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Sample records for ion chromatography-dc plasma

  1. The use of ion chromatography-dc plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the speciation of trace metals

    SciTech Connect

    Urasa, I.T.

    1991-09-20

    The original objects of this research program were: to interface d.c. plasma atomic emission spectrometer with an ion chromatograph; to characterize and optimize the combined systems for application in the speciation of metals in aqueous solutions; to use this system in the study of the solution chemistry of various metals; and to find ways in which the measurement sensitivity of the method can be enhanced, thereby allowing the detection of metal species at low ppb concentration levels. This approach has been used to study the chemistry of and speciate several elements in solution including: arsenic, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel phosphorus, platinum, selenium, and vanadium. During the course of this research, we have found that the solution chemistry of the elements studied and the speciation data obtained can vary considerably depending on the solution, and the chromatographic conditions employed. The speciation of chromium, iron, and vanadium was found to be highly influenced by the acidity of the sample. The element selective nature of the d.c. plasma detector allows these changes to be monitored, thereby providing quantitative information on the new moieties formed. New approaches are being developed including the use of chelating ligands as preconcentration agents for purposes of reducing further the detection limits of the elements of interest and to improve the overall element speciation scheme. New thrusts are being directed towards the employment of post-column derivatization method coupled with colorimetric measurements to detect and quantify metal species eluting from the chromatographic column. The influence of sample acidity on these investigations will be carefully evaluated. These new thrusts are described in the accompanying Project Renewal Proposal.

  2. The use of ion chromatography-dc plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the speciation of trace metals. Annual performance report, February 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Urasa, I.T.

    1991-09-20

    The original objects of this research program were: to interface d.c. plasma atomic emission spectrometer with an ion chromatograph; to characterize and optimize the combined systems for application in the speciation of metals in aqueous solutions; to use this system in the study of the solution chemistry of various metals; and to find ways in which the measurement sensitivity of the method can be enhanced, thereby allowing the detection of metal species at low ppb concentration levels. This approach has been used to study the chemistry of and speciate several elements in solution including: arsenic, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel phosphorus, platinum, selenium, and vanadium. During the course of this research, we have found that the solution chemistry of the elements studied and the speciation data obtained can vary considerably depending on the solution, and the chromatographic conditions employed. The speciation of chromium, iron, and vanadium was found to be highly influenced by the acidity of the sample. The element selective nature of the d.c. plasma detector allows these changes to be monitored, thereby providing quantitative information on the new moieties formed. New approaches are being developed including the use of chelating ligands as preconcentration agents for purposes of reducing further the detection limits of the elements of interest and to improve the overall element speciation scheme. New thrusts are being directed towards the employment of post-column derivatization method coupled with colorimetric measurements to detect and quantify metal species eluting from the chromatographic column. The influence of sample acidity on these investigations will be carefully evaluated. These new thrusts are described in the accompanying Project Renewal Proposal.

  3. Energetic ions in ITER plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinches, S. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Lauber, Ph. W.; Oliver, H. J. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the behaviour and consequences of the expected populations of energetic ions in ITER plasmas. It begins with a careful analytic and numerical consideration of the stability of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario. The stability threshold is determined by balancing the energetic ion drive against the dominant damping mechanisms and it is found that only in the outer half of the plasma ( r / a > 0.5 ) can the fast ions overcome the thermal ion Landau damping. This is in spite of the reduced numbers of alpha-particles and beam ions in this region but means that any Alfvén Eigenmode-induced redistribution is not expected to influence the fusion burn process. The influence of energetic ions upon the main global MHD phenomena expected in ITER's primary operating scenarios, including sawteeth, neoclassical tearing modes and Resistive Wall Modes, is also reviewed. Fast ion losses due to the non-axisymmetric fields arising from the finite number of toroidal field coils, the inclusion of ferromagnetic inserts, the presence of test blanket modules containing ferromagnetic material, and the fields created by the Edge Localised Mode (ELM) control coils in ITER are discussed. The greatest losses and associated heat loads onto the plasma facing components arise due to the use of the ELM control coils and come from neutral beam ions that are ionised in the plasma edge.

  4. Some plasma aspects and plasma diagnostics of ion sources (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesemann, Klaus

    2008-02-15

    We consider plasma properties in the most advanced type of plasma ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for highly charged ions. Depending on the operation conditions the plasma in these sources may be highly ionized, which completely changes its transport properties. The most striking difference to weakly ionized plasma is that diffusion will become intrinsically ambipolar. We further discuss means of plasma diagnostics. As noninvasive diagnostic methods we will discuss analysis of the ion beam, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. From beam analysis and optical spectroscopy one may deduce ion densities, and electron densities and distribution functions as a mean over the line of sight along the axis (optical spectroscopy) or at the plasma edge (ion beam). From x-ray spectra one obtains information about the population of highly energetic electrons and the energy transfer from the driving electromagnetic waves to the plasma--basic data for plasma modeling.

  5. Some plasma aspects and plasma diagnostics of ion sources.

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    We consider plasma properties in the most advanced type of plasma ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for highly charged ions. Depending on the operation conditions the plasma in these sources may be highly ionized, which completely changes its transport properties. The most striking difference to weakly ionized plasma is that diffusion will become intrinsically ambipolar. We further discuss means of plasma diagnostics. As noninvasive diagnostic methods we will discuss analysis of the ion beam, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. From beam analysis and optical spectroscopy one may deduce ion densities, and electron densities and distribution functions as a mean over the line of sight along the axis (optical spectroscopy) or at the plasma edge (ion beam). From x-ray spectra one obtains information about the population of highly energetic electrons and the energy transfer from the driving electromagnetic waves to the plasma -- basic data for plasma modeling.

  6. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  7. Some properties of ion and cluster plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gudzenko, L.I.; Derzhiev, V.I.; Yakovlenko, S.I.

    1982-11-01

    The aggregate of problems connected with the physics of ion and cluster plasma is qualitatively considered. Such a plasma can exist when a dense gas is ionized by a hard ionizer. The conditions for the formation of an ion plasma and the difference between its characteristics and those of an ordinary electron plasma are discussed; a solvated-ion model and the distribution of the clusters with respect to the number of solvated molecules are considered. The recombination rate of the positively and negatively charged clusters is roughly estimated. The parameters of a ball-lightning plasma are estimated on the basis of the cluster model.

  8. Plasma formed ion beam projection lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette; Ngo, Vinh; Zahir, Nastaran

    2002-01-01

    A plasma-formed ion-beam projection lithography (IPL) system eliminates the acceleration stage between the ion source and stencil mask of a conventional IPL system. Instead a much thicker mask is used as a beam forming or extraction electrode, positioned next to the plasma in the ion source. Thus the entire beam forming electrode or mask is illuminated uniformly with the source plasma. The extracted beam passes through an acceleration and reduction stage onto the resist coated wafer. Low energy ions, about 30 eV, pass through the mask, minimizing heating, scattering, and sputtering.

  9. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  10. A review on ion-ion plasmas created in weakly magnetized electronegative plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanesland, A.; Bredin, J.; Chabert, P.

    2014-08-01

    Ion-Ion plasmas are electronegative plasmas where the electron density is several orders of magnitude lower than the negative ion density. These plasmas have been scarcely observed and investigated since the 1960s and are formed as a transient state of pulsed plasmas or in separate regions in magnetized plasmas. In this review we focus on the latter case of continuous formation of ion-ion plasmas created at the periphery of magnetized plasma columns or downstream localized magnetic barriers. We bring together and review experimental results already published elsewhere and complement them with new results to illustrate the physics important in ion-ion plasma formation and highlight in particular unanswered questions. We show that with a good design the density in the ion-ion region is dropping only by a factor of 2-3 from the initial plasma density. These plasmas can therefore be well suited for various ion source applications when both fluxes or beams of positive and negative ions are desired, and when electrons can cause harmful effects.

  11. Chaotic ion motion in magnetosonic plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varvoglis, H.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of test ions in a magnetosonic plasma wave is considered, and the 'stochasticity threshold' of the wave's amplitude for the onset of chaotic motion is estimated. It is shown that for wave amplitudes above the stochasticity threshold, the evolution of an ion distribution can be described by a diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient D approximately equal to 1/v. Possible applications of this process to ion acceleration in flares and ion beam thermalization are discussed.

  12. Electrostatic ion cyclotron and ion plasma waves in a symmetric pair-ion plasma cylinder.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Vranjes, J; Batool, N

    2014-03-14

    Complicated wave behavior observed in the cylindrical pair-ion (fullerene) experiments by Oohara and co-workers are now identified to be low harmonic ion cyclotron waves combined with ion plasma oscillations inherent to kinetic theory. The electrostatic dispersion equation derived is based on an approximation for the current from the exact solutions of the characteristic cylindrical geometry form of the Vlasov plasma equation in a uniform magnetized plasma cylinder surrounded by a larger metal boundary outside a vacuum gap, which thus differs from that in unbounded plasmas. Positive and negative ions, differing only in the sign of their charge, respond to a potential in the same time scale and cooperate to reflect the enhanced kinetic orbital behaviors to the macroscopic propagation characteristics. In addition, the experimental value of the Larmor radius (comparable to the discharge radius but small enough to make the analytic approximation useful) makes higher harmonic ion cyclotron effects both observable and calculable with the appropriate approximation for the kinetic theory. PMID:24679299

  13. Ion thruster charge-exchange plasma flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Gabriel, S. B.; Kitamura, S.

    1982-01-01

    The electron bombardment ion thruster has been under development for a number of years and during this time, studies of the plasmas produced by the thrusters and their interactions with spacecraft have been evaluated, based on available data. Due to diagnostic techniques used and facility effects, there is uncertainty as to the reliability of data from these early studies. This paper presents data on the flow of the charge-exchange plasma produced just downstream of the thruster's ion optics. The 'end-effect' of a cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to determine ion density and directed ion velocity. Results are compared with data obtained from a retarding potential analyzer-Faraday cup.

  14. Ion plasma wave and its instability in interpenetrating plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2014-04-15

    Some essential features of the ion plasma wave in both kinetic and fluid descriptions are presented. The wave develops at wavelengths shorter than the electron Debye radius. Thermal motion of electrons at this scale is such that they overshoot the electrostatic potential perturbation caused by ion bunching, which consequently propagates as an unshielded wave, completely unaffected by electron dynamics. So in the simplest fluid description, the electrons can be taken as a fixed background. However, in the presence of magnetic field and for the electron gyro-radius shorter than the Debye radius, electrons can participate in the wave and can increase its damping rate. This is determined by the ratio of the electron gyro-radius and the Debye radius. In interpenetrating plasmas (when one plasma drifts through another), the ion plasma wave can easily become growing and this growth rate is quantitatively presented for the case of an argon plasma.

  15. Characterization of an RF plasma ion source for ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopalidis, Peter M.; Wan Zhimin

    2012-11-06

    A novel inductively coupled RF plasma ion source has been developed for use in a beamline ion implanter. Ion density data have been taken with an array of four Langmuir probes spaced equally at the source extraction arc slit. These provide ion density uniformity information as a function of source pressure, RF power and gas mixture composition. In addition, total extracted ion beam current data are presented for the same conditions. The comparative advantages of the RF source in terms of higher beam current, reduced maintenance and overall productivity improvement compared to a hot cathode source are discussed.

  16. Ion acoustic waves in a multi-ion plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, B. D.; White, R. B.; Samec, T. K.

    1971-01-01

    An exact treatment of the multispecies ion acoustic dispersion relation is given for an argon/helium plasma. Phase velocity and damping are obtained as a function of ion-electron temperature ratio and relative densities of the two species. There are two important modes in the plasma, with quite different phase velocities, which are referred to as principal heavy ion mode and principal light ion mode. Which of these is dominant depends on the relative densities of the two components, but, in general, the light ion mode becomes important for surprisingly small light ion contamination. Approximate analytic expressions are derived from damping rates and phase velocities and their domains of validity are investigated. Relevance of the results for the investigation of collisionless shocks is discussed.

  17. Experiments on Ion-Ion Plasmas From Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Darrin; Walton, Scott; Blackwell, David; Murphy, Donald; Fernsler, Richard; Meger, Robert

    2001-10-01

    Use of both positive and negative ions in plasma processing of materials has been shown to be advantageous[1] in terms of better feature evolution and control. In this presentation, experimental results are given to complement recent theoretical work[2] at NRL on the formation and decay of pulsed ion-ion plasmas in electron beam generated discharges. Temporally resolved Langmuir probe and mass spectrometry are used to investigate electron beam generated discharges during the beam on (active) and off (afterglow) phases in a variety of gas mixtures. Because electron-beam generated discharges inherently[3] have low electron temperatures (<0.5eV in molecular gases), negative ion characteristics are seen in the active as well as afterglow phases since electron detachment increases with low electron temperatures. Analysis of temporally resolved plasma characteristics deduced from these measurements will be presented for pure O_2, N2 and Ar and their mixtures with SF_6. Oxygen discharges show no noticeable negative ion contribution during the active or afterglow phase, presumably due to the higher energy electron attachment threshold, which is well above any electron temperature. In contrast, SF6 discharges demonstrate ion-ion plasma characteristics in the active glow and are completely ion-ion in the afterglow. Comparison between these discharges with published cross sections and production mechanisms will also be presented. [1] T.H. Ahn, K. Nakamura & H. Sugai, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 5, 139 (1996); T. Shibyama, H. Shindo & Y. Horiike, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 5, 254 (1996). [2] See presentation by R. F. Fernsler, at this conference. [3] D. Leonhardt, et al., 53rd Annual GEC, Houston, TX.

  18. Ion beam parameters of a plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.M.; Veselovzorov, A.N.; Efremov, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the dependences of the current density, the energy, and the divergence of the ion beams of an UZDP-type source (a plasma accelerator with closed electron drift in the accelerator channel and an extended zone of ion acceleration) on the parameters which determine its performance, and to establish qualitative relationships between these values.

  19. Ion response in a weakly ionized plasma with ion flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kompaneets, Roman; Tyshetskiy, Yuriy O.; Vladimirov, Sergey V.

    2013-04-15

    We study the ion response to an initial perturbation in a weakly ionized plasma with ion flow driven by a dc electric field. The analysis is made by extending the classical Landau work [J. Phys. (USSR) 10, 25 (1946)] to the ion kinetic equation including ion-neutral collisions and a dc electric field. We show, in particular, that the complex frequencies of ion waves can be directly found from a known expression for the ion susceptibility [A. V. Ivlev et al., Phys. Rev. E 71, 016405 (2005); V. A. Schweigert, Phys. Rep. 27, 997 (2001)]; this is not obvious from its original derivation, because it only aims to describe the ion response for real frequencies.

  20. Magnetized relativistic electron-ion plasma expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of relativistic laser-produced plasma expansion across a transverse magnetic field is investigated. Based on a one dimensional two-fluid model that includes pressure, enthalpy, and rest mass energy, the expansion is studied in the limit of λD (Debye length) ≤RL (Larmor radius) for magnetized electrons and ions. Numerical investigation conducted for a quasi-neutral plasma showed that the σ parameter describing the initial plasma magnetization, and the plasma β parameter, which is the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure are the key parameters governing the expansion dynamics. For σ ≪ 1, ion's front shows oscillations associated to the break-down of quasi-neutrality. This is due to the strong constraining effect and confinement of the magnetic field, which acts as a retarding medium slowing the plasma expansion.

  1. Key issues in plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Faehl, R.J.; Matossian, J.N.

    1996-09-01

    Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is a scaleable, non-line-of-sight method for the surface modification of materials. In this paper, we consider three important issues that should be addressed before wide-scale commercialization of PSII: (1) implant conformality; (2) ion sources; and (3) secondary electron emission. To insure uniform implanted dose over complex shapes, the ion sheath thickness must be kept sufficiently small. This criterion places demands on ion sources and pulsed-power supplies. Another limitation to date is the availability of additional ion species beyond B, C, N, and 0. Possible solutions are the use of metal arc vaporization sources and plasma discharges in high-vapor-pressure organometallic precursors. Finally, secondary electron emission presents a potential efficiency and x-ray hazard issue since for many metallurgic applications, the emission coefficient can be as large as 20. Techniques to suppress secondary electron emission are discussed.

  2. Electrostatic ion waves in non-Maxwellian pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Arshad, Kashif; Mahmood, S.

    2010-12-15

    The electrostatic ion waves are studied for non-Maxwellian or Lorentzian distributed unmagnetized pair-ion plasmas. The Vlasov equation is solved and damping rates are calculated for electrostatic waves in Lorentzian pair-ion plasmas. The damping rates of the electrostatic ion waves are studied for the equal and different ion temperatures of pair-ion species. It is found that the Landau damping rate of the ion plasma wave is increased in Lorentzian plasmas in comparison with Maxwellian pair-ion plasmas. The numerical results are also presented for illustration by taking into account the parameters reported in fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  3. Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T. Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Turnbull, D.; Döppner, T.; Fletcher, L.; Galtier, E.; Hastings, J.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Chapman, D. A.; Falcone, R. W.; Fortmann, C.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.; White, T. G.; Neumayer, P.; Vorberger, J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ∼3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4Å{sup −1}. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

  4. Ion Beam Plasma Interactions in the ASTRAL Helicon Plasma Source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, R. F.; Kesterson, A.; Kamar, O.; Lin, Y.; Munoz, J.; Wang, X.

    2008-11-01

    A 100 KeV NEC duoplasmatron is used to produce an energetic ion beam (10 KeV < E < 100 KeV). The beam is sent through plasmas produced by the ASTRAL helicon plasma source. The beam current and beam size are measured by a device combining Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) and Faraday Cup (FC) features. ASTRAL produces bright intense He/Ne/Ar plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 1E11 -- 1E13 cm-3 and Te = 2 - 10 eV, B-field < 1.3 kGauss, rf power <= 2 kWatt. RF compensated Langmuir probes are used to measure Te and ne. Depending on the ion beam energy and the ratio of beam density over plasma density different wave instabilities will be generated within the plasmas. A real-time spectrum analyzer will be used to identify the wave instabilities and their evolution in the plasma. We will present early experimental results together with some preliminary theoretical simulation using 2D and 3D hybrid simulation codes. In these codes, ions are treated as fully kinetic particles while electrons are treated as a fluid. Both species are moving in a self-consistent electromagnetic field.

  5. Ion acoustic solitons in a plasma with finite temperature drifting ions: Limit on ion drift velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, H.K.; Singh, S.; Dahiya, R.P. )

    1994-05-01

    Propagation of ion acoustic solitons in a plasma consisting of finite temperature drifting ions and nondrifting electrons has been studied. It is shown that in addition to the electron inertia and weak relativistic effects, the ion temperature also modifies the soliton behavior. By including the finite ion temperature, limit for the ion drift velocity [ital u][sub 0] for which the ion acoustic solitons are possible, is obtained. The solitons can exist for [ital v][sub [ital Te

  6. High Frequency Plasma Generators for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Fosnight, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a one year program to experimentally adapt two new types of high frequency plasma generators to Argon ion thrusters and to analytically study a third high frequency source concept are presented. Conventional 30 cm two grid ion extraction was utilized or proposed for all three sources. The two plasma generating methods selected for experimental study were a radio frequency induction (RFI) source, operating at about 1 MHz, and an electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasma source operating at about 5 GHz. Both sources utilize multi-linecusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement. The plasma characteristics, plasma loading of the rf antenna, and the rf frequency dependence of source efficiency and antenna circuit efficiency are described for the RFI Multi-cusp source. In a series of tests of this source at Lewis Research Center, minimum discharge losses of 220+/-10 eV/ion were obtained with propellant utilization of .45 at a beam current of 3 amperes. Possible improvement modifications are discussed.

  7. Ion heating in a plasma focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohl, F.; Gary, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Ion acceleration and heating in a plasma focus were investigated by the numerical integration of the three-dimensional equations of motion. The electric and magnetic fields given were derived from experimental data. The results obtained show that during the collapse phase of focus formation, ions are efficiently heated to temperatures of several keV. During the phase of rapid current reduction, ions are accelerated to large velocities in the axial direction. The results obtained with the model are in general agreement with experimental results.

  8. Ion Acoustic Waves in Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; Killian, T. C.

    2010-08-06

    We photoionize laser-cooled atoms with a laser beam possessing spatially periodic intensity modulations to create ultracold neutral plasmas with controlled density perturbations. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging reveals that the density perturbations oscillate in space and time, and the dispersion relation of the oscillations matches that of ion acoustic waves, which are long-wavelength, electrostatic, density waves.

  9. Ion beam control in laser plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Sato, D.; Nagashima, T.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Gu, Y. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.

    2016-03-01

    By a two-stage successive acceleration in laser ion acceleration, our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by a few hundreds of MeV; the maximum proton energy reaches about 250MeV. The ions are accelerated by the inductive continuous post-acceleration in a laser plasma interaction together with the target normal sheath acceleration and the breakout afterburner mechanism. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when an intense short- pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in the plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field strength, the moving longitudinal inductive electric field is induced by the Faraday law, and accelerates the forward-moving ions continously. The multi-stage acceleration provides a unique controllability in the ion energy and its quality.

  10. Phase-mixing of ion plasma modes in pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanik, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-05-15

    Nonlinear interaction between two electrostatic normal modes of a warm pair-ion plasma, viz., ion plasma mode (Langmuir mode) and ion acoustic mode has been analyzed by employing a perturbation technique. It is shown that a gradual loss of phase coherence in the excited Langmuir wave dynamics (phase-mixing) occurs in such a plasma, leading to wave-breaking at arbitrarily low wave amplitudes. Nonlinear results provide an approximate expression for the phase-mixing time which is found to increase with the increase of the ratio of acoustic frequency to Langmuir frequency. The results of our investigation are expected to be relevant to the laboratory produced paired fullerene-ion plasmas.

  11. Sputtering erosion in ion and plasma thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental set-up to measure low-energy (below 1 keV) sputtering of materials is described. The materials to be bombarded represent ion thruster components as well as insulators used in the stationary plasma thruster. The sputtering takes place in a 9 inch diameter spherical vacuum chamber. Ions of argon, krypton and xenon are used to bombard the target materials. The sputtered neutral atoms are detected by a secondary neutral mass spectrometer (SNMS). Samples of copper, nickel, aluminum, silver and molybdenum are being sputtered initially to calibrate the spectrometer. The base pressure of the chamber is approximately 2 x 10(exp -9) Torr. the primary ion beam is generated by an ion gun which is capable of delivering ion currents in the range of 20 to 500 nA. The ion beam can be focused to a size approximately 1 mm in diameter. The mass spectrometer is positioned 10 mm from the target and at 90 deg angle to the primary ion beam direction. The ion beam impinges on the target at 45 deg. For sputtering of insulators, charge neutralization is performed by flooding the sample with electrons generated from an electron gun. Preliminary sputtering results, methods of calculating the instrument response function of the spectrometer and the relative sensitivity factors of the sputtered elements will be discussed.

  12. Electron-less negative ion extraction from ion-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2015-03-09

    This paper presents experimental results showing that continuous negative ion extraction, without co-extracted electrons, is possible from highly electronegative SF{sub 6} ion-ion plasma at low gas pressure (1 mTorr). The ratio between the negative ion and electron densities is more than 3000 in the vicinity of the two-grid extraction and acceleration system. The measurements are conducted by both magnetized and non-magnetized energy analyzers attached to the external grid. With these two analyzers, we show that the extracted negative ion flux is almost electron-free and has the same magnitude as the positive ion flux extracted and accelerated when the grids are biased oppositely. The results presented here can be used for validation of numerical and analytical models of ion extraction from ion-ion plasma.

  13. Extraction and Acceleration of Ions from an Ion-Ion Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Popelier, Lara; Aanesland, Ane; Chabert, Pascal

    2011-09-26

    Extraction and acceleration of positive and negative ions from a strong electronegative plasma and from an ion-ion plasma is investigated in the PEGASES thruster, working with SF{sub 6}. The plasma is generated in a cylindrical quartz tube terminated by metallic endplates. The electrons are confined by a static magnetic field along the axis of the cylinder. The electron mobility along the field is high and the electrons are determining the sheaths in front of the endplates. The core plasma potential can therefore be controlled by the bias applied to the endplates. An ion-ion plasma forms at the periphery as a result of electron confinement and ions can freely diffuse along the perpendicular direction or extraction axis. Langmuir probe and RFEA measurements are carried out along this axis. The measured ion energy distributions shows a single peak centered around a potential consistent with the plasma potential and the peak position could be controlled with a positive voltage applied to the endplates. When the endplates are biased negatively, the plasma potential saturates and remained close to 15 V. A beam of negatively charged particles can be observed under certain conditions when the endplates were biased negatively.

  14. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  15. A commercial plasma source ion implantation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuer, J.T.; Adler, R.A.; Horne, W.G.

    1996-10-01

    Empire Hard Chrome has recently installed commercial plasma source ion implantation (PSU) equipment built by North Star Research Corporation. Los Alamos National Laboratory has assisted in this commercialization effort via two Cooperative Research and Development Agreements to develop the plasma source for the equipment and to identify low-risk commercial PSII applications. The PSII system consists of a 1 m x 1 m cylindrical vacuum chamber with a rf plasma source. The pulse modulator is capable of delivering pulses kV and peak currents of 300 A at maximum repetition rate of 400 Hz. thyratron tube to switch a pulse forming network which is tailored to match the dynamic PSII load. In this paper we discuss the PSII system, process facility, and early commercial applications to production tooling.

  16. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = −100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and −100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  17. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  18. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  19. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  20. Modelling of Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douai, D.; Wauters, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Marchuk, O.; Wünderlich, D.; Brémond, S.; Lombard, G.; Mollard, P.; Pegourié, B.; Van Oost, G.

    2011-12-01

    Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) is envisioned in ITER to clean the wall from impurities, to control the wall isotopic ratio and the hydrogen recycling in the presence of the toroidal magnetic field. Various experiments and modelling are advancing to consolidate this technique. In this contribution the modeling of ICWC is presented, which can be divided in two parts: plasma description and plasma wall interaction. Firstly a 0D plasma model, based on a set of energy and particle balance equations for Maxwellian Hydrogen and Helium species, is presented. The model takes into account elementary collision processes, coupled RF power, particle confinement, wall recycling, and active gas injection and pumping. The RF plasma production process is based mainly on electron collisional ionization. The dependency of the plasma parameters, the Hydrogen and Helium partial pressures and neutral or ionic fluxes on pressure and RF power are quantitatively in good agreement with those obtained experimentally on TORE SUPRA. Secondly an extension of the 0D model including the description of the wall interaction is presented and compared to TORE SUPRA multi-pulse ICWC discharges.

  1. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J.

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  2. Ion-plasma gun for ion-milling machine

    DOEpatents

    Kaminsky, Manfred S.; Campana, Jr., Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    An ion gun includes an elongated electrode with a hollow end portion closed by a perforated end plate. The end plate is positioned parallel to a perforated flat electrode of opposite electrical polarity. An insulated sleeve encompasses the elongated electrode and extends outwardly from the perforated end towards the flat electrode. The sleeve length is separated into two portions of different materials. The first is formed of a high-temperature material that extends over the hollow portion of the elongated electrode where the arc is initiated by a point source electrode. The second sleeve portion extending over the remainder of the elongated electrode is of a resilient material for enhanced seal-forming ability and retention of plasma gas. Perforations are arranged in the flat electrode in a mutually opposing triangular pattern to project a plasma beam having a generally flat current profile towards a target requiring precision milling.

  3. A double-plasma source of continuous bipolar ion-ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dudin, S. V.; Rafalskyi, D. V.

    2013-01-21

    A double-plasma source capable of the generation of a continuous bipolar ion-ion beam is described. The quasi-neutral ion-ion flow to an extraction electrode is formed in the system containing primary inductively coupled plasma separated from a secondary plasma by an electrostatic grid-type filter. The total current of each ion species to the 250 mm diameter extraction electrode is about 80 mA; the electron current does not exceed 30% of the ion current. Method of positive/negative ion current ratio control is proposed, allowing the ion currents ratio variation in wide range.

  4. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  5. Compressive and rarefactive ion acoustic solitons in a magnetized two-ion component plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.; Aman-ur-Rehman

    2014-10-01

    The formation of compressive (hump) and rarefactive (dip) ion acoustic solitons is studied in magnetized O+- H+- e and O+- H-- e plasmas. The hydrodynamics equations are described for cold heavy (oxygen) ions, warm light (hydrogen) ions and isothermal Boltzmann distributed electrons along with Poisson equations in the presence of a magnetic field. The reductive perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for an ion acoustic wave in magnetized two-ion component plasma. It is found that two modes of ion acoustic waves with fast and slow speeds can propagate in the linear limit in such a plasma. It is noticed that, in the case of positively charged light hydrogen ions O+- H+- e plasmas, the slow ion acoustic wave solitons formed both potential hump as well as dip structures, while fast ion acoustic wave solitons give only hump structures. However in the case of negatively charged light hydrogen ions O+- H-- e plasmas, the slow ion acoustic wave solitons formed potential hump structures while fast ion acoustic wave solitons produce dip structures. The variations in the amplitude and width of the nonlinear slow and fast ion acoustic wave structures with density, temperature of light ions and magnetic field intensity are obtained in magnetized two-ion component plasmas. The magnetic field has its effect only on the width of the nonlinear ion acoustic wave structures in two-ion component plasmas.

  6. Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in a two-ion component plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszcynsky, David M.; Merlino, Robert L.; D'Angelo, Nicola

    1988-01-01

    The excitation of electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) waves is studied in a single-ended Q machine in a two-ion component plasma (Ca+ and K+). Over a large range of relative concentrations of Cs+ and K+ ions, two modes are excited with frequencies greater than the respective cyclotron frequencies of the ions. The results are discussed in terms of a fluid theory of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in a two-ion component plasma.

  7. Ion diffusion at interfaces in hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Boercker, D.B.; Warren, K.; Haggin, G.

    1986-04-01

    There are many laboratory applications in which it is important to know how fast two hot, ionized materials mix across an initially sharp interface. The speed of this process is regulated by the interdiffusion coefficient for the species involved. In a previous work, a theoretical method for calculating the interdiffusion coefficient in a Binary Ionic Mixture (classical ions in a uniform, neutralizing background) was described and found to give excellent agreement with Molecular Dynamics estimates. The purpose of this report is to show how these results may be applied to a model of the plasma interface, including electric field effects, to give a good description of the mixing across it.

  8. Influence of ion streaming instabilities on transport near plasma boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, Scott D.

    2016-04-01

    Plasma boundary layers are susceptible to electrostatic instabilities driven by ion flows in presheaths and, when present, these instabilities can influence transport. In plasmas with a single species of positive ion, ion-acoustic instabilities are expected under conditions of low pressure and large electron-to-ion temperature ratio ({{T}e}/{{T}i}\\gg 1 ). In plasmas with two species of positive ions, ion-ion two-stream instabilities can also be excited. The stability phase-space is characterized using the Penrose criterion and approximate linear dispersion relations. Predictions for how these instabilities affect ion and electron transport in presheaths, including rapid thermalization due to instability-enhanced collisions and an instability-enhanced ion-ion friction force, are briefly reviewed. Recent experimental tests of these predictions are discussed along with research needs required for further validation. The calculated stability boundaries provide a guide to determine the experimental conditions at which these effects can be expected.

  9. Origin of 'energetic' ions from laser-produced plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehler, W.; Linlor, W. I.

    1973-01-01

    A fast-ion current peak, measured with an ion collector placed in the path of an expanding laser-produced plasma, was identified as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen contaminants which originated from a tungsten target surface.

  10. Ion acoustic shocks in magneto rotating Lorentzian plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N.; Hasnain, H.

    2014-12-15

    Ion acoustic shock structures in magnetized homogeneous dissipative Lorentzian plasma under the effects of Coriolis force are investigated. The dissipation in the plasma system is introduced via dynamic viscosity of inertial ions. The electrons are following the kappa distribution function. Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation is derived by using reductive perturbation technique. It is shown that spectral index, magnetic field, kinematic viscosity of ions, rotational frequency, and effective frequency have significant impact on the propagation characteristic of ion acoustic shocks in such plasma system. The numerical solution of KdVB equation is also discussed and transition from oscillatory profile to monotonic shock for different plasma parameters is investigated.

  11. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  12. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  13. Radiative transitions of excited ions moving slowly in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hongwei Chen, Wencong; Li, Peng; Zhao, Yongtao; Zhou, Xianming; Li, Zhen; Li, Fuli; Dong, Chenzhong

    2014-12-15

    The electric dipole transitions of excited ions moving slowly in plasmas are studied. The results show that some transitions forbidden for excited ions at rest become allowed for moving excited ions. The transition rates change with varying speed of the ions. Forbidden transitions are strongly influenced by the speed, non-forbidden transitions are weakly influenced.

  14. Ion optical effects in a low pressure rf plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Oechsner, Hans; Paulus, Hubert

    2013-11-15

    Ion optical effects in low pressure gas discharges are introduced as a novel input into low pressure plasma technology. They are based on appropriate geometrical plasma confinements which enable a control of the shape of internal density and potential distributions and, hence, the ion motion in the plasma bulk. Such effects are exemplified for an electron cyclotron wave resonance plasma in Ar at 1–5 × 10{sup −3} millibars. The geometry of the plasma chamber is modified by a conical and a cylindrical insert. Computer simulations display spherical plasma density contours to be formed around the conical confinement. This effects an increase of the ratio of the ion currents into the conical and the cylindrical inserts which depends on the fourth power of the plasma electron temperature. A quantitative understanding of this behavior is presented. As another essential result, the shape of the internal plasma contours is found to be independent of the pressure controlled plasma parameters.

  15. Differential turbulent heating of different ions in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Elizarov, L.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Serebrennikov, K.S.; Vostrikova, E.A.

    2006-03-15

    The article considers the collisionless ion sound turbulent heating of different ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The ion sound arises due to parametric instability of pumping wave propagating along the magnetic field with the frequency close to that of electron cyclotron. Within the framework of turbulent heating model the different ions temperatures are calculated in gas-mixing ECRIS plasma.

  16. Nondiffusive transport regimes for suprathermal ions in turbulent plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovet, A.; Fasoli, A.; Ricci, P.; Furno, I.; Gustafson, K.

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the transport of suprathermal ions in the presence of turbulence is important for fusion plasmas in the burning regime that will characterize reactors, and for space plasmas to understand the physics of particle acceleration. Here, three-dimensional measurements of a suprathermal ion beam in the toroidal plasma device TORPEX are presented. These measurements demonstrate, in a turbulent plasma, the existence of subdiffusive and superdiffusive transport of suprathermal ions, depending on their energy. This result stems from the unprecedented combination of uniquely resolved measurements and first-principles numerical simulations that reveal the mechanisms responsible for the nondiffusive transport. The transport regime is determined by the interaction of the suprathermal ion orbits with the turbulent plasma dynamics, and is strongly affected by the ratio of the suprathermal ion energy to the background plasma temperature.

  17. Singular waves in a magnetized pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Sukanta; Misra, Amar P.

    2009-07-15

    The existence of singular waves along the boundary of a magnetized pair-ion plasma is proved for both plasma-metal and plasma-vacuum interfaces. Such waves are shown to propagate at the points of intersection of the complex-zone boundary and the surface wave dispersion curve in a weakly magnetized plasma. The results could be relevant for negative ion plasmas in the laboratory and space as well as for the modeling of a plasma sustained by a traveling surface wave.

  18. Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-10-15

    The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  19. Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  20. Measurement of the ion drag force in a collisionless plasma with strong ion-grain coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.; Fisher, R.; Merlino, R.; Khrapak, S.; Morfill, G.; Avinash, K.

    2007-10-15

    The ion drag force acting on dust grains was measured experimentally in a low-pressure Ar plasma in the regime of strong ion-grain coupling. Argon ions were drifting in the axial ambipolar electric field naturally present in a hot-filament dc discharge plasma. Following the method of Hirt et al. [Phys. Plasmas 11, 5690 (2004)], hollow glass microspheres were dropped into the plasma and allowed to fall due to gravity. The ion drag force was derived from the particle trajectory deflection from the vertical direction. The result is in reasonable agreement with a theoretical model that takes strong ion-grain coupling into account.

  1. Properties of ion-particle interaction and the ion drag force in complex (dusty) plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, Sergey A.

    2009-11-10

    In this paper a concise overview of recent results concerning the properties of ion-particle interaction and the ion drag force in complex (dusty) plasmas is presented. Two main theoretical approaches to calculate the ion drag force--binary collision and linear plasma response formalisms are discussed. When possible, theoretical results are compared with the results from experiments and numerical simulations.

  2. Quasi-periodic behavior of ion acoustic solitary waves in electron-ion quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Biswajit; Poria, Swarup; Narayan Ghosh, Uday; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2012-05-01

    The ion acoustic solitary waves are investigated in an unmagnetized electron-ion quantum plasmas. The one dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model is used to study small as well as arbitrary amplitude ion acoustic waves in quantum plasmas. It is shown that ion temperature plays a critical role in the dynamics of quantum electron ion plasma, especially for arbitrary amplitude nonlinear waves. In the small amplitude region Korteweg-de Vries equation describes the solitonic nature of the waves. However, for arbitrary amplitude waves, in the fully nonlinear regime, the system exhibits possible existence of quasi-periodic behavior for small values of ion temperature.

  3. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, Michel G.

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

  4. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, M.G.

    1997-07-22

    A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

  5. Ion flux and ion distribution function measurements in synchronously pulsed inductively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brihoum, Melisa; Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Joubert, Olivier; Gahan, David; Braithwaite, Nicholas St. J.

    2013-03-15

    Changes in the ion flux and the time-averaged ion distribution functions are reported for pulsed, inductively coupled RF plasmas (ICPs) operated over a range of duty cycles. For helium and argon plasmas, the ion flux increases rapidly after the start of the RF pulse and after about 50 {mu}s reaches the same steady state value as that in continuous ICPs. Therefore, when the plasma is pulsed at 1 kHz, the ion flux during the pulse has a value that is almost independent of the duty cycle. By contrast, in molecular electronegative chlorine/chlorosilane plasmas, the ion flux during the pulse reaches a steady state value that depends strongly on the duty cycle. This is because both the plasma chemistry and the electronegativity depend on the duty cycle. As a result, the ion flux is 15 times smaller in a pulsed 10% duty cycle plasma than in the continuous wave (CW) plasma. The consequence is that for a given synchronous RF biasing of a wafer-chuck, the ion energy is much higher in the pulsed plasma than it is in the CW plasma of chlorine/chlorosilane. Under these conditions, the wafer is bombarded by a low flux of very energetic ions, very much as it would in a low density, capacitively coupled plasma. Therefore, one can extend the operating range of ICPs through synchronous pulsing of the inductive excitation and capacitive chuck-bias, offering new means by which to control plasma etching.

  6. Signal Propagation in Collisional Plasma with Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    I. Kaganovich; S.V. Berezhnoi; C.B. Shin

    2000-12-18

    The transport of charged species in collisional currentless plasmas is traditionally thought of as a diffusion-like process. In this paper, it is demonstrated that, in contrast to two-component plasma, containing electrons and positive ions, the transport of additional ions in multi-species plasmas is not governed by diffusion, rather described by nonlinear convection. As a particular example, plasmas with the presence of negative ions have been studied. The velocity of a small perturbation of negative ions was found analytically and validated by numerical simulation. As a result of nonlinear convection, initially smooth ion density profiles break and form strongly inhomogeneous shock-like fronts. These fronts are different from collisionless shocks and shocks in fully ionized plasma. The structure of the fronts has been found analytically and numerically.

  7. Oblique Propagation of Ion Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Superthermal Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devanandhan, S.; Sreeraj, T.; Singh, S.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Small amplitude ion-acoustic solitons are studied in a magnetized plasma consisting of protons, doubly charged helium ions and superthermal electrons. The Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) is derived to examine the properties of ion acoustic solitary structures observed in space plasmas. Our model is applicable for weakly magnetized plasmas. The results will be applied to the satellite observations in the solar wind at 1 AU where magnetized ion acoustic waves with superthermal electrons can exist. The effects of superthermality, temperature and densities on these solitary structures will be discussed.

  8. Ion holes in the hydrodynamic regime in ultracold neutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    McQuillen, P.; Castro, J.; Strickler, T.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Killian, T. C.

    2013-04-15

    We describe the creation of localized density perturbations, or ion holes, in an ultracold neutral plasma in the hydrodynamic regime, and show that the holes propagate at the local ion acoustic wave speed. We also observe the process of hole splitting, which results from the formation of a density depletion initially at rest in the plasma. One-dimensional, two-fluid hydrodynamic simulations describe the results well. Measurements of the ion velocity distribution also show the effects of the ion hole and confirm the hydrodynamic conditions in the plasma.

  9. Sheath structure in electronegative plasmas with finite positive ion temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palop, J. I. Fernández; Ballesteros, J.; Hernández, M. A.; Crespo, R. Morales; del Pino, S. Borrego

    2004-05-01

    An earlier theoretical work, concerning the sheath structure in electronegative plasmas, is extended to include the effect of the positive ion thermal motion. A significant change is observed in the quantities characterizing the sheath with respect to the cold ion assumption. The sheath is contracted when the positive ion thermal motion is considered causing a decrease in the sheath thickness. The ion saturation current and the floating potential are shown to be distinguished quantities in plasma diagnosis of electronegative plasmas by using plane Langmuir probes.

  10. Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1995-04-01

    The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k{sub {tau}}{rho}{sub bi} {much_lt} 1, where {rho}{sub bi} is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented.

  11. Kinetic study of ion-acoustic plasma vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S. A.; Aman-ur-Rehman; Mendonca, J. T.

    2014-09-15

    The kinetic theory of electron plasma waves with finite orbital angular momentum has recently been introduced by Mendonca. This model shows possibility of new kind of plasma waves and instabilities. We have extended the theory to ion-acoustic plasma vortices carrying orbital angular momentum. The dispersion equation is derived under paraxial approximation which exhibits a kind of linear vortices and their Landau damping. The numerical solutions are obtained and compared with analytical results which are in good agreement. The physical interpretation of the ion-acoustic plasma vortices and their Landau resonance conditions are given for typical case of Maxwellian plasmas.

  12. Solitons in a relativistic plasma with negative ions--

    SciTech Connect

    Das, G.C. ); Karmakar, B. ); Ibohanbi Singh, KH. )

    1990-02-01

    The interaction of the nonlinearity and the dispersiveness causing the solitary waves are studied in a relativistic plasma with negative ions through the derivation of a nonlinear partial differential equation known as the Korteweg-Devries (K-DV) equation. The negative ions play a salient feature on the existence and behavior of the solitons and could be of interest in laboratory plasmas. First, the observations are made in a nonisothermal plasma, and later the reduction to the nonisothermality of the plasma shows entirely different characteristics as compared to the solitons in the isothermal plasmas. A comparison with the various solutions has been emphasized.

  13. "Super-acceleration" of ions in a stationary plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardakov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Sergey; Kazantsev, Alexander; Strokin, Nikolay; Stupin, Aleksey

    2016-10-01

    We report on the detection of the acceleration effect of the bulk of ions in a stationary plasma E × B discharge to energies exceeding considerably the value equivalent to the discharge voltage. We determined the conditions necessary for the generation of high-energy ions, and ascertained the influence exerted on the value of the ion energies by pressure (flow rate) and the kind of plasma-producing gas, and by the value of discharge current. The possible acceleration mechanism is suggested.

  14. Transverse ion heating in multicomponent plasmas. [in ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Okuda, H.; Kim, S. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for plasma modes which can occur only in a multicomponent plasma and not in pure electron-ion plasma. The addition of ions creates a new instability near the ion-ion hybrid mode whose frequency is adequate for the wave to interact with oxygen ions. To study heating of ions (such as ionospheric oxygen ions) in presence of auroral electrons, several numerical simulations were carried out using a one-dimensional electrostatic code in a magnetic field. It was found that in the presence of electrons drifting along auroral field lines into the ionosphere, the ion-ion hybrid mode can be driven unstable when the electron drift speed is too small to excite the lower hybrid instability. Since the ion-ion mode has a smaller frequency than that of the lower hybrid waves, it can couple to the heavy ions, resulting in a substantial heating of heavy ions; on the other hand, because of their frequencies, the lower hybrid waves can accelerate only light ion species.

  15. Spatial variation of plasma parameters and ion acceleration in an inductive plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Volynets, V.N.; Park, Wontaek; Tolmachev, Yu.N.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Yoo, Jinwoo

    2006-02-15

    Plasma parameters of inductively coupled plasma system with an annular plasma source have been studied experimentally. At low pressures (about 1 mTorr), electron temperature inside the plasma source is rather high (8-13 eV) and is much greater than in the diffusion (main) chamber (4-5 eV). The plasma potential inside the source is also much higher than in the main chamber. There is a rapid drop of the electron temperature and plasma potential at the boundary between the plasma source and the main chamber. The drop of the plasma potential at the boundary (about 20 V) means the existence of a strong axial electric field, which retards the electrons inside the plasma source and accelerates the ions from the source into the main chamber. Measurements of ion energy distributions in the main chamber volume reveal the existence of ions with kinetic energies about 15 eV.

  16. Non-Neutral Ion Plasma in a Toroidal Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D. A.

    1997-11-01

    We propose to trap and study the equilibria of a non-neutral ion plasma in a toroidal magnetic field. Such equilibria have been described by O'Neil and Smith(T. M. O'Neil, R. A. Smith, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2430 (1994)). An electron plasma has been studied by Zaveri et al.(Puravi Zaveri, P. I. John, K. Avinash, and P. K. Kaw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3295 (1992)). Although single ions are not confined in such a trap, for plasmas there exists a large parameter space with radically different regimes for the trapped ions. This is a novel form of ion trap in which to study orbit dynamics, equilibria, and different thermodynamic states by cooling and manipulation of the ion distribution. Barium and Calcium ions produced by photo-ionization would be injected into the trap from a transient magnetic divertor with positively charged target plates. Ions permit a detailed study of their distribution function with non-perturbative techniques. Laser Induced Fluorescence and ion tagging techniques would be used to study the microscopic dynamics of the ions. Image charge probes would be used to study density fluctuations. In the longer term lasers would be used to cool the ions and the distribution altered by externally launched waves coupled to the plasma. A basic description and classification of the stable equilibria will be given as well as the parameters and design of a low cost, experimental trap.

  17. Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

  18. Rocket Propulsion Through Multiply Charged Ions From a Mirror Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, L.; Petty, C. C.; Evans, T. E.

    2006-10-01

    Plasma propulsion is of interest for space exploration because the high exit velocity of the propellant, compared to that of chemical means, generates a high final spacecraft velocity with reduced propellant mass. This project evaluates the viability of using plasma in a magnetic mirror to produce multiply charged ions as propellant. Electron cyclotron heating of a mirror plasma produces deeply trapped hot electrons which strip heavy ions of electrons. The ambipolar potential accelerates the greatly charged ions to high velocity as they exit the end of the magnetic mirror open to space, generating thrust. We model the distribution of ion charge states to include all relevant atomic processes using the conservation of particle and energy equations in tandem with cross-sections from the ADAS database. The system of equations is then optimized to determine the feasibility of plasma propulsion. The results of this model in a high- density rocket regime are benchmarked against experimental data in low-density mirror plasmas.

  19. Ion temperature evolution in an ultracold neutral plasma

    SciTech Connect

    McQuillen, P. Strickler, T.; Langin, T.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-03-15

    We study the long-time evolution of the ion temperature in an expanding ultracold neutral plasma using spatially resolved, laser-induced-fluorescence spectroscopy. Adiabatic cooling reduces the ion temperature by an order of magnitude during the plasma expansion, to temperatures as low as 0.2 K. Cooling is limited by heat exchange between ions and the much hotter electrons. We also present evidence for an additional heating mechanism and discuss possible sources. Data are described by a model of the plasma evolution, including the effects of ion-electron heat exchange. We show that for appropriate initial conditions, the degree of Coulomb coupling of ions in the plasma increases during expansion.

  20. Electrostatic solitary waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A. P.; Adhikary, N. C.

    2013-10-15

    The propagation of electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless pair-ion plasma with immobile positively charged dusts is studied for both large- and small-amplitude perturbations. Using a two-fluid model for pair-ions, it is shown that there appear two linear ion modes, namely the “fast” and “slow” waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of these wave modes are studied with different mass (m) and temperature (T) ratios of negative to positive ions, as well as the effects of immobile charged dusts (δ). For large-amplitude waves, the pseudopotential approach is performed, whereas the standard reductive perturbation technique is used to study the small-amplitude Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons. The profiles of the pseudopotential, the large amplitude solitons as well as the dynamical evolution of KdV solitons, are numerically studied with the system parameters as above. It is found that the pair-ion plasmas with positively charged dusts support the propagation of solitary waves (SWs) with only the negative potential. The results may be useful for the excitation of SWs in laboratory dusty pair-ion plasmas, electron-free industrial plasmas as well as for observation in space plasmas where electron density is negligibly small compared to that of negative ions.

  1. A study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth Herbert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory.

  2. Ion wake effects on the Coulomb ion drag in complex dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2010-09-06

    The ion wake effects on the Coulomb drag force are investigated in complex dusty plasmas. It is shown that the ion wake effects significantly enhance the Coulomb ion drag force. It is also found that the ion wake effects on the Coulomb drag force increase with an increase in the Debye length. In addition, the ion wake effects on the momentum transfer cross section and Coulomb drag force are found to be increased with increasing thermal Mach number, i.e., decreasing plasma temperature. It is also found that the Coulomb ion drag force would be stronger for smaller dust grains.

  3. Magnetosonic shock wave in collisional pair-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Ashish; Sikdar, Arnab; Ghosh, Samiran; Khan, Manoranjan

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic shock wave has been studied in collisional magnetized pair-ion plasma. The masses of both ions are same but the temperatures are slightly different. Two fluid model has been taken to describe the model. Two different modes of the magnetosonic wave have been obtained. The dynamics of the nonlinear magnetosonic wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers' equation. It has been shown that the ion-ion collision is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The numerical investigations reveal that the magnetosonic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the strength of the dissipation. The nonlinear wave exhibited the oscillatory shock wave for strong magnetic field (weak dissipation) and monotonic shock wave for weak magnetic field (strong dissipation). The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  4. Measuring the escaping beam ions from a tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, D.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Roquemore, L.; McGuire, K.

    1987-12-01

    A new technique using a silicon surface barrier (SSB) diode has been developed for measuring the escaping fast ion flux from a tokamak plasma. Calibration of the detector with an ion beam showed that at a fixed energy the diode's output current varied linearly with the incident deuteron flux. The diode was mounted inside the PDX vacuum vessel with collimating apertures designed to admit the spiraling orbits of 50-keV deuterons expelled from the plasma by MHD instabilities. Results from PDX indicated that relative measurements of the escaping fast ion flux due to several plasma instabilities could be made.

  5. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v < vph< 2.1 v. Here, the final wave frequency may differ from the excitation frequency since the excitation modifies f (v); and recent theory analyzes frequency shifts from ``corners'' of a plateau at vph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.

  6. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-17

    Paper I [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Phys. Plasmas23, 032115 (2016)] obtained a fluid description for an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species. To evaluate collisional plasmatransport fluxes, required for such a description, two linear systems of equations need to be solved to obtain corresponding transport coefficients. In general, this should be done numerically. Herein, the general formalism is used to obtain analytical expressions for such fluxes for several specific cases of interest: a deuterium-tritium plasma; a plasma containing two ion species with strongly disparate masses, which agrees with previously obtained results; and a three ion species plasmamore » made of deuterium, tritium, and gold. We find that these results can be used for understanding the behavior of the aforementioned plasmas, or for verifying a code implementation of the general multi-ion formalism.« less

  7. Plasma & reactive ion etching to prepare ohmic contacts

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a low-resistance electrical contact between a metal and a layer of p-type CdTe surface by plasma etching and reactive ion etching comprising: a) placing a CdS/CdTe layer into a chamber and evacuating said chamber; b) backfilling the chamber with Argon or a reactive gas to a pressure sufficient for plasma ignition; and c) generating plasma ignition by energizing a cathode which is connected to a power supply to enable the plasma to interact argon ions alone or in the presence of a radio-frequency DC self-bias voltage with the p-CdTe surface.

  8. Multi-ion Double Layers in a Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmansouri, M.; Alinejad, H.; Tribeche, M.

    2015-11-01

    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the existence, formation and basic properties of ion acoustic (IA) double layers (DLs) in a magnetized bi-ion plasma consisting of warm/cold ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. Based on the reductive perturbation technique, an extended Korteweg de-Vries (KdV) equation is derived. The propagation of two possible modes (fast and slow), and their evolution are investigated. The effects of obliqueness, magnitude of the magnetic field, ion concentration, polarity of ions, and ion temperature on the IA DL profile are analyzed, and then the ranges of parameters for which the IA DLs exist are investigated in details.

  9. Turbulent transport of fast ions in the Large Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shu; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Carter, T.; Vincena, S.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Popovich, P.; Friedman, B.; Jenko, F.

    2010-09-15

    Strong drift wave turbulence is observed in the Large Plasma Device [H. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] on density gradients produced by a plate limiter. Energetic lithium ions orbit through the turbulent region. Scans with a collimated ion analyzer and with Langmuir probes give detailed profiles of the fast ion spatial distribution and the fluctuating fields. The fast ion transport decreases rapidly with increasing fast ion gyroradius. Unlike the diffusive transport caused by Coulomb collisions, in this case the turbulent transport is nondiffusive. Analysis and simulation suggest that such nondiffusive transport is due to the interaction of the fast ions with stationary two-dimensional electrostatic turbulence.

  10. The Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment and Plasma Source Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chappell, C. R.; Chandler, M. O.; Fields, S. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Reasoner, D. L.; Young, D. T.; Burch, J. L.; Eaker, N.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; McComas, D. J.; Nordholdt, J. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; Berthelier, J. J.; Robson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) have been developed in response to the requirements of the ISTP Program for three-dimensional (3D) plasma composition measurements capable of tracking the circulation of low-energy (0-500 eV) plasma through the polar magnetosphere. This plasma is composed of penetrating magnetosheath and escaping ionospheric components. It is in part lost to the downstream solar wind and in part recirculated within the magnetosphere, participating in the formation of the diamagnetic hot plasma sheet and ring current plasma populations. Significant obstacles which have previously made this task impossible include the low density and energy of the outflowing ionospheric plasma plume and the positive spacecraft floating potentials which exclude the lowest-energy plasma from detection on ordinary spacecraft. Based on a unique combination of focusing electrostatic ion optics and time of flight detection and mass analysis, TIDE provides the sensitivity (seven apertures of about 1 cm squared effective area each) and angular resolution (6 x 18 degrees) required for this purpose. PSI produces a low energy plasma locally at the POLAR spacecraft that provides the ion current required to balance the photoelectron current, along with a low temperature electron population, regulating the spacecraft potential slightly positive relative to the space plasma. TIDE/PSI will: (a) measure the density and flow fields of the solar and terrestrial plasmas within the high polar cap and magnetospheric lobes; (b) quantify the extent to which ionospheric and solar ions are recirculated within the distant magnetotail neutral sheet or lost to the distant tail and solar wind; (c) investigate the mass-dependent degree energization of these plasmas by measuring their thermodynamic properties; (d) investigate the relative roles of ionosphere and solar wind as sources of plasma to the plasma sheet and ring current.

  11. Plasma-filled applied B ion diode experiments using a plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, T.J. )

    1994-12-15

    In order for a plasma opening switch (POS) to open quickly and transfer power efficiently from an inductively charged vacuum transmission line to an applied B ion diode, the load impedance of the ion diode may be required to have an initial low impedance phase. A plasma-filled diode has such an impedance history. To test the effect of a plasma-filled diode on POS-diode coupling, a drifting plasma was introduced from the cathode side of an applied B ion diode operated on the LION accelerator (1.5 MV, 4 [Omega], 40 ns) at Cornell University. This plasma readily crossed the 2.1 T magnetic insulation field of the diode, and resulted in both increased diode electrical power, and an increased ability of the ion beam to remove material from a target. The plasma did not appear to have a noticeable effect on local beam steering angle.

  12. Energetics of Multiple-Ion Species Hohlraum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P; Berger, R; Callahan, D; Divol, L; Froula, D; London, R; MacGowan, B J; Meezan, N; Michel, P; Ross, J S; Sorce, C; Widmann, K; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H

    2007-11-05

    A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes in multiple-ion species plasmas has been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Gas-filled hohlraums with densities of xe22/cc are heated to Te=3keV and backscattered laser light is measured by a suite of absolutely calibrated backscatter diagnostics. Ion Landau damping is increased by adding hydrogen to the CO2/CF4 gas fill. We find that the backscatter from stimulated Brillouin scattering is reduced is monotonically reduced with increasing damping, demonstrating that Landau damping is the controlling damping mechanism in ICF relevant high-electron temperature plasmas. The reduction in backscatter is accompanied by a comparable increase in both transmission of a probe beam and an increased hohlraum radiation temperature, showing that multiple-ion species plasmas improve the overall hohlraum energetics/performance. Comparison of the experimental data to linear gain calculations as well as detailed full-scale 3D laser-plasma interaction simulations show quantitative agreement. Our findings confirm the importance of Landau damping in controlling backscatter from high-electron temperature hohlraum plasmas and have lead to the inclusion of multi-ion species plasmas in the hohlraum point design for upcoming ignition campaigns at the National Ignition Facility.

  13. Ion cyclotron heating experiments in magnetosphere plasma device RT-1

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiura, M. Yoshida, Z.; Yano, Y.; Kawazura, Y.; Saitoh, H.; Yamasaki, M.; Mushiake, T.; Kashyap, A.; Takahashi, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    2015-12-10

    The ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating with 3 MHz and ∼10 kW is being prepared in RT-1. The operation regime for electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating is surveyed as the target plasmas. ECRH with 8.2 GHz and ∼50 kW produces the plasmas with high energy electrons in the range of a few ten keV, but the ions still remain cold at a few ten eV. Ion heating is expected to access high ion beta state and to change the aspect of plasma confinement theoretically. The ICRF heating is applied to the target plasma as an auxiliary heating. The preliminary result of ICRF heating is reported.

  14. Conditioning of ion sources for mass spectrometry of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Mass spectrometry is a useful diagnostic technique for monitoring plasma species and plasma-surface interactions. In order to maximize the sensitivity of measurements of hydrogen-fueled fusion plasmas or hydrogen-based discharge cleaning and etching plasmas, the ion sources of mass spectrometers are operated at or near the high pressure limit of 10/sup -4/ Torr (10/sup -2/ Pa). Such high ambient pressures of hydrogen give rise to high background levels of residual gases such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, due to surface reactions on the ion source electrodes. For a commonly used ion source configuration, the residual gas production is a linear function of the ambient H/sub 2/ pressure. Hydrogen conditioning can reduce the absolute residual gas levels. Steady-state residual gas production is observed in a conditioned ion source, which is related to a balance of diffusion and sorption on the electrode surfaces.

  15. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner.

  16. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, J.R.

    1988-08-16

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner. 7 figs.

  17. The Plasma-Sheath Boundary in Two-Ion-Species Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, Scott D.

    2014-10-01

    The Bohm criterion is among the most important results in plasma physics because it provides the ion flow speed at the sheath edge under common plasma conditions. This is a useful boundary condition for modeling plasma-materials interactions, as well as for global plasma models. However, a difficulty arises when multiple ion species are present because the Bohm criterion provides only one constraint in as many unknowns as there are ion species. Conventional theory assumes that the ion species are decoupled, which leads to the prediction that each obtains its individual sound speed at the sheath edge: Vi =√{Te /mi } . However, experiments in Ar-Xe and He-Xe mixtures have revealed that the ion speeds can merge toward a common speed under typical low-temperature plasma conditions. This merging of ion speeds suggests that ion-ion friction may be playing a role, but standard Coulomb collisions are far too weak to explain the measurements. In this work, we discuss how the experimental results can be understood by accounting for wave-particle collisions from ion-ion two-stream instabilities. These instabilities arise when the differential flow speed between the ion species exceeds a threshold value that depends on the ion species concentrations and the electron-ion temperature ratio. When this threshold is exceeded, wave-particle interactions rapidly increase the collision rate leading to an ion-ion friction force that effectively ``locks'' the differential flow speed to the instability threshold. This provides a second constraint that can be used to determine the speed of each ion species at the sheath edge. We present numerical calculations of the instability threshold, and new particle-in-cell simulations that show the presence of both the instabilites and enhanced friction force. Only by accounting for the instabilites can theory predict the simulated ion speeds at the sheath edge. Work supported by the University of Iowa, and the USDOE Fusion Energy Sciences

  18. Compressional Alfvén and ion-ion hybrid waves in tokamak plasmas with two ion species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, H. J. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Akers, R.; Klimek, I.; Cecconello, M.

    2014-12-01

    Compressional Alfvén and ion-ion hybrid waves excited by energetic beam ions are studied in plasmas with two ion species. In our experiment, a hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) plasma is used to produce instabilities similar to those likely to be present in the burning deuterium-tritium plasmas of future tokamaks. Modes are suppressed in the deuterium cyclotron frequency range with increasing hydrogen gas puffing. In plasmas with H/D concentrations of 2.57 or higher, short-lived modes with small and predominantly negative toroidal mode numbers are observed at frequencies ω/ωβD0 ≈ 2.25, where ωβD0 = ωβD(R0) is the on-axis deuterium cyclotron frequency. These are the highest mode frequencies yet detected in the ion cyclotron range in a spherical tokamak. Modeling of the transparency regions and plasma resonances using the cold plasma dispersion relation explains the observed features. Mode conversion at ion-ion hybrid resonances and subsequent kinetic damping is believed to be responsible for mode suppression. The high frequency modes are present due to excitation by wave-particle resonances within the transparency region for high hydrogen concentrations. The absence of other wave-particle resonances explains significant features of our experiment. This technique has possible applications in plasma heating, current drive and real-time diagnosis of relative ion concentration in the plasma core.

  19. Coulomb expansion of laser-excited ion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, D; Morrow, N V; Dutta, S K; Raithel, G

    2002-10-21

    We determine the electric field in mm-sized clouds of cold Rb+ ions, produced by photoionization of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap, using the Stark effect of embedded Rydberg atoms. The dependence of the electric field on the time delay between the ion plasma production and the probe of the electric field reflects the Coulomb expansion of the plasma. Our experiments and models show expansion times <1micros.

  20. Turbulent cascade in a two-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Xin; Liu, San-Qiu; Yu, Ming-Yang

    2014-11-15

    It is shown that small but finite-amplitude drift wave turbulence in a two-ion-species plasma can be modeled by a Hasegawa-Mima equation. The mode cascade process and resulting turbulent spectrum are investigated. The spectrum is found to be similar to that of a two-component plasma, but the space and time scales of the turbulent cascade process can be quite different since they are rescaled by the presence of the second ion species.

  1. Dressed soliton in quantum dusty pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.; Roy, Kaushik

    2009-11-15

    Nonlinear propagation of a quantum ion-acoustic dressed soliton is studied in a dusty pair-ion plasma. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived using reductive perturbation technique. A higher order inhomogeneous differential equation is obtained for the higher order correction. The expression for a dressed soliton is calculated using a renormalization method. The expressions for higher order correction are determined using a series solution technique developed by Chatterjee et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 072102 (2009)].

  2. Plasma ion temperature measurements via charge exchange recombination radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R. J.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaita, R.; Post, D. E.

    1983-02-01

    Spatially and temporally resolved plasma ion temperatures can be determined by measuring the Doppler-broadened line profiles of transitions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions between fast hydrogen atoms and fully ionized low-Z ions. Plasma rotation velocity profiles can also be obtained. A sample result from the PDX tokamak using He+ radiation is presented, and expected line intensities for model cases for PDX and TFTR are calculated.

  3. Plasma ion temperature measurements via charge-exchange recombination radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fonck, R.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Post, D.E.

    1982-11-01

    Spatially and temporally resolved plasma ion temperatures can be determined by measuring the Doppler-broadened line profiles of transitions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions between fast hydrogen atoms and fully ionized low-Z ions. Plasma rotation velocity profiles can also be obtained. A sample result from the PDX tokamak using He/sup +/ radiation is presented, and expected line intensities for model cases for PDX and TFTR are calculated.

  4. Plasma ion temperature measurements via charge exchange recombination radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fonck, R.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Post, D.E.

    1983-02-01

    Spatially and temporally resolved plasma ion temperatures can be determined by measuring the Doppler-broadened line profiles of transitions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions between fast hydrogen atoms and fully ionized low-Z ions. Plasma rotation velocity profiles can also be obtained. A sample result from the PDX tokamak using He/sup +/ radiation is presented, and expected line intensities for model cases for PDX and TFTR are calculated.

  5. A preliminary model of ion beam neutralization. [in thruster plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model of neutralized thruster ion beam plasmas has been developed. The basic premise is that the beam forms an electrostatic trap for the neutralizing electrons. A Maxwellian spectrum of electron energies is maintained by collisions between trapped electrons and by collective randomization of velocities of electrons injected from the neutralizer into the surrounding plasma. The theory contains the observed barometric law relationship between electron density and electron temperatures and ion beam spreading in good agreement with measured results.

  6. Nonlinear Plasma Waves Excitation by Intense Ion Beams in Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2004-04-15

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration {tau}{sub b} is much longer than the electron plasma period 2{pi}/{omega}{sub p}, where {omega}{sub p} = (4{pi}e{sup 2}n{sub p}/m){sup 1/2} is the electron plasma frequency and n{sub p} is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. If the beam density is larger than the background plasma density, the plasma waves break. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The reduced fluid description derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes and yield scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters. The visualization of numerical simulation data shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry and exit from the plasma.

  7. Ion motion in self-modulated plasma wakefield accelerators.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J; Fonseca, R A; Mori, W B; Silva, L O

    2012-10-01

    The effects of plasma ion motion in self-modulated plasma-based accelerators are examined. An analytical model describing ion motion in the narrow beam limit is developed and confirmed through multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that the ion motion can lead to the early saturation of the self-modulation instability and to the suppression of the accelerating gradients. This can reduce the total energy that can be transformed into kinetic energy of accelerated particles. For the parameters of future proton-driven plasma accelerator experiments, the ion dynamics can have a strong impact. Possible methods to mitigate the effects of the ion motion in future experiments are demonstrated.

  8. Time resolved diagnostics of ions in colliding carbon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ravi Pratap; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2014-11-14

    We report a comparative study of the dynamic behaviour of ions at different pressures in laser ablated colliding and single plasma plumes using 2D imaging, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and a retarding field analyser (RFA). 2D imaging shows the splitting of plasma plumes due to different velocities of various plasma species. OES shows enhancement in abundance of ionic species with their presence for a longer time in colliding plume. C{sub 2} molecular formation is seen at later time in colliding plume compared to single plume and is attributed to dominating collisional processes in the colliding region of the plumes. The time of flight distribution of ions traced by the RFA shows the variation with change in fluence as well as ambient pressure for both colliding and single plume. Time of flight analysis of ions also shows the appearance of a fast peak in ion signal due to acceleration of ions at larger fluence.

  9. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H{sup −} ions. The influence is particularly large for H{sup −} ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H{sup −} ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H{sup −} ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes.

  10. Intense ion beam neutralization using underdense background plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berdanier, William; Roy, Prabir K.; Kaganovich, Igor

    2015-01-15

    Producing an overdense background plasma for neutralization purposes with a density that is high compared to the beam density is not always experimentally possible. We show that even an underdense background plasma with a small relative density can achieve high neutralization of intense ion beam pulses. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we show that if the total plasma electron charge is not sufficient to neutralize the beam charge, electron emitters are necessary for effective neutralization but are not needed if the plasma volume is so large that the total available charge in the electrons exceeds that of the ion beam. Several regimes of possible underdense/tenuous neutralization plasma densities are investigated with and without electron emitters or dense plasma at periphery regions, including the case of electron emitters without plasma, which does not effectively neutralize the beam. Over 95% neutralization is achieved for even very underdense background plasma with plasma density 1/15th the beam density. We compare results of particle-in-cell simulations with an analytic model of neutralization and find close agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations. Further, we show experimental data from the National Drift Compression experiment-II group that verifies the result that underdense plasma can neutralize intense heavy ion beams effectively.

  11. Injected 1+ ion beam as a diagnostics tool of charge breeder ECR ion source plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Choinski, J.; Standylo, L.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Koivisto, H.

    2015-06-01

    Charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (CB-ECRIS) are used as 1+  →n+  charge multiplication devices of post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. The charge breeding process involves thermalization of the injected 1+  ions with the plasma ions in ion-ion collisions, subsequent ionization by electron impact and extraction of the n+  ions. Charge breeding experiments of 85Rb and 133Cs ion beams with the 14.5 GHz PHOENIX CB-ECRIS operating with oxygen gas demonstrate the plasma diagnostics capabilities of the 1+  injection method. Two populations can be distinguished in the m/q-spectrum of the extracted ion beams, the low (1+  and 2+) charge states representing the uncaptured fraction of the incident 1+  ion beam and the high charge states that have been captured in ion-ion collisions and subsequently charge bred through electron impact ionization. Identification of the uncaptured fraction of the 1+  ions allows estimating the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequency of various charge states in the ECRIS plasma. The collision frequencies of highly charged ions (˜107 Hz) are shown to exceed their gyrofrequencies (˜106 Hz) at least by an order of magnitude, which implies that the dynamics of high charge state ions are dictated by magnetically confined electrons and ambipolar diffusion and only low charge state ions can be considered magnetized. Furthermore, it is concluded that the plasma density of the ECRIS charge breeder is most likely on the order of 1011 cm-3 i.e. well below the critical density for 14.5 GHz microwaves.

  12. Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O.

    2012-06-19

    Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.

  13. Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-10-30

    Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed, high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described approaches to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means, by an array of movable Langmuir probes, by a small single probe, and by evaluating Stark broadening of the Balmer H beta spectral line. In the main approach described here, the plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. It is shown that the plasma is essentially hollow, as determined by the structure of the magnetic field, though the plasma density exceeds 1014 cm-3 in practically all zones of the solenoid volume if the ring electrode is placed a few centimeters off the center of the solenoid. The plasma is non-uniform and fluctuating, however, since its density exceeds the ion beam density it is believed that this approach could provide a practical solution to the space charge neutralization challenge.

  14. Ion-wave stabilization of an inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Camparo, J.C.; Mackay, R.

    2006-04-24

    Stabilization of the rf power driving an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) has implications for fields ranging from atomic clocks to analytical chemistry to illumination technology. Here, we demonstrate a technique in which the plasma itself acts as a probe of radio wave power, and provides a correction signal for active rf-power control. Our technique takes advantage of the resonant nature of forced ion waves in the plasma, and their observation in the ICP's optical emission.

  15. Creating and studying ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, T. C.; Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-05-15

    We excite ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas by imprinting density modulations during plasma creation. Laser-induced fluorescence is used to observe the density and velocity perturbations created by the waves. The effect of expansion of the plasma on the evolution of the wave amplitude is described by treating the wave action as an adiabatic invariant. After accounting for this effect, we determine that the waves are weakly damped, but the damping is significantly faster than expected for Landau damping.

  16. Electron–ion relaxation time in moderately degenerate plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vronskii, M. A. Koryakina, Yu. V.

    2015-09-15

    A formula is derived for the electron–ion relaxation time in a partially degenerate plasma with electron-ion interaction via a central field. The resulting expression in the form of an integral of the transport cross section generalizes the well-known Landau and Brysk approximations.

  17. Coupled electron and ion nonlinear oscillations in a collisionless plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Karimov, A. R.

    2013-05-15

    Dynamics of coupled electrostatic electron and ion nonlinear oscillations in a collisionless plasma is studied with reference to a kinetic description. Proceeding from the exact solution of Vlasov-Maxwell equations written as a function of linear functions in the electron and ion velocities, we arrive at the two coupled nonlinear equations which describe the evolution of the system.

  18. Ion Temperature Control of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Steffl, A. J.; Robbins, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on observational and theoretical studies of ion temperature in the Io plasma torus. Ion temperature is a critical factor for two reasons. First, ions are a major supplier of energy to the torus electrons which power the intense EUV emissions. Second, ion temperature determines the vertical extent of plasma along field lines. Higher temperatures spread plasma out, lowers the density and slows reaction rates. The combined effects can play a controlling role in torus energetics and chemistry. An unexpected tool for the study of ion temperature is the longitudinal structure in the plasma torus which often manifests itself as periodic brightness variations. Opposite sides of the torus (especially magnetic longitudes 20 and 200 degrees) have been observed on numerous occasions to have dramatically different brightness, density, composition, ionization state, electron temperature and ion temperature. These asymmetries must ultimately be driven by different energy flows on the opposite sides, presenting an opportunity to observe key torus processes operating under different conditions. The most comprehensive dataset for the study of longitudinal variations was obtained by the Cassini UVIS instrument during its Jupiter flyby. Steffl (Ph.D. thesis, 2005) identified longitudinal variations in all the quantities listed above wit the exception of ion temperature. We extend his work by undertaking the first search for such variation in the UVIS dataset. We also report on a 'square centimeter' model of the torus which extend the traditional 'cubic centimeter' models by including the controlling effects of ion temperature more completely.

  19. Arc plasma simulation of the KAERI large ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In, S. R.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.

    2008-02-01

    The KAERI large ion source, developed for the KSTAR NBI system, recently produced ion beams of 100keV, 50A levels in the first half campaign of 2007. These results seem to be the best performance of the present ion source at a maximum available input power of 145kW. A slight improvement in the ion source is certainly necessary to attain the final goal of an 8MW ion beam. Firstly, the experimental results were analyzed to differentiate the cause and effect for the insufficient beam currents. Secondly, a zero dimensional simulation was carried out on the ion source plasma to identify which factors control the arc plasma and to find out what improvements can be expected.

  20. The positive ion temperature effect in magnetized electronegative plasma sheath with two species of positive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A. K.; Kar, S.; Goswami, K. S.

    2012-10-15

    The properties of a magnetized multi-component (two species of positive ions, negative ions and electrons) plasma sheath with finite positive ion temperature are studied. By using three fluid hydrodynamic model and some dimensionless variables, the ion (both lighter and heavier positive ions, and negative ions) densities, the ion (only for positive ions) velocities, and electric potential inside the sheath are investigated. In addition, the absence and presence of magnetic field and the orientation of magnetic field are considered. It is noticed that, with increase of positive ion temperature, the lighter positive ion density peaks increase only at the sheath edge and shift towards the sheath edge for both absence and presence of magnetic field. For heavier positive ions, in the absence of magnetic field, the density peaks increase at the sheath edge. But in the presence of magnetic field, the density fluctuations increase at the sheath edge. For both the cases, the density peaks shift towards the sheath edge.

  1. Ion temperature and gas pressure effects on the magnetized sheath dynamics during plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoram, M.; Ghomi, H.; Navab Safa, N.

    2016-03-01

    Here, a collisional magnetized plasma with finite ion temperature is considered to examine the effects of the ion temperature and gas pressure on the plasma-sheath dynamics. We use the two-fluid model of plasma-sheath where the nonlinear equations of a dynamic sheath are solved using a full implicit scheme of finite difference method along with some convenient initial and boundary conditions at the plasma center and target. It is found that the ion temperature only has a significant effect on the characteristics of low voltage sheath, while the gas pressure (collision rate) seriously affects the dynamic characteristics of the low and high voltage plasma-sheath. One can see, increasing the ion temperature in low voltage plasma-sheath causes to increase the temporal curve of the ion dose and the ion impact energy on the target, reduces the temporal curve of the sheath width, and has no any effect on the temporal curve of the ion incident angle on the target. However, rising the gas pressure in low and high voltage plasma-sheath reduces all of these temporal curves.

  2. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yushi; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  3. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred. PMID:26931928

  4. Subcutoff microwave driven plasma ion sources for multielemental focused ion beam systems.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jose V; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2008-06-01

    A compact microwave driven plasma ion source for focused ion beam applications has been developed. Several gas species have been experimented including argon, krypton, and hydrogen. The plasma, confined by a minimum B multicusp magnetic field, has good radial and axial uniformity. The octupole multicusp configuration shows a superior performance in terms of plasma density (~1.3 x 10(11) cm(-3)) and electron temperature (7-15 eV) at a power density of 5-10 Wcm(2). Ion current densities ranging from a few hundreds to over 1000 mA/cm(2) have been obtained with different plasma electrode apertures. The ion source will be combined with electrostatic Einzel lenses and should be capable of producing multielemental focused ion beams for nanostructuring and implantations. The initial simulation results for the focused beams have been presented.

  5. Positive ion polymerization in hydrogen diluted silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nunomura, S.; Kondo, M.

    2008-12-08

    Mass spectra of positive ions (cations) and neutrals have been measured in hydrogen diluted silane plasmas at gas pressures of 0.1-10 Torr. The mass spectrum of ions changes with the pressure, while that of neutrals maintains a similar shape. The dominant ion species varies from a hydrogen ion group at < or approx. 0.5 Torr to a monosilicon hydride ion group at {approx_equal}0.5-1 Torr and polysilicon hydride ion groups at > or approx. 1 Torr, which is determined from ionization channels and consecutive ion-molecule reactions. The ion bombardment is suppressed with the pressure, from several tens of eV at < or approx. 1 Torr to a few eV at > or approx. 7 Torr.

  6. Plasma Ion Sources for Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Guo

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources using direct-current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) plasma have been developed in this thesis work. These ion sources can provide stable discharge currents of ~ 1 mA, 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the corona discharge, a widely used API source. The plasmas can be generated and maintained in 1 atm of various buffer gases by applying -500 to -1000 V (DC plasma) or 1-15 W with a frequency of 165 kHz (RF plasma) on the needle electrode. These ion sources have been used with liquid injection to detect various organic compounds of pharmaceutical, biotechnological and environmental interest. Key features of these ion sources include soft ionization with the protonated molecule as the largest peak, and superb sensitivity with detection limits in the low picogram or femtomole range and a linear dynamic range over ~4 orders of magnitude. The RF plasma has advantages over the DC plasma in its ability to operate in various buffer gases and to produce a more stable plasma. Factors influencing the performance of the ion sources have been studied, including RF power level, liquid flow rate, chamber temperature, solvent composition, and voltage affecting the collision induced dissociation (CID). Ionization of hydrocarbons by the RF plasma API source was also studied. Soft ionization is generally produced. To obtain high sensitivity, the ion source must be very dry and the needle-to-orifice distance must be small. Nitric oxide was used to enhance the sensitivity. The RF plasma source was then used for the analysis of hydrocarbons in auto emissions. Comparisons between the corona discharge and the RF plasma have been made in terms of discharge current, ion residence time, and the ion source model. The RF plasma source provides larger linear dynamic range and higher sensitivity than the corona discharge, due to its much larger discharge current. The RF plasma was also observed to provide longer ion residence times and was not

  7. Twisted electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in dusty plasmas.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K

    2013-01-01

    We show the existence of a twisted electrostatic ion-cyclotron (ESIC) wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in a magnetized dusty plasma. For our purposes, we derive a 3D wave equation for the coupled ESIC and dust ion-acoustic (DIA) waves from the hydrodynamic equations that are composed of the continuity and momentum equations, together with Poisson's equation. The 3D wave equation reveals the formation of a braided or twisted ESIC wave structure carrying OAM. The braided or twisted ESIC wave structure can trap and transport plasma particles in magnetoplasmas, such as those in Saturn's F-ring and in the forthcoming magnetized dusty plasma experiments. PMID:23410477

  8. Excitation of lower hybrid waves by a gyrating ion beam in a negative ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Jyotsna; Jain, V. K.; Sharma, Suresh C.; Gahlot, Ajay

    2013-03-15

    A gyrating ion beam propagating through a magnetized plasma cylinder containing K{sup +} positive ions, electrons, and SF{sub 6}{sup -} negative ions drives electrostatic lower hybrid waves to instability via Cyclotron interaction. Numerical calculations of the unstable mode frequencies and growth rates of both the unstable positive ion and negative ion modes have been carried out for the existing negative ion plasma parameters. It is found that the unstable mode frequencies of both the modes increase, with the relative density of negative ions. In addition, the growth rates of both the unstable modes also increases with relative density of negative ions. Moreover, the growth rates of both the unstable modes scale as the one-third power of the beam density. The frequencies of both the unstable modes also increase with the magnetic fields. The real part of the unstable wave frequency increases as almost the square root of the beam energy.

  9. Plasma Instabilities in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Attems, M.; Rebhan, A.; Strickland, M.

    2011-05-23

    Non-Abelian plasma instabilities play a crucial role in the nonequilibrium dynamics of a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma. The Chromo-Weibel instabilities have been proposed as a possible mechanism for the fast apparent thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma and have been extensively studied in stationary anisotropic plasmas using the so-called hard-loop approximation. The generalization to the hard-expanding-loop (HEL) formalism allows the (numerical) calculation of the time evolution of gluonic mean fields in the more realistic dynamical case of anisotropic expansion.

  10. High-Quality Ion Beam Generation in Laser Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Toshihiro; Takano, Masahiro; Izumiyzma, Takeshi; Barada, Daisuke; Kawata, Shigeo; Gu, Yan Jun; Kong, Qing; Xiao Wang, Ping; Ma, Yan Yun; Wang, Wei Min

    We focus on a control of generation of high-quality ion beam. In this study, near-critical density plasmas are employed and are illuminated by high intensity short laser pulses; we have successfully generated high-energy ions by multiple-stages acceleration. We performed particle-in-cell simulations in this paper. Near-critical density plasmas are employed at the proton source and also in the post acceleration. A beam bunching method is also proposed to control the ion beam length.

  11. Ion motion in the wake driven by long particle bunches in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.

    2014-05-15

    We explore the role of the background plasma ion motion in self-modulated plasma wakefield accelerators. We employ Dawson's plasma sheet model to derive expressions for the transverse plasma electric field and ponderomotive force in the narrow bunch limit. We use these results to determine the on-set of the ion dynamics and demonstrate that the ion motion could occur in self-modulated plasma wakefield accelerators. Simulations show the motion of the plasma ions can lead to the early suppression of the self-modulation instability and of the accelerating fields. The background plasma ion motion can nevertheless be fully mitigated by using plasmas with heavier plasmas.

  12. Predicting ion charge state distributions of vacuum arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Schulke, T.

    1996-04-01

    Multiply charged ions are present in vacuum arc plasmas. The ions are produced at cathode spots, and their charge state distributions (CSDs) depend on the cathode material but only little on the arc current or other parameters as long as the current is relatively low and the anode is not actively involved in the plasma production. There are experimental data of ion CSDs available in the literature for 50 different cathode materials. The CSDs can be calculated based on the assumption that thermodynamic equilibrium is valid in the vicinity of the cathode spot, and the equilibrium CSDs `freeze` at a certain distance from the cathode spot (transition to a non-equilibrium plasma). Plasma temperatures and densities at the `freezing points` have been calculated, and, based on the existence of characteristic groups of elements in the Periodic Table, predictions of CSDs can be made for metallic elements which have not yet been used as cathode materials.

  13. The ionization length in plasmas with finite temperature ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelić, N.; Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Duhovnik, J.

    2009-12-01

    The ionization length is an important quantity which up to now has been precisely determined only in plasmas which assume that the ions are born at rest, i.e., in discharges known as "cold ion-source" plasmas. Presented here are the results of our calculations of the ionization lengths in plasmas with an arbitrary ion source temperature. Harrison and Thompson (H&T) [Proc. Phys. Soc. 74, 145 (1959)] found the values of this quantity for the cases of several ion strength potential profiles in the well-known Tonks-Langmuir [Phys. Rev. 34, 876 (1929)] discharge, which is characterized by "cold" ion temperature. This scenario is also known as the "singular" ion-source discharge. The H&T analytic result covers cases of ion sources proportional to exp(βΦ) with Φ the normalized plasma potential and β =0,1,2 values, which correspond to particular physical scenarios. Many years following H&T's work, Bissell and Johnson (B&J) [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] developed a model with the so-called "warm" ion-source temperature, i.e., "regular" ion source, under B&J's particular assumption that the ionization strength is proportional to the local electron density. However, it appears that B&J were not interested in determining the ionization length at all. The importance of this quantity to theoretical modeling was recognized by Riemann, who recently answered all the questions of the most advanced up-to-date plasma-sheath boundary theory with cold ions [K.-U. Riemann, Phys. Plasmas 13, 063508 (2006)] but still without the stiff warm ion-source case solution, which is highly resistant to solution via any available analytic method. The present article is an extension of H&T's results obtained for a single point only with ion source temperature Tn=0 to arbitrary finite ion source temperatures. The approach applied in this work is based on the method recently developed by Kos et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 093503 (2009)].

  14. Plasma particle simulation of electrostatic ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Xiaohang; Keefer, Dennis; Ruyten, Wilhelmus

    1990-01-01

    Charge exchange collisons between beam ions and neutral propellant gas can result in erosion of the accelerator grid surfaces of an ion engine. A particle in cell (PIC) is developed along with a Monte Carlo method to simulate the ion dynamics and charge exchange processes in the grid region of an ion thruster. The simulation is two-dimensional axisymmetric and uses three velocity components (2d3v) to investigate the influence of charge exchange collisions on the ion sputtering of the accelerator grid surfaces. An example calculation has been performed for an ion thruster operated on xenon propellant. The simulation shows that the greatest sputtering occurs on the downstream surface of the grid, but some sputtering can also occur on the upstream surface as well as on the interior of the grid aperture.

  15. Cylindrical and spherical ion acoustic waves in a plasma with nonthermal electrons and warm ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Biswajit; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2005-05-15

    Using the reductive perturbation technique, nonlinear cylindrical and spherical Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified KdV equations are derived for ion acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions and nonthermal electrons. The effects of nonthermally distributed electrons on cylindrical and spherical ion acoustic waves are investigated. It is found that the nonthermality has a very significant effect on the nature of ion acoustic waves.

  16. Plasma spectroscopy of metal ions for hyper-electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kubono, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Kase, Masayuki; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Shimoura, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    In this research, the optical line spectra of metal ions from ECR plasma were observed using a grating monochromator with a photomultiplier. The light intensity of line spectrum from the ECR plasma had a strong correlation with ion beam intensity measured by a magnetic mass analyzer. This correlation is a significant information for the beam tuning process, because it allows to conduct the extraction of the desired metal ion species from the ECR plasma. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process, but this research provides a new approach for its simplification. In this paper the grating monochromator method for metal ion beam tuning such as (40)Ca(12+), (56)Fe(15+), and (85)Rb(20+) of hyper-ECR ion source as an injector for RIKEN Azimuthal Varying Field cyclotron is described.

  17. Transport Properties of Negative Ions in HBR Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Vladimir; Ivanovic, Nenad; Radmilovic-Radjenovic, Marija; Raspopovic, Zoran; Bojarov, Aleksandar; Petrovic, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    Low temperature plasma in halogenated gases is standard environment for dry etching of semiconductors. Amount of negative ions in HBr plasmas determines electronegativity so modeling etching devices requires data for anion transport properties. In this work we present cross section set for Br- ions in HBr assembled by using Denpoh-Nanbu theory. The threshold energy values were calculated by known heats of formation. The calculated total cross section accounts for ion-induced-dipole and ion-permanent-dipole interaction by using the local-dipole model. The total cross section was corrected to fit the reduced mobility obtained by SACM (Statistical Adiabatic Channel Model) approximation. Existing cross section measurements were used to scale calculated cross sections. Finally, we used Monte Carlo method to determine transport parameters for Br- as a function of reduced electric fields that can be used in fluid and hybrid plasma models.

  18. Diffuse plasma effects on the ion-hose instability

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Hughes, T.P. )

    1993-02-01

    The transverse stability of a relativistic electron beam focused by an ion channel in the presence of a diffuse background plasma is investigated. The linear behavior of the ion-hose and electron two-stream instabilities is treated analytically using a spread-mass model for the beam and ion channel and a cold-fluid model for the plasma. The electron two-stream instability is found to be quite weak. As the plasma neutralization radius approaches the beam radius, the ion-hose growth rate is reduced up to 50% before the model's assumptions break down. Particle-in-cell simulations confirm the linear analytic theory and show that the electron two-stream instability can saturate nonlinearly with little beam emittance growth.

  19. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  20. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  1. Ion thermal effects on slow mode solitary waves in plasmas with two adiabatic ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, F. Hellberg, M. A. Mace, R. L.

    2015-09-15

    Using both the Sagdeev and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) methods, ion thermal effects on slow mode ion acoustic solitons and double layers are investigated in a plasma with two adiabatic positive ion species. It is found that reducing the gap between the two ion thermal speeds by increasing the relative temperature of the cool ions increases the typical soliton/double layer speeds for all values of the ion-ion density ratio and reduces the range in the density ratio that supports double layers. The effect of increasing the relative cool ion temperature on the soliton/double layer amplitudes depends on the relative densities. For lower values of the ion density ratio, an increase in cool ion temperature leads to a significant decrease in soliton/double layer amplitude, so one may find that solitons of all permissible speeds lie within the range of KdV theory.

  2. Quantum ion acoustic solitary waves in electron ion plasmas: A Sagdeev potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, S.; Mushtaq, A.

    2008-05-01

    Linear and nonlinear ion acoustic waves are studied in unmagnetized electron-ion quantum plasmas. Sagdeev potential approach is employed to describe the nonlinear quantum ion acoustic waves. It is found that density dips structures are formed in the subsonic region in a electron-ion quantum plasma case. The amplitude of the nonlinear structures remains constant and the width is broadened with the increase in the quantization of the system. However, the nonlinear wave amplitude is reduced with the increase in the wave Mach number. The numerical results are also presented.

  3. Measurements of plasma bremsstrahlung and plasma energy density produced by electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, Jonathan David

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to gain an understanding on the relative importance of microwave power, neutral pressure, and magnetic field configuration on the behavior of the hot electrons within an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma. This was carried out through measurement of plasma bremsstrahlung with both NaI(Tl) (hv > 30 keV) and CdTe (2 keV < hv < 70 keV) x-ray detectors, and through measurement of the plasma energy density with a diamagnetic loop placed around the plasma chamber. We also examined the anisotropy in x-ray power by simultaneously measuring the x-ray spectra in two orthogonal directions: radially and axially, using NaI(Tl) detectors. We have seen that for a 6.4 GHz ECRIS, both the x-ray power produced by confined electrons and the plasma energy density behave logarithmically with microwave power. The x-ray flux created by electrons lost from the plasma, however, does not saturate. Thus, the small increase in plasma density that occurred at high microwave powers (> 150 W on a 6.4 GHz ECRIS) was accompanied by a large increase in total x-ray power. We suggest that the saturation of x-ray power and plasma energy density was due to rf-induced pitch-angle scattering of the electrons. X-ray power and plasma energy density were also shown to saturate with neutral pressure, and to increase nearly linearly as the gradient of the magnetic field in the resonance zone was decreased. All of these findings were in agreement with the theoretical models describing ECRIS plasmas. We have discussed the use of a diamagnetic loop as a means of exploring various plasma time scales on a relative basis. Specifically, we focused much of our attention on studying how changing ion source parameters, such as microwave power and neutral pressure, would effect the rise and decay of the integrated diamagnetic signal, which can be related to plasma energy density. We showed that increasing microwave power lowers the e-fold times at both the leading

  4. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  5. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power-law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of the potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied include the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings (and hence the direction of the radial electric field), the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  6. Ion impact distribution over plasma exposed nanocone arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrabian, S.; Xu, S.; Qaemi, A. A.; Shokri, B.; Ostrikov, K.

    2013-03-15

    The effect of an ordered array of nanocones on a conducting substrate immersed in the plasma on the transport of the plasma ions is investigated. The real conical shape of the cones is rigorously incorporated into the model. The movement of 10{sup 5} CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions in the plasma sheath modified by the nanocone array is simulated. The ions are driven by the electric fields produced by the sheath and the nanostructures. The surface charge density and the total charge on the nanotips with different aspect ratios are computed. The ion transport simulation provides important characteristics of the displacement and velocity of the ions. The relative ion distribution along the lateral surfaces of the carbon nanotips is computed as well. It is shown that a rigorous account of the realistic nanostructure shape leads to very different distribution of the ion fluxes on the nanostructured surfaces compared to the previously reported works. The ion flux distribution is a critical factor in the nucleation process on the substrate and determines the nanostructure growth patterns.

  7. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Ye. O. Van Eester, D.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.

    2015-12-10

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (∼ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.

  8. Improved ion implant fluence uniformity in hydrogen enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation into silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.; Li, L. H. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Liu, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Zuo, X. J.; Zhu, P. Z.; Ma, Y. F.; Yu, K. M.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-06-15

    Enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation does not require an external plasma source but ion focusing affects the lateral ion fluence uniformity, thereby hampering its use in high-fluence hydrogen ion implantation for thin film transfer and fabrication of silicon-on-insulator. Insertion of a metal ring between the sample stage and glass chamber improves the ion uniformity and reduces the ion fluence non-uniformity as the cathode voltage is raised. Two-dimensional multiple-grid particle-in-cell simulation confirms that the variation of electric field inside the chamber leads to mitigation of the ion focusing phenomenon and the results are corroborated experimentally by hydrogen forward scattering.

  9. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Van Eester, D.; Dumont, R.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (˜ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.

  10. Equatorial plasma bubbles with enhanced ion and electron temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeheung; Min, Kyoung Wook; Kim, Vitaly P.; Kil, Hyosub; Su, Shin-Yi; Chao, Chi Kuang; Lee, Jae-Jin

    2008-09-01

    While the ion and electron temperatures inside equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) are normally lower than those in an ambient plasma, bubbles with enhanced temperatures (BETs) are found occasionally in the topside ionosphere. Here we report the characteristics of BETs identified from observations of the first Republic of China Satellite (ROCSAT-1), the first Korea Multi-purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT-1), and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 during the solar maximum period between 2000 and 2001. The oxygen ion fraction inside the BETs, which was no lower than that of the ambient ionosphere, was similar to the case of ordinary low-temperature EPBs. These observations indicate that the BETs and low-temperature EPBs detected on the topside were produced by the upward drift of low-density plasma from lower altitudes. The feature that distinguishes BETs from normal EPBs is the occurrence of an unusually fast poleward field-aligned plasma flow relative to the ambient plasma. The BETs occurred preferentially around geomagnetic latitudes of 10° in the summer hemisphere, where the ambient ion and electron temperatures are lower than those in the conjugate winter hemisphere. The occurrence of BETs did not show any notable dependence on geomagnetic activities. The characteristics of the BETs suggest that the BETs were produced by adiabatic plasma heating associated with a fast poleward oxygen ion transport along magnetic flux tubes.

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ion Equilibration in Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Nikola; Langin, Thomas; Strickler, Trevor; Killian, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Understanding transport and equilibration in strongly coupled plasmas is important for modeling plasmas found in extreme environments like inertial confinement fusion plasmas and interiors of gas-giant planets. We use molecular dynamics simulations of Yukawa one component plasmas under periodic boundary conditions to study the evolution of strongly coupled ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) at early times. Simulations provide access to observable quantities in strongly coupled plasmas, namely correlation functions. Experimentally, the average velocity of an ion subset with a skewed velocity profile has been used to measure velocity autocorrelation functions and provide access to diffusion coefficients and other transport processes in UNPs. Using the simulation, we verify the experimental measurements of average velocities of ion subsets in UNPs and confirm their agreement with the velocity autocorrelation function. Finally, we examine the collective mode behavior of the ions during their equilibration phase by calculating the longitudinal current correlation function at various times during equilibration. This allows us to study the collective mode coupling behavior of the equilibration of ions in UNPs and its dependence on screening parameter.

  12. Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2007-02-28

    Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

  13. Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Boehmer, H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R.; Leneman, D.; Vincena, S.

    2007-01-15

    In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters (Li aluminosilicate) were developed. Compared to discharge based ion sources, they are compact, have zero gas load, small energy dispersion, and can be operated at any angle with respect to an ambient magnetic field of up to 4.0 kG. Beam energies range from 400 eV to 2.0 keV with typical beam current densities in the 1 mA/cm{sup 2} range. Because of the low ion mass, beam velocities of 100-300 km/s are in the range of Alfven speeds in typical helium plasmas in the large plasma device.

  14. Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Boehmer, H; Heidbrink, W W; McWilliams, R; Leneman, D; Vincena, S

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters (Li aluminosilicate) were developed. Compared to discharge based ion sources, they are compact, have zero gas load, small energy dispersion, and can be operated at any angle with respect to an ambient magnetic field of up to 4.0 kG. Beam energies range from 400 eV to 2.0 keV with typical beam current densities in the 1 mAcm(2) range. Because of the low ion mass, beam velocities of 100-300 kms are in the range of Alfven speeds in typical helium plasmas in the large plasma device.

  15. Confinement of pure ion plasma in a cylindrical current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Stephen F.; Chao, Edward H.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Phillips, Cynthia K.

    1999-12-01

    A novel method for containing a pure ion plasma at thermonuclear densities and temperatures has been modeled. The method combines the confinement principles of a Penning-Malmberg trap and a pulsed theta-pinch. A conventional Penning trap can confine a uniform-density plasma of about 5×1011cm-3 with a 30-Tesla magnetic field. However, if the axial field is ramped, a much higher local ion density can be obtained. Starting with a 107cm-3 trapped deuterium plasma at the Brillouin limit (B=0.6 Tesla), the field is ramped to 30 Tesla. Because the plasma is comprised of particles of only one sign of charge, transport losses are very low, i.e., the conductivity is high. As a result, the ramped field does not penetrate the plasma and a diamagnetic surface current is generated, with the ions being accelerated to relativistic velocities. To counteract the inward j×B forces from this induced current, additional ions are injected into the plasma along the axis to increase the density (and mutual electrostatic repulsion) of the target plasma. In the absence of the higher magnetic field in the center, the ions drift outward until a balance is established between the outward driving forces (centrifugal, electrostatic, pressure gradient) and the inward j×B force. An equilibrium calculation using a relativistic, 1-D, cold-fluid model shows that a plasma can be trapped in a hollow, 49-cm diameter, 0.2-cm thick cylinder with a density exceeding 4×1014cm-3.

  16. Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme

    1998-08-01

    A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3-D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision H-/H+ and of charge exchange H-/H0 are handled at each time step by a Monte-Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided if they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of «volume production» (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.

  17. Ion-Acoustic Shock Waves in Nonextensive Multi-Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannat, N.; Ferdousi, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) shock waves (SHWs) in a nonextensive multi-ion plasma system (consisting of inertial positive light ions as well as negative heavy ions, noninertial nonextensive electrons and positrons) has been studied. The reductive perturbation technique has been employed to derive the Burgers equation. The basic properties (polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the IA SHWs are found to be significantly modified by the effects of nonextensivity of electrons and positrons, ion kinematic viscosity, temperature ratio of electrons and positrons, etc. It has been observed that SHWs with positive and negative potential are formed depending on the plasma parameters. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the characteristics of IA SHWs both in laboratory and space plasmas.

  18. Planar and nonplanar ion acoustic shock waves in relativistic degenerate astrophysical electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata-ur-Rahman, Ali, S.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Qamar, A.

    2013-04-01

    We have studied the propagation of ion acoustic shock waves involving planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are non-degenerate ultra-cold ions, relativistically degenerate electrons, and positrons. By using the reductive perturbation technique, Korteweg-deVries Burger and modified Korteweg-deVries Burger equations are derived. It is shown that only compressive shock waves can propagate in such a plasma system. The effects of geometry, the ion kinematic viscosity, and the positron concentration are examined on the ion acoustic shock potential and electric field profiles. It is found that the properties of ion acoustic shock waves in a non-planar geometry significantly differ from those in planar geometry. The present study has relevance to the dense plasmas, produced in laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter experiments) and in dense astrophysical objects.

  19. Planar and nonplanar ion acoustic shock waves in relativistic degenerate astrophysical electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ata-ur-Rahman,; Qamar, A.; Ali, S.; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2013-04-15

    We have studied the propagation of ion acoustic shock waves involving planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are non-degenerate ultra-cold ions, relativistically degenerate electrons, and positrons. By using the reductive perturbation technique, Korteweg-deVries Burger and modified Korteweg-deVries Burger equations are derived. It is shown that only compressive shock waves can propagate in such a plasma system. The effects of geometry, the ion kinematic viscosity, and the positron concentration are examined on the ion acoustic shock potential and electric field profiles. It is found that the properties of ion acoustic shock waves in a non-planar geometry significantly differ from those in planar geometry. The present study has relevance to the dense plasmas, produced in laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter experiments) and in dense astrophysical objects.

  20. Existence domains of slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons in two-ion space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V. Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-03-15

    A study of large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons is conducted for a model composed of cool and hot ions and cool and hot electrons. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential formalism, the scope of earlier studies is extended to consider why upper Mach number limitations arise for slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons. Treating all plasma constituents as adiabatic fluids, slow ion-acoustic solitons are limited in the order of increasing cool ion concentrations by the number densities of the cool, and then the hot ions becoming complex valued, followed by positive and then negative potential double layer regions. Only positive potentials are found for fast ion-acoustic solitons which are limited only by the hot ion number density having to remain real valued. The effect of neglecting as opposed to including inertial effects of the hot electrons is found to induce only minor quantitative changes in the existence regions of slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons.

  1. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam ChargeNeutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson,Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Logan, B. Grant

    2005-10-01

    Plasmas are employed as a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce one-meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being developed. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic, and high voltage ({approx} 1-5 kV) applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long has produced plasma densities of 5 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The source was integrated into the previous Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K{sup +} ion beam. Presently, the one-meter source is being fabricated. The source is being characterized and will be integrated into NDCX for charge neutralization experiments.

  2. Ion orbits in plasma etching of semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Madziwa-Nussinov, Tsitsi G.; Arnush, Donald; Chen, Francis F.

    2008-01-15

    Fabrication of high-speed semiconductor circuits depends on etching submicron trenches and holes with straight walls, guided by sheath accelerated ions, which strike the substrate at a normal angle. Electrons accumulate at the nonconductive entrance of each trench, charging it negatively and preventing the penetration of electrons to the bottom of the trench. This 'electron shading' effect causes an ion charge at the bottom, which is well known to cause damage to thin oxide layers. In addition, the deflection of ions by electric fields in the trench can cause deformation of the trench shape. To study this effect, the ion orbits are computed self-consistently with their charging of the trench walls. It is found that (a) the orbits depend only on the electric fields at the entrance and are sensitive to changes in the shape of the photoresist layer there; (b) there is an 'ion shading' effect that protects part of the wall; and (c) the number of ions striking the wall is too small to cause any deformation thereof.

  3. Transition of ion-acoustic perturbations in multicomponent plasma with negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Devi, Kavita; Adhikary, Nirab Chandra; Bailung, Heremba

    2008-08-15

    Evolution of ion-acoustic compressive (positive) and rarefactive (negative) perturbations in a multicomponent plasma with negative ions has been investigated in a double plasma device. Transition of compressive solitons in electron-positive ion plasma, into a dispersing train of oscillations in a multicomponent plasma, when the negative ion concentration r exceeds a critical value r{sub c}, has been observed. On the other hand, an initial rarefactive perturbation initially evolves into a dispersing train of oscillations in electron-positive ion plasma and transforms into rarefactive solitons in a multicomponent plasma when the negative ion concentration is higher than the critical value. The Mach velocity and width of the compressive and rarefactive solitons are measured. The compressive solitons in the range 0r{sub c} have different characteristics than the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons at r=0 and modified KdV solitons at r=r{sub c}. A nonlinear differential equation having two terms to account for the lower and higher order nonlinearity has been used to explain the observed results.

  4. The Physics of Ion Decoupling in Magnetized Plasma Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D; Larson, D; Brecht, S

    2011-02-08

    When a finite pulse of plasma expands into a magnetized background plasma, MHD predicts the pulse expel background plasma and its B-field - i.e. cause a magnetic 'bubble'. The expanding plasma is confined within the bubble, later to escape down the B-field lines. MHD suggests that the debris energy goes to expelling the B-field from the bubble volume and kinetic energy of the displaced background. For HANEs, this is far from the complete story. For many realistic HANE regimes, the long mean-free-path for collisions necessitates a Kinetic Ion Simulation Model (KISM). The most obvious effect is that the debris plasma can decouple and slip through the background plasma. The implications are: (1) the magnetic bubble is not as large as expected and (2) the debris is no longer confined within the magnetic bubble.

  5. Two-component ion distributions in tokamak hot ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, A. A.

    1984-05-01

    The two-component ion distribution observed with active charge-exchange measurements on the tokamak PDX are explained using the Fokker-Planck drift-kinetic equation and assuming that ion self-collisions are dominant for energy scattering. The energetic tail of the distribution, which is diffusing outwards in radius and down in energy, must retain an approximately constant effective temperature TH≡(-∂ ln f i/m∂ɛ)-1. The discontinuity in the slope of ln f i is shown to be the boundary between the inward and outward diffusion parts of f i and is a form of contact discontinuity. Energy-scattering collisions with electrons or circulating beam ions, when important, modify the constancy of TH.

  6. Two-component ion distributions in tokamak hot ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.A.

    1984-05-01

    The two-component ion distribution observed with active charge-exchange measurements on the tokamak PDX are explained using the Fokker--Planck drift-kinetic equation and assuming that ion self-collisions are dominant for energy scattering. The energetic tail of the distribution, which is diffusing outwards in radius and down in energy, must retain an approximately constant effective temperature T/sub H/equivalent(-partial ln f /sub i//mpartialepsilon)/sup -1/. The discontinuity in the slope of ln f /sub i/ is shown to be the boundary between the inward and outward diffusion parts of f /sub i/ and is a form of contact discontinuity. Energy-scattering collisions with electrons or circulating beam ions, when important, modify the constancy of T/sub H/.

  7. Determining the Bohm criterion in plasmas with two ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Baalrud, S. D.; Hegna, C. C.

    2011-02-15

    A model that uniquely determines the flow speed of each ion species at the sheath edge of two ion species plasmas is developed. In this analysis, ion-ion two-stream instabilities can play an important role because they significantly enhance the friction between ion species. Two-stream instabilities arise when the difference in flow speeds between the ion species exceeds a critical value: V{sub 1}-V{sub 2}{identical_to}{Delta}V{>=}{Delta}V{sub c}. The resultant instability-enhanced friction rapidly becomes so strong that {Delta}V cannot significantly exceed {Delta}V{sub c}. Using the condition provided by {Delta}V={Delta}V{sub c} and the generalized Bohm criterion, the speed of each ion species is uniquely determined as it leaves a quasineutral plasma and enters a sheath. Previous work [S. D. Baalrud et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 205002 (2009)] considered the cold ion limit (T{sub i}{yields}0), in which case {Delta}V{sub c}{yields}0 and each ion species obtains a common ''system'' sound speed at the sheath edge. Finite ion temperatures are accounted for in this work. The result is that {Delta}V{sub c} depends on the density and thermal speed of each ion species; {Delta}V{sub c} has a minimum when the density ratio of the two ion species is near one, and becomes larger as the density ratio deviates from unity. As {Delta}V{sub c} increases, the speed of each ion species approaches its individual sound speed at the sheath edge.

  8. Ion-acoustic cnoidal wave and associated non-linear ion flux in dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S. L.; Tiwari, R. S.; Mishra, M. K.

    2012-10-15

    Using reductive perturbation method with appropriate boundary conditions, coupled evolution equations for first and second order potentials are derived for ion-acoustic waves in a collisionless, un-magnetized plasma consisting of hot isothermal electrons, cold ions, and massive mobile charged dust grains. The boundary conditions give rise to renormalization term, which enable us to eliminate secular contribution in higher order terms. Determining the non secular solution of these coupled equations, expressions for wave phase velocity and averaged non-linear ion flux associated with ion-acoustic cnoidal wave are obtained. Variation of the wave phase velocity and averaged non-linear ion flux as a function of modulus (k{sup 2}) dependent wave amplitude are numerically examined for different values of dust concentration, charge on dust grains, and mass ratio of dust grains with plasma ions. It is found that for a given amplitude, the presence of positively (negatively) charged dust grains in plasma decreases (increases) the wave phase velocity. This behavior is more pronounced with increase in dust concentrations or increase in charge on dust grains or decrease in mass ratio of dust grains. The averaged non-linear ion flux associated with wave is positive (negative) for negatively (positively) charged dust grains in the plasma and increases (decreases) with modulus (k{sup 2}) dependent wave amplitude. For given amplitude, it increases (decreases) as dust concentration or charge of negatively (positively) charged dust grains increases in the plasma.

  9. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kaladze, T.; Mahmood, S.

    2014-03-15

    Electrostatic ion-acoustic periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons are investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived with appropriate boundary conditions for periodic waves. The corresponding analytical and various numerical solutions are presented with Sagdeev potential approach. Differences between the results caused by the kappa and Maxwell distributions are emphasized. It is revealed that only hump (compressive) structures of the cnoidal waves and solitons are formed. It is shown that amplitudes of the cnoidal waves and solitons are reduced in an EPI plasma case in comparison with the ordinary electron-ion plasmas. The effects caused by the temperature variations of the warm ions are also discussed. It is obtained that the amplitude of the cnoidal waves and solitons decreases for a kappa distributed (nonthermal) electrons and positrons plasma case in comparison with the Maxwellian distributed (thermal) electrons and positrons EPI plasmas. The existence of kappa distributed particles leads to decreasing of ion-acoustic frequency up to thermal ions frequency.

  10. Study of ion-irradiated tungsten in deuterium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripunov, B. I.; Gureev, V. M.; Koidan, V. S.; Kornienko, S. N.; Latushkin, S. T.; Petrov, V. B.; Ryazanov, A. I.; Semenov, E. V.; Stolyarova, V. G.; Danelyan, L. S.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Zatekin, V. V.; Unezhev, V. N.

    2013-07-01

    Experimental study aimed at investigation of neutron induced damage influence on fusion reactor plasma facing materials is reported. Displacement damage was produced in tungsten by high-energy helium and carbon ions at 3-10 MeV. The reached level of displacement damage ranged from several dpa to 600 dpa. The properties of the irradiated tungsten were studied in steady-state deuterium plasma on the LENTA linear divertor simulator. Plasma exposures were made at 250 eV of ion energy to fluence 1021-1022 ion/сm2. Erosion dynamics of the damaged layer and deuterium retention were observed. Surface microstructure modifications and important damage of the 5 μm layer shown. Deuterium retention in helium-damaged tungsten (ERD) showed its complex behavior (increase or decrease) depending on implanted helium quantity and the structure of the surface layer.

  11. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    DOE PAGES

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled bymore » the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.« less

  12. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  13. Theoretical investigations of plasma processes in the ion bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A physical model for a thruster discharge was developed, consisting of a spatially diverging plasma sustained electrically between a small ring cathode and a larger ring anode in a cylindrical chamber with an axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations with mixed boundary conditions, which describe the electric potential and the plasma velocity fields, was solved in closed form. By means of quantum-mechanical perturbation theory, a formula for the number S(E) of atoms sputtered on the average by an ion of energy E was derived from first principles. The boundary-value problem describing the diffusion of the sputtered atoms through the surrounding rarefied electron-ion plasma to the system surfaces of ion propulsion systems was formulated and treated analytically. It is shown that outer boundary-value problems of this type lead to a complex integral equation, which requires numerical resolution.

  14. Head-on collision of dust-ion-acoustic soliton in quantum pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Ghorui, Malay kr.; Wong, C. S.

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, we study the head-on collision between two dust ion acoustic solitons in quantum pair-ion plasma. Using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method, we obtain the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the phase shifts, and the trajectories after the head-on collision of the two dust ion acoustic solitons. It is observed that the phase shifts are significantly affected by the values of the quantum parameter H, the ratio of the multiples of the charge state and density of positive ions to that of the negative ions {beta} and the concentration of the negatively charged dust particles {delta}.

  15. Head-on collision of dust-ion-acoustic soliton in quantum pair-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Ghorui, Malay kr.; Wong, C. S.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we study the head-on collision between two dust ion acoustic solitons in quantum pair-ion plasma. Using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method, we obtain the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the phase shifts, and the trajectories after the head-on collision of the two dust ion acoustic solitons. It is observed that the phase shifts are significantly affected by the values of the quantum parameter H, the ratio of the multiples of the charge state and density of positive ions to that of the negative ions β and the concentration of the negatively charged dust particles δ.

  16. Ion acoustic shock waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Hafeez Ur-Rehman

    2013-06-15

    The monotonic and oscillatory ion acoustic shock waves are investigated in electron-positron-ion plasmas (e-p-i) with warm ions (adiabatically heated) and nonthermal kappa distributed electrons and positrons. The dissipation effects are included in the model due to kinematic viscosity of the ions. Using reductive perturbation technique, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived containing dispersion, dissipation, and diffraction effects (due to perturbation in the transverse direction) in e-p-i plasmas. The analytical solution of KPB equation is obtained by employing tangent hyperbolic (Tanh) method. The analytical condition for the propagation of oscillatory and monotonic shock structures are also discussed in detail. The numerical results of two dimensional monotonic shock structures are obtained for graphical representation. The dependence of shock structures on positron equilibrium density, ion temperature, nonthermal spectral index kappa, and the kinematic viscosity of ions are also discussed.

  17. Prediction of plasma properties in mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhurst, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified theoretical model was developed which obtains to first order the plasma properties in the discharge chamber of a mercury ion thruster from basic thruster design and controllable operating parameters. The basic operation and design of ion thrusters is discussed, and the important processes which influence the plasma properties are described in terms of the design and control parameters. The conservation for mass, charge and energy were applied to the ion production region, which was defined as the region of the discharge chamber having as its outer boundary the surface of revolution of the innermost field line to intersect the anode. Mass conservation and the equations describing the various processes involved with mass addition and removal from the ion production region are satisfied by a Maxwellian electron density spatial distribution in that region.

  18. Dressed ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Shamy, E. F.; El-Warraki, S. A.

    2009-01-15

    In the present research paper, the characteristics of ion acoustic solitary waves are investigated in hot magnetized dusty plasmas consisting of negatively charged dust grains, positively charged ion fluid, and isothermal electrons. Applying a reductive perturbation theory, a nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the first-order perturbed potential and a linear inhomogeneous KdV-type equation for the second-order perturbed potentials are derived. Stationary solutions of these coupled equations are obtained using a renormalization method. The effects of the external oblique magnetic field, hot ion fluid, and higher-order nonlinearity on the nature of the ion acoustic solitary waves are discussed. The results complement and provide new insights into previously published results on this problem [R. S. Tiwari and M. K. Mishra, Phys. Plasmas 13, 062112 (2006)].

  19. Simulated plasma immersion ion implantation processing of thin wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lejars, A.; Duday, D.; Wirtz, T.; Manova, D.; Maendl, S.

    2010-09-15

    In plasma immersion ion implantation, the dependencies of sheath expansion and ion flux density on substrate geometry are well established. However, effects of extreme diameter variations have not been investigated explicitly. Using an analytical simulation code assuming an infinite mean free path, the sheath expansion, ion flux density, and resulting substrate temperature are explored down to wire diameters of 150 {mu}m. Comparing the results for planar substrates and cylindrical, thin wires, a reduction in the sheath width up to a factor of 10, a faster establishing of a new equilibrium sheath position, and an increase in the ion fluence by a factor of 100 is encountered. The smaller plasma sheath allows for a denser packing of wires during the treatment than for planar substrates. Additionally, the implantation time is reduced, allowing a fast wire transport through the chamber, further increasing the throughput.

  20. MHD Induced Neutral Beam Ion Loss from NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, A.L. Roquemore, and K. Shinohara

    2007-12-13

    Bursts of ~60 kHz activity on Mirnov coils occur frequently in NSTX plasmas and these are accompanied by bursts of neutral beam ion loss over a range in pitch angles. These losses have been measured with a scintillator type loss probe imaged with a high speed (>10,000 frames/s) video camera, giving the evolution of the energy and pitch angle distributions of the lost neutral beam ions over the course of the events. The instability occurs below the TAE frequency in NSTX (~100 kHz) in high beta plasmas and may be a beta driven Alfvén acoustic (BAAE) mode.

  1. Plasma ion heating of an SO2 atmosphere on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.

    1989-10-01

    The Jovian plasma-ion heating of any atmospheric gas over Io is shown to be important for determining the temperature structure and the location of the exobase and for limiting diffusive separation in Io's atmosphere. This is used, along with the plasma supply rate, to estimate an average column of gas over the trailing hemisphere of about 3 x 10 to the 16th SO2/sq cm with exobase at about 1.4 Io radii.

  2. Plasma sheath effects on ion collection by a pinhole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Joel L.; Snyder, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This work presents tables to assist in the evaluation of pinhole collection effects on spacecraft. These tables summarize results of a computer model which tracks particle trajectories through a simplified electric field in the plasma sheath. A technique is proposed to account for plasma sheath effects in the application of these results and scaling rules are proposed to apply the calculations to specific situations. This model is compared to ion current measurements obtained by another worker, and the agreement is very good.

  3. Charge-exchange plasma generated by an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The charge exchange plasma generated by an ion thruster was investigated experimentally using both 5 cm and 15 cm thrusters. Results are shown for wide ranges of radial distance from the thruster and angle from the beam direction. Considerations of test environment, as well as distance from the thruster, indicate that a valid simulation of a thruster on a spacecraft was obtained. A calculation procedure and a sample calculation of charge exchange plasma density and saturation electron current density are included.

  4. Mercury ion thruster research, 1977. [plasma acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    The measured ion beam divergence characteristics of two and three-grid, multiaperture accelerator systems are presented. The effects of perveance, geometry, net-to-total accelerating voltage, discharge voltage and propellant are examined. The applicability of a model describing doubly-charged ion densities in mercury thrusters is demonstrated for an 8-cm diameter thruster. The results of detailed Langmuir probing of the interior of an operating cathode are given and used to determine the ionization fraction as a function of position upstream of the cathode orifice. A mathematical model of discharge chamber electron diffusion and collection processes is presented along with scaling laws useful in estimating performance of large diameter and/or high specific impluse thrusters. A model describing the production of ionized molecular nitrogen in ion thrusters is included.

  5. Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme

    1998-02-01

    A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The H-/D- trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision with H+/D+ and of charge exchange with H0/D0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have been allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of volume production (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.

  6. Heavy ion plasma confinement in an RF quadrupole trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schermann, J.; Major, F. G.

    1971-01-01

    The confinement of an electron free plasma in a pure quadrupole RF electric trap was considered. The ultimate goal was to produce a large density of mercury ions, in order to realize a trapped ion frequency standard using the hyperfine resonance of 199 Hg(+) at 40.7 GHz. An attempt was made to obtain an iodine plasma consisting of equal numbers of positive and negative ions of atomic iodine, the positive iodine ions, being susceptible to charge-exchange with mercury atoms, will produce the desired mercury ions. The experiment showed that the photoproduction of ions pairs in iodine using the necessary UV radiation occurs with a small cross-section, making it difficult to demonstrate the feasibility of space charge neutralization in a quadrupole trap. For this reason it was considered expedient to choose thallium iodide, which has a more favorable absorption spectrum (in the region of 2000 to 2100 A). The results indicate that, although the ionic recombination is a serious limiting factor, a considerable improvement can be obtained in practice for the density of trapped ions, with a considerable advantage in lifetimes for spectroscopic purposes. The ion pair formation by photoionization is briefly reviewed.

  7. Direct plasma injection scheme with various ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2010-09-15

    The laser ion source is one of the most powerful heavy ion sources. However, it is difficult to obtain good stability and to control its intense current. To overcome these difficulties, we proposed a new beam injection scheme called 'direct plasma injection scheme'. Following this it was established to provide various species with desired charge state as an intense accelerated beam. Carbon, aluminum and iron beams have been tested.

  8. Ion-acoustic solitary waves in relativistic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, G.C.; Paul, S.N.

    1985-03-01

    This is a sequel to our earlier study on ion-acoustic waves studied through the augmentation to a modified Korteweg--deVries (K--dV) equation. We have derived a K--dV equation in a plasma, taking account of weakly relativistic effects, and the result shows that the solitary wave does exhibit the relativistic effect in the presence of ion streaming.

  9. Thermal plasma and fast ion transport in electrostatic turbulence in the large plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shu; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Van Compernolle, B.

    2012-05-15

    The transport of thermal plasma and fast ions in electrostatic microturbulence is studied. Strong density and potential fluctuations ({delta}n/n{approx}{delta}{phi}/kT{sub e}{approx} 0.5, f {approx} 5-50 kHz) are observed in the large plasma device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] in density gradient regions produced by obstacles with slab or cylindrical geometry. Wave characteristics and the associated plasma transport are modified by driving sheared E Multiplication-Sign B drift through biasing the obstacle and by modification of the axial magnetic fields (B{sub z}) and the plasma species. Cross-field plasma transport is suppressed with small bias and large B{sub z} and is enhanced with large bias and small B{sub z}. The transition in thermal plasma confinement is well explained by the cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations. Large gyroradius lithium fast ion beam ({rho}{sub fast}/{rho}{sub s} {approx} 10) orbits through the turbulent region. Scans with a collimated analyzer give detailed profiles of the fast ion spatial-temporal distribution. Fast-ion transport decreases rapidly with increasing fast-ion energy and gyroradius. Background waves with different scale lengths also alter the fast ion transport. Experimental results agree well with gyro-averaging theory. When the fast ion interacts with the wave for most of a wave period, a transition from super-diffusive to sub-diffusive transport is observed, as predicted by diffusion theory. Besides turbulent-wave-induced fast-ion transport, the static radial electric field (E{sub r}) from biasing the obstacle leads to drift of the fast-ion beam centroid. The drift and broadening of the beam due to static E{sub r} are evaluated both analytically and numerically. Simulation results indicate that the E{sub r} induced transport is predominately convective.

  10. Quantum ion-acoustic double layers in unmagnetized dense electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Mahmood, S.; Ali, S.

    2009-04-01

    The existence of small amplitude quantum ion-acoustic double layers is studied in an unmagnetized dense electron-positron-ion plasma. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamic model is employed to derive a deformed Korteweg-de Vries (dKdV) equation. The steady state double layer solution of dKdV equation is obtained and its dependence on various parameters is discussed. It is found that only compressive double layers can exist in such plasmas. The analytical and numerical studies reveal that the quantum ion-acoustic double layer structures strongly depend on quantum diffraction effects and positron number density.

  11. Linear and nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S. A.; Masood, W.

    2008-06-15

    The linear and nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves propagating obliquely in two dimensions in superdense, magnetized electron-positron-ion quantum plasma are investigated on the basis of quantum hydrodynamic model. It is found in linear analysis that the quantum corrections of diffraction are important in the very short wavelength regime that may be found in dense astrophysical plasmas. To investigate the solitary waves, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived and the solution is presented in the small amplitude limit. By numerical analysis, it is found that the soliton structure of the ion acoustic wave depends upon quantum pressure, concentration of positrons, strength of magnetic field, and the propagation angle.

  12. Linear and nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Masood, W.

    2008-06-01

    The linear and nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves propagating obliquely in two dimensions in superdense, magnetized electron-positron-ion quantum plasma are investigated on the basis of quantum hydrodynamic model. It is found in linear analysis that the quantum corrections of diffraction are important in the very short wavelength regime that may be found in dense astrophysical plasmas. To investigate the solitary waves, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived and the solution is presented in the small amplitude limit. By numerical analysis, it is found that the soliton structure of the ion acoustic wave depends upon quantum pressure, concentration of positrons, strength of magnetic field, and the propagation angle.

  13. New longitudinal mode and compression of pair ions in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Zahida; Tsintsadze, N. L.; Shah, H. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    Positive and negative ions forming the so-called pair plasma differing in sign of their charge but asymmetric in mass and temperature support a new acoustic-like mode. The condition for the excitation of ion sound wave through electron beam induced Cherenkov instability is also investigated. This beam can generate a perturbation in the pair ion plasmas in the presence of electrons when there is number density, temperature, and mass difference in the two species of ions. Basic emphasis is on the focusing of ion sound waves, and we show how, in the area of localization of wave energy, the density of pair particles increases while electrons are pushed away from that region. Further, this localization of wave is dependent on the shape of the pulse. Considering the example of pancake and bullet shaped pulses, we find that only the former leads to compression of pair ions in the supersonic regime of the focusing region. Here, possible existence of regions where pure pair particles can exist may also be speculated which is not only useful from academic point of view but also to mimic the situation of plasma (electron positron asymmetric and symmetric) observed in astrophysical environment.

  14. Ion acoustic solitons/double layers in two-ion plasma revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lakhina, G. S. Singh, S. V. Kakad, A. P.

    2014-06-15

    Ion acoustic solitons and double layers are studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of cold heavier ion species, a warm lighter ion species, and hot electrons having Boltzmann distributions by Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. In contrast to the previous results, no double layers and super-solitons are found when both the heavy and lighter ion species are treated as cold. Only the positive potential solitons are found in this case. When the thermal effects of the lighter ion species are included, in addition to the usual ion-acoustic solitons occurring at M > 1 (where the Mach number, M, is defined as the ratio of the speed of the solitary wave and the ion-acoustic speed considering temperature of hot electrons and mass of the heavier ion species), slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers are found to occur at low Mach number (M < 1). The slow ion-acoustic mode is actually a new ion-ion hybrid acoustic mode which disappears when the normalized number density of lighter ion species tends to 1 (i.e., no heavier species). An interesting property of the new slow ion-acoustic mode is that at low number density of the lighter ion species, only negative potential solitons/double layers are found whereas for increasing densities there is a transition first to positive solitons/double layers, and then only positive solitons. The model can be easily applicable to the dusty plasmas having positively charged dust grains by replacing the heavier ion species by the dust mass and doing a simple normalization to take account of the dust charge.

  15. Harmonic plasma waves excitation and structure evolution of intense ion beams in background plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhang-Hu; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-08-01

    The long-term dynamic evolutions of intense ion beams in plasmas have been investigated with two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations, taking into account the effect of the two-stream instability between beam ions and plasma electrons. Depending on the initial beam radial density profile and velocity distribution, ring structures may be formed in the beam edge regions. At the later stage of beam-plasma interactions, the ion beams are strongly modulated by the two-stream instability and multiple density spikes are formed in the longitudinal direction. The formation of these density spikes is shown to result from the excitation of harmonic plasma waves when the instability gets saturated. Comparisons between the beam cases with initial flat-top and Gaussian radial density profiles are made, and a higher instability growth rate is observed for the flat-top profile case.

  16. Heavy-Ion-Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in an Adiabatic Multi-Ion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. A.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The standard reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-deVries (K-dV) and Burgers (BG) equations to investigate the basic properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in a plasma system which is supposed to be composed of nonthermal electrons, Boltzmann distributed light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. The HIA solitary and shock structures are found to exist with either positive or negative potential. It is found that the effects of adiabaticity of inertial heavy ions, nonthermality of electrons, and number densities of plasma components significantly modify the basic properties of the HIA solitary and shock waves. The implications of our results may be helpful in understanding the electrostatic perturbations in various laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments.

  17. Modulational instability of ion-acoustic wave envelopes in magnetized quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bains, A. S.; Gill, T. S.; Misra, A. P.; Saini, N. S.

    2010-01-15

    The amplitude modulation of quantum ion-acoustic waves (QIAWs) along an external magnetic field is studied in a quantum electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) magnetoplasma. Reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation which governs the slow modulation of QIAW packets. Accounting for the effects of the electron to ion number density ratio (mu), the normalized ion-cyclotron frequency (omega{sub c}) as well as the ratio (H) of the 'plasmonic energy density' to the Fermi energy, new regimes for the modulational instability of QIAWs are obtained and analyzed. In contrast to one-dimensional unmagnetized e-p-i plasmas, the instability growth rate is shown to suppress with increasing mu or decreasing the values of H. The predicted results could be important for understanding the salient features of modulated QIAW packets in dense astrophysical plasmas as well as to the next generation intense laser solid density plasma experiments.

  18. Ion heating in a dusty plasma due to the dust/ion acoustic instability

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.; Jones, M.E.

    1995-08-01

    The drift of plasma ions relative to charged grains in a dusty plasma can give rise to a dust/ion acoustic instability. The authors investigate the linear properties of the instability by numerically solving an appropriate linear dispersion equation and examine the nonlinear behavior through one-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations, in which the plasma and dust ions are treated as discrete particles and the electrons are modeled as a Boltzmann fluid. The instability is slightly weaker when the dust particles have a range of sizes, and corresponding range of charges and masses. It is argued that due to dust particles that comprise planetary rings, this process can contribute to ion heating and diffusion observed in the linear magnetosphere of Saturn. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Ion Streaming Instabilities in Pair Ion Plasma and Localized Structure with Non-Thermal Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir Khattak, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pair ion plasma with a fraction of non-thermal electrons is considered. We investigate the effects of the streaming motion of ions on linear and nonlinear properties of unmagnetized, collisionless plasma by using the fluid model. A dispersion relation is derived, and the growth rate of streaming instabilities with effect of streaming motion of ions and non-thermal electrons is calculated. A qausi-potential approach is adopted to study the characteristics of ion acoustic solitons. An energy integral equation involving Sagdeev potential is derived during this process. The presence of the streaming term in the energy integral equation affects the structure of the solitary waves significantly along with non-thermal electrons. Possible application of the work to the space and laboratory plasmas are highlighted.

  20. Planar and non-planar ion acoustic shock waves in electron positron ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Waqas; Jehan, Nusrat; Mirza, Arshad M.; Sakanaka, P. H.

    2008-06-01

    Ion acoustic shock waves (IASW's) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons, positrons and adiabatically hot positive ions. This is done by deriving the Kortweg-deVries-Burger (KdVB) equation under the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of ion acoustic shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for planar geometry. It is observed that the positron concentration, ratio of ion to electron temperature, and the plasma kinematic viscosity significantly modifies the shock structure. Finally, it is found that the temporal evolution of the non-planar IASW's is quite different by comparison with the planar geometry. The relevance of the present study with regard to the dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.

  1. Plasma immersion ion implantation for SOI synthesis: SIMOX and ion-cut

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Iyer, S.S.K.; Hu, C.; Cheung, N.W.; Lee, J.; Doyle, B.; Fan, Z.; Chu, P.K.

    1998-09-01

    The authors have demonstrated feasibility to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for both separation by implantation of oxygen and ion-cut. This high throughput technique can substantially lower the high cost of SOI substrates due to the simpler implanter design as well as ease of maintenance. For separation by plasma implantation of oxygen wafers, secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis and cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs show continuous buried oxide formation under a single-crystal silicon overlayer with sharp Si/SiO{sub 2} interfaces after oxygen plasma implantation and high-temperature (1,300 C) annealing. Ion-cut SOI wafer fabrication technique is implemented for the first time using PIII. The hydrogen plasma can be optimized so that only one ion species is dominant in concentration and there are minimal effects by other residual ions on the ion-cut process. The physical mechanism of hydrogen induced silicon surface layer cleavage has been investigated. An ideal gas law model of the microcavity internal pressure combined with a two-dimensional finite element fracture mechanics model is used to approximate the fracture driving force which is sufficient to overcome the silicon fracture resistance.

  2. Evolution of an expanding dusty plasma with negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kechouri, B.; Djebli, M.

    2006-11-15

    The dusty plasma radial expansion is studied in the case of a spherical as well as cylindrical configuration. The effect of negative ions is introduced through the dust charge fluctuation equation. Electrons, positive, and negative ions are modelled by the Boltzmann distribution function and the dust grains by fluid equations. Using the self-similar theory, the nonlinear set of differential equations is solved numerically. It is found that the dust charge presents a critical value which depends on the negative ion species type. It is also found that the dust expansion ends earlier and the lighter particle densities profiles depend on the dust initial charge.

  3. Ion drag force on an absorbing grain in highly collisional plasma in the presence of plasma production and loss processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Manis; Khrapak, Sergei A.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2008-09-07

    The ion drag force acting on a small absorbing spherical grain has been calculated analytically in highly collisional plasma with slowly drifting ions taking into account plasma production and loss mechanisms in the vicinity of the grain. It is shown that both the magnitude and direction of the ion drag force are strongly influenced by the plasma production and loss mechanisms. The parameter regimes for the 'positive' and 'negative' ion drag forces acting on an absorbing grain have been identified.

  4. Genesis of focused ion beams for plasma nanotechnology using a bounded microwave plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Paul, Samit

    2015-01-01

    Bounded plasmas exhibit many interesting properties that are not found in plasmas of “infinite” extent such as space and astrophysical plasmas. Our studies have revealed that the dispersion properties of waves in a bounded magnetoplasma deviates considerably from the predictions of the Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) model, giving rise to new regimes of wave propagation and absorption. This article highlights some of these interesting effects observed in experiments. One of the principal outcomes of this research is the genesis of a novel multielement focused ion beam (MEFIB) system that utilizes compact bounded plasmas in a minimum-B field to provide intense focused ion beams of a variety of elements for plasma-based nanotechnology.

  5. Solar wind heavy ions from flare-heated coronal plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gosling, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    Information concerning the coronal expansion is carried by solar-wind heavy ions. Distinctly different energy-per-charge ion spectra are found in two classes of solar wind having the low kinetic temperatures necessary for E/q resolution of the ion species. Heavy-ion spectra which can be resolved are most frequently observed in the low-speed interstream (IS) plasma found between high speed streams; the streams are thought to originate from coronal holes. Although the sources of the IS plasma are uncertain, the heavy-ion spectra found there contain identifiable peaks of O, Si, and Fe ions. Such spectra indicate that the IS ionization state of O is established in coronal gas at a temperature of approximately 1.6 million K, while that of Fe is frozen in farther out at about 1.5 million K. On occasion anomalous spectra are found outside IS flows in solar wind with abnormally depressed local kinetic temperatures. The anomalous spectra contain Fe(16+) ions, not usually found in IS flows, and the derived coronal freezing-in temperatures are significantly higher. The coronal sources of some of these ionizationally hot flows are identified as solar flares.

  6. Linear analysis of ion cyclotron interaction in a multicomponent plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendrin, R.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Omura, Y.; Quest, K.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism by which hot anisotropic protons generate electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in a plasma containing cold H(+) and He(+) ions is quantitatively studied. Linear growth rates (both temporal and spatial) are computed for different plasma parameters: concentration, temperature,and anisotropy of cold He(+) ions and of hot protons. It is shown that: (1) for parameters typical of the geostationary altitude the maximum growth rates are not drastically changed when a small proportion (about 1 to 20 percent) of cold He(+) ions is present; (2) because of the important cyclotron absorption by thermal He(+) ions in the vicinity of the He(+) gyrofrequency, waves which could resonate with the bulk of the He(+) distribution cannot be generated. Therefore quasi-linear effects, in a homogeneous medium at least, cannot be responsible for the heating of He(+) ions which is often observed in conjunction with ion cyclotron waves. The variation of growth rate versus wave number is also studied for its importance in selecting suitable parameters in numerical simulation experiments.

  7. Ion track structure probed by plasma desorption mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U. R. Sundqvist, Bo

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of plasma desorption mass spectrometry by Torgerson [D.F. Torgerson, R.P. Skowronski and R.D. Macfarlane, Biophys. Res. Commun., 60(1974) 616], the method has mainly been used in mass spectrometric studies of bioorganic molecules. However, the ejecta in this electronic sputtering process have also been studied with the aim to gain information on the structure of the ion track formed in a solid by the incident fission fragment. In this paper such studies will be described. In particular, the ejection of large whole ionised organic molecules and the synthesis of fullerenes at the impact of a fast heavy ion on an organic solid will be discussed. Those two processes are connected to different parts of the ion track. Also, the ejection of light ions and damage cross sections will be discussed and are shown to give additional information on the time and space evolution of energy deposited in a fast ion track.

  8. Storage of ions from laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    A method of storing large numbers of metal ions created in laser-produced plasmas is presented. The outer electrode of the electrostatic ion trap is designed to give a harmonic axial potential. The ions trapped by the technique included Be(+), C(+), Al(+), Fe(+), and Pb(+). The initial number of ions stored (2 x 10 to the 8th) appeared to be the trap maximum since increasing the laser power beyond 2-3 MW did not change the ion number. An initial rapid decay in the 30-50 msec range was generally followed by a long tail at the 10% level with times greater than 100 msec. The technique should be valuable for refractory elements which cannot be easily vaporized for electron impact ionization.

  9. Modelling multi-ion plasma gun simulations of Tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    The effect of impurity ions in plasma gun ablation tests of various targets is considered. Inclusion of reasonable amounts of impurity ({approximately}10%) is adequate to explain observed energy transmission and erosion measurements. The gun tests and the computer code calculations are relevant to the parameter range expected for major disruptions on large tokamaks.

  10. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kolchin, P.; Davidson, E.C.; Yu, S.S.; Logan, B.G.

    2002-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source.

  11. Neutral dynamics and ion energy transport in MST plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zichuan; Nornberg, Mark; den Hartog, Daniel; Kumar, Santosh; Anderson, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Neutral dynamics can have a significant effect on ion energy transport through charge exchange collisions. Whereas previously charge exchange was considered a direct loss mechanism in MST plasmas, new analysis indicates that significant thermal charge exchange neutrals are reionized. Further, the temperatures of the neutral species in the core of the plasma are suspected to be much higher than room temperature, which has a large effect on ion energy losses due to charge exchange. The DEGAS2 Monte Carlo simulation code is applied to the MST reversed field pinch experiment to estimate the density and temperature profile of the neutral species. The result is then used to further examine the effect of the neutral species on ion energy transport in improved confinement plasmas. This enables the development of a model that accounts for collisional equilibration between species, classical convective and conductive energy transport, and energy loss due to charge exchange collisions. The goal is to quantify classical, stochastic, and anomalous ion heating and transport in RFP plasmas. Work supported by the US DOE. DEGAS2 is provided by PPPL and STRAHL is provided by Ralph Dux of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik.

  12. Predictive models for fast ion profiles relaxation in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Heidbrink, W. W.; Lestz, J.; Podesta, M.; van Zeeland, M.; White, R. B.

    2014-10-01

    The performance of the burning plasmas is limited by the confinement of superalfvenic fusion products, alpha particles, which are capable to resonate with the Alfvénic eigenmodes (AEs). Two techniques based on linear AE stability theory are developed to evaluate the AE induced fast ion relaxation. The first is the reduced quasilinear technique or critical gradient model (CGM) where marginally unstable (or critical) gradient of fast ion pressure is due to unstable AEs. It allows the reconstruction of fast ion pressure profile and compute their losses. The second technique is called hybrid that is also based on NOVA-K linear stability computations of TAE (or RSAE) mode structures and growth rates. AE amplitudes are computed from the nonlinear theory perturbatively and used in numerical runs. With the help of the guiding center code ORBIT the hybrid model predicts the relaxation of the fast particle profiles. We apply these models for NSTX and DIII-D plasmas with the neutral beam injections in order to validate the models. Both methods are relatively fast ways to predict the fast ion profiles in burning plasmas and can be used for plasma modeling prior to building experimental devices such as ITER. Partially supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Cylindrical and Spherical Ion-Acoustic Shock Waves in a Relativistic Degenerate Multi-Ion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. R.; Nahar, L.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made to study the existence and basic features of the ion-acoustic (IA) shock structures in an unmagnetized, collisionless multi-ion plasma system (containing degenerate electron fluids, inertial positively as well as negatively charged ions, and arbitrarily charged static heavy ions). This investigation is valid for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits. The reductive perturbation technique has been employed to derive the modified Burgers equation. The solution of this equation has been numerically examined to study the basic properties of shock structures. The basic features (speed, amplitude, width, etc.) of these electrostatic shock structures have been briefly discussed. The basic properties of the IA shock waves are found to be significantly modified by the effects of arbitrarily charged static heavy ions and the plasma particle number densities. The implications of our results in space and interstellar compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and so on have been briefly discussed.

  14. Characteristics of ion acoustic solitary waves in a negative ion plasma with superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rouhani, M. R.; Ebne Abbasi, Z.

    2012-11-15

    The behavior of ion acoustic solitons in a plasma including positive and negative ions and kappa distributed electrons is studied, using both small amplitude and arbitrary amplitude approaches. The existence regions of compressive and rarefactive solitons will depend on negative to positive ion density ratio ({nu}) and kappa parameter as well as positive to negative ion mass ratio (Q). The numerical analysis of Sagdeev potential shows that for a chosen plasma with fixed Q, the existence regime of compressive solitons is decreased (increased) by increasing density ratio (kappa parameter), while for rarefactive solitons these conditions are quite opposite. Additionally, the possibility of propagation of both compressive and rarefactive subsonic solitons is investigated. It is found that by increasing negative ions, the existence domains of subsonic solitons are decreased, so that in excess of negative ions subsonic solitons will not propagate even at the presence of superthermal electrons. Indeed, there is a critical negative ion density ratio for all values of kappa, above that only supersonic solitons are observed. Furthermore, in addition to the previous results based on Cairns-distributed electrons [R. A. Cairns et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2709 (1995)], which predicted that both compressive and rarefactive solitons can coexist simultaneously, we have also found the regions of {nu} and {kappa} in which either positive or negative potentials are permitted (i.e., not together). This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of space and laboratory plasmas containing negative ions with energetic electrons.

  15. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34-5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (˜70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail).

  16. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-15

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34–5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (∼70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail)

  17. Ion energy distributions in dual frequency RF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, Peter; Rees, John; Bort, Sam; Seymour, Dave

    2015-09-01

    For many surface-processing applications involving plasmas operated at RF frequencies it has been found helpful to combine two sources of power operating at different frequencies. By choosing suitable input powers at the two frequencies and varying the phase relationship set between the two inputs, the energy distributions (IEDs) for the ions arriving at the target surface can be optimised. There have been, however, only a limited number of published reports of measured or modelled distributions. In the present work IEDs for both positive and negative ions formed in plasmas in argon and nitrous oxide have been measured for mass-identified ions in two different reactors, one of which is a parallel-plate, capacitatively-coupled, system and the other is an inductively-coupled system. Typical data for 13.56 and 27.1 MHz inputs are presented for a range of phase relationships. The IEDs show clearly significant differences between the data for different species of ions which result in part from the ion-molecule collisions occurring, particularly in the plasma/surface sheath regions.

  18. Bulk properties of plasma ions in the deep Jovian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, Georgios

    The New Horizons spacecraft flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist in 2007. After the closest approach it followed an essentially tailward trajectory and observed the deep Jovian magnetotail (>200 Rj) for the very first time. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument is an electrostatic analyzer onboard New Horizons, observing the plasma ions in the energy-per-charge range from ~21 eV to ~7.8 keV. Using the SWAP data-set, previous studies have identified three distinct regions of the Jovian magnetotail:1) the inside magnetosphere 2) the magnetosheath, and 3) the adjacent boundary layer. We have developed several techniques to analyze the observations and derive the plasma bulk properties (density, temperature and velocity) in those three regions. The derived plasma parameters support that the plasma in the magnetosheath is shocked solar wind re-accelerating as it expands down the distant tail. The derived plasma flow implies a movement and/or compression of the magnetotail that eventually results to the observed magnetopause crossings. In addition, we show that the plasma thermal pressure is essentially constant. In order to analyze the boundary layer ions, we introduce some modifications to the previous model in order to account for uncertainties arising from the plasma flow fluctuation. We used the derived parameters to examine the pressure balance condition within the magnetosheath and the boundary layer in order to estimate the magnetic field in that region. The thermal pressure in the boundary layer is essentially constant as it is in the magnetosheath. We also examine several scenarios regarding the structure and movement of the distant magnetotail, comparing them with the observations. Finally, we analyze the data obtained deep inside magnetotail. The methodology we follow for this analysis is rather complicated since the ion flux in this region is very low and extremely variable. The ion bulk properties in this region are extremely diverse and we

  19. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  20. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  1. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  2. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  3. Neoclassical electron and ion transport in toroidally rotating plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1997-06-01

    Neoclassical transport processes of electrons and ions are investigated in detail for toroidally rotating axisymmetric plasmas with large flow velocities on the order of the ion thermal speed. The Onsager relations for the flow-dependent neoclassical transport coefficients are derived from the symmetry properties of the drift kinetic equation with the self-adjoint collision operator. The complete neoclassical transport matrix with the Onsager symmetry is obtained for the rotating plasma consisting of electrons and single-species ions in the Pfirsch{endash}Schl{umlt u}ter and banana regimes. It is found that the inward banana fluxes of particles and toroidal momentum are driven by the parallel electric field, which are phenomena coupled through the Onsager symmetric off-diagonal coefficients to the parallel currents caused by the radial thermodynamic forces conjugate to the inward fluxes, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Plasma simulation in a hybrid ion electric propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugroot, Manish; Christou, Alex

    2015-04-01

    An exciting possibility for the next generation of satellite technology is the microsatellite. These satellites, ranging from 10-500 kg, can offer advantages in cost, reduced risk, and increased functionality for a variety of missions. For station keeping and control of these satellites, a suitable compact and high efficiency thruster is required. Electrostatic propulsion provides a promising solution for microsatellite thrust due to their high specific impulse. The rare gas propellant is ionized into plasma and generates a beam of high speed ions by electrostatic processes. A concept explored in this work is a hybrid combination of dc ion engines and hall thrusters to overcome space-charge and lifetime limitations of current ion thruster technologies. A multiphysics space and time-dependent formulation was used to investigate and understand the underlying physical phenomena. Several regions and time scales of the plasma have been observed and will be discussed.

  5. Acoustic solitons in inhomogeneous pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.

    2010-12-15

    The acoustic solitons are investigated in inhomogeneous unmagnetized pair ion plasmas. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) like equation with an additional term due to density gradients is deduced by employing reductive perturbation technique. It is noticed that pair-ion plasma system is conducive for the propagation of compressive as well as rarefactive solitons. The increase in the temperature ratio causes the amplitude of the rarefactive soliton to decrease. However, the amplitude of the compressive solitons is found to be increased as the temperature ratio of ions is enhanced. The amplitude of both compressive and rarefactive solitons is found to be increased as the density gradient parameter is increased. The equlibrium density profile is assumed to be exponential. The numerical results are shown for illustration.

  6. Ion acoustic solitary waves in magneto-rotating plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, A.

    2010-08-01

    Propagation of an ion acoustic wave (IAW) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma, which is rotating around an axis at an angle θ with the direction of magnetic field, is studied by incorporating the effects of trapped and untrapped electron distributions. Employing the perturbation scheme, Korteweg-deVries and Schamel's modified KdV equations are derived for the small angle θ which may support the nonlinear IAW on a slow time scale of ion motion. The amplitude and width of the solitary wave in both cases (trapped and untrapped electrons) have been discussed with the effects of oblique rotation and external magnetic field. It is shown that the nonlinear effects considerably influence the propagation of waves in rotating plasmas.

  7. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Belchenko, Yu; Ivanov, A; Konstantinov, S; Sanin, A; Sotnikov, O

    2016-02-01

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (∼0.5 G) provides an enhanced H(-) production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H(-) production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H(-) yield to the high value. The effect of H(-) yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H(-) yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed. PMID:26932015

  8. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, J. Corr, C. S.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.

    2015-09-15

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ∼3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 10{sup 14 }m{sup −3} to 7 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −3} is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  9. Ion Chemistry in Atmospheric and Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.; Fox, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many differences and also remarkable similarities between the ion chemistry and physics of planetary ionospheres and the ion chemistry and physics of astronomical environments beyond the solar system. In the early Universe, an expanded cooling gas of hydrogen and helium was embedded in the cosmic background radiation field and ionized by it. As the Universe cooled by adiabatic expansion, recombination occurred and molecular formation was driven by catalytic reactions involving the relict electrons and protons. Similar chemical processes are effective in the ionized zones of gaseous and planetary nebulae and in stellar winds where the ionization is due to radiation from the central stars, in the envelopes of supernovae where the ionization is initiated by the deposition of gamma-rays, in dissociative shocks where the ionization arises from electron impacts in a hot gas and in quasar broad-line region clouds where the quasar is responsible for the ionization. At high altitudes in the atmospheres of the Jovian planets, the main constituents are hydrogen and helium and the ion chemistry and physics is determined by the same processes, the source of the ionization being solar ultraviolet radiation and cosmic rays. After the collapse of the first distinct astronomical entities to emerge from the uniform flow, heavy elements were created by nuclear burning in the cores of the collapsed objects and distributed throughout the Universe by winds and explosions. The chemistry and physics became more complicated. Over 90 distinct molecular species have been identified in interstellar clouds where they are ionized globally by cosmic ray impacts and locally by radiation and shocks associated with star formation and evolution. Complex molecules have also been found in circumstellar shells of evolved stars. At intermediate and low altitudes in the Jovian atmospheres, the ion chemistry is complicated by the increasing abundance of heavy elements such as carbon, and an

  10. Dust ion acoustic soliton in pair-ion plasmas with non-isothermal electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, A.; Nasir Khattak, M.; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Qamar, A.

    2012-04-01

    Dust ion acoustic (DIA) solitons in an unmagnetized pair-ion (PI) plasmas with adiabatic pair-ions, non-isothermal electrons, and negatively charged background dust are investigated, using both small and arbitrary amplitude techniques. An energy integral equation involving the Sagdeev potential is derived, and basic properties of the large amplitude solitary structures are investigated. The effects of dust concentration, resonant electrons, and ion temperatures on the profiles of the Sagdeev potential and corresponding solitary waves are studied. The related Schamel-Korteweg-de Vries (S-KdV) equation with mixed-nonlinearity is derived by expanding the Sagdeev potential. Asymptotic solutions for different orders of nonlinearity are discussed for DIA solitary waves. The present work is applicable to understand the wave phenomena and associated nonlinear electrostatic perturbations in the doped pair ion plasmas, not completely filtered e.g., pair ion-electron plasmas, enriched with an extra massive charged component (e.g., dust defects), which may be academic for the moment but might be of interest for forthcoming experiments in laboratory (space) plasmas.

  11. Negative ion beam generation in laser plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jequier, Sophie; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir; Ter-Avetisyan, Sargis

    2013-10-01

    Detection of a large number of energetic negative ions and neutral atoms have been reported in recent intense laser plasma interaction experiments. These particles were produced from fast positive ions (proton, carbon, oxygen) accelerated from a laser produced plasma when they were passing through a cold spray of water or ethanol. The negative ions formation is strongly related to the fast positive ions, and it is explained by a process of a single electron capture - loss. Double charge exchange, elastic scattering and energy loss phenomena have been neglected since their cross sections are much smaller. Assuming independent atoms approximation, we study populations evolution through the interaction zone analytically and numerically by solving the rate equations using cross sections drawn from literature. Taking into account the energy distribution of the incident ions, the calculations give the final energy distribution for the different species that can be compared to experimental spectra. First results obtained for hydrogen in the water case indicate that this model can explain the main observed features. The results concerning the carbon and oxygen ions will be also presented as well as refinement of the cross sections since some cross sections are missing for these energies.

  12. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutroneo, M.; Macková, A.; Havranek, V.; Malinsky, P.; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed.

  13. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  14. Nonplanar ion-acoustic two-soliton systems in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghorui, Malay Kumar; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2015-01-01

    The basic features of planar and nonplanar time dependent ion-acoustic two-soliton systems have been studied in a three component unmagnetized, collisionless quantum plasma consisting of inertialess electrons and positrons. Using the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), we have derived the Korteweg-de Vries equation for our model. The effects of several parameters on the properties of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas have been discussed in planar and nonplanar geometries. It has been shown that the properties of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems are affected significantly due to cylindrical and spherical geometries. The amplitude of the cylindrical two-soliton system is smaller than that of the spherical two-soliton system for small values of | τ|. The propagation of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems is quite different from the propagation of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems in a nonplanar geometry. The present investigation may have relevance in the study of the propagation of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems in space and laboratory plasmas.

  15. Stationary Plasma Thruster Ion Velocity Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    A nonintrusive velocity diagnostic based on laser induced fluorescence of the 5d4F(5/2)-6p4D(5/2) singly ionized xenon transition was used to interrogate the exhaust of a 1.5 kW Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT). A detailed map of plume velocity vectors was obtained using a simplified, cost-effective, nonintrusive, semiconductor laser based scheme. Circumferential velocities on the order of 250 m/s were measured which implied induced momentum torques of approximately 5 x 10(exp -2) N-cm. Axial and radial velocities were evaluated one mm downstream of the cathode at several locations across the width of the annular acceleration channel. Radial velocities varied linearly with radial distance. A maximum radial velocity of 7500 m/s was measured 8 mm from the center of the channel. Axial velocities as large as 16,500 m/s were measured.

  16. Plasma characterization using ultraviolet Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic and electron plasma waves (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 1021 cm-3, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.

  17. Measuring Fast Ion Losses in a Reversed Field Pinch Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonofiglo, P. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Kim, J.; Clark, J.; Capecchi, W.; Sears, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) provides a unique environment to study fast ion confinement and transport. The RFP's weak toroidal field, strong magnetic shear, and ability to enter a 3D state provide a wide range of dynamics to study fast ions. Core-localized, 25 keV fast ions are sourced into MST by a tangentially injected hydrogen/deuterium neutral beam. Neutral particle analysis and measured fusion neutron flux indicate enhanced fast ion transport in the plasma core. Past experiments point to a dynamic loss of fast ions associated with the RFP's transition to a 3D state and with beam-driven, bursting magnetic modes. Consequently, fast ion transport and losses in the RFP have garnered recent attention. Valuable information on fast-ion loss, such as energy and pitch distributions, are sought to provide a better understanding of the transport mechanisms at hand. We have constructed and implemented two fast ion loss detectors (FILDs) for use on MST. The FILDs have two, independent, design concepts: collecting particles as a function of v⊥ or with pitch greater than 0.8. In this work, we present our preliminary findings and results from our FILDs on MST. This research is supported by US DOE.

  18. Three-wave coupling in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tinakiche, N.; Annou, R.; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-07-15

    The three-wave coupling processes in electron-positron-ion plasmas are investigated. The non-linear dispersion relation is derived along with the non-linear growth rate in both resonant and non resonant processes. It is shown that the inclusion of positron affects the dielectric properties of the plasma as well as the nonlinear growth rates of parametric processes. As one increases the positron density to electron density ratio from 0 to 1, maintaining quasi neutrality of the plasma, the growth rates of stimulated Raman, Brillouin, and Compton scattering processes in an isothermal plasma tend to zero due to the ponderomotive forces acting on electrons and positrons due the pump and scattered waves being equal.

  19. Images of Complex Interactions of an Intense Ion Beam with Plasma Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2004-08-03

    Ion beam propagation in a background plasma is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because plasma electrons move in strong electric and magnetic fields of the beam. Computer simulation images of plasma interaction with an intense ion beam pulse are presented.

  20. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Daniel

    1999-11-01

    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 <= fracm_+m- <= 20 are achievable. The source will allow tests of strong turbulence theory^2. 1 Sheehan, D.P., et al., Phys. Fluids B5, 1593 (1993). 2 Tsytovich, V. and Wharton, C.W., Comm. Plasma Phys. Cont. Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  1. Studies of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Space-charge forces limit the possible transverse compression of high perveance ion beams that are used in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics applications; the minimum radius to which a beam can be focused is an increasing function of perveance. The limit can be overcome if a plasma is introduced in the beam path between the focusing element and the target in order to neutralize the space charge of the beam. This concept has been implemented on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL using Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPS). In our experiment at PPPL, we propagate a perveance-dominated ion beam through a FEPS to study the effect of the neutralizing plasma on the beam envelope and its evolution in time. A 30-60 keV space-charge-dominated Argon beam is focused with an Einzel lens into a FEPS located at the beam waist. The beam is intercepted downstream from the FEPS by a movable Faraday cup that provides time-resolved 2D current density profiles of the beam spot on target. We report results on: (a) dependence of charge neutralization on FEPS plasma density; (b) effects on beam emittance, and (c) time evolution of the beam envelope after the FEPS pulse. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Beam-plasma instability in charged plasma in the absence of ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Petrik, Alexey G.; Kurkin, Semen A.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the possibility of the beam-plasma instability development in the system with electron beam interacting with the single-component hot electron plasma without ions. As considered system, we analyse the interaction of the low-current relativistic electron beam (REB) with squeezed state in the high-current REB formed in the relativistic magnetically insulated two-section vircator drift space. The numerical analysis is provided by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation in CST Particle Studio. We have conducted an extensive study of characteristic regimes of REB dynamics determined by the beam-plasma instability development in the absence of ions. As a result, the dependencies of instability increment and wavelength on the REB current value have been obtained. The considered process brings the new mechanism of controlled microwave amplification and generation to the device with a virtual cathode. This mechanism is similar to the action of the beam-plasma amplifiers and oscillators.

  3. Pickup ions at Dione and Enceladus: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Ed C.; Johnson, R. E.; Jurac, S.; Richardson, J. D.; McGrath, M.; Crary, F.; Young, D. T.; Nordholt, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Voyager images of the icy satellites of Saturn, Dione and Enceladus, suggest that they may have been geologically active and are not only composed of ice. Recent observations by the Hubble Space Telescope have shown the presence of ozone at both Dione and Rhea, which also implies the presence of molecular oxygen at these bodies. Observations of Ariel, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto indicate the presence of CO2, so its presence on the Saturnian satellites is also expected. The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will provide the capability to determine the global composition of these bodies by measuring the pickup ions produced by the ionization of their sputter-produced atmospheres. We will present a model of these atmospheres and associated pickup ions and demonstrate CAPS ability to distinguish the freshly produced picked up ions from the ambient plasma. Such ions are expected to form a ring distribution that will have a uniquely different energy-angle dependence than the ambient plasma ions. In the case of Dione we expect the potential for a moderate strength interaction for which both Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft measured ion cyclotron waves centered on the Dione L shell and near the equatorial plane. SKR radio emissions also displayed emissions occurring at the orbital period of Dione which could indicate some intrinsic activity due to Dione. So again, something interesting may be going on at Dione. Since Enceladus, or material in orbit near Enceladus, may be the source of the E-ring, some surprises may be encountered during its close encounter with the Cassini spacecraft. In the case of Dione we will show that a wake pass at 500 km altitude is more than an order of magnitude better than an upstream pass at 500 km altitude. Pickup ion detection for minor ion species such as NH3+ is possible for 500 km altitude wake pass but not for ≈500 km altitude upstream pass at closest approach. For navigation reasons a 100 km pass is not allowed. Therefore it is

  4. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF) nitrogen gas discharge (10 - 100 kHz) is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm) and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ˜ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 - 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  5. Temperature evolution of strongly coupled electron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Shaffer, Nathaniel; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2015-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of electron-ion plasmas have been carried out, focusing on the classical strongly coupled regime relevant to ultracold neutral plasmas. The interaction of oppositely charged species is modeled using a pseudopotential with a repulsive core at a specified distance ɛ in units of average interparticle spacing. This parameter distinguishes classical from quantum statistical regimes. Simulations are initiated with an equilibration phase in which ions and electrons are held to fixed independent temperatures using a thermostat. Subsequently, the thermostats are removed and the system is allowed to evolve. Two effects are observed: (1) For sufficiently small values of ɛ, the plasma rapidly heats, (2) electrons and ions equilibrate on a longer time scale. The critical ɛ value for the onset of heating and the temperature equilibration rate are compared with existing theory. Excess pressure is calculated in each case based on the equilibrium radial distribution functions obtained during the equilibration phase. The Γ - ɛ phase space is explored, revealing qualitative differences in the temperature evolution due to electron-ion interactions in the classical and quantum regimes. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSF grant PHY-1453736.

  6. Challenges in plasma and extraction modelling of negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, Taneli

    2013-09-01

    The physical processes taking place in negative ion source plasmas are modelled by state-of-the-art 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. These codes are used to gain understanding and to find optimal solutions for negative ion beam production. The PIC codes can be made to match to the reality if all relevant processes were included. This is unfortunately limited by the availability of data about the processes and the huge amount of computational resources needed for the simulations. The optimization of the extraction system and beam transport ion optics is often made using computationally less intensive methods utilized in so-called gun codes. These codes use simplified plasma models to provide a starting point for the extracted beams being simulated. The relatively fast computation allows systematic studies, which are not practical with PIC codes. The gun codes often match well to reality, but they do have difficulties reproducing some effects, especially in negative ion extraction, due to the approximations made in the plasma model. Could the future solutions for beam production modelling couple the two types of simulations?

  7. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.; Haas, F.

    2014-10-15

    Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter H{sub e} which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented.

  8. Dust-ion acoustic cnoidal waves and associated nonlinear ion flux in a nonthermal dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.

    2016-09-01

    The dust-ion acoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons are investigated in a dusty plasma containing dynamic cold ions, superthermal kappa distributed electrons and static charged dust particles. The massive dust particles can have positive or negative charge depending on the plasma environment. Using reductive perturbation method (RPM) with appropriate periodic boundary conditions, the evolution equations for the first and second order nonlinear potentials are derived. The first order potential is determined through Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation which gives dust-ion acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons structures. The solution of second order nonlinear potential is obtained through an inhomogeneous differential equation derived from collecting higher order terms of dynamic equations, which is linear for second order electrostatic potential. The nonlinear ion flux associated with the cnoidal waves is also found out numerically. The numerical plots of the dust-ion acoustic cnoidal wave and soliton structures for both positively and negatively charged dust particles cases and nonthermal electrons are also presented for illustration. It is found that only compressive nonlinear electrostatic structures are formed in case of positively dust charged particles while both compressive and rarefactive nonlinear structures are obtained in case of negatively charged particles depending on the negatively charged dust density in a nonthermal dusty plasma. The numerical results are obtained using data of the ionospheric region containing dusty plasma exist in the literature.

  9. Ion-acoustic Gardner solitons in a four-component nonextensive multi-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannat, N.; Ferdousi, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves (SWs) in a four-component non-extensive multi-ion plasma system containing inertial positively charged light ions, negatively charged heavy ions, as well as noninertial nonextensive electrons and positrons has been theoretically investigated. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the nonlinear equations, namely, Korteweg-deVries (KdV), modified KdV (mKdV), and Gardner equations. The basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of Gardner solitons are found to exist beyond the KdV limit and these IA Gardner solitons are qualitatively different from the KdV and mKdV solitons. It is observed that the basic features of IA SWs are modified by various plasma parameters (viz. electron and positron nonextensivity, electron number density to ion number density, and electron temperature to positron temperature, etc.) of the considered plasma system. The results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the basic features of IA SWs propagating in both space and laboratory plasmas.

  10. Ion acoustic shock waves in electron-positron-ion quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Hanif, M.

    2008-07-01

    Ion acoustic shock waves (IASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, and ions employing the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. Nonlinear quantum IASWs are investigated by deriving the Korteweg-deVries-Burger equation under the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of the ion acoustic shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for planar geometry. The temporal evolution of the shock for a quantum e-p-i plasma in a spherical geometry is also investigated. It is found that the strength and the steepness of the quantum ion acoustic shock wave increases with decreasing stretched time coordinate (representing slow time scale) |τ|. It is also found that an increase in the quantum Bohm potential decreases the strength as well as the steepness of the shock. The temporal evolution of the quantum ion acoustic solitons in an e-p-i plasma for cylindrical and spherical geometries is also explored by substituting the dissipative coefficient C equal to zero. The relevance of the present study with regard to the dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.

  11. Ion acoustic shock waves in electron-positron-ion quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Hanif, M.

    2008-07-15

    Ion acoustic shock waves (IASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, and ions employing the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. Nonlinear quantum IASWs are investigated by deriving the Korteweg-deVries-Burger equation under the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of the ion acoustic shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for planar geometry. The temporal evolution of the shock for a quantum e-p-i plasma in a spherical geometry is also investigated. It is found that the strength and the steepness of the quantum ion acoustic shock wave increases with decreasing stretched time coordinate (representing slow time scale) |{tau}|. It is also found that an increase in the quantum Bohm potential decreases the strength as well as the steepness of the shock. The temporal evolution of the quantum ion acoustic solitons in an e-p-i plasma for cylindrical and spherical geometries is also explored by substituting the dissipative coefficient C equal to zero. The relevance of the present study with regard to the dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.

  12. Ion extraction from a saddle antenna RF surface plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup −} ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H{sup −} ion production efficiency and SPS reliability and availability. At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H{sup −} beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the AlN discharge chamber for a long time at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the small test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to 1.8 kW from the generator (∼1.2 kW in the plasma) with production up to Ic=7 mA. Long term operation was tested with 1.2 kW from the RF generator (∼0.8 kW in the plasma) with production of Ic=5 mA, Iex ∼15 mA (Uex=8 kV, Uc=14 kV)

  13. Theory and observation of a dynamically evolviong negative ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendillo, M.; Forbes, J.

    1982-10-01

    As part of the Project Firefly ionospheric modification campaigns conducted during the early 1960's, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was used to study the creation and consequences of artificially-induced electron depletion regions via the attachment process (SF/sub 6/+e..-->..SF/sub 6/). Since those early experiments, a great many advances have occurred in theoretical, laboratory, and diagnostic techniques related to negative ion plasmas. This study examines the full range of negative ion chemistry in the upper ionosphere by using current reaction rate data to investigate the many chemical paths SF/sub 6/ type injections might take in an F region environment. Particular attention is given to the conditions required to create heavy negative ions that persist long enough to affect the dynamical properties of the F region. The ambipolar diffusion characteristics of a three component plasma (O/sup +/, e/sup -/, SF/sub 6//sup -/) are described, and estimates of the incoherent scatter spectra obtained from such a plasma are presented. Model calculations using a first order chemical code are defined and tested to investigate the actual types of negative ion plasmas capable of being created under nighttime conditions. A versatile model for diffusion in an exponential atmosphere ws used to simulate the evolution of 10/sup 26/SF/sub 6/ molecules released at 222 km during a 1962 Firefly experiment. When examined in conjunction with the chemical model calculatins, the results suggest that the ionospheric perturbations recorded at the time probably resulted more from molecular and atomic ion neutralizations involving SF/sub 6//sup -/, SF/sub 5//sup +/, O/sup -/, O/sup +/, and epsilon/sup -/, rather than simple electron attachments, as had been expected. A similar use of SF/sub 6/ diffusion scenarios for high-altitude releases (h = 350-500 km) indicates that large-scale, long-lived negative ion plasmas could be produced by modest rocket or Shuttle-borne payloads to study

  14. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-26

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1x10{sup 18}/m{sup 3}, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  15. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-01

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1×1018/m3, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  16. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-04-28

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 μs pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV.

  17. A Schamel equation for ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. Kourakis, I.; Verheest, F.; Hellberg, M. A.; Anowar, M. G. M.

    2014-09-15

    An investigation of the propagation of ion acoustic waves in nonthermal plasmas in the presence of trapped electrons has been undertaken. This has been motivated by space and laboratory plasma observations of plasmas containing energetic particles, resulting in long-tailed distributions, in combination with trapped particles, whereby some of the plasma particles are confined to a finite region of phase space. An unmagnetized collisionless electron-ion plasma is considered, featuring a non-Maxwellian-trapped electron distribution, which is modelled by a kappa distribution function combined with a Schamel distribution. The effect of particle trapping has been considered, resulting in an expression for the electron density. Reductive perturbation theory has been used to construct a KdV-like Schamel equation, and examine its behaviour. The relevant configurational parameters in our study include the superthermality index κ and the characteristic trapping parameter β. A pulse-shaped family of solutions is proposed, also depending on the weak soliton speed increment u{sub 0}. The main modification due to an increase in particle trapping is an increase in the amplitude of solitary waves, yet leaving their spatial width practically unaffected. With enhanced superthermality, there is a decrease in both amplitude and width of solitary waves, for any given values of the trapping parameter and of the incremental soliton speed. Only positive polarity excitations were observed in our parametric investigation.

  18. Ion-acoustic dressed solitons in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, R.S.; Mishra, M.K.

    2006-06-15

    Using the reductive perturbation method, equations for ion-acoustic waves governing the evolution of first- and second-order potentials in a dusty plasma including the dynamics of charged dust grains have been derived. The renormalization procedure of Kodama and Taniuti is used to obtain a steady state nonsecular solution of these equations. The variation of velocity and width of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) as well as dressed solitons with amplitude have been studied for different concentrations and charge multiplicity of dust grains. The higher-order perturbation corrections to the KdV soliton description significantly affect the characteristics of the solitons in dusty plasma. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains the system supports only compressive solitons. However, the plasma with negatively charged dust grains can support compressive solitons only up to a certain concentration of dust. Above this critical concentration of negative charge, the dusty plasma can support rarefactive solitons. An expression for the critical concentration of negatively charged dust in terms of charge and mass ratio of dust grains with plasma ions is also derived.

  19. Time fractional effect on ion acoustic shock waves in ion-pair plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Mahmoud, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The nonlinear properties of ion acoustic shock waves are studied. The Burgers equation is derived and converted into the time fractional Burgers equation by Agrawal's method. Using the Adomian decomposition method, shock wave solutions of the time fractional Burgers equation are constructed. The effect of the time fractional parameter on the shock wave properties in ion-pair plasma is investigated. The results obtained may be important in investigating the broadband electrostatic shock noise in D- and F-regions of Earth's ionosphere.

  20. Ion Flux Characterization of H2 and D2 Plasmas Produced by an ECR Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Eric; Capece, Angela; Roszell, John; Skinner, Charles; Koel, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    The use of lithium-conditioned plasma facing components in tokamaks has been shown to improve plasma confinement through a reduction in hydrogen recycling. Surface science techniques are being applied to probe the interactions between lithiated PFC's and H/D plasmas. A TectraTM Gen 2 plasma source has been commissioned that utilizes electron cyclotron resonance to produce a plasma discharge inside a vacuum test chamber and can produce ion fluxes similar to those typically seen in tokamaks. This source will be utilized to study H/D uptake by lithium films on Mo substrates as a precursor to NSTX-U experiments. In this work we report on the characterization of this source as a first step in its use in surface analysis studies. The source is operated in H2 and D2 gases and the subsequent ion flux of the plasma is measured by a Faraday Cup. Ion flux measurements are presented in a range of gas pressures and grid voltages up to 2 kV. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  1. Ion sphere model for Yukawa systems (dusty plasmas)

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, S. A.; Khrapak, A. G.; Ivlev, A. V.; Thomas, H. M.

    2014-12-15

    Application of the ion sphere model (ISM), well known in the context of the one-component-plasma, to estimate thermodynamic properties of model Yukawa systems is discussed. It is shown that the ISM approximation provides fairly good estimate of the internal energy of the strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases. Simple expressions for the excess pressure and isothermal compressibility are derived, which can be particularly useful in connection to wave phenomena in strongly coupled dusty plasmas. It is also shown that in the regime of strong screening a simple consideration of neighboring particles interactions can be sufficient to obtain quite accurate estimates of thermodynamic properties of Yukawa systems.

  2. Critically balanced ion temperature gradient turbulence in fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M; Parra, F I; Schekochihin, A A

    2011-09-01

    Scaling laws for ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in magnetized toroidal plasmas are derived and compared with direct numerical simulations. Predicted dependences of turbulence fluctuation amplitudes, spatial scales, and resulting heat fluxes on temperature gradient and magnetic field line pitch are found to agree with numerical results in both the driving and inertial ranges. Evidence is provided to support the critical balance conjecture that parallel streaming and nonlinear perpendicular decorrelation times are comparable at all spatial scales, leading to a scaling relationship between parallel and perpendicular spatial scales. This indicates that even strongly magnetized plasma turbulence is intrinsically three dimensional. PMID:22026680

  3. Ion sphere model for Yukawa systems (dusty plasmas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrapak, S. A.; Khrapak, A. G.; Ivlev, A. V.; Thomas, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    Application of the ion sphere model (ISM), well known in the context of the one-component-plasma, to estimate thermodynamic properties of model Yukawa systems is discussed. It is shown that the ISM approximation provides fairly good estimate of the internal energy of the strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases. Simple expressions for the excess pressure and isothermal compressibility are derived, which can be particularly useful in connection to wave phenomena in strongly coupled dusty plasmas. It is also shown that in the regime of strong screening a simple consideration of neighboring particles interactions can be sufficient to obtain quite accurate estimates of thermodynamic properties of Yukawa systems.

  4. Critically Balanced Ion Temperature Gradient Turbulence in Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.

    2011-09-09

    Scaling laws for ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in magnetized toroidal plasmas are derived and compared with direct numerical simulations. Predicted dependences of turbulence fluctuation amplitudes, spatial scales, and resulting heat fluxes on temperature gradient and magnetic field line pitch are found to agree with numerical results in both the driving and inertial ranges. Evidence is provided to support the critical balance conjecture that parallel streaming and nonlinear perpendicular decorrelation times are comparable at all spatial scales, leading to a scaling relationship between parallel and perpendicular spatial scales. This indicates that even strongly magnetized plasma turbulence is intrinsically three dimensional.

  5. Ion temperature in plasmas with intrinsic Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2014-10-15

    This Brief Communication clarifies the physics of non-resonant heating of protons by low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence. On the basis of general definition for wave energy density in plasmas, it is shown that the wave magnetic field energy is equivalent to the kinetic energy density of the ions, whose motion is induced by the wave magnetic field, thus providing a self-consistent description of the non-resonant heating by Alfvenic turbulence. Although the study is motivated by the research on the solar corona, the present discussion is only concerned with the plasma physics of the heating process.

  6. High concentration of deuterium in palladium from plasma ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M. )

    1991-11-01

    Based on a theoretical calculation, a new scheme to increase deuterium density in palladium over its initial value is presented. This deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of plasma ion implantation. A cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with a diffusion-barrier material, is immersed in a deuterium plasma. The palladium rod is connected to a high-power modulator which provides a series of negative-voltage pulses. During these negative pulses, deuterium ions fall into the target, penetrate the diffusion barrier, and are implanted inside the palladium. For reasonable system parameters allowed by present technology, it is found from theoretical calculations that the saturation deuterium density after prolonged ion implantation can be several times the palladium atomic number density. Assuming an initial deuterium density, {ital n}{sub 0}=4{times}10{sup 22} cm{sup {minus}3}, it is also found that the deuterium density in palladium can triple its original value within a few days of the ion implantation for a reasonable target size. Because of the small diffusion coefficient in palladium, the incoming ions do not diffuse quickly inward, thereby accumulating near the target surface at the beginning of the implantation.

  7. Ion Composition in Titan's Exosphere from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, A.; Smith, H. T.; Johnson, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    A primary goal of the Cassini mission has been to characterize the complex interaction between Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's ionosphere. To this end, the Cassini spacecraft carries two instruments-the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS)-capable of energy- and mass-analysis. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS), one of three instruments composing CAPS, is designed to characterize diffuse plasmas throughout the magnetosphere while the INMS is optimized for measurements within Titan's upper atmosphere. As such, mass-resolved ion compositions confirming a variety of hydrocarbons and nitriles have been extracted from INMS data for numerous Titan encounters. Similar analysis of IMS data, however, has largely been resolution-limited to the identification of 'light' and 'heavy' ion groups in the wake. Herein we present a technique for extracting Dalton-resolved ion compositions from IMS spectra acquired below ~5 Titan radii. The method is then applied to data from the T40 encounter and the resulting relative abundances compared with those derived from the INMS data for the same encounter.

  8. Electro-diffusion in a plasma with two ion species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Grigory; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Electric field is a thermodynamic force that can drive collisional inter-ion-species transport in a multicomponent plasma. In an inertial confinement fusion capsule, such transport causes fuel ion separation even with a target initially prepared to have equal number densities for the two fuel ion species. Unlike the baro-diffusion driven by ion pressure gradient and the thermo-diffusion driven by ion and electron temperature gradients, electro-diffusion has a critical dependence on the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion species. Specifically, it is shown here that electro-diffusion vanishes if the ion species have the same charge-to-mass ratio. An explicit expression for the electro-diffusion ratio is obtained and used to investigate the relative importance of electro- and baro-diffusion mechanisms. In particular, it is found that electro-diffusion reinforces baro-diffusion in the deuterium and tritium mix, but tends to cancel it in the deuterium and helium-3 mix.

  9. Electro-diffusion in a plasma with two ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, Grigory; Tang Xianzhu

    2012-08-15

    Electric field is a thermodynamic force that can drive collisional inter-ion-species transport in a multicomponent plasma. In an inertial confinement fusion capsule, such transport causes fuel ion separation even with a target initially prepared to have equal number densities for the two fuel ion species. Unlike the baro-diffusion driven by ion pressure gradient and the thermo-diffusion driven by ion and electron temperature gradients, electro-diffusion has a critical dependence on the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion species. Specifically, it is shown here that electro-diffusion vanishes if the ion species have the same charge-to-mass ratio. An explicit expression for the electro-diffusion ratio is obtained and used to investigate the relative importance of electro- and baro-diffusion mechanisms. In particular, it is found that electro-diffusion reinforces baro-diffusion in the deuterium and tritium mix, but tends to cancel it in the deuterium and helium-3 mix.

  10. Estimates of maximum trappable ion beam power in plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watrous, J. J.; Olson, R. E.

    Conservation laws and solutions to the equations of motion for single particles have been used to obtained greatest lower bounds on the ion beam power that can be injected into and confined within plasma channels. These bounds are use in the evaluation of proposed light ion driven ICF experiments and reactor concepts. Simple estimates of trappable power based on conservation laws will be compared with estimates based on solutions to the equation of motion. Consequences of the results of these calculations to current design studies will be discussed.

  11. Ion acoustic shock waves in weakly relativistic multicomponent quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, T. S.; Bains, A. S.; Bedi, C.

    2010-02-01

    Ion acoustic Shock waves (IASWs) are studied in an collisionless unmagnetized relativistic quantum electron-positron-ion(e-p-i) plasma employing the quantum hydro -dynamic(QHD) model. Korteweg-deVries- Burger equation(KdVB) is derived using small amplitude perturbation expansion method to study the nonlinear propagation of the quantum IASWs. It is found that the coefficients of the KdVB equation are significantely modified by the positron density p, relativistic factor(Ur), temperatures σ, kinematic viscosity η and quantum factor(H).

  12. Dressed solitons in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roy, Kaushik; Mondal, Ganesh; Muniandy, S. V.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    Nonlinear propagation of quantum ion acoustic waves in a dense quantum plasma whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions is investigated using a quantum hydrodynamic model. The Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived using reductive perturbation technique. The higher order inhomogeneous differential equation is obtained for the dressed soliton. The dynamical equation for dressed soliton is solved using the renormalization method. The conditions for the validity of the higher order correction are described. The effects of quantum parameter, positron concentration, electron to positron Fermi temperature ratio, and soliton velocity on the amplitude and width of the dressed soliton are studied.

  13. Motion of the plasma critical layer during relativistic-electron laser interaction with immobile and comoving ion plasma for ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Aakash A.

    2014-05-15

    We analyze the motion of the plasma critical layer by two different processes in the relativistic-electron laser-plasma interaction regime (a{sub 0}>1). The differences are highlighted when the critical layer ions are stationary in contrast to when they move with it. Controlling the speed of the plasma critical layer in this regime is essential for creating low-β traveling acceleration structures of sufficient laser-excited potential for laser ion accelerators. In Relativistically Induced Transparency Acceleration (RITA) scheme, the heavy plasma-ions are fixed and only trace-density light-ions are accelerated. The relativistic critical layer and the acceleration structure move longitudinally forward by laser inducing transparency through apparent relativistic increase in electron mass. In the Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) scheme, the whole plasma is longitudinally pushed forward under the action of the laser radiation pressure, possible only when plasma ions co-propagate with the laser front. In RPA, the acceleration structure velocity critically depends upon plasma-ion mass in addition to the laser intensity and plasma density. In RITA, mass of the heavy immobile plasma-ions does not affect the speed of the critical layer. Inertia of the bared immobile ions in RITA excites the charge separation potential, whereas RPA is not possible when ions are stationary.

  14. Motion of the plasma critical layer during relativistic-electron laser interaction with immobile and comoving ion plasma for ion accelerationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Aakash A.

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the motion of the plasma critical layer by two different processes in the relativistic-electron laser-plasma interaction regime (a0>1). The differences are highlighted when the critical layer ions are stationary in contrast to when they move with it. Controlling the speed of the plasma critical layer in this regime is essential for creating low-β traveling acceleration structures of sufficient laser-excited potential for laser ion accelerators. In Relativistically Induced Transparency Acceleration (RITA) scheme, the heavy plasma-ions are fixed and only trace-density light-ions are accelerated. The relativistic critical layer and the acceleration structure move longitudinally forward by laser inducing transparency through apparent relativistic increase in electron mass. In the Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) scheme, the whole plasma is longitudinally pushed forward under the action of the laser radiation pressure, possible only when plasma ions co-propagate with the laser front. In RPA, the acceleration structure velocity critically depends upon plasma-ion mass in addition to the laser intensity and plasma density. In RITA, mass of the heavy immobile plasma-ions does not affect the speed of the critical layer. Inertia of the bared immobile ions in RITA excites the charge separation potential, whereas RPA is not possible when ions are stationary.

  15. Measurement of optical emission from the hydrogen plasma of the Linac4 ion source and the SPL plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettry, J.; Bertolo, S.; Castel, A.; Chaudet, E.; Ecarnot, J.-F.; Favre, G.; Fayet, F.; Geisser, J.-M.; Haase, M.; Habert, A.; Hansen, J.; Joffe, S.; Kronberger, M.; Lombard, D.; Marmillon, A.; Balula, J. Marques; Mathot, S.; Midttun, O.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O'Neil, M.; Paoluzzi, M.; Prever-Loiri, L.; Arias, J. Sanchez; Schmitzer, C.; Steyaert, R. Scrivens D.; Vestergard, H.; Wilhelmsson, M.

    2011-09-01

    At CERN, a non caesiated H- ion volume source derived from the DESY ion source is being commissioned. For a proposed High Power Superconducting Proton Linac (HP-SPL), a non caesiated plasma generator was designed to operate at the two orders of magnitude larger duty factor required by the SPL. The commissioning of the plasma generator test stand and the plasma generator prototype are completed and briefly described. The 2 MHz RF generators (100 kW, 50 Hz repetition rate) was successfully commissioned; its frequency and power will be controlled by arbitrary function generators during the 1 ms plasma pulse. In order to characterize the plasma, RF-coupling, optical spectrometer, rest gas analyzer and Langmuir probe measurements will be used. Optical spectrometry allows direct comparison with the currently commissioned Linac4 H- ion source plasma. The first measurements of the optical emission of the Linac4 ion source and of the SPL plasma generator plasmas are presented.

  16. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ˜5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  17. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    DOE PAGES

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-27

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15V before neutralization to 0.3 V,more » implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established similar to –5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-mu s surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of mu s after the high voltage pulse is applied. Lastly, it is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.« less

  18. Dispersion relation of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi-component magneto-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khaira, Vibhooti Ahirwar, G.

    2015-07-31

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi component plasma composed of electrons (denoted by e{sup −}), hydrogen ions (denoted by H{sup +}), helium ions (denoted by He{sup +}) and positively charged oxygen ions (denoted by O{sup +})in magnetized cold plasma. The wave is assumed to propagate perpendicular to the static magnetic field. It is found that the addition of heavy ions in the plasma dispersion modified the lower hybrid mode and also allowed an ion-ion mode. The frequencies of the lower hybrid and ion- ion hybrid modes are derived using cold plasma theory. It is observed that the effect of multi-ionfor different plasma densities on electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is to enhance the wave frequencies. The results are interpreted for the magnetosphere has been applied parameters by auroral acceleration region.

  19. Plasma properties in electron-bombardment ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matossian, J. N.; Beattie, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a technique for computing volume-averaged plasma properties within electron-bombardment ion thrusters, using spatially varying Langmuir-probe measurements. Average values of the electron densities are defined by integrating the spatially varying Maxwellian and primary electron densities over the ionization volume, and then dividing by the volume. Plasma properties obtained in the 30-cm-diameter J-series and ring-cusp thrusters are analyzed by the volume-averaging technique. The superior performance exhibited by the ring-cusp thruster is correlated with a higher average Maxwellian electron temperature. The ring-cusp thruster maintains the same fraction of primary electrons as does the J-series thruster, but at a much lower ion production cost. The volume-averaged predictions for both thrusters are compared with those of a detailed thruster performance model.

  20. Sheath and presheath in ion-ion plasmas via particle-in-cell simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Meige, A.; Leray, G.; Raimbault, J.-L.; Chabert, P.

    2008-02-11

    A full particle-in-cell simulation is developed to investigate electron-free plasmas constituted of positive and negative ions under the influence of a dc bias voltage. It is shown that high-voltage sheaths following the classical Child-law sheaths form within a few microseconds (which corresponds to the ion transit time) after the dc voltage is applied. It is also shown that there exists the equivalent of a Bohm criterion where a presheath accelerates the ions collected at one of the electrodes up to the sound speed before they enter the sheath. From an applied perspective, this leads to smaller sheaths than one would expect.

  1. Reflection of ion acoustic solitons in a plasma having negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.S.; Malik, H.K.; Dahiya, R.P.

    1996-11-01

    Reflection of compressive and rarefactive ion acoustic solitons propagating in an inhomogeneous plasma in the presence of negative ions is investigated. Modified Korteweg{endash}deVries equations for incident and reflected solitons are derived and solved. The amplitude of incident and reflected solitons increases with negative to positive ion density ratio. With increasing density ratio, reflection of rarefactive solitons is reinforced whereas that of compressive solitons weakened. The rarefactive solitons are found to undergo stronger reflection than the compressive ones. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Role of ion density in growth, transport, and morphology of nanoparticles generated in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Kil Byoung; Choe, Wonho

    2012-08-01

    Spatial distribution, growth, and morphology of the nanoparticle were investigated in the plasmas with relatively low and high ion densities. Our experimental results reveal that cauliflower-shaped amorphous nanoparticles are dominantly distributed throughout the entire plasma in the low ion density plasma while spherical crystalline particles are spread near the plasma edge in the high ion density plasma. Only agglomeration growth step of the nanoparticles was observed without molecular accretion growth step in the high density plasma. Based on the experimental and numerical results, the role of ion density in the growth mechanism and transport of the nanoparticles is discussed.

  3. Rayleigh-Taylor vortices in a pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish Khan, Manoranjan

    2015-04-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) vortices and the analytical solution of three-mode coupling in pair-ion plasmas are investigated. It is shown that the E×B convection of polarization drift is responsible for the saturation of growing RT instability and as a result the localized dipole vortex structures are formed. The shear flow generation due to the destruction of vortex structures is discussed by the Fourier mode analysis.

  4. Ion-Acoustic Waves in Self-Gravitaing Dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nagendra; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Anil

    2008-09-07

    The propagation and damping of low frequency ion-acoustic waves in steady state, unmagnetised, self-gravitating dusty plasma are studied taking into account two important damping mechanisms creation damping and Tromso damping. It is found that imaginary part of wave number is independent of frequency in case of creation damping. But when we consider the case of creation and Tromso damping together, an additional contribution to damping appears with the increase in frequency attributed to Tromso effect.

  5. Hydrogen plasma dynamics in the spherical theta pinch plasma target for heavy ion stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Loisch, G.; Jacoby, J.; Xu, G.; Blazevic, A.; Cihodariu-Ionita, B.

    2015-05-15

    Due to the superior ability of dense and highly ionised plasmas to ionise penetrating heavy ion beams to degrees beyond those reachable by common gas strippers, many experiments have been performed to find suitable plasma generators for this application. In the field of gas discharges, mainly z-pinch devices have been investigated so far, which are known to be limited by the nonlinear focusing effects of the plasma columns sustaining current and by electrode erosion. The spherical theta pinch has therefore been proposed as a substitution for the z-pinch, promising progress by inductive rather than capacitive coupling and displacement of the outer magnetic field by the dense, diamagnetic discharge plasma. As yet mainly experiments with argon/hydrogen mixture gas have been performed, which is not suitable for the application as a plasma stripper, this paper describes the first detailed analysis of the plasma parameters and dynamics of a hydrogen plasma created by the spherical theta pinch. These include the time integrated and time resolved electron density, the dynamics of the plasma in the discharge vessel, the comparison with the argon dominated plasma, and an outlook to reachable characteristics with similar devices.

  6. Ion energy distribution near a plasma meniscus with beam extraction for multi element focused ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Paul, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2010-05-15

    An earlier study of the axial ion energy distribution in the extraction region (plasma meniscus) of a compact microwave plasma ion source showed that the axial ion energy spread near the meniscus is small ({approx}5 eV) and comparable to that of a liquid metal ion source, making it a promising candidate for focused ion beam (FIB) applications [J. V. Mathew and S. Bhattacharjee, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 96101 (2009)]. In the present work we have investigated the radial ion energy distribution (IED) under the influence of beam extraction. Initially a single Einzel lens system has been used for beam extraction with potentials up to -6 kV for obtaining parallel beams. In situ measurements of IED with extraction voltages upto -5 kV indicates that beam extraction has a weak influence on the energy spread ({+-}0.5 eV) which is of significance from the point of view of FIB applications. It is found that by reducing the geometrical acceptance angle at the ion energy analyzer probe, close to unidirectional distribution can be obtained with a spread that is smaller by at least 1 eV.

  7. Biologic stability of plasma ion-implanted miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Chae; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Park, Young-Chel; Jung, Han-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To gain basic information regarding the biologic stability of plasma ion-implanted miniscrews and their potential clinical applications. Methods Sixteen plasma ion-implanted and 16 sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) miniscrews were bilaterally inserted in the mandibles of 4 beagles (2 miniscrews of each type per quadrant). Then, 250 - 300 gm of force from Ni-Ti coil springs was applied for 2 different periods: 12 weeks on one side and 3 weeks contralaterally. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and mandibular specimens including the miniscrews were collected. The insertion torque and mobility were compared between the groups. The bone-implant contact and bone volume ratio were calculated within 800 µm of the miniscrews and compared between the loading periods. The number of osteoblasts was also quantified. The measurements were expressed as percentages and analyzed by independent t-tests (p < 0.05). Results No significant differences in any of the analyzed parameters were noted between the groups. Conclusions The preliminary findings indicate that plasma ion-implanted miniscrews have similar biologic characteristics to SLA miniscrews in terms of insertion torque, mobility, bone-implant contact rate, and bone volume rate. PMID:23814706

  8. Second harmonic plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for second harmonic plasma emission by the weak turbulence (or random phase) processes L + L + or - S to T, proceeding in two three-wave steps, L + or - S to L prime and L + L prime to T, where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and electromagnetic waves, respectively, is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes, and constraints on the characteristics of the source plasma, are derived. Limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation and the levels of the L prime and S waves are determined. Expressions for the growth rates and path-integrated wave temperatures are derived for simple models of the wave spectra and source plasma.

  9. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Hattori, T; Sugimoto, S; Sasai, K

    2014-02-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz. PMID:24593537

  10. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T. Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-02-15

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz.

  11. Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion plasma with trapped electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinejad, H.; Sobhanian, S.; Mahmoodi, J.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made for ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. A more realistic situation in which plasma consists of a negatively charged ion fluid, free positrons, and trapped as well as free electrons is considered. The properties of stationary structures are studied by the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite amplitude limit, and by pseudopotential approach, which is valid for large amplitude. With an appropriate modified form of the electron number density, two new equations for the ion dynamics have been found. When deviations from isothermality are finite, the modified Korteweg-deVries equation has been found, and for the case that deviations from isothermality are small, calculations lead to a generalized Korteweg-deVries equation. It is shown from both weakly and highly nonlinear analysis that the presence of the positrons may allow solitary waves to exist. It is found that the effect of the positron density changes the maximum value of the amplitude and M (Mach number) for which solitary waves can exist. The present theory is applicable to analyze arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves associated with positrons which may occur in space plasma.

  12. Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion plasma with trapped electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Alinejad, H.; Sobhanian, S.; Mahmoodi, J.

    2006-01-15

    A theoretical investigation has been made for ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. A more realistic situation in which plasma consists of a negatively charged ion fluid, free positrons, and trapped as well as free electrons is considered. The properties of stationary structures are studied by the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite amplitude limit, and by pseudopotential approach, which is valid for large amplitude. With an appropriate modified form of the electron number density, two new equations for the ion dynamics have been found. When deviations from isothermality are finite, the modified Korteweg-deVries equation has been found, and for the case that deviations from isothermality are small, calculations lead to a generalized Korteweg-deVries equation. It is shown from both weakly and highly nonlinear analysis that the presence of the positrons may allow solitary waves to exist. It is found that the effect of the positron density changes the maximum value of the amplitude and M (Mach number) for which solitary waves can exist. The present theory is applicable to analyze arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves associated with positrons which may occur in space plasma.

  13. Local measurements of plasma ion dynamics with optical probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuritsyn, Alexey; Craig, Darren; Fiksel, Gennady; Miller, Matt; Cylinder, David; Yamada, Masaaki

    2006-10-15

    Two insertable optical probes have been constructed to measure local ion temperature and flow velocity using the idea proposed by Fiksel et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2024 (1998)]. The light from plasma is collected by an optical fiber bundle and transported to a high resolution spectrometer. Spatial resolution of a few centimeters is achieved by using a collimator and a view dump. One ion dynamics spectroscopy (IDS) probe is employed in the edge plasma of Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch in combination with the high throughput (f/4.5) and high resolution (0.15 nm/mm) IDS-II spectrometer. It has provided local ion temperature measurements of carbon and helium impurities with temporal resolution of 10 {mu}s and accuracy of about 5 eV. The second instrument is used on the Magnetic Reconnection eXperiment, where the local temperature of helium ions ({approx}10 eV) has been measured with 1 eV accuracy. Details of the designs, calibrations, and data analysis are described.

  14. Ion beam and plasma methods of producing diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swec, Diane M.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of plasma and ion beam techniques was employed to generate diamondlike carbon films. These methods included the use of RF sputtering, dc glow discharge, vacuum arc, plasma gun, ion beam sputtering, and both single and dual ion beam deposition. Since films were generated using a wide variety of techniques, the physico-chemical properties of these films varied considerably. In general, these films had characteristics that were desirable in a number of applications. For example, the films generated using both single and dual ion beam systems were evaluated for applications including power electronics as insulated gates and protective coatings on transmitting windows. These films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicated hydrogen to carbon ratios to be 1.00, which allowed the films to have good transmittance not only in the infrared, but also in the visible. Other evaluated properties of these films include band gap, resistivity, adherence, density, microhardness, and intrinsic stress. The results of these studies and those of the other techniques for depositing diamondlike carbon films are presented.

  15. Plasma source ion implantation technology for engineering surfaces of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. H.; Lawrence, D. F.; Sridharan, K.; Sandstrom, P. W.

    2001-07-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation* (PSII) is a non-line-of-sight technique for energetic ion surface modification of materials. At the University of Wisconsin there are presently three PSII systems two of which measure about 1 m3 and a third that measures 0.1 m3. Plasma generation is achieved in vacuum through filamentary, RF, DC-pulsed, or glow discharge. High voltage pulsing is achieved using a tetrode modulator that pulses at up to 60kV or by a solid-state pulser that can supply 20kV. Recently, a crossatron modulator capable of 40kV and 1kA peak anode current was built in-house. Surface properties of a wide range of materials have been beneficially modified using PSII in ion implantation, film deposition, energetic ion mixing, and sputtering modes. Industrial field testing of PSII-treated parts has yielded promising results but successful commercialization requires judicious selection of applications which effectively exploit the unique aspects of PSII as a surface modification tool.*J.R. Conrad U.S. Patent#4764394, 1988

  16. Forbidden lines of highly ionized ions for localized plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hinnov, E.; Fonck, R.; Suckewer, S.

    1980-06-01

    Numerous optically forbidden lines resulting from magnetic dipole transitions in low-lying electron configurations of highly ionized Fe, Ti and Cr atoms have been identified in PLT and PDX tokamak discharges, and applied for localized diagnostics in the high-temperature (0.5 to 3.0 keV) interior of these plasmas. The measurements include determination of local ion densities and their variation in time, and of ion motions (ion temperature, plasma rotations) through Doppler effect of the lines. These forbidden lines are particularly appropriate for such measurements because under typical tokamak conditions their emissivities are quite high (10/sup 11/ to 10/sup 14/ photons/cm/sup 3/-sec), and their relatively long wavelengths allow the use of intricate optical techniques and instrumentation. The spatial location of the emissivity is directly measurable, and tends to occur near radii where the ionization potential of the ion in question is equal to the local electron temperature. In future larger and presumably higher-temperature tokamaks analogous measurements with somewhat heavier atoms, particularly krypton, and perhaps zirconium appear both feasible and desirable.

  17. Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R.; Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W.; Horne, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

  18. Recombination of ions of a dense ion plasma in a fluorine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankin, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    A new effect leading to the slowing of recombination in a weakly nonideal ion plasma is considered. The solvation of ions is included in the explanation of the results from studying a gas discharge afterglow in a fluorine atmosphere. It is shown that recombination in such a system is slowed in comparison to the standard relationships for ideal plasma. The formation and composition of cluster ions in such a medium are considered. The relationship between the variation in the kinetics of recombination and the course of the process according to a complicated mechanism with the intermediate formation of metastable cluster pairs is established. A quantitative model is built and a formula allowing us to describe the recombination rate over a wide range of parameters of the medium is obtained. It is shown that the proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Plasma-ion-induced sputtering and heating of Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Michael, M.; Tucker, O. J.; Shematovich, V. I.; Luhmann, J. H.; Ledvina, S. A.

    Titan is unique among the outer solar system icy satellites in having an atmosphere with a column density about ten times that of the Earth's atmosphere and an atmosphere mass to solid mass ratio comparable to that of Venus. Atmospheres equivalent in size to that at Titan would have been removed from the icy Galilean satellites by the plasma trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere (Johnson 2004). Therefore, the fact that data from the Cassini spacecraft can be used to determine the present erosion rate of Titan's atmosphere by the plasma trapped in Saturn's magnetosphere provides an exciting end point for studying the erosion and heating of planetary and satellite atmospheres by an ambient plasma. In this paper we describe the deposition of energy, the erosion and the expansion of the upper atmosphere of Titan using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo models (Shematovich et al. 2003; Michael et al. 2005; Michael and Johnson 2005). These calculations are used to calibrate semi-empirical models of atmospheric sputtering (Johnson 1994) that can, in principal, be employed in interpreting Cassini data at Titan. It is shown that the globally averaged flux of magnetospheric and pickup ions deposit more energy in Titan's upper atmosphere than solar radiation. Using a number of plasma conditions, the temperature and density vs. altitude above the exobase and the rate of escape are calculated and compared to available Cassini data. References: Johnson, R.E. "Plasma-induced Sputtering of an Atmosphere" in Space Science Reviews 69 215-253 (1994). Johnson. R.E., " The magnetospheric plasma- driven evolution of satellite atmospheres" Astrophys. J. 609, L99-L102 (2004). Michael, M. and R.E. Johnson, "Energy deposition of pickup ions and heating of Titan's atmosphere", Planetary & Space Sci.53, 1510-1514 (2005). Michael M., R.E. Johnson, F. Leblanc, M. Liu, J.G. Luhmann, and V.I. Shematovich, "Ejection of nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere by magnetospheric ions and pick-up ions", Icarus 175

  20. Effect of ion temperature on arbitrary amplitude ion acoustic solitary waves in quantum electron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roy, Kaushik; Muniandy, Sithi V.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Using Sagdeev's pseudopotential technique, the effect of ion temperature on the arbitrary amplitude ion acoustic solitary waves in quantum electron-ion plasma is studied. In addition, the effect of ion temperature on the region of existence, as well as on the shape of the solitary waves, is also investigated extensively. It is shown that for large amplitude solitary wave, quantum parameter H does not play any role in determining the region of existence and on the amplitude of the solitary waves. However, H has a significant effect on the width of the solitary wave. It is worth noting that our results are in agreement with previous investigations when the effect of ion temperature is neglected.

  1. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Spence, D.; Lykke, K.

    1998-08-04

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H{sup +}, D{sup +}, O{sup +}, N{sup +}, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}, among others, with the most effective being water (H{sub 2}O) and deuterated water (D{sub 2}O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H{sup +}) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D{sup +}). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +}, into the desired ion species, H{sup +} and D{sup +}, respectively. 4 figs.

  2. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Spence, David; Lykke, Keith

    1998-01-01

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H.sup.+, D.sup.+, O.sup.+, N.sup.+, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H.sub.2 O, D.sub.2 O, O.sub.2, and SF.sub.6, among others, with the most effective being water (H.sub.2 O) and deuterated water (D.sub.2 O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H.sup.+) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D.sup.+). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H.sub.2.sup.+,H.sub.3.sup.+ and D.sub.2.sup.+, D.sub.3.sup.+, into the desired ion species, H.sup.+ and D.sup.+, respectively.

  3. Plasma analysis for the plasma immersion ion implantation processing by a PIC-MCC simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagawa, Y.; Ikeyama, M.; Miyagawa, S.; Tanaka, M.; Nakadate, H.

    2007-07-01

    In order to analyze the plasma behavior during PIII processing, a computer simulation has been carried out using the simulation software "PEGASUS". The software uses a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method for the movement of charged particles in the electromagnetic field and a Monte Carlo method for collisions of ions, electrons, and neutrals in the plasma and also a Monte Carlo method to analyze the background gas behavior for a low density gas system. This approach is based on the weighting collision simulation scheme allowing for disparate number densities of different species. The spatial distributions of potential and densities of ions, electrons and radicals in the coating system were calculated together with the flux of ions and electrons on the surface of the object. The gas pressure was 0.01 to 50 Pa and a negative and/or a positive pulse voltage ( V=0.1 to 20 kV) was applied to the object. The calculation is fully self-consistent. A two-dimensional Cartesian and a cylindrical coordinate system were used. The effects of gas pressure, applied voltage, and secondary electron emission coefficient by ion impact ( γ) on the sheath thickness, the spatial distribution of densities of electron, ion, and neutral atoms, the ion flux and its spatial distribution, etc. were studied for PIII processing of a trench shaped object, inner wall of a pipe and a PET bottle.

  4. Plasma-ion Induced Sputtering and Heating of Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Tucker, O. J.

    2007-05-01

    Titan is unique among the outer solar system icy satellites in having an atmosphere with a column density about ten times that of the Earth's atmosphere and an atmospheric mass to solid mass ratio comparable to that of Venus. Atmospheres equivalent in size to that at Titan would have been removed from the icy Galilean satellites by the plasma trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere (Johnson 2004). Therefore, the use of Cassini data to determine the present erosion rate of Titan's atmosphere provides an important end point for studying the erosion and heating of planetary and satellite atmospheres by an ambient plasma. In this paper we describe the deposition of energy, the erosion and the expansion of the upper atmosphere of Titan using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo models (Shematovich et al. 2003; Michael et al. 2005; Michael and Johnson 2005). These calculations are used to calibrate semi-empirical models of atmospheric sputtering (Johnson 1994) that are used to interpret Cassini data at Titan. Using a number of plasma conditions, the temperature and density vs. altitude above the exobase and the rate of escape are calculated. References: Johnson, R.E. "Plasma-induced Sputtering of an Atmosphere" in Space Science Reviews 69 215-253 (1994). Johnson. R.E., " The magnetospheric plasmadriven evolution of satellite atmospheres" Astrophys. J. 609, L99-L102 (2004). Michael, M. and R.E. Johnson, "Energy deposition of pickup ions and heating of Titan's atmosphere", Planetary & Space Sci.53, 1510-1514 (2005). Michael M., R.E. Johnson, F. Leblanc, M. Liu, J.G. Luhmann, and V.I. Shematovich, "Ejection of nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere by magnetospheric ions and pick-up ions", Icarus 175, 263-267 (2005). Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, M. Michael, and J.G. Luhmann, "Nitrogen loss from Titan", JGR 108, No. E8, 5087, doi:10.1029/2003JE002094 (2003).

  5. A simplified strong ion model for acid-base equilibria: application to horse plasma.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D

    1997-07-01

    The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and Stewart's strong ion model are currently used to describe mammalian acid-base equilibria. Anomalies exist when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is applied to plasma, whereas the strong ion model does not provide a practical method for determining the total plasma concentration of nonvolatile weak acids ([Atot]) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (Ka). A simplified strong ion model, which was developed from the assumption that plasma ions act as strong ions, volatile buffer ions (HCO-3), or nonvolatile buffer ions, indicates that plasma pH is determined by five independent variables: PCO2, strong ion difference, concentration of individual nonvolatile plasma buffers (albumin, globulin, and phosphate), ionic strength, and temperature. The simplified strong ion model conveys on a fundamental level the mechanism for change in acid-base status, explains many of the anomalies when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is applied to plasma, is conceptually and algebraically simpler than Stewart's strong ion model, and provides a practical in vitro method for determining [Atot] and Ka of plasma. Application of the simplified strong ion model to CO2-tonometered horse plasma produced values for [Atot] (15.0 +/- 3.1 meq/l) and Ka (2.22 +/- 0.32 x 10(-7) eq/l) that were significantly different from the values commonly assumed for human plasma ([Atot] = 20.0 meq/l, Ka = 3.0 x 10(-7) eq/l). Moreover, application of the experimentally determined values for [Atot] and Ka to published data for the horse (known PCO2, strong ion difference, and plasma protein concentration) predicted plasma pH more accurately than the values for [Atot] and Ka commonly assumed for human plasma. Species-specific values for [Atot] and Ka should be experimentally determined when the simplified strong ion model (or strong ion model) is used to describe acid-base equilibria.

  6. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenberger, M. Kendl, A.; Madsen, J.

    2014-09-15

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line with conditions found in tokamak scrape-off-layers (SOL) regions. Varying the ion temperature, the initial blob width, and the initial amplitude, we found an FLR dominated regime where the blob behavior is significantly different from what is predicted by cold-ion models. The transition to this regime is very well described by the ratio of the ion gyroradius to the characteristic gradient scale length of the blob. We compare the global gyrofluid model with a partly linearized local model. For low ion temperatures, we find that simulations of the global model show more coherent blobs with an increased cross-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross-field transport in comparison with local blob simulations.

  7. Effect of radial plasma transport at the magnetic throat on axial ion beam formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2016-08-01

    Correlation between radial plasma transport and formation of an axial ion beam has been investigated in a helicon plasma reactor implemented with a convergent-divergent magnetic nozzle. The plasma discharge is sustained under a high magnetic field mode and a low magnetic field mode for which the electron energy probability function, the plasma density, the plasma potential, and the electron temperature are measured at the magnetic throat, and the two field modes show different radial parametric behaviors. Although an axial potential drop occurs in the plasma source for both field modes, an ion beam is only observed in the high field mode while not in the low field mode. The transport of energetic ions is characterized downstream of the plasma source using the delimited ion current and nonlocal ion current. A decay of ion beam strength is also observed in the diffusion chamber.

  8. Analysis of plasma dynamics of a negative ion source based on probe measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Tanga, A.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Heinemann, B.; Holtum, D.; Kraus, W.; Lackner, K.; McNeely, P.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Wilhelm, R.

    2004-10-15

    Measurements and analysis of the plasma flow in an ion source made for negative ion extraction are reported in this article. The plasma flow has been measured using a Mach probe having two orthogonal probe heads. The plasma flow along the axis is driven by the electron pressure gradient, dragging along the ions via a measured ambipolar electric field against the collisional drag on the background gas. The force on the ions created by the electric field is mainly balanced by the collisional drag force. The collision between the ions and the background gas creates a pressure gradient along the flow direction. The one-dimensional plasma dynamic analysis supports the consistency of the experimental observations. The presence of a transverse magnetic filter reduces the plasma flow velocity, which could affect the negative ion production on the cesiated grid surface. A simple analysis shows that a strong plasma flow could enhance the surface production of negative ions.

  9. Modulational instability of ion-acoustic wave envelopes in magnetized quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, A. S.; Misra, A. P.; Saini, N. S.; Gill, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    The amplitude modulation of quantum ion-acoustic waves (QIAWs) along an external magnetic field is studied in a quantum electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) magnetoplasma. Reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation which governs the slow modulation of QIAW packets. Accounting for the effects of the electron to ion number density ratio (μ), the normalized ion-cyclotron frequency (ωc) as well as the ratio (H) of the "plasmonic energy density" to the Fermi energy, new regimes for the modulational instability of QIAWs are obtained and analyzed. In contrast to one-dimensional unmagnetized e-p-i plasmas, the instability growth rate is shown to suppress with increasing μ or decreasing the values of H. The predicted results could be important for understanding the salient features of modulated QIAW packets in dense astrophysical plasmas as well as to the next generation intense laser solid density plasma experiments.

  10. Plasma-ion-induced Sputtering And Heating Of Titan'S Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Orenthal J.

    2006-09-01

    Plasma-ion-induced sputtering and heating of Titan's atmosphere O.J. Tucker (1), R.E. Johnson (1), M. Michael (1), V.I. Shematovich (1,2) J.H. Luhmann (3), S.A. Ledvina (3) (1) University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA (2) Institute of Astronomy RAS, Moscow 109017, Russia, (3) University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Titan is unique among the outer solar system icy satellites in having an atmosphere with a column density about ten times that of the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheres equivalent in size similar to that at Titan would have been removed from the icy Galilean satellites by the plasma trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere (Johnson 2004). In this paper we describe the deposition of energy, the erosion and the expansion of the upper atmosphere of Titan using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo models (Shematovich et al. 2003; Michael et al. 2005). These calculations are used to calibrate semi-empirical models of atmospheric sputtering (Johnson 1994) that can be employed in interpreting Cassini data at Titan. It is shown that the globally averaged flux of magnetospheric and pickup ions deposit more energy in Titan's upper atmosphere than solar radiation. Using a number of plasma conditions, the temperature and density vs. altitude above the exobase and the rate of escape are calculated and compared to available Cassini data. References: Johnson, R.E. "Plasma-induced Sputtering of an Atmosphere" in Space Science Reviews 69 215-253 (1994). Johnson. R.E., “ The magnetospheric plasma-driven evolution of satellite atmospheres” Astrophys. J. 609, L99-L102 (2004). Michael M., R.E. Johnson, F. Leblanc, M. Liu, J.G. Luhmann, and V.I. Shematovich, "Ejection of nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere by magnetospheric ions and pick-up ions", Icarus 175, 263-267 (2005). Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, M. Michael, and J.G. Luhmann,"Nitrogen loss from Titan", JGR 108, No. E8, 5087, doi:10.1029/2003JE002094 (2003). 1

  11. Longitude variation of ion temperature in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.; Dessler, A. J.

    2004-04-01

    The Io plasma torus shows an unanticipated variation of ion temperature as a function of System III (magnetic) longitude λIII. The simple expectation for the perpendicular temperature T⊥, based on ion pick-up in a tilted dipole magnetic field, is a double-peaked function with two maxima and two minima per 360° of longitude, having an average value of ˜480 eV for S+ and a relatively small variation amplitude of ˜±7 eV. Instead, the observed T⊥(S+) near Io's orbit has only one maximum and one minimum, with a much smaller average value of ˜30 eV and a much larger relative variation amplitude of ˜±50%. To explain the observed temperature variation, we propose that the longitude variation of the Pedersen conductance of Jupiter's ionosphere causes the pickup speed of ions injected near Io to vary with longitude. We obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed temperature variation if we make the straightforward assumption that the ionospheric conductance varies inversely with the strength of the ionospheric magnetic field. Both the magnitude and phase of the observed T⊥ variation are consistent with this simple model. The observed parallel temperature T∥(S+) has a somewhat smaller average magnitude and a similar longitude variation, but shifted about 70° in phase toward larger λIII. The T∥ behavior is consistent with the idea that T∥ derives mainly from T⊥ through pitch-angle scattering in the presence of the observed corotation lag of torus plasma. The 70° phase shift requires a scattering timescale of ˜50 hours, consistent with the classical timescale for ion-ion Coulomb scattering.

  12. Mass- and energy-analyses of ions from plasma by means of a miniature Thomson spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, M. J.; Czaus, K.; Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J.

    2009-05-15

    The paper presents an improved version of a miniature mass-spectrometer of the Thomson-type, which has been adopted for ion analysis near the dense plasma region inside a vacuum chamber. Problems connected with the separation of ions from plasma streams are considered. Input diaphragms and pumping systems, needed to ensure good vacuum inside the analyzing region, are described. The application of the miniature Thomson-type analyzer is illustrated by ion parabolas recorded in plasma-focus facility and rod plasma injector experiment. A quantitative analysis of the recorded ion parabolas is presented. Factors influencing accuracy of the ion analysis are discussed and methods of the spectrometer calibration are described.

  13. Focused ion beams using a high-brightness plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Samar

    2002-10-01

    High-brightness ion beams, with low energy spread, have merits for many new applications in microelectronics, materials science, and biology. Negative ions are especially attractive for the applications that involve beam-solid interactions. When negative ions strike a surface, especially an electrically isolated surface, the surface charging voltage is limited to few volts [1]. This property can be effectively utilized to circumvent problems due to surface charging, such as device damage and beam defocusing. A compact plasma source, with the capability to deliver either positive or negative ion beams, has been developed. H- beams from this pulsed source showed brightness within an order of magnitude of the value for beams from liquid-metal ion sources. The beam angular intensity is > 40 mAsr-1 and the corresponding energy spread is <2.5 eV [2]. Using a simple Einzel lens with magnification of about 0.1, a focused current density of about 40 mAcm-2 is obtained. It is estimated that an additional magnification of about 0.1 can yield a focused current density of > 1 Acm-2 and a spot size of 100 nm. Such characteristics of focused beam parameters, using a dc source, will immediately open up a large area of new applications. [1] P. N. Guzdar, A. S. Sharma, S. K. Guharay, "Charging of substrates irradiated by particle beams" Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3302 (1997). [2] S. K. Guharay, E. Sokolovsky, J. Orloff, "Characteristics of ion beams from a Penning source for focused ion beam applications" J. Vac. Sci Technol. B17, 2779 (1999).

  14. Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, D.; Paméla, J.

    1996-07-01

    NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H-/H+) and charge exchanges (H-/H0). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter.

  15. Io Plasma Torus Ion Composition: Voyager, Galileo, Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagenal, Fran; Nerney, Edward; Steffl, Andrew Joseph

    2016-10-01

    With JAXA's Hisaki spacecraft in orbit around Earth gathering information on the Io plasma torus and NASA's Juno mission measuring plasma conditions in the jovian magnetosphere, the time is ripe for a re-evaluation of earlier observations of the plasma torus to assess evidence for temporal variations. In particular, we are interested in exploring the ion composition of the torus and whether there is evidence of the ultimate source – the volcanic gases from Io – have deviated from SO2. We use the latest CHIANTI 8.0 atomic database to analyze UV spectra of the torus from Voyager, Galileo and Cassini as well as with the physical chemistry model of Delamere, Steffl and Bagenal (2005). We find that contrary to earlier analyses of Voyager data (e.g. Shemansky 1987; 1988) that produced a composition requiring a neutral source of O/S~4, we find an ion composition that is consistent with the Cassini UVIS data (Steffl et al. 2004) and a neutral O/S~2, consistent with SO2.

  16. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. S.; Jain, S. L.; Mishra, M. K.

    2011-08-01

    Characteristics of ion-acoustic soliton in dusty plasma, including the dynamics of heavily charged massive dust grains, are investigated following the Sagdeev Potential formalism. Retaining fourth order nonlinearities of electric potential in the expansion of the Sagdeev Potential in the energy equation for a pseudo particle and integrating the resulting energy equation, large amplitude soliton solution is determined. Variation of amplitude (A), half width (W) at half maxima and the product P = AW2 of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV), dressed and large amplitude soliton as a function of wide range of dust concentration are numerically studied for recently observed parameters of dusty plasmas. We have also presented the region of existence of large amplitude ion-acoustic soliton in the dusty plasma by analyzing the structure of the pseudo potential. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains, system supports only compressive solitons, on the other hand, in the presence of negatively charged dust grains, the system supports compressive solitons up to certain critical concentration of dust grains and above this critical concentration, the system can support rarefactive solitons also. The effects of dust concentration, charge, and mass of the dust grains, on the characteristics of KdV, dressed and large amplitude the soliton, i.e., amplitude (A), half width at half maxima (W), and product of amplitude (A) and half width at half maxima (P = AW2), are discussed in detail

  17. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, R. S.; Jain, S. L.; Mishra, M. K.

    2011-08-15

    Characteristics of ion-acoustic soliton in dusty plasma, including the dynamics of heavily charged massive dust grains, are investigated following the Sagdeev Potential formalism. Retaining fourth order nonlinearities of electric potential in the expansion of the Sagdeev Potential in the energy equation for a pseudo particle and integrating the resulting energy equation, large amplitude soliton solution is determined. Variation of amplitude (A), half width (W) at half maxima and the product P = AW{sup 2} of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV), dressed and large amplitude soliton as a function of wide range of dust concentration are numerically studied for recently observed parameters of dusty plasmas. We have also presented the region of existence of large amplitude ion-acoustic soliton in the dusty plasma by analyzing the structure of the pseudo potential. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains, system supports only compressive solitons, on the other hand, in the presence of negatively charged dust grains, the system supports compressive solitons up to certain critical concentration of dust grains and above this critical concentration, the system can support rarefactive solitons also. The effects of dust concentration, charge, and mass of the dust grains, on the characteristics of KdV, dressed and large amplitude the soliton, i.e., amplitude (A), half width at half maxima (W), and product of amplitude (A) and half width at half maxima (P = AW{sup 2}), are discussed in detail.

  18. The loss of ions from Venus through the plasma wake.

    PubMed

    Barabash, S; Fedorov, A; Sauvaud, J J; Lundin, R; Russell, C T; Futaana, Y; Zhang, T L; Andersson, H; Brinkfeldt, K; Grigoriev, A; Holmström, M; Yamauchi, M; Asamura, K; Baumjohann, W; Lammer, H; Coates, A J; Kataria, D O; Linder, D R; Curtis, C C; Hsieh, K C; Sandel, B R; Grande, M; Gunell, H; Koskinen, H E J; Kallio, E; Riihelä, P; Säles, T; Schmidt, W; Kozyra, J; Krupp, N; Fränz, M; Woch, J; Luhmann, J; McKenna-Lawlor, S; Mazelle, C; Thocaven, J-J; Orsini, S; Cerulli-Irelli, R; Mura, M; Milillo, M; Maggi, M; Roelof, E; Brandt, P; Szego, K; Winningham, J D; Frahm, R A; Scherrer, J; Sharber, J R; Wurz, P; Bochsler, P

    2007-11-29

    Venus, unlike Earth, is an extremely dry planet although both began with similar masses, distances from the Sun, and presumably water inventories. The high deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio in the venusian atmosphere relative to Earth's also indicates that the atmosphere has undergone significantly different evolution over the age of the Solar System. Present-day thermal escape is low for all atmospheric species. However, hydrogen can escape by means of collisions with hot atoms from ionospheric photochemistry, and although the bulk of O and O2 are gravitationally bound, heavy ions have been observed to escape through interaction with the solar wind. Nevertheless, their relative rates of escape, spatial distribution, and composition could not be determined from these previous measurements. Here we report Venus Express measurements showing that the dominant escaping ions are O+, He+ and H+. The escaping ions leave Venus through the plasma sheet (a central portion of the plasma wake) and in a boundary layer of the induced magnetosphere. The escape rate ratios are Q(H+)/Q(O+) = 1.9; Q(He+)/Q(O+) = 0.07. The first of these implies that the escape of H+ and O+, together with the estimated escape of neutral hydrogen and oxygen, currently takes place near the stoichometric ratio corresponding to water. PMID:18046398

  19. Feedback control of plasma electron density and ion energy in an inductively coupled plasma etcher

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Chaung; Leou, K.-C.; Huang, H.-M.; Hsieh, C.-H.

    2009-01-15

    Here the authors report the development of a fuzzy logic based feedback control of the plasma electron density and ion energy for high density plasma etch process. The plasma electron density was measured using their recently developed transmission line microstrip microwave interferometer mounted on the chamber wall, and the rf voltage was measured by a commercial impedance meter connected to the wafer stage. The actuators were two 13.56 MHz rf power generators which provided the inductively coupled plasma power and bias power, respectively. The control system adopted the fuzzy logic control algorithm to reduce frequent actuator action resulting from measurement noise. The experimental results show that the first wafer effect can be eliminated using closed-loop control for both poly-Si and HfO{sub 2} etching. In particular, for the HfO2 etch, the controlled variables in this work were much more effective than the previous one where ion current was controlled, instead of the electron density. However, the pressure disturbance effect cannot be reduced using plasma electron density feedback.

  20. Influence of ion-neutral collision parameters on dynamic structure of magnetized sheath during plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoram, Mansour; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-03-01

    A cold magnetized plasma sheath is considered to examine the gas pressure effect on the sheath dynamics. A fluid model is used to describe the plasma sheath dynamic. The governing fluid equations in the plasma are solved from plasma center to the target using the finite difference method and some convenient initial and boundary conditions at the plasma center and target. It is found that, the ion-neutral collision has significant effect on the dynamic characteristics of the high-voltage sheath in the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). It means that, the temporal profile of the ion dose on the target and sheath width are decreased by increasing the gas pressure. Also, the gas pressure substantially diminishes the temporal psychograph of ion incident angle on the target.

  1. Diagnostics of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source helium plasma with the injection of 23Na1+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Galatà, A.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the utilization of an injected 23Na1+ ion beam as a diagnostics of the helium plasma of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The obtained data allows estimating the upper limit for the ion-ion collision mean-free path of the incident sodium ions, the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequencies for all charge states of the sodium ions and the lower limit of the helium plasma density. The ion-ion collision frequencies of high charge state ions are shown to be at least on the order of 1-10 MHz and the plasma density is estimated to be on the order of 1011 cm-3 or higher. The experimental results are compared to simulations of the 23Na1+ capture into the helium plasma. The results indicate that the lower breeding efficiency of light ions in comparison to heavier elements is probably due to different capture efficiencies in which the in-flight ionization of the incident 1 + ions plays a vital role.

  2. Ion beam driven resonant ion-cyclotron instability in a magnetized dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Ved; Vijayshri; Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Ruby

    2014-03-15

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves are excited by axial ion beam in a dusty plasma via Cerenkov and slow cyclotron interaction. The dispersion relation of the instability is derived in the presence of positively/negatively charged dust grains. The minimum beam velocity needed for the excitation is estimated for different values of relative density of negatively charged dust grains. It is shown that the minimum beam velocity needed for excitation increases as the charge density carried by dust increases. Temperature of electrons and ions, charge and mass of dust grains, external static magnetic field and finite boundary of dusty plasma significantly modify the dispersion properties of these waves and play a crucial role in the growth of resonant ion cyclotron instability. The ion cyclotron modes with phase velocity comparable to the beam velocity possess a large growth rate. The maximum value of growth rate increases with the beam density and scales as the one-third power of the beam density in Cerenkov interaction and is proportional to the square root of beam density in slow cyclotron interaction.

  3. Electron and ion kinetics and anode plasma formation in two applied Br field ion diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. J.; Quintenz, J. P.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1985-02-01

    Two magnetically insulated ion diodes that utilize a radial applied-B field are described. Both diodes generate an annular beam that is extracted along the diode axis. The first diode operated at 1.2 MV and 600 kA for 25 ns and generated a 300-kA ion beam. The second operated at 300 kV, 100 kA and generated 15 kA of ion current. The first diode was used to study diode performance as a function of inner and outer anode-cathode gaps, the applied-B field, and transmission line current ratios. The second diode was used to study anode plasma formation. The diodes were operated below Bcrit, resulting in electron leakage to the anode, especially near the outer cathode. A definition of Bcrit applicable to extraction diodes is given and methods of improving ion production efficiency in these diodes are suggested. The strong correlation of ion production with visible light emission suggests, however, that the electron loss played an important role in anode turn-on. The breakdown of neutral gas desorbed by electron impact is thought to be the anode plasma production mechanism. The grazing incidence leakage electrons affect the breakdown by significantly enhancing space-charge-induced electric fields in the dielectric-filled anode grooves.

  4. Ion-acoustic nonlinear periodic waves in electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, J. K.; Mishra, M. K.

    2010-10-15

    Ion-acoustic nonlinear periodic waves, namely, ion-acoustic cnoidal waves have been studied in electron-positron-ion plasma. Using reductive perturbation method and appropriate boundary condition for nonlinear periodic waves, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived for the system. The cnoidal wave solution of the KdV equation is discussed in detail. It is found that the frequency of the cnoidal wave is a function of its amplitude. It is also found that the positron concentration modifies the properties of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves. The existence regions for ion-acoustic cnoidal wave in the parameters space (p,{sigma}), where p and {sigma} are the positron concentration and temperature ratio of electron to positron, are discussed in detail. In the limiting case these ion-acoustic cnoidal waves reduce to the ion-acoustic soliton solutions. The effect of other parameters on the characteristics of the nonlinear periodic waves is also discussed.

  5. Nonplanar Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Electron-Positron-Ion Quantum Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan A., S.; Mahmood, S.; Arshad, Mirza M.

    2009-04-01

    The propagation of nonplanar quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dense, unmagnetized electron-positronion (e-p-i) plasma are studied by using the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) model. The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) equations are used taking into account the quantum diffraction and quantum statistics corrections. The analytical and numerical solutions of KdV equation reveal that the nonplanar ion-acoustic solitons are modified significantly with quantum corrections and positron concentration, and behave differently in different geometries.

  6. Ion temperature in the ASTRAL helicon plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Robert

    2005-10-01

    Ion temperature is measured in the ASTRAL (Auburn Steady sTate Research fAciLity) helicon plasma source by means of a diode laser based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic. ASTRAL produces plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 10^10 to 10^13 cm-3, Te = 2 to 15 eV and Ti = 0.03 to 0.5 eV. A series of 7 large coils produce an axial magnetic field up to 1.3 kGauss. A fractional helix antenna is used to introduce rf power up to 2 kWatt. The 1.5 MHz bandwidth diode laser has a Littrow external cavity with a mode-hop free tuning range up to 15 GHz and with a total power output of about 15 mW. The wavelength is measured by a wavemeter and frequent monitoring prevents wavelength drift. For Ar plasma, the laser tuned at 668.61 nm, is used to pump the 3d^4F7/2 Ar II metastable level to the 4p^4D5/2 level. The fluorescence radiation between the 4p^4D5/2 and the 4s^4P3/2 levels (442.6 nm) is monitored by a PMT. Other diagnostics are presently installed on the plasma device. They included a RF compensated Langmuir probe which is used to measure both electron temperature and plasma density. A spectrometer which features a 0.33 m Criss-Cross Scanning monochromator and a CCD camera is used for spectroscopy studies of the plasma.

  7. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup −} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup −} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup −} ion density n{sub H{sup −}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup −}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup −} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup −} transport will be studied in the future.

  8. On the generation of cnoidal waves in ion beam-dusty plasma containing superthermal electrons and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bedwehy, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    The reductive perturbation technique is used for investigating an ion beam-dusty plasma system consisting of two opposite polarity dusty grains, and superthermal electrons and ions in addition to ion beam. A two-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is derived. The solution of this equation, employing Painlevé analysis, leads to cnoidal waves. The dependence of the structural features of these waves on the physical plasma parameters is investigated.

  9. Hydrodynamic flow of ions and atoms in partially ionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemirovsky, R. A.; Fredkin, D. R.; Ron, A.

    2002-12-01

    We have derived the hydrodynamic equations of motion for a partially ionized plasma, when the ionized component and the neutral components have different flow velocities and kinetic temperatures. Starting from the kinetic equations for a gas of ions and a gas of atoms we have considered various processes of encounters between the two species: self-collisions, interspecies collisions, ionization, recombination, and charge exchange. Our results were obtained by developing a general approach for the hydrodynamics of a gas in a binary mixture, in particular when the components drift with respect to each other. This was applied to a partially ionized plasma, when the neutral-species gas and the charged-species gas have separate velocities. We have further suggested a generalized version of the relaxation time approximation and obtained the contributions of the interspecies encounters to the transport equations.

  10. Hydrodynamic flow of ions and atoms in partially ionized plasmas.

    PubMed

    Nemirovsky, R A; Fredkin, D R; Ron, A

    2002-12-01

    We have derived the hydrodynamic equations of motion for a partially ionized plasma, when the ionized component and the neutral components have different flow velocities and kinetic temperatures. Starting from the kinetic equations for a gas of ions and a gas of atoms we have considered various processes of encounters between the two species: self-collisions, interspecies collisions, ionization, recombination, and charge exchange. Our results were obtained by developing a general approach for the hydrodynamics of a gas in a binary mixture, in particular when the components drift with respect to each other. This was applied to a partially ionized plasma, when the neutral-species gas and the charged-species gas have separate velocities. We have further suggested a generalized version of the relaxation time approximation and obtained the contributions of the interspecies encounters to the transport equations.

  11. Weibel instability in colliding electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luis

    2008-04-01

    The new regimes accessed in ultra intense laser plasma interactions and recent developments in relativistic astrophysics are giving rise to an increased interest in the Weibel instability. In fact, whenever colliding streams of plasmas (arbitrary mixtures of electrons-positrons-ions) are present, a fraction of the kinetic energy of the plasma flows can be converted to a sub-equipartition magnetic field. In this talk, and using a combination of particle-in-cell simulations and relativistic kinetic theory, I will first describe the recent theoretical advances in our understanding of the Weibel instability and the connection with the electromagnetic beam plasma instability. Emphasis will be given to the coupling with longitudinal modes, leading to the formation of tilted filaments, and to the effects of the collisions and the merging of the Weibel instability with the resistive filamentation instability. In light of these results, the relevance of Weibel instability to ultra intense laser matter interactions (e.g. fast ignition) and to astrophysical scenarios (e.g. in gamma ray bursters and for cluster magnetic fields) will be discussed. Finally, the role of the Weibel instability in the formation of relativistic shocks and in particle acceleration in these structures will also be addressed.

  12. XPS Study of Plasma- and Argon Ion-Sputtered Polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The similarity of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene (PPTFE) and the fluoropolymer film deposited by rf (radio frequency) plasma sputtering (SPTFE) of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), noted earlier in the literature, has been reconfirmed. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XPS (X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and UV (ultraviolet) spectroscopy has been employed in apparently the first study to involve preparation of PPTFE and SPTFE in the same reactor and under comparable low-power plasma conditions. Most of the work concerned the use of He or Ar as sputtering gas, but some runs were also carried out with the other rare gases Ne, Kr and Xe. The C1s XPS spectra of SPTFE films displayed a relatively higher content of CF2 groups, and yielded higher F/C (fluorine / carbon) ratios, than PPTFE films, while the SPTFE films were somewhat more transparent in the UV than PPTFE. The F/C ratios for SPTFE were essentially independent of the rare gas used for sputtering. Increasing rf power from 10 to 50 W for Xe plasma-sputtering of PTFE resulted in successively lower F/C ratios (1.55 to 1.21), accompanied by sputtering of the glass reactor occurring at 40 W and above. Some limited XPS, FT-IR and UV data are presented on Ar ion-sputtered PTFE.

  13. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of argon and xenon ion velocities near the sheath boundary in 3 ion species plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah; Severn, Greg; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2016-05-01

    The Bohm sheath criterion is studied with laser-induced fluorescence in three ion species plasmas using two tunable diode lasers. Krypton is added to a low pressure unmagnetized DC hot filament discharge in a mixture of argon and xenon gas confined by surface multi-dipole magnetic fields. The argon and xenon ion velocity distribution functions are measured at the sheath-presheath boundary near a negatively biased boundary plate. The potential structures of the plasma sheath and presheath are measured by an emissive probe. Results are compared with previous experiments with Ar-Xe plasmas, where the two ion species were observed to reach the sheath edge at nearly the same speed. This speed was the ion sound speed of the system, which is consistent with the generalized Bohm criterion. In such two ion species plasmas, instability enhanced collisional friction was demonstrated [Hershkowitz et al., Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 057102 (2011).] to exist which accounted for the observed results. When three ion species are present, it is demonstrated under most circumstances the ions do not fall out of the plasma at their individual Bohm velocities. It is also shown that under most circumstances the ions do not fall out of the plasma at the system sound speed. These observations are also consistent with the presence of the instabilities.

  14. Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in magnetospheric plasmas Nonlocal aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, G.; Bakshi, P.; Palmadesso, P.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of the effect of the magnetic shear and the finite size of current channel on the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability for the space plasmas is illustrated. A non-local treatment is used. When the channel width Lc, is larger than the shear length Ls, there is a large reduction in the growth rate along with a noteworthy reduction of the band of the unstable perpendicular wavelengths. For Lc less than or = Ls/10 the growth rate is not much altered from its local value, however for Lc/pi i less than or = 10 to the second power the growth rate starts falling below the local value and vanishes for Lc pi i. The non-local effects lead to enhanced coherence in the ion cyclotron waves. Previously announced in STAR as N84-14917

  15. Ion temperature gradient turbulence in helical and axisymmetric RFP plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Predebon, I.; Xanthopoulos, P.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence induced by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) is investigated in the helical and axisymmetric plasma states of a reversed field pinch device by means of gyrokinetic calculations. The two magnetic configurations are systematically compared, both linearly and nonlinearly, in order to evaluate the impact of the geometry on the instability and its ensuing transport, as well as on the production of zonal flows. Despite its enhanced confinement, the high-current helical state demonstrates a lower ITG stability threshold compared to the axisymmetric state, and ITG turbulence is expected to become an important contributor to the total heat transport.

  16. Magnetic insulation of secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Wood, B.P.; Faehl, R.J.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-09-01

    The uncontrolled loss of accelerated secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation (PSII) can significantly reduce system efficiency and poses a potential x-ray hazard. This loss might be reduced by a magnetic field applied near the workpiece. The concept of magnetically-insulated PSII is proposed, in which secondary electrons are trapped to form a virtual cathode layer near the workpiece surface where the local electric field is essentially eliminated. Subsequent electrons that are emitted can then be reabsorbed by the workpiece. Estimates of anomalous electron transport from microinstabilities are made. Insight into the process is gained with multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  17. Transverse auroral ion energization observed on DE-1 with simultaneous plasma wave and ion composition measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Boardsen, S. A.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous high-time-resolution plasma-wave and ion-composition measurements obtained with DE-1 during a magnetospheric-cusp crossing on March 15, 1984 and during an evening auroral-zone crossing on January 4, 1984 are reported. The data are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with a focus on the transverse energization of H(+) and O(+) ions. An O(+) distribution observed during the cusp crossing is shown to be well represented by a bi-Maxwellian distribution with temperatures 180 eV parallel and 250 eV perpendicular to the local magnetic field and a bulk flow velocity of 27 km/s up the magnetic-field line. In the auroral-zone data a simultaneous transverse-energy increase is detected in both H(+) and O(+) components in the presence of plasma-wave emissions at multiples of the hydrogen gyrofrequency.

  18. Nonlinear ion acoustic excitations in relativistic degenerate, astrophysical electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Ata-Ur; Ali, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.; Qamar

    2013-10-01

    The dynamics and propagation of ion acoustic (IA) waves are considered in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma, whose constituents are the relativistically degenerate electrons and positrons as well as the inertial cold ions. At a first step, a linear dispersion relation for IA waves is derived and analysed numerically. For nonlinear analysis, the reductive perturbation technique is used to derive a Korteweg-deVries equation, which admits a localized wave solution in the presence of relativistic degenerate electrons and positrons. It is shown that only compressive IA solitary waves can propagate, whose amplitude, width and phase velocity are significantly modified due to the positron concentration. The latter also strongly influences all the relativistic plasma parameters. Our present analysis is aimed to understand collective interactions in dense astrophysical objects, e.g. white dwarfs, where the lighter species electrons and positrons are taken as relativistically degenerate.

  19. Thomson Scattering Diagnostics in the Plasma of an Ion Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoji; Hiraoka, Yoshiaki; Sugita, Kensaku; Kurita, Tomoaki; Tomita, Kentaro; Uchino, Kiichiro; Nakashima, Hideki

    In order to validate the grid erosion evaluation code for the lifetime validation of ion thrusters, the electron number density/temperature in the vicinity of a screen gird in a 30 W class microwave discharge ion thruster were measured by means of laser Thomson scattering (LTS) technique. A photon counting method and a triple grating spectrometer were used against a small Thomson scattering signal and a strong stray laser light. Observed Thomson scattering spectrum tells that the electron energy distribution function was Maxwellian. From this spectrum and the Rayleigh scattering calibration using nitrogen gas, electron number density and electron temperature were calculated to be (3.8±0.2)×1017m-3 and 6.2±0.1 eV, respectively at incident microwave power of 8 W and krypton mass flow rate of 6.2 μg/s. The ion saturation currents estimated from the LTS measurement are in good agreement with ion beam currents through the screen grid for several conditions. These results show that LTS technique is a useful non-intrusive tool for measuring plasma property in the vicinity of the screen grid.

  20. Ion and neutral dynamics in Hall plasma accelerator ionization instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Hall thrusters, the extensively studied E × B devices used for space propulsion applications, are rife with instabilities and fluctuations. Many are thought to be fundamentally linked to microscopic processes like electron transport across magnetic field lines and propellant ionization that in turn affect macroscopic properties like device performance and lifetime. One of the strongest oscillatory regimes is the ``breathing mode,'' characterized by a propagating ionization front, time-varying ion acceleration profiles, and quasi-periodic 10-50 kHz current oscillations. Determining the temporal and spatial evolution of plasma properties is critical to achieving a fundamental physical understanding of these processes. We present non-intrusive laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the local ion and neutral velocity distribution functions synchronized with the breathing mode oscillations. Measurements reveal strong ion velocity fluctuations, multiple ion populations arising in narrow time windows throughout the near-field plume, and the periodic population and depopulation of neutral excited states. Analyzing these detailed experimental results in the context of the existing literature clarifies the fundamental physical processes underlying the breathing mode. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. M. Birkan as program manager. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  1. Plasma and ion barrier for electron beam spot stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1999-04-01

    The concept of a self-biased target to spatially confine the ions generated by the bombardment of intense electron beams on bremsstrahlung conversion targets has been predicted by computer simulation and further verified by experiments at the Integrated Test Stand for DARHT at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technical article reports an alternative method of containing the plasmas and ions from the bremsstrahlung conversion target if the energy density of the electron beam is below a certain threshold. With the proposed changes of the electron beam parameters of the second axis of DARHT, the authors are able to show that a thin (0.5 mm) metallic barrier such as pure beryllium, or boron carbide with desirable thermal properties, is sufficiently transparent to the 20 MeV DARHT beam and at the same time able to confine the ions between the target and the barrier foil. The temperature rise in the foil due to energy deposited by the electron beam is expected to be below the melting point of the materials for the first three pulses. More important, they have shown in their time dependent particle-in-cell simulations that the deployment of a barrier situated 1 to 2 cm away from the converter target can achieve the ion confinement needed for the stability of the electron beam spot.

  2. Metallic contamination in hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Paul K.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Zeng, Xuchu; Kwok, Dixon T. K.

    2001-10-01

    In plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), ions bombard all surfaces inside the PIII vacuum chamber, especially the negatively pulsed biased sample stage and to a lesser extent the interior of the vacuum chamber. As a result, contaminants sputtered from these exposed surfaces can be reimplanted into or adsorb on the silicon wafer. Using particle-in-cell theoretical simulation, we determine the relative ion doses incident on the top, side, and bottom surfaces of three typical sample chuck configurations: (i) a bare conducting stage with the entire sample platen and high-voltage feedthrough/supporting rod exposed and under a high voltage, (ii) a stage with only the sample platen exposed to the plasma but the high-voltage feedthrough protected by an insulating quartz shroud, and (iii) a bare stage with a silicon extension or guard ring to reduce the number of ions bombarding the side and bottom of the sample platen. Our simulation results reveal that the ratio of the incident dose impacting the top of the sample platen to that impacting the side and bottom of the sample stage can be improved to 49% using a guard ring. To corroborate our theoretical results, we experimentally determine the amounts of metallic contaminants on 100 mm silicon wafers implanted using a bare chuck and with a 150 mm silicon wafer inserted between the 100 mm wafer and sample stage to imitate the guard ring. We also discuss the effectiveness of a replaceable all-silicon liner inside the vacuum chamber to address the second source of contamination, that from the interior wall of the vacuum chamber. Our results indicate a significant improvement when an all-silicon liner and silicon guard ring are used simultaneously.

  3. QED Approach to Modeling Spectra of the Multicharged Ions in a Plasma: Oscillator and Electron-ion Collision Strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu.; Loboda, A. V.; Ignatenko, A.; Svinarenko, A.; Korchevsky, D.; Lovett, L.

    2008-10-22

    The uniform energy approach, formally based on the QED theory with using gauge invariant scheme of generation of the optimal one-electron representation, is used for the description of spectra of the multicharged ions in a laser plasma, calculation of electron-ion collision strengths, cross-sections in Ne-like and Ar-like ions.

  4. Central Plasma Sheet Ion Properties as Inferred from Ionospheric Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, Simon; Newell, Patrick T.

    1998-01-01

    A method of inferring central plasma sheet (CPS) temperature, density, and pressure from ionospheric observations is developed. The advantage of this method over in situ measurements is that the CPS can be studied in its entirely, rather than only in fragments. As a result, for the first time, comprehensive two-dimensional equatorial maps of CPS pressure, density, and temperature within the isotropic plasma sheet are produced. These particle properties are calculated from data taken by the Special Sensor for Precipitating Particles, version 4 (SSJ4) particle instruments onboard DMSP F8, F9, F10, and F11 satellites during the entire year of 1992. Ion spectra occurring in conjunction with electron acceleration events are specifically excluded. Because of the variability of magnetotail stretching, the mapping to the plasma sheet is done using a modified Tsyganenko [1989] magnetic field model (T89) adjusted to agree with the actual magnetotail stretch at observation time. The latter is inferred with a high degree of accuracy (correlation coefficient -0.9) from the latitude of the DMSP b2i boundary (equivalent to the ion isotropy boundary). The results show that temperature, pressure, and density all exhibit dawn-dusk asymmetries unresolved with previous measurements. The ion temperature peaks near the midnight meridian. This peak, which has been associated with bursty bulk flow events, widens in the Y direction with increased activity. The temperature is higher at dusk than at dawn, and this asymmetry increases with decreasing distance from the Earth. In contrast, the density is higher at dawn than at dusk, and there appears to be a density enhancement in the low-latitude boundary layer regions which increases with decreasing magnetic activity. In the near-Earth regions, the pressure is higher at dusk than at dawn, but this asymmetry weakens with increasing distance from the Earth and may even reverse so that at distances X less than approx. 10 to -12 R(sub E

  5. Ablation plasma transport using multicusp magnetic field for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Umezawa, M.; Uchino, T.; Ikegami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, N.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a plasma guiding method using multicusp magnetic field to transport the ablation plasma keeping the density for developing laser ion sources. To investigate the effect of guiding using the magnetic field on the ablation plasma, we demonstrated the transport of the laser ablation plasma in the multicusp magnetic field. The magnetic field was formed with eight permanent magnets and arranged to limit the plasma expansion in the radial direction. We investigated the variation of the plasma ion current density and charge distribution during transport in the magnetic field. The results indicate that the plasma is confined in the radial direction during the transport in the multicusp magnetic field.

  6. Ion acoustic and dust acoustic waves at finite size of plasma particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Pavel A. Kuz'menkov, L. S.

    2015-03-15

    We consider the influence of the finite size of ions on the properties of classic plasmas. We focus our attention at the ion acoustic waves for electron-ion plasmas. We also consider the dusty plasmas where we account the finite size of ions and particles of dust and consider the dispersion of dust acoustic waves. The finite size of particles is a classical effect as well as the Coulomb interaction. The finite size of particles considerably contributes to the properties of the dense plasmas in the small wavelength limit. Low temperature dense plasmas, revealing the quantum effects, are also affected by the finite size of plasma particles. Consequently, it is important to consider the finite size of ions in the quantum plasmas as well.

  7. Temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions and ion charge states of Cr and Cr-Al pulsed arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Koichi; Anders, André

    2015-11-15

    To study the temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions, charge-state-resolved ion energy distribution functions of pulsed arc plasmas from Cr and Cr-Al cathodes were recorded with high time resolution by using direct data acquisition from a combined energy and mass analyzer. The authors find increases in intensities of singly charged ions, which is evidence that charge exchange reactions took place in both Cr and Cr-Al systems. In Cr-Al plasmas, the distributions of high-charge-state ions exhibit high energy tails 50 μs after discharge ignition, but no such tails were observed at 500 μs. The energy ratios of ions of different charge states at the beginning of the pulse, when less neutral atoms were in the space in front of the cathode, suggest that ions are accelerated by an electric field. The situation is not so clear after 50 μs due to particle collisions. The initial mean ion charge state of Cr was about the same in Cr and in Cr-Al plasmas, but it decreased more rapidly in Cr-Al plasmas compared to the decay in Cr plasma. The faster decay of the mean ion charge state and ion energy caused by the addition of Al into a pure Cr cathode suggests that the mean ion charge state is determined not only by ionization processes at the cathode spot but also by inelastic collision between different elements.

  8. Plasma-screening effects on the electron-impact excitation of hydrogenic ions in dense plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Young-Dae

    1993-01-01

    Plasma-screening effects are investigated on electron-impact excitation of hydrogenic ions in dense plasmas. Scaled cross sections Z(exp 4) sigma for 1s yields 2s and 1s yields 2p are obtained for a Debye-Hueckel model of the screened Coulomb interaction. Ground and excited bound wave functions are modified in the screened Coulomb potential (Debye-Hueckel model) using the Ritz variation method. The resulting atomic wave functions and their eigenenergies agree well with the numerical and high-order perturbation theory calculations for the interesting domain of the Debye length not less than 10. The Born approximation is used to describe the continuum states of the projectile electron. Plasma screening effects on the atomic electrons cannot be neglected in the high-density cases. Including these effects, the cross sections are appreciably increased for 1s yields 2s transitions and decreased for 1s yields 2p transitions.

  9. A study of the formation and dynamics of the Earth's plasma sheet using ion composition data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1994-01-01

    Over two years of data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft, covering ion energies between 100 eV/e and about 16 keV/e, have been analyzed in an attempt to extract new information about three geophysical issues: (1) solar wind penetration of the Earth's magnetic tail; (2) relationship between plasma sheet and tail lobe ion composition; and (3) possible effects of heavy terrestrial ions on plasma sheet stability.

  10. SUMMA hot-ion plasma heating research at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Patch, R. W.; Lauver, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    The SUMMA superconducting magnetic mirror facility and the associated hot-ion plasma research were described. SUMMA is characterized by intense magnetic fields and a large-diameter working bore (41 cm diameter) with room-temperature access. The goal of the plasma research program is to produce steady-state plasmas of fusion reactor densities and temperatures (but not confinement times). The program includes electrode development to produce a hot, dense, large-volume, steady-state plasma and diagnostics development to document the plasma properties. SUMMA and its hot-ion plasma are ideally suited to develop advanced plasma diagnostics methods. Two such methods whose requirements are well matched to SUMMA are: (1) heavy ion beam probing to measure plasma space potential; and (2) submillimeter wavelength laser Thomson scattering to measure local ion temperature.

  11. Energetic O+ and H+ Ions in the Plasma Sheet: Implications for the Transport of Ionospheric Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohtani, S.; Nose, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study statistically examines the characteristics of energetic ions in the plasma sheet using the Geotail/Energetic Particle and Ion Composition data. An emphasis is placed on the O+ ions, and the characteristics of the H+ ions are used as references. The following is a summary of the results. (1) The average O+ energy is lower during solar maximum and higher during solar minimum. A similar tendency is also found for the average H+ energy, but only for geomagnetically active times; (2) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities are several times higher during solar maximum than during solar minimum; (3) The average H+ and O+ energies and the O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities all increase with geomagnetic activity. The differences among different solar phases not only persist but also increase with increasing geomagnetic activity; (4) Whereas the average H+ energy increases toward Earth, the average O+ energy decreases toward Earth. The average energy increases toward dusk for both the H+ and O+ ions; (5) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities increase toward Earth during all solar phases, but most clearly during solar maximum. These results suggest that the solar illumination enhances the ionospheric outflow more effectively with increasing geomagnetic activity and that a significant portion of the O+ ions is transported directly from the ionosphere to the near ]Earth region rather than through the distant tail.

  12. Observations of Reflected Ions and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater than the Ion Ram Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.

    1998-01-01

    During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the ions flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential of the satellite was changed from below to above 5 V. The ram energy of the ambient atomic oxygen ions is approximately 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no ions were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised greater than 5 V, ions were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the ion flux was a few percent of the ambient with energies of approximately 5 eV. The temperature of the out-flowing ions was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials greater than 5 V as compared with satellite potentials less than 5 V, indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.

  13. Observations of Reflected Ions and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater Than the Ion Ram Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.

    1997-01-01

    During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the ions flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential on the satellite was changed from below to above 5 Volts. The ram energy of the ambient atomic oxygen ions is about 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no ions were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised above 5 V, ions were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the ion flux was a few percent of the ambient with energies of about 5 eV. The temperature of the outflowing ions was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere, and had a maximum in a plane containing the center of the satellite and normal to the geomagnetic field. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials above 5 V as compared with satellite potentials below 5 V indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.

  14. Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Richardson, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The spectra of highly ionized titanium, Ti XIII through Ti XXI, and C VI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high-intensity, 4 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm, laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s Ti XIII resonance lines had an average shift of + 0.023 A relative to the C VI and Ti XX spectral lines. No shift was found between the C VI, Ti XIX, and Ti XX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 7th cm/s in the expansion velocities of Ti XIX and Ti XX ions compared to Ti XIII ions.

  15. Determination of Electron and Ion Energy Distribution Functions in a Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition (PIAD) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harhausen, J.; Foest, R.; Ohl, A.

    2011-10-01

    High performance optical coatings are commonly produced by PIAD in order to achieve comparably high deposition rates. Here, the plasma source is a hot cathode direct current discharge with an auxiliary magnetic field (APS). Its design is such to generate a population of fast ions to be released into the deposition chamber. A detailed understanding of the plasma properties in the chamber is mandatory to increase the level of uniformity and reproducibility of the deposition process. In order to determine the electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDF, IEDF) the concepts of the Langmuir probe, the retarding field energy analyzer and optical emission spectroscopy are employed. Fundamental findings are that the EEDF can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation and that the degree of ionization inside the APS is close to unity. The shape of the IEDF and its evolution along the beam path can be described consistently by considering charge exchange reactions with the background neutral gas and the profile of the plasma potential. High performance optical coatings are commonly produced by PIAD in order to achieve comparably high deposition rates. Here, the plasma source is a hot cathode direct current discharge with an auxiliary magnetic field (APS). Its design is such to generate a population of fast ions to be released into the deposition chamber. A detailed understanding of the plasma properties in the chamber is mandatory to increase the level of uniformity and reproducibility of the deposition process. In order to determine the electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDF, IEDF) the concepts of the Langmuir probe, the retarding field energy analyzer and optical emission spectroscopy are employed. Fundamental findings are that the EEDF can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation and that the degree of ionization inside the APS is close to unity. The shape of the IEDF and its evolution along the beam path can be

  16. Numerical investigation of the ion temperature effects on magnetized DC plasma sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Khoramabadi, Mansour; Ghomi, Hamid; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2011-04-01

    The properties of a magnetized plasma sheath with finite ion temperature is considered. The effects of the external magnetic field and the ion temperature on the sheath parameters are examined. It is found that by increasing the ion temperature and the magnetic field strength there is an increase in the positive space charge and the ion energy and a decrease in the sheath thickness. Furthermore, the ion temperature has a direct effect on the ion flux toward the wall.

  17. Nonlinear ion acoustic dissipative shock structure with exchange-correlation effects in quantum semiconductor plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N.

    2016-09-01

    Ion acoustic shocks in the electron-hole-ion semiconductor plasmas have been studied. The quantum recoil effects, exchange-correlation effects and degenerate pressure of electrons and holes are included. The ion species are considered classical and their dissipation is taken into account via the dynamic viscosity. The Korteweg de Vries Burgers equation is derived by using reductive perturbation approach. The excitation of shock waves in different semiconductor plasmas is pointed out. For numerical analyses, the plasma parameters of different semiconductors are considered. The impact of variation of the plasma parameters on the strength of the shock wave in the semiconductor plasmas is discussed.

  18. Measurement of the flow velocity in unmagnetized plasmas by counter propagating ion-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.X.; Li Yangfang; Xiao Delong; Li Jingju; Li Yiren

    2005-06-15

    The diffusion velocity of an inhomogeneous unmagnetized plasma is measured by means of the phase velocities of ion-acoustic waves propagating along and against the direction of the plasma flow. Combined with the measurement of the plasma density distributions by usual Langmuir probes, the method is applied to measure the ambipolar diffusion coefficient and effective ion collision frequency in inhomogeneous plasmas formed in an asymmetrically discharged double-plasma device. Experimental results show that the measured flow velocities, diffusion coefficients, and effective collision frequencies are in agreement with ion-neutral collision dominated diffusion theory.

  19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Anisotropy of ion temperature in a reversed-field-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Hörling, P.; Fall, T.; Brzozowski, J. H.; Brunsell, P.; Hokin, S.; Tennfors, E.; Sallander, J.; Drake, J. R.; Inoue, N.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    1997-03-01

    Anomalous heating of ions has been observed in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasma. Ions are heated primarily in the parallel direction (with respect to the magnetic field), resulting in an appreciable anisotropy of the ion temperature. This observation suggests that the magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations are dissipated primarily by the ion viscosity.

  20. Ion Exchange Resin and Clay Vitrification by Plasma Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz A., Laura V.; Pacheco S., Joel O.; Pacheco P., Marquidia; Monroy G., Fabiola; Emeterio H., Miguel; Ramos F., Fidel

    2006-12-01

    The lack of treatment of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) lead us to propose a vitrification process based on a plasma discharge; this technique incorporates LILRW into a matrix glass composed of ceramic clays material. The Mexican Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), uses an ion exchange resin IRN 150 (styrene-divinilbence copolymer) in the TRIGA MARK III nuclear reactor. The principal objective of this resin is to absorb particles containing heavy metals and low-level radioactive particles. Once the IRN 150 resin filter capacity has been exceeded, it should be replaced and treated as LILRW. In this work, a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify this resin taking advantage of its high power density, enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures. In order to characterize the morphological structure of these clay samples, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment.

  1. Recombination of H3+ Ions with Electrons in Afterglow Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Rainer; Glosik, Juraj; Dohnal, Petr; Rubovic, Peter; Kalosi, Abel; Plasil, Radek

    2015-09-01

    Our past and ongoing flowing and stationary afterglow experiments at temperatures from 60-340 K have resulted in a more complete picture of the plasma recombination of H3+ ions: (1) Optical absorption studies indicate that at T = 300 K both para and ortho H3+ ions recombine with nearly the same binary coefficient αbin ~ 0.6 × 10-7 cm3/s. However, at T = 60 K para H3+ recombines faster by about a factor of ~10 than does ortho H3+.(2) Earlier discrepancies between data obtained in plasmas and those obtained in merged-beam or storage-rings have been traced to ternary recombination due to ambient helium atoms and/or hydrogen molecules. Ternary recombination of H3+ due to He or H2 is more efficient by factors ~ 102 or 105, respectively, than expected from the theoretical model of Bates and Khare for atomic ions. (3) The ternary processes enhance recombination at low third-body densities (1017 cm-3) but then level off (``saturate'') when their contribution approaches ~ 1.5 × 10-7 cm3/s. This saturation can lead to the false inference that the overall recombination is binary, resulting in a recombination coefficient that is about 3 times too large. (4) A tentative complex model has been developed that rationalizes the observed effects. This work was partly supported by Czech Science Foundation projects GACR 14-14649P and GACR 15-15077S and by Charles University in Prague projects GAUK 692214, GAUK 572214, UNCE 204020/2012 and SVV 260.

  2. An analytical and numerical investigation of ion acoustic waves in a two-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, H.X.; Wallace, J.M.; Bezzerides, B. )

    1994-11-01

    The ion acoustic dispersion relation for a plasma containing two distinct ion species is investigated over a wide range of plasma conditions. An approximate general analytic solution to the dispersion relation has been found, and is shown, by comparison to accurate numerical solutions of the individual modes, to be remarkably precise. This solution provides for the first time a systematic account of the totality of ion acoustic modes of the two-ion system. It has been found that ion acoustic modes consist of two types of modes: (a) at least one, and, at most, two weakly damped modes for which [vert bar][omega][sub I]/[omega][sub R][vert bar][much lt]1, and (b) an infinity of critically damped modes for which [omega][sub I]/[omega][sub R][congruent][minus]1. The critically damped modes are organized into two distinct categories: (a) modes for which [vert bar][omega][vert bar]/[sub K][gt][sub V][sub F] ([sub V][sub F] is the thermal speed of the fast ion species); and (b) modes for which [sub V][sub S][lt][vert bar][omega][vert bar]/[sub K][lt][sub V][sub F] ([sub V][sub S] is the thermal speed of the slow ion species). The critically damped modes with [vert bar][omega][vert bar]/[sub K][gt][sub V][sub F] are further organized into three distinct classes: (1) modes with phase speeds characterized by [sub V][sub F], (2) modes with phase speeds characterized by [sub V][sub F][sub S]/[radical][sub V] [sup 2][sub F][minus][sub V][sup 2][sub S], and (3) modes with phase speeds characterized by [sub V][sub S]. The critically damped modes with [sub V][sub S][lt][vert bar][omega][vert bar]/[sub K][lt][sub V][sub F] belong to a single class, and are characterized by [sub V][sub S]. Generally, it is found that there are one, or, at most, two modes with relatively small damping, while most of the remaining modes are too strongly damped to be physically realized. It has also been found possible to maximize ion acoustic damping by a wise choice of relative ion concentrations.

  3. Ion Beams in the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Runov, A.; Zhou, X.

    2015-12-01

    We explore characteristics of energetic particles in the plasma sheet boundary layer associated with dipolarization events, based on simulations and observations. The simulations use the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection and flow bursts as basis for test particle tracing. They are complemented by self-consistent fully electrodynamic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The test particle simulations confirm that crescent shaped earthward flowing ion velocity distributions with strong perpendicular anisotropy can be generated as a consequence of near tail reconnection, associated with earthward flows and propagating magnetic field dipolarization fronts. Both PIC and test particle simulations show that the ion distribution in the outflow region close to the reconnection site also consist of a beam superposed on an undisturbed population; this beam, however, does not show strong perpendicular anisotropy. This suggests that the crescent shape is created by quasi-adiabatic deformation from ion motion along the magnetic field toward higher field strength. The simulation results compare favorably with ``Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms" (THEMIS) observations.

  4. Ion beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Runov, A.; Zhou, X.-Z.

    2015-09-01

    We explore characteristics of energetic particles in the plasma sheet boundary layer associated with dipolarization events, based on simulations and observations. The simulations use the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection and flow bursts as basis for test particle tracing. They are complemented by self-consistent fully electrodynamic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The test particle simulations confirm that crescent-shaped earthward flowing ion velocity distributions with strong perpendicular anisotropy can be generated as a consequence of near-tail reconnection, associated with earthward flows and propagating magnetic field dipolarization fronts. Both PIC and test particle simulations show that the ion distribution in the outflow region close to the reconnection site also consist of a beam superposed on an undisturbed population, which, however, does not show strong perpendicular anisotropy. This suggests that the crescent shape is created by quasi-adiabatic deformation from ion motion along the magnetic field toward higher field strength. The simulation results compare favorably with "Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms" observations.

  5. Accelerated ions from pulsed-power-driven fast plasma flow in perpendicular magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezaki, Taichi; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nob.

    2016-06-01

    To understand the interaction between fast plasma flow and perpendicular magnetic field, we have investigated the behavior of a one-dimensional fast plasma flow in a perpendicular magnetic field by a laboratory-scale experiment using a pulsed-power discharge. The velocity of the plasma flow generated by a tapered cone plasma focus device is about 30 km/s, and the magnetic Reynolds number is estimated to be 8.8. After flow through the perpendicular magnetic field, the accelerated ions are measured by an ion collector. To clarify the behavior of the accelerated ions and the electromagnetic fields, numerical simulations based on an electromagnetic hybrid particle-in-cell method have been carried out. The results show that the behavior of the accelerated ions corresponds qualitatively to the experimental results. Faster ions in the plasma flow are accelerated by the induced electromagnetic fields modulated with the plasma flow.

  6. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  7. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. H. Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  8. Optimum plasma grid bias for a negative hydrogen ion source operation with Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, Marthe; Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; McAdams, Roy

    2016-02-01

    The functions of a biased plasma grid of a negative hydrogen (H-) ion source for both pure volume and Cs seeded operations are reexamined. Proper control of the plasma grid bias in pure volume sources yields: enhancement of the extracted negative ion current, reduction of the co-extracted electron current, flattening of the spatial distribution of plasma potential across the filter magnetic field, change in recycling from hydrogen atomic/molecular ions to atomic/molecular neutrals, and enhanced concentration of H- ions near the plasma grid. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with Cs with additional direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment onto the plasma electrode.

  9. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Lee, K W; Chang, D H; In, S R; Bae, Y S

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source. PMID:24593593

  10. Plasma effects of active ion beam injections in the ionosphere at rocket altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Kintner, P. M.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Data from ARCS rocket ion beam injection experiments are primarily discussed. There are three results from this series of active experiments that are of particular interest in space plasma physics. These are the transverse acceleration of ambient ions in the large beam volume, the scattering of beam ions near the release payload, and the possible acceleration of electrons very close to the plasma generator which produce intense high frequency waves. The ability of 100 ma ion beam injections into the upper E and F regions of the ionosphere to produce these phenomena appear to be related solely to the process by which the plasma release payload and the ion beam are neutralized. Since the electrons in the plasma release do not convect with the plasma ions, the neutralization of both the payload and beam must be accomplished by large field-aligned currents (milliamperes/square meter) which are very unstable to wave growth of various modes.

  11. Some consequences to ion source behavior of high plasma drift velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I. G.; Monteiro, O. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Keidar, M.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.

    2000-02-01

    We consider the case of energetic ion beam formation when the ion streaming velocity within the source plasma is substantial, i.e., when the ions have a drift speed (in the positive downstream direction) that is on the order of or greater than the ion acoustic speed in the plasma. Some interesting consequences can follow, including the capability of a negatively biased substrate located in the plasma stream to maintain high bias voltage, and of an ion source with no extractor or ''conventionally poor'' extractor providing a kind of plasma immersion ion implantation mode of operation. Here we summarize the kind of plasma geometry in which this situation can occur, and describe some experimental observations we've made of these effects, with reference to a simple theoretical basis for the mechanism. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Research progress on ionic plasmas generated in an intense hydrogen negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Takeiri, Y. Tsumori, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Characteristics of ionic plasmas, observed in a high-density hydrogen negative ion source, are investigated with a multi-diagnostics system. The ionic plasma, which consists of hydrogen positive- and negative-ions with a significantly low-density of electrons, is generated in the ion extraction region, from which the negative ions are extracted through the plasma grid. The negative ion density, i.e., the ionic plasma density, as high as the order of 1×10{sup 17}m{sup −3}, is measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy, while the electron density is lower than 1×10{sup 16}m{sup −3}, which is confirmed with millimeter-wave interferometer. Reduction of the negative ion density is observed at the negative ion extraction, and at that time the electron flow into the ionic plasma region is observed to conserve the charge neutrality. Distribution of the plasma potential is measured in the extraction region in the direction normal to the plasma grid surface with a Langmuir probe, and the results suggest that the sheath is formed at the plasma boundary to the plasma grid to which the bias voltage is applied. The beam extraction should drive the negative ion transport in the ionic plasma across the sheath formed on the extraction surface. Larger reduction of the negative ions at the beam extraction is observed in a region above the extraction aperture on the plasma grid, which is confirmed with 2D image measurement of the Hα emission and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The electron distribution is also measured near the plasma grid surface. These various properties observed in the ionic plasma are discussed.

  13. Ionization, ion distribution, and ion focusing in laser plasmas from atomic and diatomic targets

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S. N.; Rohr, K.; Sinha, B. K.

    2006-04-01

    Charge-resolved measurements of the total number of particles from plasmas produced from planar, monoatomic targets of copper and tungsten as well as the binary targets of copper and tungsten are reported, using a 125 mJ, 5 ns, Nd:YAG laser, at a laser intensity of about 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}. The measurements show a severe quenching of the ionization states in the case of the diatomic targets. These measurements and their variations with ionization state support the theoretical investigations of plasma motion under the influence of the viscous force in case of plasmas consisting of light and heavy particles. Gaussian width measurements of the angular particle distribution showed a focusing effect towards the target normal, the width decreasing as the ion mass and ionization state increased. From the analysis of the theoretical results on self-similarity expansion it is concluded that the ion acceleration due to the built-in electrostatic potential is not significant.

  14. Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdousi, M.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-03-15

    The properties of obliquely propagating ion-acoustic solitary waves in the presence of ambient magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in an electron-positron-ion nonthermal plasma. The plasma nonthermality is introduced via the q-nonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations are derived by adopting reductive perturbation method. The solution of K-dV and modified K-dV equation, which describes the solitary wave characteristics in the long wavelength limit, is obtained by steady state approach. It is seen that the electron and positron nonextensivity and external magnetic field (obliqueness) have significant effects on the characteristics of solitary waves. A critical value of nonextensivity is found for which solitary structures transit from positive to negative potential. The findings of this investigation may be used in understanding the wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas where static external magnetic field is present.

  15. Coupled ion acoustic and drift waves in magnetized superthermal electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, S.

    2014-09-15

    Linear and nonlinear coupled drift-ion acoustic waves are investigated in a nonuniform magnetoplasma having kappa distributed electrons and positrons. In the linear regime, the role of kappa distribution and positron content on the dispersion relation has been highlighted; it is found that strong superthermality (low value of κ) and addition of positrons lowers the phase velocity via decreasing the fundamental scalelengths of the plasmas. In the nonlinear regime, first, coherent nonlinear structure in the form of dipoles and monopoles are obtained and the boundary conditions (boundedness) in the context of superthermality and positron concentrations are discussed. Second, in case of scalar nonlinearity, a Korteweg–de Vries-type equation is obtained, which admit solitary wave solution. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive solitons are formed in the present model. The present work may be useful to understand the low frequency electrostatic modes in inhomogeneous electron positron ion plasmas, which exist in astrophysical plasma situations such as those found in the pulsar magnetosphere.

  16. Electrostatic ion cyclotron, beam-plasma, and lower hybrid waves excited by an electron beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Conrad, J. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) waves have been extensively investigated in connection with both space and laboratory plasmas. The present investigation has the objective to study the excitation of low-frequency waves in a multiion plasma by electron beams. The frequencies considered range from below the lowest gyrofrequency of the heaviest ion to about the lower hybrid frequency. It is shown that electron-beam instabilities can produce peaks in the growth rate below the cyclotron frequency of each ion species if nonzero perpendicular wave number effects are included in the ion dynamics. The dispersion relations for neutralized ion Bernstein (NIB) and pure ion Bernstein (PIB) waves are considered along with an instability analysis for a cold plasma and warm electron beam, the electron beam-plasma mode, banded ion cyclotron (EIC) waves with small perpendicular wavelengths, and the growth lengths of the waves.

  17. Ion Temperature and Hydrodynamic-Energy Measurements in a Z-Pinch Plasma at Stagnation

    SciTech Connect

    Kroupp, E.; Osin, D.; Starobinets, A.; Fisher, V.; Bernshtam, V.; Weingarten, L.; Maron, Y.; Uschmann, I.; Foerster, E.; Fisher, A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.; Giuliani, J. L.

    2011-09-02

    The time history of the local ion kinetic energy in a stagnating plasma was determined from Doppler-dominated line shapes. Using independent determination of the plasma properties for the same plasma region, the data allowed for inferring the time-dependent ion temperature, and for discriminating the temperature from the total ion kinetic energy. It is found that throughout most of the stagnation period the ion thermal energy constitutes a small fraction of the total ion kinetic energy; the latter is dominated by hydrodynamic motion. Both the ion hydrodynamic and thermal energies are observed to decrease to the electron thermal energy by the end of the stagnation period. It is confirmed that the total ion kinetic energy available at the stagnating plasma and the total radiation emitted are in balance, as obtained in our previous experiment. The dissipation time of the hydrodynamic energy thus appears to determine the duration (and power) of the K emission.

  18. Simulation Based on Ion-Ion Plasma Techniques of Electric propulsion In Mars Mission Using Chlorine Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyavel, C.

    Abstract:The recently(Nov-5/2013) launched Mangalyan by the Indian space Research Organization (ISRO) to Mars orbit with Mankalyan contained by small liquid engine(MMH+N2O4).This will take long time to reach the Mars orbit that is around the 9 Months. Bi-Propellant rocket system has good thrust but low specific impulse and velocity. In future we need a rocket with good high specific impulse and high velocity of rocket system, to reduce the trip time to Mars. Electric propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of ion-ion pair techniques because this needs low propellant, Design thrust range is 1.5 N with high efficiency. An ion - ion pair of Electric propulsion rocket system is proposed in this work. Ion-Ion(positive ion- negative ion) Based Rocket system consists of three parts 1.The negative ionization stage with electro negative propellant 2. Ion-Ion plasma formation and ion accelerator 3. Exhaust of Nozzle. The Negative ions from electro negative gas are produced by adding up the gas, such as chlorine with electron emitted from an Electron gun ionization chamber. The formulate of large stable negative ion is achievable in chlorine gas with respect to electron affinity (∆E). When a neutral chlorine atom in the gaseous form picks up an electron to form a Cl- ion, it releases energy of 3.6eV. The negative ion density becomes several orders of magnitude larger than that of the electrons, hence forming ion-ion (positive ion - negative ion) plasma at the periphery of the discharge. The distance between ion- ions is important for the evaluate the rocket thrust and it also that the distance is determined by the exhaust velocity of the propellant. Accelerate the ion-ion plasma to a high velocity in the thrust vector direction via electron gun and the exhaust of ions through Nozzle. The simulation of the ion propulsion system has been carried out by MATLAB. By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results, we

  19. Ion sheath effects on RF plasma probes - Experimental results in laboratory plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kist, R.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory work dealing with the frequency characteristic of the plasma impedance of spherical and cylindrical electrode systems is reported. The influence of the ion sheath on various features of the impedance characteristic is emphasized. Those features are the series and parallel resonance as well as additional resonances due to the excitation of electroacoustic and cyclotron harmonic waves. The dependence of the series and parallel resonances on dc biasing leads to a method of determining the ion sheath capacity for a cylindrical electrode system. The obtained values agree fairly well with those obtained from a theoretical model for the density and potential distribution in the sheath of a cylindrical sensor aligned with a supersonic plasma flow. The amplitude of resonances due to excitation of longitudinal plasma waves (electroacoustic and cyclotron harmonic) is reduced or even vanishes for sufficiently negative dc bias. Positive bias first leads to an increased amplitude up to a certain dc bias value above which, however, the amplitude decreases again due to electron absorption at the sensor surface.

  20. On the ion front of a plasma expanding into a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J. E.; Perego, M.

    2014-03-15

    Calculations are reported on the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, using a model of cold ions and Boltzmann electrons. The initial distribution of the ions at the edge of the plasma greatly affects the subsequent expansion. An initial abrupt drop of ion density leads to an expansion in which the abrupt drop is maintained. A finite slope, however, leads to the formation of a peak of ion density at the ion front. The subsequent behaviour may lead to wave breaking and the formation of multi-valued ion velocity distributions.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of axial velocity, velocity shear, and parallel ion temperature profiles during the route to plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.

  2. Waves and instabilities in high β, warm ion plasmas in LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S. E.; Rossi, G.; Guice, D.

    2014-12-01

    The LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) has been upgraded with a second LaB6 cathode plasma source that permits the creation of higher density (~ 3×1013 cm-3), higher temperature (Te ~ 12eV), warm ion (Ti ~ 6eV) plasmas. Along with lowered magnetic field, significant increases in plasma β can be achieved with this new source (e.g. at B=100G, β~1). These new plasma conditions permit a range of new experimental opportunities on LAPD including: linear and nonlinear studies of Alfvén waves in warm ion, high β plasmas; pressure-gradient driven instabilities in increased β plasmas and electromagnetic modifications to turbulence and transport; instabilities driven by ion temperature anisotropies (e.g. firehose and mirror instabilities). The characteristics of the new plasma will be presented along with a discussion of these new research areas.

  3. Ion temperature and toroidal rotation in JET's low torque plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, J.; Nave, M. F. F.; Giroud, C.; Reyes Cortes, S.; Bizarro, João P. S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the procedure developed as the best method to provide an accurate and reliable estimation of the ion temperature Ti and the toroidal velocity vϕ from Charge-eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) data from intrinsic rotation experiments at the Joint European Torus with the carbon wall. The low impurity content observed in such plasmas, resulting in low active CXRS signal, alongside low Doppler shifts makes the determination of Ti and vϕ particularly difficult. The beam modulation method will be discussed along with the measures taken to increase photon statistics and minimise errors from the absolute calibration and magneto-hydro-dynamics effects that may impact the CXRS passive emission.

  4. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  5. Ion distribution function in a plasma with uniform electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.; Roecker, T. B.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E.

    2012-11-15

    For a homogeneous partially ionized plasma subject to a uniform electric field E, several methods and models are used to calculate the distribution function f(v) for ions subject to charge-exchange collisions. The exact solution for f(v), based on the energy-dependent cross section for Ar, is obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. This is compared to the MC results for f(v), based on either a constant cross section {sigma} or a constant collision frequency {nu}. The constant-{sigma} model is found to accurately represent f(v) for any value of E, whereas the constant-{nu} results are qualitatively incorrect for large fields. Under the constant-{sigma} assumption, a simple, easily solvable ordinary differential equation is obtained which reproduces the MC results with good accuracy.

  6. Deep Trench Doping by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nizou, S.; Vervisch, V.; Etienne, H.; Torregrosa, F.; Roux, L.; Ziti, M.; Alquier, D.; Roy, M.

    2006-11-13

    The realization of three dimensional (3D) device structures remains a great challenge in microelectronics. One of the main technological breakthroughs for such devices is the ability to control dopant implantation along silicon trench sidewalls. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) has shown its wide efficiency for specific doping processing in semiconductor applications. In this work, we propose to study the capability of PIII method for large scale silicon trench doping. Ultra deep trenches with high aspect ratio were etched on 6'' N type Si wafers. Wafers were then implanted with a PIII Pulsion system using BF3 gas source at various pressures and energies. The obtained results evidence that PIII can be used and are of grateful help to define optimized processing conditions to uniformly dope silicon trench sidewalls through the wafers.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, A.; Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr; Qamar, A.

    2012-05-01

    Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle θ, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mushtaq, A.; Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr; Qamar, A.

    2012-05-15

    Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle {theta}, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.

  9. Research of functional properties of nitride ion-plasma coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaulina, O. Yu; Ovechkin, B. B.; Papchenko, A. V.; Shvagrukova, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the influence of ion-plasma coatings with the use of nitrogen (N), zirconium nitride (ZrN), titanium-aluminum nitride (Ti,Al)N and titanium nitride and zirconium nitride by-layer (TiN+ZrN - eight layers) on the properties of steel 65X13. The main functional properties of the coatings are determined: microhardness, nanohardness, Young's modulus and corrosion resistance. It is shown that all the types of coatings allow increasing the physical and mechanical characteristics of instrument steel 65X13. Hardness and wear-resistance, depending on the type of the deposited coating, increase from 1, 5 to 4 times, corrosion resistance increases by tens times.

  10. Numerical investigation of the ion temperature effect in magnetized plasma sheath with two species of positive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A. K.; Goswami, K. S.; Saikia, B. J.; Kar, S.

    2012-01-15

    The effect of ion temperature, magnitude of magnetic field and its orientation on a magnetized plasma sheath consisting of electrons and two species of positive ions are investigated. Using three-fluid hydrodynamic model and some dimensionless variables, the dimensionless equations are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that with the increase of the ion temperature and magnetic field strength there is a significant change in ion densities and energies in the sheath. It is also noticed that increase of magnetic field angle enhances the ion density near the sheath edge for a constant ion temperature. With increase in ion temperature and magnetic field angle, the lighter ion density near the sheath edge enhances and reverses for the heavier ion species.

  11. Development of ion source for simulation of edge localized mode in divertor plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Daibo, A. Okamoto, A.; Takahashi, H.; Kumagai, T.; Takahashi, T.; Tsubota, S.; Kitajima, S.

    2014-02-15

    A helium ion beam is injected into a linear plasma device for the development of an ion beam source simulating high energy particle flux in divertor plasma. Beam current density more than 10 mA/cm{sup 2} is extracted. Measurement of beam currents indicates that the beam is transported along the linear device and reaches to the downstream end plate.

  12. Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, H.; Haque, Q.

    2015-08-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Korteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.

  13. Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, H.; Ali, S.; Haque, Q.

    2015-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Koeteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.

  14. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  15. A review of studies on ion thruster beam and charge-exchange plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Various experimental and analytical studies of the primary beam and charge-exchange plasmas of ion thrusters are reviewed. The history of plasma beam research is recounted, emphasizing experiments on beam neutralization, expansion of the beam, and determination of beam parameters such as electron temperature, plasma density, and plasma potential. The development of modern electron bombardment ion thrusters is treated, detailing experimental results. Studies on charge-exchange plasma are discussed, showing results such as the relationship between neutralizer emission current and plasma beam potential, ion energies as a function of neutralizer bias, charge-exchange ion current collected by an axially moving Faraday cup-RPA for 8-cm and 30-cm ion thrusters, beam density and potential data from a 15-cm ion thruster, and charge-exchange ion flow around a 30-cm thruster. A 20-cm thruster electrical configuration is depicted and facility effects are discussed. Finally, plasma modeling is covered in detail for plasma beam and charge-exchange plasma.

  16. Cascade emission in electron beam ion trap plasma of W25+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonauskas, V.; Pütterich, T.; Kučas, S.; Masys, Š.; Kynienė, A.; Gaigalas, G.; Kisielius, R.; Radžiūtė, L.; Rynkun, P.; Merkelis, G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectra of the W25+ ion are studied using the collisional-radiative model (CRM) with an ensuing cascade emission. It is determined that the cascade emission boosts intensities only of a few lines in the 10-30 nm range. The cascade emission is responsible for the disappearance of structure of lines at about 6 nm in the electron beam ion trap plasma. Emission band at 4.5-5.3 nm is also affected by the cascade emission. The strongest lines in the CRM spectrum correspond to 4d9 4f4 → 4f3 transitions, while 4f2 5 d → 4f3 transitions arise after the cascade emission is taken into account.

  17. Properties of the ion-ion hybrid resonator in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, George J.

    2015-10-06

    The project developed theoretical and numerical descriptions of the properties of ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonators that are expected to arise in the operation of a fusion reactor. The methodology and theoretical concepts were successfully compared to observations made in basic experiments in the LAPD device at UCLA. An assessment was made of the excitation of resonator modes by energetic alpha particles for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. The broader impacts included the generation of basic insight useful to magnetic fusion and space science researchers, defining new avenues for exploration in basic laboratory experiments, establishing broader contacts between experimentalists and theoreticians, completion of a Ph.D. dissertation, and promotion of interest in science through community outreach events and classroom instruction.

  18. Linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2007-08-01

    The linear and nonlinear properties of the ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) are investigated by using the quantum hydrodynamic equations together with the Poisson equation in a three-component quantum electron-positron-ion plasma. For this purpose, a linear dispersion relation, a Korteweg-de Vries equation and an energy equation containing quantum corrections are derived. Computational investigations have been performed to examine the quantum mechanical effects on the linear and nonlinear waves. It is found that both the linear and nonlinear properties of the IAWs are significantly affected by the inclusion of the quantum corrections. The relevance of the present investigation to dense white dwarfs (where the electron-positron annihilation can be unimportant) is discussed.

  19. Measurement of High Frequency Perturbations to the Ion Velocity Distribution in the HELIX Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. L.; Boivin, R. F.; Franck, C.; Klinger, T.; Scime, E. E.

    2001-10-01

    Using lasers to measure plasma parameters has become more common in recent years. Lasers can provide information about plasma parameters without perturbing the plasma. The most common technique for ion parameter measurements is Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). LIF typically measures the ion velocity distribution and provides information about the ion temperatures and ion flows in the plasma. More recently, Skiff and Anderegg [1987] and Safarty et al. [1996] have shown that measurements of the perturbed ion velocity distribution can provide wave number information for waves propagating in a plasma due the non-local nature of the dielectric tensor. In the past two years, attempts have been made to measure the perturbed ion velocity distribution function at frequencies relevant to Helicon plasma sources. The objective of the measurements is to identify electrostatic oscillation associated to the slow wave or "Trivelpeice Gould modes" in helicon plasma sources. Past efforts to measure the perturbed ion velocity distribution function have been unsuccessful due to technical difficulties associated with measuring the cross correlation of the photon and reference signals. Using a high frequency SR544 Stanford Research lock-in amplifier, high frequency perturbations to the ion velocity distribution in a helicon source have been measured. Perturbed ion velocity distribution measurements, along with the related theory will be presented.

  20. Ion-acoustic envelope modes in a degenerate relativistic electron-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKerr, M.; Haas, F.; Kourakis, I.

    2016-05-01

    A self-consistent relativistic two-fluid model is proposed for one-dimensional electron-ion plasma dynamics. A multiple scales perturbation technique is employed, leading to an evolution equation for the wave envelope, in the form of a nonlinear Schrödinger type equation (NLSE). The inclusion of relativistic effects is shown to introduce density-dependent factors, not present in the non-relativistic case—in the conditions for modulational instability. The role of relativistic effects on the linear dispersion laws and on envelope soliton solutions of the NLSE is discussed.

  1. Plasma Measurement of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for New Materials Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Uchida, Takashi; Minezaki, Hidekazu; Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Asaji, Toyohisa; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Kato, Yushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been designed and developed for a synthesis of new materials such as endohedral metallofullerenes. The plasma chamber diameter is 140 mm in order to produce large m/q ions, like singly charged C60 ions effectively. In this study, we examined the performance of our ECRIS by plasma measurements using a Langmuir probe. The plasma density increased with increasing Ar pressure and reached to 6.1×1017 m-3 at a pressure of 5.0×10-3 Pa. The plasma was produced over a large volume compared with conventional ECRISs.

  2. Plasma generation near an Ion thruster disharge chamber hollow cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Anderson, John R.; Goebel, Dan M.; Wirz, Richard; Sengupta, Anita

    2003-01-01

    In gridded electrostatic thrusters, ions are produced by electron bombardment in the discharge chamber. In most of these thrusters, a single, centrally located hollow cathode supplies the ionizing electrons. An applied magnetic field in the discharge chamber restricts the electrons leaving the hollow cathode to a very narrow channel. In this channel, the high electron current density ionizes both propellant gas flowing from the hollow cathode, and other neutrals from the main propellant flow from the plenum. The processes that occur just past the hollow cathode exit are very important. In recent engine tests, several cases of discharge cathode orifice place and keeper erosion have been reported. In this paper we present results from a new 1-D, variable area model of the plasma processes in the magnetized channel just downstream of the hollow cathode keeper. The model predicts plasma densities, and temperatures consistent with those reported in the literature for the NSTAR engine, and preliminary results from the model show a potential maximum just downstream of the cathode.

  3. Propagation of charge-exchange plasma produced by an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Brady, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Under the proper conditions there is an end-effect of a long, cylindrical Langmuir probe which allows a significant increase in collected ion current when the probe is aligned with a flowing plasma. This effect was used to determine the charge-exchange plasma flow direction at various locations relative to the ion thruster. The ion current collected by the probe as a function of its angle with respect to the plasma flow allows determination of the plasma density and plasma flow velocity at the probe's location upstream of the ion thruster optics. The density values obtained from the ion current agreed to within a factor of two of density values obtained by typical voltage-current Langmuir probe characteristics.

  4. Optical properties of surface modified polypropylene by plasma immersion ion implantation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Sk. Faruque; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Kim, Chansoo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Jang, Yong-Jun; Han, Seonghee; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Won-Woong

    2010-08-23

    The optical band gap and activation energy of polypropylene (PP) induced by an Ar plasma immersion ion implantation technique were studied in detail. It was revealed that the structural alternation with an increase in polymer chain cross-linking in the ion beam affected layer enhanced the optical properties of PP. The optical band gap, calculated from the transmittance spectra, decreased from 3.44 to 2.85 eV with the Ar plasma ion energy from 10 to 50 keV. The activation energy, determined from the band tail of the transmittance spectra, decreased while the electrical conductivity increased with the Ar plasma ion energy.

  5. Computation of Ion Drag Force and Charge on a Static Spherical Dust Grain in RF Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikkurthi, V. R.; Melzer, A.; Matyash, K.; Schneider, R.

    2008-09-07

    The ion drag force and charge on a spherical dust grain located in RF discharge plasma is computed using a 3-dimensional Particle-Particle Particle-Mesh (P3M) code. Our plasma model includes finite-size effects for dust grains and allows to self-consistently resolve the dust grain charging due to absorption of plasma electrons and ions. Ion drag and dust charge have been computed for various sizes of dust particles placed at various locations in the discharge. The results for ion drag have been compared with previous collisionless models and affect of collisions on drag has been discussed in detail.

  6. Status of Plasma Spectroscopy Method for CNS Hyper-ECR Ion Source at RIKEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kubono, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Kase, Masayuki; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Shimoura, Susumu

    The optical line spectra of multi-charged gaseous and metal ion beams from ECR plasma have been observed using a grating monochromator with photomultiplier. This new method simplifies the observation of the targeted ion species in the plasma during beam tuning. In this paper we describe present condition of the Hyper-ECR ion source tuning with this plasma spectroscopy method. This data is important because separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is almost impossible.

  7. Study of plasma confinement in ELMO Bumpy Torus with a heavy-ion beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma confinement in ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is generally strongly dependent on an ambipolar electric field. Spatially resolved measurements of the resulting electric space potential phi/sub sp/ have been made in a single plasma cross section by the heavy-ion beam probe. This diagnostic injects a 4-60-keV beam of (usually) Cs/sup +/ ions into the plasma. Measurement of the energy of Cs/sup 2 +/ secondary ions leaving the plasma gives a continuous monitor of the local space potential. In addition, the total detected Cs/sup 2 +/ ion current is proportional to the product of the local electron density and the ionization rate, which, in turn, is a function of the electron temperature. This signal, nf(T/sub e/), is sensitive to all three electron distributions found in EBT - those of the cold surface plasma, the warm core plasma, and the hot electron ring.

  8. Measurement of optical emission from the hydrogen plasma of the Linac4 ion source and the SPL plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lettry, J.; Bertolo, S.; Castel, A.; Chaudet, E.; Ecarnot, J.-F.; Favre, G.; Fayet, F.; Geisser, J.-M.; Haase, M.; Habert, A.; Hansen, J.; Joffe, S.; Kronberger, M.; Lombard, D.; Marmillon, A.; Balula, J. Marques; Mathot, S.; Midttun, O.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.

    2011-09-26

    At CERN, a non caesiated H{sup -} ion volume source derived from the DESY ion source is being commissioned. For a proposed High Power Superconducting Proton Linac (HP-SPL), a non caesiated plasma generator was designed to operate at the two orders of magnitude larger duty factor required by the SPL. The commissioning of the plasma generator test stand and the plasma generator prototype are completed and briefly described. The 2 MHz RF generators (100 kW, 50 Hz repetition rate) was successfully commissioned; its frequency and power will be controlled by arbitrary function generators during the 1 ms plasma pulse. In order to characterize the plasma, RF-coupling, optical spectrometer, rest gas analyzer and Langmuir probe measurements will be used. Optical spectrometry allows direct comparison with the currently commissioned Linac4 H{sup -} ion source plasma. The first measurements of the optical emission of the Linac4 ion source and of the SPL plasma generator plasmas are presented.

  9. Backward mode of the ion-cyclotron wave in a semi-bounded magnetized Lorentzian plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2012-08-15

    The backward modes of the surface ion-cyclotron wave are investigated in a semi-bounded magnetized Lorentzian plasma. The dispersion relation of the backward mode of the surface ion-cyclotron wave is obtained using the specular reflection boundary condition with the plasma dielectric function. The result shows that the nonthermal effect suppresses the wave frequency as well as the group velocity of the surface ion-cyclotron wave. It is also found that the nonthermal effect on the surface ion-cyclotron wave increases with an increase of the wave number. In addition, it is found that the propagation domain of the surface ion-cyclotron wave increases with an increase of the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the electron gyrofrequency. It is also found that the nonthermal effect increases the propagation domain of the surface ion-cyclotron wave in a semi-bounded magnetized Lorentzian plasma.

  10. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Mark J.

    2014-01-15

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190 °C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

  11. Two Contemporary Problems in Magnetized Plasmas: the ion-ion hybrid resonator and MHD stability in a snowflake divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, William Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The rst part of the dissertation investigates the e ects of multiple-ions on the propagation of shear Alfv en waves. It is shown that the presence of a second ion-species allows for the formation of an ion-ion hybrid resonator in the presence of a magnetic well. A fullwave description is shown to explain the measured eigenfrequencies and spatial form of the resonator modes identi ed in experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. However, it is determined that neither electron collisions or radial convection of the mode due to coupling to either the compressional or ion-Bernstein wave can explain the observed dissipation.

  12. Stimulated scattering of a whistler wave off ion-cyclotron and ion-acoustic modes in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Annou, R.; Tripathi, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    A whistler wave propagating through a magnetized dusty plasma undergoes stimulated Brillioun scattering off ion-cyclotron and ion-acoustic modes. The dust has little effect on nonlinear coupling. However, it reduces the growth rate by introducing linear damping on the low-frequency modes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Improved theoretical approximation for the ion drag force in collisionless plasma with strong ion-grain coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, S. A.; Nosenko, V.; Morfill, G. E.; Merlino, R.

    2009-04-15

    We point out a deficiency in our previous analytic calculation of the ion drag force for conditions of the experiment by Nosenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 103702 (2007)]. An inaccurate approximation is corrected and the ion drag force is recalculated. The improved model yields better overall agreement with the experimental results as compared to the original calculation.

  14. Time-fractional Gardner equation for ion-acoustic waves in negative-ion-beam plasma with negative ions and nonthermal nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shimin Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang

    2015-05-15

    Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.

  15. Reactive ion etching of silicon using low-power plasma etcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, D. S.; Bakun, A. D.; Voronov, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of deep reactive ion etching of silicon using diode plasma etcher system with a low-power source. Silicon wafers were etched in a sulfur hexafluoride plasma and sulfur hexafluoride/oxygen plasma. The maximum achieved silicon etch rate was about 2 μm/min. The expediency of using dry reactive ion etching in combination with wet anisotropic etching of silicon for manufacturing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) was demonstrated.

  16. Wakefields generated by collisional neutrinos in neutral-electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tinakiche, Nouara

    2015-12-15

    A classical fluid description is adopted to investigate nonlinear interaction between an electron-type neutrino beam and a relativistic collisionless unmagnetized neutral-electron-positron-ion plasma. In this work, we consider the collisions of the neutrinos with neutrals in the plasma and study their effect on the generation of wakefields in presence of a fraction of ions in a neutral-electron-positron plasma. The results obtained in the present work are interpreted and compared with previous studies.

  17. Fast ion source and detector for investigating the interaction of turbulence with suprathermal ions in a low temperature toroidal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Plyushchev, G.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.; Boehmer, H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-10-15

    A specific experimental apparatus consisting of an ion source and a detector for the investigation of the interaction between suprathermal ions and drift-wave turbulence is developed on the toroidal plasma experiment. Due to the low plasma temperature ({approx}5 eV), a spatially localized, small-size ion source ({approx}4 cm) mounted inside the vacuum vessel with relatively low ion energy ({approx}100 eV-1 keV) can be used. The source consists of an aluminosilicate Li-6 ion emitter (6 mm diameter, 10-30 {mu}A current) installed on a two-dimensional (2D) poloidally moving system. The location, energy, and current density profile of the ion beam will be measured using a 2D movable gridded energy analyzer.

  18. Ion temperature profile simulation of JT-60 and TFTR plasmas with ion temperature gradient mode transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, H.; Hirayama, T.; Koide, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Naito, O.; Sato, M.; Fukuda, T.; Sugie, T.; Azumi, M.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Scott, S. D.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Johnson, D. W.; Mansfield, D. K.; Park, H. K.; Stratton, B. C.; Synakowski, E. J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H. H.

    1994-05-01

    Ion temperature profiles of neutral beam heated plasmas in JT-60 and TFTR have been simulated using models of ion thermal diffusivity, χi, based on ion temperature gradient mode (ηi mode) turbulence and drift wave turbulence (trapped electron mode and circulating electron mode). The ion temperature profiles measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy are compared to predicted Ti profiles calculated from three theoretical models for ion heat transport by Dominguez and Waltz (1987), Lee and Diamond (1986), and Romanelli (1989). All three χi models can reproduce the measured Ti profile over a wide range of parameters in JT-60 L mode plasmas, except for two 1 MA limiter cases. With the use of transport models, which were adjusted to fit JT-60 plasmas, it was found that the Dominguez and Waltz and Romanelli models agree with measured Ti, profiles in TFTR L mode discharges in the region a/4 < r < a/2. The observed central peaking of Ti near the magnetic axis of TFTR L mode plasmas cannot be reproduced. It was found that the Lee and Diamond model does not fit me data as well. The χi models studied cannot consistently reproduce the measured Ti in the peripheral region of either JT-60 or TFTR plasmas. In the high ion temperature (high Ti) plasmas of JT-60 and supershot plasmas of TFTR, the predicted Ti profiles are much broader than the measured profile. In supershot plasmas, the measured central ion temperature greatly exceeds the predicted temperature, although there is reasonable agreement near the edge

  19. Production of energetic ions in plasma by ambipolar fields: Application to etching

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Wontaek; Tolmachev, Yu. N.; Volynets, V. N.; Pashkovskiy, V. G.

    2007-07-15

    A plasma accelerator based on inductively coupled plasma source, which is able to produce an axially directed flux of accelerated ions onto the wafer without applying the bias voltage, has been studied and utilized in a semiconductor etch process. Ion kinetic energies up to 60 eV have been measured for an absorbed power of about 800 W, while the plasma density was {approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} at the plasma source exit. The experimental results show that the plasma accelerator can be used for an anisotropic etch process without the radio-frequency bias of the substrate.

  20. Observation of Ion Acceleration and Heating during Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Myers, Clayton E.

    2012-12-10

    The ion dynamics in a collisionless magnetic reconnection layer are studied in a laboratory plasma. The measured in-plane plasma potential profile, which is established by electrons accelerated around the electron diffusion region, shows a saddle-shaped structure that is wider and deeper towards the outflow direction. This potential structure ballistically accelerates ions near the separatrices toward the outflow direction. Ions are heated as they travel into the high pressure downstream region.

  1. Plasma waves produced by the xenon ion beam experiment on the Porcupine sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Kelley, M.

    1982-01-01

    The production of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves by a perpendicular ion beam in the F-region ionosphere is described. The ion beam experiment was part of the Porcupine program and produced electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron waves just above harmonics of the hydrogen cyclotron frequency. The plasma process may be thought of as a magnetized background ionosphere through which an unmagnetized beam is flowing. The dispersion equation for this hypothesis is constructed and solved. Preliminary solutions agree well with the observed plasma waves.

  2. Nonrelativistic structure calculations of two-electron ions in a strongly coupled plasma environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Saha, J. K.; Mukherjee, T. K.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the controversy between the interpretations of recent measurements on dense aluminum plasma created with the Linac coherent light source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser (FEL) and the Orion laser has been addressed. In both kinds of experiments, heliumlike and hydrogenlike spectral lines are used for plasma diagnostics. However, there exist no precise theoretical calculations for He-like ions within a dense plasma environment. The strong need for an accurate theoretical estimate for spectral properties of He-like ions in a strongly coupled plasma environment leads us to perform ab initio calculations in the framework of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle in Hylleraas coordinates where an ion-sphere potential is used. An approach to resolve the long-drawn problem of numerical instability for evaluating two-electron integrals with an extended basis inside a finite domain is presented here. The present values of electron densities corresponding to the disappearance of different spectral lines obtained within the framework of an ion-sphere potential show excellent agreement with Orion laser experiments in Al plasma and with recent theories. Moreover, this method is extended to predict the critical plasma densities at which the spectral lines of H-like and He-like carbon and argon ions disappear. Incidental degeneracy and level-crossing phenomena are being reported for two-electron ions embedded in strongly coupled plasma. Thermodynamic pressure experienced by the ions in their respective ground states inside the ion spheres is also reported.

  3. Modulation instability of ion acoustic waves, solitons, and their interactions in nonthermal electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiefang; Wang Yueyue; Wu Lei

    2009-06-15

    The propagation of ion acoustic waves in plasmas composed of ions, positrons, and nonthermally distributed electrons is investigated. By means of the reduction perturbation technique, a nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived and the modulation instability of ion acoustic wave is analyzed, where the nonthermal parameter is found to be of significant importance. Furthermore, analytical expressions for the bright and dark solitons are obtained, and the interaction of multiple solitons is discussed.

  4. Linearly coupled oscillations in fully degenerate pair and warm pair-ion astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Ilyas, M.; Wazir, Z.; Ehsan, Zahida

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we study the coexisting low frequency oscillations in strongly degenerate, magnetized, (electron-positron) pair and warm pair-ion plasma. The dispersion relations are obtained for both the cases in macroscopic quantum hydrodynamics approximation. In pair-ion case, the dispersion equation shows coupling of electrostatic and (shear) electromagnetic modes under certain circumstances with important role of ion temperature. Domain of existence of such waves and their relevance to dense degenerate astrophysical plasmas is pointed out. Results are analyzed numerically for typical systems with variation of ion concentration and ion temperature.

  5. Estimation of negative ions in VHF SiH4/H2 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Tsukasa; Nakano, Shinya; Nakao, Sachiko; Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Ichiki, Ryuta; Muta, Hiroshi; Uchino, Kiichiro; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of a VHF SiH4/H2 plasma (frequency: 60 MHz) at high pressures were examined as a function of silane concentration with a heated Langmuir probe. Anomalous reductions in electron saturation current were observed, suggesting the existence of many negative ions. An estimation of the concentration of negative ions was attempted using the sheath theory including negative ions. It was found that there exist H- and SiH3- ions as dominant negative ions in the VHF SiH4/H2 plasma. In addition, the measured floating potential agreed with the theoretical value.

  6. On negative ion-drag force for dust in collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H.

    2008-09-07

    The ion-drag force on a dust particle in collisional plasmas is self-consistently calculated using the Particle In Cell code SCEPTIC in the entire range of charge-exchange collisionlality. It is shown that the ion-drag only reverses in the strongly collisional regime, where other forces are of much stronger magnitude than the ion-drag itself.

  7. Effects of trapped electrons on the oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.

    2016-08-01

    The characteristics of the nonlinear oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized plasmas consisting of Boltzmann positrons, trapped electrons and ions are investigated. The modified Kadomtsev-Petviashivili ( m K P ) equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique. The parametric effects on phase velocity, Sagdeev potential, amplitude and width of solitons, and electrostatic ion acoustic solitary structures are graphically presented with the relevant physical explanations. This study may be useful for the better understanding of physical phenomena concerned in plasmas in which the effects of trapped electrons control the dynamics of wave.

  8. Linear and nonlinear dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a quantum dusty electron-positron-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadi, E.; Zahed, H.

    2016-08-01

    The behavior of linear and nonlinear dust ion acoustic (DIA) solitary waves in an unmagnetized quantum dusty plasma, including inertialess electrons and positrons, ions, and mobile negative dust grains, are studied. Reductive perturbation and Sagdeev pseudopotential methods are employed for small and large amplitude DIA solitary waves, respectively. A minimum value of the Mach number obtained for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential. It is observed that the variation on the values of the plasma parameters such as different values of Mach number M, ion to electron Fermi temperature ratio σ, and quantum diffraction parameter H can lead to the creation of compressive solitary waves.

  9. Pure ion current collection in ion sensitive probe measurement with a metal mesh guard electrode for evaluation of ion temperature in magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tung-Yuan; Kawamori, Eiichirou; Nishida, Yasushi

    2013-02-15

    This paper presents a new design of ion sensitive probe (ISP) that enables collection of pure ion current for accurate measurement of the perpendicular ion temperature in magnetized plasmas. The new type of ISP resolves a longstanding issue widely observed in ISP type measurements, namely, that the current-voltage characteristic is smeared by an unexpected electron current in the standard ISP model. The new ISP is equipped with a fine scale metal mesh on the sensor entrance to prevent electrons from flowing to the sensor, a phenomenon considered to be caused by the space-charge effect. The new ISP successfully measured the ion temperature of electron cyclotron resonance plasmas.

  10. Hydrodynamic theory for ion structure and stopping power in quantum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M

    2013-04-01

    We present a theory for the dynamical ion structure factor (DISF) and ion stopping power in an unmagnetized collisional quantum plasma with degenerate electron fluids and nondegenerate strongly correlated ion fluids. Our theory is based on the fluctuation dissipation theorem and the quantum plasma dielectric constant that is deduced from a linearized viscoelastic quantum hydrodynamical (LVQHD) model. The latter incorporates the essential physics of quantum forces, which are associated with the quantum statistical pressure, electron-exchange, and electron-correlation effects, the quantum electron recoil effect caused by the dispersion of overlapping electron wave functions that control the dynamics of degenerate electron fluids, and the viscoelastic properties of strongly correlated ion fluids. Both degenerate electrons and nondegenerate strongly correlated ions are coupled with each other via the space charge electric force. Thus, our LVQHD theory is valid for a collisional quantum plasma at atomic scales with a wide range of the ion coupling parameter, the plasma composition, and plasma number densities that are relevant for compressed plasmas in laboratories (inertial confinement fusion schemes) and in astrophysical environments (e.g., warm dense matter and the cores of white dwarf stars). It is found that quantum electron effects and viscoelastic properties of strongly correlated ions significantly affect the features of the DISF and the ion stopping power (ISP). Unlike previous theories, which have studied ion correlations in terms of the ion coupling parameter, by neglecting the essential physics of collective effects that are competing among each other, we have here developed a method to evaluate the dependence of the plasma static and dynamical features in terms of individual parameters, like the Wigner-Seitz radius, the ion atomic number, and the ion temperature. It is found that due to the complex nature of charge screening in quantum plasmas, the ion

  11. Hydrodynamic theory for ion structure and stopping power in quantum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M

    2013-04-01

    We present a theory for the dynamical ion structure factor (DISF) and ion stopping power in an unmagnetized collisional quantum plasma with degenerate electron fluids and nondegenerate strongly correlated ion fluids. Our theory is based on the fluctuation dissipation theorem and the quantum plasma dielectric constant that is deduced from a linearized viscoelastic quantum hydrodynamical (LVQHD) model. The latter incorporates the essential physics of quantum forces, which are associated with the quantum statistical pressure, electron-exchange, and electron-correlation effects, the quantum electron recoil effect caused by the dispersion of overlapping electron wave functions that control the dynamics of degenerate electron fluids, and the viscoelastic properties of strongly correlated ion fluids. Both degenerate electrons and nondegenerate strongly correlated ions are coupled with each other via the space charge electric force. Thus, our LVQHD theory is valid for a collisional quantum plasma at atomic scales with a wide range of the ion coupling parameter, the plasma composition, and plasma number densities that are relevant for compressed plasmas in laboratories (inertial confinement fusion schemes) and in astrophysical environments (e.g., warm dense matter and the cores of white dwarf stars). It is found that quantum electron effects and viscoelastic properties of strongly correlated ions significantly affect the features of the DISF and the ion stopping power (ISP). Unlike previous theories, which have studied ion correlations in terms of the ion coupling parameter, by neglecting the essential physics of collective effects that are competing among each other, we have here developed a method to evaluate the dependence of the plasma static and dynamical features in terms of individual parameters, like the Wigner-Seitz radius, the ion atomic number, and the ion temperature. It is found that due to the complex nature of charge screening in quantum plasmas, the ion

  12. Cylindrically confined pair-ion-electron and pair-ion plasmas having axial sheared flow and radial gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Batool, Nazia; Saleem, H.

    2013-10-15

    The linear and nonlinear dynamics of pair-ion (PI) and pair-ion-electron plasmas (PIE) have been investigated in a cylindrical geometry with a sheared plasma flow along the axial direction having radial dependence. The coupled linear dispersion relation of low frequency electrostatic waves has been presented taking into account the Guassian profile of density and linear gradient of sheared flow. It is pointed out that the quasi-neutral cold inhomogeneous pure pair ion plasma supports only the obliquely propagating convective cell mode. The linear dispersion relation of this mode has been solved using boundary conditions. The nonlinear structures in the form of vortices formed by different waves have been discussed in PI and PIE plasmas.

  13. Plasma screening effects on the electronic structure of multiply charged Al ions using Debye and ion-sphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Madhulita; Sahoo, B. K.; Pal, Sourav

    2016-05-01

    We analyze atomic structures of plasma-embedded aluminum (Al) atom and its ions in the weak- and strong-coupling regimes. The plasma screening effects in these atomic systems are accounted for using the Debye and ion-sphere (IS) potentials for the weakly and strongly coupled plasmas, respectively. Within the Debye model, special attention is given to investigate the spherical and nonspherical plasma screening effects considering in the electron-electron interaction potential. The relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) method has been employed to describe the relativistic and electronic correlation effects in the above atomic systems. The variations in the ionization potentials (IPs) and excitation energies (EEs) of the plasma-embedded Al ions are presented. It is found that the atomic systems exhibit more stability when the exact screening effects are taken into account. It is also shown that in the presence of a strongly coupled plasma environment, the highly ionized Al ions show blueshifts and redshifts in the spectral lines of the transitions between the states with the same and different principal quantum numbers, respectively. Comparison among the results obtained from the Debye and IS models are also carried out considering similar plasma conditions.

  14. Nonlinear ion modes in a strongly coupled plasma in the presence of nonthermal ion fluids and polarization force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ema, S. A.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) waves in a strongly coupled plasma system containing Maxwellian electrons and nonthermal ions has been theoretically and numerically investigated. The well-known reductive perturbation technique is used to derive both the Burgers and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations. Their shock and solitary wave solutions have also been numerically analyzed in understanding localized electrostatic disturbances. It has been observed that the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of IA waves are significantly modified by the effect of polarization force and other plasma parameters (e.g., the electron-to-ion number density ratio and ion-to-electron temperature ratio). This is a unique finding among all theoretical investigations made before, whose probable implications are discussed in this investigation. The implications of the results obtained from this investigation may be useful in understanding the wave propagation in both space and laboratory plasmas.

  15. Dust-ion-acoustic double layers in multi-ion dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Deeba, F.

    2015-08-15

    A theoretical investigation has been made on nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-ionacoustic (DIA) double layers (DLs) in a multi-ion dusty plasma system containing inertial positive and negative ions and arbitrarily charged stationary dust. The dust particles have been considered as arbitrarily (either positively or negatively) charged in order to observe the effects of the dust polarity on the DIA DLs. The ion species were considered to be at different temperatures to observe the effects of the temperatures on that waves. The modified Gardner equation, which has been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method, has been used to analyze time-dependent nonplanar and planar DIA DLs. It has been found that the time evolution of DIA DLs is significantly modified not only by the nonplanar geometry, but also by the polarity, temperature, and mass ratio of the constituent particles. It has been also found that the amplitude of cylindrical DIA DL structures is larger than that of 1D planar ones, but smaller than that of the spherical ones.

  16. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Mattei, S. Lettry, J.; Grudiev, A.; Ohta, M.; Yasumoto, M.; Hatayama, A.

    2014-02-15

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source has been simulated using a particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision method. This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 10{sup 12} m{sup −3} and its stabilization at 10{sup 18} m{sup −3}. The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e{sup −}/ion densities and energies, sheath formation, and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  17. Caesium Free Negative Ion Sources for Neutral Beam Injectors: a Study of Negative Ion Production on Graphite Surface in Hydrogen and Deuterium Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Schiesko, L.; Carrere, M.; Cartry, G.; Layet, J.-M.

    2009-03-12

    Negative ion generation on HOPG graphite surface has been studied in hydrogen and deuterium plasma. We measure Ion Distribution Function (IDF) of negative ions coming from graphite surface bombarded by positive ions in H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} plasmas. We showed that negative ions flux was proportional to positive ion flux and was strongly dependant on impinging energy. IDF study shows two generation mechanisms are involved: sputtering of adsorbed H/D as negative ions and, in a less important way, double electron capture. We compare H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} plasmas, and point out isotopic effect between H{sup -} and D{sup -} production.

  18. Behavior of lithium ions in the turbulent near-wall tokamak plasma under heating of ions and electrons of the main plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shurygin, R. V. Morozov, D. Kh.

    2014-12-15

    Turbulent dynamics of the near-wall tokamak plasma is simulated by numerically solving the nonlinear reduced Braginskii magnetohydrodynamic equations with allowance for a lithium ion admixture. The effects of turbulence and radiation of the admixture are analyzed in the framework of a self-consistent approach. The radial distributions of the radiative loss power and the density of Li{sup 0} atoms and Li{sup +1} ions are obtained as functions of the electron and ion temperatures of the main plasma in the near-wall layer. The results of numerical simulations show that supply of lithium ions into the low-temperature near-wall plasma substantially depends on whether the additional power is deposited into the electron or ion component of the main plasma. If the electron temperature in the layer increases (ECR heating), then the ion density drops. At the same time, an increase in the temperature of the main ions (ICR heating) leads to an increase in the density of Li{sup +1} ions. The results of numerical simulations are explained by the different influence of the electron and ion temperatures on the atomic processes governing the accumulation and loss of particles in the balance equations for neutral Li{sup 0} atoms and Li{sup +1} ions in the admixture. The radial profile of the electron temperature and the corresponding distribution of the radiative loss power for different densities of neutral Li{sup 0} atoms on the wall are obtained. The calculations show that the presence of Li{sup +1} ions affects turbulent transport of the main ions. In this case, the electron heat flux increases by 20–30% with increasing Li{sup +1} density, whereas the flux of the main ions drops by nearly the same amount. The radial profile of the turbulent flux of lithium ions is obtained. It is demonstrated that the appearance of the pinch effect is related to the positive density gradient of lithium ions across the calculation layer. For the parameters of the T-10 tokamak, the effect of

  19. Negative ion production in the RF multiaperture surface-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu. Dranichnikov, A.; Gorbovsky, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Kolmogorov, V.; Kondakov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A.; Selivanov, A.; Selivanov, P.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Stupishin, N.; Tiunov, M.; Ivanov, A.; Sotnikov, O.; Binderbauer, M.; Putvinski, S.; Smirnov, A.; Sevier, L.

    2015-04-08

    The experiments on negative hydrogen ion beam production in a multi-aperture long-pulse surface-plasma source are described. H- ions are produced on the surface of a plasma grid covered by cesium and illuminated by fast plasma particles. The source uses a radio-frequency driver to generate plasma. A composite magnet system made of external permanent magnets confines and filters electrons in the plasma region, and deflects them in the extraction area. A multiaperture, multi-electrode ion optical system is used for beam formation. The electrode heating and cooling during long pulses is accomplished by circulating a heat transfer fluid through channels drilled in the electrodes bodies. H- ions extraction through a single aperture and 21 apertures was performed and studied. A stable H- beam with the current up to 0.7 A, energy up to 74 kV, and pulse duration up to 7 s was routinely obtained.

  20. Ion acoustic solitons in a relativistic warm plasma with density gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, H.K.

    1995-10-01

    Modified Korteweg-deVries equation (mK-dV), which governs the behavior of ion acoustic solitons in a relativistic warm plasma with density gradient, is derived. The electron inertia is also taken into account which is important when the streaming ions are present in the plasma. A solution of the mK-dV equation is obtained for the constant density gradient. When the ion acoustic soliton propagates into the lower plasma density region, its amplitude and energy increase, but the width decreases; the same is the case for the stronger density gradients. Plasmas with high-energy streaming ions are found, for example, in the plasma sheet boundary layer of the earth`s magnetosphere and in the Van Allen radiation belts.

  1. Electron-ion plasma modification of Al-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yurii; Rygina, Mariya; Petrikova, Elizaveta; Krysina, Olga; Teresov, Anton; Ivanova, Olga; Ikonnikova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the study where we analyzed the surface structure and strength properties of coated Al alloys modified by electron-ion plasma treatment. The Al alloys were deposited with a thin (≈0.5 μm) TiCu film coating (TiCu-Al system) and with a hard TiCuN coating (TiCuN-AlSi system) on a TRIO vacuum setup in the plasma of low-pressure arc discharges. The temperature fields and phase transformations in the film-substrate system were estimated by numerical simulation in a wide range of electron energy densities (5-30 J/cm2) and pulse durations (50-200 μs). The calculations allowed us to determine the threshold energy density and pulse duration at which the surface structure of the irradiated Al-based systems is transformed in a single-phase state (solid or liquid) and in a two-phase state (solid plus liquid). The elemental composition, defect structure, phase state, and lattice state in the modified surface layers were examined by optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, and by X-ray diffraction analysis. The mechanical characteristics of the modified layers were studied by measuring the hardness and Young's modulus. The tribological properties of the modified layers were analyzed by measuring the wear resistance and friction coefficient. It is shown that melting and subsequent high-rate crystallization of the TiCu-Al system makes possible a multiphase Al-based surface structure with the following characteristics: crystallite size ranging within micrometer, microhardness of more than 3 times that in the specimen bulk, and wear resistance ≈1.8 times higher compared to the initial material. Electron beam irradiation of the TiCuN-AlSi system allows fusion of the coating into the substrate, thus increasing the wear resistance of the material ≈2.2 times at a surface hardness of ˜14 GPa.

  2. Langmuir probe diagnostics of plasma in high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, P.; Kewlani, H.; Mishra, L.; Patil, D. S.; Mittal, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    A high current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) proton ion source has been developed for low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma generated in this proton ion source is performed using Langmuir probe. The diagnostics of plasma in the ion source is important as it determines beam parameters of the ion source, i.e., beam current, emittance, and available species. The plasma parameter measurement in the ion source is performed in continuously working and pulsed mode using hydrogen as plasma generation gas. The measurement is performed in the ECR zone for operating pressure and microwave power range of 10-4-10-3 mbar and 400-1000 W. An automated Langmuir probe diagnostics unit with data acquisition system is developed to measure these parameters. The diagnostics studies indicate that the plasma density and plasma electron temperature measured are in the range 5.6 × 1010 cm-3 to 3.8 × 1011 cm-3 and 4-14 eV, respectively. Using this plasma, ion beam current of tens of mA is extracted. The variations of plasma parameters with microwave power, gas pressure, and radial location of the probe have been studied.

  3. Langmuir probe diagnostics of plasma in high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Kewlani, H.; Mishra, L.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2013-07-15

    A high current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) proton ion source has been developed for low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma generated in this proton ion source is performed using Langmuir probe. The diagnostics of plasma in the ion source is important as it determines beam parameters of the ion source, i.e., beam current, emittance, and available species. The plasma parameter measurement in the ion source is performed in continuously working and pulsed mode using hydrogen as plasma generation gas. The measurement is performed in the ECR zone for operating pressure and microwave power range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar and 400–1000 W. An automated Langmuir probe diagnostics unit with data acquisition system is developed to measure these parameters. The diagnostics studies indicate that the plasma density and plasma electron temperature measured are in the range 5.6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 3.8 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} and 4–14 eV, respectively. Using this plasma, ion beam current of tens of mA is extracted. The variations of plasma parameters with microwave power, gas pressure, and radial location of the probe have been studied.

  4. Langmuir probe diagnostics of plasma in high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Kewlani, H; Mishra, L; Patil, D S; Mittal, K C

    2013-07-01

    A high current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) proton ion source has been developed for low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma generated in this proton ion source is performed using Langmuir probe. The diagnostics of plasma in the ion source is important as it determines beam parameters of the ion source, i.e., beam current, emittance, and available species. The plasma parameter measurement in the ion source is performed in continuously working and pulsed mode using hydrogen as plasma generation gas. The measurement is performed in the ECR zone for operating pressure and microwave power range of 10(-4)-10(-3) mbar and 400-1000 W. An automated Langmuir probe diagnostics unit with data acquisition system is developed to measure these parameters. The diagnostics studies indicate that the plasma density and plasma electron temperature measured are in the range 5.6 × 10(10) cm(-3) to 3.8 × 10(11) cm(-3) and 4-14 eV, respectively. Using this plasma, ion beam current of tens of mA is extracted. The variations of plasma parameters with microwave power, gas pressure, and radial location of the probe have been studied.

  5. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. I. General formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Andrei N.; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-01

    A generalization of the Braginskii ion fluid description [S. I. Braginskii, Sov. Phys. - JETP 6, 358 (1958)] to the case of an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species is presented. An asymptotic expansion in the ion Knudsen number is used to derive the individual ion species continuity, as well as the total ion mass density, momentum, and energy evolution equations accurate through the second order. Expressions for the individual ion species drift velocities with respect to the center of mass reference frame, as well as for the total ion heat flux and viscosity, which are required to close the fluid equations, are evaluated in terms of the first-order corrections to the lowest order Maxwellian ion velocity distribution functions. A variational formulation for evaluating such corrections and its relation to the plasma entropy are presented. Employing trial functions for the corrections, written in terms of expansions in generalized Laguerre polynomials, and maximizing the resulting functionals produce two systems of linear equations (for "vector" and "tensor" portions of the corrections) for the expansion coefficients. A general matrix formulation of the linear systems as well as expressions for the resulting transport fluxes are presented in forms convenient for numerical implementation. The general formulation is employed in Paper II [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Phys. Plasmas 23, 032116 (2016)] to evaluate the individual ion drift velocities and the total ion heat flux and viscosity for specific cases of two and three ion species plasmas.

  6. Ion Energy and Ion Flux Distributions of CF4/Ar/O2 Inductively Coupled Plasmas in a GEC Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Cruden, Brett; Sharma, Surendra; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of ion kinetics in plasma processing gas mixtures, such as CF4:Ar:O2, is important for understanding plasma assisted etching and deposition of materials. Ion energies and ion fluxes were measured in this mixture for 80:10:10, 60:20:20, and 40:30:30 mixture ratios in the pressure range of 10-50 mTorr, and at 200 and 300 W of RF power. Ions from plasma, sampled through a 10 micron orifice in the center of the lower plane electrode, were energy and mass analyzed by a combination of electrostatic energy and quadrupole mass filters. CFx(+) (x = 1 - 3), F2(+), F(+), C(+) from CF4, Ar(+) from Ar, and O2(+) and O(+) from O2, and by-product ions SiFx(+)(x = 1 - 3) from etching of quartz coupling window, COFx(+)(x = 1 - 3), CO(+), CO2(+), and OF(+) were detected. In all conditions ion flux decreases with increase of pressure but increase with increase of RF power. Ar(+) signal decreases with increase of pressure while CF3(+), which is the dominant ion at all conditions, increases with increase in pressure. The loss mechanism for Ar(+) and increase of CF3(+) is due to large cross section for Ar(+) + CF4 yields Ar + CF3(+) + F. Ion energies, which range from 15-25 eV depending on plasma operating conditions, are nearly Gaussian. By-product ion signals are higher at lower pressures indicating stronger plasma interaction with quartz window.

  7. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. I. General formulation

    DOE PAGES

    Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-17

    A generalization of the Braginskii ion fluid description [S. I. Braginskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 6, 358 (1958)] to the case of an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species is presented. An asymptotic expansion in the ion Knudsen number is used to derive the individual ion species continuity, as well as the total ion mass density, momentum, and energy evolution equations accurate through the second order. Expressions for the individual ion species drift velocities with respect to the center of mass reference frame, as well as for the total ion heat flux and viscosity, which are required to close themore » fluid equations, are evaluated in terms of the first-order corrections to the lowest order Maxwellian ion velocity distribution functions. A variational formulation for evaluating such corrections and its relation to the plasma entropy are presented. Employing trial functions for the corrections, written in terms of expansions in generalized Laguerre polynomials, and maximizing the resulting functionals produces two systems of linear equations (for “vector” and “tensor” portions of the corrections) for the expansion coefficients. A general matrix formulation of the linear systems as well as expressions for the resulting transport fluxes are presented in forms convenient for numerical implementation. The general formulation is employed in the companion paper [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas, submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2015)] to evaluate the individual ion drift velocities and the total ion heat flux and viscosity for specific cases of two and three ion species plasmas.« less

  8. Effect of the plasma shapes on intrinsic rotation due to collisionless ion orbit loss in the tokamak edge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Jing; Wu, Guojiang; Li, Xinxia

    2014-07-15

    Distribution of the intrinsic rotation due to collisionless ion orbit loss near the tokamak edge region is studied by using an analytical model based on ion guiding center orbit approximation. A peak of the averaged ion orbit loss momentum fraction is found very near inside the separatrix region in a double null divertor configuration but is not found inside the last closed flux surface region in an outer limiter configuration. For the double null divertor configuration, the intrinsic rotation due to ion orbit loss depends on the plasma shape. With the increase in elongation and triangularity, the peak of the averaged ion orbit loss momentum fraction increases and it moves inward for the lower plasma current.

  9. Role of charge transfer in heavy-ion-beam-plasma interactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, A.; Frank, A.; Blažević, A.; Roth, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of the plasma properties on the charge state distribution of a swift heavy ion beam interacting with a plasma. The main finding is that the charge state in plasma can be lower than in cold matter. The charge state distribution is determined by the ionization and recombination rates which are balancing each other out. Both, ionization and recombination rates, as well as atomic excitation and decay rates, depend on the plasma parameters in different ways. These effects have been theoretically studied by Monte Carlo simulations on the example of an argon ion beam at an energy of 4 MeV /u in a carbon plasma. This study covers a plasma parameter space ranging from ion densities from 1018 to 1023 cm-3 and electron temperatures from 10 to 200 eV.

  10. Measurements of ion temperature and flow of pulsed plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device using an ion Doppler spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is important to know surface damage characteristics of plasma-facing component materials during transient heat and particle loads such as type I ELMs. A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device has been used as transient heat and particle source in ELM simulation experiments. Characteristics of pulsed plasmas produced by the MCPG device play an important role for the plasma material interaction. In this study, ion temperature and flow velocity of pulsed He plasmas were measured by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS). The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1m-spectrometer and a 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. The IDS system measures the width and Doppler shift of HeII (468.58 nm) emission line with the time resolution of 1 μs. The Doppler broadened and shifted spectra were measured with 45 and 135 degree angles with respect to the plasmoid traveling direction. The observed emission line profile was represented by sum of two Gaussian components to determine the temperature and flow velocity. The minor component at around the wavelength of zero-velocity was produced by the stationary plasma. As the results, the ion velocity and temperature were 68 km/s and 19 eV, respectively. Thus, the He ion flow energy is 97 eV. The observed flow velocity agrees with that measured by a time of flight technique.

  11. Ion acoustic waves and related plasma observations in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Marsch, E.; Pilipp, W.; Schwenn, R.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the relationship between the interplanetary ion acoustic waves detected by Helios and the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the solar wind plasma. Two major mechanisms, an electron heat flux instability and a double-ion beam instability, are considered for generating the ion-acoustic-like waves observed in the solar wind. The results provide support to both mechanisms for generating the solar wind ion acoustic waves, although each mechanism has problems under certain conditions.

  12. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas with non-thermal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.

    2013-02-15

    Most studies on dusty plasmas have assumed that electrons and ions follow Maxwellian distributions. However, in the presence of energetic ions, the distribution of ions tends to be non-Maxwellian. It is shown here that the existence of non-thermal ions would increase the phase velocity of a dust-acoustic wave. It is also found that the change in the phase velocity profoundly affects the characteristics of a dust-acoustic solitary wave.

  13. Time evolution of ion-acoustic double layers in an unmagnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bharuthram, R.; Momoniat, E.; Mahomed, F.; Singh, S. V.; Islam, M. K.

    2008-08-15

    Ion-acoustic double layers are examined in an unmagnetized, three-component plasma consisting of cold ions and two temperature electrons. Both of the electrons are considered to be Boltzmann distributed and the ions follow the usual fluid dynamical equations. Using the method of characteristics, a time-dependent solution for ion-acoustic double layers is obtained. Results of the findings may have important consequences for the real time satellite observations in the space environment.

  14. The effects of plasma shape control on the edge collisionless ion orbit loss

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G. J.; Zhang, X. D.; Li, Y. D.; Sun, P. J.; Cao, G. M.

    2013-10-15

    Double null magnetic configurations with different elongation κ and triangularity δ are constructed by using an analytical solution of the Grad–Shafranov equation. The ion orbit losses in plasma edge region are calculated by solving the ion guiding center orbit equation for different values of κ and δ. It is found that the ion orbit loss is larger for a smaller value of κ or δ. The variation of the ion orbit loss fraction on the magnetic surface is also studied.

  15. Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; W.W. Heidbrink; A. Alekseyev; F.E. Cecil; J. Egedal; V.Ya. Goloborod'ko; N.N. Gorelenkov; M. Isobe; S. Kaye; M. Miah; F. Paoletti; M.H. Redi; S.N. Reznik; A. Rosenberg; R. White; D. Wyatt; V.A. Yavorskij

    2002-10-15

    A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.

  16. Ion acoustic solitons in dense magnetized plasmas with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, Safeer; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.; Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar

    2014-09-20

    The propagation of electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons is investigated. The linear dispersion relation is obtained for slow and fast electrostatic waves in the EPI plasma. The limiting cases for ion acoustic wave (slow) and ion cyclotron wave (fast) are also discussed. Using the reductive perturbation method, two-dimensional propagation of ion acoustic solitons is found for both the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons. The effects of positron concentration, magnetic field, and mass of ions on ion acoustic solitons are shown in numerical plots. The proper form of Fermi temperature for nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons is employed, which has not been used in earlier published work. The present investigation is useful for the understanding of linear and nonlinear electrostatic wave propagation in the dense magnetized EPI plasma of compact stars. For illustration purposes, we have applied our results to a pulsar magnetosphere.

  17. Plasma Emission Characteristics from a High Current Hollow Cathode in an Ion Thruster Discharge Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of energetic ions produced by a hollow cathodes operating at high emission currents (greater than 5A) has been documented in the literature. In order to further elucidate these findings, an investigation of a high current cathode operating in an ion thruster discharge chamber has been undertaken. Using Langmuir probes, a low energy charged particle analyzer and emission spectroscopy, the behavior of the near-cathode plasma and the emitted ion energy distribution was characterized. The presence of energetic ions was confirmed. It was observed that these ions had energies in excess of the discharge voltage and thus cannot be simply explained by ions falling out of plasma through a potential difference of this order. Additionally, evidence provided by Langmuir probes suggests the existence of a double layer essentially separating the hollow cathode plasma column from the main discharge. The radial potential difference associated with this double layer was measured to be of order the ionization potential.

  18. Kinetic shear Alfvén instability in the presence of impurity ions in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Gaimin; Shen, Y.; Xie, T.; He, Zhixiong; He, Hongda; Qi, Longyu; Cui, Shaoyan

    2013-10-15

    The effects of impurity ions on the kinetic shear Alfvén (KSA) instability in tokamak plasmas are investigated by numerically solving the integral equations for the KSA eigenmode in the toroidal geometry. The kinetic effects of hydrogen and impurity ions, including transit motion, finite ion Larmor radius, and finite-orbit-width, are taken into account. Toroidicity induced linear mode coupling is included through the ballooning-mode representation. Here, the effects of carbon, oxygen, and tungsten ions on the KSA instability in toroidal plasmas are investigated. It is found that, depending on the concentration and density profile of the impurity ions, the latter can be either stabilizing or destabilizing for the KSA modes. The results here confirm the importance of impurity ions in tokamak experiments and should be useful for analyzing experimental data as well as for understanding anomalous transport and control of tokamak plasmas.

  19. In situ plasma removal of surface contaminants from ion trap electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Haltli, Raymond A.

    2015-05-01

    In this thesis, the construction and implementation of an in situ plasma discharge designed to remove surface contaminants from electrodes in an ion trapping experimental system is presented with results. In recent years, many advances have been made in using ion traps for quantum information processing. All of the criteria defined by DiVincenzo for using ion traps for implementing a quantum computer have been individually demonstrated, and in particular surface traps provide a scalable platform for ions. In order to be used for quantum algorithms, trapped ions need to be cooled to their motional (quantum mechanical) ground state. One of the hurdles in integrating surface ion traps for a quantum computer is minimizing electric field noise, which causes the ion to heat out of its motional ground state and which increases with smaller ion-to-electrode distances realized with surface traps. Surface contamination of trap electrodes is speculated to be the primary source of electric field noise. The main goal achieved by this work was to implement an in situ surface cleaning solution for surface electrode ion traps, which would not modify the ion trap electrode surface metal. Care was taken in applying the RF power in order to localize a plasma near the trap electrodes. A method for characterizing the energy of the plasma ions arriving at the ion trap surface is presented and results for plasma ion energies are shown. Finally, a method for quantifying the effectiveness of plasma cleaning of trap electrodes, using the surface analysis technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for measuring the amount and kind of surface contaminants, is described. A significant advantage of the trap electrode surface cleaning method presented here is the minimal changes necessary for implementation on a working ion trap experimental system.

  20. Effect of trapped ions on shielding of a charged spherical object in a plasma.

    PubMed

    Lampe, M; Gavrishchaka, V; Ganguli, G; Joyce, G

    2001-06-01

    Collisions have traditionally been neglected in calculating the shielding around a small spherical collector in a plasma, and the plasma flow to the collector. We show analytically that, in dusty plasmas under typical discharge conditions, ion charge-exchange collisions lead to the buildup of negative-energy trapped ions which dominate the shielding cloud in the nonlinear region near a dust grain and substantially increase the ion current to the grain, even when the mean-free path is much greater than the Debye length.

  1. Ion-plasma processes of the production of diffusion aluminide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    A novel ion-plasma process for ecologically safe formation of diffusion aluminide coatings on a substrate made of a superalloy, which has advantages as compared to the well-known thermodiffusion processes of their production, is described. The ion-plasma process is shown to provide the formation of diffusion aluminide coatings on the surface of a superalloy substrate according to various technologies. Owing to alloying with one or several elements from the series Y, Si, Cr, Hf, B, Co, etc., ion-plasma diffusion coatings have higher protective properties than analogous coatings produced by the traditional methods of powder, slip, and gas-circulating aluminizing.

  2. Plasma size and power scaling of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Idomura, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Motoki

    2014-02-15

    The transport scaling with respect to plasma size and heating power is studied for ion temperature gradient driven turbulence using a fixed-flux full-f gyrokinetic Eulerian code. It is found that when heating power is scaled with plasma size, the ion heat diffusivity increases with plasma size in a local limit regime, where fixed-gradient δf simulations predict a gyro-Bohm scaling. In the local limit regime, the transport scaling is strongly affected by the stiffness of ion temperature profiles, which is related to the power degradation of confinement.

  3. Neoclassical ion thermal conductivity modified by finite banana effects in a tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.S.

    1997-06-01

    A finite-banana-width correction to the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity is obtained in a tokamak plasma under the conventional assumption that the particle flow parallel to magnetic-field lines dominates the trapped particle{close_quote}s orbital dynamics. It is found that the finite-banana-width effect makes ion thermal conductivity itself be a function of radial plasma density gradient and magnetic shear. Negative radial gradients in plasma density and/or safety factor can reduce the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity when the banana width is a significant fraction of the gradient scale length. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Propagation of linear and nonlinear ion-sound monopulses in dusty plasma waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalsky, V. V.; Koshevaya, S. V.; Siqueiros Alatorre, J.; Kotsarenko, A. N.; Perez Enriquez, R.

    2007-08-01

    The propagation of monopulse (baseband) linear and nonlinear ion-sound waves in dusty plasma waveguides is investigated. These waveguides are formed by prolonged inclusions of dusty plasma within the electron-ion one. The planar and cylindrical geometries are studied numerically. It has been demonstrated that nonlinear dynamics of baseband pulse propagation in a dusty plasma waveguide possesses essentially non-solitonic behaviour. Namely, the propagation of ion-sound pulses of finite amplitudes leads to an excitation of shock-like waves and, then, to the destruction of the pulses but not to emerging stable localized nonlinear structures.

  5. Improvement of confinement times of lithium ion and electron plasmas in BX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Himura, H.; Noichi, T.; Nakata, S.; Kawai, S.; Sanpei, A.

    2015-06-29

    Confinements of both electron (e{sup −}) and Lithium ion (Li{sup +}) plasmas in the BX-U machine are improved experimentally. For the e{sup −} plasma, the longest confinement time so far has been ∼ 10 s, which is much longer than the classical electron-electron collision time: τ{sub ee} ∼ 0.6 s. On the other hand, for the Li{sup +} plasma, the longest confinement time has been about 0.5 s, which is still much shorter than the classical ion-ion collision time.

  6. Charge-exchange plasma environment for an ion drive spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A model was reviewed which describes the propagation of the mercury charge-exchange plasma and extended to describe the flow of the molybdenum component of the charge-exchange plasma. The uncertainties in the models for various conditions are discussed. Such topics as current drain to the solar array, charge-exchange plasma material deposition, and the effects of space plasma on the charge-exchange plasma propagation are addressed.

  7. Operations manual for the plasma source ion implantation economics program

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeault, M.L.; Thayer, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a surface modification technique for metal. PSIICOSTMODEL95 is an EXCEL-based program that estimates the cost for implementing a PSII system in a manufacturing setting where the number of parts to be processed is over 5,000 parts per day and the shape of each part does not change from day to day. Overall, the manufacturing process must be very well defined and should not change. This document is a self-contained manual for PSIICOSTMODEL95. It assumes the reader has some general knowledge of the technical requirements for PSII. Configuration of the PSII process versus design is used as the methodology in PSIICOSTMODEL95. The reason behind this is twofold. First, the design process cannot be programmed into a computer when the relationships between design variables are not understood. Second, the configuration methodology reduces the number of assumptions that must be programmed into our software. Misuse of results are less likely to occur if the user has fewer assumptions to understand.

  8. Dressed electrostatic solitary excitations in three component pair-plasmas: Application in isothermal pair-plasma with stationary ions

    SciTech Connect

    Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Haddadpour-Khiaban, B.

    2009-10-15

    In this work electrostatic solitary waves in a three component pair-plasma consisting of hot isothermal electrons (or negative fullerene ions), positrons (or positive fullerene ions), and stationary positive ions (say, dust particulates) are studied. Using reductive perturbation method, plasma fluid equations are reduced to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. Considering the higher-order nonlinearity, a linear inhomogeneous equation is derived, and the stationary solutions of these coupled equations are achieved by applying the renormalization procedure of Kodama-Taniuti. It is observed that in the linear approximation and applying Fourier analysis, two electrostatic modes, namely, upper or optical and lower or acoustic modes, are present. However, the application of reductive perturbation technique confirms that only acoustic-electrostatic mode can propagate in such plasma as KdV soliton, the amplitude and width of which are studied regarding to plasma parameters {sigma} (positron-to-electron temperature ratio) and {delta} (stationary cold ions-to-electron density ratio). It is also observed that the higher-order nonlinearity leads to deformation of the soliton structure from bell-shaped to W-shaped depending on the variation in values of the plasma parameters {sigma} and {delta}. It is revealed that KdV-type solitary waves cannot propagate in three component pair-plasma when the pair-species temperature is equal.

  9. Interrelations between cerebrospinal fluid and plasma inorganic ions and glucose in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Pye, I F; Aber, G M

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of inorganic ions and glucose in the plasma and CSF of 11 patients with "steady-state" chronic renal failure have been measured and their CSF: plasma interrelations studied. The results have been compared with the corresponding data from 34 control subjects. In the patients with renal failure, there was a positive correlation between raised CSF and plasma potassium concentrations. In contrast to the impaired potassium homeostasis, normal CSF magnesium and calcium concentrations were observed despite wide variations in the plasma concentrations of these ions. PMID:7085915

  10. Characteristics of plasma grid bias in large-scaled negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaki, M.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2014-02-15

    The electron density was measured at various bias voltages to understand how the plasma grid bias affects the electron near the plasma grid in large-scaled negative ion sources. It was found that the response of the electron to the bias voltage changes depending on negative ion production processes. The electron density remarkably decreases with increasing the bias voltage in the pure-volume plasma. On the other hand, the electron density depends on the bias voltage weakly in the Cs-seeded plasma. In addition, it was observed that the response of the co-extracted electron current to the bias voltage has similar trend to that of the electron density.

  11. Dipolar vortices and collisional instability in rotating electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Q.

    2011-11-15

    Linear dispersion relation of electrostatic waves is derived for rotating electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasmas. The role of the rotational plasma frequency on drift wave through Coriolis force in the pulsar magnetosphere is discussed. This wave can couple with acoustic mode. In the nonlinear regime, stationary solution in the form of dipolar vortices is obtained. At the end we have also found the collisional instability in the presence of neutral-ion collisions for this rotating e-p-i plasma. The importance of the study with respect to astrophysical plasmas is also pointed out.

  12. Resistive Interchange Modes Destabilized by Helically Trapped Energetic Ions in a Helical Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. D.; Toi, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Ido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ogawa, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Ozaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, R.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2015-04-01

    A new bursting m =1 /n =1 instability (m ,n : poloidal and toroidal mode numbers) with rapid frequency chirping down has been observed for the first time in a helical plasma with intense perpendicular neutral beam injection. This is destabilized in the plasma peripheral region by resonant interaction between helically trapped energetic ions and the resistive interchange mode. A large radial electric field is induced near the edge due to enhanced radial transport of the trapped energetic ions by the mode, and leads to clear change in toroidal plasma flow, suppression of microturbulence, and triggering an improvement of bulk plasma confinement.

  13. Magnetic mirror trap with electron-cyclotron plasma heating as a source of multiply charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Golovanivskii, K.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper presents the physical operating principles of sources of multiply charged ions using electron cyclotron resonance. It is shown that the conditions that must be satisfied for multiple ionization are well matched to the conditions of effective plasma confinement in a magnetic mirror trap when a collision mode of confinement is provided. Plasma stability with hot electrons in the mirror magnetic trap and the mechanisms of plasma heating by highfrequency fields are analyzed. Two sources of multiply charged ions with ECR plasma heating are examined. Evaluations of the future of this area are given.

  14. ION HEATING IN INHOMOGENEOUS EXPANDING SOLAR WIND PLASMA: THE ROLE OF PARALLEL AND OBLIQUE ION-CYCLOTRON WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Ozak, N.; Ofman, L.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-01-20

    Remote sensing observations of coronal holes show that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic. In-situ observations of fast solar wind streams provide direct evidence for turbulent Alfvén wave spectrum, left-hand polarized ion-cyclotron waves, and He{sup ++} - proton drift in the solar wind plasma, which can produce temperature anisotropies by resonant absorption and perpendicular heating of the ions. Furthermore, the solar wind is expected to be inhomogeneous on decreasing scales approaching the Sun. We study the heating of solar wind ions in inhomogeneous plasma with a 2.5D hybrid code. We include the expansion of the solar wind in an inhomogeneous plasma background, combined with the effects of a turbulent wave spectrum of Alfvénic fluctuations and initial ion-proton drifts. We study the influence of these effects on the perpendicular ion heating and cooling and on the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations in the inhomogeneous background wind. We find that inhomogeneities in the plasma lead to enhanced heating compared to the homogenous solar wind, and the generation of significant power of oblique waves in the solar wind plasma. The cooling effect due to the expansion is not significant for super-Alfvénic drifts, and is diminished further when we include an inhomogeneous background density. We reproduce the ion temperature anisotropy seen in observations and previous models, which is present regardless of the perpendicular cooling due to solar wind expansion. We conclude that small scale inhomogeneities in the inner heliosphere can significantly affect resonant wave ion heating.

  15. Shielding analysis for a heavy ion beam chamber with plasma channels for ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Sawan, M.E.; Peterson, R.R.; Yu, S.

    2000-06-28

    Neutronics analysis has been performed to assess the shielding requirements for the insulators and final focusing magnets in a modified HYLIFE-II target chamber that utilizes pre-formed plasma channels for heavy ion beam transport. Using 65 cm thick Flibe jet assemblies provides adequate shielding for the electrical insulator units. Additional shielding is needed in front of the final focusing superconducting quadrupole magnets. A shield with a thickness varying between 45 and 90 cm needs to be provided in front of the quadrupole unit. The final laser mirrors located along the channel axis are in the direct line-of-sight of source neutrons. Neutronics calculations were performed to determine the constraints on the placement of these mirrors to be lifetime components.

  16. Dynamics of ponderomotive ion acceleration in a laser-plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, V. F.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2015-04-15

    Analytical solution to the Cauchy problem for the kinetic equation describing the radial acceleration of ions under the action of the ponderomotive force of a laser beam undergoing guided propagation in transparent plasma is constructed. Spatial and temporal dependences of the ion distribution function and the integral ion characteristics, such as the density, average velocity, and energy spectrum, are obtained for an axisymmetric laser-plasma channel. The formation of a density peak near the channel boundary and the effect of ion flow breaking for a quasi-stationary laser beam are described analytically.

  17. Relativistic wave-breaking limit of electrostatic waves in cold electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Mithun; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Sengupta, Sudip

    2016-06-01

    A one-dimensional nonlinear propagation of relativistically strong electrostatic waves in cold electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas has been analyzed. The motion of all the three species, namely, electron, positron, and ion has been treated to be relativistic. The maximum permissible electric field amplitude - so called "wave-breaking limit" of such an electrostatic wave before wave-breaking has been derived, showing its dependence on the relativistic Lorentz factor associated with the phase velocity of the plasma wave, on the electron/positron to ion mass ratio, and on the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron/positron density.

  18. Drift wave stabilized by an additional streaming ion or plasma population.

    PubMed

    Bashir, M F; Vranjes, J

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that the universally unstable kinetic drift wave in an electron-ion plasma can very effectively be suppressed by adding an extra flowing ion (or plasma) population. The effect of the flow of the added ions is essential, their response is of the type (vph-vf0)exp[-(vph-vf0)2], where vf0 is the flow speed and vph is the phase speed parallel to the magnetic field vector. The damping is strong and it is mainly due to this ion exponential term, and this remains so for vf0

  19. Plasma composition in Jupiter's magnetosphere - Initial results from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Gliem, F.; Hamilton, D. C.; Ipavich, F. M.; Livi, S.; Mall, U.

    1992-01-01

    The ion composition in the Jovian environment was investigated with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board Ulysses. A hot tenuous plasma was observed throughout the outer and middle magnetosphere. In some regions two thermally different components were identified. Oxygen and sulfur ions with several different charge states, from the volcanic satellite Io, make the largest contribution to the mass density of the hot plasma, even at high latitude. Solar wind particles were observed in all regions investigated. Ions from Jupiter's ionosphere were abundant in the middle magnetosphere, particularly in the high-latitude region on the dusk side, which was traversed for the first time.

  20. Ion dynamics in an E × B Hall plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Christopher V. Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-01-26

    We show the time evolution of the ion velocity distribution function in a Hall plasma accelerator during a 20 kHz natural, quasi-periodic plasma oscillation. We apply a time-synchronized laser induced fluorescence technique at different locations along the channel midline, obtaining time- and spatially resolved ion velocity measurements. Strong velocity and density fluctuations and multiple ion populations are observed throughout the so-called “breathing mode” ionization instability, opening an experimental window into the detailed ion dynamics and physical processes at the heart of such devices.

  1. Plasma Composition in Jupiter's Magnetosphere: Initial Results from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Geiss, J; Gloeckler, G; Balsiger, H; Fisk, L A; Galvin, A B; Gliem, F; Hamilton, D C; Ipavich, F M; Livi, S; Mall, U; Ogilvie, K W; von Steiger, R; Wilken, B

    1992-09-11

    The ion composition in the Jovian environment was investigated with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board Ulysses. A hot tenuous plasma was observed throughout the outer and middle magnetosphere. In some regions two thermally different components were identified. Oxygen and sulfur ions with several different charge states, from the volcanic satellite lo, make the largest contribution to the mass density of the hot plasma, even at high latitude. Solar wind particles were observed in all regions investigated. Ions from Jupiter's ionosphere were abundant in the middle magnetosphere, particularly in the highlatitude region on the dusk side, which was traversed for the first time.

  2. Experimental evidence of beam-foil plasma creation during ion-solid interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-08-01

    Charge state evolution of the energetic projectile ions during the passage through thin carbon foils has been revisited using the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Contributions from the bulk and the solid surface in the charge changing processes have been segregated by measuring the charge state distribution of the projectile ions in the bulk of the target during the ion-solid interaction. Interestingly, the charge state distribution measured in the bulk exhibits Lorentzian profile in contrast to the well-known Gaussian structure observed using the electromagnetic methods and the theoretical predictions. The occurrence of such behavior is a direct consequence of the imbalance between charge changing processes, which has been seen in various cases of the laboratory plasma. It suggests that the ion-solid collisions constitute high-density, localized plasma in the bulk of the solid target, called the beam-foil plasma. This condensed beam-foil plasma is similar to the high-density solar and stellar plasma which may have practical implementations in various fields, in particular, plasma physics and nuclear astrophysics. The present work suggests further modification in the theoretical charge state distribution calculations by incorporating the plasma coupling effects during the ion-solid interactions. Moreover, the multi-electron capture from the target exit surface has been confirmed through comparison between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted values of the mean charge state of the projectile ions.

  3. Arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave propagation in a magnetized dense plasma containing helium ions and degenerate electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.; Ali, Munazza Z.

    2016-06-01

    The obliquely propagating arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave is studied in a dense magnetized plasma having singly and doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons pressures. The Fermi temperature for ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons described by N. M. Vernet [(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007), p. 57] is used to define ion acoustic speed in ultra-dense plasmas. The pseudo-potential approach is used to solve the fully nonlinear set of dynamic equations for obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized plasma containing helium ions. The upper and lower Mach number ranges for the existence of electrostatic solitons are found which depends on the obliqueness of the wave propagation with respect to applied magnetic field and charge number of the helium ions. It is found that only compressive (hump) soliton structures are formed in all the cases and only subsonic solitons are formed for a singly charged helium ions plasma case with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons. Both subsonic and supersonic soliton hump structures are formed for doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons plasma case containing singly as well as doubly charged helium ions. The effect of propagation direction on the soliton amplitude and width of the electrostatic waves is also presented. The numerical plots are also shown for illustration using dense plasma parameters of a compact star (white dwarf) from literature.

  4. Plasma emission spectroscopy for operating and developing the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) H- ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Baoxi; Welton, Robert F; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Stockli, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    An RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H- ion source feeds the SNS accelerator with a high current (typically >50 mA), ~1.0 ms pulsed beam at 60 Hz. To achieve the persistent high current beam for several weeks long service cycles, each newly installed ion source undergoes a rigorous conditioning and cesiation processes. Plasma conditioning outgases the system and sputter-cleans the ion conversion surfaces. A cesiation process immediately following the plasma conditioning releases Cs to provide coverage on the ion conversion surfaces. The effectiveness of the ion source conditioning and cesiation is monitored with plasma emission spectroscopy using a high-sensitivity optical spectrometer. Plasma emission spectroscopy is also used to provide a mean for diagnosing and confirming a failure of the insulating coating of the ion source RF antenna which is immersed in the plasma. Emissions of composition elements of the antenna coating material, Na emission being the most significant, drastically elevate to signal a failure when it happens. Plasma spectra of the developmental ion source with an AlN chamber and an external RF antenna are also briefly discussed.

  5. Ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating of plasma with small impurity production

    DOEpatents

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1987-01-01

    Plasma including plasma ions is magnetically confined by a magnetic field. The plasma has a defined outer surface and is intersected by resonance surfaces of respective common ion cyclotron frequency of a predetermined species of plasma ions moving in the magnetic field. A radio frequency source provides radio frequency power at a radio frequency corresponding to the ion cyclotron frequency of the predetermined species of plasma ions moving in the field at a respective said resonance surface. RF launchers coupled to the radio frequency source radiate radio frequency energy at the resonance frequency onto the respective resonance surface within the plasma from a plurality of locations located outside the plasma at such respective distances from the intersections of the respective resonance surface and the defined outer surface and at such relative phases that the resulting interference pattern provides substantially null net radio frequency energy over regions near and including substantial portions of the intersections relative to the radio frequency energy provided thereby at other portions of the respective resonance surface within the plasma.

  6. GENERALIZED RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS FOR PAIR AND ELECTRON-ION PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Shinji

    2009-05-10

    We derived one-fluid equations based on a relativistic two-fluid approximation of e{sup {+-}} pair plasma and electron-ion plasma to reveal the specific relativistic nature of their behavior. Assuming simple condition on the relativistic one-fluid equations, we propose generalized relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations which satisfy causality. We show the linear analyses of these equations regarding various plasma waves to show the validity of the generalized RMHD equations derived here and to reveal the distinct properties of the pair plasma and electron-ion plasma. The distinct properties relate to (1) the inertia effect of electric charge, (2) the momentum of electric current, (3) the relativistic Hall effect, (4) the thermal electromotive force, and (5) the thermalized energy exchange between the two fluids. Using the generalized RMHD equations, we also clarify the condition that we can use standard RMHD equations and that we need the distinct RMHD equations of pair and electron-ion plasmas. The standard RMHD is available only when the relative velocity of the two fluids is nonrelativistic, a difference of the enthalpy densities of the two fluids is much smaller than the total enthalpy density, and the above distinct properties of the pair/electron-ion plasma are negligible. We discuss a general relativistic version of the equations applicable to the pair and electron-ion plasmas in black hole magnetospheres. We find the effective resistivity due to the shear of frame dragging around a rotating black hole.

  7. Investigation of a rf inductively coupled plasma ion source capable of highly uniform and collimated ion-beam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanarov, V.; Hayes, A.; Yevtukhov, R.; Kameyama, I.; Siegfried, D.; Waahlin, E.

    2006-03-15

    In accordance with advanced data storage device fabrication requirements, we have evaluated a new broad-beam rf ion source for ion beam etching and deposition application. This source utilizes a novel reentrant shaped plasma inductively coupled plasma generator for improved radial plasma density uniformity and a dynamic magnetic field for improved static etch uniformity. It has the capability of reproducibly generating extremely uniform ion beams from 500 to 1500 eV with divergence angle <3 deg. and high directionality [Kanarov et al. (patent pending)]. For a 150 mm diameter wafer, an etch uniformity of <1% {sigma}/mean in static condition or <0.5% with wafer rotation is obtained over an ion incident angle range of 0 deg. - 65 deg. Recently, we have investigated extending the operation of this source to the critical low energy range, 100-500 eV, required for fabricating thin film magnetic head sensors. It was found that, under optimum operating conditions, excellent static etch uniformity (1%-1.5% {sigma}/mean) could be obtained at high ion beam current densities, up to 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, over the entire low-energy range while still achieving low divergence angles (<5 deg.) and high beam directionality. The ion beam performance was consistent with results obtained by simulation and by experiment using a 19-hole array ion optic test stand with scanning ion probe [E. Waahlin (unpublished)]. In this article we will describe the design of the ion source and then present the experimental performance data including plasma density distribution measured by an array of flat Langmuir probes, beam divergence distribution obtained by a 'pepper-pot' etch measurement technique, and etching rate distributions.

  8. Effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on solitary waves in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Xie, Bai-Song

    2013-09-01

    The effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on the solitary waves of the laser field envelope and the potential of the electrostatic field in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma are investigated. The parameter region for the existence of solitary waves is obtained analytically, and a reasonable choice of parameters is clarified. Both cases of mobile and immobile ions are considered. It is found that the amplitudes of solitary waves in the former case are larger compared to the latter case. For small plasma density, the localized solitary wave solutions in terms of the approximate perturbation analytical method are very consistent with those by exact numerical calculations. However, as the plasma density increases the analytical method loses its validity more and more. The influence of the positron fraction on the amplitudes of solitary waves shows a monotonous increasing relation. The implications of our results to particle acceleration are also discussed briefly. PMID:24125373

  9. Investigation of the ion beam emission from a pulsed power plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henríquez, A.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Retamal, M. J.; Volkmann, U.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.

    2014-05-01

    Plasma Focus (PF) devices are well known as ion beam sources with characteristic energy among the hundreds of keV to tens of MeV. The information on ion beam energy, ion distribution and composition is essential from the viewpoint of understanding fundamental physics behind their production and acceleration and also their applications in various fields, such as surface properties modification, ion implantation, thin film deposition, semiconductor doping and ion assisted coating. An investigation from a low energy, 1.8 kJ 160 kA, Mather type plasma focus device operating with nitrogen using CR-39 detectors was conducted to study the emission of ions at different angular positions. Tracks on CR-39 detectors at different angular positions reveal the existence of angular ion anisotropy. The results obtained are comparable with the time integrated measurements using FC. Preliminary results of this work are presented.

  10. Enhanced ion particle flux and momentum outward of a plasma ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrinich, Gennady; Fruchtman, Amnon

    2013-09-01

    A plasma ball has been produced near the anode in a configuration that, when magnetized, operates as a radial plasma source (RPS). Plasma balls have been studied recently in different configurations. We find that the plasma particle flux outward of the plasma ball is larger than that expected by the Langmuir relation in double layers. The frequency of oscillations of a pendulum is larger than due to gravity only, reflecting the force by the plasma ball. The force by the plasma ball is larger than expected by the model. We address these two questions: the increased ion flux and the increased force relative to the model. We suggest that the Langmuir relation underestimates the ratio of ion to electron flux. We also suggest that the ions gain most of the momentum in the quasi-neutral plasma rather than in the double layer; the impulse enhancement is suggested to result from ion-neutral collisions in the plasma. Partially supported by the Israel Science Foundation, Grant 765/11.

  11. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Xinbing; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-05-01

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer-Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Roles of a plasma grid in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; McAdams, R.

    2015-04-08

    The plasma grid is electrically biased with respect to other parts of source chamber wall in both volume sources and sources seeded with alkali metals. The roles of the plasma grid in these two kinds of sources will be described. The main functions of the plasma grid in volume sources are: optimizing the extracted negative ion current, reducing the co-extracted electron current, controlling the axial plasma potential profile, recycling the hydrogen atoms to molecules, concentrating the negative ions near its surface and, when biased positive, depleting the electron population near its surface. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with alkali metals. However an additional function appears in the Cs seeded sources, namely direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment.

  13. in situ plasma removal of surface contaminants from ion trap electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Haltli, Raymond A.

    2015-04-01

    This research resulted in a construction and implementation of an in situ plasma discharge to remove surface contaminants from electrodes in an ion trapping experimental system is presented with results.

  14. Investigation of effect of solenoid magnet on emittances of ion beam from laser ablation plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Shunsuke Sekine, Megumi; Romanelli, Mark; Cinquegrani, David; Kumaki, Masafumi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-15

    A magnetic field can increase an ion current of a laser ablation plasma and is expected to control the change of the plasma ion current. However, the magnetic field can also make some fluctuations of the plasma and the effect on the beam emittance and the emission surface is not clear. To investigate the effect of a magnetic field, we extracted the ion beams under three conditions where without magnetic field, with magnetic field, and without magnetic field with higher laser energy to measure the beam distribution in phase space. Then we compared the relations between the plasma ion current density into the extraction gap and the Twiss parameters with each condition. We observed the effect of the magnetic field on the emission surface.

  15. Investigation of effect of solenoid magnet on emittances of ion beam from laser ablation plasma.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Shunsuke; Romanelli, Mark; Cinquegrani, David; Sekine, Megumi; Kumaki, Masafumi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-01

    A magnetic field can increase an ion current of a laser ablation plasma and is expected to control the change of the plasma ion current. However, the magnetic field can also make some fluctuations of the plasma and the effect on the beam emittance and the emission surface is not clear. To investigate the effect of a magnetic field, we extracted the ion beams under three conditions where without magnetic field, with magnetic field, and without magnetic field with higher laser energy to measure the beam distribution in phase space. Then we compared the relations between the plasma ion current density into the extraction gap and the Twiss parameters with each condition. We observed the effect of the magnetic field on the emission surface.

  16. Nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in dense electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Q.; Mahmood, S.; Mushtaq, A.

    2008-08-01

    The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB)-type equation is obtained using the quantum hydrodynamic model in an inhomogeneous electron-positron-ion quantum magnetoplasma with neutral particles in the background. The KdV-type solitary waves, Burgers-type monotonic, and oscillatory shock like solutions are discussed in different limits. The quantum parameter is also dependent on the positron concentration in dense multicomponent plasmas. It is found that both solitary hump and dip are formed and their amplitude and width are dependent on percentage presence of positrons in electron-ion plasmas. The height of the monotonic shock is decreased with the increase of positron concentration and it is independent of the quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion magnetized quantum plasmas. However, the amplitude of the oscillatory shock is dependent on positron concentration and quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion plasmas.

  17. Nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in dense electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Q.; Mahmood, S.; Mushtaq, A.

    2008-08-15

    The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB)-type equation is obtained using the quantum hydrodynamic model in an inhomogeneous electron-positron-ion quantum magnetoplasma with neutral particles in the background. The KdV-type solitary waves, Burgers-type monotonic, and oscillatory shock like solutions are discussed in different limits. The quantum parameter is also dependent on the positron concentration in dense multicomponent plasmas. It is found that both solitary hump and dip are formed and their amplitude and width are dependent on percentage presence of positrons in electron-ion plasmas. The height of the monotonic shock is decreased with the increase of positron concentration and it is independent of the quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion magnetized quantum plasmas. However, the amplitude of the oscillatory shock is dependent on positron concentration and quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion plasmas.

  18. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Wang, Xinbing Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-05-21

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Ion velocity and plasma potential measurements of a cylindrical cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N. A.; Young, C. V.; Cappelli, M. A.; Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of the most probable time-averaged axial ion velocities and plasma potential within the acceleration channel and in the plume of a straight-channeled cylindrical cusped field thruster operating on xenon are presented. Ion velocities for the thruster are derived from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}-6p[3]{sub 5/2} xenon ion excited state transition centered at {lambda}=834.72nm. Plasma potential measurements are made using a floating emissive probe with a thoriated-tungsten filament. The thruster is operated in a power matched condition with 300 V applied anode potential for comparison to previous krypton plasma potential measurements, and a low power condition with 150 V applied anode potential. Correlations are seen between the plasma potential drop outside of the thruster and kinetic energy contours of the accelerating ions.

  20. Hyperpolarizabilities of one and two electron ions under strongly coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Subhrangsu; Mandal, Puspajit; Kumar Mukherjee, Prasanta; Fricke, Burkhard

    2013-01-15

    Systematic investigations on the hyperpolarizabilities of hydrogen and helium like ions up to nuclear charge Z = 7 under strongly coupled plasma environment have been performed. Variation perturbation theory has been adopted to evaluate such properties for the one and two electron systems. For the two electron systems coupled Hartree-Fock theory, which takes care of partial electron correlation effects, has been utilised. Ion sphere model of the strongly coupled plasma, valid for ionic systems only, has been adopted for estimating the effect of plasma environment on the hyperpolarizability. The calculated free ion hyperpolarizability for all the systems is in good agreement with the existing data. Under confinement hyperpolarizabilities of one and two electron ions show interesting trend with respect to plasma coupling strength.