment of life-threatening intracranial vascular disorders that affect more than half a million Americans. Stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery, using narrow beams of heavy ions, demonstrates superior biological and physical characteristics in brain over X-and γ-rays, viz., improved dose distribution in the Bragg peak and sharp lateral and distal borders and less scattering of the beam. Examination of CNS tissue response and alteration of cerebral blood-flow dynamics related to heavy-ion Bragg peak radiosurgery is carried out using three-dimensional treatment planning and quantitative imaging utilizing cerebral angiography, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cine-CT, xenon X-ray CT and positron emission tomography (PET). Also under examination are the physical properties of narrow heavy-ion beams for improving methods of dose delivery and dose distribution and for establishing clinical RBE/LET and dose-response relationships for human CNS tissues. Based on the evaluation and treatment with stereotactically directed narrow beams of heavy charged particles of over 300 patients, with cerebral angiography, CT scanning and MRI and PET scanning of selected patients, plus extensive clinical and neuroradiological followup, it appears that Stereotactic charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery obliterates intracranial arteriovenous malformations or protects against rebleeding with reduced morbidity and no mortality. Discussion will include the method of evaluation, the clinical research protocol, the Stereotactic neuroradiological preparation, treatment planning, the radiosurgery procedure and the protocol for followup. Emphasis will be placed on the neurological results, including the neuroradiological and clinical response and early and late delayed injury in brain leading to complications (including vasogenic edema

  8. Ion Beam Sweeping using High Temperature Super Conducting Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki; Fujita, Hideki; King, Tom; Briggs, Neil; Miles, Matt; McCrohon, Mick; Gibson, Simon

    2011-01-07

    Advanced implantation systems used for semiconductor fabrication need to transport low energy ion beams. In this respect it is an advantage to employ a short beam line. Strong magnetic field in a compact footprint can enable shorter beam lines. In this work we report the use of a superconducting magnet to generate the strong magnetic field. We have developed a prototype superconducting AC magnet operating at frequencies of 80-156 Hz to sweep ion beams. We have studied the performance of ion beam sweeping using the AC superconducting magnet.

  9. Effects of prenatal irradiation with accelerated heavy-ion beams on postnatal development in rats: III. Testicular development and breeding activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    With a significant increase in human activities dealing with space missions, potential teratogenic effects on the mammalian reproductive system from prenatal exposure to space radiation have become a hot topic that needs to be addressed. However, even for the ground experiments, such effects from exposure to high LET ionizing radiation are not as well studied as those for low LET ionizing radiations such as X-rays. Using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, on postnatal testicular development and on breeding activity of male offspring were studied following exposure of the pregnant animals to either accelerated carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/μm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. A significantly dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in gonocytes appeared 6 h after irradiations with a dose of 0.5 Gy or more. Measured delayed testis descent and malformed testicular seminiferous tubules were observed to be significantly different from the control animals at a dose of 0.5 Gy. These effects are observed to be dose- and LET-dependent. Markedly reduced testicular weight and testicular weight to body weight ratio were scored at postnatal day 30 even in the offspring that were prenatally irradiated with neon-ions at a dose of 0.1 Gy. A dose of 0.5 Gy from neon-ion beams induced a marked decrease in breeding activity in the prenatally irradiated male rats, while for the carbon-ion beams or X-rays, the significantly reduced breeding activity was observed only when the prenatal dose was at 1.0 Gy or more. These findings indicated that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male

  10. Focused electron and ion beam systems

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Persaud, Arun; Ji, Qing; Jiang, Ximan

    2004-07-27

    An electron beam system is based on a plasma generator in a plasma ion source with an accelerator column. The electrons are extracted from a plasma cathode in a plasma ion source, e.g. a multicusp plasma ion source. The beam can be scanned in both the x and y directions, and the system can be operated with multiple beamlets. A compact focused ion or electron beam system has a plasma ion source and an all-electrostatic beam acceleration and focusing column. The ion source is a small chamber with the plasma produced by radio-frequency (RF) induction discharge. The RF antenna is wound outside the chamber and connected to an RF supply. Ions or electrons can be extracted from the source. A multi-beam system has several sources of different species and an electron beam source.

  11. Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, S.V.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Pershin, V.I.; Masunov, E.S.; Polozov, S.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.; Poole, H.J.

    2006-03-15

    A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane.

  12. Ion Beam Driven Warm Dense Matter Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Barnard, J. J.

    2008-11-01

    We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam from the NDCX-I accelerator. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a 1-mm beam spot size, and 2-ns pulse length. As a technique for heating matter to high energy density, intense ion beams can deliver precise and uniform beam energy deposition, in a relatively large sample size, and can heat any solid-phase target material. The range of the beams in solid targets is less than 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using reduced density porous targets. We have developed a WDM target chamber and target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial experiments will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  13. Research and development of H{sup -} ion source and low energy beam transport for a kaon-neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Q.; Staples, J.; Schenkel, T.; Li, D.; Sy, A.

    2012-02-15

    A baseline H{sup -} ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) system have been identified for Project X. The filament-discharge H{sup -} ion source has been fabricated by D-Pace, Inc. and is now in operation at LBNL. The source is capable of delivering over 10 mA of H{sup -} beam in cw operation with normalized 4 rms emittances less than 0.7 {pi} mm mrad. A two-solenoid magnetic lens LEBT system has been design. The design has been validated with simulations of beam transport for 5 mA 30 keV H{sup -} beams using various simulation codes.

  14. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-05-31

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  15. Development of an all-permanent-magnet microwave ion source equipped with multicusp magnetic fields for high current proton beam production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hara, S; Seki, T; Iga, T

    2008-02-01

    An all-permanent-magnet (APM) microwave hydrogen ion source was developed to reduce the size and to simplify structure of a conventional solenoid coil microwave ion source developed for reliability improvement of high current proton linac application systems. The difficulty in developing the APM source was sensitive dependence of the source performance on axial magnetic field in the microwave discharge chamber. It was difficult to produce high current proton beam stably without precise tuning of the magnetic field using solenoid coils. We lowered the sensitivity using multicusp magnetic fields for plasma confinement at the discharge chamber sidewall of the source. This enabled stable high current proton beam production with the APM microwave ion source with no tuning coil. The water cooling and the power supply for the coils are not necessary for the APM source, which leads to better reliability and system simplification. The outer diameter of the APM source was around 300 mm, which was 20% lower than the coil source. The APM source produced a maximum hydrogen ion beam current of 65 mA (high current density of 330 mA/cm(2), proton ratio of 87%, and beam energy of 30 keV) with a 5 mm diameter extraction aperture, pulse width of 400 micros, and 20 Hz repetition rate at 1.3 kW microwave power. This performance is almost the same as the best performances of the conventional coil sources. The extracted ion beams were focused with electrostatic five-grid lens to match beam to acceptance of radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The maximum focused beam current through the orifice (5 mm radius) and the lens was 36 mA and the 90% focused beam half-width was 1-2 mm.

  16. Development of an all-permanent-magnet microwave ion source equipped with multicusp magnetic fields for high current proton beam productiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Hara, S.; Seki, T.; Iga, T.

    2008-02-01

    An all-permanent-magnet (APM) microwave hydrogen ion source was developed to reduce the size and to simplify structure of a conventional solenoid coil microwave ion source developed for reliability improvement of high current proton linac application systems. The difficulty in developing the APM source was sensitive dependence of the source performance on axial magnetic field in the microwave discharge chamber. It was difficult to produce high current proton beam stably without precise tuning of the magnetic field using solenoid coils. We lowered the sensitivity using multicusp magnetic fields for plasma confinement at the discharge chamber sidewall of the source. This enabled stable high current proton beam production with the APM microwave ion source with no tuning coil. The water cooling and the power supply for the coils are not necessary for the APM source, which leads to better reliability and system simplification. The outer diameter of the APM source was around 300mm, which was 20% lower than the coil source. The APM source produced a maximum hydrogen ion beam current of 65mA (high current density of 330mA/cm2, proton ratio of 87%, and beam energy of 30keV) with a 5mm diameter extraction aperture, pulse width of 400μs, and 20Hz repetition rate at 1.3kW microwave power. This performance is almost the same as the best performances of the conventional coil sources. The extracted ion beams were focused with electrostatic five-grid lens to match beam to acceptance of radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The maximum focused beam current through the orifice (5mm radius) and the lens was 36mA and the 90% focused beam half-width was 1-2mm.

  17. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  18. Development of a long-pulse (30-s), high-energy (120-keV) ion source for neutral-beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Multimegawatt neutral beams of hydrogen or deuterium atoms are needed for fusion machine applications such as MFTB-B, TFTR-U, DIII-U, and FED (INTOR or ETR). For these applications, a duoPIGatron ion source is being developed to produce high-brightness deuterium beams at a beam energy of approx. 120 keV for pulse lengths up to 30 s. A long-pulse plasma generator with active water cooling has been operated at an arc level of 1200 A with 30-s pulse durations. The plasma density and uniformity are sufficient for supplying a 60-A beam of hydrogen ions to a 13- by 43-cm accelerator. A 10- by 25-cm tetrode accelerator has been operated to form 120-keV hydrogen ion beams. Using the two-dimensional (2-D) ion extraction code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a 13- by 43-cm tetrode accelerator has been designed and is being fabricated. The aperture shapes of accelerator grids are optimized for 120-keV beam energy.

  19. Design and development of a radio frequency quadrupole linac postaccelerator for the Variable Energy Cyclotron Center rare ion beam project.

    PubMed

    Dechoudhury, S; Naik, V; Mondal, M; Chatterjee, A; Pandey, H K; Mandi, T K; Bandyopadhyay, A; Karmakar, P; Bhattacharjee, S; Chouhan, P S; Ali, S; Srivastava, S C L; Chakrabarti, A

    2010-02-01

    A four-rod type heavy-ion radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed, constructed, and tested for the rare ion beam (RIB) facility project at VECC. Designed for cw operation, this RFQ is the first postaccelerator in the RIB beam line. It will accelerate A/q < or = 14 heavy ions coming from the ion source to the energy of around 100 keV/u for subsequent acceleration in a number of Interdigital H-Linac. Operating at a resonance frequency of 37.83 MHz, maximum intervane voltage of around 54 kV will be needed to achieve the final energy over a vane length of 3.12 m for a power loss of 35 kW. In the first beam tests, transmission efficiency of about 90% was measured at the QQ focus after the RFQ for O(5+) beam. In this article the design of the RFQ including the effect of vane modulation on the rf characteristics and results of beam tests will be presented.

  20. Ion source studies for particle beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bieg, K.W.; Burns, E.J.T.; Olsen, J.N.; Dorrell, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    High power particle beam accelerators are being developed for use in inertial confinement fusion applications. These pulsed power accelerators require sources of low atomic number ions (e.g., protons, deuterons, carbon, or lithium). The sources must be of high purity for efficient accelerator operation and proper target coupling, must have a rapid ''turn-on,'' and must be compatible with ion diode configurations under development. A particular type of source presently being investigated is the flashover ion source which generates ions by means of the vacuum flashover of an insulating anode material when the high voltage pulse arrives at the diode. We have developed an applied-magnetic-field, extraction ion diode for the 0.03 TW Nereus accelerator specifically to investigate these sources. Extracted ion species are measured by means of a Thomson-parabola ion analyzer, dB/dt current monitors, and Faraday cups. Experiments have been performed to investigate the surface flashover mechanism and the effects of various dielectric source materials, anode preparation methods (including rf glow discharge cleaning), and vacuum conditions on ion species and diode operation.

  1. Decaborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T.V.; Petrenko, S.V.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Batalin, V.A.; Pershin, V.I.; Koslov, A.V.; Stasevich, Yu.B.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.; Oks, E.M.; Gushenets, V.I.; Poole, H.J.; Storozhenko, P.A.; Gurkova, E.L.; Alexeyenko, O.V.

    2006-03-15

    A joint research and development program is under way to develop steady-state intense ion sources for the two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low-energy boron beams are investigated using a decaborane compound [I. Yamada, W. L. Brown, J. A. Northby, and M. Sosnowski, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 79, 223 (1993)]. Presented here are the results from ITEP experiments using the Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Ion Rings and Ion Beam Propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankofsky, Alan

    This thesis presents the development of numerical simulation techniques for studying the physics of ion beams and rings in a background plasma as applicable to certain problems in magnetic and inertial confinement fusion. Two codes have been developed for these purposes: RINGA and CIDER. The 2 and 1/2-dimensional (r,z,v(,r),v(,(theta)),v(,z); (PAR-DIFF)/(PAR-DIFF)(theta) = 0) particle code RINGA follows the trajectories of ions in their self-consistent magnetic field. The code assumes strict charge neutrality and admits currents only in the azimuthal direction, i.e., (PHI) = J(,r) = J(,z) = 0. The injection and resistive trapping of ion rings has been studied with RINGA. The number of particles trapped as a fraction of the total number injected N is found to be strongly dependent upon (1) N (in the range 2.85 x 10('16) - 3.99 x 10('17)) and (2) mirror ratios in the system (1.05 -1.14), and more weakly dependent upon (3) wall resistance per unit length (0.72 (OMEGA)/cm - 1.80 (OMEGA)/cm) and (4) beam divergence (0(DEGREES)-6(DEGREES)). Fractions of trapped particles in excess of 0.9 have been observed. Modifications to RINGA to include finite pressure of confined plasma and beam ion-electron slowing down collisions are discussed. Finite plasma pressure leads to a diamagnetic current which increases the field reversal factor in ion ring equilibria, while causing the closed flux surfaces to expand outward. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of the plasma is analyzed in the high toroidal mode number limit, where the beam ions are noninteracting. The existence of stable high-(beta) equilibria is demonstrated. One such equilibrium, stable to both ideal interchange and ballooning modes, has <(beta)> (TBOND) 8(pi) / (DBLTURN) 55%. In the CIDER hybrid code, ions are represented by particles and electrons by an inertialess thermal fluid which obeys a generalized Ohm's law. Fields are solved in the quasineutral Darwin approximation. Several collisional and atomic

  3. Nanofabrication by Focused Ion Beam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-28

    MASTER COPY KEEP THIS COPY FOR REPRODUCTION PURPOSES AD-A271 290 )N PAGE orhan Sand .01fMI.,r re ~’.nq tn., Oiurda N0o.me 0& Of .018l 04v~~t P - .L...Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; N, S c; . DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED u..d.. `. B y .. . . . . . .. Dist A-jr I...defined sidewalls indicate that much finer lithography would be possible with a1 more optimum beam. b ) Preferential Oxide growth after ion exposure. (In

  4. An ion source module for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, B.; Huang, Q.; Tang, B.; Ma, R.; Chen, L.; Ma, Y.

    2014-02-01

    An ion source module is developed for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility. The ion source module is designed to meet the requirements of remote handling. The connection and disconnection of the electricity, cooling and vacuum between the module and peripheral units can be executed without on-site manual work. The primary test of the target ion source has been carried out and a Li+ beam has been extracted. Details of the ion source module and its primary test results are described.

  5. Stencil mask technology for ion beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Albrecht; Huber, Sabine; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Oelmann, Andreas B.; Struck, Thomas; Springer, Reinhard; Butschke, Joerg; Letzkus, Florian; Kragler, Karl; Loeschner, Hans; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    1998-12-01

    Ion beam lithography is one of the most promising future lithography technologies. A helium or hydrogen ion beam illuminates a stencil membrane mask and projects the image with 4X reduction to the wafer. The development of stencil masks is considered to be critical for the success of the new technology. Since 1997, within the European Ion Projection Lithography MEDEA (Microelectronic Devices for European Applications) project silicon stencil masks based on a wafer- flow process are developed. They are produced in a conventional wafer line. Six inch SOI (silicon-on-insulator) wafers are patterned with an e-beam wafer writing tool, then trenches are etched by plasma etching. Afterwards, the membrane is etched by wet etch using the SOI-oxide layer as an etch stop. The last step is to add a coating layer, which is sputtered onto the membrane. It protects the mask against ion irradiation damage. For metrology and inspection, methods used for conventional chromium masks as well as new techniques are investigated. Results from placement measurements on the Leica LMS IPRO tool will be presented. Finally, methods for CD measurement, defect inspection, repair and in-situ-cleaning in the stepper will be discussed, including experimental information of first tests.

  6. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  7. The electromagnetic ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peter Gary, S.; Schriver, David

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities driven by an anisotropic, relatively cool ion beam are studied for the case in which both the beam and the instabilities propagate parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field. At modest beam-core relative drift speeds, sufficiently large perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature ratios and sufficiently large plasma beta, the mode of fastest growth rate is the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability. Because the right-hand polarized waves observed upstream of slow shocks in the earth's magnetotail can lead to the appropriate beam anisotropy, the ion cyclotron instability may be present and account for the left-hand polarized magnetic waves observed there. Also, because of its relatively low phase speed, the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability may provide the scattering necessary for ion Fermi acceleration at slow shocks of sufficiently high plasma beta.

  8. Fast Ion Beam Microscopy of Whole Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Frank; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Ce-Belle; Udalagama, Chammika Nb; Ren, Minqin; Pastorin, G.; Bettiol, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    The way in which biological cells function is of prime importance, and the determination of such knowledge is highly dependent on probes that can extract information from within the cell. Probing deep inside the cell at high resolutions however is not easy: optical microscopy is limited by fundamental diffraction limits, electron microscopy is not able to maintain spatial resolutions inside a whole cell without slicing the cell into thin sections, and many other new and novel high resolution techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) are essentially surface probes. In this paper we show that microscopy using fast ions has the potential to extract information from inside whole cells in a unique way. This novel fast ion probe utilises the unique characteristic of MeV ion beams, which is the ability to pass through a whole cell while maintaining high spatial resolutions. This paper first addresses the fundamental difference between several types of charged particle probes, more specifically focused beams of electrons and fast ions, as they penetrate organic material. Simulations show that whereas electrons scatter as they penetrate the sample, ions travel in a straight path and therefore maintain spatial resolutions. Also described is a preliminary experiment in which a whole cell is scanned using a low energy (45 keV) helium ion microscope, and the results compared to images obtained using a focused beam of fast (1.2 MeV) helium ions. The results demonstrate the complementarity between imaging using low energy ions, which essentially produce a high resolution image of the cell surface, and high energy ions, which produce an image of the cell interior. The characteristics of the fast ion probe appear to be ideally suited for imaging gold nanoparticles in whole cells. Using scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) to image the cell interior, forward scattering transmission ion microscopy (FSTIM) to improve the

  9. Negative Ion Beam Extraction and Emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Andrew J. T.

    2007-08-10

    The use of magnetic fields to both aid the production of negative ions and suppress the co-extracted electrons causes the emittance and hence the divergence of the negative ion beam to increase significantly due to the plasma non-uniformity from jxB drift. This drift distorts the beam-plasma meniscus and experimental results of the beam emittance are presented, which show that non-uniformity causes the square of the emittance to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the extracted current density. This can cause the divergence of the negative ion beam to be significantly larger than its positive ion counterpart. By comparing results from positive and negative ion beam emittances from the same source, it is also possible to draw conclusions about their vulnerability to magnetic effects. Finally emittances of caesiated and un-caesiated negative ion beams are compared to show how the surface and volume modes of production interact.

  10. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  11. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  12. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Hyojae Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of nanoscale focused neon ion beam sputtering.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Rack, Philip D

    2013-12-13

    A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to model the physical sputtering of aluminum and tungsten emulating nanoscale focused helium and neon ion beam etching from the gas field ion microscope. Neon beams with different beam energies (0.5-30 keV) and a constant beam diameter (Gaussian with full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 nm) were simulated to elucidate the nanostructure evolution during the physical sputtering of nanoscale high aspect ratio features. The aspect ratio and sputter yield vary with the ion species and beam energy for a constant beam diameter and are related to the distribution of the nuclear energy loss. Neon ions have a larger sputter yield than the helium ions due to their larger mass and consequently larger nuclear energy loss relative to helium. Quantitative information such as the sputtering yields, the energy-dependent aspect ratios and resolution-limiting effects are discussed.

  14. Ion-beam machining of millimeter scale optics.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, P M; Feinberg, M R; Sandri, G; Horenstein, M N; Bifano, T G

    2000-02-01

    An ion-beam microcontouring process is developed and implemented for figuring millimeter scale optics. Ion figuring is a noncontact machining technique in which a beam of high-energy ions is directed toward a target substrate to remove material in a predetermined and controlled fashion. Owing to this noncontact mode of material removal, problems associated with tool wear and edge effects, which are common in conventional machining processes, are avoided. Ion-beam figuring is presented as an alternative for the final figuring of small (<1-mm) optical components. The depth of the material removed by an ion beam is a convolution between the ion-beam shape and an ion-beam dwell function, defined over a two-dimensional area of interest. Therefore determination of the beam dwell function from a desired material removal map and a known steady beam shape is a deconvolution process. A wavelet-based algorithm has been developed to model the deconvolution process in which the desired removal contours and ion-beam shapes are synthesized numerically as wavelet expansions. We then mathematically combined these expansions to compute the dwell function or the tool path for controlling the figuring process. Various models have been developed to test the stability of the algorithm and to understand the critical parameters of the figuring process. The figuring system primarily consists of a duo-plasmatron ion source that ionizes argon to generate a focused (approximately 200-microm FWHM) ion beam. This beam is rastered over the removal surface with a perpendicular set of electrostatic plates controlled by a computer guidance system. Experimental confirmation of ion figuring is demonstrated by machining a one-dimensional sinusoidal depth profile in a prepolished silicon substrate. This profile was figured to within a rms error of 25 nm in one iteration.

  15. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsworth, R. S.

    2006-06-01

    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to <100 keV/nucleon. Above that energy the neutralization of positive ions falls to unacceptably low values, and higher energy neutral beams have to be created by the neutralization of accelerated negative ions (in a simple gas target), as this remains high (approx60%) up to >1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that

  16. Nonintrusive position measurement of magnetically scanned ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajnowski, W. J.

    1989-02-01

    In ion implantation systems using a hybrid magnetic-mechanical scanning, the scan along the implant disc radius is realized by magnetic scanning of an ion beam at an average frequency of 0.1 Hz. To achieve a uniform implant, a relationship has to be known between the scanning magnetic field and the resulting ion beam position. A measuring system has been developed to estimate the lateral position of an ion beam without interfering physically with the beam. The beam position is inferred from two random signals induced by the beam on two sensing electrodes, obtained by splitting a bias ring of the implanter's Faraday system. The beam-induced signals are processed digitally and the position estimate, represented by a 9-bit number, is updated at 1.5 ms (or 12 ms) intervals. Preliminary tests have demonstrated that the technique presented can be exploited for adaptive shaping of a current waveform driving the scan magnet.

  17. Development of gas cluster ion beam surface treatments for reducing field emission and breakdown in RF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, D R; Degenkolb, E; Wu, A T; Insepov, Z

    2006-11-01

    Sub-micron-scale surface roughness and contamination cause field emission that can lead to high voltage breakdown of electrodes, and these are limiting factors in the development of high gradient RF technology. We are studying various Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) treatments to smooth, clean, etch and/or chemically alter electrode surfaces to allow higher fields and accelerating gradients, and to reduce the time and cost of conditioning high voltage electrodes. For this paper, we have processed Nb, Stainless Steel, and Ti electrode materials using beams of Ar, O2, or NF3 +O2 clusters with accelerating potentials up to 35 kV. Using a Scanning Field Emission Microscope (SFEM), we have repeatedly seen a dramatic reduction in the number of field emission sites on Nb coupons treated with GCIB. Smoothing effects on Stainless steel and Ti substrates have been evaluated using AFM imaging and show that 200-nm wide polishing scratch marks are greatly attenuated. A 150-mm diameter GCIB treated stainless steel electrode has now shown virtually no DC field emission current at gradients over 20 MV/m.

  18. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  19. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    DOE PAGES

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion sourcemore » for regular operation.« less

  20. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  1. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  2. NSUF Ion Beam Investment Options Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich, Brenden John

    2016-03-01

    The workshop that generated this data was convened to develop a set of recommendations (a priority list) for possible funding in the area of US domestic ion beam irradiation capabilities for nuclear energy-focused RD&D. The results of this workshop were intended for use by the Department of Energy - Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) for consideration of support for these facilities. The workshop considered, as part of the initial potential future support discussions, input submitted through the Office of Nuclear Energy Request for Information (RFI) (DE-SOL-0008318, April 13, 2015), but welcomed discussion (and presentation) of other options, whether specific or general in scope. Input from users, including DOE-NE program interests and needs for ion irradiation RD&D were also included. Participants were selected from various sources: RFI respondents, NEUP/NEET infrastructure applicants, universities with known expertise in nuclear engineering and materials science and other developed sources. During the three days from March 22-24, 2016, the workshop was held at the Idaho National Laboratory Meeting Center in the Energy Innovation Laboratory at 775 University Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401. Thirty-one members of the ion beam community attended the workshop, including 15 ion beam facilities, six representatives of Office of Nuclear Energy R&D programs, an industry representative from EPRI and the chairs of the NSUF User’s Organization and the NSUF Scientific Review Board. Another four ion beam users were in attendance acting as advisors to the process, but did not participate in the options assessment. Three members of the sponsoring agency, the Office of Science and Technology Innovation (NE-4) also attended the workshop.

  3. Plasma formed ion beam projection lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette; Ngo, Vinh; Zahir, Nastaran

    2002-01-01

    A plasma-formed ion-beam projection lithography (IPL) system eliminates the acceleration stage between the ion source and stencil mask of a conventional IPL system. Instead a much thicker mask is used as a beam forming or extraction electrode, positioned next to the plasma in the ion source. Thus the entire beam forming electrode or mask is illuminated uniformly with the source plasma. The extracted beam passes through an acceleration and reduction stage onto the resist coated wafer. Low energy ions, about 30 eV, pass through the mask, minimizing heating, scattering, and sputtering.

  4. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2010-05-21

    Ion beam emission/neutralization is one of the most fundamental problems in spacecraft plasma interactions and electric propulsion. Although ion beam neutralization is readily achieved in experiments, the understanding of the underlying physical process remains at a rather primitive level. No theoretical or simulation models have convincingly explained the detailed neutralization mechanism, and no conclusions have been reached. This paper presents a fully kinetic simulation of ion beam neutralization and plasma beam propagation and discusses the physics of electron-ion coupling and the resulting propagation of a neutralized mesothermal plasma.

  5. Ion beam emittance from an ECRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Spädtke, P. Lang, R.; Mäder, J.; Maimone, F.; Schlei, B. R.; Tinschert, K.; Biri, S.; Rácz, R.

    2016-02-15

    Simulation of ion beam extraction from an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) is a fully 3 dimensional problem, even if the extraction geometry has cylindrical symmetry. Because of the strong magnetic flux density, not only the electrons are magnetized but also the Larmor radius of ions is much smaller than the geometrical dimension of the plasma chamber (Ø 64 × 179 mm). If we assume that the influence of collisions is small on the path of particles, we can do particle tracking through the plasma if the initial coordinates of particles are known. We generated starting coordinates of plasma ions by simulation of the plasma electrons, accelerated stochastically by the 14.5 GHz radio frequency power fed to the plasma. With that we were able to investigate the influence of different electron energies on the extracted beam. Using these assumptions, we can reproduce the experimental results obtained 10 years ago, where we monitored the beam profile with the help of viewing targets. Additionally, methods have been developed to investigate arbitrary 2D cuts of the 6D phase space. To this date, we are able to discuss full 4D information. Currently, we extend our analysis tool towards 5D and 6D, respectively.

  6. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  7. Focused ion beam lithography and anodization combined nanopore patterning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kathy; Zhao, Jingzhong

    2010-10-01

    In this study, focused ion beam lithography and anodization are combined to create different nanopore patterns. Uniform-, alternating-, and gradient-sized shallow nanopore arrays are first made on high purity aluminum by focused ion beam lithography. These shallow pore arrays are then used as pore initiation sites during anodization by different electrolytes. Depending on the nature of the anodization electrolyte, the nanopore patterns by focused ion beam lithography play different roles in further pore development during anodization. The pore-to-pore distance by focused ion beam lithography should match with that by anodization for guided pore development to be effective. Ordered and heterogeneous nanopore arrays are obtained by the focused ion beam lithography and anodization combined approach.

  8. Historical milestones and future prospects of cluster ion beam technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Isao

    2014-08-01

    Development of technology for processing of surfaces by means of gas cluster ion beams began only about a quarter century ago even though fundamental research related to generation of gas clusters began much earlier. Industrial applications of cluster ion beams did not start to be explored until commercial equipment was first introduced to the ion beam community in around 2000. The technology is now evolving rapidly with industrial equipment being engineered for many diverse surface processing applications which are made possible by the unique characteristics of cluster-ion/solid-surface interactions. In this paper, important historical milestones in cluster ion beam development are described. Present activities related to a wide range of industrial applications in semiconductors, magnetic and optical devices, and bio-medical devices are reviewed. Several emerging new advances in cluster beam applications for the future are also discussed.

  9. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magallanes, L.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.; Rinaldi, I.; Parodi, K.

    2014-11-01

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  10. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Magallanes, L. Rinaldi, I.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T. Parodi, K.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.

    2014-11-07

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  11. A preliminary model of ion beam neutralization. [in thruster plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model of neutralized thruster ion beam plasmas has been developed. The basic premise is that the beam forms an electrostatic trap for the neutralizing electrons. A Maxwellian spectrum of electron energies is maintained by collisions between trapped electrons and by collective randomization of velocities of electrons injected from the neutralizer into the surrounding plasma. The theory contains the observed barometric law relationship between electron density and electron temperatures and ion beam spreading in good agreement with measured results.

  12. Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hangst, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid.

  13. Beam Dynamics Considerations in Electron Ion Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear physics community is converging on the idea that the next large project after FRIB should be an electron-ion collider. Both Brookhaven National Lab and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have developed accelerator designs, both of which need novel solutions to accelerator physics problems. In this talk we discuss some of the problems that must be solved and their solutions. Examples in novel beam optics systems, beam cooling, and beam polarization control will be presented. Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  14. Ion Beam Bombardment of Biological Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Yu, L. D.; Vilaithong, T.; Phanchaisri, B.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Brown, I. G.

    2003-10-01

    While ion implantation has become a well-established technique for the surface modification of inorganic materials, the ion bombardment of cellular tissue has received little research attention. A program in ion beam bioengineering has been initiated at Chiang Mai University, and the ion beam induced transfer of plasmid DNA molecules into bacterial cells (E. coli) has been demonstrated. Subsequent work has been directed toward exploration of ion beam bombardment of plant cells in an effort to understand the possible mechanisms involved in the DNA transfer. In particular, ion beam bombardment of onion cells was carried out and the effects investigated. Among the novel features observed is the formation of "microcraters" - sub-micron surface features that could provide a pathway for the transfer of large molecules into the interior cell region. Here we describe our onion skin ion bombardment investigations.

  15. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  16. Development of a pepper-pot emittance meter for diagnostics of low-energy multiply charged heavy ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatomo, T. Kase, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Nakagawa, T.; Tzoganis, V.

    2016-02-15

    Several fluorescent materials were tested for use in the imaging screen of a pepper-pot emittance meter that is suitable for investigating the beam dynamics of multiply charged heavy ions extracted from an ECR ion source. SiO{sub 2} (quartz), KBr, Eu-doped CaF{sub 2}, and Tl-doped CsI crystals were first irradiated with 6.52-keV protons to determine the effects of radiation damage on their fluorescence emission properties. For such a low-energy proton beam, only the quartz was found to be a suitable fluorescent material, since the other materials suffered a decay in fluorescence intensity with irradiation time. Subsequently, quartz was irradiated with heavy {sup 12}C{sup 4+}, {sup 16}O{sup 4+}, and {sup 40}Ar{sup 11+} ions, but it was found that the fluorescence intensity decreased too rapidly to measure the emittance of these heavy-ion beams. These results suggest that a different energy loss mechanism occurs for heavier ions and for protons.

  17. Development of a pepper-pot emittance meter for diagnostics of low-energy multiply charged heavy ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, T; Tzoganis, V; Kase, M; Kamigaito, O; Nakagawa, T

    2016-02-01

    Several fluorescent materials were tested for use in the imaging screen of a pepper-pot emittance meter that is suitable for investigating the beam dynamics of multiply charged heavy ions extracted from an ECR ion source. SiO2 (quartz), KBr, Eu-doped CaF2, and Tl-doped CsI crystals were first irradiated with 6.52-keV protons to determine the effects of radiation damage on their fluorescence emission properties. For such a low-energy proton beam, only the quartz was found to be a suitable fluorescent material, since the other materials suffered a decay in fluorescence intensity with irradiation time. Subsequently, quartz was irradiated with heavy (12)C(4+), (16)O(4+), and (40)Ar(11+) ions, but it was found that the fluorescence intensity decreased too rapidly to measure the emittance of these heavy-ion beams. These results suggest that a different energy loss mechanism occurs for heavier ions and for protons.

  18. Ion beam surface treatment: A new technique for thermally modifying surfaces using intense, pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, R.W.; Buchheit, R.G.; Neau, E.L.

    1995-08-01

    The emerging capability to produce high average power (10--300 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2{minus}2 MeV energies is enabling us to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed ({le}500 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 1--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy in a thin surface layer allows melft of the layer with relatively small energies (1--10J/cm2) and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal conduction into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (109 K/sec) are sufficient to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nanocrystalline and metastable phases). Results from initial experiments confirm surface hardening, amorphous layer and nanocrystalline grain size formation, corrosion resistance in stainless steel and aluminum, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning and oxide layer removal as well as surface ablation and redeposition. These results follow other encouraging results obtained previously in Russia using single pulse ion beam systems. Potential commercialization of this surface treatment capability is made possible by the combination of two new technologies, a new repetitive high energy pulsed power capability (0.2{minus}2MV, 25--50 kA, 60 ns, 120 Hz) developed at SNL, and a new repetitive ion beam system developed at Cornell University.

  19. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  20. ITEP Bernas ion source with additional electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T.V.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Petrenko, S.V.; Batalin, V.A.; Pershin, V.I.; Kropachev, G.N.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.; Gushenets, V.I.; Oks, E.M.; Poole, H.J.

    2006-03-15

    A joint research and development program is underway to develop steady-state intense ion sources for the two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV. For the MeV range the investigations were focused on charge-state enhancement for ions generated by the modified Bernas ion sources. Based on the previously successful ITEP experience with the e-metal vapor vacuum arc ion source [e.g., Batalin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1900 (2004)], the injection of a high-energy electron beam into the Bernas ion source discharge region is expected to enhance the production of high charge states. Presented here are construction details and studies of electron-beam influence on the enhancement of ion-beam charge states generated by the modified Bernas ion source.

  1. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; White, S.

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  2. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  3. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  4. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experimentsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K+ beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  5. Ion beam microtexturing and enhanced surface diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Ion beam interactions with solid surfaces are discussed with particular emphasis on microtexturing induced by the deliberate deposition of controllable amounts of an impurity material onto a solid surface while simultaneously sputtering the surface with an ion beam. Experimental study of the optical properties of microtextured surfaces is described. Measurements of both absorptance as a function of wavelength and emissivity are presented. A computer code is described that models the sputtering and ion reflection processes involved in microtexture formation.

  6. Development and characterization of a diamond-insulated graphitic multi electrode array realized with ion beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2014-12-30

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release.

  7. Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ∼mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16-channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release. PMID:25558992

  8. Beam ion confinement on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hao, G. Z.; Podesta, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.

    2016-10-01

    A second and more tangential neutral beam line is a major upgrade component of the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U) with the purpose of improving neutral beam current drive efficiency and providing more flexibility in current/pressure profile control. Good beam ion confinement is essential to achieve the anticipated improvements in performance. In the planned beam ion confinement experiment, various short and long (relative to fast ion slowing-down time) neutral beam (NB) pulses from six neutral beam sources will be injected into center-stack limited L-mode plasmas to characterize the beam ion confinement and distribution function produced by the new and the existing NBI lines. The neutron rate decay after the turn-off of short NB pulses will be used to estimate the beam ion confinement time and to investigate its dependence on NB source/geometry, injection energy, and plasma current. The tangential and vertical Fast-Ion D-Alpha (FIDA) diagnostics and multi-view Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) arrays will be used to measure beam ion slowing-down distribution function and spatial profile during the injection of relatively long NB pulses. Beam ion prompt losses will be monitored with a scintillator Fast Lost Ion Probe (sFLIP) diagnostic. The experimental data and comparisons with classical predictions from NUBEAM modeling will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE DE-AC0209CH11466, DE-FG02-06ER54867, and DE-FG03-02ER54681.

  9. Metallic beam development for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Machicoane, Guillaume Cole, Dallas; Leitner, Daniela; Neben, Derek; Tobos, Larry

    2014-02-15

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University (MSU) will accelerate a primary ion beam to energies beyond 200 MeV/u using a superconducting RF linac and will reach a maximum beam power of 400 kW on the fragmentation target. The beam intensity needed from the ECR ion source is expected to be between 0.4 and 0.5 emA for most medium mass to heavy mass elements. Adding to the challenge of reaching the required intensity, an expanded list of primary beams of interest has been established based on the production rate and the number of isotope beams that could be produced with FRIB. We report here on the development done for some of the beam in the list including mercury (natural), molybdenum ({sup 98}Mo), and selenium ({sup 82}Ser)

  10. Expansion Discharge Source for Ion Beam Laser Spectroscopy of Cold Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porambo, Michael; Pearson, Jessica; Riccardo, Craig; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular ions are important in several fields of research, and spectroscopy acts as a key tool in the study of these ions. However, problems such as low ion abundance, ion-neutral confusion, and spectral congestion due to high internal temperatures can hinder effective spectroscopic studies. To circumvent these problems, we are developing a technique called Sensitive, Cooled, Resolved, Ion BEam Spectroscopy (SCRIBES). This ion beam spectrometer will feature a continuous supersonic expansion discharge source to produce cold molecular ions, electrostatic ion optics to focus the ions into an ion beam and bend the beam away from co-produced neutral molecules, an overlap region for cavity enhanced spectroscopy, and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. When completed, SCRIBES will be an effective tool for the study of large, fluxional, and complex molecular ions that are difficult to study with other means. The ion beam spectrometer has been successfully implemented with a hot ion source. This talk will focus on the work of integrating a supersonic expansion discharge source into the instrument. To better understand how the source would work in the whole ion beam instrument, characterization studies are being performed with spectroscopy of HN_2^+ in a section of the system to ascertain the rotational temperature of the ion expansion. Attempts are also underway to measure the ion current from a beam formed from the expansion. Once the source in this environment is properly understood, we will reintegrate it to the rest of the ion beam system, completing SCRIBES. A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel and B. J. McCall J. Chem. Phys., 135, 224201, (2011). K. N. Crabtree, C. A. Kauffman and B. J. McCall Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 086103, (2010).

  11. Ion-beam assisted, electron-beam physical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.

    1996-12-01

    Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) is a relatively new technology that has overcome some of the difficulties associated with chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and thermal spray processes. In the EB-PVD process, focused high-energy electron beams generated from electron guns are directed to melt and evaporate ingots, as well as preheat the substrate inside a vacuum chamber. By adding the assistance of ion beams to the process, coating density and adhesion are improved, while costs are reduced. This article describes physical vapor deposition and ion-beam processes, explains the advantages of EB-PVD, shows how ion beams optimize the benefits of EB-PVD, and enumerates a variety of applications.

  12. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, Joshua (Inventor); Hubbell, Theodore E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A surface of a steel substrate is nitrided without external heating by exposing it to a beam of nitrogen ions under low pressure, a pressure much lower than that employed for ion-nitriding. An ion source is used instead of a glow discharge. Both of these features reduce the introduction of impurities into the substrate surface.

  13. Development of a fast cyclotron gas stopper for intense rare isotope beams from projectile fragmentation: Study of ion extraction with a radiofrequency carpet

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, Georg; Morrissey, David

    2011-01-16

    Research and development has been performed in support of the design of a future rare isotope beam facility in the US. An important aspect of plans for earlier RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) and a requirement of FRIB (Facility of Rare Isotope Beams) to be built at Michigan State University are the availability of so-called “stopped beams” for research that contributes to answering questions like how elements in the universe are created and to provide better insight into the nature of Fundamental Interactions. In order to create “stopped beams” techniques are required that transform fast rare isotopes beams as they are available directly after addresses questions like the origin of that will allow and High priority is given to the evaluation of intensity limitations and the efficiency of stopping of fast fragment beams in gas cells and to the exploration of options to increase the efficiency and the reduction of space charge effects. Systematic studies performed at MSU as part of the RIA R&D with a linear gas cell under conditions close to those expected at RIA and related simulations confirm that the efficiency of stopping and extracting ions decreases with increasing beam intensity. Similar results have also been observed at RIKEN in Japan. These results indicate the concepts presently under study will not be able to cover the full range of intensities of fast beams expected at RIA without major losses. The development of a more robust concept is therefore critical to the RIA concept. Recent new beam simulation studies performed at the NSCL show that the stopping of heavy ions in a weakly focusing gas-filled magnetic field can overcome the intensity limitation of present systems while simultaneously providing a much faster ion extraction. We propose to design and build such a cyclotron gas stopper and to test it at the NSCL under conditions as close as possible to those found at RIA.

  14. Modified betatron for ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, N.; Fisher, A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense neutralized ion beam can be injected and trapped in magnetic mirror or tokamak geometry. The details of the process involve beam polarization so that the beam crosses the fringing fields without deflection and draining the polarization when the beam reaches the plasma. Equilibrium requires that a large betatron field be added in tokamak geometry. In mirror geometry a toroidal field must be added by means of a current along the mirror axis. In either case, the geometry becomes that of the modified betatron which has been studied experimentally and theoretically in recent years. We consider beams of d and t ions with a mean energy of 500 kev and a temperature of about 50 kev. The plasma may be a proton plasma with cold ions. It is only necessary for beam trapping or to carry currents. The ion energy for slowing down is initially 500 kev and thermonuclear reactions depend only on the beam temperature of 50 kev which changes very slowly. This new configuration for magnetic confinement fusion leads to an energy gain of 10--20 for d-t reactions whereas previous studies of beam target interaction predicted a maximum energy gain of 3--4. The high beam energy available with pulsed ion diode technology is also essential for advanced fuels. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Ion Source Development for a Compact Proton Beam Writing System III

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-28

    electroplating and developing process. Step 4: Electroplating of nickel and Removal of residual photoresist With the AR-p pillars , nickel plating can...a 20 µm thick Ni foil through UV lithographic and electroplating technique in CIBA, NUS, and are schematically described in Fig. 6a. The photograph...resulting substrate is then electroplated with nickel, followed by removing of the residual photoresist. The final Ni slits with appropriate

  16. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  17. Beam ion instability: Measurement, analysis, and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Safranek, J.; Cai, Y.; Corbett, J.; Hettel, B.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Schmerge, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC

    2013-10-03

    A weak vertical coupled-bunch instability with oscillation amplitude of the order of a few μ m has been observed in SPEAR3 at nominal vacuum pressure. The instability becomes stronger with increasing neutral gas pressure as observed by turning off vacuum pumps, and becomes weaker when the vertical beam emittance is increased. These observations indicate that the vertical beam motion is driven by ions trapped in the periodic potential of the electron beam. In this paper we present a series of comprehensive beam measurements, impedance-based stability analysis, and numerical simulations of beam-ion interactions in SPEAR3. The effects of vacuum pressure, gas species, beam current, bunch fill pattern, chromaticity, and vertical beam emittance are investigated.

  18. Heavy ion beam transport and interaction with ICF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, G.; Aragonés, J. M.; Gago, J. A.; Gámez, L.; González, M. C.; Honrubia, J. J.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Mínguez, E.; Ocaña, J. L.; Otero, R.; Perlado, J. M.; Santolaya, J. M.; Serrano, J. F.; Velarde, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulation codes provide an essential tool for analyzing the very broad range of concepts and variables considered in ICF targets. In this paper, the relevant processes embodied in the NORCLA code, needed to simulate ICF targets driven by heavy ion beams will be presented. Atomic physic models developed at DENIM to improve the atomic data needed for ion beam plasma interaction will be explained. Concerning the stopping power, the average ionization potential following a Thomas-Fermi model has been calculated, and results are compared with full quantum calculations. Finally, a parametric study of multilayered single shell targets driven by heavy ion beams will be shown.

  19. Diagnostic Tools For Low Intensity Ion Micro-Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Finocchiaro, P.; Cosentino, L.; Pappalardo, A.; Vervaeke, M.; Volckaerts, B.; Vynck, P.; Hermanne, A.; Thienpont, H.

    2003-08-26

    We have developed two techniques for microscopic ion beam imaging and profiling, both based on scintillators, particularly suitable for applications in Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP) or with heavier ions. The first one employs a scintillating fiberoptic plate and a CCD camera with suitable lenses, the second makes use of a small scintillator optically coupled to a compact photomultiplier. We have proved the possibility of spanning from single beam particles counting up to several nA currents. Both devices are successfully being exploited for on-line control of low and very low intensity proton beams, down to a beam size of less than 50{mu}m.

  20. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  1. Mini RF-driven ion source for focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Chang, A.; Leung, K.N.

    2002-08-02

    Mini RF-driven ion sources with 1.2 cm and 1.5 cm inner chamber diameter have been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Several gas species have been tested including argon, krypton and hydrogen. These mini ion sources operate in inductively coupled mode and are capable of generating high current density ion beams at tens of watts. Since the plasma potential is relatively low in the plasma chamber, these mini ion sources can function reliably without any perceptible sputtering damage. The mini RF-driven ion sources will be combined with electrostatic focusing columns, and are capable of producing nano focused ion beams for micro machining and semiconductor fabrications.

  2. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect

    Raeder, Sebastian Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens Teigelhöfer, Andrea

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  3. Confined ion beam sputtering device and method

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A hollow cylindrical target, lined internally with a sputter deposit material and open at both ends, surrounds a substrate on which sputtered deposition is to be obtained. An ion beam received through either one or both ends of the open cylindrical target is forced by a negative bias applied to the target to diverge so that ions impinge at acute angles at different points of the cylindrical target surface. The ion impingement results in a radially inward and downstream directed flux of sputter deposit particles that are received by the substrate. A positive bias applied to the substrate enhances divergence of the approaching ion beams to generate a higher sputtered deposition flux rate. Alternatively, a negative bias applied to the substrate induces the core portion of the ion beams to reach the substrate and provide ion polishing of the sputtered deposit thereon.

  4. Confined ion beam sputtering device and method

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, D.J.

    1986-03-25

    A hollow cylindrical target, lined internally with a sputter deposit material and open at both ends, surrounds a substrate on which sputtered deposition is to be obtained. An ion beam received through either one or both ends of the open cylindrical target is forced by a negative bias applied to the target to diverge so that ions impinge at acute angles at different points of the cylindrical target surface. The ion impingement results in a radially inward and downstream directed flux of sputter deposit particles that are received by the substrate. A positive bias applied to the substrate enhances divergence of the approaching ion beams to generate a higher sputtered deposition flux rate. Alternatively, a negative bias applied to the substrate induces the core portion of the ion beams to reach the substrate and provide ion polishing of the sputtered deposit thereon.

  5. Study of beam optics and beam halo by integrated modeling of negative ion beams from plasma meniscus formation to beam acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.

    2013-01-14

    To understand the physical mechanism of the beam halo formation in negative ion beams, a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code for simulating the trajectories of negative ions created via surface production has been developed. The simulation code reproduces a beam halo observed in an actual negative ion beam. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the plasma meniscus (an electro-static lens in a source plasma) are over-focused in the extractor due to large curvature of the meniscus.

  6. Multicusp sources for ion beam projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Kunkel, W. B.; Leung, K. N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Wutte, D.; Zahir, N.

    1998-02-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing positive and negative ions with good beam quality and low energy spread. The ion energy spread of multicusp sources has been measured by three different techniques. The axial ion energy spread has been reduced by introducing a magnetic filter inside the multicusp source chamber which adjusts the plasma potential distribution. The axial energy spread is further reduced by optimizing the source configuration. Values as low as 0.8 eV have been achieved.

  7. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) {sup 252}Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) {ge} 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 10{sup 7} ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 10{sup 9} ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  8. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, P.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) 252Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) >= 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 107 ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 109 ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  9. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P.; Alessi, J.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-20

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) {sup 252}Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) {ge} 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 10{sup 7} ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 10{sup 9} ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  10. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Van Kampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic prosthesis fixation, and dental implants.

  11. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Babbush, C. A.; Vankampen, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic pros-thesis fixtion, and dental implants.

  12. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Van Kampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic prosthesis fixation, and dental implants.

  13. Focused ion beams using a high-brightness plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Samar

    2002-10-01

    High-brightness ion beams, with low energy spread, have merits for many new applications in microelectronics, materials science, and biology. Negative ions are especially attractive for the applications that involve beam-solid interactions. When negative ions strike a surface, especially an electrically isolated surface, the surface charging voltage is limited to few volts [1]. This property can be effectively utilized to circumvent problems due to surface charging, such as device damage and beam defocusing. A compact plasma source, with the capability to deliver either positive or negative ion beams, has been developed. H- beams from this pulsed source showed brightness within an order of magnitude of the value for beams from liquid-metal ion sources. The beam angular intensity is > 40 mAsr-1 and the corresponding energy spread is <2.5 eV [2]. Using a simple Einzel lens with magnification of about 0.1, a focused current density of about 40 mAcm-2 is obtained. It is estimated that an additional magnification of about 0.1 can yield a focused current density of > 1 Acm-2 and a spot size of 100 nm. Such characteristics of focused beam parameters, using a dc source, will immediately open up a large area of new applications. [1] P. N. Guzdar, A. S. Sharma, S. K. Guharay, "Charging of substrates irradiated by particle beams" Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3302 (1997). [2] S. K. Guharay, E. Sokolovsky, J. Orloff, "Characteristics of ion beams from a Penning source for focused ion beam applications" J. Vac. Sci Technol. B17, 2779 (1999).

  14. Simulating Intense Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2001-02-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense ion beams that will drive HIF targets are nonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. Ion beams have a ''long memory'', and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.

  15. Simulating Intense Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    2001-02-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense ion beams that will drive HIF targets are rzonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. Ion beams have a ''long memory,'' and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.

  16. Ion Beam Scattering by Background Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillet, Anne; Hughes, Thomas; Boerner, Jeremiah

    2015-11-01

    The presence of background gases can cause charged particle beams to become more diffuse due to scattering. Calculations for the transport of an ion beam have been performed using Aleph, a particle-in-cell plasma modeling code, and verified against a general envelop equation for charged particle beams. We have investigated the influence of background helium on the coherence and transmitted current of the ion beam. Collisions between ions and neutral particles were calculated assuming isotropic elastic scattering. Since this tends to predict larger scattering angles than are expected at high energies, these are conservative estimates for beam scattering. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

  17. Biomedical applications of ion-beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Gibbons, D. F.; Vankampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Microscopically-rough surface texture of various biocompatible alloys and polymers produced by ion-beam sputtering may result in improvements in response of hard or soft tissue to various surgical implants.

  18. Tuning ferromagnetism by varying ion beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariwal, Rajesh V.; Malik, Hitendra K.; Asokan, K.

    2017-02-01

    Present study demonstrates a novel technique to tune the ferromagnetism at room temperature by varying the ion beam profiles from 3 to 7 mm during Carbon ion implantation in ZnO matrix and keeping other beam parameters constant. The interaction of implanted C ions with host ZnO matrix at different profiles result in variable ferromagnetism from 0.75 to 3.0  ×  10‑4 emu gm‑1 due to difference in the induced radiation pressure. Similar variation is also observed in the optical bandgap from 3.35 to 3.24 eV for different beam profiles. This study shows that the material properties can be tuned and controlled by the variation of beam profiles during the ion implantation.

  19. Biomedical applications of ion-beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Gibbons, D. F.; Vankampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Microscopically-rough surface texture of various biocompatible alloys and polymers produced by ion-beam sputtering may result in improvements in response of hard or soft tissue to various surgical implants.

  20. Recent developments of ion beam induced luminescence at the external scanning microbeam facility of the LABEC laboratory in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, E.; Calusi, S.; Cossio, R.; Giuntini, L.; Giudice, A. Lo; Mandò, P. A.; Manfredotti, C.; Massi, M.; Mirto, F. A.; Vittone, E.

    2008-04-01

    A new ionoluminescence (IL) apparatus has been successfully installed at the external scanning microbeam facility of the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the INFN LABEC in Firenze; the apparatus for photon detection has been fully integrated in the existing ion beam analysis (IBA) set-up, for the simultaneous acquisition of IL and PIXE/PIGE/BS spectra and maps. The potential of the new set-up is illustrated in this paper by some results extracted by the analysis of art objects and advanced semiconductor materials. In particular, the adequacy of the new IBA set-up in the field of cultural heritage is pointed out by the coupled PIXE/IL micro-analysis of a lapis lazuli stone; concerning applications in material science, IL spectra from a N doped diamond sample were acquired and compared with CL analyses to evaluate the relevant sensitivities and the effect of ion damage.

  1. TXRF spectrometry at ion beam excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, V.; Egorov, E.; Afanas’ef, M.

    2017-02-01

    The work presents short discussion of TXRF and PIXE methods peculiarities. Taking into account of these peculiarities we elaborate the experimental scheme for TXRF measurements at ion beam excitation of characteristical fluorescence. The scheme is built on base of the planar X-ray waveguide-resonator with specific design. Features of the new experimental method and possibilities of Sokol-3 ion beam analytical complex were used for the method application in real measurements.

  2. Radioactive-ion-beam research at Livermore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, R. C.; Mathews, G. J.; Ward, R. A.; Woosley, S. E.

    1983-06-01

    The ability to produce secondary radioactive heavy ion beams which can be isolated, focused, and transported to a secondary target can enable reaction studies and other research with the approximately more than 1300 nuclei with decay lifetimes approximately more than 1 microsec. Current research in secondary beam production and future applications in astrophysics, nuclear structure, heavy ion physics, and radiotherapy are examined as well as associated spin off and technology transfer in applied physics.

  3. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  4. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1984-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  5. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  6. Nuclear data for ion beam analysis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Paraskevi; Semkova, Valentina; Zerkin, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear data for Ion Beam Analysis have been compiled and disseminated by the Nuclear Data Section through the Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library (IBANDL) for over a decade. Recent efforts to enrich IBANDL with gamma-ray producing nuclear reaction cross sections, and to improve search and retrieval features are presented. The coordinated effort to produce reliable evaluated cross-section data for charged-particle reactions for a wider range of applications is also discussed.

  7. Development of novel three-dimensional reconstruction method for porous media for polymer electrolyte fuel cells using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Takeshi; Inoue, Gen; Kawase, Motoaki; Kubo, Norio; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Yokoyama, Kouji; Tokunaga, Tomomi; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Hara, Yuka; Hara, Toru

    2017-04-01

    An accurate method for three-dimensional reconstruction of microstructures is developed to analyse mass transport phenomena in microporous layers (MPLs). The proposed method involves the use of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope tomography. Numerical calculations of the structural and mass transport properties of MPLs are conducted using the reconstruction results and these results are found to be in good agreement with experimental results, demonstrating the accuracy of the new method.

  8. Autoresonance Cooling of Ions in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. K.; Saha, K.; Heber, O.; Rappaport, M. L.; Zajfman, D.

    2017-09-01

    Autoresonance (AR) cooling of a bunch of ions oscillating inside an electrostatic ion beam trap is demonstrated for the first time. The relatively wide initial longitudinal velocity distribution is reduced by at least an order of magnitude using AR acceleration and ramping forces. The hot ions escaping the bunch are not lost from the system but continue to oscillate in the trap outside of the bunch and may be further cooled by successive AR processes. Ion-ion collisions inside the bunch close to the turning points in the trap's mirrors contribute to the thermalization of the ions. This cooling method can be applied to any mass and any charge.

  9. Development of a two-beam high-current ion accelerator based on Doppler effect. Final report (1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, B.I.; Yegorov, A.M.

    1995-03-01

    This Final Report presents the results of work accomplished in accordance with the Scope of Work to the Purchase Order No 4596310. The amount of works includes the following items: 1. Start of the manufacture of the Experimental Accelerating Stand (EAS)-the section for proton acceleration from 5 MeV to 8 MeV, in which RF fields are excited by an electron beam at the anomalous Doppler effect. 2. Theoretical investigation and computer simulation of field excitation and ion acceleration in the EAS. Under item 1, the EAS manufacturing is begun. To present time, a pedestal for the EAS and a stainless steel vacuum chamber for RF resonator are made (length of the chamber is about 180 cm, diameter is about 40 cm). Besides, parts of the EAS resonator with the acceleration structure are manufactured, and its assembly is begun. Under item 2, it is realized three works: calculation of increment and frequency shift of the EAS resonator excited by electron beam, calculation of the solenoid for creation of magnetic field with required spatial distribution, and theoretical investigation and computer simulation of ion acceleration in the EAS. 14 figs., 16 refs.

  10. Electron-Cloud Effects on Heavy-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, T; Friedman, A; Cohen, R; Vay, J

    2004-03-29

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. We are developing a capability for self-consistent simulation of ion beams with the electron clouds they produce. We report on an ingredient in this capability, the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on the dynamics of a coasting ion beam. We consider here electron distributions with axially varying density, centroid location, or radial shape, and examine both random and sinusoidally varying perturbations. We find that amplitude variations are most effective in spoiling ion beam quality, though for sinusoidal variations which match the natural ion beam centroid oscillation or breathing mode frequencies, the centroid and shape perturbations can also be effective. We identify a possible instability associated with resonance with the beam-envelope ''breathing'' mode. One conclusion from this study is that heavy-ion beams are surprisingly robust to electron clouds, compared to a priori expectations.

  11. Focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy in biology.

    PubMed

    Kizilyaprak, C; Daraspe, J; Humbel, B M

    2014-06-01

    Since the end of the last millennium, the focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) has progressively found use in biological research. This instrument is a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an attached gallium ion column and the 2 beams, electrons and ions (FIB) are focused on one coincident point. The main application is the acquisition of three-dimensional data, FIB-SEM tomography. With the ion beam, some nanometres of the surface are removed and the remaining block-face is imaged with the electron beam in a repetitive manner. The instrument can also be used to cut open biological structures to get access to internal structures or to prepare thin lamella for imaging by (cryo-) transmission electron microscopy. Here, we will present an overview of the development of FIB-SEM and discuss a few points about sample preparation and imaging.

  12. Mass spectrometer and methods of increasing dispersion between ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.; Delmore, James E.

    2006-01-10

    A mass spectrometer includes a magnetic sector configured to separate a plurality of ion beams, and an electrostatic sector configured to receive the plurality of ion beams from the magnetic sector and increase separation between the ion beams, the electrostatic sector being used as a dispersive element following magnetic separation of the plurality of ion beams. Other apparatus and methods are provided.

  13. Dosimetric precision of an ion beam tracking system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Scanned ion beam therapy of intra-fractionally moving tumors requires motion mitigation. GSI proposed beam tracking and performed several experimental studies to analyse the dosimetric precision of the system for scanned carbon beams. Methods A beam tracking system has been developed and integrated in the scanned carbon ion beam therapy unit at GSI. The system adapts pencil beam positions and beam energy according to target motion. Motion compensation performance of the beam tracking system was assessed by measurements with radiographic films, a range telescope, a 3D array of 24 ionization chambers, and cell samples for biological dosimetry. Measurements were performed for stationary detectors and moving detectors using the beam tracking system. Results All detector systems showed comparable data for a moving setup when using beam tracking and the corresponding stationary setup. Within the target volume the mean relative differences of ionization chamber measurements were 0.3% (1.5% standard deviation, 3.7% maximum). Film responses demonstrated preserved lateral dose gradients. Measurements with the range telescope showed agreement of Bragg peak depth under motion induced range variations. Cell survival experiments showed a mean relative difference of -5% (-3%) between measurements and calculations within the target volume for beam tracking (stationary) measurements. Conclusions The beam tracking system has been successfully integrated. Full functionality has been validated dosimetrically in experiments with several detector types including biological cell systems. PMID:20591160

  14. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Joy, David C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-02-18

    Achieving the ultimate limits of materials and device performance necessitates the engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. While common for organic and macromolecular chemistry, these capabilities are virtually absent for 2D materials. In contrast to the undesired effect of ion implantation from focused ion beam (FIB) lithography with gallium ions, and proximity effects in standard e-beam lithography techniques, the shorter mean free path and interaction volumes of helium and neon ions offer a new route for clean, resist free nanofabrication. Furthermore, with the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He+ and Ne+ beam lithography of graphene based nanoelectronics is coming to the forefront. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene devices and explore the mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties of the ion-milled devices using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of the exact same devices can be quantitatively extracted. Additionally, the effect of defects inherent in ion beam direct-write lithography, on the overall performance of the fabricated devices is elucidated.

  15. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams

    DOE PAGES

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; ...

    2016-02-18

    Achieving the ultimate limits of materials and device performance necessitates the engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. While common for organic and macromolecular chemistry, these capabilities are virtually absent for 2D materials. In contrast to the undesired effect of ion implantation from focused ion beam (FIB) lithography with gallium ions, and proximity effects in standard e-beam lithography techniques, the shorter mean free path and interaction volumes of helium and neon ions offer a new route for clean, resist free nanofabrication. Furthermore, with the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He+ and Ne+ beam lithography of graphenemore » based nanoelectronics is coming to the forefront. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene devices and explore the mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties of the ion-milled devices using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of the exact same devices can be quantitatively extracted. Additionally, the effect of defects inherent in ion beam direct-write lithography, on the overall performance of the fabricated devices is elucidated.« less

  16. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    DOEpatents

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  17. Ion beam parameters of a plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.M.; Veselovzorov, A.N.; Efremov, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the dependences of the current density, the energy, and the divergence of the ion beams of an UZDP-type source (a plasma accelerator with closed electron drift in the accelerator channel and an extended zone of ion acceleration) on the parameters which determine its performance, and to establish qualitative relationships between these values.

  18. Particle radiotherapy with carbon ion beams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep-seated malignant tumours compared with conventional X-ray therapy. In addition, carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or X-ray beams. The algorithm of treatment planning and beam delivery system is tailored to the individual parameters of the patient. The present article reviews the available literatures for various disease sites including the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer as well as physical and biological properties. PMID:23497542

  19. Laser-cooled continuous ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A collaboration with a group in Arhus, Denmark, using their storage ring ASTRID, brought about better understanding of ion beams cooled to very low temperatures. The longitudinal Schottky fluctuation noise signals from a cooled beam were studied. The fluctuation signals are distorted by the effects of space charge as was observed in earlier measurements at other facilities. However, the signal also exhibits previously unobserved coherent components. The ions` velocity distribution, measured by a laser fluorescence technique suggests that the coherence is due to suppression of Landau damping. The observed behavior has important implications for the eventual attainment of a crystalline ion beam in a storage ring. A significant issue is the transverse temperature of the beam -- where no direct diagnostics are available and where molecular dynamics simulations raise interesting questions about equilibrium.

  20. Ions beams and ferroelectric plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40 keV, perveance-dominated Ar+ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50 keV Ar + beam with pulse duration <300 mus and dimensionless perveance Q up to 8 x 10-4. Transverse profile measurements 33 cm downstream of the ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on Q was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5 mus. The duration of neutralization was about 10 mus at a charging voltage VFEPS = 5.5 kV and 35 mus at VFEPS = 6.5 kV. With VFEPS = 6.5 kV, the transverse current density profile 33 cm downstream

  1. Materials processing with intense pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1-10 {mu}m) and high-energy density (1-50 J/cm{sup 2}) of these short-pulsed ({le} 1 {mu}s) beams (with ion currents I = 5 - 50 kA, and energies E = 100 - 1000 keV) make them ideal to flash-heat a target surface, similar to the more familiar pulsed laser processes. IPIB surface treatment induces rapid melt and solidification at up to 10{sup 10} K/s to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures. At higher energy density the target surface is vaporized, and the ablated vapor is condensed as coatings onto adjacent substrates or as nanophase powders. Progress towards the development of robust, high-repetition rate IPIB accelerators is presented along with economic estimates for the cost of ownership of this technology.

  2. Ion beam driven HEDP experiments on NDCX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Barnard, J. J.

    2010-11-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition, with the capability to heat volumetric samples of any solid-phase target material to high energy density. The WDM conditions are achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K^+ beam from the NDCX-I accelerator to heat foil targets such as Au, Pt, W, Al and Si. The NDCX-1 beam contains a low-intensity uncompressed pulse up to >10 μs of intensity ˜0.4 MW/cm^2, and a high-intensity compressed pulse (FWHM 2-3 ns and fluence ˜4 mJ). WDM experiments heat targets by both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam, and explore measurement of temperature, droplet formation and other target parameters. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 2-3 MeV lithium ion beam.

  3. Ion beam driven warm dense matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Ni, P. A.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P. K.; More, R.; Barnard, J. J.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A. W.; Yoneda, H.

    2007-11-01

    We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments at LBNL are at 0.3-1 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak), increasing toward the Bragg peak in future versions of the accelerator. The WDM conditions are envisioned to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. Initial experiments include an experiment to study transient darkening at LBNL; and a porous target experiment at GSI heated by intense heavy-ion beams from the SIS 18 storage ring. Further experiments will explore target temperature and other properties such as electrical conductivity to investigate phase transitions and the critical point.

  4. Development of ion sources for materials processing in china

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.J.; Ren, X.T.; Zhao, H.W.

    2006-03-15

    This article reviews the development of ion sources for materials processing and the progress of commercial product of ion sources in China. The various ion-beam processing and the relative needs to ion sources are mentioned and discussed, such as ion sources with ion implantation, plasma immersion ion implantation, ion-beam-assisted deposition, ion-beam deposition, and so on. The states of progress for different kinds of ion sources specially for electron cyclotron resonance/microwave, metal vapor vacuum arc, radio frequency (rf) ion source, end-Hall ion source, and cluster ion source, are given and discussed.

  5. Ion beams from laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. H.; Anderson, R. J.; Gray, L. G.; Rosenfeld, J. P.; Manka, C. K.; Carruth, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the space-charge-limited beams produced by the plasma blowoffs generated by 20-MW bursts of 1.06-micron radiation from an active Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Laser power densities near 10 to the 11th/sq cm on solid targets generate thermalized plasma plumes which drift to a 15-kV gridded extraction gap where the ions are extracted, accelerated, and electrostatically focused; the spatially defined ion beams are then magnetically analyzed to determine the charge state content in the beams formed from carbon, aluminum, copper, and lead targets. This technique preserves time-of-flight (TOF) information in the plasma drift region, which permits plasma ion temperatures and mass flow velocities to be determined from the Maxwellian ion curve TOF shapes for the individual charge species.

  6. Microdosimetry in ion-beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, Giulio; Mayer, Ramona

    2015-05-01

    The information of the dose is not sufficiently describing the biological effects of ions on tissue since it does not express the radiation quality, i.e. the heterogeneity of the processes due to the slowing-down and the fragmentation of the particles when crossing a target. Depending on different circumstances, the radiation quality can be determined using measurements, calculations, or simulations. Microdosimeters are the primary tools used to provide the experimental information of the radiation quality and their role is becoming crucial for the recent clinical developments in particular with carbon ion therapy. Microdosimetry is strongly linked to the biological effectiveness of the radiation since it provides the physical parameters which explicitly distinguish the radiation for its capability of damaging cells. In the framework of ion-beam therapy microdosimetry can be used in the preparation of the treatment to complement radiobiological experiments and to analyze the modification of the radiation quality in phantoms. A more ambitious goal is to perform the measurements during the irradiation procedure to determine the non-targeted radiation and, more importantly, to monitor the modification of the radiation quality inside the patient. These procedures provide the feedback of the treatment directly beneficial for the single patient but also for the characterization of the biological effectiveness in general with advantages for all future treatment. Traditional and innovative tools are currently under study and an outlook of present experience and future development is presented here.

  7. Storage-ring Electron Cooler for Relativistic Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Fanglei; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Douglas, David R.; Guo, Jiquan; Johnson, Rolland P.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong

    2016-05-01

    Application of electron cooling at ion energies above a few GeV has been limited due to reduction of electron cooling efficiency with energy and difficulty in producing and accelerating a high-current high-quality electron beam. A high-current storage-ring electron cooler offers a solution to both of these problems by maintaining high cooling beam quality through naturally-occurring synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. However, the range of ion energies where storage-ring electron cooling can be used has been limited by low electron beam damping rates at low ion energies and high equilibrium electron energy spread at high ion energies. This paper reports a development of a storage ring based cooler consisting of two sections with significantly different energies: the cooling and damping sections. The electron energy and other parameters in the cooling section are adjusted for optimum cooling of a stored ion beam. The beam parameters in the damping section are adjusted for optimum damping of the electron beam. The necessary energy difference is provided by an energy recovering SRF structure. A prototype linear optics of such storage-ring cooler is presented.

  8. A large-scale mutant panel in wheat developed using heavy-ion beam mutagenesis and its application to genetic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Koji; Nishiura, Aiko; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko

    2013-11-01

    Mutation analysis is a powerful tool for studying gene function. Heavy-ion beam mutagenesis is a comparatively new approach to inducing mutations in plants and is particularly efficient because of its high linear energy transfer (LET). High LET radiation induces a higher rate of DNA double-strand breaks than other mutagenic methods. Over the last 12 years, we have constructed a large-scale mutant panel in diploid einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) using heavy-ion beam mutagenesis. Einkorn wheat seeds were exposed to a heavy-ion beam and then sown in the field. Selfed seeds from each spike of M1 plants were used to generate M2 lines. Every year, we obtained approximately 1000 M2 lines and eventually developed a mutant panel with 10,000 M2 lines in total. This mutant panel is being systematically screened for mutations affecting reproductive growth, and especially for flowering-time mutants. To date, we have identified several flowering-time mutants of great interest: non-flowering mutants (mvp: maintained vegetative phase), late-flowering mutants, and early-flowering mutants. These novel mutations will be of value for investigations of the genetic mechanism of flowering in wheat.

  9. Ultra Cold Photoelectron Beams for Ion Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D. A.; Krantz, C.; Shornikov, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Wolf, A.; Jaroshevich, A. S.; Kosolobov, S. N.; Terekhov, A. S.

    2009-08-04

    An ultra cold electron target with a cryogenic GaAs photocathode source, developed for the Heidelberg TSR, delivers electron currents up to a few mA with typical kinetic energies of few keV and provides unprecedented energy resolution below 1 meV for electron-ion recombination merged-beam experiments. For the new generation of low-energy electrostatic storage rings, cold electron beams from a photocathode source can bring additional benefits, improving the cooling efficiency of stored ions and making it possible to cool even heavy, slow molecules by electron beams of energies of only a few eV or even below.

  10. Beam Dynamics Design and Simulation in Ion Linear Accelerators (

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, Peter N.; Asseev, Vladislav N.; Mustapha, and Brahim

    2006-08-01

    Orginally, the ray tracing code TRACK has been developed to fulfill the many special requirements for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility known as RIA. Since no available beam-dynamics code met all the necessary requirements, modifications to the code TRACK were introduced to allow end-to-end (from the ion souce to the production target) simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam-dynamics code and can be applied for the design, commissioning and operation of modern ion linear accelerators and beam transport systems.

  11. Ion beam sputter etching and deposition of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Sovey, J. S.; Miller, T. B.; Crandall, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Fluoropolymer etching and deposition techniques including thermal evaporation, RF sputtering, plasma polymerization, and ion beam sputtering are reviewed. Etching and deposition mechanism and material characteristics are discussed. Ion beam sputter etch rates for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were determined as a function of ion energy, current density and ion beam power density. Peel strengths were measured for epoxy bonds to various ion beam sputtered fluoropolymers. Coefficients of static and dynamic friction were measured for fluoropolymers deposited from ion bombarded PTFE.

  12. Ion beam sputter etching and deposition of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Sovey, J. S.; Miller, T. B.; Crandall, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Fluoropolymer etching and deposition techniques including thermal evaporation, RF sputtering, plasma polymerization, and ion beam sputtering are reviewed. Etching and deposition mechanisms and material characteristics are discussed. Ion beam sputter etch rates for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were determined as a function of ion energy, current density and ion beam power density. Peel strengths were measured for epoxy bonds to various ion beam sputtered fluoropolymers. Coefficients of static and dynamic friction were measured for fluoropolymers deposited from ion bombarded PTFE.

  13. Ion beam applications research. A summary of Lewis Research Center Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the ion beam applications research (IBAR) program organized to enable the development of materials, products, and processes through the nonpropulsive application of ion thruster technology is given. Specific application efforts utilizing ion beam sputter etching, deposition, and texturing are discussed as well as ion source and component technology applications.

  14. Development of W/C soft x-ray multilayer mirror by ion beam sputtering (IBS) system for below 50A wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, A.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-06-25

    A home-made Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) system has been developed in our laboratory. Using the IBS system single layer W and single layer C film has been deposited at 1000eV Ar ion energy and 10mA ion current. The W-film has been characterized by grazing Incidence X-ray reflectrometry (GIXR) technique and Atomic Force Microscope technique. The single layer C-film has been characterized by Spectroscopic Ellipsometric technique. At the same deposition condition 25-layer W/C multilayer film has been deposited which has been designed for using as mirror at 30 Degree-Sign grazing incidence angle around 50A wavelength. The multilayer sample has been characterized by measuring reflectivity of CuK{alpha} radiation and soft x-ray radiation around 50A wavelength.

  15. Surface processing using water cluster ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Gikan H.; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ichihashi, Gaku

    2013-07-01

    Vaporized water clusters were produced by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon, and various substrates such as Si(1 0 0), SiO2, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated by water cluster ion beams. The sputtered depth increased with increasing acceleration voltage, and the sputtering rate was much larger than that obtained using Ar monomer ion irradiation. The sputtering yield for PMMA was approximately 200 molecules per ion, at an acceleration voltage of 9 kV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that high-rate sputtering for the PMMA surface can be ascribed to the surface erosion by the water cluster ion irradiation. Furthermore, the micropatterning was demonstrated on the PMMA substrate. Thus, the surface irradiation by water cluster ion beams exhibited a chemical reaction based on OH radicals, as well as excited hydrogen atoms, which resulted in a high sputtering rate and low irradiation damage of the substrate surfaces.

  16. Friction of self-lubricating surfaces by ion beam techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R. S.; Rai, A. K.

    1992-05-01

    UES, Inc. conducted a research and development program designed to establish conditions for ion implantation/mixing of suitable additives into the surfaces of bulk ceramics and metals for obtaining self-lubricating low friction and wear characteristics. The substrates considered were ZrO2, Al2O3, Si3N4, steel, and Ni-base superalloy. The lubricant additives chosen were BaF2/CaF2Ag, MoS2, WS2, and B2O3. The initial tasks of the program were to synthesis these lubricant compounds by co-implantation of constituent elements if sufficient beams of desired elements were obtained. The final tasks were to investigate high energy (MeV) ion mixing of deposited coatings as well as to investigate ion beam assisted deposition using low energy ion beams. It was shown that MoS2 can be synthesized by co-implantation of Mo(+) and S(+) in ceramic materials with appropriate choice of energies to obtain nearly overlapping depth profiles. The sliding life of DC magnetron sputtered MoS(2) films of thicknesses approximately 7500 A on ceramic materials such as sapphire, Si3N4 and ZrO3 were improved by ten to thousand fold after 2 Mev Ag(+) ion mixing. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and ion beam mixing were utilized to fabricate self-lubricating coatings of CaF2/Ag and BaF/CaF2/Ag composites.

  17. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; McMahan, Margaret A.; Argento, David; Gimpel, Thomas; Guy, Aran; Morel, James; Siero, Christine; Thatcher, Ray; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2002-09-03

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate ''cocktails'' of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and has since become a powerful tool in the field of heavy ion radiation effects testing. Several different ''cocktails'' at various energies are available at the 88-Inch cyclotron for radiation effect testing, covering a broad range of linear energy transfer and penetration depth. Two standard heavy ion cocktails at 4.5 MeV/nucleon and 10 MeV/nucleon have been developed over the years containing ions from boron to bismuth. Recently, following requests for higher penetration depths, a 15MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail has been developed. Up to nine different metal and gaseous ion beams at low to very high charge states are tuned out of the ion source simultaneously and injected together into the cyclotron. It is therefore crucial to balance the ion source very carefully to provide sufficient intensities throughout the cocktail. The paper describes the set-up and tuning of the ion source for the various heavy ion cocktails.

  18. Fast ion beam-plasma interaction system.

    PubMed

    Breun, R A; Ferron, J R

    1979-07-01

    A device has been constructed for the study of the interaction between a fast ion beam and a target plasma of separately controllable parameters. The beam of either hydrogen or helium ions has an energy of 1-4 keV and a total current of 0.5-2 A. The beam energy and beam current can be varied separately. The ion source plasma is created by a pulsed (0.2-10-ms pulse length) discharge in neutral gas at up to 3 x 10(-3) Torr. The neutrals are pulsed into the source chamber, allowing the neutral pressure in the target region to remain less than 5 x 10(-5) Torr at a 2-Hz repetition rate. The creation of the source plasma can be described by a simple set of equations which predict optimum source design parameters. The target plasma is also produced by a pulsed discharge. Between the target and source chambers the beam is neutralized by electrons drawn from a set of hot filaments. Currently under study is an unstable wave in a field-free plasma excited when the beam velocity is nearly equal to the target electron thermal velocity (v(beam) approximately 3.5 x 10(7) cm/s, Te = 0.5 eV).

  19. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  20. Beam structure and transverse emittance studies of high-energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Johnson, K. F.; Schneider, J. D.

    1991-05-01

    A visual diagnostic technique was developed to monitor and study ion beam structure shape and size along a transport line. In this technique, a commercially available fluorescent screen is utilized in conjunction with a video camera. This visual representation of the beam structure is digitized and enhanced through use of false color coding and displayed on a TV monitor for on-line viewing. Digitized information is stored for further off-line processing (e.g., extraction of beam profiles). An optional wire grid placed upstream of the fluor screen adds the capability of transverse emittance (or angular spread) measurement to this technique. This diagnostic allows real time observation of the beam response to parameter changes (e.g., evolution of the beam structure, shifts in the beam intensity at various spatial locations within the beam perimeter, and shifts in the beam center and position).

  1. Measurement of beam characteristics from C(6+) laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, A; Sako, K; Sato, K; Hayashizaki, N; Hattori, T

    2014-02-01

    We developed a C(6+) laser ion source for a heavy-ion accelerator. A carbon target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength, 1.4 J maximum laser energy, 10 ns pulse duration) to generate a high-density plasma. The laser ion source employed a rotating carbon target for continuous operation. Ion beams were extracted from the plasma through a drift space using a direct plasma injection scheme [B. Yu. Sharkov, A. V. Shumshurov, V. P. Dubenkow, O. B. Shamaev, and A. A. Golubev, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2841 (1992)] up to a maximum voltage of 40 kV. We measured the characteristics of the ion beams from the laser ion source and present the results of experiments here.

  2. Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Spädtke, P

    2010-02-01

    The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H(-) sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

  3. Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.

    2010-02-15

    The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H{sup -} sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

  4. Anti-hydrogen production with positron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Itahashi, Takahisa

    2008-08-08

    In low-energy antiproton physics, it is advantageous to be able to manipulate anti-particles as freely as normal particles. A robust production and storage system for high-quality positrons and antiprotons would be a substantial advance for the development of anti-matter science. The idea of electron beam ion trap could be applied for storage of anti-particle when the electron beam could be replaced by the positron beam. The bright positron beam would be brought about using synchrotron radiation source with a superconducting wiggler. The new scheme for production of anti-particles is proposed by using new accelerator technologies.

  5. Near spherical illumination of ion-beam and laser targets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1985-12-12

    A procedure is developed for reducing energy-deposition asymmetry in spherical targets driven directly by ion or laser beams. This work is part of a strategy for achieving illumination symmetry in such targets, which is proposed as an alternative to those in the literature. This strategy allows an axially symmetric placement of beamlets, which would be convenient for some driven or reactor scenarios. It also allows the use of beam currents or energy fluxes and beam transverse profiles to help reduce deposition asymmetry with fewer beamlets. In the ideal limit of thin deposition layers and controlled beam profiles, at most six beamlets are needed for target symmetry.

  6. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Variale, V.; Raino, A. C.; Clauser, T.

    2012-02-15

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  7. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams via ionization dynamics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen; Kim, I. Jong; Yu, Jinqing; Choi, Il Woo; Ma, Wenjun; Yan, Xueqing; Nam, Chang Hee

    2017-05-01

    The research on ion acceleration driven by high intensity laser pulse has attracted significant interests in recent decades due to the developments of laser technology. The intensive study of energetic ion bunches is particularly stimulated by wide applications in nuclear fusion, medical treatment, warm dense matter production and high energy density physics. However, to implement such compact accelerators, challenges are still existing in terms of beam quality and stability, especially in applications that require higher energy and narrow bandwidth spectra ion beams. We report on the acceleration of quasi-mono-energetic ion beams via ionization dynamics in the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a solid target. Using ionization dynamics model in 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we found that high charge state contamination ions can only be ionized in the central spot area where the intensity of sheath field surpasses their ionization threshold. These ions automatically form a microstructure target with a width of few micron scale, which is conducive to generate mono-energetic beams. In the experiment of ultraintense (< 10^21 W/cm^2) laser pulses irradiating ultrathin targets each attracted with a contamination layer of nm-thickness, high quality < 100 MeV mono-energetic ion bunches are generated. The peak energy of the self-generated micro-structured target ions with respect to different contamination layer thickness is also examined This is relatively newfound respect, which is confirmed by the consistence between experiment data and the simulation results.

  8. Radiotherapy with beams of carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo; Kraft, Gerhard

    2005-08-01

    In cancer treatment, the introduction of MeV bremsstrahlung photons has been instrumental in delivering higher doses to deep-seated tumours, while reducing the doses absorbed by the surrounding healthy tissues. Beams of protons and carbon ions have a much more favourable dose-depth distribution than photons (called 'x-rays' by medical doctors) and are the new frontiers of cancer radiation therapy. Section 2 presents the status of the first form of hadrontherapy which uses beams of 200-250 MeV protons. The central part of this review is devoted to the discussion of the physical, radiobiological and clinical bases of the use of 400 MeV µ-1 carbon ions in the treatment of radio-resistant tumours. These resist irradiation with photon as well as proton beams. The following section describes the carbon ion facilities that are either running or under construction. Finally, the projects recently approved or proposed are reviewed here.

  9. Ion beam and laser induced surface modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of energetic ion beam and laser processing of surfaces are reviewed. Ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, and laser and electron beam processing techniques are capable of producing new and often unique surface properties. The inherent control of these techniques has led to significant advances in our ability to tailor the properties of solids for a wide range of technological applications. Equally important, these techniques have allowed tests of fundamental materials interactions under conditions not heretofore achievable and have resulted in increased understanding of a broad range of materials phenomena. These include new metastable phase formation, rapid nucleation and crystal growth kinetics, amorphous metals and metaglasses, supersaturated solid solutions and substitutional alloys, interface interactions, solute trapping, laser-assisted chemical modifications, and a host of other.

  10. Scanning He+ Ion Beam Microscopy and Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, David C.

    2011-11-10

    The CD-SEM has been the tool of choice for the imaging and metrology of semiconductor devices for the past three decades but now, with critical dimensions at the nanometer scale, electron beam instruments can no longer deliver adequate performance. A scanning microscope using a He+ ion beam offers superior resolution and depth of field, and provides enhanced imaging contrast. Device metrology performed using ion beam imaging produces data which is comparable to or better than that from a conventional CD-SEM although there are significant differences in the experimental conditions required and in the details of image formation. The charging generated by a He+ beam, and the sample damage that it can cause, require care in operation but are not major problems.

  11. Focused-Ion-Beam Material Removal Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    AD-A270 852 SIll II 111111111 lillI I ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Focused -Ion-Beam Material Removal Rates by Bruce GeOl ARL-MR-1 14 September 1993 93...DATES COVERED September 1993 Summary, January 1991-present 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Focused -Ion-Beam Material Removal Rates PE: 91A 6...AUTHOR( S ) Bruce Geil 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION U.S. Army Research Laboratory REPORT NUMBER Attn

  12. Ion beam sculpting molecular scale devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Derek Martin

    We envision solid-state nanopores at the heart of a device capable of detecting, manipulating, and ultimately sequencing individual DNA molecules. To reliably fabricate holes whose diameter is commensurate with that of the DNA molecule (˜2nm), low energy ion beams are employed to tailor the size of holes in solid-state membranes by a new technique we call "ion beam sculpting". The transmission rate of ions through the hole is monitored to provide a direct, real-time measure of the hole area that is used as a feedback signal to trigger the termination of the ion irradiation process when the desired hole size is obtained. The sensitivity of the transmitted ion count rate to atomic-scale material rearrangements at the perimeter of a hole led to a surprising discovery: Low-energy ion beams stimulate the lateral transport of matter when incident on a surface, resulting in the growth of a thin film from the boundary of a hole that closes the hole. The net flow of matter is determined by a competition between sputter erosion, which opens the hole, and a hole closing process that dominates at high temperature and low flux. The timescale for lateral matter transport under ion irradiation is surprisingly long---on the order of a second. Two physical models are proposed to account for the surprising ion-stimulated transport of matter. One model is based on the viscous flow of a stressed surface layer, while the other is based on the diffusion of mobile, ion-stimulated species at the surface of the material into the hole. The predictions of the latter are compared to ion beam sculpting experiments. We exploit ion beam sculpting to fabricate solid-state nanopores used as electronic detectors of individual DNA molecules. In ionic solution, negatively charged DNA molecules are drawn to the nanopore by an applied electrochemical potential, resulting in a detectable characteristic ionic current blockade when a molecules occludes the nanopore. The applicability of the ion sculpting

  13. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  14. A subnanosecond pulsed ion source for micrometer focused ion beams.

    PubMed

    Höhr, C; Fischer, D; Moshammer, R; Dorn, A; Ullrich, J

    2008-05-01

    A new, compact design of an ion source delivers nanosecond pulsed ion beams with low emittance, which can be focused to micrometer size. By using a high-power, 25 fs laser pulse focused into a gas region of 10(-6) mbar, ions at very low temperatures are produced in the small laser focal volume of 5 mum diameter by 20 mum length through multiphoton ionization. These ions are created in a cold environment, not in a hot plasma, and, since the ionization process itself does not significantly heat them, have as a result essentially room temperature. The generated ion pulse, up to several thousand ions per pulse, is extracted from the source volume with ion optical elements that have been carefully designed by simulation calculations. Externally triggered, its subnanosecond duration and even smaller time jitter allow it to be superimposed with other pulsed particle or laser beams. It therefore can be combined with any type of collision experiment where the size and the time structure of the projectile beam crucially affect the achievable experimental resolution.

  15. Beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.

    1995-04-01

    A standard design for heavy ion fusion drivers under study in the US is an induction linac with electrostatic focusing at low energy and magnetic focusing at higher energy. The need to focus the intense beam to a few-millimeter size spot at the deuterium-tritium target establishes the emittance budget for the accelerator. Economic and technological considerations favor a larger number of beams in the low-energy, electrostatic-focusing section than in the high-energy, magnetic-focusing section. Combining four beams into a single focusing channel is a viable option, depending on the growth in emittance due to the combining process. Several significant beam dynamics issues that are, or have been, under active study are discussed: large space charge and image forces, beam wall clearances, halos, alignment, longitudinal instability, and bunch length control.

  16. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, O.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    Full particle PIC simulations are performed to study the neutralization of an ion beam in the cohesionless, mesothermal regime. Simulations further confirmed that neutralization is achieved through interactions between the trapped electrons and the potential well established by the propagation of the beam front along the beam direction and is not through plasma instabilities as previous studies suggested. In the transverse direction, the process is similar to that of the expansion of mesothermal plasma into vacuum. Parametric simulations are also performed to investigate the effects of beam radius and domain boundary condition on the neutralization process. The results suggests that, while the qualitative behavior may be similar in ground tests, quantitative parameters such as the beam potential will be affected significantly by the vacuum chamber because of the limits imposed on the expansion process by the finite chamber space.

  17. ALLIGATOR - An apparatus for ion beam assisted deposition with a broad-beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wituschek, H.; Barth, M.; Ensinger, W.; Frech, G.; Rück, D. M.; Leible, K. D.; Wolf, G. K.

    1992-04-01

    Ion beam assisted deposition is a versatile technique for preparing thin films and coatings for various applications. Up to now a prototype setup for research purposes has been used in our laboratory. Processing of industrial standard workpieces requires a high current ion source with broad beam and high uniformity for homogeneous bombardment. In this contribution a new apparatus for large area samples will be described. It is named ALLIGATOR (German acronym of facility for ion assisted evaporation on transverse movable or rotary targets). In order to have a wide energy range available two ion sources are used. One delivers a beam energy up to 1.3 keV. The other is suitable for energies from 5 keV up to 40 keV. The ``high-energy'' ion source is a multicusp multiaperture source with 180-mA total current and a beam diameter of 280 mm at the target position.

  18. Fermilab HINS Proton Ion Source Beam Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, W.M.; Apollinari, G.; Chaurize, S.; Hays, S.; Romanov, G.; Scarpine, V.; Schmidt, C.; Webber, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The proton ion source for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac front-end at Fermilab has been successfully commissioned. It produces a 50 keV, 3 msec beam pulse with a peak current greater than 20mA at 2.5Hz. The beam is transported to the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) by a low energy beam transport (LEBT) that consists of two focusing solenoids, four steering dipole magnets and a beam current transformer. To understand beam transmission through the RFQ, it is important to characterize the 50 keV beam before connecting the LEBT to the RFQ. A wire scanner and a Faraday cup are temporarily installed at the exit of the LEBT to study the beam parameters. Beam profile measurements are made for different LEBT settings and results are compared to those from computer simulations. In lieu of direct emittance measurements, solenoid variation method based on profile measurements is used to reconstruct the beam emittance.

  19. The Development Of New Space Charge Compensation Methods For Multi-Components Ion Beam Extracted From ECR Ion Source at IMP

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.; Zhao, H.W.; Cao, Y.; Zhao, H.Y.; Song, T. M.; He, W.; Zhang, Z.M.

    2005-03-15

    Two new space charge compensation methods developed in IMP are discussed in this paper. There are negative high voltage electrode method (NHVEM) and electronegative charge gas method (EGM). Some valuable experimental data have been achieved, especially using electronegative gas method in O6+ and O7+ dramatic and stable increasing of ion current was observed.

  20. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited)

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, William W.; Van Zeeland, Michael A.; ...

    2014-08-05

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of 1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge, and 2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fieldsmore » appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g. Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally-imposed 3D fields, e.g. magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. Additionally, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.« less

  1. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, William W.; Van Zeeland, Michael A.; Kramer, Gerrit J.; Pace, David C.; Petty, Craig C.; Austin, Max E.; Fisher, Raymond K.; Hanson, Jeremy M.; Nazikian, Raffi; Zeng, L.

    2014-08-05

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of 1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge, and 2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g. Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally-imposed 3D fields, e.g. magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. Additionally, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.

  2. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Austin, M. E.; Hanson, J. M.; Zeng, L.

    2014-11-15

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of (1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge and (2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally imposed 3D fields, e.g., magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. In addition, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.

  3. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  4. MEMS based ion beams for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Vinayakumar, K. B.; Schaffer, Z. A.; Lal, A.

    2016-10-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication provides an exciting opportunity to shrink existing accelerator concepts to smaller sizes and to reduce cost by orders of magnitude. We revisit the concept of a Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) and show how, with current technologies, the concept can be downsized from gap distances of several cm to distances in the sub-mm regime. The basic concept implements acceleration gaps using radio frequency (RF) fields and electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQ) on silicon wafers. First results from proof-of-concept experiments using printed circuit boards to realize the MEQALAC structures are presented. We show results from accelerating structures that were used in an array of nine (3x3) parallel beamlets with He ions at 15 keV. We will also present results from an ESQ focusing lattice using the same beamlet layout showing beam transport and matching. We also will discuss our progress in fabricating MEMS devices in silicon wafers for both the RF and ESQ structures and integration of necessary RF-circuits on-chip. The concept can be scaled up to thousands of beamlets providing high power beams at low cost and can be used to form and compress a plasma for the development of magnetized target fusion approaches. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy through the ARPA-e ALPHA program under contracts DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL).

  5. Ion-Beam Analysis of Airborne Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Charles; Gleason, Colin; Schuff, Katie; Battaglia, Maria; Moore, Robert; Turley, Colin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2010-11-01

    An undergraduate laboratory research program in ion-beam analysis (IBA) of atmospheric aerosols is being developed to study pollution in the Capitol District and Adirondack Mountains of New York. The IBA techniques applied in this project include proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA). These methods are well suited for studying air pollution because they are quick, non-destructive, require little to no sample preparation, and capable of investigating microscopic samples. While PIXE spectrometry is used to analyze most elements from silicon to uranium, the other techniques are being applied to measure some of the remaining elements and complement PIXE in the study of aerosols. The airborne particulate matter is collected using nine-stage cascade impactors that separate the particles according to size and the samples are bombarded with proton beams from the Union College 1.1-MV Pelletron Accelerator. The reaction products are measured with SDD X-ray, Ge gamma-ray, and Si surface barrier charged particle detectors. Here we report on the progress we have made on the PIGE, RBS, and PESA analysis of aerosol samples.

  6. Radioactive Ion Beam Production Capabilities at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Beene, James R; Dowling, Darryl T; Gross, Carl J; Juras, Raymond C; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha J; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Nazarewicz, Witold; Sinclair, John William; Stracener, Daniel W; Tatum, B Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility for research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) that has been in routine operation since 1996. It is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and operated by the ORNL Physics Division. The principal mission of HRIBF is the production of high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes to support research in nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. HRIBF is currently unique worldwide in its ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier for nuclear reactions.

  7. Reversal ion source - A new source of negative ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of ion source utilizing beams of electrons and target molecules, rather than a diffuse, volume plasma, is described. The source utilizes an electrostatic electron 'mirror' which reverses trajectories in an electron beam, producing electrons at their turning point having a distribution of velocities centered at zero velocity. A gas which attaches zero-velocity electrons is introduced at this turning point. Negative ions are produced by an attachment or dissociative attachment process. For many of the thermal electron-attaching molecules the cross sections can be quite large, varying as the inverse square root of the electron energy or just the s-wave threshold law. The efficiency and current density of the ion source for production of Cl(-) through the large, thermal energy attachment process is estimated. It is argued that the source can be used for the production of negative ions through attachment resonances located at higher energies as well.

  8. Extraction Simulations and Emittance Measurements of a Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Electron Beam Plasma Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, II, Anthony J; Liu, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a variety of ion sources used to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). Of these, the workhorse is an electron beam plasma (EBP) ion source. The recent addition of a second RIB injector, the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), for the HRIBF tandem accelerator prompted new studies of the optics of the beam extraction from the EBP source. The source was modeled using SIMION V8.0, and results will be presented, including comparison of the emittances as predicted by simulation and as measured at the HRIBF offline ion source test facilities. Also presented will be the impact on phase space shape resulting from extraction optics modifications implemented at IRIS2.

  9. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  10. Modeling of nanocluster formation by ion beam implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun-Dar

    2011-08-15

    A theoretical model was developed to investigate the mechanism of the formation of nanoclusters via ion beam implantation. The evolution of nanoclusters, including the nucleation and growth process known as Ostwald ripening, was rebuilt using numerical simulations. The effects of implantation parameters such as the ion energy, ion fluence, and temperature on the morphology of implanted microstructures were also studied through integration with the Monte Carlo Transport of Ions in Matter code calculation for the distribution profiles of implanted ions. With an appropriate ion fluence, a labyrinth-like nanostructure with broad size distributions of nanoclusters formed along the ion implantation range. In a latter stage, a buried layer of implanted impurity developed. With decreasing ion energy, the model predicted the formation of precipitates on the surface. These simulation results were fully consistent with many experimental observations. With increased temperature, the characteristic length and size of nanostructures would increase due to the high mobility. This theoretical model provides an efficient numerical approach for fully understanding the mechanism of the formation of nanoclusters, allowing for the design of ion beam experiments to form specific nanostructures through ion-implantation technology.

  11. GISAXS analysis of ion beam modified films and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buljan, Maja; Karlušić, Marko; Nekić, Nikolina; Jerčinović, Marko; Bogdanović-Radović, Iva; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Radić, Nikola; Mekterović, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Simple and efficient methods for the accurate structural characterization of ion-beam modified materials are important due to their interesting properties and many applications. Here we demonstrate the application of the Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) method on the structural analysis of swift heavy ion-beam modified materials. Passing through a material, an accelerated ion usually modifies its surrounding causing the formation of nano-objects along its trajectory, called ion track. We show that GISAXS can be used to determine the structural properties of the nano-objects formed along the ion tracks, as well as their ordering properties. We have developed theoretical models describing GISAXS intensity distributions of the systems having different ordering types. The efficiencies of the models are tested on experimental examples.

  12. The Heidelberg CSR: Stored Ion Beams in a Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Orlov, D. A.; Fadil, H.; Welsch, C. P.; Andrianarijaona, V.; Diehl, A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Weber, T.; Mallinger, V.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Rappaport, M.; Urbain, X.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-03-20

    A cryogenic electrostatic ion storage ring CSR is under development at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Cooling of the ultrahigh vacuum chamber is envisaged to lead to extremely low pressures as demonstrated by cryogenic ion traps. The ring will apply electron cooling with electron beams of a few eV up to 200 eV. Through long storage times of 1000 s as well as through the low wall temperature, internal cooling of infrared-active molecular ions to their rotational ground state will be possible and their collisions with merged collinear beams of electrons and neutral atoms can be detected with high energy resolution. In addition storage of slow highly charged ions is foreseen. Using a fixed in-ring gas target and a reaction microscope, collisions of the stored ions at a speed of the order of the atomic unit can be kinematically reconstructed. The layout and the cryogenic concept are introduced.

  13. Ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S.; Logan, B. G.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.

    2010-08-01

    As a technique for heating matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition to a relatively large sample. The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating and diagnosing warm dense matter (WDM) targets. We have developed a WDM target chamber and a suite of target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments heat targets by both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam, and explore measurement of temperature, droplet formation and other target parameters. Continued improvements in beam tuning, bunch compression, and other upgrades are expected to yield higher temperature and pressure in the WDM targets. Future experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  14. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams provide a unique source of energetic projectile nuclei which are correlated in space and time. The recognition of this property has prompted several recent investigations of various aspects of the interactions of these ions with matter. High-resolution measurements on the fragments resulting from these interactions have already yielded a wealth of new information on such diverse topics as plasma oscillations in solids and stereochemical structures of molecular ions as well as a variety of atomic collision phenomena. The general features of several such experiments will be discussed and recent results will be presented.

  15. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, B.C.; Stutz, R.A.

    1998-06-30

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are disclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters. 6 figs.

  16. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.; Stutz, Roger A.

    1998-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are isclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters.

  17. Ion beam analysis techniques in interdisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-11-16

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  18. Ion Beam Analysis Techniques in Interdisciplinary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-12-31

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  19. Metal assisted focused-ion beam nanopatterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannegulla, Akash; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2016-09-01

    Focused-ion beam milling is a versatile technique for maskless nanofabrication. However, the nonuniform ion beam profile and material redeposition tend to disfigure the surface morphology near the milling areas and degrade the fidelity of nanoscale pattern transfer, limiting the applicability of the technique. The ion-beam induced damage can deteriorate the performance of photonic devices and hinders the precision of template fabrication for nanoimprint lithography. To solve the issue, we present a metal assisted focused-ion beam (MAFIB) process in which a removable sacrificial aluminum layer is utilized to protect the working material. The new technique ensures smooth surfaces and fine milling edges; in addition, it permits direct formation of v-shaped grooves with tunable angles on dielectric substrates or metal films, silver for instance, which are rarely achieved by using traditional nanolithography followed by anisotropic etching processes. MAFIB was successfully demonstrated to directly create nanopatterns on different types of substrates with high fidelity and reproducibility. The technique provides the capability and flexibility necessary to fabricate nanophotonic devices and nanoimprint templates.

  20. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Joy, David C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-03-01

    Achieving the ultimate limits of lithographic resolution and material performance necessitates engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. With the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He+ and Ne+ beam lithography of 2D materials, such as graphene-based nanoelectronics, is coming to the forefront as a tool for fabrication and surface manipulation. However, the effects of using a Ne focused-ion-beam on the fidelity of structures created out of 2D materials have yet to be explored. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene nanostructures and explore their mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we are able to ascertain changes in the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of Ne+ beam milled graphene nanostructures and surrounding regions. Additionally, we are able to link localized defects around the milled graphene to ion milling parameters such as dwell time and number of beam passes in order to characterize the induced changes in mechanical and electromechanical properties of the graphene surface.

  1. Beam monitor calibration in scanned light-ion beams.

    PubMed

    Palmans, Hugo; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M

    2016-11-01

    To propose a formalism for the reference dosimetry of scanned light-ion beams consistent with IAEA TRS-398 and Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)]. To identify machine-specific reference (msr) fields and plan-class specific reference (pcsr) fields consistent with the definitions given by Alfonso et al. To review the literature of beam monitor calibration in scanned beams using three different methods in terms of this common formalism. Four types of msr fields are identified as those that are meant to calibrate the beam monitor for scanned beams with particular energies. Two types of pcsr fields are identified as those that are meant to apply one or more tuning factors to the entire delivery chain. The formalism establishes the energy-dependent relation between the number of particles incident on the phantom surface and the beam monitor reading and distinguishes three routes to determine the beam monitor calibration function: (i) the use of a calibrated reference ionization chamber in a single-layer scanned beam, (ii) the use of a cross-calibrated large-area parallel plate ionization chamber in a single-energy beamlet, and (iii) the use of a calibrated reference ionization chamber in a box field to adjust a calibration curve obtained by a Faraday cup or an ionization chamber. Examples of all three methods and comparisons between them from the literature are analysed. The formalism can form the basis of future dosimetry recommendations for scanned particle beams and the analysis of the literature data in terms of this formalism can form the basis of data compilations for the application of the dosimetry procedures.

  2. Laser-cooled bunched ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    In collaboration with the Arhus group, the laser cooling of a beam bunched by an rf electrode was investigated at the ASTRID storage ring. A single laser is used for unidirectional cooling, since the longitudinal velocity of the beam will undergo {open_quotes}synchrotron oscillations{close_quotes} and the ions are trapped in velocity space. As the cooling proceeds the velocity spread of the beam, as well as the bunch length is measured. The bunch length decreases to the point where it is limited only by the Coulomb repulsion between ions. The measured length is slightly (20-30%) smaller than the calculated limit for a cold beam. This may be the accuracy of the measurement, or may indicate that the beam still has a large transverse temperature so that the longitudinal repulsion is less than would be expected from an absolutely cold beam. Simulations suggest that the coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom is strong -- but this issue will have to be resolved by further measurements.

  3. Surface alloying by ion, electron and laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Picraux, S.T.; Wiedersich, H.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the surface treatments of alloys using ion, electron, and laser beams. Topics considered at the conference included energy deposition, heat flow, rapid solidification, physical radiation effects, ion implantation, ion-irradiated materials, microstructure, solute redistribution, surface-melted alloys, solute trapping in ion-implanted metals, and the industrial applications of ion beam processes.

  4. Ion beam analysis of diffusion in heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, A. S.; Jenneson, P. M.

    1998-04-01

    Ion-beam analysis has been applied to a variety of problems involving diffusion in heterogeneous materials. An energy loss technique has been used to study both the diffusion of water and the surface segregation of fluoropolymers in polymeric matrices. A scanning micro-beam technique has been developed to allow water concentrations in hydrophilic polymers and cements to be measured together with associated solute elements. It has also been applied to the diffusion of shampoo into hair.

  5. Ion beam deposition in materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhr, R. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Noggle, T. S.; Herbots, N.; Haynes, T. E.; Appleton, B. R.

    1989-02-01

    Ion beam deposition (IBD) is the direct formation of thin films using a low-energy (tens of eV) mass-analyzed ion beam. The process allows depositions in which the energy, isotopic species, deposition rate, defect production, and many other beam and sample parameters can be accurately controlled. This paper will review recent research at ORNL on the IBD process and the effects of deposition parameters on the materials properties of deposited thin films, epitaxial layers, and isotopic heterostructures. A variety of techniques including ion scattering/channeling, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy has been used for analysis. The fabrication of isotopic heterostructures of 74Ge and 30Si will be discussed, as well as the fabrication of metal and semiconductor overlayers on Si and Ge. The use of IBD for low-temperature epitaxy of 30Si on Si and 76Ge on Ge will be presented. The use of self-ion sputter cleaning and in situ reactive ion cleaning as methods for preparing single-crystal substrates for epitaxial deposition will be discussed. Examples of IBD formation of oxides and suicides on Si at low temperatures will also be presented.

  6. Temperature measurements during high flux ion beam irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-02-16

    A systematic study of the ion beam heating effect was performed in a temperature range of –170 to 900 °C using a 10 MeV Au3+ ion beam and a Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sample at a flux of 5.5 × 1012 cm–2 s–1. Different geometric configurations of beam, sample, thermocouple positioning, and sample holder were compared to understand the heat/charge transport mechanisms responsible for the observed temperature increase. The beam heating exhibited a strong dependence on the background (initial) sample temperature with the largest temperature increases occurring at cryogenic temperatures and decreasing with increasing temperature. Comparison with numerical calculations suggests that the observed heating effect is, in reality, a predominantly electronic effect and the true temperature rise is small. Furthermore, a simple model was developed to explain this electronic effect in terms of an electrostatic potential that forms during ion irradiation. Such an artificial beam heating effect is potentially problematic in thermostated ion irradiation and ion beamanalysis apparatus, as the operation of temperature feedback systems can be significantly distorted by this effect.

  7. Temperature measurements during high flux ion beam irradiations

    DOE PAGES

    Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2016-02-16

    A systematic study of the ion beam heating effect was performed in a temperature range of –170 to 900 °C using a 10 MeV Au3+ ion beam and a Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sample at a flux of 5.5 × 1012 cm–2 s–1. Different geometric configurations of beam, sample, thermocouple positioning, and sample holder were compared to understand the heat/charge transport mechanisms responsible for the observed temperature increase. The beam heating exhibited a strong dependence on the background (initial) sample temperature with the largest temperature increases occurring at cryogenic temperatures and decreasing with increasing temperature. Comparison with numerical calculations suggestsmore » that the observed heating effect is, in reality, a predominantly electronic effect and the true temperature rise is small. Furthermore, a simple model was developed to explain this electronic effect in terms of an electrostatic potential that forms during ion irradiation. Such an artificial beam heating effect is potentially problematic in thermostated ion irradiation and ion beamanalysis apparatus, as the operation of temperature feedback systems can be significantly distorted by this effect.« less

  8. MULTIPLE ELECTRON BEAM ION PUMP AND SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, R.E.

    1962-02-27

    A vacuum pump is designed which operates by ionizing incoming air and by withdrawing the ions from the system by means of electrical fields. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical housing communicable with the vessel to be evacuated and having a thin wall section in one end. Suitable coils provide a longitudinal magnetic field within the cylinder. A broad cathode and an anode structure is provided to establish a plurality of adjacent electron beams which are parallel to the cylinder axis. Electron reflector means are provided so that each of the beams constitutes a PIG or reflex discharge. Such structure provides a large region in which incoming gas molecules may be ionized by electron bombardment. A charged electrode assembly accelerates the ions through the thin window, thereby removing the gas from the system. The invention may also be utilized as a highly efficient ion source. (AEC)

  9. Radioactive Ion Beam Purification by Selective Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, C.; Carter, H. K.; Griffith, B. O.; Reed, C. A.; Kratz, K.-L.; Stora, T.; Stracener, D. W.

    2008-10-01

    Isobaric contaminations in ISOL beams are a recurrent problem in nuclear physics experiments. Surface effects in the transfer line between target and ion source can be employed to achieve additional selectivity. Since interactions of the atoms' outer electrons with the surface determine adsorption behavior it can change drastically within an isobaric chain, introducing a chemical selectivity. Quartz transfer lines are currently applied at ISOLDE to reduce alkali contaminations [1]. We will conduct an on-line study of the adsorption behavior of fission products on a range of materials stable at high temperatures. Therefore a special target--ion source unit with a variable-temperature transfer line and interchangeable liner has been constructed in collaboration with the ISOLDE technical group. Results of first tests using new adsorption materials at the on-line separator test facility at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, ORNL, will be presented. [1] Bouquerel et al., Europ. Phys. J. -- Spec. Top. 150, 277 (2006)

  10. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  11. Spectroscopy of ions using fast beams and ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnington, E H; Trabert, E

    2004-10-01

    A knowledge of the spectra of ionized atoms is of importance in many fields. They can be studied in a wide variety of light sources. In recent years techniques coming under the broad heatings of fast beams and ion traps have been used extensively for such investigations. This article considers the advantages that various techniques have for particular applications.

  12. Warm Dense Matter Experiments Driven by Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S.; Logan, B. G.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.

    2009-11-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. We present results from warm dense matter (WDM) experiments at NDCX-I. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K^+ beam from the NDCX-I accelerator heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to a spot size ˜ 1 mm, and compressed pulse length ˜ 2 ns. The uncompressed beam flux is >=500 kW/cm^2, and the compressed pulse flux is > 5 MW/cm^2. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. Future plans include construction of the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-4 MeV lithium ion beam. We have developed a target chamber and target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, and high-speed gated cameras. We compare measurements of temperature, droplet formation and other target parameters with model predictions. Continued improvements in beam tuning, bunch compression, and other upgrades are expected to yield higher flux on target.

  13. Three dimensional reconstruction of therapeutic carbon ion beams in phantoms using single secondary ion tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Anna Merle; Spindeldreier, Claudia Katharina; Jakubek, Jan; Martišíková, Mária

    2017-06-01

    Carbon ion beam radiotherapy enables a very localised dose deposition. However, even small changes in the patient geometry or positioning errors can significantly distort the dose distribution. A live, non-invasive monitoring system of the beam delivery within the patient is therefore highly desirable, and could improve patient treatment. We present a novel three-dimensional method for imaging the beam in the irradiated object, exploiting the measured tracks of single secondary ions emerging under irradiation. The secondary particle tracks are detected with a TimePix stack—a set of parallel pixelated semiconductor detectors. We developed a three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm based on maximum likelihood expectation maximization. We demonstrate the applicability of the new method in the irradiation of a cylindrical PMMA phantom of human head size with a carbon ion pencil beam of {226} MeV u-1. The beam image in the phantom is reconstructed from a set of nine discrete detector positions between {-80}^\\circ and {50}^\\circ from the beam axis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential to visualize inhomogeneities by irradiating a PMMA phantom with an air gap as well as bone and adipose tissue surrogate inserts. We successfully reconstructed a three-dimensional image of the treatment beam in the phantom from single secondary ion tracks. The beam image corresponds well to the beam direction and energy. In addition, cylindrical inhomogeneities with a diameter of {2.85} cm and density differences down to {0.3} g cm-3 to the surrounding material are clearly visualized. This novel three-dimensional method to image a therapeutic carbon ion beam in the irradiated object does not interfere with the treatment and requires knowledge only of single secondary ion tracks. Even with detectors with only a small angular coverage, the three-dimensional reconstruction of the fragmentation points presented in this work was found to be feasible.

  14. ECR Based Low Energy Ion Beam Facility at VECC, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, G. S.; Chakraborty, D. K.; Ghosh, Subhash; Majhi, S.; Pal, Gautam; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.; Krishna, J. B. M.; Dey, K.; Sinha, A. K.

    2012-11-01

    A low energy heavy ion irradiation/implantation facility has been developed at VECC, Kolkata for materials science and atomic physics research, utilizing indigenously developed 6.4 GHz ECR ion source. The facility provides high charge state ion beams of N, O, Ne, Ar, S, Kr, Xe, Fe, Ti, Hf etc. up to a few micro amperes to an energy of 10 keV per charge state.The beam energy can be further enhanced by floating the target at a negative potential (up to 25 kV). The ion beam is focused to a spot of about 2 mm diameter on the target using a set of glaser lenses. A x-y scanner is used to scan the beam over a target area of 10 mm x 10 mm to obtain uniform implantation. The recently commissioned multi facility sample chamber has provision for mounting multiple samples on indigenously developed disposable beam viewers for insitu beam viewing during implantation. The ionization chamber of ECR source is mainly pumped by ECR plasma. An additional pumping speed has been provided through extraction hole and pumping slots to obtain low base pressure. In the ion source, base pressure of 1x10-7 Torr in injector stage and ~5x10-8 Torr in extraction chamber have been routinely obtained. The ultra-high vacuum multi facility experimental chamber is generally kept at ~ 1x10-7 Torr during implantation on the targets. This facility is a unique tool for studying fundamental and technologically important problems of materials science and atomic physics research. High ion flux available from this machine is suitable for generating high defect densities i.e. high value of displacement-per-atom (dpa). Recently this facility has been used for studies like "Tunability of dielectric constant of conducting polymer Polyaniline (PANI) by low energy Ar9+ irradiation" and "Fe10+ implantation in ZnO for synthesis of dilute magnetic semiconductor".

  15. Review of Cluster Ion Beam Facilities and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Isao; Toyoda, Noriaki

    2009-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of cluster ion beam technology, including historical background, fundamental characteristics of cluster ion to solid surface interactions, emerging industrial applications, and identification of some of the significant events which occurred as the technology has evolved into what it is today. Processes employing ions of clusters comprised of a few hundred to many thousand atoms are now being developed into a new field of ion beam technology. Cluster-surface collisions produce important non-linear effects which are being applied to shallow junction formation, to etching and smoothing of semiconductors, metals, and dielectrics, to assisted formation of thin films with nano-scale accuracy, and to other surface modification applications.

  16. Discrimination of ionic species from broad-beam ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a broad-beam, three-grid, ion extraction system incorporating radio frequency (RF) mass discrimination was investigated experimentally. This testing demonstrated that the system, based on a modified single-stage Bennett mass spectrometer, can discriminate between ionic species having about a 2-to-1 mass ratio while producing a broad-beam of ions with low kinetic energy (less than 15 eV). Testing was conducted using either argon and krypton ions or atomic and diatomic oxygen ions. A simple one-dimensional model, which ignores magnetic field and space-charge effects, was developed to predict the species separation capabilities as well as the kinetic energies of the extracted ions. The experimental results correlated well with the model predictions. This RF mass discrimination system can be used in applications where both atomic and diatomic ions are produced, but a beam of only one of the species is desired. An example of such an application is a 5 eV atomic oxygen source. This source would produce a beam of atomic oxygen with 5 eV kinetic energy, which would be directed onto a material specimen, to simulate the interaction between the surface of a satellite and the rarefied atmosphere encountered in low-Earth orbit.

  17. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  18. Ion beam guiding with straight and curved Teflon tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takao M.; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kanai, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Esaulov, Vladimir A.

    2011-09-01

    In an effort to develop a flexible ion beam guiding scheme, the guiding capabilities of straight and curved Teflon tubes were tested with 8 keV Ar8+ ions. The tubes used were about 50 mm long and of 1 mm/2 mm inner and outer diameters. One was straight, and the others were bent with different radii of curvature corresponding to bending angles from 9.6° to 26.7°. Transmission of several tens of per cent of the injected beam was observed for the curved tubes, while transmission through the tilted straight tube vanished when the tilt was more than 7°. This demonstrates the possibility of efficient ion beam guiding with flexible insulator tubes.

  19. Deposition and surface treatment with intense pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J.; Stinnett, R.W.; McIntyre, D.C.

    1995-02-08

    Intense pulsed ion beams (500 keV, 30 kA, 0.5 {mu}s) are being investigated for materials processing. Demonstrated and potential applications include film deposition, glazing and joining, alloying and mixing, cleaning and polishing, corrosion improvement, polymer surface treatments, and nanophase powder synthesis. Initial experiments at Los Alamos have emphasized thin-film formation by depositing beam ablated target material on substrates. We have deposited films with complex stoichiometry such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, and formed diamond-like-carbon films. Instantaneous deposition rates of 1 mm/sec have been achieved because of the short ion range (typically 1{mu}m), excellent target coupling, and the inherently high energy of these beams. Currently the beams are produced in single shot uncomplicated diodes with good electrical efficiency. High-voltage modulator technology and diodes capable of repetitive firing, needed for commercial application, are being developed.

  20. White Paper on Ion Beam Transport for ICF: Issues, R&D Need,and Tri-Lab Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    2005-05-04

    To date, most resources for ion beam fusion have been devoted to development of accelerators and target physics; relatively few resources have gone into ion beam transport development. Because of theoretical studies and substantial experience with electron beam transport, the ion beam transport community is now poised to develop and optimize ion beam transport for ICF. Because of this Tri-Lab effort, a path for coordinated development of ion beam transport has been established. The rate of progress along this path will now be determined largely by the availability of resources.

  1. High sensitivity charge amplifier for ion beam uniformity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  2. Silicon ion irradiation effects on the magnetic properties of ion beam synthesized CoPt phase

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, S.; Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Mangamma, G.; Kalavathi, S.; Gupta, Ajay; Nair, K. G. M.

    2012-06-05

    Ion beam mixing of Pt/Co bilayers using self ion (Pt{sup +}) beam results in formation of CoPt phase. Upon ion beam annealing the ion mixed samples using 4 MeV Si{sup +} ions at 300 deg. C, diffusion of Co towards the Pt/Co interface is observed. The Si{sup +} ion beam rotates the magnetization of the CoPt phase from in plane to out of plane of the film.

  3. FABRICATION OF BISMUTH NANOWIRE DEVICES USING FOCUSED ION BEAM MILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H. H.; Alkaisi, M. M.; Wu, S. E.; Liu, C. P.

    2009-07-23

    In this work, a focused ion beam (FIB) milling process has been developed to fabricate 50 nm Bi nanowire and transistor structures using FEI-200 dual beam FIB system. For the fabrication, 50 nm bismuth film was thermally evaporated through EBL patterned PMMA windows onto SiO{sub 2} substrates with pre-defined contact pads. Bi nanowire widths ranging from 30 nm to 100 nm have been successfully fabricated by milling out unwanted areas using 30 KeV Ga+ ion beam. A single-pixel-line ion beam blanking technique has been utilised to fabricate Bi nanowire as small as 30 nm in diameter and few micrometers long. In order to form good ohmic contacts for sub 50 nm bismuth nanowires, a drill-and-fill process has been developed using FIB to sputter away the surface oxide of bismuth after the in-situ platinum nanowire contacts deposition. To our knowledge, this is the first time a focused ion beam process has been used to fabricate bismuth nanowire. The fabricated Bi nanowires were electrically characterised using a semiconductor analyser that showed good ohmic contact to the electrodes. In this paper, the fabrication experiments and the characterisation results for Bi nanowires as small as 50 nm in diameter are presented. Several FIB issues involved in Bi device making and ohmic contacts to Bi nanowires will also be discussed.

  4. Ions Beams and Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Anton

    2014-09-01

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40~keV, perveance-dominated Ar$^+$ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50~keV Ar$^+$ beam with pulse duration $<$300~$\\mu$s and dimensionless perveance $Q$ up to 8$\\times$10$^{-4}$. Transverse profile measurements 33~cm downstream of the ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on $Q$ was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5~$\\mu$s. The duration of neutralization was about 10~$\\mu$s at a charging voltage $V_{FEPS}$~=~5.5~kV and 35~$\\mu$s at $V_{FEPS}$~=~6.5~kV. With $V_{FEPS}$~=~6.5~kV, the

  5. Ion energy distribution near a plasma meniscus with beam extraction for multi element focused ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Paul, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2010-05-15

    An earlier study of the axial ion energy distribution in the extraction region (plasma meniscus) of a compact microwave plasma ion source showed that the axial ion energy spread near the meniscus is small ({approx}5 eV) and comparable to that of a liquid metal ion source, making it a promising candidate for focused ion beam (FIB) applications [J. V. Mathew and S. Bhattacharjee, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 96101 (2009)]. In the present work we have investigated the radial ion energy distribution (IED) under the influence of beam extraction. Initially a single Einzel lens system has been used for beam extraction with potentials up to -6 kV for obtaining parallel beams. In situ measurements of IED with extraction voltages upto -5 kV indicates that beam extraction has a weak influence on the energy spread ({+-}0.5 eV) which is of significance from the point of view of FIB applications. It is found that by reducing the geometrical acceptance angle at the ion energy analyzer probe, close to unidirectional distribution can be obtained with a spread that is smaller by at least 1 eV.

  6. The production of accelerated radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-11-01

    During the last few years, substantial work has been done and interest developed in the scientific opportunities available with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for nuclear physics, astrophysics, and applied research. This interest has led to the construction, development, and proposed development of both first- and second-generation RIB facilities in Asia, North America, and Europe; international conferences on RIBs at Berkeley and Louvain-la-Neuve; and many workshops on specific aspects of RIB production and science. This paper provides a discussion of both the projectile fragmentation, PF, and isotope separator on-line, ISOL, approach to RIB production with particular emphasis on the latter approach, which employs a postaccelerator and is most suitable for nuclear structure physics. The existing, under construction, and proposed facilities worldwide are discussed. The paper draws heavily from the CERN ISOLDE work, the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) study, and the operating first-generation RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve, and the first-generation RIB project currently being constructed at ORNL.

  7. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  8. Small radio frequency driven multicusp ion source for positive hydrogen ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.T.; Herz, P.R.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S. )

    1994-04-01

    A compact, 2.5 cm diam rf-driven multicusp ion source has been developed and tested for H[sup +] ion production in pulse mode operation. The source is optimized for atomic hydrogen ion species and extractable current. It is found that hydrogen ion beam current densities in excess of 650 mA/cm[sup 2] can be achieved with H[sup +] species above 80%. The geometry and position of the porcelain-coated copper antenna were found to be of great significance in relation to the efficiency of the ion source.

  9. Channeling technique to make nanoscale ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, V. M.; Bellucci, S.; Guidi, V.

    2005-04-01

    Particle channeling in a bent crystal lattice has led to an efficient instrument for beam steering at accelerators [Biryukov et al., Crystal Channeling and its Application at High Energy Accelerators, Springer, Berlin, 1997], demonstrated from MeV to TeV energies. In particular, crystal focusing of high-energy protons to micron size has been demonstrated at IHEP with the results well in match with Lindhard (critical angle) prediction. Channeling in crystal microstructures has been proposed as a unique source of a microbeam of high-energy particles [Bellucci et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6 (2003) 033502]. Channeling in nanostructures (single-wall and multi-wall nanotubes) offers the opportunities to produce ion beams on nanoscale. Particles channeled in a nanotube (with typical diameter of about 1 nm) are trapped in two dimensions and can be steered (deflected, focused) with the efficiency similar to that of crystal channeling or better. This technique has been a subject of computer simulations, with experimental efforts under way in several high-energy labs, including IHEP. We present the theoretical outlook for making channeling-based nanoscale ion beams and report the experience with crystal-focused microscale proton beams.

  10. Funnel cone for focusing intense ion beams on a target

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.

    2009-10-05

    We describe a funnel cone for concentrating an ion beam on a target. The cone utilizes the reflection characteristic of ion beams on solid walls to focus the incident beam andincrease beam intensity on target. The cone has been modeled with the TRIM code. A prototype has been tested and installed for use in the 350-keV K+ NDCX target chamber.

  11. Laser-accelerated ion beam diagnostics with TOF detectors for the ELIMED beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milluzzo, G.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A. G.; Borghesi, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Doria, D.; Dostal, J.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Romagnani, L.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Velyhan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams could represent the future of particle acceleration in several multidisciplinary applications, as for instance medical physics, hadrontherapy and imaging field, being a concrete alternative to old paradigm of acceleration, characterized by huge and complex machines. In this framework, following on from the ELIMED collaboration, launched in 2012 between INFN-LNS and ELI-Beamlines, in 2014 a three-years contract has been signed between the two institutions for the design and the development of a complete transport beam-line for high-energy ion beams (up to 60 MeV) coupled with innovative diagnostics and in-air dosimetry devices. The beam-line will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility and will be available for users. The measurement of the beam characteristics, such as energy spectra, angular distributions and dose-rate is mandatory to optimize the transport as well as the beam delivery at the irradiation point. In order to achieve this purpose, the development of appropriate on-line diagnostics devices capable to detect high-pulsed beams with high accuracy, represents a crucial point in the ELIMED beamline development. The diagnostics solution, based on the use of silicon carbide (SiC) and diamond detectors using TOF technique, will be presented together with the preliminary results obtained with laser-accelerated proton beams.

  12. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-06-15

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission.

  13. Ion beam modification of aromatic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukushima, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Shinya; Matsumoto, Yasuyo; Hibino, Yutaka

    1993-06-01

    We studied the optical, mechanical and thermal properties of aromatic polymer films which had been irradiated with 1 MeV H +, H 2+ and He + ions. The examined aromatic polymers were polyetherether ketone (PEEK), polyetherimide (PEI), polycther sulfon (PES), polysulfon (PSF), and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS). The optical densities at 300 nm of PES greatly increased after the irradiation. The optical densities at 400 nm of all the examined polymer linearly increased with the irradiation dose. Elongations of all the polymers at room temperature were reduced after irradiation. The PEEK film which had been irradiated with 1 MeV H + was not deformed above the melting point. This demonstrates that cross-linking occurs in PEEK films by ion beam irradiation. As for the effects, depending on the mass of the irradiated ions, it was found that the ions with a high mass induced larger effects on the arematic polymers for the same absorption energy.

  14. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  15. Production of an 15O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-01

    In advanced ion therapy, the 15O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an 15O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable 16O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors' group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of 15O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of 15O fragments. The highest production rate of 15O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the 15O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is sufficiently high. In-beam PET imaging was also

  16. Spin Observables in Reactions with Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Urrego Blanco, Juan Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Polarization observables in nuclear reactions with exotic nuclei will provide important information concerning structural properties of nuclei and reaction mechanisms. We are currently engaged in exploring the use of polarization observables with radioactive ion beams and in the development of a polarized cryogenic target.

  17. Slowing down of an ion beam in a background plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsham, D.; Ross, T. J.; Rynn, N.

    1996-07-01

    The slowing down of a barium ion beam into two different plasma backgrounds was measured using laser-induced fluorescence. The measurements were performed in a Q machine (Ti=Te=0.2 eV, 6×1010≤nback≤1.2×1010 cm-3), where a barium ion beam, with energy 0-40 eV, was injected, parallel to the confining magnetic field, into both a cesium and a lithium plasma. In order to treat the ion beam as a class of test particles, the ion beam density was maintained at approximately two orders of magnitude below the density of the background plasma. Measured changes in the velocity profile of the ion beam agrees well with the predictions of the Fokker-Planck for both nearly equal mass beam and background ions as well as for a background ion with approximately 1/20th the mass of the beam ion.

  18. Upgrade of the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Yang, Y; Xiao, J; Shen, Y; Fu, Y; Wei, B; Yao, K; Hutton, R; Zou, Y

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years the Shanghai electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been successfully redesigned and rebuilt. The original machine, developed under collaboration with the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, first produced an electron beam in 2005. It could be tuned with electron energies between 1 and 130 keV and beam current up to 160 mA. After several years of operation, it was found that several modifications for improvements were necessary to reach the goals of better electron optics, higher photon detection, and ion injection efficiencies, and more economical running costs. The upgraded Shanghai-EBIT is made almost entirely from Ti instead of stainless steel and achieves a vacuum of less than 10(-10) Torr, which helps to minimize the loss of highly changed ions through charge exchange. Meanwhile, a more compact structure and efficient cryogenic system, and excellent optical alignment have been of satisfactory. The magnetic field in the central trap region can reach up till 4.8 T with a uniformity of 2.77 × 10(-4). So far the upgraded Shanghai-EBIT has been operated up to an electron energy of 151 keV and a beam current of up to 218 mA, although promotion to even higher energy is still in progress. Radiation from ions as highly charged as Xe(53+, 54+) has been produced and the characterization of current density is estimated from the measured electron beam width.

  19. Upgrade of the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.; Yang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Shen, Y.; Fu, Y.; Wei, B.; Yao, K.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2014-09-15

    Over the last few years the Shanghai electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been successfully redesigned and rebuilt. The original machine, developed under collaboration with the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, first produced an electron beam in 2005. It could be tuned with electron energies between 1 and 130 keV and beam current up to 160 mA. After several years of operation, it was found that several modifications for improvements were necessary to reach the goals of better electron optics, higher photon detection, and ion injection efficiencies, and more economical running costs. The upgraded Shanghai-EBIT is made almost entirely from Ti instead of stainless steel and achieves a vacuum of less than 10{sup −10} Torr, which helps to minimize the loss of highly changed ions through charge exchange. Meanwhile, a more compact structure and efficient cryogenic system, and excellent optical alignment have been of satisfactory. The magnetic field in the central trap region can reach up till 4.8 T with a uniformity of 2.77 × 10{sup −4}. So far the upgraded Shanghai-EBIT has been operated up to an electron energy of 151 keV and a beam current of up to 218 mA, although promotion to even higher energy is still in progress. Radiation from ions as highly charged as Xe{sup 53+,} {sup 54+} has been produced and the characterization of current density is estimated from the measured electron beam width.

  20. Upgrade of the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, D.; Yang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Shen, Y.; Fu, Y.; Wei, B.; Yao, K.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years the Shanghai electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been successfully redesigned and rebuilt. The original machine, developed under collaboration with the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, first produced an electron beam in 2005. It could be tuned with electron energies between 1 and 130 keV and beam current up to 160 mA. After several years of operation, it was found that several modifications for improvements were necessary to reach the goals of better electron optics, higher photon detection, and ion injection efficiencies, and more economical running costs. The upgraded Shanghai-EBIT is made almost entirely from Ti instead of stainless steel and achieves a vacuum of less than 10-10 Torr, which helps to minimize the loss of highly changed ions through charge exchange. Meanwhile, a more compact structure and efficient cryogenic system, and excellent optical alignment have been of satisfactory. The magnetic field in the central trap region can reach up till 4.8 T with a uniformity of 2.77 × 10-4. So far the upgraded Shanghai-EBIT has been operated up to an electron energy of 151 keV and a beam current of up to 218 mA, although promotion to even higher energy is still in progress. Radiation from ions as highly charged as Xe53+, 54+ has been produced and the characterization of current density is estimated from the measured electron beam width.

  1. Liquid metal alloy ion sources—An alternative for focussed ion beam technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, Lothar; Mazarov, Paul Bruchhaus, Lars; Gierak, Jacques

    2016-06-15

    Today, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing is nearly exclusively based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, many applications in the μm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis, or Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL). Therefore, Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB. Especially, the IBL process shows potential advantages over, e.g., electron beam or other lithography techniques: direct, resistless, and three-dimensional patterning, enabling a simultaneous in-situ process control by cross-sectioning and inspection. Taking additionally into account that the used ion species influences significantly the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures—in particular, the electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanic properties leading to a large potential application area which can be tuned by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Nearly half of the elements of the periodic table are recently available in the FIB technology as a result of continuous research in this area during the last forty years. Key features of a LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness, and stable ion current. Recent developments could make these sources feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry. The authors will review existing LMAIS, LMIS other than Ga, and binary and ternary alloys. These physical properties as well as the fabrication technology and prospective domains for modern FIB applications will similarly be reviewed. Other emerging ion sources will be also presented and their performances discussed.

  2. Liquid metal alloy ion sources—An alternative for focussed ion beam technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Lothar; Mazarov, Paul; Bruchhaus, Lars; Gierak, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Today, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing is nearly exclusively based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, many applications in the μm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis, or Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL). Therefore, Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB. Especially, the IBL process shows potential advantages over, e.g., electron beam or other lithography techniques: direct, resistless, and three-dimensional patterning, enabling a simultaneous in-situ process control by cross-sectioning and inspection. Taking additionally into account that the used ion species influences significantly the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures—in particular, the electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanic properties leading to a large potential application area which can be tuned by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Nearly half of the elements of the periodic table are recently available in the FIB technology as a result of continuous research in this area during the last forty years. Key features of a LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness, and stable ion current. Recent developments could make these sources feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry. The authors will review existing LMAIS, LMIS other than Ga, and binary and ternary alloys. These physical properties as well as the fabrication technology and prospective domains for modern FIB applications will similarly be reviewed. Other emerging ion sources will be also presented and their performances discussed.

  3. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, H. Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.; Musumeci, F.

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  4. Recombination characteristics of therapeutic ion beams on ion chamber dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Matsuyama, Tetsuharu; Sato, Shinji; Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    In heavy ion radiotherapy, ionization chambers are regarded as a standard for determining the absorbed dose given to patients. In ion dosimetry, it is necessary to correct the radiation quality, which depends on the initial recombination effect. This study reveals for the radiation quality dependence of the initial recombination in air in ion dosimetry. Ionization charge was measured for the beams of protons at 40-160 MeV, carbon at 21-400 MeV/n, and iron at 23.5-500 MeV/n using two identical parallel-plate ionization chambers placed in series along the beam axis. The downstream chamber was used as a monitor operated with a constant applied voltage, while the other chamber was used for recombination measurement by changing the voltage. The ratio of the ionization charge measured by the two ionization chambers showed a linear relationship with the inverse of the voltage in the high-voltage region. The initial recombination factor was estimated by extrapolating the obtained linear relationship to infinite voltage. The extent of the initial recombination was found to increase with decreasing incident energy or increasing atomic number of the beam. This behavior can be explained with an amorphous track structure model: the increase of ionization density in the core region of the track due to decreasing kinetic energy or increasing atomic number leads to denser initial ion production and results in a higher recombination probability. For therapeutic carbon ion beams, the extent of the initial recombination was not constant but changed by 0.6% even in the target region. This tendency was quantitatively well reproduced with the track-structure based on the initial recombination model; however, the transitional change in the track structure is considered to play an important role in further understanding of the characteristics of the initial recombination.

  5. The SPES radioactive ion beam project of INFN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, Giacomo; Spes Collaboration; Prete, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Lollo, M.; Calderolla, M.; Vasquez, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Sarchiapone, L.; Benini, D.; Favaron, P.; Rigato, M.; Pegoraro, R.; Maniero, D.; Calabretta, L.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Lombardi, A.; Piazza, L.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G.; Pisent, A.; Galatà, A.; Giacchini, M.; Bassato, G.; Canella, S.; Gramegna, F.; Valiente, J.; Bermudez, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Esposito, J.; Wyss, J.; Russo, A.; Zanella, S.

    2014-07-01

    The SPES Radioactive Ion Beam facility at INFN-LNL is presently in the construction phase. The facility is based on the Isol (Isotope separation on-line) method with an UCx Direct Target able to sustain a power of 10 kW. The primary proton beam is provided by a high current Cyclotron accelerator with energy of 35-70 MeV and a beam current of 0.20.5 mA. Neutron-rich radioactive ions are produced by proton induced Uranium fission at an expected fission rate of the order of 1013 fissions per second. After ionization and selection the exotic isotopes are re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting Linac at energies of 10A MeV for masses in the region A = 130 amu. The expected secondary beam rates are of the order of 107 - 109 pps. Aim of the SPES project is to provide a facility for high intensity radioactive ion beams for nuclear physics research as well as to develop an interdisciplinary research center based on the cyclotron proton beam.

  6. Beam Instrument Development System

    SciTech Connect

    DOOLITTLE, LAWRENCE; HUANG, GANG; DU, QIANG; SERRANO, CARLOS

    2016-01-08

    Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.

  7. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for

  8. Dispensing targets for ion beam particle generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A target for dispensing high energy protons or neutrons or ionized atoms or ionized molecules is provided which comprises a container for the target gas, which is at atmospheric or higher pressure. The container material can release the target gas in the spot where the container is heated above a predetermined temperature by the impact of an ion beam where protons or neutrons are desired, or by electrons where ionized atoms or molecules are desired. On the outside of the container, except for the region where the beam is to impact, there is deposited a layer of a metal which is imperious to gaseous diffusion. A further protective coating of a material is placed over the layer of metal, except at the region of the ion impact area in order to adsorb any unreacted gas in the vacuum in which the target is placed, to thereby prevent reduction of the high vacuum, as well as contamination of the interior of the vacuum chamber.

  9. Ion-beam-assisted etching of diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efremow, N. N.; Geis, M. W.; Flanders, D. C.; Lincoln, G. A.; Economou, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    The high thermal conductivity, low RF loss, and inertness of diamond make it useful in traveling wave tubes operating in excess of 500 GHz. Such use requires the controlled etching of type IIA diamond to produce grating like structures tens of micrometers deep. Previous work on reactive ion etching with O2 gave etching rates on the order of 20 nm/min and poor etch selectivity between the masking material (Ni or Cr) and the diamond. An alternative approach which uses a Xe(+) beam and a reactive gas flux of NO2 in an ion-beam-assisted etching system is reported. An etching rate of 200 nm/min was obtained with an etching rate ratio of 20 between the diamond and an aluminum mask.

  10. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Kim, J S

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  11. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  12. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L. Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-15

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  13. Broad-beam, high current, metal ion implantation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a high current metal ion implantation facility with which high current beams of virtually all the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be produced. The facility makes use of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source which is operated in a pulsed mode, with pulse width 0.25 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion charge state multiplicity; beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we describe the facility and some of the implants that have been carried out using it, including the seeding' of silicon wafers prior to CVD with titanium, palladium or tungsten, the formation of buried iridium silicide layers, and actinide (uranium and thorium) doping of III-V compounds. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for surface enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, R.W.; McIntyre, D.C.; Buchheit, R.G.; Neau, E.L.; Greenly, J.B.; Thompson, M.O.; Johnston, G.P.; Rej, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--350 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling the authors to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed ({<=}250 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (10{sup 9}--10{sup 10} K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. The authors conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, noncrystalline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning using pulsed ion beams.

  15. Ion reflection by shock waves and pulse generation by cross-field ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    Comparisons are made of two different particle simulations: one for the study of plasma-based accelerators (Gueroult & Fisch, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 23, 2016, 032113) and the other for the study of shock formation in the interstellar medium (Yamauchi & Ohsawa, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 14, 2007, 053110). In the former, shock waves used for plasma density control create ion beams by reflection. In the latter, a fast and dense beam of exploding ions penetrates a surrounding plasma. In both simulations, magnetic bumps are generated from the motion of ion beams perpendicular to a magnetic field. Despite the apparent differences of their purposes, configurations and spatial scales, the two simulations show strong similarities in the generation processes and effects of the bumps, suggesting that these are not rare plasma phenomena. The bump created by the exploding ions develops into backward and forward magnetosonic pulses.

  16. Ion beam analysis of sialon ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickridge, I. C.; Brown, I. W. M.; Ekström, T. C.; Trompetter, W. J.

    1996-09-01

    Sialons, or silicon-aluminium-oxy-nitrides, are a family of materials that have exceptional high temperature mechanical and tribological properties, but which are susceptible to oxidation. Ion beam analysis is an ideal tool to study the composition of the altered surface layer of sialons after oxidation. In particular simultaneous detection of gamma rays, charged particles, and X-rays induced by 1.4 MeV deuterons allows an almost complete picture of the composition to be obtained.

  17. Radioactive Ion Beams at INFN Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Calabretta, L.; Celona, L.; Chines, F.; Cosentino, L.; Cuttone, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maggiore, M.; Pappalardo, A.; Piazza, L.; Re, M.; Rifuggiato, D.; Rovelli, A.; Pappalardo, A.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Biasetto, L.; Manzolaro, M.; Sarchiapone, L.; Galata, A.; Lombardi, A.

    2010-04-30

    The LNS and the LNL are the two laboratories of INFN devoted to the research on nuclear physics. Since the 1995 the LNS are involved in the design and construction of the Radioactive Ion Beam facilities called EXCYT. In the early of 2000 the LNL starts a project for second generation RIB facilities called SPES. In the 2004 at the LNS we start also the production of RIB by in flight fragmentation. Here the status and perspective of these three projects are presented.

  18. Biophysical models in ion beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Michael; Elsässer, Thilo

    One major rationale for the application of heavy ion beams in tumor therapy is their increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the Bragg peak region. For dose prescription, the increased effectiveness has to be taken into account in treatment planning. Hence, the complex dependencies of RBE on the dose level, biological endpoint, position in the field etc. require biophysical models, which have to fulfill two important criteria: simplicity and quantitative precision. Simplicity means that the number of free parameters should be kept at a minimum. Due to the lack of precise quantitative data, at least at present, this requirement is incompatible with approaches aiming at the molecular modeling of the whole chain of production, processing and repair of biological damages. Quantitative precision is required since steep gradients in the dose response curves are observed for most tumor and normal tissues; thus, even small uncertainties in the estimation of the biologically effective dose can transform into large uncertainties in the clinical outcome. The paper will give a general introduction into the field, followed by a description of a specific model, the so called 'Local Effect Model' (LEM). This model has been successfully applied within treatment planning in the GSI pilot project for carbon ion tumor therapy over almost 10 years now. The model is based on the knowledge of charged particle track structure in combination with the response of the cells or tissues under consideration to conventional photon radiation. The model is compared to other approaches developed for the calculation of the biological effects of high-LET radiation. Furthermore, recent improvements of the model are described. Due to the quantitative precision, besides applications in tumor therapy the LEM seems to be adequate for the calculation of stochastic radiation effects, i.e. in the framework of radiation protection. Examples for the calculation of cell transformation are

  19. Enhancing secondary ion yields in time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry using water cluster primary beams.

    PubMed

    Sheraz née Rabbani, Sadia; Barber, Andrew; Fletcher, John S; Lockyer, Nicholas P; Vickerman, John C

    2013-06-18

    Low secondary ion yields from organic and biological molecules are the principal limitation on the future exploitation of time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) as a surface and materials analysis technique. On the basis of the hypothesis that increasing the density of water related fragments in the ion impact zone would enhance proton mediated reactions, a prototype water cluster ion beam has been developed using supersonic jet expansion methodologies that enable ion yields using a 10 keV (H2O)1000(+) beam to be compared with those obtained using a 10 keV Ar1000(+) beam. The ion yields from four standard compounds, arginine, haloperidol, DPPC, and angiotensin II, have been measured under static+ and high ion dose conditions. Ion yield enhancements relative to the argon beam on the order of 10 or more have been observed for all the compounds such that the molecular ion yield per a 1 μm pixel can be as high as 20, relative to 0.05 under an argon beam. The water beam has also been shown to partially lift the matrix effect in a 1:10 mixture of haloperidol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) that suppresses the haloperidol signal. These results provide encouragement that further developments of the water cluster beam to higher energies and larger cluster sizes will provide the ion yield enhancements necessary for the future development of TOF-SIMS.

  20. Reduction of a beam diameter by decreasing the divergence angle of an incident beam in a compact ion microbeam system producing several-hundred-keV beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Ohkubo, Takeru; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2017-08-01

    A compact ion microbeam system, which comprises a three-stage acceleration lens and a duoplasmatron-type ion source and produces beam of several hundred kiloelectron-volts, has been developed to form a beam that has a diameter of several micrometers. Previous studies have indicated that a small divergence angle of an incident beam is required to improve the demagnification of the three-stage acceleration lens. A simulation of an ion beam extraction demonstrated that the optimum distance between the anode and the extraction electrode in the ion source could lead to an ion beam being generated with the smallest possible divergence angle. As a result, a hydrogen beam with a 2.6 μm diameter was experimentally produced at 120 keV.

  1. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  2. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  3. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E.; Peng, S. X. Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  4. LASER BEAM PROFILE MONITOR DEVELOPMENT AT BNL FOR SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GASSNER,D.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; PENG,S.; SIKORA,R.

    2002-05-06

    A beam profile monitor for H-beams based on laser photoneutralization is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for use on the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. An H ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV and can be neutralized by light from a Nd:YAG laser (h=1064nm). To measure beam profiles, a narrow laser beam is passed through the ion beam neutralizing a portion of the H-beam struck by the laser. The laser trajectory is stepped across the ion beam. At each laser position, the reduction of the beam current caused by the laser is measured. A proof-of-principle experiment was done earlier at 750keV. This paper reports on measurements made on 200MeV beam at BNL and with a compact scanner prototype at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab on beam from the SNS RFQ.

  5. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Jeff C.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions involving radioactive nuclei play an important role in explosive stellar events such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts. The development of accelerated, proton-rich radioactive ion beams provides a tool for directly studying many of the reactions that fuel explosive hydrogen burning. The experimental nuclear astrophysics program at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is centered on absolute cross section measurements of these reactions with radioactive ion beams. Beams of F-17 and F-18, important nuclei in the hot-CNO cycle, are currently under development at HRIBF. Progress in the production of intense radioactive fluorine beams is reported. The Daresbury Recoil Separator (DRS) has been installed at HRIBF as the primary experimental station for nuclear astrophysics experiments. The DRS will be used to measure reactions in inverse kinematics with the techniques of direct recoil detection, delayed-activity recoil detection, and recoil-gamma coincidence measurements. The first astrophysics experiments to be performed at HRIBF, mA the application of the recoil separator in these measurements, are discussed.

  6. A high-performance electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi,J.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McCafferty, D.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A. I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Syndstrup, L.

    2009-06-08

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, a high current Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has been developed as part of a new preinjector that is under construction to replace the Tandem Van de Graaffs as the heavy ion preinjector for the RHIC and NASA experimental programs. This preinjector will produce milliampere-level currents of essentially any ion species, with q/A {ge} 1/6, in short pulses, for injection into the Booster synchrotron. In order to produce the required intensities, this EBIS uses a 10A electron gun, and an electron collector designed to handle 300 kW of pulsed electron beam power. The EBIS trap region is 1.5 m long, inside a 5T, 2m long, 8-inch bore superconducting solenoid. The source is designed to switch ion species on a pulse-to-pulse basis, at a 5 Hz repetition rate. Singly-charged ions of the appropriate species, produced external to the EBIS, are injected into the trap and confined until the desired charge state is reached via stepwise ionization by the electron beam. Ions are then extracted and matched into an RFQ, followed by a short IH Linac, for acceleration to 2 MeV/A, prior to injection into the Booster synchrotron. An overview of the preinjector is presented, along with experimental results from the prototype EBIS, where all essential requirements have already been demonstrated. Design features and status of construction of the final high intensity EBIS is also be presented.

  7. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N. Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T.

    2016-02-15

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P{sup +} beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P{sup +} beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH{sub 3} gas.

  8. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T.

    2016-02-01

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P+ beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P+ beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH3 gas.

  9. Large areas elemental mapping by ion beam analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. F.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Curado, J. F.; Allegro, P.; Moro, M. V.; Campos, P. H. O. V.; Santos, S. B.; Kajiya, E. A. M.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The external beam line of the Laboratory for Material Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI) is a versatile setup for multi-technique analysis. X-ray detectors for Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) measurements, a Gamma-ray detector for Particle Induced Gamma- ray Emission (PIGE), and a particle detector for scattering analysis, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), were already installed. In this work, we present some results, using a large (60-cm range) XYZ computer controlled sample positioning system, completely developed and build in our laboratory. The XYZ stage was installed at the external beam line and its high spacial resolution (better than 5 μm over the full range) enables positioning the sample with high accuracy and high reproducibility. The combination of a sub-millimeter beam with the large range XYZ robotic stage is being used to produce elemental maps of large areas in samples like paintings, ceramics, stones, fossils, and all sort of samples. Due to its particular characteristics, this is a unique device in the sense of multi-technique analysis of large areas. With the continuous development of the external beam line at LAMFI, coupled to the robotic XYZ stage, it is becoming a robust and reliable option for regular analysis of trace elements (Z > 5) competing with the traditional in-vacuum ion-beam-analysis with the advantage of automatic rastering.

  10. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  11. Quantitative low-energy ion beam characterization by beam profiling and imaging via scintillation screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, S.; Pietag, F.; Polak, J.; Arnold, T.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents the imaging and characterization of low-current ion beams in the neutralized state monitored via single crystal YAG:Ce (Y3Al5O12) scintillators. To validate the presented beam diagnostic tool, Faraday cup measurements and test etchings were performed. Argon ions with a typical energy of 1.0 keV were emitted from an inductively coupled radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) ion beam source with total currents of some mA. Different beam properties, such as, lateral ion current density, beam divergence angle, and current density in pulsed ion beams have been studied to obtain information about the spatial beam profile and the material removal rate distribution. We observed excellent imaging properties with the scintillation screen and achieved a detailed characterization of the neutralized ion beam. A strong correlation between the scintillator light output, the ion current density, and the material removal rate could be observed.

  12. Transport of intense beams of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, M.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Spadtke, P.; Tinschert, K.

    2005-10-01

    The new generation of ion sources delivers beams with intensities of several mA. This requires a careful design of the analysing system and the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) from the source to the subsequent systems. At INFN-LNS, high intensity proton sources (TRIPS [L. Celona, G. Ciavola, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1423 (2004)], PM-TRIPS [G. Ciavola, L. Celona, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1453 (2004)]) as well as ECR ion sources for the production of highly charged high-intensity heavy ion beams are developed (SERSE [S. Gammino, G. Ciavola, L. Celona et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(11) 4090 (2001), and references therein], GyroSERSE [S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1637 (2004)], MS-ECRIS [G. Ciavola et al ., (2005), 11th Int. Conf. on Ion Sources, Caen, (in press)]). In this paper, we present ion-optical design studies of various LEBT systems for ion-sources devoted to the production of intense beams. Calculations were performed using the computer codes GIOS [H. Wollnik, J. Brezina and M. Berz, NIM A 258 (1987)], GICO [M. Berz, H.C. Hoffmann, and H. Wollnik, NIM A 258 (1987)], and TRANSPORT [K.L. Brown, F. Rothacker and D.C. Carey, SLAC-R-95-462, Fermilab-Pub-95/069, UC-414 (1995)]. Simulations take into account the expected phase space growth of the beam emittance due to space-charge effects and image aberrations introduced by the magnetic elements.

  13. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-19

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  14. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-01

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  15. Longitudinal beam dynamics for heavy ion fusion using WARPrz

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

    1993-02-22

    WARPrz is a 2.5 dimensional, cylindrically symmetric, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code. It is part of the WARP family of codes which has been developed to study heavy ion fusion driver issues. WARPrz is being used to study the longitudinal dynamics of heavy ion beams including a longitudinal instability that is driven by the impedance of the LINAC accelerating modules. This instability is of concern because it can enhance longitudinal momentum spread; chromatic abhoration in the lens system restricts the amount of momentum spread allowed in the beam in the final focusing system. The impedance of the modules is modeled by a continuum of resistors and capacitors in parallel in WARPrz. We discuss simulations of this instability including the effect of finite temperature and reflection of perturbations off the beam ends. We also discuss intermittency of axial confining fields (``ears`` fields) as a seed for this instability.

  16. Ion Beam Analysis of Targets Used in Controlatron Neutron Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, James C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Walla, Lisa A.; Walsh, David S.

    2009-03-10

    Controlatron neutron generators are used for testing neutron detection systems at Sandia National Laboratories. To provide for increased tube lifetimes for the moderate neutron flux output of these generators, metal hydride (ZrT{sub 2}) target fabrication processes have been developed. To provide for manufacturing quality control of these targets, ion beam analysis techniques are used to determine film composition. The load ratios (i.e. T/Zr concentration ratios) of ZrT{sub 2} Controlatron neutron generator targets have been successfully measured by simultaneously acquiring RBS and ERD data using a He{sup ++} beam energy of 10 MeV. Several targets were measured and the film thicknesses obtained from RBS measurements agreed within {+-}2% with Dektak profilometer measurements. The target fabrication process and ion beam analysis techniques will be presented.

  17. Ion Beam Analysis of Targets Used in Controlatron Neutron Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, James C.; Walla, Lisa A.; Walsh, David S.; Doyle, Barney L.

    2009-03-01

    Controlatron neutron generators are used for testing neutron detection systems at Sandia National Laboratories. To provide for increased tube lifetimes for the moderate neutron flux output of these generators, metal hydride (ZrT2) target fabrication processes have been developed. To provide for manufacturing quality control of these targets, ion beam analysis techniques are used to determine film composition. The load ratios (i.e. T/Zr concentration ratios) of ZrT2 Controlatron neutron generator targets have been successfully measured by simultaneously acquiring RBS and ERD data using a He++ beam energy of 10 MeV. Several targets were measured and the film thicknesses obtained from RBS measurements agreed within ±2% with Dektak profilometer measurements. The target fabrication process and ion beam analysis techniques will be presented.

  18. Evolution of tungsten film deposition induced by focused ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfischer, H.; Basnar, B.; Hutter, H.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2002-07-01

    identified by the model. Because the model shows excellent agreement with the measurement it should be suitable for a further survey of focused ion beam process development. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  19. Negative Decaborane Ion Beam from ITEP Bernas Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Batalin, V. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Koslov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Koshelev, V. A.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Oks, E. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Poole, H. J.

    2007-08-10

    A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past two and a half years with a couple of Russian institutions. The ultimate goal of the effort is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state antimony and phosphorous ions to meet high-energy implantation requirements. For low energy ion implantation, R and D efforts have involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and a smaller current of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Though of scientific interest, negative decaborane ions did not attract interest from industry, since the semiconductor ion implant industry seems to have solved the wafer-charging problem. This paper describes conditions under which negative decaborane ions are formed and extracted from a Bernas ion source.

  20. Modeling FAMA ion beam diagnostics based on the Ptolemy II model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvanović, R.; Beličev, P.; Radjenović, B.

    2012-10-01

    The previously developed model of ion beam transport control of the FAMA facility is further enhanced by equipping it with the model of ion beam diagnostics. The model of control, executing once, is adjusted so that it executes in iterative mode, where each iteration samples the input beam normally distributed over initial phase space and calculates a single trajectory through the facility beam lines. The model takes into account only the particles that manage to pass through all the beam line apertures, emulating in this way a Faraday cup and a beam profile meter. Generated are also beam phase space distributions and horizontal and vertical beam profiles at the end of the beam transport lines the FAMA facility consists of. By adding the model of ion beam diagnostics to the model of ion beam transport control, the process of determining optimal ion beam control parameters is eased and speeded up, and the understanding of influence of control parameters on the ion beam characteristics is improved.

  1. Electron Cloud Effects in Intense, Ion Beam Linacs Theory and Experimental Planning for HIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molvik, A. W.; Cohen, R. H.; Lund, S. M.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Lee, E. P.

    2002-05-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators for HIF will operate at high aperture-fill factors with high beam current and long pulses. This will lead to beam ions impacting walls: liberating gas molecules and secondary electrons. Theory and particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons, from ionization of residual and desorbed gas and secondary electrons from vacuum walls, will be radially trapped in the approximately 4 kV ion beam potential. Diagnostics are being developed tto measure the energy and flux of electrons and gas evolved from walls, and the net charge and gas density within magnetic quadrupoles, as well as their effect on the ion beam.

  2. Ion Beam Collimation For Improved Resolution In Associated Particle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, Amy; Ji, Qing

    2011-06-01

    Beam spot size on target for a Penning ion source has been measured under different source operating pressures as a function of the extraction channel length and beam energy. A beam halo/core structure was observed for ion extraction at low extraction voltages, and was greatly reduced at higher beam energy. Collimation through use of longer extraction channels results in reduced ion current on target; the resultant reduction in neutron yield for an API system driven by such an ion source can be compensated for by use of even higher beam energies.

  3. High power targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W. L.; Drake, D. M.; Wilson, M. T.; Walker, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.

    1999-04-26

    Issues are discussed in producing intense Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) approach, based on the use of thick targets employed at existing facilities. Some new physics studies may possibly be addressed by improving the performance of these existing targets through improvements in release and effusion properties to optimize the RIB yields. It is, however, acknowledged that many desired physics objectives using RIB can be met only by employing production beams of energetic light ions or protons with currents up to 100 {mu}A. Development of targets that use such intense production beams needs to address the requirement to control operational temperatures derived from internal production beam interactions with the target materials. In addition, issues arise for target materials in terms of their thermal characteristics, such as thermal conductivity and thermo-mechanical properties. A target concept is described for an in-beam test of a prototype target for actual thermal behavior under RIB production conditions. For such a test, a high-power test facility is needed; fortunately, the prototypical production beam currents required exist at the TRIUMF accelerator facility. An experimental proposal has been approved for such a test.

  4. Test bed ion engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Deininger, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A test bed ion (TBI) engine was developed to serve as a tool in exploring the limits of electrostatic ion thruster performance. A description of three key ion engine components, the decoupled extraction and amplified current (DE-AC) accelerator system, field enhanced refractory metal (FERM) hollow cathode and divergent line cusp (DLC) discharge chamber, whose designs and operating philosophies differ markedly from conventional thruster technology is given. Significant program achievements were: (1) high current density DE-AC accelerator system operation at low electric field stress with indicated feasibility of a 60 mA/sq cm argon ion beam; (2) reliable FERM cathode start up times of 1 to 2 secs. and demonstrated 35 ampere emission levels; (3) DLC discharge chamber plasma potentials negative of anode potential; and (4) identification of an efficient high plasma density engine operating mode. Using the performance projections of this program and reasonable estimates of other parameter values, a 1.0 Newton thrust ion engine is identified as a realizable technology goal. Calculations show that such an engine, comparable in beam area to a J series 30 cm thruster, could, operating on Xe or Hg, have thruster efficiencies as high as 0.76 and 0.78 respectively, with a 100 eV/ion discharge loss.

  5. Simulation Studies of Beam-Beam Effects of a Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider Based on CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhong Zhang,Ji Qiang

    2009-05-01

    The collective beam-beam effect can potentially cause a rapid growth of beam sizes and reduce the luminosity of a collider to an unacceptably low level. The ELIC, a proposed ultra high luminosity electron-ion collider based on CEBAF, employs high repetition rate crab crossing colliding beams with very small bunch transverse sizes and very short bunch lengths, and collides them at up to 4 interaction points with strong final focusing. All of these features can make the beam-beam effect challenging. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect in ELIC using a self-consistent strong-strong beam-beam simulation code developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This simulation study is used for validating the ELIC design and for searching for an optimal parameter set.

  6. Highly Compressed Ion Beam for High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Caporaso, G.J.; Celata, C.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich I.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, R.W.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Nelson, S.D.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.; Reginato,L.R.; Renk, T.; Rose, D.; Seessler, A.; Staples, J.W.; Tabak, M.; Thoma,C.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.; Wurtele, J.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-05-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach they are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target ''foils,'' which may in fact be foams with mean densities 1% to 10% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI Darmstadt, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrically target. They present the beam requirements for Warm Dense Matter experiments. The authors discuss neutralized drift compression and final focus experiments and modeling. They describe suitable accelerator architectures based on Drift-Tube Linac, RF, single-gap, Ionization-Front Accelerator, and Pulse-Line Ion Accelerator concepts. The last of these is being pursued experimentally. Finally, they discuss plans toward a user facility for target experiments.

  7. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    The potential for understanding spectacular stellar explosions such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts will be greatly enhanced by the availability of the low-energy, high-intensity, accelerated beams of proton-rich radioactive nuclei currently being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These beams will be utilized in absolute cross section measurements of crucial (p, {gamma}) capture reactions in efforts to resolve the substantial qualitative uncertainties in current models of explosive stellar hydrogen burning outbursts. Details of the nuclear astrophysics research program with the unique HRIBF radioactive beams and a dedicated experimental endstation--centered on the Daresbury Recoil Separator--will be presented.

  8. The Neutralization of Ion-Rocket Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Harold R.

    1961-01-01

    The experimental ion-beam behavior obtained without neutralizers is compared with both simple collision theory and plasma-wave theory. This comparison indicates that plasma waves play an important part in beam behavior, although the present state of plasma-wave theory does not permit more than a qualitative comparison. The theories of immersed-emitter and electron-trap neutralizer operation are discussed; and, to the extent permitted by experimental data, the theory is compared with experimental results. Experimental data are lacking completely at the present time for operation in space. The results that might be expected in space and the means of simulating such operation in Earth-bound facilities, however, are discussed.

  9. A comparative study on low-energy ion beam and neutralized beam modifications of naked DNA and biological effect on mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapirom, S.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-02-01

    DNA conformation change or damage induced by low-energy ion irradiation has been of great interest owing to research developments in ion beam biotechnology and ion beam application in biomedicine. Mechanisms involved in the induction of DNA damage may account for effect from implanting ion charge. In order to check this effect, we used both ion beam and neutralized beam at keV energy to bombard naked DNA. Argon or nitrogen ion beam was generated and extracted from a radiofrequency (RF) ion source and neutralized by microwave-driven plasma in the beam path. Plasmid DNA pGFP samples were irradiated with the ion or neutralized beam in vacuum, followed by gel electrophoresis to observe changes in the DNA conformations. It was revealed that the ion charge played a certain role in inducing DNA conformation change. The subsequent DNA transfer into bacteria Escherichia coli ( E. coli) for mutation analysis indicated that the charged ion beam induced DNA change had high potential in mutation induction while neutralized beam did not. The intrinsic reason was attributed to additional DNA deformation and contortion caused by ion charge exchange effect so that the ion beam induced DNA damage could hardly be completely repaired, whereas the neutralized beam induced DNA change could be more easily recoverable owing to absence of the additional DNA deformation and contortion.

  10. Plasma and ion beam processing at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Henins, I.

    1994-07-01

    Efforts are underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory to utilize plasma and intense ion beam science and technology of the processing of advanced materials. A major theme involves surface modification of materials, e.g., etching, deposition, alloying, and implantation. In this paper, we concentrate on two programs, plasma source ion implantation and high-intensity pulsed ion beam deposition.

  11. Edge envelope equation for a ballistically focused neutralized ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.; Thode, L.E.

    1980-11-01

    An envelope equation for a cold ion beam with overall charge and current neutralization provided by a coflowing electron gas obeying an adiabatic equation of state is derived. The derivation assumes the beam evolves self-similarly with the ion at the edge of a uniform density ion profile. Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are calculated.

  12. Aifira: An ion beam facility for multidisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorieul, S.; Alfaurt, Ph.; Daudin, L.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2014-08-01

    During the last decade, the CENBG (Centre d'Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan) commissioned a new facility called AIFIRA (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'ions en Région Aquitaine). It allowed the development of a multidisciplinary activity based on the "in-house" expertise of CENBG in ion beam analysis. The great flexibility offered by the five beam lines confers a lot of possibilities for chemical analysis and nuclear physics. Indeed, not only the macrobeam and the external beam lines provide the full set of IBA techniques for routine sample analysis but an additional beam line is devoted to the production of monoenergetic neutrons through the interaction of the incoming ion with selected targets. In addition, the two high-resolution microbeam lines are used for chemical analyses, 2D/3D imaging, and targeted cell irradiation. Besides, the combination of the nanobeam line flexibility, the uniqueness of the micro-irradiation design completed by the internal CENBG expertise confers a great specificity to AIFIRA in biomedical field. After a detailed technical overview of the platform, the article focuses on the two high-resolution lines as they tap most of the activity. Thus a quick overview of the most significant results concerning biomedical samples is proposed in order to highlight the analytical possibilities of AIFIRA microbeam lines. A summary of the development status of the micro-irradiation line is also done.

  13. Making radioactive ion beams - Detecting reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    We present a didactical overview of the methods for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs), discussing the main characteristics and associated advantages and drawbacks of the in-flight separation and isotope separation on-line methods. We include a short overview of present and planned facilities, focusing on Europe. In the second part of the paper a brief introduction on the detection of radiation is given, followed by a discussion of the specific problems related to radiation detection in measurements involving RIBs. A few illustrative examples of detection setups are presented.

  14. SIMULATION OF INTENSE BEAMS FOR HEAVY ION FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2004-06-10

    Computer simulations of intense ion beams play a key role in the Heavy Ion Fusion research program. Along with analytic theory, they are used to develop future experiments, guide ongoing experiments, and aid in the analysis and interpretation of experimental results. They also afford access to regimes not yet accessible in the experimental program. The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory and its collaborators have developed state-of-the art computational tools, related both to codes used for stationary plasmas and to codes used for traditional accelerator applications, but necessarily differing from each in important respects. These tools model beams in varying levels of detail and at widely varying computational cost. They include moment models (envelope equations and fluid descriptions), particle-in-cell methods (electrostatic and electromagnetic), nonlinear-perturbative descriptions (''{delta}f''), and continuum Vlasov methods. Increasingly, it is becoming clear that it is necessary to simulate not just the beams themselves, but also the environment in which they exist, be it an intentionally-created plasma or an unwanted cloud of electrons and gas. In this paper, examples of the application of simulation tools to intense ion beam physics are presented, including support of present-day experiments, fundamental beam physics studies, and the development of future experiments. Throughout, new computational models are described and their utility explained. These include Mesh Refinement (and its dynamic variant, Adaptive Mesh Refinement); improved electron cloud and gas models, and an electron advance scheme that allows use of larger time steps; and moving-mesh and adaptive-mesh Vlasov methods.

  15. Ion beam irradiated optical channel waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányász, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havranek, V.; Pelli, S.; Veres, M.; Himics, L.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, in the modern optical communications systems, channel waveguides represent the core of many active and passive integrated devices, such as amplifiers, lasers, couplers and splitters. Different materials and fabrication processes were investigated in order to achieve the aforementioned optoelectronic circuits with low costs and high performance and reproducibility. Nevertheless, the 2D guiding structures fabrication continues to be a challenging task in some of optical materials due to their susceptibility to mechanical and/or chemical damages which can occur during the different steps of the fabrication process. Here we report on channel waveguides demonstration in erbium doped Tungsten - Tellurite (Er3+:TeO2-WO3) glasses and BGO crystals by means of a masked ion beam and/or direct writing processes performed at different energy MeV and ions species. The evidence of the waveguides formation was investigated by microscopy techniques and micro Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Momentum transfer using variable gaseous plasma ion beams and creation of high aspect ratio microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Paul, Samit; Shah, Jay Kumar; Chatterjee, Sanghamitro; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2017-03-01

    Intense gaseous ion beams are created from compact microwave plasmas confined in a multicusp magnetic field. The wave frequency (ω) is comparable to the electron plasma frequency (ωpe) and ≫ the ion plasma frequency (ωpi); therefore, the heavier plasma (ions) are least disturbed by the high frequency electromagnetic waves. By changing the experimental gas, ion beams of different species are obtained, which expands the applicability of the ion beams. For the same applied accelerating potential, the controllability of the beam current owing to different velocities for different ionic species adds to the enhanced functionality. The ion beams are utilized to create a variety of microstructures by direct writing on metallic substrates, and microstructures of a high aspect ratio (ar = line width/depth) in the range of 100-1000 are created by varying the ion species and writing speed. For fixed species (Ga) and low current (1 pA) focused ion beam systems, typically ar ˜ 2.0 to 9.3 may be realized in a single beam scan. A parameter called current normalized force, defined as the momentum transfer per unit time, normalized with the beam current helps in understanding the different momentum transferred to the target sample upon impact by the ion beams of variable species. A mathematical formulation is developed to demonstrate this aspect.

  17. Nuclear fusion of advanced fuels using converging focused ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egle, Brian James

    The Six Ion Gun Fusion Experiment (SIGFE) was designed and built to investigate a possible avenue to increase the reaction rate efficiency of the D-D and D-3He nuclear fusion reactions in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices to the levels required for several non-electric applications of nuclear fusion. The SIGFE is based on the seminal IEC experiment published by Hirsch in 1967, and is the first experiment to recreate the results and unique features of the Hirsch device. The SIGFE used six identical ion beams to focus and converge deuterium and helium-3 ions into a sphere of less than 2 mm at nearly mono-energetic ion energies up to 150 keV. With improved ion optics and diagnostics, the SIGFE concluded that within the investigated parameter space, the region where the ion beams converged accounted for less than 0.2% of the total D-D fusion reactions. The maximum D-D fusion rates were observed when the ion beams were intentionally defocused to strike the inside surface of the cathode lenses. In this defocused state, the total D-D fusion rate increased when the chamber pressure was decreased. The maximum D-D fusion rate was 4.3 x 107 neutrons per second at a cathode voltage of -130 kV, a total cathode current of 10 mA, and a chamber pressure of 27 mPa. The D and 3He ion beams were produced in six self-contained ion gun modules. The modules were each capable of at least 4 mA of ion current while maintaining a main chamber pressure as low as 13 mPa. The theoretically calculated extractable ion current agreed with the experiment within a factor of 2. A concept was also developed and evaluated for the production of radioisotopes from the 14.7 MeV D-3He fusion protons produced in an IEC device. Monte Carlo simulations of this concept determined that a D-3He fusion rate on the order of 1011 s-1 would be required for an IEC device to produce 1 mCi of the 11C radioisotope.

  18. Calorimetric detection of neutral-atom content of ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Energy deposition technique deduces neutral-beam flux or dose from measured values of incremental resistance increases in platinum wire passed through beam. Steady-state heat balance analysis led to equivalent neutral-beam current. Method was used to detect neutral-atom content of 60-keV argon ion beam.

  19. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  20. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ˜ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  1. Intense ion-beam dynamics in the NICA collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, O. S.; Meshkov, I. N.; Sidorin, A. O.; Trubnikov, G. V.

    2016-12-01

    The problems of intense ion-beam dynamics in the developed and optimized optical structure of the NICA collider are considered. Conditions for beam collisions and obtaining the required parameters of luminosity in the operation energy range are discussed. The restriction on collider luminosity is related to effects of the domination of the space charge and intrabeam scattering. Applying methods of cooling, electron and stochastic ones, will permit one to suppress these effects and reach design luminosity. The work also deals with systems of magnetic field correction and problems of calculating the dynamic aperture of the collider.

  2. Design and Beam Dynamics Studies of a Multi-Ion Linac Injector for the JLEIC Ion Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Plastun, A. S.; Mustapha, B.; Conway, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    The electron-ion collider (JLEIC) being proposed at JLab requires a new ion accelerator complex which includes a linac capable of delivering any ion beam from hydrogen to lead to the booster. We are currently developing a linac which consists of several ion sources, a normal conducting (NC) front end, up to 5 MeV/u, and a SC section for energies > 5 MeV/u. This design work is focused on the beam dynamics and electrodynamics studies performed to design efficient and cost-effective accelerating structures for both the NC and SC sections of the linac. Currently, we are considering two separate RFQs for the heavy-ion and light-ion beams including polarized beams, and different types of NC accelerating structures downstream of the RFQ. Quarter-wave and half-wave resonators can be effectively used in the SC section.

  3. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, V. Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.; Karpushov, A. N.; Smirnov, A.; Uhlemann, R.

    2016-02-15

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  4. High-brightness Cs focused ion beam from a cold-atomic-beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. V.; Schwarzkopf, A.; McClelland, J. J.; Knuffman, B.

    2017-06-01

    We present measurements of focal spot size and brightness in a focused ion beam system utilizing a laser-cooled atomic beam source of Cs ions. Spot sizes as small as (2.1 ± 0.2) nm (one standard deviation) and reduced brightness values as high as (2.4 ± 0.1) × 107 A m-2 Sr-1 eV-1 are observed with a 10 keV beam. This measured brightness is over 24 times higher than the highest brightness observed in a Ga liquid metal ion source. The behavior of brightness as a function of beam current and the dependence of effective source temperature on ionization energy are examined. The performance is seen to be consistent with earlier predictions. Demonstration of this source with very high brightness, producing a heavy ionic species such as Cs+, promises to allow significant improvements in resolution and throughput for such applications as next-generation circuit edit and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  5. Heavy ion beam studies and imaging with a multiplane multiwire proportional chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.; Alonso, J.R.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-03-01

    A 16-plane multiwire proportional chamber is used to accurately measure intensity profiles of heavy ion beams at the Bevalac. An imaging capability has now been developed for the system, allowing for reconstruction of 3-dimensional representation of radiological objects using heavy ion beams.

  6. Imaging with a multiplane multiwire proportional chamber using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.; Alonso, J.R.; Tobias, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 16-plane multiwire proportional chamber has been developed to accurately map intensity profiles of heavy ion beams at the Bevalac. The imaging capability of the system has been tested for reconstruction of 3-dimensional representation of a canine thorax region using heavy ion beams.

  7. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delferrière, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-05-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D+ extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D+ ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H+ beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements.

  8. Methods and apparatus for altering material using ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Bloomquist, Douglas D.; Buchheit, Rudy; Greenly, John B.; McIntyre, Dale C.; Neau, Eugene L.; Stinnett, Regan W.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for treating material surfaces using a repetitively pulsed ion beam. In particular, a method of treating magnetic material surfaces in order to reduce surface defects, and produce amorphous fine grained magnetic material with properties that can be tailored by adjusting treatment parameters of a pulsed ion beam. In addition to a method of surface treating materials for wear and corrosion resistance using pulsed particle ion beams.

  9. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Honrubia, J. J.; Murakami, M.

    2015-01-15

    Ion beam requirements for fast ignition are investigated by numerical simulation taking into account new effects, such as ion beam divergence, not included before. We assume that ions are generated by the TNSA scheme in a curved foil placed inside a re-entrant cone and focused on the cone apex or beyond. From the focusing point to the compressed core, ions propagate with a given divergence angle. Ignition energies are obtained for two compressed fuel configurations heated by proton and carbon ion beams. The dependence of the ignition energies on the beam divergence angle and on the position of the ion beam focusing point has been analyzed. Comparison between TNSA and quasi-monoenergetic ions is also shown.

  10. Ion beam probing of electrostatic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persson, H.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of a cylindrically symmetric, time-independent electrostatic potential V in a magnetic field B with the same symmetry by measurements of the deflection of a primary beam of ions is analyzed and substantiated by examples. Special attention is given to the requirements on canonical angular momentum and total energy set by an arbitrary, nonmonotone V, to scaling laws obtained by normalization, and to the analogy with ionospheric sounding. The inversion procedure with the Abel analysis of an equivalent problem with a one-dimensional fictitious potential is used in a numerical experiment with application to the NASA Lewis Modified Penning Discharge. The determination of V from a study of secondary beams of ions with increased charge produced by hot plasma electrons is also analyzed, both from a general point of view and with application to the NASA Lewis SUMMA experiment. Simple formulas and geometrical constructions are given for the minimum energy necessary to reach the axis, the whole plasma, and any point in the magnetic field. The common, simplifying assumption that V is a small perturbation is critically and constructively analyzed; an iteration scheme for successively correcting the orbits and points of ionization for the electrostatic potential is suggested.

  11. Hysteresis effects in the formation of a neutralizing beam plasma at low ion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the PEGASES II thruster prototype is used as an ion source generating low-energy (<300\\ \\text{eV}) positive Ar ion beam, extracted without an external neutralizer. The ions are extracted and accelerated from the source using a two-grid system. The extracted positive ion beam current is measured on a large beam target that can be translated along the acceleration axis. The ion beam current shows a stepwise transition from a low-current to a high-current extraction regime with hysteresis. The hysteresis region depends strongly upon the beam target position. Langmuir probe measurements in the plume show high plasma potentials and low plasma densities in the low-current mode, while the plasma potential drops and the density increases in the high-current mode. The ion energy distribution functions of the beam are measured for different regimes of ion extraction. The ion beam extracted in the high-current mode is indicated by the presence of an additional low-energy peak corresponding to ions from an ion-beam plasma created in the downstream chamber, as well as 10-20 times higher intensity of the primary ion beam peak. The hysteresis behavior is explained by the formation of a downstream neutralizing beam plasma, that depends on the target position and pressure in agreement with a Paschen-like breakdown by secondary electrons. The obtained results are of high relevance for further development of the PEGASES thruster, as well as for improving existing neutralizer-free concepts of the broad-beam ion sources.

  12. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H- beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  13. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H{sup {minus}} beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  15. Spacecraft charging during ion beam emissions in sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, S. T.; Mcneil, W. J.; Aggson, T. L.

    1990-01-01

    During ion beam emissions from the SCATHA satellite, the potential of the negatively charged satellite body shows a sinusoidal oscillation frequency of once-per-spin of the satellite. The minimum occurs when the ion beam is sunward. The processes that may be responsible for the voltage modulation are considered. Neutralization of ion beam space charge by photoelectrons is examined. The photoelectrons are accelerated by the negative potential of the satellite. Effects of electron impact ionization, excitation of metastable states, and photoionization of xenon neutral atoms in the ion beam are studied in detail. Critical ionization velocity interaction is unlikely under the condition considered.

  16. The prospects of a subnanometer focused neon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Rahman, F H M; McVey, Shawn; Farkas, Louis; Notte, John A; Tan, Shida; Livengood, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    The success of the helium ion microscope has encouraged extensions of this technology to produce beams of other ion species. A review of the various candidate ion beams and their technical prospects suggest that a neon beam might be the most readily achieved. Such a neon beam would provide a sputtering yield that exceeds helium by an order of magnitude while still offering a theoretical probe size less than 1-nm. This article outlines the motivation for a neon gas field ion source, the expected performance through simulations, and provides an update of our experimental progress. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Performance and Controllability of Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Yazawa, Masaru; Buttapeng, Chainarong; Harada, Nobuhiro; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2006-05-02

    We propose novel propulsion driven by ablation plasma pressures produced by the irradiation of pulsed ion beams onto a propellant. The ion beam ablation propulsion demonstrates by a thin foil (50 {mu}mt), and the flyer velocity of 7.7 km/s at the ion beam energy density of 2 kJ/cm2 adopted by using the Time-of-flight method is observed numerically and experimentally. We estimate the performance of the ion beam ablation propulsion as specific impulse of 3600 s and impulse bit density of 1700 Ns/m2 obtained from the demonstration results. In the numerical analysis, a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model with ion beam energy depositions is used. The control of the ion beam kinetic energy is only improvement of the performance but also propellant consumption. The spacecraft driven by the ion beam ablation provides high performance efficiency with short-pulsed ion beam irradiation. The numerical results of the advanced model explained latent heat and real gas equation of state agreed well with experimental ones over a wide range of the incident ion beam energy density.

  18. High-throughput ion beam analysis at imec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meersschaut, J.; Vandervorst, W.

    2017-09-01

    We describe the ion beam analysis activities at imec. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and time of flight-energy (TOF-E) elastic recoil detection analysis are pursued to support the nano-electronics research and development. We outline the experimental set-up and we introduce a new data acquisition software platform. Finally, we illustrate the use of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to map the thickness of a metallic thin film on a 300 mm Si wafer.

  19. Atomic physics experiments with stored cooled heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    The wide ranging interest in the development of heavy ion synchrotrons with electron beam cooling is evident from the number of projects presently under way. Although much of the initial motivation for these rings stemmed from nuclear and particle physics, a considerable amount of atomic physics experimentation is planned. This paper surveys some of the new opportunities in atomic physics which may be made available with storage ring systems. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Simultaneous ion beam profile scan using a single laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Long, C.; Huang, C.; Dickson, R.; Aleksandrov, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the world’s first experiment of a simultaneous profile scan of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam using a laser wire system. The system was developed and brought to operational level of application at the superconducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex. The laser wire profile scanner is based on a photodetachment process and therefore can be conducted on a 1-MW neutron production H- beam in a nonintrusive manner. The new simultaneous profile scanning system allows one to simultaneously measure profiles of the H- beam at nine different locations of the linac with high speed and accuracy, and therefore provides a unique tool for accelerator tuning and physics study. This paper describes the design, optical system and software platform developments, and measurement results of the simultaneous profile scanning system.

  1. Ion beam energy deposition physics for ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    The target interaction physics of light ion beams will be described. The phenomenon of range shortening with increasing material temperature will be corroborated, and the concomittant phenomenon of range relengthening due to ion-electron decoupling will be introduced.

  2. Ion beam modification of chitosan and cellulose membranes for simulation of ion bombardment of plant cell envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakrajang, K.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Pitakrattananukool, S.; Yu, L. D.

    2009-05-01

    Ion beam biotechnology has been developed for induction of DNA transfer into biological cells. To separately investigate effects of ion interaction with plant cell envelope for understanding relevant mechanisms, this study used chitosan and cellulose membranes to simulate the cell envelope and characterize behavior of the membranes modified by ion beam. Chitosan and cellulose membranes were bombarded with argon and nitrogen ion beams at energy of 15-25 keV to fluencies in orders of 1015 ion/cm2. Modifications of the membrane surface morphology, contact angle and electric characteristics were investigated. Results showed that subjected to ion bombardment, the membrane surface was roughened, the contact angle of the membrane surface was varied, the membrane impedance was decreased and the conductance and capacitance were increased. These modifications explain effects of ion bombardment of plant cell envelope on induction of DNA transfer.

  3. Beam production of a laser ion source with a rotating hollow cylinder target for low energy positive and negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquilayan, G. Q.; Wada, M.

    2017-08-01

    A laser ion source that utilizes a hollow cylinder target is being developed for the production of positive and negative ions. Continuous operation of the laser ion source is possible through the design of a rotating target. Ion extraction through a grounded circular aperture was tested for positive and negative ions up to 1 kV. Time-of-flight measurements for the mass separation of ions were made by placing a Faraday cup at locations 0 and 15 mm from the beam extraction axis. Signals corresponding to slow and massive ions were detected with mass at least 380 amu. Investigation on the beam profile suggests a geometrical optimization of the beam forming system is necessary.

  4. ITEP MEVVA ion beam for rhenium silicide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T.; Seleznev, D.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Yakushin, P.; Petrenko, S.; Gerasimenko, N.; Medetov, N.; Zaporozhan, O.

    2010-02-15

    The rhenium silicides are very attractive materials for semiconductor industry. In the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) at the ion source test bench the research program of rhenium silicide production by ion beam implantation are going on. The investigation of silicon wafer after implantation of rhenium ion beam with different energy and with different total dose were carried out by secondary ions mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. The first promising results of rhenium silicide film production by high intensity ion beam implantation are presented.

  5. New method of beam bunching in free-ion lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    An effective ion beam bunching method is suggested. This method is based on a selective interaction of line spectrum laser light (e.g. axial mode structure light) with non-fully stripped ion beam cooled in a storage rings, arranging the ion beam in layers in radial direction of an energy-longitudinal coordinate plane and following rotation of the beam at the right angle after switching on the RF cavity or undulator grouper/buncher. Laser cooling of the ion beam can be used at this position after switching off the resonator to decrease the energy spread caused by accelerating field of the resonator. A relativistic multilayer ion mirror will be produced this way. Both monochromatic laser beams and intermediate monochromaticity and bandwidth light sources of spontaneous incoherent radiation can be used for production of hard and high power electromagnetic radiation by reflection from this mirror. The reflectivity of the mirror is rather high because of the cross-section of the backward Rayleigh scattering of photon light by non-fully stripped relativistic ions ({approximately}{lambda}{sup 2}) is much greater ({approximately} 10{divided_by}15 orders) then Thompson one ({approximately} r{sub e}{sup 2}). This position is valid even in the case of non-monochromatic laser light ({Delta}{omega}/{omega} {approximately} 10{sup -4}). Ion cooling both in longitudinal plane and three-dimensional radiation ion cooling had been proposed based on this observation. The using of these cooling techniques will permit to store high current and low emittance relativistic ion beams in storage rings. The bunched ion beam can be used in ordinary Free-Ion Lasers as well. After bunching the ion beam can be extracted from the storage ring in this case. Storage rings with zero momentum compaction function will permit to keep bunching of the ion beam for a long time.

  6. Beam loss ion chamber system upgrade for experimental halls

    SciTech Connect

    D. Dotson; D. Seidman

    2005-08-01

    The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic ''burn through''. Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an ''off the shelf'' Programmable Logic Controller located in a single control box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage ''Brick'' at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

  7. Beam Loss Ion Chamber System Upgrade for Experimental Halls

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Dotson; D.J. Seidman

    2005-05-16

    The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic ''burn through''. Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an ''off the shelf'' Programmable Logic Controller located in a single control box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage ''Brick'' at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

  8. Observation of Beam ION Instability in Spear3

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Cai, Y.; Corbett, W.J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Safranek, J.A.; Schmerge, J.F.; Sebek, J.J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    Weak vertical coupled bunch instability with oscillation amplitude at {mu}m level has been observed in SPEAR3. The instability becomes stronger when there is a vacuum pressure rise by partially turning off vacuum pumps and it becomes weaker when the vertical beam emittance is increased by turning off the skew quadrupole magnets. These confirmed that the instability was driven by ions in the vacuum. The threshold of the beam ion instability when running with a single bunch train is just under 200 mA. This paper presents the comprehensive observations of the beam ion instability in SPEAR3. The effects of vacuum pressure, beam current, beam filling pattern, chromaticity, beam emittance and bunch-by-bunch feedback are investigated in great detail. In an electron accelerator, ions generated from the residual gas molecules can be trapped by the beam. Then these trapped ions interact resonantly with the beam and cause beam instability and emittance blow-up. Most existing light sources use a long single bunch train filling pattern, followed by a long gap to avoid multi-turn ion trapping. However, such a gap does not preclude ions from accumulating during one passage of the single bunch train beam, and those ions can still cause a Fast Ion Instability (FII) as predicted by Raubenheimer and Zimmermann. FII has been observed in ALS, and PLS by artificially increasing the vacuum pressure by injecting helium gas into the vacuum chamber or by turning off the ion pumps in order to observe the beam ion instability. In some existing rings, for instance B factory, the beam ion instability was observed at the beginning of the machine operation after a long period of shutdown and then it automatically disappeared when the vacuum was better. However, when the beam emittance becomes smaller, the FII can occur at nominal conditions as observed in PLS, SOLEIL and SSRF. This paper reports the observations of beam ion instabilities in SPEAR3 under different condition during a period of one

  9. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  10. Solar wind double ions beams and the heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, C. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Double ion beams are often observed in the solar wind, but little work has been done in relating these beams to structures within the solar wind. Double ion beams are observed as beams of a given ion species and charge state occurring at two different energies. We use the three-dimensional ion plasma instrument on board the Ulysses spacecraft to look for evidence of such beams associated with the heliospheric current sheet. In a subset chosen independently of plasma parameters consisting of 8 of cover 47 crossings of the current sheet made during the inecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission we find that these double ion beams are always present on either side of the current sheet. The double beams are present in both the proton and helium species. The secondary beam typically has a higher helium abundance, which suggests that these beams are formed in the helium-rich corona rather than in interplanetary space. The double beams are not present in the interior of the current sheet. Neither collisions nor effects of plasma beta can account for the disappearance of the double beams inside the current sheet in all eight cases. We postulate that these beams are formed by reconnection occurring near the Sun in the boundary region between the open field lines of the coronal holes and the closed field line region of the heliospheric current sheet. Such a scenario would be consistent with previous X ray measurements which suggect that reconnection is occurring in this region.

  11. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; ...

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiationmore » effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.« less

  12. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiation effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.

  13. ADIGE: the radioactive ion beam injector of the SPES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Bellan, L.; Bisoffi, G.; Comunian, M.; Martin, L.; Moisio, M. F.; Palmieri, A.; Pisent, A.; Prete, G.; Roncolato, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project is presently under development at INFN-LNL: aim of this project is the production, ionization and postacceleration of radioactive ions to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. An ECR-based charge breeder (SPES-CB) will allow post-acceleration of radioactive ions: in particular, the SPES-CB has been designed and developed by LPSC of Grenoble, based on the Phoenix booster. It will be equipped with a complete test bench totally integrated with the SPES beam line: this part of the post-accelerator, together with the newly designed RFQ, composes the so-called ADIGE injector (Acceleratore Di Ioni a Grande carica Esotici) for the superconducting linac ALPI. The injector will employ a unique Medium Resolution Mass Spectrometer (MRMS, resolving power 1/1000), mounted downstream the SPES-CB, in order to avoid the typical drawback of the ECR-based charge breeding technique, that is the beam contamination. This contribution describes the ADIGE injector, with particular attention to the analysis of possible contaminations and the performances expected for the MRMS, showing the beam dynamics calculations for a reference radioactive beam.

  14. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  15. High power target approaches for intense radioactive ion beam facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W.L. ||; Hodges, T.A.; Hsu, H.; Fikani, M.M.

    1997-02-01

    Development of conceptual approaches for targets to produce intense radioactive ion beams is needed in anticipation of activity for a next-generation, intense ISOL-type radioactive beams facility, strongly recommended in the NSAC 1995 Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science. The production of isotopes in vapor form for subsequent mass separation and acceleration will depend on the ability to control target temperature profiles within the target resulting from interactions of the intense production beams with the target material. A number of earlier studies have identified promising approaches which need, however, to be carefully analyzed for specific target systems. A survey will be made of these earlier concepts employing various cooling techniques, including imposition of thermal barriers between the target materials and cooling systems. Some results of preliminary analyses are summarized. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Cluster ion beam process technology 20 years of R&D history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Isao

    2007-04-01

    More than 20 years have passed since the author first began to explore the feasibility of processing by gas cluster ion beams at the Ion Beam Engineering Experimental Laboratory of Kyoto University. Processes employing ions of gaseous material clusters comprised of a few hundred to many thousand atoms are now being developed into a new field of ion beam technology. Cluster-surface collisions produce important non-linear effects which are being applied to shallow junction formation, to etching and smoothing of semiconductors, metals and dielectrics, to assisted formation of thin films with nano-scale accuracy and to other surface modification applications.

  17. Development of an irradiation method with lateral modulation of SOBP width using a cone-type filter for carbon ion beams.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Azusa; Ishii, Keizo; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Kase, Yuki; Takei, Yuka; Komori, Masataka

    2009-06-01

    Passive irradiation methods deliver an extra dose to normal tissues upstream of the target tumor, while in dynamic irradiation methods, interplay effects between dynamic beam delivery and target motion induced by breathing or respiration distort the dose distributions. To solve the problems of those two irradiation methods, the authors have developed a new method that laterally modulates the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) width. By reducing scanning in the depth direction, they expect to reduce the interplay effects. They have examined this new irradiation method experimentally. In this system, they used a cone-type filter that consisted of 400 cones in a grid of 20 cones by 20 cones. There were five kinds of cones with different SOBP widths arranged on the frame two dimensionally to realize lateral SOBP modulation. To reduce the number of steps of cones, they used a wheel-type filter to make minipeaks. The scanning intensity was modulated for each SOBP width with a pair of scanning magnets. In this experiment, a stepwise dose distribution and spherical dose distribution of 60 mm in diameter were formed. The nonflatness of the stepwise dose distribution was 5.7% and that of the spherical dose distribution was 3.8%. A 2 mm misalignment of the cone-type filter resulted in a nonflatness of more than 5%. Lateral SOBP modulation with a cone-type filter and a scanned carbon ion beam successfully formed conformal dose distribution with nonflatness of 3.8% for the spherical case. The cone-type filter had to be set to within 1 mm accuracy to maintain nonflatness within 5%. This method will be useful to treat targets moving during breathing and targets in proximity to important organs.

  18. Development of an irradiation method with lateral modulation of SOBP width using a cone-type filter for carbon ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizaki, Azusa; Ishii, Keizo; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Kase, Yuki; Takei, Yuka; Komori, Masataka

    2009-06-15

    Passive irradiation methods deliver an extra dose to normal tissues upstream of the target tumor, while in dynamic irradiation methods, interplay effects between dynamic beam delivery and target motion induced by breathing or respiration distort the dose distributions. To solve the problems of those two irradiation methods, the authors have developed a new method that laterally modulates the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) width. By reducing scanning in the depth direction, they expect to reduce the interplay effects. They have examined this new irradiation method experimentally. In this system, they used a cone-type filter that consisted of 400 cones in a grid of 20 cones by 20 cones. There were five kinds of cones with different SOBP widths arranged on the frame two dimensionally to realize lateral SOBP modulation. To reduce the number of steps of cones, they used a wheel-type filter to make minipeaks. The scanning intensity was modulated for each SOBP width with a pair of scanning magnets. In this experiment, a stepwise dose distribution and spherical dose distribution of 60 mm in diameter were formed. The nonflatness of the stepwise dose distribution was 5.7% and that of the spherical dose distribution was 3.8%. A 2 mm misalignment of the cone-type filter resulted in a nonflatness of more than 5%. Lateral SOBP modulation with a cone-type filter and a scanned carbon ion beam successfully formed conformal dose distribution with nonflatness of 3.8% for the spherical case. The cone-type filter had to be set to within 1 mm accuracy to maintain nonflatness within 5%. This method will be useful to treat targets moving during breathing and targets in proximity to important organs.

  19. An Enhanced Vacuum Arc Ion Source for High Current, High Charge State Uranium Beam Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Brown, I. G.; Leemans, W.; Liu, F.

    1996-05-01

    We plan to carry out an experimental program at LBNL to develop a novel kind of vacuum arc ion source in which the metal ions are further stripped by interaction with an energetic, dense electron beam. Preliminary results obtained by Batalin et al.(V. A. Batalin, Y. N. Volkov, T. V. Kulevoy, and S. V. Petrenko, ITEP, Moscow, Reprints 18-93 (1993), 33-94 (1994); Proc. EPAC 1994, p. 1453.) using this approach have been most promising; the vacuum arc ion source(I.G. Brown, ``Vacuum Arc Ion Sources'', Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3061 (1994).) uranium ion beam output of mostly U^3+ ions was increased significantly, although the yield of high charge state ions was only a small fraction of the original source current. In our experiments the electron beam will propagate antiparallel to the ion beam so as to provide a radially inward Lorentz force to confine and focus the stripped uranium beam, thus maximizing the electron-ion interactions and increasing the ion beam current density. We expect improved performance over the encouraging earlier^1 results. The motivation for this work(Ady Hershcovitch and Brant Johnson, RHIC/DET Note 17 and AGS/ ADD/Tech. Note No. 416) is the desire to eventually inject fully stripped uranium into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  20. Controlling FAMA by the Ptolemy II model of ion beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvanović, R.; Rađenović, B.; Beličev, P.; Nešković, N.

    2009-08-01

    FAMA is a facility for modification and analysis of materials with ion beams. Due to the wide range of ion beams and energies used in the facility and its future expansion, the need has arisen for faster tuning of ion beams transport control parameters. With this aim, a new approach to modeling ion-beam transport system was developed, based on the Ptolemy II modeling and design framework. A model in Ptolemy II is a hierarchical aggregation of components called actors, which communicate with other actors using tokens, or pieces of data. Each ion optical element is modeled by a composite actor implementing beam matrix transformation function, while tokens carry beam matrix data. A basic library of models of typical ion optical elements is developed, and a complex model of FAMA ion beam transport system is hierarchically integrated with bottom-up approach. The model is extended to include control functions. The developed model is modular, flexible and extensible. The results obtained by simulation on the model demonstrate easy and efficient tuning of beam line control parameters. Fine tuning of control parameters, due to uncertainties inherent to modeling, still has to be performed on-line.