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Sample records for ion recognition impedance

  1. Impedance Spectroscopy of Potential Sulphide Ion Conductors: Instability of Impedance Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, V. S.; Hellgardt, K.; Dann, S. E.; Whiter, R.

    Very few studies are available which deal with sulphide systems while a large number of different types of oxide ion conducting ceramics are described in the open literature. The research here has focused on oxide ion conducting analogues. Solid solutions of CaNd2S3 and Nd2S3 were characterized using Impedance Spectroscopy (IS), temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The materials resist oxidation up to a temperature of approximately 680°C and reduction up to 750°C. Instability of impedance arcs at elevated temperatures have been reported previously and are explained in terms of three phase boundary area (TPB). Examples include CaS using gold electrodes and Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia (YSZ) with platinum electrodes. Only a single impedance arc is observed for the undoped CaNd2S4. Two arcs are observed for the doped material indicating ionic mobility. At low frequencies significant instability is observed as a function of temperature (change of decreasing real component of impedance to increasing real component at approximately 250°C for the undoped and 200°C for the doped material). This may be explained by the formation and subsequent decomposition of Au2S forming at the interface of electrolyte and electrode.

  2. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Engineering; IIT

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes [1]. Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley [2]. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation [3]. The resulting system of differential

  3. Recognition of Fibrotic Infarct Density by the Pattern of Local Systolic-Diastolic Myocardial Electrical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; Jorge, Esther; García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramón; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Cinca, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial electrical impedance is a biophysical property of the heart that is influenced by the intrinsic structural characteristics of the tissue. Therefore, the structural derangements elicited in a chronic myocardial infarction should cause specific changes in the local systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance, but this is not known. This study aimed to characterize the local changes of systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance in a healed myocardial infarction model. Six pigs were successfully submitted to 150 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. 4 weeks later, myocardial impedance spectroscopy (1–1000 kHz) was measured at different infarction sites. The electrocardiogram, left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV dP/dt, and aortic blood flow (ABF) were also recorded. A total of 59 LV tissue samples were obtained and histopathological studies were performed to quantify the percentage of fibrosis. Samples were categorized as normal myocardium (<10% fibrosis), heterogeneous scar (10–50%) and dense scar (>50%). Resistivity of normal myocardium depicted phasic changes during the cardiac cycle and its amplitude markedly decreased in dense scar (18 ± 2 Ω·cm vs. 10 ± 1 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001, respectively). The mean phasic resistivity decreased progressively from normal to heterogeneous and dense scar regions (285 ± 10 Ω·cm, 225 ± 25 Ω·cm, and 162 ± 6 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001 respectively). Moreover, myocardial resistivity and phase angle correlated significantly with the degree of local fibrosis (resistivity: r = 0.86 at 1 kHz, P < 0.001; phase angle: r = 0.84 at 41 kHz, P < 0.001). Myocardial infarcted regions with greater fibrotic content show lower mean impedance values and more depressed systolic-diastolic dynamic impedance changes. In conclusion, this study reveals that differences in the degree of myocardial fibrosis can be detected in vivo by local measurement of phasic systolic

  4. Bioconjugation of Small Molecules to RNA Impedes Its Recognition by Toll-Like Receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Isabell; Freund, Isabel; Schlöder, Janine; Seidu-Larry, Salifu; Thüring, Kathrin; Slama, Kaouthar; Langhanki, Jens; Kaloyanova, Stefka; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Krumb, Matthias; Röhm, Sandra; Peneva, Kalina; Opatz, Till; Jonuleit, Helmut; Dalpke, Alexander H.; Helm, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental mechanism of the innate immune system is the recognition, via extra- and intracellular pattern-recognition receptors, of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. A prominent example is represented by foreign nucleic acids, triggering the activation of several signaling pathways. Among these, the endosomal toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is known to be activated by single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), which can be specifically influenced through elements of sequence structure and posttranscriptional modifications. Furthermore, small molecules TLR7 agonists (smTLRa) are applied as boosting adjuvants in vaccination processes. In this context, covalent conjugations between adjuvant and vaccines have been reported to exhibit synergistic effects. Here, we describe a concept to chemically combine three therapeutic functions in one RNA bioconjugate. This consists in the simultaneous TLR7 stimulation by ssRNA and smTLRa as well as the therapeutic function of the RNA itself, e.g., as a vaccinating or knockdown agent. We have hence synthesized bioconjugates of mRNA and siRNA containing covalently attached smTLRa and tested their function in TLR7 stimulation. Strikingly, the bioconjugates displayed decreased rather than synergistically increased stimulation. The decrease was distinct from the antagonistic action of an siRNA bearing a Gm motive, as observed by direct comparison of the effects in the presence of otherwise stimulatory RNA. In summary, these investigations showed that TRL7 activation can be impeded by bioconjugation of small molecules to RNA. PMID:28392787

  5. Investigating the low-temperature impedance increase of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Heaton, J. R.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Chemical Engineering

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature performance loss is a significant barrier to commercialization of lithium-ion cells in hybrid electric vehicles. Increased impedance, especially at temperatures below 0 C, reduces the cell pulse power performance required for cold engine starts, quick acceleration, or regenerative braking. Here we detail electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data on binder- and carbon-free layered-oxide and spinel-oxide electrodes, obtained over the +30 to ?30 C temperature range, in coin cells containing a lithium-preloaded Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} composite (LTOc) counter electrode and a LiPF{sub 6}-bearing ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte. For all electrodes studied, the impedance increased with decreasing cell temperature; the increases observed in the midfrequency arc dwarfed the increases in ohmic resistance and diffusional impedance. Our data suggest that the movement of lithium ions across the electrochemical interface on the active material may have been increasingly hindered at lower temperatures, especially below 0 C. Low-temperature performance may be improved by modifying the electrolyte-active material interface (for example, through electrolyte composition changes). Increasing surface area of active particles (for example, through nanoparticle use) can lower the initial electrode impedance and lead to lower cell impedances at -30 C.

  6. Impedance Analysis of Ion Transport Through Supported Lipid Membranes Doped with Ionophores: A New Kinetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, P. E.; Vallejo, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetics of facilitated ion transport through planar bilayer membranes are normally analyzed by electrical conductance methods. The additional use of electrical relaxation techniques, such as voltage jump, is necessary to evaluate individual rate constants. Although electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is recognized as the most powerful of the available electric relaxation techniques, it has rarely been used in connection with these kinetic studies. According to the new approach presented in this work, three steps were followed. First, a kinetic model was proposed that has the distinct quality of being general, i.e., it properly describes both carrier and channel mechanisms of ion transport. Second, the state equations for steady-state and for impedance experiments were derived, exhibiting the input–output representation pertaining to the model’s structure. With the application of a method based on the similarity transformation approach, it was possible to check that the proposed mechanism is distinguishable, i.e., no other model with a different structure exhibits the same input–output behavior for any input as the original. Additionally, the method allowed us to check whether the proposed model is globally identifiable (i.e., whether there is a single set of fit parameters for the model) when analyzed in terms of its impedance response. Thus, our model does not represent a theoretical interpretation of the experimental impedance but rather constitutes the prerequisite to select this type of experiment in order to obtain optimal kinetic identification of the system. Finally, impedance measurements were performed and the results were fitted to the proposed theoretical model in order to obtain the kinetic parameters of the system. The successful application of this approach is exemplified with results obtained for valinomycin–K+ in lipid bilayers supported onto gold substrates, i.e., an arrangement capable of emulating biological membranes. PMID:19669528

  7. Modeling the longitudinal wall impedance instability in heavy ion beams using an R-Z PIC code

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P. ); Haber, I. )

    1991-02-22

    The effects of the longitudinal wall impedance instability in a heavy ion beam are of great interest for heavy ion fusion drivers. We are studying this instability using the R-Z thread of the WARP PIC code. We describe the code and our model of the impedance due to the accelerating modules of the induction LINAC as a resistive wall. We present computer simulations which illustrate this instability. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A simplified fractional order impedance model and parameter identification method for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingxia; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xiuqing

    2017-01-01

    Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge. In order to identify the parameters of the model, an equivalent tracking system was established, and the method of least square genetic algorithm was applied using the time-domain test data. Experiments and computer simulations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model and parameter identification method. Compared with a second-order resistance-capacitance (2-RC) model and recursive least squares method, small tracing voltage fluctuations were observed. The maximum battery voltage tracing error for the proposed model and parameter identification method is within 0.5%; this demonstrates the good performance of the model and the efficiency of the least square genetic algorithm to estimate the internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28212405

  9. A simplified fractional order impedance model and parameter identification method for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxia; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xiuqing

    2017-01-01

    Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge. In order to identify the parameters of the model, an equivalent tracking system was established, and the method of least square genetic algorithm was applied using the time-domain test data. Experiments and computer simulations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model and parameter identification method. Compared with a second-order resistance-capacitance (2-RC) model and recursive least squares method, small tracing voltage fluctuations were observed. The maximum battery voltage tracing error for the proposed model and parameter identification method is within 0.5%; this demonstrates the good performance of the model and the efficiency of the least square genetic algorithm to estimate the internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries.

  10. The longitudinal wall impedance instability in a heavy-ion fusion driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Debra A.; Langdon, A. Bruce; Friedman, Alex; Haber, Irving

    1997-04-01

    For more than ten years [J. Bisognano, I. Haber, L. Smith, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 2501 (1983)], the longitudinal wall impedance instability was thought to be a serious threat to the success of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion. This instability is a "resistive wall" instability, driven by the impedance of the induction modules used to accelerate the beam. Early estimates of the instability growth rate predicted tens of e-folds due to the instability which would modulate the current and increase the longitudinal momentum spread and prevent focusing the ion beam on the small spot needed at the target. We have simulated this instability using an r-z particle-in-cell code which includes a model for the module impedance. These simulations, using driver parameters, show that growth due to the instability is smaller than in previous calculations. We have seen that growth is mainly limited to one head to tail transit by a space-charge wave. In addition, the capacitive component of the module impedance, which was neglected in the early work of Lee [E. P. Lee, Proc. Linear Accelerator Conference, (UCRL-86452), Santa Fe, NM, 1981] significantly reduces the growth rate. We have also included in the simulation intermittently applied axial confining fields which are thought to be the major source of perturbations to seed the longitudinal instability. Simulations show the beam can adjust to a systematic error in the longitudinal confining fields while a random error excites the most unstable wavelength of the instability. These simulations show that the longitudinal instability must be taken into account in a driver design, but it is not the major factor it was once thought to be.

  11. Wavelet transformation to determine impedance spectra of lithium-ion rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoshinao; Yakabe, Natsuki; Isobe, Koichiro; Saito, Toshiki; Shitanda, Isao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    A new analytical method is proposed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) from time domain data by wavelet transformation (WT). The WT is a waveform analysis method that can transform data in the time domain to the frequency domain while retaining time information. In this transformation, the frequency domain data are obtained by the convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data. A complex Morlet mother wavelet (CMMW) is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The CMMW is expressed by combining a Gaussian function and sinusoidal term. The theory to select a set of suitable conditions for variables and constants related to the CMMW, i.e., band, scale, and time parameters, is established by determining impedance spectra from wavelet coefficients using input voltage to the equivalent circuit and the output current. The impedance spectrum of LIRB determined by WT agrees well with that measured using a frequency response analyzer.

  12. Current density distribution in cylindrical Li-Ion cells during impedance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osswald, P. J.; Erhard, S. V.; Noel, A.; Keil, P.; Kindermann, F. M.; Hoster, H.; Jossen, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, modified commercial cylindrical lithium-ion cells with multiple separate current tabs are used to analyze the influence of tab pattern, frequency and temperature on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In a first step, the effect of different current tab arrangements on the impedance spectra is analyzed and possible electrochemical causes are discussed. In a second step, one terminal is used to apply a sinusoidal current while the other terminals are used to monitor the local potential distribution at different positions along the electrodes of the cell. It is observed that the characteristic decay of the voltage amplitude along the electrode changes non-linearly with frequency, where high-frequent currents experience a stronger attenuation along the current collector than low-frequent currents. In further experiments, the decay characteristic is controlled by the cell temperature, driven by the increasing resistance of the current collector and the enhanced kinetic and transport properties of the active material and electrolyte. Measurements indicate that the ac current distribution depends strongly on the frequency and the temperature. In this context, the challenges for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as cell diagnostic technique for commercial cells are discussed.

  13. Correlation between capacity and impedance of lithium-ion cells during calendar and cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Simon F.; Brand, Martin J.; Campestrini, Christian; Gleissenberger, Markus; Jossen, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Conventional capacity measurement techniques are time-consuming and thus expensive. But to know the capacity of battery units is necessary, e.g. to select most equal cells for battery pack assembly or to decide whether single units of an aged battery pack are worthy to be reused in a 2nd-life application. So, a quick and easy approach to refer to the actual capacity is of great technical and economic interest. In this paper, the correlation between capacity and impedance of lithium-ion cells during calendar and cycle life is analyzed and assessed, whether it can serve as a base for capacity quick tests. Therefore, new cells, cells aged in the laboratory and those out of two identical electric vehicles are characterized to yield a broad set of data. Results of this work imply the feasibility of correlation based capacity quick tests. However, parameterization of needed functional dependencies between capacity and impedance must be done with laboratory aging data similar to the practical use as a strong dependency of the correlation behavior from the operational and storage conditions is observed. Especially high temperature leads to strong deviation which could be linked to the layered structure of the solid electrolyte interphase.

  14. EPR and impedance spectroscopic investigations on lithium bismuth borate glasses containing nickel and vanadium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Arti; Khasa, Satish; Hooda, Ashima; Dahiya, Manjeet S.; Agarwal, Ashish; Chand, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Glasses having composition 7NiO • 23Li2O • 20Bi2O3 • 50B2O3, 7V2O5 • 23Li2O • 20Bi2O3 • 50B2O3 and x(2NiO • V2O5) • (30 - x)Li2O • 50B2O3 • 20Bi2O3 (with x = 0, 2, 5, 7 & 10 mol%) prepared through melt-quench route are explored by analyzing density, impedance spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). It is found that both density and molar volume increase with an increase in substitution of 2NiO • V2O5 in the base glass matrix. Different dielectric parameters viz. dielectric loss (ε), electrical modulus (M), loss tangent (tanδ) etc. are evaluated and their variations with frequency and temperature are analyzed which reveals that these glasses exhibit a non-Debye relaxation behavior. A phenomenal description of the capacitive behavior is obtained by considering the circuitry as a parallel combination of bulk resistance (Rb) and constant phase element (CPE). The conduction mechanism is found to follow Quantum Mechanical Tunneling (QMT) model. Spin Hamiltonian Parameters (SHPs) and covalency rates are calculated from the EPR spectra of vanadyl ion. The observed EPR spectra confirmed that V4 + ion exists as vanadyl ion in the octahedral coordination with tetragonal compression.

  15. Complex impedance and conductivity of agar-based ion-conducting polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Udounwa, A. E.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-04-01

    Agar-based electrolyte standing films with different salts and weak acids as ion and proton conductors were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The salts used are lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4), while the weak acids used are acetic acid (CH3COOH) and lactic acid (C3H6O3). The values of the ion conductivity obtained for the agar-based polymer films are 6.54 × 10-8, 9.12 × 10-8, 3.53 × 10-8, 2.24 × 10-8 S/cm for the agar/acetic acid, agar/lactic acid, agar/LiClO4 and agar/KClO4 polymer films, respectively. As a function of temperature, the ion conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius behavior and the estimated activation energy is ≈0.1 eV for all the samples. The samples depicted high values of dielectric permittivity toward low frequencies which is due mostly to electrode polarization effect. The samples showed very high transparency (85-98 %) in the visible region, and this high transparency is one of the major requirements for application in electrochromic devices (ECD). The values of conductivity and activation energy obtained indicate that the electrolytes are good materials for application in ECD.

  16. The visual magnocellular-dorsal dysfunction in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia impedes Chinese character recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Qian, Yi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Coltheart, Max

    2014-11-20

    The visual magnocellular-dorsal (M-D) deficit theory of developmental dyslexia (DD) is still highly debated. Many researchers have made great efforts to investigate the relationship between M-D dysfunction and reading disability. Given that visual analysis plays an important role in Chinese reading, the present study tried to examine how the M-D dysfunction affected Chinese character recognition in Chinese children with DD. Sixteen DD children with M-D deficit, fifteen DD children with normal M-D function and twenty-seven age-matched typically developing children participated in this study. A global/local decision task was adopted, in which we manipulated the spatial frequency of target characters to separate an M-D condition from an unfiltered condition. Results of reaction times and error rates showed that in the M-D condition both M-D normal dyslexics and controls exhibited a significant global precedence effect, with faster responses and lower error rates in global decision than in local decision. In contrast, this global advantage was absent for the M-D impaired dyslexics. Accordingly, we propose that the M-D impairment present in some but not all dyslexics might influence global recognition of Chinese characters in this subgroup of children with DD, which might be implicated in their difficulties in learning to read.

  17. Molecular recognition of organic ammonium ions in solution using synthetic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Späth, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Summary Ammonium ions are ubiquitous in chemistry and molecular biology. Considerable efforts have been undertaken to develop synthetic receptors for their selective molecular recognition. The type of host compounds for organic ammonium ion binding span a wide range from crown ethers to calixarenes to metal complexes. Typical intermolecular interactions are hydrogen bonds, electrostatic and cation–π interactions, hydrophobic interactions or reversible covalent bond formation. In this review we discuss the different classes of synthetic receptors for organic ammonium ion recognition and illustrate the scope and limitations of each class with selected examples from the recent literature. The molecular recognition of ammonium ions in amino acids is included and the enantioselective binding of chiral ammonium ions by synthetic receptors is also covered. In our conclusion we compare the strengths and weaknesses of the different types of ammonium ion receptors which may help to select the best approach for specific applications. PMID:20502608

  18. Single sensor for two metal ions: Colorimetric recognition of Cu 2+ and fluorescent recognition of Hg 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lijun; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Minghui; Nandhakumar, Raju

    2011-03-01

    The first novel rhodamine B based sensor, rhodamine B hydrazide methyl 5-formyl-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate Schiff base ( 2) capable of detecting both Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ using two different detection modes has been designed and synthesized. The metal ion induced optical changes of 2 were investigated in MeOH:H 2O (3:1) HEPES buffered solution at pH 7.4. Sensor 2 exhibits selective colorimetric recognition of Cu 2+ and fluorogenic recognition of Hg 2+ with UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Moreover, both of the Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ recognition processes are proven to be hardly influenced by other coexisting metal ions.

  19. Electrochemical Behavior of Disposable Electrodes Prepared by Ion Beam Based Surface Modification for Biomolecular Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Erdem, A.; Karadeniz, H.; Caliskan, A.; Urkac, E. Sokullu; Oztarhan, A.; Oks, E.; Nikolayev, A.

    2009-03-10

    Many important technological advances have been made in the development of technologies to monitor interactions and recognition events of biomolecules in solution and on solid substrates. The development of advanced biosensors could impact significantly the areas of genomics, proteomics, biomedical diagnostics and drug discovery. In the literature, there have recently appeared an impressive number of intensive designs for electrochemical monitoring of biomolecular recognition. Herein, the influence of ion implanted disposable graphite electrodes on biomolecular recognition and their electrochemical behaviour was investigated.

  20. Quantitative characterization of capsaicin-induced TRPV1 ion channel activation in HEK293 cells by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Maxi; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Krinke, Dana; Zitzmann, Franziska D; Hill, Kerstin; Schaefer, Michael; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of receptor activity, especially in its native cellular environment, has always been of great interest to evaluate its intrinsic but also downstream biological activity. An important group of cellular receptors are ion channels. Since they are involved in a broad range of crucial cell functions, they represent important therapeutic targets. Thus, novel analytical techniques for the quantitative monitoring and screening of biological receptor activity are of great interest. In this context, we developed an impedance spectroscopy-based label-free and non-invasive monitoring system that enabled us to analyze the activation of the transient receptor potential channel Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in detail. TRPV1 channel activation by capsaicin resulted in a reproducible impedance decrease. Moreover, concentration response curves with an EC50 value of 0.9 μM could be determined. Control experiments with non TRPV1 channel expressing HEK cells as well as experiments with the TRPV1 channel blocker ruthenium red validated the specificity of the observed impedance decrease. More strikingly, through correlative studies with a cytoskeleton restructuring inhibitor mixture and equivalent circuit analysis of the acquired impedance spectra, we could quantitatively discriminate between the direct TRPV1 channel activation and downstream-induced biological effects. In summary, we developed a quantitative impedimetric monitoring system for the analysis of TRPV1 channel activity as well as downstream-induced biological activity in living cells. It has the capabilities to identify novel ion channel activators as well as inhibitors for the TRPV1 channel but could also easily be applied to other ion channel-based receptors.

  1. State-space representation of Li-ion battery porous electrode impedance model with balanced model reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Myungsoo; Smith, Kandler; Graf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approximate time-domain solution for physics-based electrochemical lithium-ion cell battery models. The time-domain solution is represented in state-space form and can be easily used for the design of a state estimator or controller. It uses an interconnection-of-system approach to derive a state-space representation of a battery impedance model and provides a reduced order model based via the balanced truncation method. Simulation results are also provided to show the performance of the proposed model in the frequency domain.

  2. Understanding the ion dynamics and relaxation behavior from impedance spectroscopy of NaI doped Zwitterionic polymer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manindra; Tiwari, Tuhina; Chauhan, Jagdish Kumar; Srivastava, Neelam

    2014-12-01

    The ion dynamics and relaxation behavior of a novel polymer electrolyte system is studied by presenting impedance spectroscopy data in a different formalism. The prepared system has conductivity of the order of 10-3 Scm-1 at 303 K, and the RH % = 55. Depressed Nyquist plots and broadened M˝ curves (as a function of ω) indicated the distribution of the relaxation time, which is further confirmed by the fractional value of the Kohlrausch-William-Watts (KWW) function (β ˜ 0.75). The hopping and caged movement of the ions are observed in the experimental frequency range (˜MHz), which is confirmed by the conductivity and dielectric representations. The scaling of the conductivity data, with reference to salt concentration and temperature, are successfully observed by fitting the conductivity data exclusively in the Jonscher Power Law (JPL) region. An inverse relation between τcon and σ indicated a strong correlation between the ion and polymer segment motion. An additional high frequency relaxation phenomenon is observed at 50% of the salt concentration, which is correlated with the self-diffusion of the ion and proposed that such phenomenon is observed when ions have multiplet forming tendency.

  3. Reduced electrical impedance of SiO{sub 2}, deposited through focused ion beam based systems, due to impurity percolation

    SciTech Connect

    Faraby, H.; DiBattista, M.; Bandaru, P. R.

    2014-11-28

    The electrical impedance (both the resistive and capacitive aspects) of focused ion beam (FIB) deposited SiO{sub 2} has been correlated to the specific composition of the ion beam, in Ga- and Xe-based FIB systems. The presence of electrically percolating Ga in concert with carbon (inevitably found as the product of the hydrocarbon precursor decomposition) has been isolated as a major cause for the observed decrease in the resistivity of the deposited SiO{sub 2}. Concomitant with the decreased resistivity, an increased capacitance and effective dielectric constant was observed. Our study would be useful to understand the constraints to the deposition of high quality insulator films through FIB based methodologies.

  4. Impedance matched, high-power, rf antenna for ion cyclotron resonance heating of a plasma

    DOEpatents

    Baity, Jr., Frederick W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Owens, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    A resonant double loop radio frequency (rf) antenna for radiating high-power rf energy into a magnetically confined plasma. An inductive element in the form of a large current strap, forming the radiating element, is connected between two variable capacitors to form a resonant circuit. A real input impedance results from tapping into the resonant circuit along the inductive element, generally near the midpoint thereof. The impedance can be matched to the source impedance by adjusting the separate capacitors for a given tap arrangement or by keeping the two capacitances fixed and adjustng the tap position. This results in a substantial reduction in the voltage and current in the transmission system to the antenna compared to unmatched antennas. Because the complete circuit loop consisting of the two capacitors and the inductive element is resonant, current flows in the same direction along the entire length of the radiating element and is approximately equal in each branch of the circuit. Unidirectional current flow permits excitation of low order poloidal modes which penetrate more deeply into the plasma.

  5. Implementation and verification of a hybrid performance and impedance model of gridded radio-frequency ion thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmar, Chris; Ricklefs, Ubbo

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we show the development steps for an iterative performance and impedance model of gridded radio-frequency (RF) ion thrusters. The input parameters are equivalent to those of the real propulsion system; i.e., coil current, propellant mass flow, and extraction grid voltages. Therefore, the model is easily validated and verified by experimental data and can furthermore be used to optimize the overall thruster performance. The model predicts volume-averaged plasma parameters such as electron temperature, conductivity, total pressure, and ionization fraction as well as thruster performance data like generated thrust, specific impulse, and mass and electrical efficiency. The above mentioned plasma parameters are obtained as functions of the discharge chamber's geometry by using a charge balance equation that relates generated ions to ions lost at the chamber's walls. The plasma related quantities influence the electromagnetic field penetration which is here evaluated by means of a diffusion equation for the vector potential. The vector potential is obtained by a 3D Finite-Difference-Method on a cubic and rectangular grid which, in principle, offers the opportunity to have arbitrary plasma chamber and coil geometries. An actual ion thruster geometry is evaluated in this study in favor of experimental verification of the numerically obtained data. The thruster's coil generates highly asymmetric electromagnetic fields which motivates the use of a three-dimensional solver. A dissipation model based on Ohm's law and Poynting's theorem is used to determine the absorbed power within the discharge. To obtain a stable solution, the electromagnetically absorbed power is equated to the power lost due to elastic and inelastic collisions and electron wall flux. This whole process is iteratively repeated until the degree of ionization converges within a given threshold. To relate the stable discharge parameters to the thruster performance an extraction model based on a

  6. Resonance-mode electrochemical impedance measurements of silicon dioxide supported lipid bilayer formation and ion channel mediated charge transport.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Anders; Hedlund, Julia; Andersson, Olof; Brändén, Magnus; Kunze, Angelika; Elwing, Hans; Höök, Fredrik

    2011-10-15

    A single-chip electrochemical method based on impedance measurements in resonance mode has been employed to study lipid monolayer and bilayer formation on hydrophobic alkanethiolate and SiO(2) substrates, respectively. The processes were monitored by temporally resolving changes in interfacial capacitance and resistance, revealing information about the rate of formation, coverage, and defect density (quality) of the layers at saturation. The resonance-based impedance measurements were shown to reveal significant differences in the layer formation process of bilayers made from (i) positively charged lipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (POEPC), (ii) neutral lipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) on SiO(2), and (iii) monolayers made from POEPC on hydrophobic alkanethiolate substrates. The observed responses were represented with an equivalent circuit, suggesting that the differences primarily originate from the presence of a conductive aqueous layer between the lipid bilayers and the SiO(2). In addition, by adding the ion channel gramicidin D to bilayers supported on SiO(2), channel-mediated charge transport could be measured with high sensitivity (resolution around 1 pA).

  7. An approach to fouling characterization of an ion-exchange membrane using current-voltage relation and electrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Soo; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Yeon, Kyeong-Ho; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2006-02-01

    Fouling phenomena of an anion-exchange membrane by bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using current-voltage relation and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in this study. Electrochemical parameters of the Neosepta CMX cation- and AMX anion-exchange membrane (Tokuyama Corp., Japan) such as limiting current density (LCD), transport number, plateau length, and fraction of the conducting phase were measured. Fraction of the conducting phase of the ion-exchange membranes, calculated from the modified Sand equation, played an important role in determining the electrochemical parameters in the presence of foulants such as BSA. Fraction of the conducting phase of the AMX membrane significantly decreased in the presence of BSA. Two distinguishable slopes were observed in the over-LCD region of the current-voltage (I-V) curve, indicating the change of resistance. To further elucidate the phenomena, the electrical impedance spectroscopic study was carried out using the offset alternating current. It was found that the negatively charged loose fouling layer changed to the dense deposited BSA on the surface of the AMX membrane occurring along with enhanced water dissociation phenomena at the surface of the fouled AMX membrane at a higher current density. This result was confirmed by water dissociation experiments in a six-compartment electrodialysis cell.

  8. Selective recognition of neodymium (III) using ion imprinted polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Paramesamangalam Gopi; Gladis, Joseph Mary; Rao, Talasila Prasada; Naidu, Gurijala Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    Neodymium (III) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) materials were prepared by the copolymerization of neodymium (III)-5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol-4-vinylpyridine ternary complex with styrene(monomer), divinyl benzene (crosslinking monomer) in the presence of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator). The synthesis was carried out in 2-methoxy ethanol medium (porogen) and the resultant material was filtered, washed, dried and powdered to form unleached IIP particles. The imprint ion was removed by stirring the above particles with 50% (v/v) HCl for 6 h to obtain leached IIP particles with cavities in the polymer particles. Control polymer (CP) particles were similarly prepared without imprint ion, i.e. neodymium (III). CP, unleached and leached IIP particles were characterized by TLC, IR, microanalysis, XRD and UV-visible spectrophotometric studies. The preconcentration of 5-150 microg of neodymium (III) ions present in 500 ml of solution was possible with as little as 40 mg of neodymium (III) IIP particles in the pH range 7.5-8.0 with a detection limit of 50 ng/l. Five replicate determinations of 25 microg of neodymium (III) present in 500 ml of solution gave a mean absorbance of 0.120 with a relative standard deviation of 2.65%. The imprinting effect of IIP particles was noticed in all preconcentration and selectivity studies when compared with CP particles. Furthermore, the selectivity coefficients of neodymium (III) IIP particles were much higher compared with the reported separation factors for the best liquid-liquid extractants, viz. di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid and 2-ethylhexyl-ethylhexyl phosphonate. Kinetic and isotherm studies during rebinding of neodymium (III) onto IIP particles were also carried out.

  9. Corrosion and corrosion inhibition of Al and some alloys in sulphate solutions containing halide ions investigated by an impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehim, Sayed S. Abdel; Hassan, Hamdi H.; Amin, Mohammed A.

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the results of impedance measurements on the corrosion behaviour of pure Al, (Al+6%Cu) and (Al+6%Si) alloys in Na 2SO 4 solutions in the absence and presence of NaCl, NaBr and NaI under the influence of various experimental variables at the open circuit potential (OCP). We find that in the absence of halide ions the rates of corrosion of the three Al samples are enhanced with increasing concentration, acidity, and alkalinity of the Na 2SO 4 solution and in the presence of halide ions. The corrosion resistance increases in the order Al<(Al+6%Cu)<(Al+6%Si). The aggressiveness of the halide ions towards the corrosion of Al and its two alloys increases in the order: I -

  10. Ion and Molecular Recognition Using Aryl–Ethynyl Scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    Vonnegut, Chris L.; Tresca, Blakely W.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl–ethynyl linkage has been extensively employed in the construction of hosts for a variety of guests. Uses range from ion detection (e.g., of metal cations in the environment or industrial waste and of anions prevalent in nature), to molecular mimics for biological systems, and to applications targeting future safety issues (such as CO2 capture and indicators for the manufacture of chemical weapons). This Focus Review examines the utilization of the aryl–ethynyl linkage in engineering host molecules for a variety of different guests, and how the alkyne unit plays an integral part as both a rigid scaffolding section in host geometry design as well as a linker to allow conjugative communication between discrete π-electron systems. PMID:25586943

  11. Ion and molecular recognition using aryl-ethynyl scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Vonnegut, Chris L; Tresca, Blakely W; Johnson, Darren W; Haley, Michael M

    2015-03-01

    The aryl-ethynyl linkage has been extensively employed in the construction of hosts for a variety of guests. Uses range from ion detection (e.g., of metal cations in the environment or industrial waste and of anions prevalent in nature), to molecular mimics for biological systems, and to applications targeting future safety issues (such as CO2 capture and indicators for the manufacture of chemical weapons). This Focus Review examines the utilization of the aryl-ethynyl linkage in engineering host molecules for a variety of different guests, and how the alkyne unit plays an integral part as both a rigid scaffolding section in host geometry design as well as a linker to allow conjugative communication between discrete π-electron systems.

  12. Macromolecular recognition directs calcium ions to coccolith mineralization sites.

    PubMed

    Gal, Assaf; Wirth, Richard; Kopka, Joachim; Fratzl, Peter; Faivre, Damien; Scheffel, André

    2016-08-05

    Many organisms form elaborate mineralized structures, constituted of highly organized arrangements of crystals and organic macromolecules. The localization of crystals within these structures is presumably determined by the interaction of nucleating macromolecules with the mineral phase. Here we show that, preceding nucleation, a specific interaction between soluble organic molecules and an organic backbone structure directs mineral components to specific sites. This strategy underlies the formation of coccoliths, which are highly ordered arrangements of calcite crystals produced by marine microalgae. On combining the insoluble organic coccolith scaffold with coccolith-associated soluble macromolecules in vitro, we found a massive accretion of calcium ions at the sites where the crystals form in vivo. The in vitro process exhibits profound similarities to the initial stages of coccolith biogenesis in vivo.

  13. Original implementation of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in symmetric cells: Evaluation of post-mortem protocols applied to characterize electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Isabel Jiménez; Genies, Sylvie; Si Larbi, Gregory; Boulineau, Adrien; Daniel, Lise; Alias, Mélanie

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ageing mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is essential for further optimizations. To determine performance loss causes, post-mortem analyses are commonly applied. For each type of post-mortem test, different sample preparation protocols are adopted. However, reports on the reliability of these protocols are rare. Herein, Li-ion pouch cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 - polyvinylidene fluoride positive electrode, graphite-carboxymethyl cellulose-styrene rubber negative electrode and LiPF6 - carbonate solvents mixture electrolyte, are opened and electrodes are recovered following a specified protocol. Negative and positive symmetric cells are assembled and their impedances are recorded. A signal analysis is applied to reconstruct the Li-ion pouch cell impedance from the symmetric cells, then comparison against the pouch cell true impedance allows the evaluation of the sample preparation protocols. The results are endorsed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Carbonate solvents used to remove the salt impacts slightly the surface properties of both electrodes. Drying electrodes under vacuum at 25 °C produces an impedance increase, particularly very marked for the positive electrode. Drying at 50 °C under vacuum or/and exposition to the anhydrous room atmosphere is very detrimental.

  14. A Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutation in a conserved C-terminal helix of Orc6 impedes origin recognition complex formation.

    PubMed

    Bleichert, Franziska; Balasov, Maxim; Chesnokov, Igor; Nogales, Eva; Botchan, Michael R; Berger, James M

    2013-10-08

    In eukaryotes, DNA replication requires the origin recognition complex (ORC), a six-subunit assembly that promotes replisome formation on chromosomal origins. Despite extant homology between certain subunits, the degree of structural and organizational overlap between budding yeast and metazoan ORC has been unclear. Using 3D electron microscopy, we determined the subunit organization of metazoan ORC, revealing that it adopts a global architecture very similar to the budding yeast complex. Bioinformatic analysis extends this conservation to Orc6, a subunit of somewhat enigmatic function. Unexpectedly, a mutation in the Orc6 C-terminus linked to Meier-Gorlin syndrome, a dwarfism disorder, impedes proper recruitment of Orc6 into ORC; biochemical studies reveal that this region of Orc6 associates with a previously uncharacterized domain of Orc3 and is required for ORC function and MCM2-7 loading in vivo. Together, our results suggest that Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations in Orc6 impair the formation of ORC hexamers, interfering with appropriate ORC functions. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00882.001.

  15. Exploiting enzyme catalysis in ultra-low ion strength media for impedance biosensing of avian influenza virus using a bare interdigitated electrode.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingchun; Callaway, Zachary; Lum, Jacob; Wang, Ronghui; Lin, Jianhan; Li, Yanbin

    2014-02-18

    Enzyme catalysis is broadly used in various fields but generally applied in media with high ion strength. Here, we propose the exploitation of enzymatic catalysis in ultra-low ion strength media to induce ion strength increase for developing a novel impedance biosensing method. Avian influenza virus H5N1, a serious worldwide threat to poultry and human health, was adopted as the analyte. Magnetic beads were modified with H5N1-specific aptamer to capture the H5N1 virus. This was followed by binding concanavalin A (ConA), glucose oxidase (GOx), and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) to create bionanocomposites through a ConA-glycan interaction. The yielded sandwich complex was transferred to a glucose solution to trigger an enzymatic reaction to produce gluconic acid, which ionized to increase the ion strength of the solution, thus decreasing the impedance on a screen-printed interdigitated array electrode. This method took advantages of the high efficiency of enzymatic catalysis and the high susceptibility of electrochemical impedance on the ion strength and endowed the biosensor with high sensitivity and a detection limit of 8 × 10(-4) HAU in 200 μL sample, which was magnitudes lower than that of some analogues based on biosensing methods. Furthermore, the proposed method required only a bare electrode for measurements of ion strength change and had negligible change on the surficial properties of the electrode, though some modification of magnetic beads/Au nanoparticles and the construction of a sandwich complex were still needed. This helped to avoid the drawbacks of commonly used electrode immobilization methods. The merit for this method makes it highly useful and promising for applications. The proposed method may create new possibilities in the broad and well-developed enzymatic catalysis fields and find applications in developing sensitive, rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-operate biosensing and biocatalysis devices.

  16. On-board monitoring of 2-D spatially-resolved temperatures in cylindrical lithium-ion batteries: Part II. State estimation via impedance-based temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Robert R.; Zhao, Shi; Howey, David A.

    2016-09-01

    Impedance-based temperature detection (ITD) is a promising approach for rapid estimation of internal cell temperature based on the correlation between temperature and electrochemical impedance. Previously, ITD was used as part of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) state-estimator in conjunction with a thermal model to enable estimation of the 1-D temperature distribution of a cylindrical lithium-ion battery. Here, we extend this method to enable estimation of the 2-D temperature field of a battery with temperature gradients in both the radial and axial directions. An EKF using a parameterised 2-D spectral-Galerkin model with ITD measurement input (the imaginary part of the impedance at 215 Hz) is shown to accurately predict the core temperature and multiple surface temperatures of a 32,113 LiFePO4 cell, using current excitation profiles based on an Artemis HEV drive cycle. The method is validated experimentally on a cell fitted with a heat sink and asymmetrically cooled via forced air convection. A novel approach to impedance-temperature calibration is also presented, which uses data from a single drive cycle, rather than measurements at multiple uniform cell temperatures as in previous studies. This greatly reduces the time required for calibration, since it overcomes the need for repeated cell thermal equalization.

  17. A metal–ion-responsive adhesive material via switching of molecular recognition properties

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Common adhesives stick to a wide range of materials immediately after they are applied to the surfaces. To prevent indiscriminate sticking, smart adhesive materials that adhere to a specific target surface only under particular conditions are desired. Here we report a polymer hydrogel modified with both β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and 2,2′-bipyridyl (bpy) moieties (βCD–bpy gel) as a functional adhesive material responding to metal ions as chemical stimuli. The adhesive property of βCD–bpy gel based on interfacial molecular recognition is expressed by complexation of metal ions to bpy that controlled dissociation of supramolecular cross-linking of βCD–bpy. Moreover, adhesion of βCD–bpy gel exhibits selectivity on the kinds of metal ions, depending on the efficiency of metal–bpy complexes in cross-linking. Transduction of two independent chemical signals (metal ions and host–guest interactions) is achieved in this adhesion system, which leads to the development of highly orthogonal macroscopic joining of multiple objects. PMID:25099995

  18. Mechanistic insights into metal ion activation and operator recognition by the ferric uptake regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zengqin; Wang, Qing; Liu, Zhao; Zhang, Manfeng; Machado, Ana Carolina Dantas; Chiu, Tsu-Pei; Feng, Chong; Zhang, Qi; Yu, Lin; Qi, Lei; Zheng, Jiangge; Wang, Xu; Huo, Xinmei; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Xiaorong; Wu, Wei; Rohs, Remo; Li, Ying; Chen, Zhongzhou

    2015-07-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a key role in the iron homeostasis of prokaryotes, such as bacterial pathogens, but the molecular mechanisms and structural basis of Fur-DNA binding remain incompletely understood. Here, we report high-resolution structures of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 Fur in four different states: apo-Fur, holo-Fur, the Fur-feoAB1 operator complex and the Fur-Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fur box complex. Apo-Fur is a transition metal ion-independent dimer whose binding induces profound conformational changes and confers DNA-binding ability. Structural characterization, mutagenesis, biochemistry and in vivo data reveal that Fur recognizes DNA by using a combination of base readout through direct contacts in the major groove and shape readout through recognition of the minor-groove electrostatic potential by lysine. The resulting conformational plasticity enables Fur binding to diverse substrates. Our results provide insights into metal ion activation and substrate recognition by Fur that suggest pathways to engineer magnetotactic bacteria and antipathogenic drugs.

  19. Impedance spectra of Fe-doped SrTiO3 thin films upon bias voltage: inductive loops as a trace of ion motion.

    PubMed

    Taibl, S; Fafilek, G; Fleig, J

    2016-08-07

    Mass and charge transport properties of slightly Fe-doped SrTiO3 (Fe:STO) thin films on a conducting substrate were investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy under different bias voltages and I-V measurements with varying scan rates. At measurement temperatures between 325 °C and 700 °C the applied bias voltage caused an unusual "inductive loop" in the low frequency range of impedance spectra. DC measurements showed that current-voltage curves strongly depend on the scan rate, indicating that different states of the sample became accessible to probe. Both findings can be understood in terms of bias induced ion motion, i.e. by stoichiometry polarization within the Fe:STO thin films upon voltage. Hence, the appearance of an "inductive loop" in the impedance spectra is considered a very general feature that might exist for many materials, particularly in oxide thin films. It may indicate ion motion and stoichiometry variations taking place in the corresponding frequency range.

  20. Architecture of optical sensor for recognition of multiple toxic metal ions from water.

    PubMed

    Shenashen, M A; El-Safty, S A; Elshehy, E A

    2013-09-15

    Here, we designed novel optical sensor based on the wormhole hexagonal mesoporous core/multi-shell silica nanoparticles that enabled the selective recognition and removal of these extremely toxic metals from drinking water. The surface-coating process of a mesoporous core/double-shell silica platforms by several consequence decorations using a cationic surfactant with double alkyl tails (CS-DAT) and then a synthesized dicarboxylate 1,5-diphenyl-3-thiocarbazone (III) signaling probe enabled us to create a unique hierarchical multi-shell sensor. In this design, the high loading capacity and wrapping of the CS-DAT and III organic moieties could be achieved, leading to the formation of silica core with multi-shells that formed from double-silica, CS-DAT, and III dressing layers. In this sensing system, notable changes in color and reflectance intensity of the multi-shelled sensor for Cu(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+) ions, were observed at pH 2, 8, 9.5 and 11.5, respectively. The multi-shelled sensor is added to enable accessibility for continuous monitoring of several different toxic metal ions and efficient multi-ion sensing and removal capabilities with respect to reversibility, selectivity, and signal stability.

  1. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  2. Spectroscopic study of the recognition of 2-quinolinone derivative on mercury ion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongbin; Yang, Yutao; Hao, Junsheng; Yin, Caixia; Huo, Fangjun; Chao, Jianbin; Liu, Diansheng

    2014-11-11

    A new compound based on 2-quinolinone derivative with very little side effects on organisms, 3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-6,7-difluoroquinolin-2(1H)-one, has been designed, synthesized and characterized. And its recognition ability was firstly studied by spectroscopy. The result indicated that the compound shows high selectivity for Hg2+ over other metal ions with detectable fluorescent signals in aqueous-methanol media. The proposed mechanism is that the fluorescence of the probe was quenched due to the effect from spin-orbit coupling of Hg2+ after the probe coordinated with Hg2+, and was proved by ESI-MS and 1H NMR analysis.

  3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for lithium-ion cells: Test equipment and procedures for aging and fast characterization in time and frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Nils; Weßkamp, Patrick; Haußmann, Peter; Melbert, Joachim; Musch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    New test equipment and characterization methods for aging investigations on lithium-ion cells for automotive applications are presented in this work. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a well-established method for cell characterization and analyzing electrochemical processes. In order to integrate this method into long-term aging studies with real driving currents, new test equipment is mandatory. The presented test equipment meets the demands for high current, wide bandwidth and precise measurement. This allows the cells to be cycled and characterized without interruption for changing the test device. The characterization procedures must be of short duration and have a minimum charge-throughput for negligible influence on the aging effect. This work presents new methods in the time and the frequency domain for obtaining the impedance spectrum which allow a flexible trade-off between measurement performance, time consumption and charge-throughput. In addition to sinusoidal waveforms, rectangular, Gaussian and sin(x)/x pulses are applied for EIS. The performance of the different methods is discussed. Finally, the time domain analysis is applied with real driving currents which provides impedance spectra for state of charge estimation considering aging effects in the car.

  4. Immobilization of bovine serum albumin as a sensitive biosensor for the detection of trace lead ion in solution by piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Wei, Wanzhi; Liu, Xiaoying; Kong, Bo; Wu, Ling; Gong, Shuguo

    2007-01-01

    A biosensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA) for the detection of lead (Pb(2+)) ion was developed and characterized. BSA was immobilized onto a colloidal Au-modified piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) as a biosensor for the detection of Pb(2+) ion by piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance (PQCI). Calibration curves for the quantification of Pb(2+) ion showed excellent linearity throughout the concentration range from 1.0 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-9)mol/L. The interaction between the Pb(2+) ions and the sensor chip is influenced significantly by the pH of the reaction buffer, and the optimal pH for the experiment was 5.4. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-9)mol/L for Pb(2+) was obtained. Kinetic parameters of the Pb(2+)-BSA interactions were also determined by using this chip. The sensor chip could be regenerated for use by dipping in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution for approximately 2h, and the chip was used to detect Pb(2+) ion for eight times without obvious signal attenuation.

  5. Two dimensional fluoride ion conductor RbSn {2}F {5} studied by impedance spectroscopy and {19}F, {119}Sn, and {87}Rb NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, K.; Ahmad, M. M.; Ogiso, Y.; Okuda, T.; Chikami, J.; Miehe, G.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2004-07-01

    RbSn2F5 is a two-dimensional fluoride ion conductor. It undergoes a first-order phase transition to a superionic state at 368 K. The structure of the low temperature phase has been determined from the Rietveld analysis of the X-ray powder diffraction. The dynamic properties of the fluoride ions in RbSn2F5 have been studied by impedance spectroscopy and solid state NMR. The dc ionic conductivity of this sample shows an abrupt increase at the phase transition temperature. We have obtained the hopping frequency and the concentration of the charge carriers (F- ions) at different temperatures from the analysis of the conductivity spectra using Almond-West formalism. The estimated values of the charge carriers’ concentration agree well with that determined from the structure and were found to be independent of temperature. The relatively small value of the power-law exponent, n ≈ 0.55, supports the two-dimensional property of the investigated material. Furthermore, 19F NMR with simulation has suggested the diffusive motions of the fluoride ions between different sites. In contrast, 119Sn and 87Rb NMR spectra below 250 K supported the intrinsic disordered nature due to the random distribution of the fluoride ion vacancies.

  6. Electron Impedances

    SciTech Connect

    P Cameron

    2011-12-31

    It is only recently, and particularly with the quantum Hall effect and the development of nanoelectronics, that impedances on the scale of molecules, atoms and single electrons have gained attention. In what follows the possibility that characteristic impedances might be defined for the photon and the single free electron is explored is some detail, the premise being that the concepts of electrical and mechanical impedances are relevant to the elementary particle. The scale invariant quantum Hall impedance is pivotal in this exploration, as is the two body problem and Mach's principle.

  7. Colorimetric and luminescent bifunctional iridium(III) complexes for the sensitive recognition of cyanide ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiudan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jing; Hu, Wenqin; Li, Mei-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Two new cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes [(ppy)2Irppz]Cl (1) and [(ppy)2Irbppz]Cl (2) (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, ppz = 4,7-phenanthrolino-5,6:5,6-pyrazine, bppz = 2.3-di-2-pyridylpyrazine), were designed and synthesized. The structure of [(ppy)2Irppz]Cl was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Their photophysical properties were also studied. This kind of complexes could coordinate with Cu2 +, the photoluminescence (PL) of the complex was quenched, and the color changed from orange-red to green. The forming M-Cu (M: complexes 1 and 2) ensemble could be further utilized as a colorimetric and emission "turn-on" bifunctional detection for CN-, especially for complex 1-Cu2 + showed a high sensitivity toward CN- with a limit of diction is 97 nM. Importantly, this kind of iridium(III) complexes shows a unique recognition of cyanide ions over other anions which makes it an eligible sensing probe for cyanide ions.

  8. Impedance Measurement of an Antenna with Hydrogen Plasma Driven by 13.56 MHz-rf for J-PARC H{sup -} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, A.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Oguri, H.

    2011-09-26

    In order to satisfy the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) second stage requirements of an H{sup -} ion beam current of 50 mA and a life-time of 2000 hours, the development of a 13.56 MHz-rf-driven H{sup -} ion source was started by using an antenna developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As the first step, the impedance of an antenna with hydrogen plasma, which is one of the most important parameters, was measured. For an rf-power of 0 kW, 1.25 kW or 7.45 kW, it was measured as j84.19+5.107 {Omega}, j80.22+11.82 {Omega} or j58.24+21.16 {Omega}, respectively. Its real-part had a rather large value and rather large rf-power dependence unexpectedly. By using the measured impedance, the circuit to produce rf-plasma in the plasma chamber on a -50 kV potential with a 13.56 MHz-rf-source on the ground potential was designed by the circuit simulation code LTSpice IV.

  9. AC impedance analysis of ionic and electronic conductivities in electrode mixture layers for an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siroma, Zyun; Sato, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Tomonari; Nagai, Ryo; Ota, Akira; Ioroi, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    The ionic and electronic effective conductivities of an electrode mixture layers for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries containing Li2Ssbnd P2S5 as a solid electrolyte were investigated by AC impedance measurements and analysis using a transmission-line model (TLM). Samples containing graphite (graphite electrodes) or LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM electrodes) as the active material were measured under a "substrate | sample | bulk electrolyte | sample | substrate" configuration (ion-electron connection) and a "substrate | sample | substrate" configuration (electron-electron connection). Theoretically, if the electronic resistance is negligibly small, which is the case with our graphite electrodes, measurement with the ion-electron connection should be effective for evaluating ionic conductivity. However, if the electronic resistance is comparable to the ionic resistance, which is the case with our NCM electrodes, the results with the ion-electron connection may contain some inherent inaccuracy. In this report, we theoretically and practically demonstrate the advantage of analyzing the results with the electron-electron connection, which gives both the ionic and electronic conductivities. The similarity of the behavior of ionic conductivity with the graphite and NCM electrodes confirms the reliability of this analysis.

  10. Silver Nanoclusters with Specific Ion Recognition Modulated by Ligand Passivation toward Fluorimetric and Colorimetric Copper Analysis and Biological Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zongzhao; Li, Shuying; Jiang, Yao; Qiao, Yuchun; Zhang, Liyan; Xu, Lulu; Liu, Jinghui; Qi, Wei; Wang, Hua

    2016-02-05

    Silver nanoclusters were synthesized and passivated by glutathione (GSH) ligand, with high aqueous stability and powerful red fluorescence and UV-vis yellow colour. Importantly, the specific recognition of the AgNCs was modulated from Hg(2+) ions to Cu(2+) ions upon the GSH passivation, of which the unique GSH-Cu(2+) chelating reaction could conduct the fluorescence quenching of AgNCs. Strong UV-vis absorbance of GSH-passivated AgNCs could also be realized depending on the Cu(2+) levels. Moreover, the Cu(2+)-induced loss of fluorescence and UV-vis absorbance of GSH-passivated AgNCs could be well restored by using stronger Cu(2+) chelating agent. A simultaneous and reversible fluorimetric and colorimetric sensing method was thereby developed for probing Cu(2+) ions in blood with high sensitivity and selectivity. Subsequently, the fluorescence-trackable imaging for live tissues and cells was demonstrated towards the analysis Cu(2+) ions using GSH-passivated AgNCs as the fluorescent probes. This study indicates that the use of functional ligands like GSH could not only modulate the specific ion recognition of AgNCs, but also endow them the high aqueous stability and powerful red fluorescence towards the wide applications for ion sensing and biological imaging in the complicated media like blood.

  11. Correlation of Arrhenius behaviors in power and capacity fades with cell impedance and heat generation in cylindrical lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Roth, E. Peter; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Case, Herbert L.; Doughty, Daniel H.

    A series of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion cells with an MAG-10|1.2 M LiPF 6 ethylene carbonate (EC):ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (w:w=3:7)|Li xNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 configuration were made and tested for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications under various aging conditions of temperature and state-of-charge (SOC). The cells were intermittently characterized for changes in power capability, rate capacity, and impedance as aging progressed. The changes of these properties with temperature, as depicted by Arrhenius equations, were analyzed. We found that the degradation in power and capacity fade seems to relate to the impedance increase in the cell. The degradation follows a multi-stage process. The initial stage of degradation has an activation energy of the order of 50-55 kJ/mol, as derived from power fade and C1 capacity fade measured at C/1 rate. In addition, microcalorimetry was performed on two separate unaged cells at 80% SOC at various temperatures to measure static heat generation in the cells. We found that the static heat generation has an activation energy of the order of 48-55 kJ/mol, similar to those derived from power and C1 capacity fade. The correspondence in the magnitude of the activation energy suggests that the power and C1 capacity fades were related to the changes of the impedance in the cells, most likely via the same fading mechanism. The fading mechanism seemed to be related to the static heat generation of the cell.

  12. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  13. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  14. The testing of batteries linked to supercapacitors with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A comparison between Li-ion and valve regulated lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferg, Ernst; Rossouw, Claire; Loyson, Peter

    2013-03-01

    For electric vehicles, a supercapacitor can be coupled to the electrical system in order to increase and optimize the energy and power densities of the drive system during acceleration and regenerative breaking. This study looked at the charge acceptance and maximum discharge ability of a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) and a Li-ion battery connected in parallel to supercapacitors. The test procedure evaluated the advantage of using a supercapacitor at a 2 F:1 Ah ratio with the battery types at various states of charge (SoC). The results showed that about 7% of extra charge was achieved over a 5-s test time for a Li-ion hybrid system at 20% SoC, whereas at the 80% SoC the additional capacity was approximately 16%. While for the VRLA battery hybrid system, an additional charge of up to 20% was achieved when the battery was at 80% SoC, with little or no benefit at the 20% SoC. The advantage of the supercapacitor in parallel with a VRLA battery was noticeable on its discharge ability, where significant extra capacity was achieved for short periods of time for a battery at the 60% and 40% SoC when compared to the Li-ion hybrid system. The study also made use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with a suitable equivalent circuit model to explain, in particular, the internal resistance and capacitance differences observed between the different battery chemistries with and without a supercapacitor.

  15. In situ impedance analysis on BaTiO3-LiCoO2 composite cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Yumi; Sakuma, Ryo; Okamura, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Kishimoto, Akira; Takeda, Yasuo

    2015-10-01

    In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was undertaken to investigate the contribution of a ferroelectric artificial solid electrolyte interface (SEI) to the enhancement of the rate capability of lithium ion batteries. Resistance elements, consisting of the cell reactions, the resistance of the electrolyte, Rsol, that of the Li metal anode reaction, RLi, and the charge transfer resistance, Rct, were measured. A small ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BT) load, ˜1 mol %, notably reduced Rct and Rsol compared with bare LiCoO2 (LC), indicating that loaded ferroelectric BT SEIs effectively promote Li inter/deintercalation into and from the active material, LC, and restrict cobalt ion dissolution into the electrolyte liquid. Lower Rct and Rsol resulted in a significantly higher capacity retention ratio at a 10 C rate compared with the initial cycle for small BT load, ˜1 mol %. The capacity retention dropped rapidly, accompanied by a slight increase in Rct for larger BT loads, 5 and 15 mol %, which may be attributed to the thicker BT layer and the existence of the impurity phase, BaCO3. These results imply that the ferroelectric SEI affected the kinetics of mobile Li ions at the cathode-electrolyte interface, significantly enhancing the rate capability.

  16. Non-uniform temperature distribution in Li-ion batteries during discharge - A combined thermal imaging, X-ray micro-tomography and electrochemical impedance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, James B.; Darr, Jawwad A.; Eastwood, David S.; Hinds, Gareth; Lee, Peter D.; Shearing, Paul R.; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O.; Brett, Dan J. L.

    2014-04-01

    Thermal runaway is a major cause of failure in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), and of particular concern for high energy density transport applications, where safety concerns have hampered commercialisation. A clear understanding of electro-thermal properties and how these relate to structure and operation is vital to improving thermal management of LIBs. Here a combined thermal imaging, X-ray tomography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) approach was applied to commercially available 18650 cells to study their thermal characteristics. Thermal imaging was used to characterise heterogeneous temperature distributions during discharge above 0.75C; the complementary information provided by 3D X-ray tomography was utilised to evaluate the internal structure of the battery and identify the regions causing heating, specifically the components of the battery cap.

  17. Mechanism of ionic recognition by polymer-supported reagents: immobilized tetramethylmalonamide and the complexation of lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yijia; Alexandratos, Spiro D

    2010-02-01

    The mechanism of ionic recognition by polymer-supported reagents is probed with cross-linked polystyrene modified with tetramethylmalonamide (TMMA) ligands. The substrates are lanthanide ions in 0.001-8 M HCl and HNO(3) solutions. The results fall into three regions of acid concentration: low, mid, and high. In HCl, distribution coefficients are low in 0.001 to 2 M, increase in 4 and 6 M, and then decrease in 8 M HCl. In the low-acid region, the metal ion remains with its waters of hydration and does not coordinate to the carbonyl oxygens. As the acid concentration exceeds 2 M, protonation of the amide occurs to form an iminium moiety, electrostatically attracting the anionic lanthanide complex through ion-exchange and releasing waters of hydration. At high acid concentration, the apparent affinity decreases due to competition by the large excess of chloride ions for the ion-exchange sites. The affinity sequence in 6 M HCl is Tb > Dy > Eu > Gd > Ho > Sm > Er > Tm > Yb > Lu > Nd > Ce > La. The TMMA-Ln interaction is due to recognition since there is a point of maximum affinity across the series rather than a monotonic trend. The trends are comparable in HNO(3). A comparison of the distribution coefficients at the maxima (6 M HCl and 4 M HNO(3)) shows nitrate to have greater values than chloride due to a hydration effect, as also indicated by results from H(2)SO(4).

  18. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy study in micro-grain structured amorphous silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paloukis, Fotis; Elmasides, Costas; Farmakis, Filippos; Selinis, Petros; Neophytides, Stylianos G.; Georgoulas, Nikolaos

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a study of the lithiation mechanism of micro-grain structured silicon anode is presented. Micro-grain amorphous silicon was deposited on special copper foil and it is shown that after several decades of galvanostatic cycles, it preserves its granular nature with minor degradation. In order to shed light on the lithiation mechanisms of the micro-grain silicon, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted on silicon half-cells at various State-of-Charge (SoC) and various discharging current values and the Solid-Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) RSEI and polarization resistance Rpol were determined. Results reveal that Rpol highly increases for cell voltages lower than 0.2 V and it strongly depends on the discharging C-rate. From X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements combined with surface sputtering, the existence of a LixSiyOz interlayer between SEI and silicon is confirmed, which is believed to play an important role to the lithium kinetics. Finally, combining our results, a lithiation mechanism of the micro-grain silicon anode is proposed.

  19. Doubly charged trimeric cluster ions: effective in mutual chiral recognition of tadalafil and three proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhu, Wenquan; Pan, Yuanjiang; Sun, Cuirong; Zeng, Su

    2017-02-27

    Mutual chiral recognition of four stereoisomers of tadalafil and three pairs of enantiomers of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) including pantoprazole, lansoprazole, and omeprazole, as well as quantitative analysis of enantiomeric excess is achieved on the basis of the competitive fragmentation of doubly charged trimeric Ni(II) cluster ions. Compared with a singly charged trimeric cluster ion, a doubly charged trimeric cluster ion was proved efficient in the recognition of chiral drugs with one or multiple chiral centers, due to its rich fragmentation ions. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), the cluster ion [Ni(II)(PPIs)(tadalafil)2](2+) yielded two diagnostic ions [tadalafil + H](+) and [tadalafil - benzo[d][1,3]dixoloe](+) through electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The abundance ratio of the two fragment ions relied mainly on the configuration of PPIs and tadalafil, and therefore the chiral selectivity (Rchiral) of one enantiomer relative to the others is different. The chiral recognition of all four stereoisomers of tadalafil was achieved by using S configuration PPIs as references, and S-omeprazole showed the best selectivity. The Rchiral values for R,R/S,S, R,S/S,R, R,R/R,S and R,R/S,R-tadalafils were 1.47, 1.17, 2.37, and 2.10, respectively. In a reciprocal process, the Rchiral was 1.36 and 1.31 for R/S-pantoprazole and R/S-lansoprazole, respectively, by using R,R-tadalafil as a reference. Although omeprazole is a racemic drug, it can also be discriminated with S-omeprazole. Calibration curves were constructed with favorable correlation coefficients (r(2) > 0.991) by relating the ln(Rchiral) values to the isomeric composition in a mixture. The sensitivity of the methodology allows mixtures to be analyzed for the enantiomeric excess (ee) by recording the ratios of fragment ion abundances in a mass spectrum. The sensitivity of the methodology allowed the determination of enantiomeric impurities of 5% molar composition in

  20. Metal ion affinity-based biomolecular recognition and conjugation inside synthetic polymer nanopores modified with iron-terpyridine complexes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mubarak; Nasir, Saima; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Tremel, Wolfgang; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2011-11-02

    Here we demonstrate a novel biosensing platform for the detection of lactoferrin (LFN) via metal-organic frameworks, in which the metal ions have accessible free coordination sites for binding, inside the single conical nanopores fabricated in polymeric membrane. First, monolayer of amine-terminated terpyridine (metal-chelating ligand) is covalently immobilized on the inner walls of the nanopore via carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Second, iron-terpyridine (iron-terPy) complexes are obtained by treating the terpyridine modified-nanopores with ferrous sulfate solution. The immobilized iron-terPy complexes can be used as recognition elements to fabricate biosensing nanodevice. The working principle of the proposed biosensor is based on specific noncovalent interactions between LFN and chelated metal ions in the immobilized terpyridine monolayer, leading to the selective detection of analyte protein. In addition, control experiments proved that the designed biosensor exhibits excellent biospecificity and nonfouling properties. Furthermore, complementary experiments are conducted with multipore membranes containing an array of cylindrical nanopores. We demonstrate that in the presence of LFN in the feed solution, permeation of methyl viologen (MV(2+)) and 1,5-naphthalenedisulphate (NDS(2-)) is drastically suppressed across the iron-terPy modified membranes. On the basis of these findings, we envision that apart from conventional ligand-receptor interactions, the designing and immobilization of alternative functional ligands inside the synthetic nanopores would extend this method for the construction of new metal ion affinity-based biomimetic systems for the specific binding and recognition of other biomolecules.

  1. Molecular characteristics of a fluorescent chemosensor for the recognition of ferric ion based on photoresponsive azobenzene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhen; Ran, Xia; Shi, Lili; Lou, Jie; Kuang, Yanmin; Guo, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Metal ion recognition is of great significance in biological and environmental detection. So far, there is very few research related to the ferric ion sensing based on photoresponsive azobenzene derivatives. In this work, we report a highly selective fluorescent ;turn-off; sensor for Fe3 + ions and the molecular sensing characteristics based on an azobenzene derivative, N-(3,4,5-octanoxyphenyl)-N‧-4-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)azophenyl]1,3,4-oxadiazole (AOB-t8). The binding association constant was determined to be 6.07 × 103 M- 1 in ethanol and the stoichiometry ratio of 2:2 was obtained from Job's plot and MS spectra. The AOB-t8 might be likely to form the dimer structure through the chelation of ferric ion with the azobenzene moiety. Meanwhile, it was found that the photoisomerization property of AOB-t8 was regulated by the binding with Fe3 +. With the chelation of Fe3 +, the regulated molecular rigidity and the perturbed of electronic state and molecular geometry was suggested to be responsible for the accelerated isomerization of AOB-t8 to UV irradiation and the increased fluorescence lifetime of both trans- and cis-AOB-t8-Fe(III). Moreover, the reversible sensing of AOB-t8 was successfully observed by releasing the iron ion from AOB-t8-Fe(III) with the addition of citric acid.

  2. [Effects of saline-alkali stress on electrical impedance spectroscopy parameters and ion contents in shoots of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jia, Zhi-Guo; Ma, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2014-11-01

    To study the adaptability to salt-alkaline stress of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut, 'Liaozhen 3' shoots which were treated with three types of stress neutral NaCl, alkaline Na2CO3, and mixed salt-alkali, and the changes in electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) parameters and mineral ion contents were subsequently determined. The correlations between the EIS parameters and mineral ion contents were analyzed. The results showed that with the increasing level of NaCl, specific high- frequency resistance (r), specific low-frequency resistance ( r(l)), specific intracellular resistance (r(i)) and specific extracellular resistance (r(e)) of shoots decreased firstly, then increased, and finally decreased again. However, these parameters increased gradually with the increasing level of Na2CO3, while r(l) and r(e) decreased slowly in the mixed salt-alkali treatments. The Na+ contents of shoots increased significantly under the three salt-alkali stresses with the order of NaCl stress > mixed salt-alkali stress > Na2CO3 stress. Furthermore, Na2CO3 stress resulted in the decreases in the contents of three elements Zn, B and Ca. The significant negative correlation was found between the sum of five cations and four EIS parameters r(l), r(e), relaxation time (τ) , and distribution coefficient of relaxation time (ψ). The shoots of 'Liaozhen 3' might be tolerant of Na2CO3 stress of 200 mmol · L(-1), while they could be resistant to NaCl stress of 100-150 mmol · L(-1).

  3. Simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol assembled Au substrate and its recognition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Qing; Liang, Hai-Qing; Cao, Zhong; Xiao, Qing; Xiao, Zhong-Liang; Song, Liu-Bin; Chen, Dan; Wang, Fu-Liang

    2017-03-01

    A simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol (1-UDT) assembled Au substrate (Au/1-UDT) has been well constructed. 1-UDT was for the purpose of generating self-assembled monolayer on gold surface to recognize Hg(2+) in aqueous solution, which had a working concentration range of 1.0×10(-8)-1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a Nernst response slope of 28.83±0.4mV/-pC, a detection limit of 4.5×10(-9)molL(-1), and a good selectivity over the other tested cations. Also, the Au/1-UDT possessed good reproducibility, stability, and short response time. The recovery obtained for the determination of mercury ion in practical tremella samples was in the range of 99.8-103.4%. Combined electrochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with quantum chemical computation, the probable recognition mechanism of the electrode for selective recognition of Hg(2+) has been investigated. The covalent bond formed between mercury and sulfur is stronger than the one between gold and sulfur and thus prevents the adsorption of 1-UDT molecules on the gold surface. The quantum chemical computation with density functional theory further demonstrates that the strong interaction between the mercury atom and the sulfur atom on the gold surface leads to the gold sulfur bond ruptured and the gold mercury metallophilic interaction.

  4. Application of Pattern Recognition to Metal Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectra.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    experiments. ORGANICS FOR RECOGNITION OF SIX CLASSES ALJAJE AL-KE KETONE butane 1 - butene butanone pentane 1 -pentene 2-pentanone hexane 1 -hezene 2... butene cyclopentanone 1 -methyl cyclopentane cyclopentene methyl cyclopropyl k etone cyclobexane cyclohexene 3-methyl cyclopentanone * 1 -methyl...cyclobeiane vinyl cyclohexane cyclohexanone * ALDEH YDE ETHER ALCOHOL propanal ethyl ether ethanol butanal methyl butyl ether 1 -propanol pentanal ethyl

  5. Calix[4]tetrahydrothiophenopyrrole: a ditopic receptor displaying a split personality for ion recognition.

    PubMed

    Saha, Indrajit; Park, Kyung Hwa; Han, Mina; Kim, Sung Kuk; Lynch, Vincent M; Sessler, Jonathan L; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2014-10-17

    A calix[4]pyrrole fused with 2,5-dihydrothiophene, possessing both a deep, π-electron-rich pocket upon anion binding and chelating ligands on the periphery, was developed. The receptor selectively forms an ion-pair complex with CsF through H-bonding and a cation-π interaction. In the process, it adopt a conformationally fixed cone conformation. The receptor displays exceptionally high affinity toward the Hg(II) ion and forms stable complexes while maintaining a rigid 1,3-alternate conformation. This metal ion-induced conformational locking is unprecedented in calix[4]pyrrole chemistry.

  6. Selective recognition of dysprosium(III) ions by enhanced chemiluminescence CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Morteza; Ganjali, Mohammad R; Vaezi, Zahra; Faridbod, Farnoush; Arabsorkhi, Batool; Sheikhha, Mohammad H

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of emitted light from CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-H2O2 is described as a novel chemiluminescence (CL) reaction for determination of dysprosium. This reaction is based on the catalytic effect of Dy(3+) ions, causing a significant increase in the light emission, as a result of the reaction of quantum dots (QDs) with hydrogen peroxide. In the optimum conditions, this method was satisfactorily described by linear calibration curve in the range of 8.3×10(-7)-5.0×10(-6)M, the detection limit of 6.0×10(-8)M, and the relative standard deviation for five determinations of 2.5×10(-6)M Dy(3+) 3.2%. The main experimental advantage of the proposed method is its selective to Dy(3+) ions compared with common coexisting cations, therefore, it was successfully applied for the determination of dysprosium ions in water samples.

  7. Assignment of disulfide-linked peptides using automatic a1 ion recognition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Yu; Wen, Chien Hsien; Li, Ding Tzai; Hsu, Jue Liang; Chen, Chinpan; Shi, Fong Ku; Lin, Yueh Yi

    2008-12-01

    We present a novel approach for the assignment of peptides containing disulfide linkages. Dimethyl labeling is introduced to generate labeled peptides which exhibit enhanced a1 ion signals during MS/MS fragmentation. For disulfide-linked peptides, multiple a1 ions can be observed due to multiple N-termini. This distinct feature allows sieving out the disulfide-linked peptides; meanwhile, the N-terminal amino acids can be identified. With such information, the number of possible peptide combinations involved in a disulfide bond dramatically narrows down. Furthermore, we developed a computational algorithm to perform target a1 ion screening followed by molecular weight matching of cysteine-containing peptides with specific amino acids at the N-termini. Once the protein sequence and the peak list from a LC-MS/MS survey scan of labeled peptides are imported, the identities of disulfide-linked peptides can be readily obtained. The presented approach is simple and straightforward, offering a valuable tool for protein structural characterization.

  8. Distribution of ions around thymine dimer containing DNA: A possible recognition element for endonuclease V

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, R.; Luo, N.; Miaskiewicz, K.; Miller, J.

    1995-10-01

    The molecular link between sunlight exposure and skin cancer can be traced to the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers together with (6-4) photoadducts of pyrimidines in DNA upon exposure to UV radiation. The mutagenicity of these lesions is frequently explained by miscoding during DNA replication due to perturbations of base-pairing interactions. However the mutagenicity of UV photoproducts depends of their sequence context, suggesting that more global structural changes in DNA contribute to mutation induction. One of the most effective protections against the deleterious effects of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers is the wide range of repair of this lesion by different enzymatic pathways. This paper presents the results of a 200 ps molecular dynamics simulation on the dodecarner d(CGCGAATTCGCG){sub 2} containing a cis, syn-cyclobutane thymine dimer, explicit water and counterions. The averaged structure calculated from the simulation shows good agreement with the available NMR data. The distribution of counterions around the damaged DNA is different from that around a non damaged DNA and suggests a possible mechanism of damage recognition by the enzyme.

  9. ADVANCES IN IMPEDANCE THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2009-06-05

    We review recent progress in the following areas of the impedance theory: calculation of impedance of tapers and small angle collimators; optical approximation and parabolic equation for the high-frequency impedance; impedance due to resistive inserts in a perfectly conducting pipe.

  10. Controlling Cesium Cation Recognition via Cation Metathesis within and Ion Pair Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Kuk; Vargas-Zuniga, Gabriela; Hay, Benjamin; Young, Neil J; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Lee, Prof. Chang-Hee; Kim, Jong Seung; Lynch, Vincent M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Ion pair receptor 3 bearing an anion binding site and multiple cation binding sites has been synthesized and shown to function in a novel binding-release cycle that does not necessarily require displacement to effect release. The receptor forms stable complexes with the test cesium salts, CsCl and CsNO{sub 3}, in solution (10% methanol-d{sub 4} in chloroform-d) as inferred from {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic analyses. The addition of KClO{sub 4} to these cesium salt complexes leads to a novel type of cation metathesis in which the 'exchanged' cations occupy different binding sites. Specifically, K{sup +} becomes bound at the expense of the Cs{sup +} cation initially present in the complex. Under liquid-liquid conditions, receptor 3 is able to extract CsNO{sub 3} and CsCl from an aqueous D{sub 2}O layer into nitrobenzene-d{sub 5} as inferred from {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic analyses and radiotracer measurements. The Cs{sup +} cation of the CsNO{sub 3} extracted into the nitrobenzene phase by receptor 3 may be released into the aqueous phase by contacting the loaded nitrobenzene phase with an aqueous KClO{sub 4} solution. Additional exposure of the nitrobenzene layer to chloroform and water gives 3 in its uncomplexed, ion-free form. This allows receptor 3 to be recovered for subsequent use. Support for the underlying complexation chemistry came from single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and gas-phase energy-minimization studies.

  11. Magnetic beads-based DNA hybridization chain reaction amplification and DNAzyme recognition for colorimetric detection of uranyl ion in seafood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyan; Cheng, Xian; Chen, Lian; Mo, Fan; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2017-03-01

    A novel colorimetric biosensor, which employs DNAzyme-functionalized magnetic beads (MBs) as recognition probe, enzyme-assisted catalytic oxidation of TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine sulfate) as signal and DNA hybridization chain reaction as amplification strategy, has been developed for detecting trace uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in seafood and aqueous environment with high sensitivity and specificity. We demonstrated that UO2(2+) can specifically cleave DNAzyme immobilized on MBs surface to release a short single-strand DNA (primer), and the released primer trigger DNA hybridization chain reaction to form a long one dimensional DNA concatamer on the MBs surface. The resulting long DNA concatamer could capture a large amount of HRP to generate the one UO2(2+)-to-multiple HRP amplification effect. Upon the addition of TMB-H2O2 solution, the HRP-tagged DNA concatamer-MBs conjugates could catalyze the H2O2-mediated oxidation of TMB, and thus results in a color change from colorless to blue in solution. This provided a sensitive and selective sensing platform for the visual or colorimetric detection of UO2(2+). The proposed biosensor has high sensitivity and strong anti-interference capability, it can be used to detect as low as 2.5 ppb (9.25 nM) of UO2(2+) by naked-eye observation and 0.09 ppb (0.33 nM) of UO2(2+) by UV-visible spectrometry with no interference of other ions and a RSD ≤ 6% (n = 5). With the help of this method, we have successfully determined trace UO2(2+) in fish muscle and river water with a recovery of 93-106%. High sensitivity and specificity, as well operation convenience, low cost and strong resistibility to the matrix, which makes our method a potential approach for the on-site detection of UO2(2+) in seafood and aqueous environment.

  12. Electrochemical and impedance investigation of the effect of lithium malonate on the performance of natural graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    Lithium malonate (LM) was coated on the surface of a natural graphite (NG) electrode, which was then tested as the negative electrode in the electrolytes of 0.9 M LiPF 6/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, w/w/w) and 1.0 M LiBF 4/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, w/w/w) under a current density of 0.075 mA cm -2. LM was also used as an additive to the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF 6/EC-DMC-DEC (1/1/1, v/v/v) and tested on a bare graphite electrode. It was found that both the surface coating and the additive approach were effective in improving first charge-discharge capacity and coulomb efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the decreased interfacial impedance was coupled with improved coulomb efficiency of the cells using coated graphite electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) on fresh bare and coated natural graphite electrodes confirmed that all the improvement in the half-cell performance was due to the suppression of the solvent decomposition through the surface modification with LM. The CV data also showed that the carbonate electrolyte with LM as the additive was not stable against oxidation, which resulted in lower capacity of the full cell with commercial graphite and LiCoO 2 electrodes.

  13. Electrochemical and impedance investigation of the effect of lithium malonate on the performance of natural graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Lithium malonate (LM) was coated on the surface of a natural graphite (NG) electrode, which was then tested as the negative electrode in the electrolytes of 0.9 M LiPF6/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, by weight) and 1.0 M LiBF4/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, by weight) under a current density of 0.075 mA cm-2. LM was also used as an additive to the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF6/EC-DMC-DEC (1/1/1, by volume) and tested on a bare graphite electrode. It was found that both the surface coating and the additive approach were effective in improving first charge discharge capacity and coulomb efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the decreased interfacial impedance was coupled with improved coulomb efficiency of the cells using coated graphite electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) on fresh bare and coated natural graphite electrodes confirmed that all the improvement in the half-cell performance was due to the suppression of the solvent decomposition through the surface modification with LM. The CV data also showed that the carbonate electrolyte with LM as the additive was not stable against oxidation, which resulted in lower capacity of the full cell with commercial graphite and LiCoO2 electrodes.

  14. Molecular recognition by thrombin. Role of the slow-->fast transition, site-specific ion binding energetics and thermodynamic mapping of structural components.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Y; Di Cera, E

    1994-01-14

    The interaction of thrombin with the potent natural inhibitor hirudin is controlled in a complex fashion by the binding of Na+ and Cl- to the enzyme and allosteric transitions. Binding of hirudin is positively linked to Na+ binding, but is opposed in a competitive fashion by the binding of Cl-. Since Na+ binding induces the slow-->fast transition of thrombin, it follows from linkage principles that hirudin binds to the fast form with higher affinity. Hence, the slow-->fast transition is a key component of molecular recognition of hirudin by thrombin. We propose a three-step mechanism for molecular recognition of hirudin by thrombin, which is also relevant for recognition of fibrinogen and possibly the platelet receptor and thrombomodulin. First, the C-terminal acidic tail of hirudin binds to the fibrinogen recognition site of thrombin displacing one Cl ion from the thrombin surface. Then, the enzyme undergoes a conformational transition that gives rise to increased accessibility of the catalytic pocket to small synthetic substrates through movement of the Trp148 loop. The changes in the catalytic moiety triggered allosterically by binding to the fibrinogen recognition site are linked to the uptake of Na+ and are similar to, if not identical with, those observed in the Na(+)-induced slow-->fast transition. Finally, the compact N-terminal domain is accommodated in the region surrounding the catalytic pocket. Hirudin binding is also used as a probe of site-specific ion-binding interactions of Na+ and Cl- with the enzyme, characterized by cooperativity between the Na+ and Cl- binding domains. The structural components directly involved or linked to Na+ and Cl- binding have been explored in terms of free energy perturbations of the binding of hirudin and a number of ligands. The fibrinogen recognition site stores most of the free energy of coupling with Cl- binding, while regions surrounding the access to the catalytic pocket provide most of the free energy of coupling

  15. An insight of p-type to n-type conductivity conversion in oxygen ion-implanted ultrananocrystalline diamond films by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Ye, Haitao; Coathup, David; Mitrovic, Ivona Z.; Weerakkody, Ayendra D.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    The impedance spectroscopy measurements were used to investigate the separated contributions of diamond grains and grain boundaries (GBs), giving an insight into p-type to n-type conductivity conversion in O+-implanted ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films. It is found that both diamond grains and GBs promote the conductivity in O+-implanted UNCD films, in which GBs make at least half contribution. The p-type conductivity in O+-implanted samples is a result of H-terminated diamond grains, while n-type conductive samples are closely correlated with O-terminated O+-implanted diamond grains and GBs in the films. The results also suggest that low resistance of GBs is preferable to obtain high mobility n-type conductive UNCD films.

  16. Lithium Ion Mobility in Lithium Phosphidosilicates: Crystal Structure, (7) Li, (29) Si, and (31) P MAS NMR Spectroscopy, and Impedance Spectroscopy of Li8 SiP4 and Li2 SiP2.

    PubMed

    Toffoletti, Lorenzo; Kirchhain, Holger; Landesfeind, Johannes; Klein, Wilhelm; van Wüllen, Leo; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Fässler, Thomas F

    2016-12-05

    The need to improve electrodes and Li-ion conducting materials for rechargeable all-solid-state batteries has drawn enhanced attention to the investigation of lithium-rich compounds. The study of the ternary system Li-Si-P revealed a series of new compounds, two of which, Li8 SiP4 and Li2 SiP2 , are presented. Both phases represent members of a new family of Li ion conductors that display Li ion conductivity in the range from 1.15(7)×10(-6) Scm(-1) at 0 °C to 1.2(2)×10(-4) Scm(-1) at 75 °C (Li8 SiP4 ) and from 6.1(7)×10(-8) Scm(-1) at 0 °C to 6(1)×10(-6) Scm(-1) at 75 °C (Li2 SiP2 ), as determined by impedance measurements. Temperature-dependent solid-state (7) Li NMR spectroscopy revealed low activation energies of about 36 kJ mol(-1) for Li8 SiP4 and about 47 kJ mol(-1) for Li2 SiP2 . Both compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (single crystal and powder methods) and by (7) Li, (29) Si, and (31) P MAS NMR spectroscopy. Both phases consist of tetrahedral SiP4 anions and Li counterions. Li8 SiP4 contains isolated SiP4 units surrounded by Li atoms, while Li2 SiP2 comprises a three-dimensional network based on corner-sharing SiP4 tetrahedra, with the Li ions located in cavities and channels.

  17. Anisotropic Artificial Impedance Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfoth, Ryan Gordon

    Anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces are a group of planar materials that can be modeled by the tensor impedance boundary condition. This boundary condition relates the electric and magnetic field components on a surface using a 2x2 tensor. The advantage of using the tensor impedance boundary condition, and by extension anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces, is that the method allows large and complex structures to be modeled quickly and accurately using a planar boundary condition. This thesis presents the theory of anisotropic impedance surfaces and multiple applications. Anisotropic impedance surfaces are a generalization of scalar impedance surfaces. Unlike the scalar version, anisotropic impedance surfaces have material properties that are dependent on the polarization and wave vector of electromagnetic radiation that interacts with the surface. This allows anisotropic impedance surfaces to be used for applications that scalar surfaces cannot achieve. Three of these applications are presented in this thesis. The first is an anisotropic surface wave waveguide which allows propagation in one direction, but passes radiation in the orthogonal direction without reflection. The second application is a surface wave beam shifter which splits a surface wave beam in two directions and reduces the scattering from an object placed on the surface. The third application is a patterned surface which can alter the scattered radiation pattern of a rectangular shape. For each application, anisotropic impedance surfaces are constructed using periodic unit cells. These unit cells are designed to give the desired surface impedance characteristics by modifying a patterned metallic patch on a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple unit cell geometries are analyzed in order to find the setup with the best performance in terms of impedance characteristics and frequency bandwidth.

  18. Tracking of electrochemical impedance of batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piret, H.; Granjon, P.; Guillet, N.; Cattin, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary battery impedance estimation method, which can be easily embedded in vehicles or nomad devices. The proposed method not only allows an accurate frequency impedance estimation, but also a tracking of its temporal evolution contrary to classical electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Taking into account constraints of cost and complexity, we propose to use the existing electronics of current control to perform a frequency evolutionary estimation of the electrochemical impedance. The developed method uses a simple wideband input signal, and relies on a recursive local average of Fourier transforms. The averaging is controlled by a single parameter, managing a trade-off between tracking and estimation performance. This normalized parameter allows to correctly adapt the behavior of the proposed estimator to the variations of the impedance. The advantage of the proposed method is twofold: the method is easy to embed into a simple electronic circuit, and the battery impedance estimator is evolutionary. The ability of the method to monitor the impedance over time is demonstrated on a simulator, and on a real Lithium ion battery, on which a repeatability study is carried out. The experiments reveal good tracking results, and estimation performance as accurate as the usual laboratory approaches.

  19. Synthesis of novel ion-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles based on dibenzo-21-crown-7 for the selective pre-concentration and recognition of rubidium ions.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Beshare; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report the first application of ion-imprinted technology via precipitation polymerization for simple and practical determination of rubidium ions. The rubidium-ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles were prepared using dibenzo-21-crown-7 as a selective ligand, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross linker, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as radical initiator. The resulting powder material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, which showed colloidal nanoparticles of 100-200 nm in diameter and slightly irregular in shape. The maximum adsorption capacity of the ion imprinted particles was 63.36 μmol/g. The experimental conditions such as nature and concentration of eluent, pH, adsorption and desorption times, weight of the polymer material, aqueous phase and desorption agent volumes were also studied. Finally, selectivity of the prepared IIP particles toward rubidium ion was investigated in the presence of some foreign metal ions.

  20. Thickness dependence of magnetic properties and giant magneto-impedance effect in amorphous Co73Si12B15 thin films prepared by Dual-Ion beam assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, San-sheng; Hu, Teng; He, Tong-fu; Chen, Zi-yu; Yi, Zhong; Meng, Li-Fei

    2017-03-01

    Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition is a suitable method for the preparation of giant magneto-impedance (GMI) materials. In this paper, Co73Si12B15 thin films with different thicknesses were prepared by Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition, and the influences of film thickness on magnetic properties and GMI effect were investigated. It was found that the asymmetric magnetic hysteresis loop in the prepared Co73Si12B15 thin films occurs at ambient temperature, and the shift behavior of hysteresis loop associated with film thickness. With the film thickness increasing, the values of shift field and coercive field and other parameters such as remanence and shift ratio appeared complex variation. At a certain frequency, the large GMI effect is only observed in some films, which have good magnetic properties including low coercivity, low remanence ratio and high shift ratio. The results indicated that the thickness dependence of magnetic properties nonlinearly determined the GMI effect in Co73Si12B15 thin films.

  1. Main-chain supramolecular polymers based on orthogonal benzo-21-crown-7/secondary ammonium salt and terpyridine/metal ion recognition motifs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-Kui; Wang, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Orthogonal self-assembly of multiple components represents an efficient strategy to afford hierarchical and multifunctional assemblies. Here, we demonstrate the orthogonal recognition behaviors between benzo-21-crown-7/secondary ammonium salt and terpyridine/metal ions (Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) ) recognition motifs. Main-chain supramolecular polymers are subsequently achieved via "one-pot" mixing of the three monomers together (heteroditopic monomer 1, homoditopic secondary ammonium salt monomer 2, and Fe(BF4 )2 •6H2 O or Zn(OTf)2 ), which are confirmed by (1) H NMR, UV-Vis, DOSY, and viscosity measurements. Moreover, different metal ions (Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) ) exert considerable effects on the size of the resulting supramolecular polymers. Integration of two different types of non-covalent interactions renders dynamic and responsive properties for the resulting supramolecular polymers, as triggered by a variety of external stimuli such as temperature, potassium cation, as well as stronger chelating ligands. Therefore, the current work is a prerequisite for the future application of such orthogonal assemblies as intelligent supramolecular materials.

  2. A novel calix[4]arene thiol functionalized silver nanoprobe for selective recognition of ferric ion with nanomolar sensitivity via DLS selectivity in human biological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Alok; Sutariya, Pinkesh G.; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K.

    2013-02-01

    A high concern for human health and safety has motivated dynamic research on the potential impact of transition metal ions and their toxic effects, thus it is very challenging to design transition-metal ion detection devices that are cost-effective, rapid and applicable to the biological milieus. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of Fe3+ from blood samples, we report a highly selective and ultrasensitive calix[4]arene modified silver nanoprobe for Fe3+ recognition at the 9.4 nM level from aqueous solution with excellent discrimination against other heavy metals and biomolecules. The assembly was characterized by TEM (transmission electron microscopy), DLS (dynamic light scattering), UV-Vis, FT-IR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR spectrometry, which demonstrate the higher binding affinity for Fe3+. The biosensor has been successfully applied to estimate the ferric ion in human blood serum as well as in human hemoglobin.A high concern for human health and safety has motivated dynamic research on the potential impact of transition metal ions and their toxic effects, thus it is very challenging to design transition-metal ion detection devices that are cost-effective, rapid and applicable to the biological milieus. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of Fe3+ from blood samples, we report a highly selective and ultrasensitive calix[4]arene modified silver nanoprobe for Fe3+ recognition at the 9.4 nM level from aqueous solution with excellent discrimination against other heavy metals and biomolecules. The assembly was characterized by TEM (transmission electron microscopy), DLS (dynamic light scattering), UV-Vis, FT-IR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR spectrometry, which demonstrate the higher binding affinity for Fe3+. The biosensor has been successfully applied to estimate the ferric ion in human blood serum as well as in human hemoglobin. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary materials of the synthesis procedure associated with this article can be

  3. Selective recognition of uranyl ions from bulk of thorium(iv) and lanthanide(iii) ions by tetraalkyl urea: a combined experimental and quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Vats, Bal Govind; Das, Debasish; Sadhu, Biswajit; Kannan, S; Pius, I C; Noronha, D M; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Kumar, Mukesh

    2016-06-21

    The selective separation of uranyl ions from an aqueous solution is one of the most important criteria for sustainable nuclear energy production. We report herein a known, but unexplored extractant, tetraalkyl urea, which shows supreme selectivity for uranium in the presence of interfering thorium and other lanthanide ions from a nitric acid medium. The structural characterization of the uranyl complex (UO2X2·2L, where X = NO3(-), Cl(-) and Br(-)) by IR, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction provides insight into the strong interaction between the uranyl ion and the ligand. The origin of this supreme selectivity for uranyl ions is further supported by electronic structure calculations. Uranyl binding with the extractant is thermodynamically more favourable when compared to thorium and the selectivity is achieved through a combination of electronic and steric effects.

  4. Overview Of Impedance Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abele, John E.

    1989-08-01

    Electrical impedance has been one of the many "tools of great promise" that physicians have employed in their quest to measure and/or monitor body function or physiologic events. So far, the expectations for its success have always exceeded its performance. In simplistic terms, physiologic impedance is a measure of the resistance in the volume between electrodes which changes as a function of changes in that volume, the relative impedance of that volume, or a combination of these two. The history and principles of electrical impedance are very nicely reviewed by Geddes and Baker in their textbook "Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation". It is humbling, however, to note that Cremer recorded variations in electrical impedance in frog hearts as early as 1907. The list of potential applications includes the measurement of thyroid function, estrogen activity, galvanic skin reflex, respiration, blood flow by conductivity dilution, nervous activity and eye movement. Commercial devices employing impedance have been and are being used to measure respiration (pneumographs and apneamonitors), pulse volume (impedance phlebographs) and even noninvasive cardiac output.

  5. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  6. Danger- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns recognition by pattern-recognition receptors and ion channels of the transient receptor potential family triggers the inflammasome activation in immune cells and sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Giorgio; Cardinali, Claudio; Morelli, Maria Beatrice; Santoni, Matteo; Nabissi, Massimo; Amantini, Consuelo

    2015-02-03

    An increasing number of studies show that the activation of the innate immune system and inflammatory mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The innate immune system is present in almost all multicellular organisms and its activation occurs in response to pathogens or tissue injury via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Intracellular pathways, linking immune and inflammatory response to ion channel expression and function, have been recently identified. Among ion channels, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a major family of non-selective cation-permeable channels that function as polymodal cellular sensors involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of interactions between immune cells and PRRs and ion channels of TRP families with PAMPs and DAMPs to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. TRP channels have been found to interfere with innate immunity via both nuclear factor-kB and procaspase-1 activation to generate the mature caspase-1 that cleaves pro-interleukin-1β cytokine into the mature interleukin-1β.Sensory neurons are also adapted to recognize dangers by virtue of their sensitivity to intense mechanical, thermal and irritant chemical stimuli. As immune cells, they possess many of the same molecular recognition pathways for danger. Thus, they express PRRs including Toll-like receptors 3, 4, 7, and 9, and stimulation by Toll-like receptor ligands leads to induction of inward currents and sensitization in TRPs. In addition, the expression of inflammasomes in neurons and the involvement of TRPs in central nervous system diseases strongly support a role of TRPs in inflammasome-mediated neurodegenerative pathologies. This field is still at its beginning and further studies may be required.Overall, these

  7. Synthesis and characterization of novel ion-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles for very fast and highly selective recognition of copper(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Besharati-Seidani, Abbas; Fasihi, Javad; Sharghi, Hashem

    2010-12-15

    This work reports the preparation of new Cu(2+) ion-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles using 1-hydroxy-4-(prop-2'-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) as a vinylated chelating agent. The Cu(2+) ion found to form a stable 1:1 complex with AQ in methanol solution. The resulting Cu(2+)-AQ complex was copolymerized with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, as a cross-linking monomer, via precipitation polymerization method. The imprint copper ion was removed from the polymeric matrix using a 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) solution. The Cu(2+)-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles were characterized by IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms. The SEM micrographs showed colloidal nanoparticles of 60-100 nm in diameter and slightly irregular in shape. Optimum pH for maximum sorption was 7.0. Sorption and desorption of Cu(2+) ion on the IIP nanoparticles were quite fast and achieved completely over entire investigated time periods of 2-30 min. Maximum sorbent capacity and enrichment factor of the prepared IIP for Cu(2+) were 73.8 μmol g(-1) and 56.5, respectively. The relative standard deviation and limit of detection (C(LOD)=3S(b)/m) of the method were evaluated as 2.6% and 0.1 ng mL(-1), using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, respectively. It was found that the imprinting technology results in increased affinity of the prepared material toward Cu(2+) ion over other metal ions with the same charge and close ionic radius. The relative standard deviations for six and twenty replicates with the same nanoparticles were found to be 1.7% and 2.1%, respectively.

  8. Hemispherand-Strapped Calix[4]pyrrole: An Ion-pair Receptor for the Recognition and Extraction of Lithium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    He, Qing; Zhang, Zhan; Brewster, James T; Lynch, Vincent M; Kim, Sung Kuk; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-08-10

    The hemispherand-strapped calix[4]pyrrole (1) acts as an ion pair receptor that exhibits selectivity for lithium salts. In organic media (CD2Cl2 and CD3OD, v/v, 9:1), receptor 1 binds LiCl with high preference relative to NaCl, KCl, and RbCl. DFT calculations provided support for the observed selectivity. Single crystal structures of five different lithium ion-pair complexes of 1 were obtained. In the case of LiCl, a single bridging water molecule between the lithium cation and chloride anion was observed, while tight contact ion pairs were observed in the case of the LiBr, LiI, LiNO3, and LiNO2 salts. Receptor 1 proved effective as an extractant for LiNO2 under both model solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extraction conditions.

  9. Fluorogenic recognition of Zn(2+), Al(3+) and F(-) ions by a new multi-analyte chemosensor based bisphenol A-quinoline.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Serkan; Kocyigit, Ozcan; Malkondu, Sait

    2015-05-01

    A new available multi-analyte fluorescent sensor based on a bisphenol A-quinoline conjugate (BFQ) was synthesized in two facile steps and was characterized systematically. BFQ exhibited an effectively selective and sensitive recognition toward Zn(2+)and Al(3+) cations in EtOH-H2O (v/v = 9/1) over other cations and F(-) anion in CH3CN over other anions with remarkably enhanced fluorescent intensities. According to the quantum yield (Φ) measurements, BFQ-Zn(2+), BFQ-Al(3+) and BFQ-F(-) complexes showed 16, 22 and 30 times higher Φ values than BFQ, respectively. The complexation properties of BFQ with Zn(2+), Al(3+) and F(-) ions were also examined by (1)H NMR titration experiments.

  10. Multichannel HSO4- recognition promoted by a bound cation within a ferrocene-based ion pair receptor.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, María; Espinosa, Arturo; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro

    2012-07-11

    A ferrocene-based ion pair receptor is shown only to recognise HSO(4)(-) anions in the presence of a cobound Pb(2+) or Zn(2+) cation guest species through a perturbation of the redox potential of the ferrocene unit and a remarkable enhancement of the fluorescence.

  11. Brownian dynamics simulations of the recognition of the scorpion toxin maurotoxin with the voltage-gated potassium ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Cui, Meng; Briggs, James M; Huang, Xiaoqin; Xiong, Bing; Zhang, Yingmin; Luo, Xiaomin; Shen, Jianhua; Ji, Ruyun; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of the scorpion toxin maurotoxin (MTX) by the voltage-gated potassium (Kv1) channels, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3, has been studied by means of Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. All of the 35 available structures of MTX in the Protein Data Bank (http://www.rcsb.org/pdb) determined by nuclear magnetic resonance were considered during the simulations, which indicated that the conformation of MTX significantly affected both the recognition and the binding between MTX and the Kv1 channels. Comparing the top five highest-frequency structures of MTX binding to the Kv1 channels, we found that the Kv1.2 channel, with the highest docking frequencies and the lowest electrostatic interaction energies, was the most favorable for MTX binding, whereas Kv1.1 was intermediate, and Kv1.3 was the least favorable one. Among the 35 structures of MTX, the 10th structure docked into the binding site of the Kv1.2 channel with the highest probability and the most favorable electrostatic interactions. From the MTX-Kv1.2 binding model, we identified the critical residues for the recognition of these two proteins through triplet contact analyses. MTX locates around the extracellular mouth of the Kv1 channels, making contacts with its beta-sheets. Lys23, a conserved amino acid in the scorpion toxins, protrudes into the pore of the Kv1.2 channel and forms two hydrogen bonds with the conserved residues Gly401(D) and Tyr400(C) and one hydrophobic contact with Gly401(C) of the Kv1.2 channel. The critical triplet contacts for recognition between MTX and the Kv1.2 channel are Lys23(MTX)-Asp402(C)(Kv1), Lys27(MTX)-Asp378(D)(Kv1), and Lys30(MTX)-Asp402(A)(Kv1). In addition, six hydrogen-bonding interactions are formed between residues Lys23, Lys27, Lys30, and Tyr32 of MTX and residues Gly401, Tyr400, Asp402, Asp378, and Thr406 of Kv1.2. Many of them are formed by side chains of residues of MTX and backbone atoms of the Kv1.2 channel. Five hydrophobic contacts exist between residues Pro

  12. Brownian dynamics simulations of the recognition of the scorpion toxin maurotoxin with the voltage-gated potassium ion channels.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Cui, Meng; Briggs, James M; Huang, Xiaoqin; Xiong, Bing; Zhang, Yingmin; Luo, Xiaomin; Shen, Jianhua; Ji, Ruyun; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian

    2002-11-01

    The recognition of the scorpion toxin maurotoxin (MTX) by the voltage-gated potassium (Kv1) channels, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3, has been studied by means of Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. All of the 35 available structures of MTX in the Protein Data Bank (http://www.rcsb.org/pdb) determined by nuclear magnetic resonance were considered during the simulations, which indicated that the conformation of MTX significantly affected both the recognition and the binding between MTX and the Kv1 channels. Comparing the top five highest-frequency structures of MTX binding to the Kv1 channels, we found that the Kv1.2 channel, with the highest docking frequencies and the lowest electrostatic interaction energies, was the most favorable for MTX binding, whereas Kv1.1 was intermediate, and Kv1.3 was the least favorable one. Among the 35 structures of MTX, the 10th structure docked into the binding site of the Kv1.2 channel with the highest probability and the most favorable electrostatic interactions. From the MTX-Kv1.2 binding model, we identified the critical residues for the recognition of these two proteins through triplet contact analyses. MTX locates around the extracellular mouth of the Kv1 channels, making contacts with its beta-sheets. Lys23, a conserved amino acid in the scorpion toxins, protrudes into the pore of the Kv1.2 channel and forms two hydrogen bonds with the conserved residues Gly401(D) and Tyr400(C) and one hydrophobic contact with Gly401(C) of the Kv1.2 channel. The critical triplet contacts for recognition between MTX and the Kv1.2 channel are Lys23(MTX)-Asp402(C)(Kv1), Lys27(MTX)-Asp378(D)(Kv1), and Lys30(MTX)-Asp402(A)(Kv1). In addition, six hydrogen-bonding interactions are formed between residues Lys23, Lys27, Lys30, and Tyr32 of MTX and residues Gly401, Tyr400, Asp402, Asp378, and Thr406 of Kv1.2. Many of them are formed by side chains of residues of MTX and backbone atoms of the Kv1.2 channel. Five hydrophobic contacts exist between residues Pro

  13. Molecular recognition modes between adenine or adeniniun(1+) ion and binary M(II)(pdc) chelates (MCoZn; pdc=pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate(2-) ion).

    PubMed

    Del Pilar Brandi-Blanco, María; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Matilla-Hernández, Antonio; González-Pérez, Josefa María; Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ligand M(II)-complexes (MCoZn) with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate(2-) chelator (pdc) and adenine (Hade) have been synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction and other spectral and thermal methods: [Cu(pdc)(H(N9)ade)(H2O)] (1), [Cu2(pdc)2(H2O)2(μ2-N3,N7-H(N9)ade)]·3H2O (2), trans-[M(pdc)(H(N9)ade)(H2O)2]·nH2O for MCo (3-L, 3-M, 3-H) or Zn (4-L, 4-H), where n is 0, 1 or 3 for the 'lowest' (L), 'medium' (M) and 'highest' (H) hydrated forms, and the salt trans-[Ni(pdc)(H2(N1,N9)ade)(H2O)2]Cl·2H2O (5). In all the nine compounds, both neutral and cationic adenine exist as their most stable tautomer and the molecular recognition pattern between the metal-pdc chelates and the adenine or adeninium(1+) ligands involves the MN7 bond in cooperation with an intra-molecular N6H⋯O(coordinated carboxylate) interligand interaction. In addition the dinuclear copper(II) compound (2) has the CuN3 bond and the N9H⋯O(coord. carboxylate) interaction. The structures of mononuclear ternary complexes proved that the molecular recognition pattern is the same irrespective of (a) the coordination geometry of the complex molecule, (b) the different hydrated forms of crystals with Co or Zn, and (c) the neutral of cationic form of the adenine ligand. These features are related to the mer-NO2 chelating ligand conformation (imposed by the planar rigidity of pdc) as a driving force for the observed metal binding mode.

  14. Impeded Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-12-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario "Impeded Dark Matter". We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  15. Mineralomimetic sodalite- and muscovite-type coordination frameworks. Dynamic crystal-to-crystal interconversion processes sensitive to ion pair recognition.

    PubMed

    Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R; Salas, Juan M; Masciocchi, Norberto; Galli, Simona; Sironi, Angelo

    2004-03-17

    A flexible sodalite-type metal organic framework [Cu(pyrimidine-2-olate)2]n (1R) is obtained in a self-assembly process involving Cu2+ ions and pyrimidine-2-olate ligands. 1R suffers a series of sequential and reversible structural changes upon solid-liquid sorption processes of metal nitrates. The 1C-to-1O transformation occurs only with large cations.

  16. A fluorescence reagent for the highly selective recognition and separation of lead ion (II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Jun; Yan, Yuhua; Chen, Liping; Cao, Weiguang; Li, Hongwei; Yang, Liting; Wu, Yuqing

    2012-11-02

    A new fluorescence reagent, N,N-bi[4(1-pyrene)-butyroyl]-lysine (1) was synthesized. The new fluorescence sensor showed high sensitivity (detection limit up to 20.7 μg L(-1)) and specific selectivity for Pb(2+) over other metal ions examined in aqueous solutions. It could also be used to remove Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions by filtering the insoluble 1-Pb(2+) complex with sufficient reversibility.

  17. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductor allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology.

  18. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-11-16

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures.

  19. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  20. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  1. Crystal structures and redox responses coupled with ion recognition of p-benzoquinone- and hydroquinone-fused [18]crown-6.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Nakane, Yuta; Takeda, Takashi; Hoshino, Norihisa; Kawai, Hidetoshi; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2015-02-01

    The crystal structures and redox properties of p-benzoquinone (BQ)-fused [18]crown-6 1 and bis-BQ-fused [18]crown-6 2 were examined. The anion radicals of these BQ molecules were stabilized by addition of metal ions, through effective electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged BQ moiety and positively charged ion-capturing [18]crown-6 unit. The electrostatic interactions and solvation energy played important roles in determining the magnitudes of anodic redox shifts in the reduction potentials. Regular π-stacking of BQ units and regular arrays of [18]crown-6 units were observed in crystal 2, in which one-dimensional π-electron columns were separated by ionic channels. The hydroquinone-fused [18]crown-6 molecule 3 and a new BQ- and phenol-fused [18]crown-6 derivative 4 were obtained as single crystals. The molecular conformations of [18]crown-6 in crystal 3 and hydrated crystal 3⋅H2 O were different from each other.

  2. Detection of mercury ions using silver telluride nanoparticles as a substrate and recognition element through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Wei; Lin, Zong-Hong; Roy, Prathik; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we unveil a new sensing strategy for sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using Ag2Te nanoparticles (NPs) as a substrate and recognition element and rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a reporter. Ag2Te NPs prepared from tellurium dioxide and silver nitrate and hydrazine in aqueous solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate at 90ºC with an average size of 26.8 ± 4.1 nm (100 counts) have strong SERS activity. The Ag2Te substrate provides strong SERS signals of R6G with an enhancement factor of 3.6 × 105 at 1360 cm-1, which is comparable to Ag NPs. After interaction of Ag2Te NPs with Hg2+, some HgTe NPs are formed, leading to decreases in the SERS signal of R6G, mainly because HgTe NPs relative to Ag2Te NPs have weaker SERS activity. Under optimum conditions, this SERS approach using Ag2Te as substrates is selective for the detection of Hg2+, with a limit of detection of 3 nM and linearity over 10-150 nM. The practicality of this approach has been validated for the determination of the concentrations of spiked Hg2+ in a pond water sample.

  3. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  4. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2016-07-12

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  5. Impedance Measurement Box

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, William

    2014-11-20

    The IMB 50V software provides functionality for design of impedance measurement tests or sequences of tests, execution of these tests or sequences, processing measured responses and displaying and saving of the results. The software consists of a Graphical User Interface that allows configuration of measurement parameters and test sequencing, a core engine that controls test sequencing, execution of measurements, processing and storage of results and a hardware/software data acquisition interface with the IMB hardware system.

  6. Convenient and Precise Strategy for Mapping N-Glycosylation Sites Using Microwave-Assisted Acid Hydrolysis and Characteristic Ions Recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Qu, Jingyao; Meisner, Jeffrey; Zhao, Xinyuan; Li, Xu; Wu, Zhigang; Zhu, Hailiang; Yu, Zaikuan; Li, Lei; Guo, Yuxi; Song, Jing; Wang, Peng George

    2015-08-04

    N-glycosylation is one of the most prevalence protein post-translational modifications (PTM) which is involved in several biological processes. Alternation of N-glycosylation is associated with cellular malfunction and development of disease. Thus, investigation of protein N-glycosylation is crucial for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Currently, deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F is the most commonly used technique in N-glycosylation analysis. Additionally, a common error in N-glycosylation site identification, resulting from protein chemical deamidation, has largely been ignored. In this study, we developed a convenient and precise approach for mapping N-glycosylation sites utilizing with optimized TFA hydrolysis, ZIC-HILIC enrichment, and characteristic ions of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation. Using this method, we identified a total of 257 N-glycosylation sites and 144 N-glycoproteins from healthy human serum. Compared to deglycosylation with endoglycosidase, this strategy is more convenient and efficient for large scale N-glycosylation sites identification and provides an important alternative approach for the study of N-glycoprotein function.

  7. High input impedance amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1995-01-01

    High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

  8. Gynecologic electrical impedance tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenevsky, A.; Cherepenin, V.; Trokhanova, O.; Tuykin, T.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography extends to the new and new areas of the medical diagnostics: lungs, breast, prostate, etc. The feedback from the doctors who use our breast EIT diagnostic system has induced us to develop the 3D electrical impedance imaging device for diagnostics of the cervix of the uterus - gynecologic impedance tomograph (GIT). The device uses the same measuring approach as the breast imaging system: 2D flat array of the electrodes arranged on the probe with handle is placed against the body. Each of the 32 electrodes of the array is connected in turn to the current source while the rest electrodes acquire the potentials on the surface. The current flows through the electrode of the array and returns through the remote electrode placed on the patient's limb. The voltages are measured relative to another remote electrode. The 3D backprojection along equipotential surfaces is used to reconstruct conductivity distribution up to approximately 1 cm in depth. Small number of electrodes enables us to implement real time imaging with a few frames per sec. rate. The device is under initial testing and evaluation of the imaging capabilities and suitability of usage.

  9. Development of impedance matching technologies for ICRF antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsker, R. I.

    1998-08-01

    All high-power ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating systems include devices for matching the input impedance of the antenna array to the generator output impedance. For most types of antennas used, the input impedance is strongly time dependent on timescales as rapid as 10-4 s, while the radio frequency (RF) generators used are capable of producing full power only into a stationary load impedance. Hence, the dynamic response of the matching method is of great practical importance. In this paper, world-wide developments in this field over the past decade are reviewed. These techniques may be divided into several classes. The edge plasma parameters that determine the antenna array's input impedance may be controlled to maintain a fixed load impedance. The frequency of the RF source can be feedback controlled to compensate for changes in the edge plasma conditions, or fast variable tuning elements in the transmission line between the generator output and the antenna input connections can provide the necessary time-varying impedance transformation. In `lossy passive schemes', reflected power due to the time-varying impedance of the antenna array is diverted to a dummy load. Each of these techniques can be applied to a pre-existing antenna system. If a new antenna is to be designed, recent advances allow the antenna array to have the intrinsic property of presenting a constant load to the feeding transmission lines despite the varying load seen by each antenna in the array.

  10. Magnetic beads-based DNAzyme recognition and AuNPs-based enzymatic catalysis amplification for visual detection of trace uranyl ion in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Zeng, Xiaoxue; Ruan, Yajuan; Wu, Yongning; Lin, Minggui; He, Ye; Fu, FengFu

    2016-04-15

    We herein developed a novel biosensor for the visual detection of trace uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in aqueous environment with high sensitivity and specificity by using DNAzyme-functionalized magnetic beads (MBs) for UO2(2+) recognition and gold nano-particles (AuNPs)-based enzymatic catalysis oxidation of TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine sulfate) for signal generation. The utilization of MBs facilitates the magnetic separation and collection of sensing system from complex sample solution, which leads to more convenient experimental operation and more strong resistibility of the biosensor to the matrix of sample, and the utilization of AuNPs-based enzymatic catalysis amplification greatly improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Compared with the previous DNAzyme-based UO2(2+) sensors, the proposed biosensor has outstanding advantages such as relative high sensitivity and specificity, operation convenience, low cost and more strong resistibility to the matrix of sample. It can be used to detect as low as 0.02 ppb (74 pM) of UO2(2+) in aqueous environment by only naked-eye observation and 1.89 ppt (7.0 pM) of UO2(2+) by UV-visible spectrophotometer with a recovery of 93-99% and a RSD ≤ 5.0% (n=6) within 3h. Especially, the visual detection limit of 0.02 ppb (74 pM) is much lower than the maximum allowable level of UO2(2+) (130 nM) in the drinking water defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that our method meets the requirement of rapid and on-site detection of UO2(2+) in the aqueous environment by only naked-eye observation.

  11. Ionospheric effects to antenna impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethke, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The reciprocity between high power satellite antennas and the surrounding plasma are examined. The relevant plasma states for antenna impedance calculations are presented and plasma models, and hydrodynamic and kinetic theory, are discussed. A theory from which a variation in antenna impedance with regard to the radiated power can be calculated for a frequency range well above the plasma resonance frequency is give. The theory can include photo and secondary emission effects in antenna impedance calculations.

  12. Global Profiling and Novel Structure Discovery Using Multiple Neutral Loss/Precursor Ion Scanning Combined with Substructure Recognition and Statistical Analysis (MNPSS): Characterization of Terpene-Conjugated Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Lin, Xiong-hao; Ji, Shuai; Zhang, Zheng-xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-01-05

    To fully understand the chemical diversity of an herbal medicine is challenging. In this work, we describe a new approach to globally profile and discover novel compounds from an herbal extract using multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning combined with substructure recognition and statistical analysis. Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.) was used as an example. This approach consists of three steps: (i) multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning to obtain substructure information; (ii) targeted identification of new compounds by extracted ion current and substructure recognition; and (iii) untargeted identification using total ion current and multivariate statistical analysis to discover novel structures. Using this approach, 846 terpecurcumins (terpene-conjugated curcuminoids) were discovered from turmeric, including a number of potentially novel compounds. Furthermore, two unprecedented compounds (terpecurcumins X and Y) were purified, and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy. This study extended the application of mass spectrometry to global profiling of natural products in herbal medicines and could help chemists to rapidly discover novel compounds from a complex matrix.

  13. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  14. Monolithically compatible impedance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Ericson, Milton Nance; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic sensor includes a reference channel and at least one sensing channel. Each sensing channel has an oscillator and a counter driven by the oscillator. The reference channel and the at least one sensing channel being formed integrally with a substrate and intimately nested with one another on the substrate. Thus, the oscillator and the counter have matched component values and temperature coefficients. A frequency determining component of the sensing oscillator is formed integrally with the substrate and has an impedance parameter which varies with an environmental parameter to be measured by the sensor. A gating control is responsive to an output signal generated by the reference channel, for terminating counting in the at least one sensing channel at an output count, whereby the output count is indicative of the environmental parameter, and successive ones of the output counts are indicative of changes in the environmental parameter.

  15. Impedance in School Screening Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robarts, John T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the controversy over use of impedance screening in public schools to identify students with hearing problems, including otitis media, a common ear condition in infants and young children. It cites research that questions the value of pure tone screening as a single test and raises critics' objections to the use of impedance,…

  16. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  17. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  18. Electromagnetic scattering by impedance structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic waves from impedance structures is investigated, and current work on antenna pattern calculation is presented. A general algorithm for determining radiation patterns from antennas mounted near or on polygonal plates is presented. These plates are assumed to be of a material which satisfies the Leontovich (or surface impedance) boundary condition. Calculated patterns including reflection and diffraction terms are presented for numerious geometries, and refinements are included for antennas mounted directly on impedance surfaces. For the case of a monopole mounted on a surface impedance ground plane, computed patterns are compared with experimental measurements. This work in antenna pattern prediction forms the basis of understanding of the complex scattering mechanisms from impedance surfaces. It provides the foundation for the analysis of backscattering patterns which, in general, are more problematic than calculation of antenna patterns. Further proposed study of related topics, including surface waves, corner diffractions, and multiple diffractions, is outlined.

  19. Electrical/electrochemical impedance for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liju; Bashir, Rashid

    2008-01-01

    The realization of rapid, sensitive, and specific methods to detect foodborne pathogenic bacteria is central to implementing effective practice to ensure food safety and security. As a principle of transduction, the impedance technique has been applied in the field of microbiology as a means to detect and/or quantify foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The integration of impedance with biological recognition technology for detection of bacteria has led to the development of impedance biosensors that are finding wide-spread use in the recent years. This paper reviews the progress and applications of impedance microbiology for foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection, particularly the new aspects that have been added to this subject in the past few years, including the use of interdigitated microelectrodes, the development of chip-based impedance microbiology, and the use of equivalent circuits for analysis of the impedance systems. This paper also reviews the significant developments of impedance biosensors for bacteria detection in the past 5 years, focusing on microfabricated microelectrodes-based and microfluidic-based Faradaic electrochemical impedance biosensors, non-Faradaic impedance biosensors, and the integration of impedance biosensors with other techniques such as dielectrophoresis and electropermeabilization.

  20. Impedance-estimation methods, modeling methods, articles of manufacture, impedance-modeling devices, and estimated-impedance monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, John G.

    2009-11-17

    An impedance estimation method includes measuring three or more impedances of an object having a periphery using three or more probes coupled to the periphery. The three or more impedance measurements are made at a first frequency. Three or more additional impedance measurements of the object are made using the three or more probes. The three or more additional impedance measurements are made at a second frequency different from the first frequency. An impedance of the object at a point within the periphery is estimated based on the impedance measurements and the additional impedance measurements.

  1. I/O impedance controller

    DOEpatents

    Ruesch, Rodney; Jenkins, Philip N.; Ma, Nan

    2004-03-09

    There is disclosed apparatus and apparatus for impedance control to provide for controlling the impedance of a communication circuit using an all-digital impedance control circuit wherein one or more control bits are used to tune the output impedance. In one example embodiment, the impedance control circuit is fabricated using circuit components found in a standard macro library of a computer aided design system. According to another example embodiment, there is provided a control for an output driver on an integrated circuit ("IC") device to provide for forming a resistor divider network with the output driver and a resistor off the IC device so that the divider network produces an output voltage, comparing the output voltage of the divider network with a reference voltage, and adjusting the output impedance of the output driver to attempt to match the output voltage of the divider network and the reference voltage. Also disclosed is over-sampling the divider network voltage, storing the results of the over sampling, repeating the over-sampling and storing, averaging the results of multiple over sampling operations, controlling the impedance with a plurality of bits forming a word, and updating the value of the word by only one least significant bit at a time.

  2. GB-R impedances: new approach to impedance simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, L.; Carlosena, A.

    1995-04-01

    A new design procedure is presented for obtaining simulated inductors and large capacitors from classical opamp circuits. Such impedances exploit almost all of the available bandwidth of the operational amplifier.

  3. Reactanceless synthesized impedance bandpass amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An active R bandpass filter network is formed by four operational amplifier stages interconnected by discrete resistances. One pair of stages synthesize an equivalent input impedance of an inductance (L sub eq) in parallel with a discrete resistance (R sub o) while the second pair of stages synthesizes an equivalent input impedance of a capacitance (C sub eq) serially coupled to another discrete resistance (R sub i) coupled in parallel with the first two stages. The equivalent input impedances aggregately define a tuned resonant bandpass filter in the roll-off regions of the operational amplifiers.

  4. Plasma Impedance Spectrum Analyzer (PISA): an advanced impedance probe for measuring plasma density and other parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Uribe, P.; Burchill, J.

    2006-12-01

    as close as possible to the plasma potential, collapsing the ion sheath and minimizing sheath-induced errors in the measurement of the temperature-dependent series resonance frequency. In addition, by stepping the bias voltage through a range of values, we can measure the sheath capacitance as a function of voltage and get an independent measure of the Debye length. 3) Drive voltage amplitude stepping which allows the diagnosis of sheath rectification and non-linear effects that may drive harmonics of the plasma / upper hybrid frequency. By stepping the amplitude through a range, we can also find the optimal drive voltage which provides a reasonable SNR while minimizing the impedance probe's impact on other instruments, such as high frequency electric field probes. We present flight data from representative souding rocket flights of the Goddard Impedance Probe and discuss the instrument performance, error bars, and future improvements.

  5. Electrochemical impedance analysis of perovskite–electrolyte interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhen; Mercado, Candy C.; Yang, Mengjin; Palay, Ethan; Zhu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Flat band potentials and carrier densities of spin coated and sprayed MAPbI3, FA0.85Cs0.15PbI3, and MAPbBr3 perovskite films were determined using the Mott-Schottky relation. The films developed a space charge layer and exhibited p-type conduction with carrier concentration ~ 1016 cm-3 for spin coated films. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed typical space charge impedance at frequencies > 1 kHz with increasing capacitance < 1 kHz owing to an ion diffusion component.

  6. IMPEDANCE BUDGET FOR CRAB CAVITY IN MEIC ELECTRON RING

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, B. Yunn, G. Krafft

    2012-07-01

    The Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab has been envisioned as a first stage high energy particle accelerator beyond the 12 GeV upgrade of CEBAF. The estimate of impedance budget is important from the view point of beam stability and matching with other accelerator components driving currents. The detailed study of impedance budget for electron ring has been performed by considering the current design parameters of the e-ring. A comprehensive picture of the calculations involved in this study has been illustrated in the paper.

  7. Electrochemical impedance analysis of perovskite-electrolyte interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Mercado, Candy C; Yang, Mengjin; Palay, Ethan; Zhu, Kai

    2017-02-21

    The flat band potentials and carrier densities of spin coated and sprayed MAPbI3, FA0.85Cs0.15PbI3, and MAPbBr3 perovskite films were determined using the Mott-Schottky relation. The films developed a space charge layer and exhibited p-type conduction with a carrier concentration of ∼10(16) cm(-3) for spin coated films. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed typical space charge impedance at frequencies >1 kHz, and an exceptional high capacitance at frequency <1 kHz owing to an ion diffusion component.

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of tethered bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Valincius, Gintaras; Meškauskas, Tadas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas

    2012-01-10

    The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of tethered bilayer membranes (tBLMs) were analyzed, and the analytical solution for the spectral response of membranes containing natural or artificially introduced defects was derived. The analysis carried out in this work shows that the EIS features of an individual membrane defect cannot be modeled by conventional electrical elements. The primary reason for this is the complex nature of impedance of the submembrane ionic reservoir separating the phospholipid layer and the solid support. We demonstrate that its EIS response, in the case of radially symmetric defects, is described by the Hankel functions of a complex variable. Therefore, neither the impedance of the submembrane reservoir nor the total impedance of tBLMs can be modeled using the conventional elements of the equivalent electrical circuits of interfaces. There are, however, some limiting cases in which the complexity of the EIS response of the submembrane space reduces. In the high frequency limit, the EIS response of a submembrane space that surrounds the defect transforms into a response of a constant phase element (CPE) with the exponent (α) value of 0.5. The onset of this transformation is, beside other parameters, dependent on the defect size. Large-sized defects push the frequency limit lower, therefore, the EIS spectra exhibiting CPE behavior with α ≈ 0.5, can serve as a diagnostic criterion for the presence of such defects. In the low frequency limit, the response is dependent on the density of the defects, and it transforms into the capacitive impedance if the area occupied by a defect is finite. The higher the defect density, the higher the frequency edge at which the onset of the capacitive behavior is observed. Consequently, the presented analysis provides practical tools to evaluate the defect density in tBLMs, which could be utilized in tBLM-based biosensor applications. Alternatively, if the parameters of the defects, e.g., ion channels

  9. Symmetry impedes symmetry discrimination.

    PubMed

    Tjan, Bosco S; Liu, Zili

    2005-12-16

    Objects in the world, natural and artificial alike, are often bilaterally symmetric. The visual system is likely to take advantage of this regularity to encode shapes for efficient object recognition. The nature of encoding a symmetric shape, and of encoding any departure from it, is therefore an important matter in visual perception. We addressed this issue of shape encoding empirically, noting that a particular encoding scheme necessarily leads to a specific profile of sensitivity in perceptual discriminations. We studied symmetry discrimination using human faces and random dots. Each face stimulus was a frontal view of a three-dimensional (3-D) face model. The 3-D face model was a linearly weighted average (a morph) between the model of an original face and that of the corresponding mirror face. Using this morphing technique to vary the degree of asymmetry, we found that, for faces and analogously generated random-dot patterns alike, symmetry discrimination was worst when the stimuli were nearly symmetric, in apparent opposition to almost all studies in the literature. We analyzed the previous work and reconciled the old and new results using a generic model with a simple nonlinearity. By defining asymmetry as the minimal difference between the left and right halves of an object, we found that the visual system was disproportionately more sensitive to larger departures from symmetry than to smaller ones. We further demonstrated that our empirical and modeling results were consistent with Weber-Fechner's and Stevens's laws.

  10. A fluorescein-based chemosensor for relay fluorescence recognition of Cu(ii) ions and biothiols in water and its applications to a molecular logic gate and living cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhen-Hai; Yan, Lu-Bin; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhu, Fan-Fan; Han, Xin-Long; Fang, Jianguo; Wang, Ya-Wen; Peng, Yu

    2017-04-05

    Relay recognition of copper(ii) ions and biothiols via a fluorescence "on-off-on" cascade was designed and realized as a new sequential combination of cations and small molecules. Probe 1 bearing a fluorescein skeleton was thus synthesized, which performed well in 100% HEPES buffer (pH = 7.0) solution, as a highly sensitive, selective fluorescence sensor for Cu(2+). The limit of detection (LOD, 0.017 ppm) was obtained, and this value is much lower than 1.3 ppm, allowed by US EPA. The 1 : 1 complex generated from fast sensing of Cu(2+) when excited at 491 nm, showed good relay recognition for biothiols (i.e., Cys, Hcy and GSH with low detection limits of 0.12 μM, 0.036 μM and 0.024 μM, respectively) via remarkable fluorescence enhancement. The origin of this relay process was disclosed through ESI-MS and corresponding density functional theory (DFT) computations. Notably, probe 1 can be utilized for the construction of a molecular logic gate with the IMPLICATION function by using the above fluorescence changes. Moreover, this relay recognition was also applied to HepG2 cell imaging successfully.

  11. Impedance spectral measurements made through a membrane infection barrier.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian H; Gonzalez-Correa, Carlos A; Bremner, John; Tidy, John A

    2006-12-01

    Impedance spectra of superficial tissues can be used to detect pre-malignant changes in the cervix but require electrical contact to be made between a probe and the tissue. Using a membrane which is permeable to ions but forms a barrier to agents of infection should enable impedance spectra to be measured without causing an infection risk to the patient. The properties required of such a membrane are considered and measurements on two suitable membranes are presented. It is shown that impedance spectra can be measured through a thin natural cellulose based membrane (Cuprophan) and that these are not significantly different from directly measured spectra. The ability of the membranes to block a virus is tested using expired polio virus vaccine.

  12. [Monitoring cervical dilatation by impedance].

    PubMed

    Salvat, J; Lassen, M; Sauze, C; Baud, S; Salvat, F

    1992-01-01

    Several different physics procedures have been tried to mechanize the recording of partograms. Can a measure of impedance of tissue Z using potential difference V, according to Ohm's law V = Z1, and 1 is a constant, be correlated with a measure of cervical dilatation using vaginal examination? This was our hypothesis. The tissue impedance meter was made to our design and applied according to a bipolar procedure. Our work was carried out on 28 patients. 10 patients were registered before labour started in order to test the apparatus and to record the impedance variations without labour taking place, and 18 patients were registered in labour to see whether there was any correlation. The level of impedance in the cervix without labour was 302.7 Ohms with a deviation of 8.2. Using student's t tests it was found that there was a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) in four measurements between the impedance measure and measures obtained by extrapolating the degrees of dilatation calculated from vaginal examination. This is a preliminary study in which we have defined the conditions that are necessary to confirm these first results and to further develop the method.

  13. Materials analyses and electrochemical impedance of implantable metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Matiar M R; Ul Alam, Arif; Sharma, Rahul P; Deen, M Jamal

    2015-04-21

    Implantable electrodes with high flexibility, high mechanical fixation and low electrochemical impedance are desirable for neuromuscular activation because they provide safe, effective and stable stimulation. In this paper, we report on detailed materials and electrical analyses of three metal implantable electrodes - gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and titanium (Ti) - using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning acoustic microscopy, drop shape analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We investigated the cause of changes in electrochemical impedance of long-term immersed Au, Pt and Ti electrodes on liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). We analyzed the surface wettability, surface and interface defects and the elemental depth profile of the electrode-adhesion layers on the LCP. The impedance of the electrodes decreased at lower frequencies, but increased at higher frequencies compared with that of the short-term immersion. The increase of impedances was influenced by the oxidation of the electrode/adhesion-layers that affected the double layer capacitance behavior of the electrode/PBS. The oxidation of the adhesion layer for all the electrodes was confirmed by XPS. Alkali ions (sodium) were adsorbed on the Au and Pt surfaces, but diffused into the Ti electrode and LCPs. The Pt electrode showed a higher sensitivity to surface and interface defects than that of Ti and Au electrodes. These findings may be useful when designing electrodes for long-term implantable devices.

  14. Uncertainties in Transfer Impedance Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, H.; Verpoorte, J.

    2016-05-01

    The shielding effectiveness of metal braids of cables is governed by the geometry and the materials of the braid. The shielding effectiveness can be characterised by the transfer impedance of the metal braid. Analytical models for the transfer impedance contain in general two components, one representing diffusion of electromagnetic energy through the metal braid, and a second part representing leakage of magnetic fields through the braid. Possible sources of uncertainties in the modelling are inaccurate input data (for instance, the exact size of the braid diameter or wire diameter are not known) and imperfections in the computational model. The aim of the present paper is to estimate effects of variations of input data on the calculated transfer impedance.

  15. Sensorless battery temperature measurements based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raijmakers, L. H. J.; Danilov, D. L.; van Lammeren, J. P. M.; Lammers, M. J. G.; Notten, P. H. L.

    2014-02-01

    A new method is proposed to measure the internal temperature of (Li-ion) batteries. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, an intercept frequency (f0) can be determined which is exclusively related to the internal battery temperature. The intercept frequency is defined as the frequency at which the imaginary part of the impedance is zero (Zim = 0), i.e. where the phase shift between the battery current and voltage is absent. The advantage of the proposed method is twofold: (i) no hardware temperature sensors are required anymore to monitor the battery temperature and (ii) the method does not suffer from heat transfer delays. Mathematical analysis of the equivalent electrical-circuit, representing the battery performance, confirms that the intercept frequency decreases with rising temperatures. Impedance measurements on rechargeable Li-ion cells of various chemistries were conducted to verify the proposed method. These experiments reveal that the intercept frequency is clearly dependent on the temperature and does not depend on State-of-Charge (SoC) and aging. These impedance-based sensorless temperature measurements are therefore simple and convenient for application in a wide range of stationary, mobile and high-power devices, such as hybrid- and full electric vehicles.

  16. Selective and visual Ca(2+) ion recognition in solution and in a self-assembly organogel of the terpyridine-based derivative triggered by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lijun; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Zengyao; Wang, Yanqiu; Feng, Guoliang; Pang, Xuelei; Yu, Xudong

    2015-11-07

    A new kind of terpyridine-based Ca(2+) sensor TS was designed and studied based on the internal charge transfer (ICT). In the diluted solution state, TS sensed Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions among test ions via an "off-on" approach as seen from fluorescence spectra of test ions. Moreover, TS was able to form stable fluorescent gels in organic solvents accelerated by ultrasound, indicating the ultrasound responsive properties of TS molecules. The S-gel of TS could be successfully used to selectively recognize Ca(2+) through fluorescent emission color and morphological changes, which was different from that of the solution state. It was predicated that the competition between the self-assembly of TS molecules and the host–guest interaction of TS with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) was responsible for the sensing properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example that organogels could selectively sense Ca2+ ions.

  17. Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II) and Iron(III) Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Cassels, Bruce K.; Pérez, Claudio; Mena, Natalia; Núñez, Marco T.; Martínez, Natalia P.; Pavez, Paulina; Aliaga, Margarita E.

    2014-01-01

    Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E)-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1) and (E)-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2), were synthesized and their detection of copper(II) and iron(III) ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II) or iron(III) ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10−5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes. PMID:24419164

  18. Characteristic impedance of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function for a current embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to analyze microstrip lines at millimeter wave frequencies. The dyadic Green's function accounts accurately for fringing fields and dielectric cover over the microstrip line. Using Rumsey's reaction concept, an expression for the characteristic impedance is obtained. The numerical results are compared with other reported results.

  19. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  20. The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, V; Hutchison, J M; Mallard, J R

    1989-01-01

    The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System is designed to reconstruct 2 dimensional images of the average distribution of the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance within a 3 dimensional region. The system uses the four electrode technique in a 16 electrode split-array. The system hardware consists of task-orientated electronic modules for: driving a constant current, multiplexing the current drive, demultiplexing peripheral voltages, differential amplification, phase sensitive detection and low-pass filtration, digitisation with a 14 bit analog to digital converter (ADC), and -control logic for the ADC and multiplexors. A BBC microprocessor (Master series), initiates a controlled sequence for the collection of a number of data sets which are averaged and stored on disk. Image reconstruction is by a process of convolution-backprojection similar to the fan-beam reconstruction of computerised tomography and is also known as Equipotential Backprojection. In imaging impedance changes associated with fracture healing the changes may be large enough to allow retrieval of both the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance. Sequential imaging of these changes would necessitate monitoring electronic and electrode drift by imaging an equivalent region of the contralateral limb. Differential images could be retrieved when the image of the normal limb is the image template. Better characterisation of tissues would necessitate a cleaner retrieval of the quadrature signal.

  1. Calibration of electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    2000-05-01

    Over the past 10 years we have developed methods for imaging the electrical resistivity of soil and rock formations. These technologies have been called electrical resistance tomography of ERT (e.g. Daily and Owen, 1991). Recently we have been striving to extend this capability to include images of electric impedance--with a new nomenclature of electrical impedance tomography or EIT (Ramirez et al., 1999). Electrical impedance is simply a generalization of resistance. Whereas resistance is the zero frequency ratio of voltage and current, impedance includes both the magnitude and phase relationship between voltage and current at frequency. This phase and its frequency behavior is closely related to what in geophysics is called induced polarization or (Sumner, 1976). Why is this phase or IP important? IP is known to be related to many physical phenomena of importance so that image of IP will be maps of such things as mineralization and cation exchange IP (Marshall and Madden, 1959). Also, it is likely that IP, used in conjunction with resistivity, will yield information about the subsurface that can not be obtained by either piece of information separately. In order to define the accuracy of our technologies to image impedance we have constructed a physical model of known impedance that can be used as a calibration standard. It consists of 616 resistors, along with some capacitors to provide the reactive response, arranged in a three dimensional structure as in figure 1. Figure 2 shows the construction of the network and defines the coordinate system used to describe it. This network of components is a bounded and discrete version of the unbounded and continuous medium with which we normally work (the subsurface). The network has several desirable qualities: (1) The impedance values are known (to the accuracy of the component values). (2) The component values and their 3D distribution is easily controlled. (3) Error associated with electrode noise is eliminated. (4

  2. Ion pair receptors†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Kuk

    2010-01-01

    Compared with simple ion receptors, which are able to bind either a cation or an anion, ion pair receptors bearing both a cation and an anion recognition site offer the promise of binding ion pairs or pairs of ions strongly as the result of direct or indirect cooperative interactions between co-bound ions. This critical review focuses on the recent progress in the design of ion pair receptors and summarizes the various binding modes that have been used to accommodate ion pairs (110 references). PMID:20737073

  3. Conjoint Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Mojardin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews some limiting properties of the process-dissociation model as it applies to the study of dual-process conceptions of memory. A second-generation model (conjoint recognition) is proposed to address these limitations and supply additional capabilities. Worked applications to data are provided. (Author/GCP)

  4. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  14. Impedance analysis of acupuncture points and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplan, Michal; Kukučka, Marek; Ondrejkovičová, Alena

    2011-12-01

    Investigation of impedance characteristics of acupuncture points from acoustic to radio frequency range is addressed. Discernment and localization of acupuncture points in initial single subject study was unsuccessfully attempted by impedance map technique. Vector impedance analyses determined possible resonant zones in MHz region.

  15. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, K.

    2010-02-24

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results.

  16. Tailoring the hydraulic impedance of out-of-plane micromachined electrospray sources with integrated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krpoun, R.; Smith, K. L.; Stark, J. P. W.; Shea, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    Hydraulic impedance is a critical parameter for the operation of electrospray emitters, and for preventing flooding when spraying from arrays of emitters. Controlling flow rate by tuning the flow impedance allows accessing different operating modes, such as droplet, ionic, or pulsating. We report on a method to tailor the hydraulic impedance of micromachined capillary out-of-plane emitters with integrated extractor electrodes by filling them with silica microspheres. Spraying the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4), we demonstrate the ability to tune from droplet emission to pure ion emission depending on microbead diameter, obtaining stable emission from single emitters and from arrays of 19 emitters.

  17. Constant current loop impedance measuring system that is immune to the effects of parasitic impedances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A constant current loop measuring system is provided for measuring a characteristic of an environment. The system comprises a first impedance positionable in the environment, a second impedance coupled in series with said first impedance and a parasitic impedance electrically coupled to the first and second impedances. A current generating device, electrically coupled in series with the first and second impedances, provides a constant current through the first and second impedances to produce first and second voltages across the first and second impedances, respectively, and a parasitic voltage across the parasitic impedance. A high impedance voltage measuring device measures a voltage difference between the first and second voltages independent of the parasitic voltage to produce a characteristic voltage representative of the characteristic of the environment.

  18. Conjoint recognition.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Mojardin, A H

    1999-01-01

    The process-dissociation model has stimulated important advances in the study of dual-process conceptions of memory. The authors review some limiting properties of that model and consider the degree of support for its parent theory (the recollection-familiarity distinction). A 2nd-generation model (conjoint recognition) is proposed that addresses these limitations and supplies additional capabilities, such as goodness-of-fit tests, the ability to measure dual processes for false-memory responses, and statistical procedures for testing within- and between-conditions hypotheses about its parameters. The conjoint-recognition model also implements an alternative theoretical interpretation (the identity-similarity distinction of fuzzy-trace theory). Worked applications to data are provided.

  19. Pathogen identification using peptide nanotube biosensors and impedance AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccuspie, Robert I.

    Pathogen identification at highly sensitive levels is crucial to meet urgent needs in fighting the spread of disease or detecting bioterrorism events. Toward that end, a new method for biosensing utilizing fluorescent antibody nanotubes is proposed. Fundamental studies on the self-assembly of these peptide nanotubes are performed, as are applications of aligning these nanotubes on surfaces. As biosensors, these nanotubes incorporate recognition units with antibodies at their ends and fluorescent signaling units at their sidewalls. When viral pathogens were mixed with these antibody nanotubes in solution, the nanotubes rapidly aggregated around the viruses. The size of the aggregates increased as the concentration of viruses increased, as detected by flow cytometry on the order of attomolar concentrations by changes in fluorescence and light scattering intensities. This enabled determination of the concentrations of viruses at trace levels (102 to 106 pfu/mL) within 30 minutes from the receipt of samples to the final quantitative data analysis, as demonstrated on Adenovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Influenza, and Vaccinia virus. As another separate approach, impedance AFM is used to study the electrical properties of individual viruses and nanoparticles used as model systems. The design, development, and implementation of the impedance AFM for an Asylum Research platform is described, as well as its application towards studying the impedance of individual nanoparticles as a model system for understanding the fundamental science of how the life cycle of a virus affects its electrical properties. In combination, these approaches fill a pressing need to quantify viruses both rapidly and sensitively.

  20. A Novel Fluorescent Optode for Recognition of Zn(2+) ion Based on N,N(')-bis-(1-Hydroxypheylimine)2,5-Thiophenedicarobxaldehyde (HPTD) Schiff Base.

    PubMed

    Abdel Aziz, Ayman A; Seda, Sabry H

    2015-11-01

    A novel fluorescent sensing film has been proposed for sensitive determination of Zn(2+) ion in EtOH-HEPES buffer solution (20 mM HEPES, 50:50, v/v, pH 7.0). The novel sensor based on incorporating a novel qaudridentate Schiff base N,N(')-bis-(1-hydroxypheylimine)2,5-thiophenedicarobxaldehyde (HPTD) as ionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane containing bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebecate (DOS) as plasticizer. The novel optode membrane works on the basis of a cation-exchange mechanism and shows a significant fluorescent emission enhancement on exposure to HEPES buffer solution of pH 7.0 containing Zn(2+) ion. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensing film displays a linear range of 1.0 × 10(-12) to 8.6 × 10(-4) M with a limit of detection 5.3 × 10(-13) M. The response characteristics of the sensor including reversibility, reproducibility, response time and lifetime are discussed in detail. The optode membrane has been applied to determine Zn(2+) in various real water samples.

  1. Impedance spectroscopy of food mycotoxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Yaremyk, Roman Ya.; Kotsyumbas, Ihor Ya.; Kotsyumbas, Halyna I.

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical method of high-selective detection of mycotoxins in food and feed are considered. A method is based on optical registration the changes of conduct of the electric polarized bacterial agents in solution at the action of the external gradient electric fields. Measuring are conducted in integrated electrode-optical cuvette of the special construction, which provides the photometric analysis of forward motion of the objects registration in liquid solution under act of the enclosed electric field and simultaneous registration of kinetics of change of electrical impedance parameters solution and electrode system.

  2. Bilateral Impedance Control For Telemanipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    Telemanipulator system includes master robot manipulated by human operator, and slave robot performing tasks at remote location. Two robots electronically coupled so slave robot moves in response to commands from master robot. Teleoperation greatly enhanced if forces acting on slave robot fed back to operator, giving operator feeling he or she manipulates remote environment directly. Main advantage of bilateral impedance control: enables arbitrary specification of desired performance characteristics for telemanipulator system. Relationship between force and position modulated at both ends of system to suit requirements of task.

  3. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba; Christopher J. Ziolkowski

    2005-01-17

    This project aimed at developing a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GTI. GTI proposed to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or non-metallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment

  4. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2002-08-30

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a thin film sensor conformal with the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is capacitively coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD

  5. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2003-10-01

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  6. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2004-02-01

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  7. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba; Christopher J. Ziolkowski

    2004-06-30

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  8. Study of Influence of Electrode Geometry on Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Riaz; Reifsnider, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful and proven tool for analyzing AC impedance response. A conventional three electrode EIS method was used to perform the investigation in the present study. Saturated potassium chloride solution was used as the electrolyte and three different material rods were used as working electrodes. Different configurations of electrode area were exposed to the electrolyte as an active area to investigate electrode geometry effects. Counter to working electrode distance was also altered while keeping the working electrode effective area constant to explore the AC response dependence on the variation of ion travel distance. Some controlled experiments were done to validate the experimental setup and to provide a control condition for comparison with experimental results. A frequency range of 100 mHz to 1 MHz was used for all experiments. In our analysis, we have found a noteworthy influence of electrode geometry on AC impedance response. For all electrodes, impedance decreases with the increase of effective area of the electrolyte. High frequency impedance is not as dependent on geometry as low frequency response. The observed phase shift angle drops in the high frequency region with increased working electrode area, whereas at low frequency the reverse is true. Resistance and capacitive reactance both decrease with an increase of area, but resistance response is more pronounce than reactance. For lower frequencies, small changes in working area produce very distinctive EIS variations. Electrode material as well as geometry was systematically varied in the present study. From these and other studies, we hope to develop a fundamental foundation for understanding specific changes in local geometry in fuel cell (and other) electrodes as a method of designing local morphology for specific performance.

  9. 2,6-Bis(2-Benzimidazolyl)Pyridine Fluorescent Red-Shifted Sensor for Recognition of Zinc(II) and a Calorimetric Sensor for Iron Ions.

    PubMed

    Vosough Razavi, Bita; Badiei, Alireza; Lashgari, Negar; Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi

    2016-09-01

    The ability of 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine (bbp) as an optical sensor was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, colorimetric and UV-visible techniques. The fluorescence spectra of bbp demonstrated a red-shifted upon addition of Zn(2+) ion, whereas rest of the cations did not induce any shift. Selectivity of the sensor was examined toward Zn(2+) in the presence of a wide range of cations, as interfering agents, that showed no disruption in its function. In addition, the pH effect was tested on the fluorescence response of bbp; which showed the efficiency of the sensor in a wide pH range. The limit of detection for Zn(2+) was estimated as 2.1 μM. Furthermore, the colorimetric studies were carried out and the observations showed a color change from colorless to purple by the addition of Fe(2+) ion and from colorless to yellow by the addition of Fe(3+). The UV-visible studies were carried out to confirm the colorimetric observations. The color changes occurred when Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were added to the sensors solution, respectively. The detection limits were calculated as 2.8 × 10(-7) M and 3.5 × 10(-6) M for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), respectively. Hence, bbp can be used as a dual mode optical sensor for detection of Zn(2+) by fluorescence and discriminately detection of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) visually.

  10. Electrical Impedance Tomography of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Diagnosis of Metastatic Cancer, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Electrical Impedance Imaging, Electrical Impedance Scanning, MRI current...1) To develop and optimize the necessary hardware and software for Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) and interface it with...of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) conference and included in the appendix for reference. 2.2.2. Second Year: A series of new phantom studies

  11. Detection of Chamber Conditioning Through Optical Emission and Impedance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2001-01-01

    During oxide etch processes, buildup of fluorocarbon residues on reactor sidewalls can cause run-to-run drift and will necessitate some time for conditioning and seasoning of the reactor. Though diagnostics can be applied to study and understand these phenomena, many of them are not practical for use in an industrial reactor. For instance, measurements of ion fluxes and energy by mass spectrometry show that the buildup of insulating fluorocarbon films on the reactor surface will cause a shift in both ion energy and current in an argon plasma. However, such a device cannot be easily integrated into a processing system. The shift in ion energy and flux will be accompanied by an increase in the capacitance of the plasma sheath. The shift in sheath capacitance can be easily measured by a common commercially available impedance probe placed on the inductive coil. A buildup of film on the chamber wall is expected to affect the production of fluorocarbon radicals, and thus the presence of such species in the optical emission spectrum of the plasma can be monitored as well. These two techniques are employed on a GEC (Gaseous Electronics Conference) Reference Cell to assess the validity of optical emission and impedance monitoring as a metric of chamber conditioning. These techniques are applied to experimental runs with CHF3 and CHF3/O2/Ar plasmas, with intermediate monitoring of pure argon plasmas as a reference case for chamber conditions.

  12. Molecular Recognition of the Catalytic Zinc(II) Ion in MMP-13: Structure-Based Evolution of an Allosteric Inhibitor to Dual Binding Mode Inhibitors with Improved Lipophilic Ligand Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc dependent endopeptidases which play a crucial role in a multitude of severe diseases such as cancer and osteoarthritis. We employed MMP-13 as the target enzyme for the structure-based design and synthesis of inhibitors able to recognize the catalytic zinc ion in addition to an allosteric binding site in order to increase the affinity of the ligand. Guided by molecular modeling, we optimized an initial allosteric inhibitor by addition of linker fragments and weak zinc binders for recognition of the catalytic center. Furthermore we improved the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) of the initial inhibitor by adding appropriate zinc binding fragments to lower the clogP values of the inhibitors, while maintaining their potency. All synthesized inhibitors showed elevated affinity compared to the initial hit, also most of the novel inhibitors displayed better LLE. Derivatives with carboxylic acids as the zinc binding fragments turned out to be the most potent inhibitors (compound 3 (ZHAWOC5077): IC50 = 134 nM) whereas acyl sulfonamides showed the best lipophilic ligand efficiencies (compound 18 (ZHAWOC5135): LLE = 2.91). PMID:26938528

  13. Competitive molecular-/ion-recognition responsive characteristics of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-12-crown-4-acrylamide) copolymers with benzo-12-crown-4 as both guest and host units.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin-Mei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Xie, Rui; Wang, Wei; Wu, Jiang-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Qiong; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2014-07-01

    Novel dual molecular- and ion-recognition responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-12-crown-4-acrylamide) (PNB12 C4 ) linear copolymers with benzo-12-crown-4 (B12C4) as both guest and host units are prepared. The copolymers exhibit highly selective sensitivities toward γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) and Na(+) . The presence of γ-CD induces the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNB12 C4 copolymer to shift to a higher value due to the formation of 1:1 γ-CD/B12C4 host-guest inclusion complexes, while Na(+) causes a negative shift in LCST due to the formation of 2:1 "sandwich" B12C4/Na(+) host-guest complexes. Regardless of the complexation order, when γ-CD and Na(+) coexist with PNB12 C4 , competitive complexation actions of B12C4 as both guest and host units toward γ-CD and Na(+) finally form equilibrium 2:2:1 γ-CD/B12C4/Na(+) composite complexes, and the final LCST values of PNB12 C4 copolymer reach almost the same level. The results provide valuable guidance for designing and applying PNB12 C4 -based smart materials in various applications.

  14. Molecular Recognition of the Catalytic Zinc(II) Ion in MMP-13: Structure-Based Evolution of an Allosteric Inhibitor to Dual Binding Mode Inhibitors with Improved Lipophilic Ligand Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Thomas; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc dependent endopeptidases which play a crucial role in a multitude of severe diseases such as cancer and osteoarthritis. We employed MMP-13 as the target enzyme for the structure-based design and synthesis of inhibitors able to recognize the catalytic zinc ion in addition to an allosteric binding site in order to increase the affinity of the ligand. Guided by molecular modeling, we optimized an initial allosteric inhibitor by addition of linker fragments and weak zinc binders for recognition of the catalytic center. Furthermore we improved the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) of the initial inhibitor by adding appropriate zinc binding fragments to lower the clogP values of the inhibitors, while maintaining their potency. All synthesized inhibitors showed elevated affinity compared to the initial hit, also most of the novel inhibitors displayed better LLE. Derivatives with carboxylic acids as the zinc binding fragments turned out to be the most potent inhibitors (compound 3 (ZHAWOC5077): IC50 = 134 nM) whereas acyl sulfonamides showed the best lipophilic ligand efficiencies (compound 18 (ZHAWOC5135): LLE = 2.91).

  15. Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements for Onboard State-of-Health Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; Chinh D. Ho

    2012-06-01

    Rapid impedance measurements can provide a useful online tool for improved state-of-health estimation. A validation study has been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory for a rapid impedance technique known as Harmonic Compensated Synchronous Detection. This technique enables capturing the impedance spectra over a broad frequency range within about ten seconds. Commercially available lithium-ion cells are being calendar-life aged at 50°C with reference performance tests at 30°C every 32.5 days to gauge degradation The cells have completed the first set of reference performance tests and preliminary results are presented. The spectra change as a function of temperature and depth-of-discharge condition, as expected. The data indicate that the rapid impedance measurement technique is a benign measurement tool that can be successfully used to gauge changes in the corresponding pulse resistance.

  16. Procedure for the semi-automatic detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux patterns in intraluminal impedance measurements in infants.

    PubMed

    Trachterna, M; Wenzl, T G; Silny, J; Rau, G; Heimann, G

    1999-04-01

    The diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is of great interest for paediatric gastroenterologists. pH monitoring is the commonly used procedure for GOR diagnosis but a major amount of postprandial GOR is missed due to the mostly non-acidic gastric contents in infants. The multiple intraluminal impedance technique is based on the recording of the impedance changes during bolus transport inside the oesophagus. It is the first method which allows the pH-independent, long-term registration of GOR. The use of the impedance technology in clinical practice has been limited so far by the time-consuming, visual evaluation of the impedance traces. The new approach of a semi-automatic analysis of the impedance measurements allows the automated detection of reflux patterns. It is based on event marking and an optimised feature description of the impedance traces combined with a fuzzy system for pattern recognition. The classifier is developed and tested on 50 investigations in infants. Compared to the comprehensive, multiple visual evaluation the achieved precision is 75% sensitivity and 48% positive prediction. In comparison to a single visual evaluation the analysis of the automatically proposed patterns corresponds to a 96% reduction of the evaluation time with no loss of precision. Thus the applicability of the impedance technology is enhanced significantly. A combined measurement of pH and impedance gives evidence about the occurrence of GOR, its pH and the acidic exposure of the oesophagus.

  17. Impedance Spectroscopy of Human Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, Francisco; Bernal, José J.; Sosa, Modesto A.; Villagómez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual

    2004-09-01

    The blood is one of the corporal fluids more used with analytical purposes. When the blood is extracted, immediately it is affected by agents that act on it, producing transformations in its elements. Among the effects of these transformations the hemolysis phenomenon stands out, which consists of the membrane rupture and possible death of the red blood cells. The main purpose of this investigation was the quantification of this phenomenon. A Solartron SI-1260 Impedance Spectrometer was used, which covers a frequency range of work from 1 μHz to 10 MHz, and its accuracy has been tested in the accomplishment of several applications. Measurements were performed on 3 mL human blood samples, from healthy donors. Reactive strips for sugar test of 2 μL, from Bayer, were used as electrodes, which allow gathering a portion of the sample, to be analyzed by the spectrometer. Preliminary results of these measurements are presented.

  18. On Impedance Spectroscopy of Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchaikin, V. V.; Sibatov, R. T.; Ambrozevich, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Supercapacitors are often characterized by responses measured by methods of impedance spectroscopy. In the frequency domain these responses have the form of power-law functions or their linear combinations. The inverse Fourier transform leads to relaxation equations with integro-differential operators of fractional order under assumption that the frequency response is independent of the working voltage. To compare long-term relaxation kinetics predicted by these equations with the observed one, charging-discharging of supercapacitors (with nominal capacitances of 0.22, 0.47, and 1.0 F) have been studied by means of registration of the current response to a step voltage signal. It is established that the reaction of devices under study to variations of the charging regime disagrees with the model of a homogeneous linear response. It is demonstrated that relaxation is well described by a fractional stretched exponent.

  19. Electrical impedance tomography of electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to explore the hypothesis that changes in pH during electrolysis can be detected with Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). The study has relevance to real time control of minimally invasive surgery with electrolytic ablation. To investigate the hypothesis, we compare EIT reconstructed images to optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar gel phantom treated with electrolysis. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E.Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of EIT to image pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E.coli model. The results are promising, and invite further experimental explorations.

  20. Recognition Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode (“tethered molecule-pair” configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the “free analyte” configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. PMID:20522930

  1. A physical interpretation of impedance at conducting polymer/electrolyte junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Sessolo, Michele; Sanaur, Sébastien; Malliaras, George G.; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn

    2014-01-15

    We monitor the process of dedoping in a planar junction between an electrolyte and a conducting polymer using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed during moving front measurements. The impedance spectra are consistent with an equivalent circuit of a time varying resistor in parallel with a capacitor. We show that the resistor corresponds to ion transport in the dedoped region of the film, and can be quantitatively described using ion density and drift mobility obtained from the moving front measurements. The capacitor, on the other hand, does not depend on time and is associated with charge separation at the moving front. This work offers a physical description of the impedance of conducting polymer/electrolyte interfaces based on materials parameters.

  2. Impedance spectroscopic characterization of gadolinium substituted cobalt ferrite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Md. T. Ramana, C. V.

    2014-10-28

    Gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2−x}Gd{sub x}O{sub 4}, referred to CFGO) with variable Gd content (x = 0.0–0.4) have been synthesized by solid state ceramic method. The crystal structure and impedance properties of CFGO compounds have been evaluated. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that CFGO crystallize in the inverse spinel phase. The CFGO compounds exhibit lattice expansion due to substitution of larger Gd ions into the crystal lattice. Impedance spectroscopy analysis was performed under a wide range of frequency (f = 20 Hz–1 MHz) and temperature (T = 303–573 K). Electrical properties of Gd incorporated Co ferrite ceramics are enhanced compared to pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to the lattice distortion. Impedance spectroscopic analysis illustrates the variation of bulk grain and grain-boundary contributions towards the electrical resistance and capacitance of CFGO materials with temperature. A two-layer heterogeneous model consisting of moderately conducting grain interior (ferrite-phase) regions separated by insulating grain boundaries (resistive-phase) accurately account for the observed temperature and frequency dependent electrical characteristic of CFGO ceramics.

  3. Time-domain fitting of battery electrochemical impedance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, S. M. M.; Birkl, C. R.; Howey, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an effective technique for diagnosing the behaviour of electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells, usually by fitting data to an equivalent circuit model (ECM). The common approach in the laboratory is to measure the impedance spectrum of a cell in the frequency domain using a single sine sweep signal, then fit the ECM parameters in the frequency domain. This paper focuses instead on estimation of the ECM parameters directly from time-domain data. This may be advantageous for parameter estimation in practical applications such as automotive systems including battery-powered vehicles, where the data may be heavily corrupted by noise. The proposed methodology is based on the simplified refined instrumental variable for continuous-time fractional systems method ('srivcf'), provided by the Crone toolbox [1,2], combined with gradient-based optimisation to estimate the order of the fractional term in the ECM. The approach was tested first on synthetic data and then on real data measured from a 26650 lithium-ion iron phosphate cell with low-cost equipment. The resulting Nyquist plots from the time-domain fitted models match the impedance spectrum closely (much more accurately than when a Randles model is assumed), and the fitted parameters as separately determined through a laboratory potentiostat with frequency domain fitting match to within 13%.

  4. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  5. Behind the (impedance) baseline in children.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Salvatoni, A; Van Steen, K; Ummarino, D; Hauser, B; Vandenplas, Y

    2014-01-01

    Impedance baseline is a new parameter recently related to esophageal integrity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different factors on impedance baseline in pediatric patients. We analyzed the impedance baseline of 800 children with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Mean impedance baseline was automatically calculated throughout 24-hour tracings. The presence of different age groups and of esophagitis was evaluated. Unpaired t-test, Spearman rank correlation, polynomial, and regression plot were used for statistical analysis. Age-related percentile curves were created. We considered a P-value<0.05 as statistically significant. Impedance baseline was significantly (P<0.001) lower in younger compared to older children up to 48 months. The mean increase of baseline per month was much higher in the first 36 months of life (47.5 vs. 2.9 Ohm in Channel 1 and 29.9 vs. 2.3 Ohm in Channel 6, respectively) than in older ages. Patients with esophagitis showed significantly decreased impedance baseline (P<0.05). Infants (especially in the first months of life) and young children present a significantly lower impedance baseline compared to older children both in proximal and distal esophagus. The presence of esophagitis may also determine a decreased impedance baseline regardless of the age of the patients.

  6. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  7. Beam impedance of a split cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, G.

    1990-04-01

    A common geometry for position electrodes at moderately low frequencies is the capacitive pickup consisting of a diagonally- divided cylinder that encloses the beam trajectory. For the simplified system here, a relatively direct approach will given the longitudinal and transverse beam impedances (Z{parallel}and Z{perpendicular}) at low frequencies. This paper discusses the determination of this impedance.

  8. Transverse impedance localization using intensity dependent optics

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga,R.; Arduini, G.; Metral, E.; Papotti, G.; Quatraro, D.; Rumolo, G.; Salvant, B.; Tomas, R.

    2009-05-04

    Measurements of transverse impedance in the SPS to track the evolution over the last few years show discrepancies compared to the analytical estimates of the major contributors. Recent measurements to localize the major sources of the transverse impedance using intensity dependent optics are presented. Some simulations using HEADTAIL to understand the limitations of the reconstruction and related numerical aspects are also discussed.

  9. Possibilities of electrical impedance tomography in gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Trokhanova O.; A, Chijova Y.; B, Okhapkin M.; V, Korjenevsky A.; S, Tuykin T.

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes results of comprehensive EIT diagnostics of mammary glands and cervix. The data were obtained from examinations of 170 patients by EIT system MEM (multi-frequency electrical impedance mammograph) and EIT system GIT (gynecological impedance tomograph). Mutual dependence is discussed.

  10. LHC Kicker Beam-Impedance Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1998-10-01

    Longitudinal and transverse beam impedances are calculated for the injection kickers designed for use in the CERN large hadron col- Iider. These combine the contributions of a ceramic beam tube with conducting stripes and a traveling-wave kicker magnet. The results show peak impedances of 1300 ohm longitudinal and 8 Mfl/m trans- verse for four units per ring.

  11. Single-cell bioelectrical impedance platform for monitoring cellular response to drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Asphahani, Fareid; Wang, Kui; Thein, Myo; Veiseh, Omid; Yung, Sandy; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    The response of cells to a chemical or biological agent in terms of their impedance changes in real-time is a useful mechanism that can be utilized for a wide variety of biomedical and environmental applications. The use of a single-cell based analytical platform could be an effective approach to acquiring more sensitive cell impedance measurements, particularly in applications where only diminutive changes in impedance are expected. Here, we report the development of an on-chip cell impedance biosensor with two types of electrodes that hosts individual cells and cell populations, respectively, to study its efficacy in detecting cellular response. Human glioblastoma (U87MG) cells were patterned on single- and multi-cell electrodes through ligand-mediated natural cell adhesion. We comparatively investigated how these cancer cells on both types of electrodes respond to an ion channel inhibitor, chlorotoxin (CTX), in terms of their shape alternations and impedance changes to exploit the fine detectability of the single-cell based system. The detecting electrodes hosting single cells exhibited a significant reduction in the real impedance signal, while electrodes hosting confluent monolayer of cells showed little to no impedance change. When single-cell electrodes were treated with CTX of different doses, a dose-dependent impedance change was observed. This enables us to identify the effective dose needed for this particular treatment. Our study demonstrated that this single-cell impedance system may potentially serve as a useful analytical tool for biomedical applications such as environmental toxin detection and drug evaluation. PMID:21301069

  12. MONITORING ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTIONS AT CONDUCTING POLYMER-BASED IMMUNOSENSORS USING IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The mechanisms of antibody¯antigen (Ab¯Ag) interactions at conducting polypyrrole electrodes have been investigated using impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of the variation in ion exchange, solution composition, and...

  13. Structural health monitoring using piezoelectric impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyuhae; Inman, Daniel J

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an overview and recent advances in impedance-based structural health monitoring. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply high-frequency structural excitations (typically greater than 30kHz) through surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers, and measure the impedance of structures by monitoring the current and voltage applied to the piezoelectric transducers. Changes in impedance indicate changes in the structure, which in turn can indicate that damage has occurred. An experimental study is presented to demonstrate how this technique can be used to detect structural damage in real time. Signal processing methods that address damage classifications and data compression issues associated with the use of the impedance methods are also summarized. Finally, a modified frequency-domain autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) is described. The frequency-domain ARX model, constructed by measured impedance data, is used to diagnose structural damage with levels of statistical confidence.

  14. Label-Free, Electrochemical Quantitation of Potassium Ions from Femtomolar Levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bicheng; Booth, Marsilea A; Woo, Han Young; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2015-10-01

    In this communication, a label-free and sensitive electrochemical method to detect potassium ions is proposed. The conducting polymer polypyrrole was used as both an anchor for the probe and a transducer of the detection event. A K(+)-specific G-rich aptamer was applied as a recognition element, which folded into the G-quadruplex structure in the presence of K(+), and this resulted in an increase in the electrode impedance. The combination of the K(+)-selective aptamer and the porous conducting polymer as a signal transducer afforded a successful sensor platform. The sensor responded approximately logarithmically over a wide dynamic range of K(+) concentrations from 20 fM to 1 mM, with a very low detection limit of 14.7 fM and excellent discrimination against other ions. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to study the kinetics of K(+) binding at the conducting polymer-immobilized aptamer surface, which indicated strong binding between the two. This work demonstrates a powerful approach for the sensitive, selective, and direct electrochemical detection of metal ions based on the switching conformation of G-rich aptamers attached to a porous conducting polymer surface. This assay scheme can be expanded to the detection of a wide range of targets by modifying the aptamer structure as a recognizing moiety.

  15. Impedance matching at arterial bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Brown, N

    1993-01-01

    Reflections of pulse waves will occur in arterial bifurcations unless the impedance is matched continuously through changing geometric and elastic properties. A theoretical model is presented which minimizes pulse wave reflection through bifurcations. The model accounts for the observed linear changes in area within the bifurcation, generalizes the theory to asymmetrical bifurcations, characterizes changes in elastic properties from parent to daughter arteries, and assesses the effect of branch angle on the mechanical properties of daughter vessels. In contradistinction to previous models, reflections cannot be minimized without changes in elastic properties through bifurcations. The theoretical model predicts that in bifurcations with area ratios (beta) less than 1.0 Young's moduli of daughter vessels may be less than that in the parent vessel if the Womersley parameter alpha in the parent vessel is less than 5. Larger area ratios in bifurcations are accompanied by greater increases in Young's moduli of branches. For an idealized symmetric aortic bifurcation (alpha = 10) with branching angles theta = 30 degrees (opening angle 60 degrees) Young's modulus of common iliac arteries relative to that of the distal abdominal aorta has an increase of 1.05, 1.68 and 2.25 for area ratio of 0.8, 1.0 and 1.15, respectively. These predictions are consistent with the observed increases in Young's moduli of peripheral vessels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Studies of deionization and impedance spectroscopy for blood analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Charlotte C.; Li, Nan; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2005-11-01

    Blood analysis provides vital information for health conditions. For instance, typical infection response is correlated to an elevated White Blood Cell (WBC) count, while low Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin and hematocrit are caused by anemia or internal bleeding. We are developing two essential modules, deionization (DI) chip and microfluidic cytometer with impedance spectroscopy flow, for enabling the realization of a single platform miniaturized blood analyzer. In the proposed analyzer, blood cells are preliminarily sorted by Dielectrophoretic (DEP) means into sub-groups, differentiated and counted by impedance spectroscopy in a flow cytometer. DEP techniques have been demonstrated to stretch DNA, align Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) and trap cells successfully. However, DEP manipulation does not function in biological media with high conductivity. The DI module is designed to account for this challenge. H Filter will serve as an ion extraction platform in a microchamber. Sample and buffer do not mix well in micro scale allowing the ions being extracted by diffusion without increasing the volume. This can keep the downstream processing time short. Micro scale hydrodynamic focusing is employed to place single cell passing along the central plane of the flow cytometer module. By applying an AC electrical field, suspended cells are polarized, membrane capacitance C m, cytoplasm conductivity σ c, and cytoplasm permittivity ɛ c will vary as functions of frequency. Tracing back the monitored current, the numbers of individual cell species can be evaluated.

  17. Estimates of Acausal Joint Impedance Models

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of joint or limb impedance are commonly used in the study of how the nervous system controls posture and movement, and how that control is altered by injury to the neural or musculoskeletal systems. Impedance characterizes the dynamic relationship between an imposed perturbation of joint position and the torques generated in response. While there are many practical reasons for estimating impedance rather than its inverse, admittance, it is an acausal representation of the limb mechanics that can lead to difficulties in interpretation or use. The purpose of this study was to explore the acausal nature of nonparametric estimates of joint impedance representations to determine how they are influenced by common experimental and computational choices. This was accomplished by deriving discrete-time realizations of first-and second-order derivatives to illustrate two key difficulties in the physical interpretation of impedance impulse response functions. These illustrations were provided using both simulated and experimental data. It was found that the shape of the impedance impulse response depends critically on the selected sampling rate, and on the bandwidth and noise characteristics of the position perturbation used during the estimation process. These results provide important guidelines for designing experiments in which nonparametric estimates of impedance will be obtained, especially when those estimates are to be used in a multistep identification process. PMID:22907963

  18. Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements for State-of-Health Assessment of Energy Storage Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; Chester G. Motloch; William H. Morrison

    2012-04-01

    Harmonic compensated synchronous detection (HCSD) is a technique that can be used to measure wideband impedance spectra within seconds based on an input sum-of-sines signal having a frequency spread separated by harmonics. The battery (or other energy storage device) is excited with a sum-of-sines current signal that has a duration of at least one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured and synchronously detected at each frequency of interest to determine the impedance spectra. This technique was successfully simulated using a simplified battery model and then verified with commercially available Sanyo lithium-ion cells. Simulations revealed the presence of a start-up transient effect when only one period of the lowest frequency is included in the excitation signal. This transient effect appears to only influence the low-frequency impedance measurements and can be reduced when a longer input signal is used. Furthermore, lithium-ion cell testing has indicated that the transient effect does not seem to impact the charge transfer resistance in the mid-frequency region. The degradation rates for the charge transfer resistance measured from the HCSD technique were very similar to the changes observed from standardized impedance spectroscopy methods. Results from these studies, therefore, indicate that HCSD is a viable, rapid alternative approach to acquiring impedance spectra.

  19. Impedance match for Stirling type cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Luo, Ercang; Wang, Xiaotao; Wu, Zhanghua

    Impedance match in Stirling type cryocoolers is important for the compressor efficiency and available acoustic power. This paper generalizes the basic principles concerning the efficiency and acoustic power output of the linear compressor. Starting from basic governing equations and mainly from the viewpoint of energy balance, the physical mechanisms behind the principles are clearly shown. Specially, this paper focuses on the impedance match for an existing compressor, where the current limit and displacement limit should also be taken into consideration when selecting a suitable impedance. Some case studies based on a commercial compressor are also provided for a deep understanding.

  20. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. It is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. These sheets are characterized by a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field on either side of the sheet but no discontinuity in tangential electric field. This continuity, or single valued behavior of the electric field, allows the sheet current to be expressed in terms of an impedance multiplying this electric field.

  1. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

  2. Linearly tapered slot antenna impedance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents for the first time an experimental technique to de-embed the input impedance of a LTSA from the measured reflection coefficient. The results show that the input impedance is dependent on the semi-flare angle and the length of the LTSA. The Re(Z(sub in)) is large when the electrical length of the LTSA is small and is on the order of few thousand ohms. However for an electrically large LTSA the Re(Z(sub in)) is in the range of 55 to 130 ohms. These results have potential applications in the design of broad band impedance matching networks for LTSA.

  3. Wearable impedance monitoring system for dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, S; Bourgerette, A; Gharbi, S; Rubeck, C; Arkouche, W; Massot, B; McAdams, E; Montalibet, A; Jallon, P

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the development and the validation of a prototype wearable miniaturized impedance monitoring system for remote monitoring in home-based dialysis patients. This device is intended to assess the hydration status of dialysis patients using calf impedance measurements. The system is based on the low-power AD8302 component. The impedance calibration procedure is described together with the Cole parameter estimation and the hydric volume estimation. Results are given on a test cell to validate the design and on preliminary calf measurements showing Cole parameter variations during hemodialysis.

  4. Vertical impedance measurements of concrete bridge deck cover condition without a direct electrical connection to the reinforcing steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Baxter, Jared; Barton, Jeffrey; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2017-02-01

    Vertical impedance measurements provide significant quantitative information about the ability of concrete cover to slow the penetration of chloride ions that can corrode steel reinforcement in a bridge deck. The primary limitations preventing the widespread adoption of vertical impedance for assessment of concrete bridge decks are (1) the necessity to have a direct electrical connection to the embedded steel reinforcement and (2) the low speeds of data acquisition. This work presents solutions to both limitations. A method using a large-area electrode as a reference electrode for vertical impedance testing is validated using both simulations and measurements in the field.

  5. Laser Raman and ac impedance spectroscopic studies of PVA: NH 4NO 3 polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hema, M.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Hirankumar, G.; Sakunthala, A.; Arunkumar, D.; Nithya, H.

    2010-01-01

    Ion conducting polymer electrolyte PVA:NH 4NO 3 has been prepared by solution casting technique and characterized using XRD, Raman and ac impedance spectroscopic analyses. The amorphous nature of the polymer films has been confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. An insight into the deconvoluted Raman peaks of υ1 vibration of NO 3- anion for the polymer electrolyte reveals the dominancy of ion aggregates at higher NH 4NO 3 concentration. From the ac impedance studies, the highest ion conductivity at 303 K has been found to be 7.5 × 10 -3 S cm -1 for 80PVA:20NH 4NO 3. The conductivity of the polymer electrolytes has been found to depend on the degree of dissociation of the salt in the host polymer matrix. The combination of the above-mentioned analyses has proven worth while and in fact necessary in order to achieve better understanding of these complex systems.

  6. Transverse impedances of cavities and collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.A.; Bane, K.L.F.; Bizek, H.

    1987-03-01

    Field matching has been used to compute the transverse impedance of simple, cylindrically symmetric, perfectly conducting structures, the subregions of which are separated by radial cuts. The method is briefly described, and some early results are presented. (LEW)

  7. Surface impedance of transversely moving microwave ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical study was made of the surface impedance Z for an electromagnetic transverse magnetic wave from free space on a magnetized ferrite surface moving normal to the plane of incidence. It was found convenient to decompose the surface impedance into two transfer impedances, Z1 and Z2, which relate the hybrid reflected amplitudes to the amplitude of the incident wave. The surface impedance does not vary much with respect to the angle of incidence, so only the case of normal incidence (θi = 0°) was evaluated. Resonant poles at ƒc, [ƒc(ƒc + ƒm)]1/2, and ƒc + ƒm dominate the frequency characteristics of Z1 and Z2. The frequencies ƒc andƒm are the precessional frequency and magnetization frequency, respectively.

  8. Antenna pattern control using impedance surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

    1993-01-01

    During the period of this research project, a comprehensive study of pyramidal horn antennas was conducted. Full-wave analytical and numerical techniques were developed to analyze horn antennas with or without impedance surfaces. Based on these full-wave analytic techniques, research was conducted on the use of impedance surfaces on the walls of the horn antennas to control the antenna radiation patterns without a substantial loss of antenna gain. It was found that the use of impedance surfaces could modify the antenna radiation patterns. In addition to the analytical and numerical models, experimental models were also constructed and they were used to validate the predictions. Excellent agreement between theoretical predictions and the measured data was obtained for pyramidal horns with perfectly conducting surfaces. Very good comparisons between numerical and experimental models were also obtained for horns with impedance surfaces.

  9. Adaptive impedance control of redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.; Seraji, H.

    1990-01-01

    A scheme for controlling the mechanical impedance of the end-effector of a kinematically redundant manipulator is presented. The proposed control system consists of two subsystems: an adaptive impedance controller which generates the Cartesian-space control input F (is a member of Rm) required to provide the desired end-effector impedance characteristics, and an algorithm that maps this control input to the joint torque T (is a member of Rn). The F to T map is constructed so that the robot redundancy is utilized to improve either the kinematic or dynamic performance of the robot. The impedance controller does not require knowledge of the complex robot dynamic model or parameter values for the robot, the payload, or the environment, and is implemented without calculation of the robot inverse kinematic transformation. As a result, the scheme is very general and is computationally efficient for on-line implementation.

  10. Inversion of elastic impedance for unconsolidated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2006-01-01

    Elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are important for quantifying gas hydrate amounts as well as discriminating the gas hydrate effect on velocity from free gas or pore pressure. This paper presents an elastic inversion method for estimating elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments from angle stacks using sequential inversion of P-wave impedance from the zero-offset stack and S-wave impedance from the far-offset stack without assuming velocity ratio.

  11. CSR Impedance for Non-Ultrarelativistic Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Rui; Tsai, Cheng Y.

    2015-09-01

    For the analysis of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR)-induced microbunching gain in the low energy regime, such as when a high-brightness electron beam is transported through a low-energy merger in an energy-recovery linac (ERL) design, it is necessary to extend the CSR impedance expression in the ultrarelativistic limit to the non-ultrarelativistic regime. This paper presents our analysis of CSR impedance for general beam energies.

  12. Acoustic impedance measurements of pulse tube refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Takashi; Biwa, Tetsushi; Yazaki, Taichi

    2010-02-01

    Complex acoustic impedance is determined in a prototype refrigerator that can mimic orifice-type, inertance-type, and double inlet-type pulse tube refrigerators from simultaneous measurements of pressure and velocity oscillations at the cold end. The impedance measurements revealed the means by which the oscillatory flow condition in the basic pulse tube refrigerator is improved by additional components such as a valve and a tank. The working mechanism of pulse tube refrigerators is explained based on an electrical circuit analogy.

  13. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  14. Impedance Analysis of Surface-Bound Biomembranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-08

    and identify by block numb (i FIELD GROUP SUB-GROLm--- AC Impedance, Biomembranes, Lipid, Electrod\\) ’CBiosensor - O ( S. &-’te ,,• J ABSTRACT...Instit-ute 57 Union St., Worcester, MA 01608 ABSTRACTElcchria isThe impedance of different electrode substratesElcharacteriz l biomemance atnactuses fomed ...T10 2), indium/tin oxide (ITO) and platinum electrodes that have been "primed" by covalent attachment of long-chained alkyl groups . The electroes were

  15. Electrical Impedance Tomography of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Resonance Research Systems, Guildford, UK) that has broadband RF transmit and receive channels. A 16 leg, quadrature, high-pass birdcage coil with 10...metastatic cancer, magnetic resonance imaging, 43 electrical impedance imaging, electrical impedance scanning, MRI 16. PRICE CODE current density imaging...tissue with high spatial resolution, by using it in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to improve diagnostic accuracy of screening. For

  16. Effect of shear on duct wall impedance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M.; Rice, E.

    1973-01-01

    The solution to the equation governing the propagation of sound in a uniform shear layer is expressed in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. This result is used to develop a closed-form solution for acoustic wall impedance which accounts for both the duct liner and the presence of a boundary layer in the duct. The effective wall impedance can then be used as the boundary condition for the much simpler problem of sound propagation in uniform flow.

  17. Antenna impedance matching with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hemminger, Thomas L

    2005-10-01

    Impedance matching between transmission lines and antennas is an important and fundamental concept in electromagnetic theory. One definition of antenna impedance is the resistance and reactance seen at the antenna terminals or the ratio of electric to magnetic fields at the input. The primary intent of this paper is real-time compensation for changes in the driving point impedance of an antenna due to frequency deviations. In general, the driving point impedance of an antenna or antenna array is computed by numerical methods such as the method of moments or similar techniques. Some configurations do lend themselves to analytical solutions, which will be the primary focus of this work. This paper employs a neural control system to match antenna feed lines to two common antennas during frequency sweeps. In practice, impedance matching is performed off-line with Smith charts or relatively complex formulas but they rarely perform optimally over a large bandwidth. There have been very few attempts to compensate for matching errors while the transmission system is in operation and most techniques have been targeted to a relatively small range of frequencies. The approach proposed here employs three small neural networks to perform real-time impedance matching over a broad range of frequencies during transmitter operation. Double stub tuners are being explored in this paper but the approach can certainly be applied to other methodologies. The ultimate purpose of this work is the development of an inexpensive microcontroller-based system.

  18. Multicultural medicine and the politics of recognition.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2011-08-01

    Health care services increasingly face patient populations with high levels of ethnic and cultural diversity. Cultures are associated with distinctive ways of life; concepts of personhood; value systems; and visions of the good that affect illness experience, help seeking, and clinical decision-making. Cultural differences may impede access to health care, accurate diagnosis, and effective treatment. The clinical encounter, therefore, must recognize relevant cultural differences, negotiate common ground in terms of problem definition and potential solutions, accommodate differences that are associated with good clinical outcomes, and manage irresolvable differences. Clinical attention to and respect for cultural difference (a) can provide experiences of recognition that increase trust in and commitment to the institutions of the larger society, (b) can help sustain a cultural community through recognition of its distinct language, knowledge, values, and healing practices, and (c) to the extent that it is institutionalized, can contribute to building a pluralistic civil society.

  19. Impedance characteristics of nanoparticle-LiCoO{sub 2}+PVDF

    SciTech Connect

    Panjaitan, Elman Kartini, Evvy Honggowiranto, Wagiyo

    2016-02-08

    The impendance of np-LiCoO{sub 2}+xPVDF, as a cathode material candidate for lithium-ion battery (LIB), has been characterized using impedance spectroscopy for x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 volume percentage (%v/v) and for frequencies in the 42 Hz to 5 MHz range. Both real and imaginary components of the impedance were found to be frequency dependent, and both tend to increase for increasing PVDF (polyvinyilidene fluoride) concentration, except that for 10% PVDF both real and imaginary components of impedance are smaller than for 5%. The mechanism for relaxation time for each addition of PVDF was analyzed using Cole-Cole plots. The analysis showed that the relaxation times of the nanostructured LiCoO{sub 2} with PVDF additive is relatively constant. Further, PVDF addition increases the bulk resistance and decreases the bulk capacitance of the nanostructured LiCoO{sub 2}.

  20. The influence of nanopore dimensions on the electrochemical properties of nanopore arrays studied by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kant, Krishna; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G; Losic, Dusan

    2014-11-11

    The understanding of the electrochemical properties of nanopores is the key factor for better understanding their performance and applications for nanopore-based sensing devices. In this study, the influence of pore dimensions of nanoporous alumina (NPA) membranes prepared by an anodization process and their electrochemical properties as a sensing platform using impedance spectroscopy was explored. NPA with four different pore diameters (25 nm, 45 nm and 65 nm) and lengths (5 μm to 20 μm) was used and their electrochemical properties were explored using different concentration of electrolyte solution (NaCl) ranging from 1 to 100 μM. Our results show that the impedance and resistance of nanopores are influenced by the concentration and ion species of electrolytes, while the capacitance is independent of them. It was found that nanopore diameters also have a significant influence on impedance due to changes in the thickness of the double layer inside the pores.

  1. Effect of Yttrium Doping in Barium Zirconium Titanate Ceramics: A Structural, Impedance, and Modulus Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badapanda, Tanmaya; Cavalcante, Laécio Santos; da Luz, Geraldo Eduardo; Batista, Nouga Cardoso; Anwar, Shahid; Longo, Elson

    2013-09-01

    In the current article, we studied the effect of yttrium [Y3+] ions' substitution on the structure and electric behavior of barium zirconate titanate (BZT) ceramics with a general formula [Ba1- x Y2 x/3](Zr0.25Ti0.75)O3 (BYZT) with [ x = 0, 0.025, and 0.05] which were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that these ceramics have a single phase with a perovskite-type cubic structure. Rietveld refinement data confirmed [BaO12], [ZrO6], [TiO6], and [YO6] clusters in the cubic lattice. The Y3+ ions' effects on the electric conductivity behavior of BZT ceramics as a function of temperature and frequency are described, which are based on impedance spectroscopy analyses. The complex impedance plots display a double semicircle which highlights the influences of grain and grain boundary on the ceramics. Impedance analyses showed that the resistance decreased with the increasing temperature and resulted in a negative temperature coefficient of the resistance property in all compositions. Modulus plots represent a non-Debye-type dielectric relaxation which is related to the grain and grain boundary as well as temperature-dependent electric relaxation phenomenon and an enhancement in the mobility barrier by Y3+ ions. Moreover, the electric conductivity increases with the replacement of Ba2+ by Y3+ ions may be due to the rise in oxygen vacancies.

  2. Axolemmal and septal conduction in the impedance of the earthworm medial giant nerve fiber.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, T L; Fishman, H M; Bittner, G D

    1994-01-01

    Ionic conduction in the axolemmal and septal membranes of the medial giant fiber (MGF) of the earthworm (EW) Lumbricus terrestris was assessed by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 2.5-1000 Hz. Impedance loci in the complex plane were described by two semi-circular arcs, one at a lower characteristic frequency (100 Hz) and the other at a higher frequency (500 Hz). The lower frequency arc had a chord resistance of 53 k omega and was not affected by membrane potential changes or ion channel blockers [tetrodotoxin (TTX), 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and tetraethylammonium (TEA)]. The higher frequency arc had a chord resistance of 274 k omega at resting potential, was voltage-dependent, and was affected by the addition of TTX, 3,4-DAP, 4-AP, and TEA to the physiological EW salines. When all four blockers were added to the bathing solution, the impedance locus was described by two voltage-independent arcs. Considering the effects of these and other (i.e., Cd and Ni) ion channel blockers, we conclude that: 1) the higher frequency locus reflects conduction by voltage-sensitive ion channels in the axolemmal membrane, which contains at least four ion channels selective for sodium, calcium, and potassium (delayed rectifier and calcium-dependent), and 2) the lower frequency locus reflects voltage-insensitive channels in the septal membrane, which separates adjacent MGFs. PMID:7524713

  3. Effects of Liner Geometry on Acoustic Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Tracy, Maureen B.; Watson, Willie R.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2002-01-01

    Current aircraft engine nacelles typically contain acoustic liners consisting of perforated sheets bonded onto honeycomb cavities. Numerous models have been developed to predict the acoustic impedance of these liners in the presence of grazing flow, and to use that information with aeroacoustic propagation codes to assess nacelle liner noise suppression. Recent efforts have provided advances in impedance education methodologies that offer more accurate determinations of acoustic liner properties in the presence of grazing flow. The current report provides the results of a parametric study, in which a finite element method was used to assess the effects of variations of the following geometric parameters on liner impedance, with and without the presence of grazing flow: percent open area, sheet thickness, sheet thickness-to-hole diameter ratio and cavity depth. Normal incidence acoustic impedances were determined for eight acoustic liners, consisting of punched aluminum facesheets bonded to hexcell honeycomb cavities. Similar liners were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center grazing incidence tube to determine their response in the presence of grazing flow. The resultant data provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of these perforate, single-layer liner parameters on the acoustic impedance of the liner.

  4. Tunable microwave impedance matching to a high impedance source using a Josephson metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Altimiras, Carles Parlavecchio, Olivier; Joyez, Philippe; Vion, Denis; Roche, Patrice; Esteve, Daniel; Portier, Fabien

    2013-11-18

    We report the efficient coupling of a 50  Ω microwave circuit to a high impedance conductor. We use an impedance transformer consisting of a λ/4 co-planar resonator whose inner conductor contains an array of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), providing it with a tunable lineic inductance L∼80 μ{sub 0}, resulting in a characteristic impedance Z{sub C}∼1 kΩ. The impedance matching efficiency is characterized by measuring the shot noise power emitted by a dc biased tunnel junction connected to the resonator. We demonstrate matching to impedances in the 15 to 35 kΩ range with bandwidths above 100 MHz around a resonant frequency tunable between 4 and 6 GHz.

  5. New equivalent-electrical circuit model and a practical measurement method for human body impedance.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Koyu; Kinjo, Ichiko; Zamami, Aki; Irei, Kotoyo; Nagayama, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Human body impedance analysis is an effective tool to extract electrical information from tissues in the human body. This paper presents a new measurement method of impedance using armpit electrode and a new equivalent circuit model for the human body. The lowest impedance was measured by using an LCR meter and six electrodes including armpit electrodes. The electrical equivalent circuit model for the cell consists of resistance R and capacitance C. The R represents electrical resistance of the liquid of the inside and outside of the cell, and the C represents high frequency conductance of the cell membrane. We propose an equivalent circuit model which consists of five parallel high frequency-passing CR circuits. The proposed equivalent circuit represents alpha distribution in the impedance measured at a lower frequency range due to ion current of the outside of the cell, and beta distribution at a high frequency range due to the cell membrane and the liquid inside cell. The calculated values by using the proposed equivalent circuit model were consistent with the measured values for the human body impedance.

  6. Theoretical Analysis of Triple Liquid Stub Tuner Impedance Matching for ICRH on Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Dan; Gong, Xueyu; Yin, Lan; Xiang, Dong; Li, Jingchun

    2015-12-01

    The impedance matching is crucial for continuous wave operation of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae with high power injection into plasmas. A sudden increase in the reflected radio frequency power due to an impedance mismatch of the ICRH system is an issue which must be solved for present-day and future fusion reactors. This paper presents a method for theoretical analysis of ICRH system impedance matching for a triple liquid stub tuner under plasma operational conditions. The relationship of the antenna input impedance with the plasma parameters and operating frequency is first obtained using a global solution. Then, the relations of the plasma parameters and operating frequency with the matching liquid heights are indirectly obtained through numerical simulation according to transmission line theory and matching conditions. The method provides an alternative theoretical method, rather than measurements, to study triple liquid stub tuner impedance matching for ICRH, which may be beneficial for the design of ICRH systems on tokamaks. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2014GB108002, 2013GB107001), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11205086, 11205053, 11375085, and 11405082), the Construct Program of Fusion and Plasma Physics Innovation Team in Hunan Province, China (No. NHXTD03), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (No. 2015JJ4044)

  7. Imaging Local Electric Field Distribution by Plasmonic Impedance Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixian; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Hu, Keke; Mirkin, Michael V

    2016-02-02

    We report on imaging of local electric field on an electrode surface with plasmonic electrochemical impedance microscopy (P-EIM). The local electric field is created by putting an electrode inside a micropipet positioned over the electrode and applying a voltage between the two electrodes. We show that the distribution of the surface charge as well as the local electric field at the electrode surface can be imaged with P-EIM. The spatial distribution and the dependence of the local charge density and electric field on the distance between the micropipet and the surface are measured, and the results are compared with the finite element calculations. The work also demonstrates the possibility of integrating plasmonic imaging with scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and other scanning probe microscopies.

  8. Real time control of a fast RF impedance matching system

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.H.; Senko, T.; LaRue, P.; Wilson, J.R.; Arnold, W.; Martin, S.; Pivit, E.

    1996-12-31

    A real time control system has been developed to maintain an RF impedance match in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). This system is designed to adjust output parameters with a cycle period of approximately 100 {mu}seconds using commercially available VME based components and a UNIX workstation host. Advanced Ferrite Technologies (AFT) has developed the hybrid tuning system (HTS) which has the capability of tracking a mismatch on the time scale of milliseconds (2.5 MW, 60 MHz) by varying the magnetic field bias of ferrite loaded transmission lines. The control algorithm uses a combination of neural network and fuzzy logic techniques. Initial results of a test facility using a low power prototype are presented. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Direct adaptive impedance control of manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Seraji, H.; Glass, K.

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive scheme for controlling the end-effector impedance of robot manipulators is presented. The proposed control system consists of three subsystems: a simple filter which characterizes the desired dynamic relationship between the end-effector position error and the end-effector/environment contact force, an adaptive controller which produces the Cartesian-space control input required to provide this desired dynamic relationship, and an algorithm for mapping the Cartesian-space control input to a physically realizable joint-space control torque. The controller does not require knowledge of either the structure or the parameter values of the robot dynamics, and it is implemented without calculation of the robot inverse kinematic transformation. As a result, the scheme represents a very general and computationally efficient approach to controlling the impedance of both nonredundant and redundant manipulators. Furthermore, the method can be applied directly to trajectory tracking in free-space motion by removing the impedance filter.

  10. Propagation of waves along an impedance boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the scalar wave field due to a point source above a plane impedance boundary is presented. A surface wave is found to be an essential component of the total wave field. It is shown that, as a result of ducting of energy by the surface wave, the amplitude of the total wave near the boundary can be greater than it would be if the boundary were perfectly reflecting. Asymptotic results, valid near the boundary, are obtained both for the case of finite impedance (the soft-boundary case) and for the limiting case in which the impedance becomes infinite (the hard-boundary case). In the latter, the wave amplitude in the farfield decreases essentially inversely as the horizontal propagation distance; in the former (if the surface-wave term is neglected), it decreases inversely as the square of the horizontal propagation distance.

  11. Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podtaev, S.; Stepanov, R.; Dumler, A.; Chugainov, S.; Tziberkin, K.

    2012-12-01

    Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt)max) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.

  12. Impedance properties of circular microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A moment method solution to the input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna excited by either a microstrip feed or a coaxial probe is presented. Using the exact dyadic Green's function and the Fourier transform the problem is formulated in terms of Richmond's reaction integral equation from which the unknown patch current can be solved for. The patch current is expanded in terms of regular surface patch modes and an attachment mode (for probe excited case) which insures continuity of the current at probe/patch junction, proper polarization and p-dependance of patch current in the vicinity of the probe. The input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna is computed and compared with earlier results. Effect of attachment mode on the input impedance is also discussed.

  13. A DEMO relevant fast wave current drive high harmonic antenna exploiting the high impedance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Milanesio, D. Maggiora, R.

    2015-12-10

    Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.

  14. A DEMO relevant fast wave current drive high harmonic antenna exploiting the high impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2015-12-01

    Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.

  15. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facius, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on 'HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight', it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to 'large' fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too ('The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research'), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions' trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series. Since biological investigations and physical measurements of particle tracks had to be performed in laboratories widely separated, the preferred fixed contact between biological test objects and the particle detectors

  16. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    SciTech Connect

    Facius, R.

    1994-12-31

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on `HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight`, it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to `large` fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too (`The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research`), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions` trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series.

  17. State-of-health monitoring of 18650 4S packs with a single-point impedance diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Corey T.; Virji, Maheboob B. V.; Rocheleau, Richard E.; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.

    2014-11-01

    The state-of-health (SOH) of Li-ion batteries and battery packs must be monitored effectively for abuse to prevent failure and accidents. In a previous publication, we described a single-point impedance diagnostic method for detecting damage in single prismatic lithium polymer rechargeable cells subjected to overcharge abuse. We now determine whether the single-point impedance diagnostic method is applicable to 4S battery packs. At 316 Hz, commercial 18650 LiCoO2 cells are determined to have the least change in impedance response when cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V, for states-of-charge (SOC) of 0-100%. The impedance response of single cells at 316 Hz changes dramatically during overcharge (SOC = 125%), presumably due to change in their solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layers at the electrodes. When a single cell is purposely subjected to such overcharge abuse and then integrated into a 4S pack with 3 other healthy cells, the impedance response of the 4S pack at 316 Hz also changes, despite variances in the impedance response of each of the 3 healthy cells. The results suggest that this single-point impedance method could serve as a diagnostic in an all-inclusive battery management system to identify overcharge abuse of single cells without individual cell monitoring.

  18. Ionic conductivity and electrical relaxation of nanocrystalline scandia-stabilized c-zirconia using complex impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Manna, I.

    2008-07-01

    A solid solution of 8 mol% of scandia-stabilized cubic-zirconia (8ScSZ) has been prepared by co-precipitation technique. The synthesized powder has an average crystallite size ∼40 nm, surface area of 8.49 m 2/g, and agglomerated particle size of 150 nm. The activation energy of 8ScSZ has been calculated from impedance loss spectra; electrical modulus spectra are in the range of 0.90-1.30 eV. The frequency and temperature-dependent conductivities and impedance were measured in range of 50 Hz-1 MHz and 300-900 K, respectively. Complex impedance spectra, complex modulus formalism and complex conductivity spectra have been carefully analyzed in order to separate the grain, grain boundary and electrode-electrolyte effects. Analysis of ac impedance data using complex impedance indicates a typical negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior of the materials. The intrinsic conductivity is mainly due to hopping of mobile ions among the available localized site. Relaxation time obtained from complex conductivity spectra are matched well with the impedance loss and modulus loss spectra. Impedance analysis suggests the presence of temperature-dependent electrical relaxation process in the material.

  19. Impedance Scaling for Small Angle Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; Bane, Karl; Zagorodnov, I.; /DESY

    2010-10-27

    Based on the parabolic equation approach to Maxwell's equations we have derived scaling properties of the high frequency impedance/short bunch wakefields of structures. For the special case of small angle transitions we have shown the scaling properties are valid for all frequencies. Using these scaling properties one can greatly reduce the calculation time of the wakefield/impedance of long, small angle, beam pipe transitions, like one often finds in insertion regions of storage rings. We have tested the scaling with wakefield simulations of 2D and 3D models of such transitions, and found that the scaling works well. In modern ring-based light sources one often finds insertion devices having extremely small vertical apertures (on the order of millimeters) to allow for maximal undulator fields reaching the beam. Such insertion devices require that there be beam pipe transitions from these small apertures to the larger cross-sections (normally on the order of centimeters) found in the rest of the ring. The fact that there may be many such transitions, and that these transitions introduce beam pipe discontinuities very close to the beam path, means that their impedance will be large and, in fact, may dominate the impedance budget of the entire ring. To reduce their impact on impedance, the transitions are normally tapered gradually over a long distance. The accurate calculation of the impedance or wakefield of these long transitions, which are typically 3D objects (i.e. they do not have cylindrical symmetry), can be quite a challenging numerical task. In this report we present a method of obtaining the impedance of a long, small angle transition from the calculation of a scaled, shorter one. Normally, the actual calculation is obtained from a time domain simulation of the wakefield in the structure, where the impedance can be obtained by performing a Fourier transform. We shall see that the scaled calculation reduces the computer time and memory requirements

  20. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Of Metal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Calle, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate resistances of 19 alloys to corrosion under conditions similar to those of corrosive, chloride-laden seaside environment of Space Transportation System launch site. Alloys investigated: Hastelloy C-4, C-22, C-276, and B-2; Inconel(R) 600, 625, and 825; Inco(R) G-3; Monel 400; Zirconium 702; Stainless Steel 304L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 904L; 20Cb-3; 7Mo+N; ES2205; and Ferralium 255. Results suggest electrochemical impedance spectroscopy used to predict corrosion performances of metal alloys.

  1. Protein Aggregation Measurement through Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affanni, A.; Corazza, A.; Esposito, G.; Fogolari, F.; Polano, M.

    2013-09-01

    The paper presents a novel methodology to measure the fibril formation in protein solutions. We designed a bench consisting of a sensor having interdigitated electrodes, a PDMS hermetic reservoir and an impedance meter automatically driven by calculator. The impedance data are interpolated with a lumped elements model and their change over time can provide information on the aggregation process. Encouraging results have been obtained by testing the methodology on K-casein, a protein of milk, with and without the addition of a drug inhibiting the aggregation. The amount of sample needed to perform this measurement is by far lower than the amount needed by fluorescence analysis.

  2. Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice LWIR Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice (HIDS) InAs devices proposed for use as photoconductive or photovoltaic detectors of radiation in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) range of 8 to 17 micrometers. Array of HIDS devices fabricated on substrates GaAs or Si. Radiation incident on black surface, metal contacts for picture elements serve as reactors, effectively doubling optical path and thereby increasing absorption of photons. Photoconductive detector offers advantages of high gain and high impedance; photovoltaic detector offers lower noise and better interface to multiplexer readouts.

  3. AC-impedance measurements during thermal runaway process in several lithium/polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, I.; Ishikawa, H.; Mohamedi, M.; Umeda, M.

    In this work, we present a set of thermal characterization experiments of charged prismatic polymer lithium-ion battery (PLB) comparatively with those of a lithium-ion battery (LIB). These cells at different state of charge (SOC) were tested inside an accelerated rate calorimeter (ARC) to determine the onset-of-thermal runaway (OTR) temperatures. In addition, the thermally activated components of these cells were followed by monitoring the impedance (at 1 kHz) and the open-circuit voltage (OCV) as a function of temperature. An increase in the impedance was observed at around 133 °C corresponding to the polyethylene separator shutdown. Above 140 °C, the OCV dropped to zero indicating an internal short-circuit due the separator meltdown suggesting that the pinholes created in the separator at meltdown are large enough to create an internal short-circuit.

  4. Image Recognition Based on Biometric Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuliang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Chenglian; Guo, Yongning; Lin, Xueyun

    2011-09-01

    A new method, biomimetric pattern recognition, is mentioned to recognize images. At first, the image is pretreatment and feature extraction, then a high vector is got. A biomimetric pattern recognition model is designed. The judgment function is used to discriminate the classification of the samples. It is showed that the method is effective for little samples by experiment. It would be useful in many fields in future.

  5. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Development of a portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional tomographic imaging of the human body using impedance mapping. This technology can be developed to evaluate health risks and provide appropriate medical care on the ISS, during space travel and on the ground.

  6. High Impedance Comparator for Monitoring Water Resistivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holewinski, Paul K.

    1984-01-01

    A high-impedance comparator suitable for monitoring the resistivity of a deionized or distilled water line supplying water in the 50 Kohm/cm-2 Mohm/cm range is described. Includes information on required circuits (with diagrams), sensor probe assembly, and calibration techniques. (JN)

  7. Impedance-matched drilling telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Normann, Randy A.; Mansure, Arthur J.

    2008-04-22

    A downhole telemetry system that uses inductance or capacitance as a mode through which signal is communicated across joints between assembled lengths of pipe wherein efficiency of signal propagation through a drill string, for example, over multiple successive pipe segments is enhanced through matching impedances associated with the various telemetry system components.

  8. Energy-storage of a prescribed impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    General mathematical expression found for energy storage shows that for linear, passive networks there is a minimum possible energy storage corresponding to a prescribed impedance. The electromagnetic energy storage is determined at different excitation frequencies through analysis of the networks terminal and reactance characteristics.

  9. Impedance matching between ventricle and load.

    PubMed

    Piene, H

    1984-01-01

    Impedance matching in the cardiovascular system is discussed in light of two models of ventricle and load: a Thevenin equivalent consisting of a hydromotive pressure source and an internal, source resistance and compliance in parallel; and a time-varying compliance filled from a constant pressure source and ejecting into a load of three components, a central resistor, a compliance, and a peripheral resistance. According to the Thevenin analog, the energy source and the load are matched when the load resistance is T/t times the internal source resistance (T is total cycle length, t is systolic time interval). Both from this model and from the variable compliance model it appears that optimum matching between source and load depends on the compliance of the Windkessel, as low compliance shifts the matching load resistance to a low value. Animal experiments (isolated cat hearts) indicated that both left and right ventricles at normal loads work close to their maxima of output hydraulic power, and, according to experiments in the right ventricle, maximum power output is related to load resistance and compliance as predicted by the above models. From an experimentally determined relationship among instantaneous ventricular pressure and volume (right ventricle of isolated cat hearts), an optimum load impedance was calculated on the basis of the assumption that the ratio between stroke work and static, potential energy developed in the ventricular cavity is maximum. The optimum load impedance found by this procedure closely resembles the normal input impedance of the cat lung vessel bed.

  10. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  11. Electrical impedance spectroscopy and diagnosis of tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kisung; Lee, Kyeong Woo; Kim, Sang Beom; Han, Tai Ryoon; Jung, Dong Keun; Roh, Mee Sook; Lee, Jong Hwa

    2010-02-01

    There have been a number of studies that investigate the usefulness of bioelectric signals in diagnoses and treatment in the medical field. Tendinitis is a musculoskeletal disorder with a very high rate of occurrence. This study attempts to examine whether electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can detect pathological changes in a tendon and find the exact location of the lesion. Experimental tendinitis was induced by injecting collagenase into one side of the patellar tendons in rabbits, while the other side was used as the control. After measuring the impedance in the tendinitis and intact tendon tissue, the dissipation factor was computed. The real component of impedance and the dissipation factor turned out to be lower in tendinitis than in intact tissues. Moreover, the tendinitis dissipation factor spectrum showed a clear difference from that of the intact tendon, indicating its usefulness as a tool for detecting the location of the lesion. Pathologic findings from the tissues that were obtained after measuring the impedance confirmed the presence of characteristics of tendinitis. In conclusion, EIS is a useful method for diagnosing tendinitis and detecting the lesion location in invasive treatment.

  12. Explicit expressions of impedances and wake functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; Bane, K,; /SLAC

    2010-10-01

    Sections 3.2.4 and 3.2.5 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering on Landau damping are combined and updated. The new addition includes impedances and wakes for multi-layer beam pipe, optical model, diffraction model, and cross-sectional transition.

  13. Explicit Expressions of Impedances and Wake Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; Bane, K,; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    Sections 3.2.4 and 3.2.5 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering on Landau damping are combined and updated. The new addition includes impedances and wakes for multi-layer beam pipe, optical model, diffraction model, and cross-sectional transition.

  14. Landau damping with high frequency impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-05-04

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  15. Optical Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  16. Aortic Input Impedance during Nitroprusside Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Pepine, Carl J.; Nichols, W. W.; Curry, R. C.; Conti, C. Richard

    1979-01-01

    Beneficial effects of nitroprusside infusion in heart failure are purportedly a result of decreased afterload through “impedance” reduction. To study the effect of nitroprusside on vascular factors that determine the total load opposing left ventricular ejection, the total aortic input impedance spectrum was examined in 12 patients with heart failure (cardiac index <2.0 liters/min per m2 and left ventricular end diastolic pressure >20 mm Hg). This input impedance spectrum expresses both mean flow (resistance) and pulsatile flow (compliance and wave reflections) components of vascular load. Aortic root blood flow velocity and pressure were recorded continuously with a catheter-tip electromagnetic velocity probe in addition to left ventricular pressure. Small doses of nitroprusside (9-19 μg/min) altered the total aortic input impedance spectrum as significant (P < 0.05) reductions in both mean and pulsatile components were observed within 60-90 s. With these acute changes in vascular load, left ventricular end diastolic pressure declined (44%) and stroke volume increased (20%, both P < 0.05). Larger nitroprusside doses (20-38 μg/min) caused additional alteration in the aortic input impedance spectrum with further reduction in left ventricular end diastolic pressure and increase in stroke volume but no additional changes in the impedance spectrum or stroke volume occurred with 39-77 μg/min. Improved ventricular function persisted when aortic pressure was restored to control values with simultaneous phenylephrine infusion in three patients. These data indicate that nitroprusside acutely alters both the mean and pulsatile components of vascular load to effect improvement in ventricular function in patients with heart failure. The evidence presented suggests that it may be possible to reduce vascular load and improve ventricular function independent of aortic pressure reduction. PMID:457874

  17. Intravascular electric impedance spectroscopy of atherosclerotic lesions using a new impedance catheter system.

    PubMed

    Süselbeck, T; Thielecke, H; Köchlin, J; Cho, S; Weinschenk, I; Metz, J; Borggrefe, M; Haase, K K

    2005-09-01

    Newer techniques are required to identify atherosclerotic lesions that are prone to rupture. Electric impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can characterize biological tissues by measuring the electrical impedance over a frequency range. We tested a newly designed intravascular impedance catheter (IC) by measuring the impedance of different stages of atherosclerosis induced in an animal rabbit model. Six female New Zealand White rabbits were fed for 17 weeks with a 5% cholesterol-enriched diet to induce early forms of atherosclerotic plaques. All aortas were prepared from the aortic arch to the renal arteries and segments of 5-10 mm were marked by ink spots. A balloon catheter system with an integrated polyimide-based microelectrode structure was introduced into the aorta and the impedance was measured at each spot by using an impedance analyzer. The impedance was measured at frequencies of 1 kHz and 10 kHz and compared with the corresponding histomorphometric data of each aortic segment.Forty-four aortic segments without plaques and 48 segments with evolving atherosclerotic lesions could be exactly matched by the histomorphometric analysis. In normal aortic segments (P0) the change of the magnitude of impedance at 1 kHz and at 10 kHz (|Z|(1 kHz) - |Z|(10 kHz), = ICF) was 208.5 +/- 357.6 Omega. In the area of aortic segments with a plaque smaller than that of the aortic wall diameter (PI), the ICF was 137.7 +/- 192.8 Omega. (P 0 vs. P I; p = 0.52), whereas in aortic segments with plaque formations larger than the aortic wall (PII) the ICF was significantly lower -22.2 +/- 259.9 Omega. (P0 vs. PII; p = 0.002). Intravascular EIS could be successfully performed by using a newly designed microelectrode integrated onto a conventional coronary balloon catheter. In this experimental animal model atherosclerotic aortic lesions showed significantly higher ICF in comparison to the normal aortic tissue.

  18. Kin Recognition in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wall, Daniel

    2016-09-08

    The ability of bacteria to recognize kin provides a means to form social groups. In turn these groups can lead to cooperative behaviors that surpass the ability of the individual. Kin recognition involves specific biochemical interactions between a receptor(s) and an identification molecule(s). Recognition specificity, ensuring that nonkin are excluded and kin are included, is critical and depends on the number of loci and polymorphisms involved. After recognition and biochemical perception, the common ensuing cooperative behaviors include biofilm formation, quorum responses, development, and swarming motility. Although kin recognition is a fundamental mechanism through which cells might interact, microbiologists are only beginning to explore the topic. This review considers both molecular and theoretical aspects of bacterial kin recognition. Consideration is also given to bacterial diversity, genetic relatedness, kin selection theory, and mechanisms of recognition.

  19. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  20. Impedance spectroscopy for monosaccharides detection using responsive hydrogel modified paper-based electrodes.

    PubMed

    Daikuzono, C M; Delaney, C; Tesfay, H; Florea, L; Oliveira, O N; Morrin, A; Diamond, D

    2017-03-27

    Herein we present a novel sensor for the detection of monosaccharides (e.g. glucose, fructose) in solution, using electrical impedance spectroscopy. The sensor is based on carbon interdigitated electrodes, printed on paper using screen printing. The surface of the electrodes was modified with a thin layer of hydrogel containing acrylamide copolymerised with 20 mol% 3-(Acrylamido)phenylboronic acid (PBA). It was observed that the hydrogel layers containing 20 mol% PBA swell considerably in the presence of glucose and fructose. This in turn changes the measured impedance across the electrodes, making it a suitable sensor for the quantitative detection of saccharides. We investigated the impedance and capacitance variations with different concentrations of glucose and fructose (0-5 mM) in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions. Variations in impedance were attributed to changes in the dielectric properties of the hydrogel under an applied electric field, due to swelling of the hydrogel layer induced by uptake and binding of sugar molecules to the boronate species within the gel. Impedance measurements at 1 kHz demonstrated that hydrogel swelling leads to an increased mobility of ions within the swollen hydrogel layer. The impedance decreased with increasing sugar concentration and the relative capacitance curves are markedly different for fructose and glucose, as the hydrogel exhibits greater swelling in the presence of fructose than glucose over the same concentration range. As the proposed sensor was shown to be suitable for the detection of glucose at concentration levels found in human sweat, future work will focus on the incorporation of these modified paper-based electrodes into wearable skin patches for non-invasive sugar monitoring in sweat.

  1. Concentric artificial impedance surface for directional sound beamforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyungjun; Anzan-Uz-Zaman, Md.; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Joo-Yun; Kim, Jedo; Hur, Shin

    2017-03-01

    Utilizing acoustic metasurfaces consisting of subwavelength resonant textures, we design an artificial impedance surface by creating a new boundary condition. We demonstrate a circular artificial impedance surface with surface impedance modulation for directional sound beamforming in three-dimensional space. This artificial impedance surface is implemented by revolving two-dimensional Helmholtz resonators with varying internal coiled path. Physically, the textured surface has inductive surface impedance on its inner circular patterns and capacitive surface impedance on its outer circular patterns. Directional receive beamforming can be achieved using an omnidirectional microphone located at the focal point formed by the gradient-impeding surface. In addition, the uniaxial surface impedance patterning inside the circular aperture can be used for steering the direction of the main lobe of the radiation pattern.

  2. Scattering by a groove in an impedance plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindiganavale, Sunil; Volakis, John L.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional scattering from a narrow groove in an impedance plane is presented. The groove is represented by a impedance surface and the problem reduces to that of scattering from an impedance strip in an otherwise uniform impedance plane. On the basis of this model, appropriate integral equations are constructed using a form of the impedance plane Green's functions involving rapidly convergent integrals. The integral equations are solved by introducing a single basis representation of the equivalent current on the narrow impedance insert. Both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations are treated. The resulting solution is validated by comparison with results from the standard boundary integral method (BIM) and a high frequency solution. It is found that the presented solution for narrow impedance inserts can be used in conjunction with the high frequency solution for the characterization of impedance inserts of any given width.

  3. Acoustic impedance testing for aeroacoustic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Todd

    Accurate acoustic propagation models are required to characterize and subsequently reduce aircraft engine noise. These models ultimately rely on acoustic impedance measurements of candidate materials used in sound-absorbing liners. The standard two-microphone method (TMM) is widely used to estimate acoustic impedance but is limited in frequency range and does not provide uncertainty estimates, which are essential for data quality assessment and model validation. This dissertation presents a systematic framework to estimate uncertainty and extend the frequency range of acoustic impedance testing. Uncertainty estimation for acoustic impedance data using the TMM is made via two methods. The first employs a standard analytical technique based on linear perturbations and provides useful scaling information. The second uses a Monte Carlo technique that permits the propagation of arbitrarily large uncertainties. Both methods are applied to the TMM for simulated data representative of sound-hard and sound-soft acoustic materials. The results indicate that the analytical technique can lead to false conclusions about the magnitude and importance of specific error sources. Furthermore, the uncertainty in acoustic impedance is strongly dependent on the frequency and the uncertainty in the microphone locations. Next, an increased frequency range of acoustic impedance testing is investigated via two methods. The first method reduces the size of the test specimen (from 25.4 mm square to 8.5 mm square) and uses the standard TMM. This method has issues concerning specimen nonuniformity because the small specimens may not be representative of the material. The second method increases the duct cross section and, hence, the required complexity of the sound field propagation model. A comparison among all three methods is conducted for each of the three specimens: two different ceramic tubular specimens and a single degree-of-freedom liner. The results show good agreement between the

  4. Impedance based detection of chemical warfare agent mimics using ferrocene-lysine modified carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Diakowski, Piotr M; Xiao, Yizhi; Petryk, Michael W P; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2010-04-15

    A recognition layer formed by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) covalently modified with a ferrocene-lysine conjugate deposited on the indium tin oxide (ITO) was investigated as a sensor for chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that upon addition of CWA mimic dramatic changes occurred in the electrical properties of the recognition layer. These changes allowed the detection of nerve agent analogues at the micromolar level, and a limited sensitivity was observed toward a sulfur mustard mimic. Experimental parameters were optimized so as to allow the detection of CWAs at single frequency, thereby significantly reducing acquisition time and simplifying data treatment. A proposed method of detection represents a significant step toward the design of an affordable and "fieldable" electrochemical CWA sensor.

  5. Online tuning of impedance matching circuit for long pulse inductively coupled plasma source operation--an alternate approach.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Kraus, W; Gahlaut, A; Bansal, G; Chakraborty, A

    2014-01-01

    Impedance matching circuit between radio frequency (RF) generator and the plasma load, placed between them, determines the RF power transfer from RF generator to the plasma load. The impedance of plasma load depends on the plasma parameters through skin depth and plasma conductivity or resistivity. Therefore, for long pulse operation of inductively coupled plasmas, particularly for high power (∼100 kW or more) where plasma load condition may vary due to different reasons (e.g., pressure, power, and thermal), online tuning of impedance matching circuit is necessary through feedback. In fusion grade ion source operation, such online methodology through feedback is not present but offline remote tuning by adjusting the matching circuit capacitors and tuning the driving frequency of the RF generator between the ion source operation pulses is envisaged. The present model is an approach for remote impedance tuning methodology for long pulse operation and corresponding online impedance matching algorithm based on RF coil antenna current measurement or coil antenna calorimetric measurement may be useful in this regard.

  6. Online tuning of impedance matching circuit for long pulse inductively coupled plasma source operation—An alternate approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M. Chakraborty, A.; Kraus, W.; Gahlaut, A.; Bansal, G.

    2014-01-15

    Impedance matching circuit between radio frequency (RF) generator and the plasma load, placed between them, determines the RF power transfer from RF generator to the plasma load. The impedance of plasma load depends on the plasma parameters through skin depth and plasma conductivity or resistivity. Therefore, for long pulse operation of inductively coupled plasmas, particularly for high power (∼100 kW or more) where plasma load condition may vary due to different reasons (e.g., pressure, power, and thermal), online tuning of impedance matching circuit is necessary through feedback. In fusion grade ion source operation, such online methodology through feedback is not present but offline remote tuning by adjusting the matching circuit capacitors and tuning the driving frequency of the RF generator between the ion source operation pulses is envisaged. The present model is an approach for remote impedance tuning methodology for long pulse operation and corresponding online impedance matching algorithm based on RF coil antenna current measurement or coil antenna calorimetric measurement may be useful in this regard.

  7. The relationship between skin maturation and electrical skin impedance.

    PubMed

    Emery, M M; Hebert, A A; Aguirre Vila-Coro, A; Prager, T C

    1991-09-01

    When performing electrophysiological testing, high electrical impedance values are sometimes found in neonates. Since excessive impedance can invalidate test results, a study was conducted to delineate the relationship between skin maturation and electrical skin impedance. This study investigated the skin impedance in 72 infants ranging from 196 to 640 days of age from conception. Regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between impedance and age, with the highest impedance centered around full-term gestation with values falling precipitously at time points on either side. Clinically, impedance values fall to normal levels at approximately four months following full-term gestation. Skin impedance values are low in premature infants, but rapidly increase as the age approaches that of full-term neonates. Low impedance values in premature infants are attributed to greater skin hydration which results from immature skin conditions such as 1) thinner epidermal layers particularly at the transitional and cornified layers; 2) more blood flow to the skin; and 3) higher percentage of water composition. These factors facilitate the diffusion of water vapor through the skin. As the physical barrier to skin water loss matures with gestational age, the skin impedance reaches a maximum value at full term neonatal age. After this peak, a statistically significant inverse relationship exists between electrical skin impedance and age in the first year of life. This drop in skin impedance is attributed to an increase in skin hydration as a result of the greater functional maturity of eccrine sweat glands.

  8. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in...

  9. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in...

  10. Estimating the Transverse Impedance in the Fermilab Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Robert; Adamson, Philip; Burov, Alexey; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Impedance could represent a limitation of running high intensity bunches in the Fermilab recycler. With high intensity upgrades foreseen, it is important to quantify the impedance. To do this, studies have been performed measuring the tune shift as a function of bunch intensity allowing the transverse impedance to be derived.

  11. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in...

  12. The frequency dependent impedance of an HVdc converter

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.R.; Arrillaga, J.

    1995-07-01

    A linear and direct method of determining the frequency dependent impedance of a 12 pulse HVdc converter is presented. Terms are developed for both the dc and ac side impedances of the converter, including the effect of the firing angle control system, the commutation period, and the variability of the commutation period. The impedance predictions are verified by dynamic simulation.

  13. Valveless impedance micropump with integrated magnetic diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chen, Zgen-Hui

    2010-04-01

    This study presents a planar valveless impedance-based micropump for biomedical applications comprising a lower glass substrate patterned with a copper micro-coil, a microchannel, an upper glass cover plate, and a PDMS diaphragm with an electroplated magnet on its upper surface. When a current is passed through the micro-coil, an electromagnetic force is established between the coil and the magnet. The resulting deflection of the PDMS diaphragm creates an acoustic impedance mismatch within the microchannel, which in turn produces a net flow. The performance of the micropump is characterized experimentally. The experimental results show that a maximum diaphragm deflection of 30 microm is obtained when the micro-coil is supplied with an input current of 0.5 A. The corresponding flow rate is found to be 1.5 microl/sec when the PDMS membrane is driven by an actuating frequency of 240 Hz.

  14. Enhanced Method for Cavity Impedance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Marhauser, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Haipeng Wang

    2009-05-01

    With the proposal of medium to high average current accelerator facilities the demand for cavities with extremely low Higher Order Mode (HOM) impedances is increasing. Modern numerical tools are still under development to more thoroughly predict impedances that need to take into account complex absorbing boundaries and lossy materials. With the usually large problem size it is preferable to utilize massive parallel computing when applicable and available. Apart from such computational issues, we have developed methods using available computer resources to enhance the information that can be extracted from a cavities? wakefield computed in time domain. In particular this is helpful for a careful assessment of the extracted RF power and the mitigation of potential beam break-up or emittance diluting effects, a figure of merit for the cavity performance. The method is described as well as an example of its implementation.

  15. Evaluating impedances in a Sacherer integral equation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1994-08-01

    In Sacherer integral equation, the beam line density is expanded on the phase deviation {phi}, generating a Hankel spectrum, rather than on the time, which generates a Fourier spectrum. This is a natural choice to deal with the particle evolution in phase space, it however causes complications whenever the impedance corresponding to the spectrum has to be evaluated. In this article, the line density expansion on {phi} is shown to be equivalent to a beam time modulation under an acceptable condition. Therefore for a Hankel spectrum, a number of sidebands, and the corresponding impedance as well, will be involved. For wideband resonators, it is shown that the original Sacherer solution is adequate. For narrowband resonators, the solution had been compromised, therefore a modification may be needed.

  16. Microwave impedance imaging on semiconductor memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Lai, Keji; Yang, Yongliang; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2011-03-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) maps out the real and imaginary components of the tip-sample impedance, from which the local conductivity and dielectric constant distribution can be derived. The stray field contribution is minimized in our shielded cantilever design, enabling quantitative analysis of nano-materials and device structures. We demonstrate here that the MIM can spatially resolve the conductivity variation in a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) sample. With DC or low-frequency AC bias applied to the tip, contrast between n-doped and p-doped regions in the dC/dV images is observed, and p-n junctions are highlighted in the dR/dV images. The results can be directly compared with data taken by scanning capacitance microscope (SCM), which uses unshielded cantilevers and resonant electronics, and the MIM reveals more information of the local dopant concentration than SCM.

  17. Sound barriers from materials of inhomogeneous impedance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Mao, Dongxing; Yu, Wuzhou; Jiang, Zaixiu

    2015-06-01

    Sound barriers are extensively used in environmental noise protection. However, when barriers are placed in parallel on opposite sides of a sound source, their performance deteriorates markedly. This paper describes a barrier made from materials of inhomogeneous impedance which lacks this drawback. The nonuniform impedance affects the way sound undergoes multiple reflections, and in the process traps acoustic energy. A proposed realization of the barrier comprises a closely spaced array of progressively tuned hollow narrow tubes which create a phase gradient. The acoustics of the barrier is theoretically examined and its superiority over conventional barriers is calculated using finite element modeling. Structural parameters of the barrier can be changed to achieve the required sound insertion loss, and the barrier has the potential to be widely used in environmental noise control.

  18. Impedance of a beam tube with antechamber

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.; Lambertson, G.R.; Voelker, F.

    1986-08-01

    A beam vacuum chamber was proposed to allow synchrotron light to radiate from a circulating electron beam into an antechamber containing photon targets, pumps, etc. To determine the impedance such a geometry would present to the beam, electromagnetic measurements were carried out on a section of chamber using for low frequencies a current-carrying wire and for up to 16 GHz, a resonance perturbation method. Because the response of such a chamber would depend on upstream and downstream restrictions of aperture yet to be determined, the resonance studies were analyzed in some generality. The favorable conclusion of these studies is that the antechamber makes practically no contribution to either the longitudinal or the transverse impedances.

  19. Are Patents Impeding Medical Care and Innovation?

    PubMed Central

    Gold, E. Richard; Kaplan, Warren; Orbinski, James; Harland-Logan, Sarah; N-Marandi, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    Background to the debate: Pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers argue that the current patent system is crucial for stimulating research and development (R&D), leading to new products that improve medical care. The financial return on their investments that is afforded by patent protection, they claim, is an incentive toward innovation and reinvestment into further R&D. But this view has been challenged in recent years. Many commentators argue that patents are stifling biomedical research, for example by preventing researchers from accessing patented materials or methods they need for their studies. Patents have also been blamed for impeding medical care by raising prices of essential medicines, such as antiretroviral drugs, in poor countries. This debate examines whether and how patents are impeding health care and innovation. PMID:20052274

  20. FEM electrode refinement for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartlomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) reconstructs images of electrical tissue properties within a body from electrical transfer impedance measurements at surface electrodes. Reconstruction of EIT images requires the solution of an inverse problem in soft field tomography, where a sensitivity matrix, J, of the relationship between internal changes and measurements is calculated, and then a pseudo-inverse of J is used to update the image estimate. It is therefore clear that a precise calculation of J is required for solution accuracy. Since it is generally not possible to use analytic solutions, the finite element method (FEM) is typically used. It has generally been recommended in the EIT literature that FEMs be refined near electrodes, since the electric field and sensitivity is largest there. In this paper we analyze the accuracy requirement for FEM refinement near electrodes in EIT and describe a technique to refine arbitrary FEMs.

  1. Readout electrode assembly for measuring biological impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Moody, D. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises of a pair of readout ring electrodes which are used in conjunction with apparatus for measuring the electrical impedance between different points in the body of a living animal to determine the amount of blood flow therebetween. The readout electrodes have independently adjustable diameters to permit attachment around different parts of the body between which it is desired to measure electric impedance. The axial spacing between the electrodes is adjusted by a pair of rods which have a first pair of ends fixedly attached to one electrode and a second pair of ends slidably attached to the other electrode. Indicia are provided on the outer surface of the ring electrodes and on the surface of the rods to permit measurement of the circumference and spacing between the ring electrodes.

  2. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match 50O and its response has been validated from 0-to-50GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20GHz design band is greater than 20 dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  3. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Chuss, D. T.; U-Yen, K.; Rostem, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match 50 Omega and its response has been validated from 0-to-50GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20GHz design band is greater than 20 dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  4. Monitoring Polymer Curing Via Electromagnetic Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, William T.; Covington, John C.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Hoff, Melanie; Delos, Susan

    1992-01-01

    New nondestructive in-situ electromagnetic-impedance measurement technique senses cure-processing properties of high-temperature, high-performance thermostat and thermoplastic resins. Continuous frequency-dependent measurement and analysis performed during curing cycle. Monitors and measures molecular properties of polymeric resin in liquid and solid states. Applications include nondestructive means for evaluation of materials, determination of "window" boundaries of curing cycles of thermoplastics and thermoset resins, and for online, closed-loop control of curing cycles.

  5. Superconducting surface impedance under radiofrequency field

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Binping P.; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2013-04-26

    Based on BCS theory with moving Cooper pairs, the electron states distribution at 0K and the probability of electron occupation with finite temperature have been derived and applied to anomalous skin effect theory to obtain the surface impedance of a superconductor under radiofrequency (RF) field. We present the numerical results for Nb and compare these with representative RF field-dependent effective surface resistance measurements from a 1.5 GHz resonant structure.

  6. Study of the Electrical Impedance Scanning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    exhibit conductive changes that cause an impedance variation between cancerous ant health tissues. Since there are very few commercial devices...contribute somehow in the evaluation of the parameters involved. Keywords – Electrical Transimpedance Scanning, Breast cancer I. INTRODUCTION The...Electrical Transimpedance Scanning (ETS) is a new technique, non-invasive, non-irradiant, used in the diagnosis of breast cancer . Combined with other

  7. Using Regression to Measure Holistic Face Processing Reveals a Strong Link with Face Recognition Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition…

  8. Recognition of Prior Learning in the Vocational Education and Training Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Kaye; Clayton, Berwyn; Bateman, Andrea; Knight, Brian; Thomson, Peter; Hargreaves, Jo; Blom, Kaaren; Enders, Marilyn

    Researchers examined the factors driving and impeding effective implementation of recognition of prior learning (RPL) in Australia's vocational education and training sector. The study relied on the following data collection activities: a literature review; an environmental scan of current policies and procedures; statistical analysis of national…

  9. Antenna pattern control using impedance surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1992-01-01

    During this research period, we have effectively transferred existing computer codes from CRAY supercomputer to work station based systems. The work station based version of our code preserved the accuracy of the numerical computations while giving a much better turn-around time than the CRAY supercomputer. Such a task relieved us of the heavy dependence of the supercomputer account budget and made codes developed in this research project more feasible for applications. The analysis of pyramidal horns with impedance surfaces was our major focus during this research period. Three different modeling algorithms in analyzing lossy impedance surfaces were investigated and compared with measured data. Through this investigation, we discovered that a hybrid Fourier transform technique, which uses the eigen mode in the stepped waveguide section and the Fourier transformed field distributions across the stepped discontinuities for lossy impedances coating, gives a better accuracy in analyzing lossy coatings. After a further refinement of the present technique, we will perform an accurate radiation pattern synthesis in the coming reporting period.

  10. Force reflecting teleoperation with adaptive impedance control.

    PubMed

    Love, Lonnie J; Book, Wayne J

    2004-02-01

    Experimentation and a survey of the literature clearly show that contact stability in a force reflecting teleoperation system requires high levels of damping on the master robot. However, excessive damping increases the energy required by an operator for commanding motion. The objective of this paper is to describe a new force reflecting teleoperation methodology that reduces operator energy requirements without sacrificing stability. We begin by describing a new approach to modeling and identifying the remote environment of the teleoperation system. We combine a conventional multi-input, multi-output recursive least squares (MIMO-RLS) system identification, identifying in real-time the remote environment impedance, with a discretized representation of the remote environment. This methodology generates a time-varying, position-dependent representation of the remote environment dynamics. Next, we adapt the target impedance of the master robot with respect to the dynamic model of the remote environment. The environment estimation and impedance adaptation are executed simultaneously and in real time. We demonstrate, through experimentation, that this approach significantly reduces the energy required by an operator to execute remote tasks while simultaneously providing sufficient damping to ensure contact stability.

  11. Interior impedance wedge diffraction with surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    The exact impedance wedge solution is evaluated asymptotically using the method of steepest descents for plane wave illumination at normal incidence. Uniform but different impedances on each face are considered for both soft and hard polarizations. The asymptotic solution isolates the incident, singly reflected, multiply reflected, diffracted, and surface wave fields. Multiply reflected fields of any order are permitted. The multiply reflected fields from the exact solution are written as ratios of auxiliary Maliuzhinets functions, whereas a geometrical analysis gives the reflected fields as products of reflection coefficients. These two representations are shown to be identical in magnitude, phase and the angular range over which they exist. The diffracted field includes four Fresnel transition functions as in the perfect conductor case, and the expressions for the appropriate discontinuities at the shadow boundaries are presented. The surface wave exists over a finite angular range and only for certain surface impedances. A surface wave transition field is included to retain continuity. Computations are presented for interior wedge diffractions although the formulation is valid for both exterior and interior wedges.

  12. Application of impedance spectroscopy to SOFC research

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, G.; Mason, T.O.; Pederson, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    With the resurgence of interest in solid oxide fuel cells and other solid state electrochemical devices, techniques originally developed for characterizing aqueous systems are being adapted and applied to solid state systems. One of these techniques, three-electrode impedance spectroscopy, is particularly powerful as it allows characterization of subcomponent and interfacial properties. Obtaining accurate impedance spectra, however, is difficult as reference electrode impedance is usually non-negligible and solid electrolytes typically have much lower conductance than aqueous solutions. Faidi et al and Chechirlian et al have both identified problems associated with low conductivity media. Other sources of error are still being uncovered. Ford et al identified resistive contacts with large time constants as a possibility, while Me et al showed that the small contact capacitance of the reference electrode was at fault. Still others show that instrument limitations play a role. Using the voltage divider concept, a simplified model that demonstrates the interplay of these various factors, predicts the form of possible distortions, and offers means to minimize errors is presented.

  13. Imaging and characterizing root systems using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemna, A.; Weigand, M.; Kelter, M.; Pfeifer, J.; Zimmermann, E.; Walter, A.

    2011-12-01

    Root architecture, growth, and activity play an essential role regarding the nutrient uptake of roots in soils. While in recent years advances could be achieved concerning the modeling of root systems, measurement methods capable of imaging, characterizing, and monitoring root structure and dynamics in a non-destructive manner are still lacking, in particular at the field scale. We here propose electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for the imaging of root systems. The approach takes advantage of the low-frequency capacitive electrical properties of the soil-root interface and the root tissue. These properties are based on the induced migration of ions in an externally applied electric field and give rise to characteristic impedance spectra which can be measured by means of electrical impedance spectroscopy. The latter technique was already successfully applied in the 10 Hz to 1 MHz range by Ozier-Lafontaine and Bajazet (2005) to monitor root growth of tomato. We here apply the method in the 1 mHz to 45 kHz range, requiring four-electrode measurements, and demonstrate its implementation and potential in an imaging framework. Images of real and imaginary components of complex electrical conductivity are computed using a finite-element based inversion algorithm with smoothness-constraint regularization. Results from laboratory measurements on rhizotrons with different root systems (barley, rape) show that images of imaginary conductivity delineate the spatial extent of the root system under investigation, while images of real conductivity show a less clear response. As confirmed by numerical simulations, the latter could be explained by the partly compensating electrical conduction properties of epidermis (resistive) and inner root cells (conductive), indicating the limitations of conventional electrical resistivity tomography. The captured spectral behavior exhibits two distinct relaxation processes with Cole-Cole type signatures, which we interpret as the responses

  14. Moreland Recognition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland Elementary School District, San Jose, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Recognition for special effort and achievement has been noted as a component of effective schools. Schools in the Moreland School District have effectively improved standards of discipline and achievement by providing forty-six different ways for children to receive positive recognition. Good…

  15. Interpulse multifrequency electrical impedance measurements during electroporation of adherent differentiated myotubes.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Tomás; Azan, Antoine; Leray, Isabelle; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Bragós, Ramon; Mir, Lluis M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements are performed during electroporation of monolayers of differentiated myotubes. The time resolution of the system (1 spectrum/ms) enable 860 full spectra (21 frequencies from 5 kHz to 1.3 MHz) to be acquired during the time gap between consecutive pulses (interpulse) of a classical electroporation treatment (8 pulses, 100 μs, 1 Hz). Additionally, the characteristics of the custom microelectrode assembly used allow the experiments to be performed directly in situ in standard 24 multi-well plates. The impedance response dynamics are studied for three different electric field intensities (400, 800 and 1200 V/cm). The multifrequency information, analysed with the Cole model, reveals a short-term impedance recovery after each pulse in accordance with the fast resealing of the cell membrane, and a long-term impedance decay over the complete treatment in accordance with an accumulated effect pulse after pulse. The analysis shows differences between the lowest electric field condition and the other two, suggesting that different mechanisms that may be related with the reversibility of the process are activated. As a result of the multifrequency information, the system is able to measure simultaneously the conductivity variations due to ion diffusion during electroporation. Finally, in order to reinforce the physical interpretation of the results, a complementary electrical equivalent model is used.

  16. Fault detection in railway track using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremins, M.; Shuai, Qi; Xu, Jiawen; Tang, J.

    2014-04-01

    In this research, piezoelectric transducers are incorporated in an impedance-based damage detection approach for railway track health monitoring. The impedance-based damage detection approach utilizes the direct relationship between the mechanical impedance of the track and electrical impedance of the piezoelectric transducer bonded. The effect of damage is shown in the change of a healthy impedance curve to an altered, damaged curve. Using a normalized relative difference outlier analysis, the occurrences of various damages on the track are determined. Furthermore, the integration of inductive circuitry with the piezoelectric transducer is found to be able to considerably increase overall damage detection sensitivity.

  17. Broadband electrical impedance matching for piezoelectric ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiying; Paramo, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic method for designing broadband electrical impedance matching networks for piezoelectric ultrasound transducers. The design process involves three steps: 1) determine the equivalent circuit of the unmatched piezoelectric transducer based on its measured admittance; 2) design a set of impedance matching networks using a computerized Smith chart; and 3) establish the simulation model of the matched transducer to evaluate the gain and bandwidth of the impedance matching networks. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated through the design, implementation, and characterization of impedance matching networks for a broadband acoustic emission sensor. The impedance matching network improved the power of the acquired signal by 9 times.

  18. The Influence of Segmental Impedance Analysis in Predicting Validity of Consumer Grade Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Andy; Heath, Jennifer; Peterson, Janet

    2008-05-01

    Consumer grade bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) instruments measure the body's impedance at 50 kHz, and yield a quick estimate of percent body fat. The frequency dependence of the impedance gives more information about the current pathway and the response of different tissues. This study explores the impedance response of human tissue at a range of frequencies from 0.2 - 102 kHz using a four probe method and probe locations standard for segmental BIA research of the arm. The data at 50 kHz, for a 21 year old healthy Caucasian male (resistance of 180φ±10 and reactance of 33φ±2) is in agreement with previously reported values [1]. The frequency dependence is not consistent with simple circuit models commonly used in evaluating BIA data, and repeatability of measurements is problematic. This research will contribute to a better understanding of the inherent difficulties in estimating body fat using consumer grade BIA devices. [1] Chumlea, William C., Richard N. Baumgartner, and Alex F. Roche. ``Specific resistivity used to estimate fat-free mass from segmental body measures of bioelectrical impedance.'' Am J Clin Nutr 48 (1998): 7-15.

  19. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOEpatents

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  20. Bioelectrical Impedance Methods for Noninvasive Health Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Under the alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex electrical impedance which depends on tissue composition, structures, health status, and applied signal frequency, and hence the bioelectrical impedance methods can be utilized for noninvasive tissue characterization. As the impedance responses of these tissue parameters vary with frequencies of the applied signal, the impedance analysis conducted over a wide frequency band provides more information about the tissue interiors which help us to better understand the biological tissues anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Over past few decades, a number of impedance based noninvasive tissue characterization techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical impedance plethysmography (IPG), impedance cardiography (ICG), and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) have been proposed and a lot of research works have been conducted on these methods for noninvasive tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. In this paper BIA, EIS, IPG, ICG, and EIT techniques and their applications in different fields have been reviewed and technical perspective of these impedance methods has been presented. The working principles, applications, merits, and demerits of these methods has been discussed in detail along with their other technical issues followed by present status and future trends. PMID:27006932

  1. Mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming-Xing; Xiao, Qiu-Jin; Cui, Chao-Ying; Kuang, Nan-Zhen; Hong, Wen-Qin; Hu, Ai-Rong

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change. On the basis of Ohm's law and the electrical field distribution in the cylindrical volume conductor, the formula about the thoracic impedance change are deduced, and they are demonstrated with the model experiment. The results indicate that the thoracic impedance change caused by single blood vessel is directly proportional to the ratio of the impedance change to the basal impedance of the blood vessel itself, to the length of the blood vessel appearing between the current electrodes, and to the basal impedance between two detective electrodes on the chest surface, while it is inversely proportional to the distance between the blood vessel and the line joining two detective electrodes. The thoracic impedance change caused by multiple blood vessels together is equal to the algebraic addition of all thoracic impedance changes resulting from the individual blood vessels. That is, the impedance changes obey the principle of adding scalars in the measurement of the electrical impedance graph. The present study can offer the theoretical basis for the waveform reconstruction of Impedance cardiography (ICG).

  2. Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tidswell, T; Gibson, A; Bayford, R H; Holder, D S

    2001-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume changes that occur during human brain activity will change the local impedance of that cortical area, as blood has a lower impedance than that of brain. Theoretically, such impedance changes could be measured from scalp electrodes and reconstructed into images of the internal impedance of the head. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a newly developed technique by which impedance measurements from the surface of an object are reconstructed into impedance images. It is fast, portable, inexpensive, and noninvasive, but has a relatively low spatial resolution. EIT images were recorded with scalp electrodes and an EIT system, specially optimized for recording brain function, in 39 adult human subjects during visual, somatosensory, or motor activity. Reproducible impedance changes of about 0.5% occurred in 51/52 recordings, which lasted from 6 s after the stimulus onset to 41 s after stimulus cessation. When these changes were reconstructed into impedance images, using a novel 3-D reconstruction algorithm, 19 data sets demonstrated significant impedance changes in the appropriate cortical region. This demonstrates, for the first time, that significant impedance changes, which could form the basis for a novel neuroimaging technology, may be recorded in human subjects with scalp electrodes. The final images contained spatial noise and strategies to reduce this in future work are presented.

  3. Impedance Noise Identification for State-of-Health Prognostics

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chester G. Motloch; John L. Morrison; Ian B. Donnellan; William H. Morrison

    2008-07-01

    Impedance Noise Identification is an in-situ method of measuring battery impedance as a function of frequency using a random small signal noise excitation source. Through a series of auto- and cross-correlations and Fast Fourier Transforms, the battery complex impedance as a function of frequency can be determined. The results are similar to those measured under a lab-scale electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The lab-scale measurements have been shown to correlate well with resistance and power data that are typically used to ascertain the remaining life of a battery. To this end, the Impedance Noise Identification system is designed to acquire the same type of data as an on-board tool. A prototype system is now under development, and results are being compared to standardized measurement techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A brief description of the Impedance Noise Identification hardware system and representative test results are presented.

  4. Computer program for analysis of impedance cardiography signals enabling manual correction of points detected automatically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleksiak, Justyna; Cybulski, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to create a computer program, written in LabVIEW, which enables the visualization and analysis of hemodynamic parameters. It allows the user to import data collected using ReoMonitor, an ambulatory monitoring impedance cardiography (AICG) device. The data include one channel of the ECG and one channel of the first derivative of the impedance signal (dz/dt) sampled at 200Hz and the base impedance signal (Z0) sampled every 8s. The program consist of two parts: a bioscope allowing the presentation of traces (ECG, AICG, Z0) and an analytical portion enabling the detection of characteristic points on the signals and automatic calculation of hemodynamic parameters. The detection of characteristic points in both signals is done automatically, with the option to make manual corrections, which may be necessary to avoid "false positive" recognitions. This application is used to determine the values of basic hemodynamic variables: pre-ejection period (PEP), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and heart rate (HR). It leaves room for further development of additional features, for both the analysis panel and the data acquisition function.

  5. Carbohydrate-based switch-on molecular sensor for Cu(II) in buffer: absorption and fluorescence study of the selective recognition of Cu(II) ions by galactosyl derivatives in HEPES buffer.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Nitin Kumar; Ramanujam, Balaji; Mariappanadar, Vairamani; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2006-08-03

    [graph: see text] 1-(Beta-D-galactopyranosyl-1'-deoxy-1'-iminomethyl)-2-hydroxynaphthalene (L1), possessing an ONO binding core, was found to be selective for Cu2+ ions in N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid] buffer, at concentrations < or = 580 ppb, at physiological pH by eliciting switch-on behavior, whereas the other ions, viz., Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+, caused no significant change in the fluorescence. Whereas the binding characteristics were ascertained by absorption spectroscopy, the species formed were shown by Q-TOF ES MS.

  6. Investigation of potential artefactual changes in measurements of impedance changes during evoked activity: implications to electrical impedance tomography of brain function.

    PubMed

    Aristovich, Kirill Y; Dos Santos, Gustavo S; Holder, David S

    2015-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could provide images of fast neural activity in the adult human brain with a resolution of 1 ms and 1 mm by imaging impedance changes which occur as ion channels open during neuronal depolarization. The largest changes occur at dc and decrease rapidly over 100 Hz. Evoked potentials occur in this bandwidth and may cause artefactual apparent impedance changes if altered by the impedance measuring current. These were characterized during the compound action potential in the walking leg nerves of Cancer pagurus, placed on Ag/AgCl hook electrodes, to identify how to avoid artefactual changes during brain EIT. Artefact-free impedance changes (δZ) decreased with frequency from -0.045 ± 0.01% at 225 Hz to -0.02 ± 0.01% at 1025 Hz (mean ± 1 SD, n = 24 in 12 nerves) which matched changes predicted by a finite element model. Artefactual δZ reached c.300% and 50% of the genuine membrane impedance change at 225 Hz and 600 Hz respectively but decreased with frequency of the applied current and was negligible above 1 kHz. The proportional amplitude (δZ (%)) of the artefact did not vary significantly with the amplitude of injected current of 5-20 µA pp. but decreased significantly from -0.09 ± 0.024 to -0.03 ± 0.023% with phase of 0 to 45°. For fast neural EIT of evoked activity in the brain, artefacts may arise with applied current of >10 µA. Independence of δZ with respect to phase but not the amplitude of applied current controls for them; they can be minimized by randomizing the phase of the applied measuring current and excluded by recording at >1 kHz.

  7. Ion Kinetics in Silane Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    reaction are determined not only by the chemical reactivity but by the electrical properties of the plasma. Current continuity, impedence match- ing...conventional kinetic theory. Since the chemical and physical properties of the noble-gases vary monotonically down the periods of Mendeleev’s table, one...formation. Most literature with the phrase ion chemistry in its title is concerned only with the properties and reactions of positively charged species

  8. Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.

  9. Method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Stuart B.; Wilson, Jamie R.; Huff, Shawn L.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2015-06-02

    A method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The method includes quantifying the nonlinear response of an electrochemical system by measuring higher-order current or voltage harmonics generated by moderate-amplitude sinusoidal current or voltage perturbations. The method involves acquisition of the response signal followed by time apodization and fast Fourier transformation of the data into the frequency domain, where the magnitude and phase of each harmonic signal can be readily quantified. The method can be implemented on a computer as a software program.

  10. UNIVERSAL AUTO-CALIBRATION FOR A RAPID BATTERY IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; William H. Morrison

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable tool for diagnostics and prognostics of energy storage devices such as batteries and ultra-capacitors. Although measurements have been typically confined to laboratory environments, rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques have been developed for on-line, embedded applications as well. The prototype hardware for the rapid technique has been validated using lithium-ion batteries, but issues with calibration had also been identified. A new, universal automatic calibration technique was developed to address the identified issues while also enabling a more simplified approach. A single, broad-frequency range is used to calibrate the system and then scaled to the actual range and conditions used when measuring a device under test. The range used for calibration must be broad relative to the expected measurement conditions for the scaling to be successful. Validation studies were performed by comparing the universal calibration approach with data acquired from targeted calibration ranges based on the expected range of performance for the device under test. First, a mid-level shunt range was used for calibration and used to measure devices with lower and higher impedance. Next, a high excitation current level was used for calibration, followed by measurements using lower currents. Finally, calibration was performed over a wide frequency range and used to measure test articles with a lower set of frequencies. In all cases, the universal calibration approach compared very well with results acquired following a targeted calibration. Additionally, the shunts used for the automated calibration technique were successfully characterized such that the rapid impedance measurements compare very well with laboratory-scale measurements. These data indicate that the universal approach can be successfully used for onboard rapid impedance spectra measurements for a broad set of test devices and range of

  11. Integrated impedance and guided wave based damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Sohn, Hoon

    2012-04-01

    Recently, impedance and guided wave based damage detection techniques have been widely used for structural health monitoring (SHM) and Nondestructive testing (NDT) due to their sensitivity to small structural changes. Each of these techniques has its own technical merits, making them complementary to each other. For example, the guided wave technique typically has a larger sensing range than the impedance technique while the latter has better applicability to more complex structures. In this study, a new damage detection technique, which is named as integrated impedance and guided wave (IIG) based damage detection, is developed by utilizing impedance and guided wave signals simultaneously obtained from surface-mounted piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) to enhance the performance and reliability of damage diagnosis especially under varying temperature conditions. The proposed IIG technique first divides the measured impedance signal into two parts: passive impedance only sensitive to temperature variation and active impedance closely related to the mechanical property of the host structure. Then, the temperature effects on the active impedance and guided wave signals are minimized using the passive impedance. Finally, improved damage diagnosis is performed using both impedance and guided wave signals. The applicability of the proposed IIG technique to the detection of (1) bolt loosening in a steel lap joint, (2) a notch in an aluminum specimen with a complex geometry and (3) delamination in a composite wing mock-up specimen with stringers is experimentally investigated under varying temperatures.

  12. Fast and sensitive detection of foodborne pathogen using electrochemical impedance analysis, urease catalysis and microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Dan; Cai, Gaozhe; Xiong, Yonghua; Li, Yuntao; Wang, Maohua; Huo, Huiling; Lin, Jianhan

    2016-12-15

    Early screening of pathogenic bacteria is a key to prevent and control of foodborne diseases. In this study, we developed a fast and sensitive bacteria detection method integrating electrochemical impedance analysis, urease catalysis with microfluidics and using Listeria as model. The Listeria cells, the anti-Listeria monoclonal antibodies modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and the anti-Listeria polyclonal antibodies and urease modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were incubated in a fluidic separation chip with active mixing to form the MNP-Listeria-AuNP-urease sandwich complexes. The complexes were captured in the separation chip by applying a high gradient magnetic field, and the urea was injected to resuspend the complexes and hydrolyzed under the catalysis of the urease on the complexes into ammonium ions and carbonate ions, which were transported into a microfluidic detection chip with an interdigitated microelectrode for impedance measurement to determine the amount of the Listeria cells. The capture efficiency of the Listeria cells in the separation chip was ∼93% with a shorter time of 30min due to the faster immuno-reaction using the active magnetic mixing. The changes on both impedance magnitude and phase angle were demonstrated to be able to detect the Listeria cells as low as 1.6×10(2)CFU/mL. The detection time was reduced from original ∼2h to current ∼1h. The recoveries of the spiked lettuce samples ranged from 82.1% to 89.6%, indicating the applicability of this proposed biosensor. This microfluidic impedance biosensor has shown the potential for online, automatic and sensitive bacteria separation and detection.

  13. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  14. Improved Open-Microphone Speech Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrash, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Many current and future NASA missions make extreme demands on mission personnel both in terms of work load and in performing under difficult environmental conditions. In situations where hands are impeded or needed for other tasks, eyes are busy attending to the environment, or tasks are sufficiently complex that ease of use of the interface becomes critical, spoken natural language dialog systems offer unique input and output modalities that can improve efficiency and safety. They also offer new capabilities that would not otherwise be available. For example, many NASA applications require astronauts to use computers in micro-gravity or while wearing space suits. Under these circumstances, command and control systems that allow users to issue commands or enter data in hands-and eyes-busy situations become critical. Speech recognition technology designed for current commercial applications limits the performance of the open-ended state-of-the-art dialog systems being developed at NASA. For example, today's recognition systems typically listen to user input only during short segments of the dialog, and user input outside of these short time windows is lost. Mistakes detecting the start and end times of user utterances can lead to mistakes in the recognition output, and the dialog system as a whole has no way to recover from this, or any other, recognition error. Systems also often require the user to signal when that user is going to speak, which is impractical in a hands-free environment, or only allow a system-initiated dialog requiring the user to speak immediately following a system prompt. In this project, SRI has developed software to enable speech recognition in a hands-free, open-microphone environment, eliminating the need for a push-to-talk button or other signaling mechanism. The software continuously captures a user's speech and makes it available to one or more recognizers. By constantly monitoring and storing the audio stream, it provides the spoken

  15. Improved Open-Microphone Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrash, Victor

    2002-12-01

    Many current and future NASA missions make extreme demands on mission personnel both in terms of work load and in performing under difficult environmental conditions. In situations where hands are impeded or needed for other tasks, eyes are busy attending to the environment, or tasks are sufficiently complex that ease of use of the interface becomes critical, spoken natural language dialog systems offer unique input and output modalities that can improve efficiency and safety. They also offer new capabilities that would not otherwise be available. For example, many NASA applications require astronauts to use computers in micro-gravity or while wearing space suits. Under these circumstances, command and control systems that allow users to issue commands or enter data in hands-and eyes-busy situations become critical. Speech recognition technology designed for current commercial applications limits the performance of the open-ended state-of-the-art dialog systems being developed at NASA. For example, today's recognition systems typically listen to user input only during short segments of the dialog, and user input outside of these short time windows is lost. Mistakes detecting the start and end times of user utterances can lead to mistakes in the recognition output, and the dialog system as a whole has no way to recover from this, or any other, recognition error. Systems also often require the user to signal when that user is going to speak, which is impractical in a hands-free environment, or only allow a system-initiated dialog requiring the user to speak immediately following a system prompt. In this project, SRI has developed software to enable speech recognition in a hands-free, open-microphone environment, eliminating the need for a push-to-talk button or other signaling mechanism. The software continuously captures a user's speech and makes it available to one or more recognizers. By constantly monitoring and storing the audio stream, it provides the spoken

  16. Method of Adjusting Acoustic Impedances for Impedance-Tunable Acoustic Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Parrott, Tony L. (Inventor); Lodding, Kenneth N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method is provided for making localized decisions and taking localized actions to achieve a global solution. In an embodiment of the present invention, acoustic impedances for impedance-tunable acoustic segments are adjusted. A first acoustic segment through an N-th acoustic segment are defined. To start the process, the first acoustic segment is designated as a leader and a noise-reducing impedance is determined therefor. This is accomplished using (i) one or more metrics associated with the acoustic wave at the leader, and (ii) the metric(s) associated with the acoustic wave at the N-th acoustic segment. The leader, the N-th acoustic segment, and each of the acoustic segments exclusive of the leader and the N-th acoustic segment, are tuned to the noise-reducing impedance. The current leader is then excluded from subsequent processing steps. The designation of leader is then given one of the remaining acoustic segments, and the process is repeated for each of the acoustic segments through an (N-1)-th one of the acoustic segments.

  17. Arts of electrical impedance tomographic sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mi; Wang, Qiang; Karki, Bishal

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews governing theorems in electrical impedance sensing for analysing the relationships of boundary voltages obtained from different sensing strategies. It reports that both the boundary voltage values and the associated sensitivity matrix of an alternative sensing strategy can be derived from a set of full independent measurements and sensitivity matrix obtained from other sensing strategy. A new sensing method for regional imaging with limited measurements is reported. It also proves that the sensitivity coefficient back-projection algorithm does not always work for all sensing strategies, unless the diagonal elements of the transformed matrix, ATA, have significant values and can be approximate to a diagonal matrix. Imaging capabilities of few sensing strategies were verified with static set-ups, which suggest the adjacent electrode pair sensing strategy displays better performance compared with the diametrically opposite protocol, with both the back-projection and multi-step image reconstruction methods. An application of electrical impedance tomography for sensing gas in water two-phase flows is demonstrated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Supersensing through industrial process tomography’. PMID:27185968

  18. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  19. Input Impedance of the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinion, Darin; Clarke, John

    2008-03-01

    We present measurements of the complex scattering parameters of microstrip SQUID amplifiers (MSA) cooled to 4.2 K. The input of the MSA is a microstrip transmission line in the shape of a square spiral coil surrounding the hole in the SQUID washer that serves as the ground plane. The input impedance is found by measuring the reverse scattering parameter (S11) and is described well by a low-loss transmission line model. We map the low-loss transmission line model into an equivalent parallel RLC circuit in which a resistance R, inductance L, and capacitance C are calculated from the resonant frequency, characteristic impedance and attenuation factor. Using this equivalent RLC circuit, we model the MSA and input network with a lumped circuit model that accurately predicts the observed gain given by the forward scattering parameter (S21). We will summarize results for different coil geometries and terminations as well as SQUID bias conditions. A portion of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48 and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. Anisotropic impedance surfaces for enhanced antenna isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Shrekenhamer, David; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2015-09-01

    Anisotropic impedance surfaces, which include metasurfaces and high impedance surfaces (HIS), can be designed to control the amplitude and propagation direction of surface electromagnetic waves and are an effective means to enhance the isolation between antennas that share a common ground plane. To date, the majority of metastructures that have been designed for antenna isolation have relied on an isotropic distribution of unit cells that possess a stop band that inhibits the propagation of surface waves between neighboring antennas. A less common approach to isolation has been through the design of a metasurface that enables the re-direction of surface waves away from the location of the antenna structure, which effectively limits the coupling. In this paper, we discuss results from our computational investigation associated with improving antenna isolation through the use of an anisotropic metastructure. Simulated results associated with the isolation performance of two simple, but similar, anisotropic structures are compared to the corresponding results from a broadband magnetic radar absorbing materials (magRAM).

  1. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  2. Longitudinal coupling impedance of toroidal beam tube

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    Coupling impedance estimates for large accelerator/storage rings are usually based on calculations or measurements assuming that the curvature of the beam tube is negligible and that the ring structure can be treated by imposing periodic boundary conditions. It was pointed out by Faltens and Laslett that a smooth, curved beam tube may have high frequency ring-resonances with associated coupling impedance. Recently, the curvature effect was reexamined in the context of SSC by Ng and RHIC by Ruggiero. Although different in detail, their treatments follow the Laslett approach using perfectly toroidal, loss-less beam tubes with losses introduced as perturbation. In this note a different solution is obtained which takes into account the co-presence of curved as well as straight beam tubes and the significant attenuation of the stainless-steel (i.e., high loss) beam tubes in the straight sections. It is the opinion of this author that the problem under consideration represents a case which was addressed by Behringer when stating that ''the solution of the field equations obtained by expansion in terms of sets of orthogonal modes breaks down if the losses become too great.'' 10 refs.

  3. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Conductive Polymer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion protection performance of twenty nine proprietary conductive polymer coatings for cold rolled steel under immersion in 3.55 percent NaCl. Corrosion potential as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained for each coating after one hour immersion, All coatings, with the exception of one, have a corrosion potential that is higher in the positive direction than the corrosion potential of bare steel under the same conditions. Group A consisted of twenty one coatings with Bode plots indicative of the capacitive behavior characteristic of barrier coatings. An equivalent circuit consisting of a capacitor in series with a resistor simulated the experimental EIS data for these coatings very well. Group B consisted of eight coatings that exhibited EIS spectra showing an inflection point which indicates that two time constants are present. This may be caused by an electrochemical process taking place which could be indicitive of coating failing. These coatings have a lower impedance that those in Group A.

  4. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  5. Transverse impedance measurement in RHIC and the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Biancacci, Nicolo; Blaskiewicz, M.; Dutheil, Y.; Liu, C.; Mernick, M.; Minty, M.; White, S. M.

    2014-05-12

    The RHIC luminosity upgrade program aims for an increase of the polarized proton luminosity by a factor 2. To achieve this goal a significant increase in the beam intensity is foreseen. The beam coupling impedance could therefore represent a source of detrimental effects for beam quality and stability at high bunch intensities. For this reason it is essential to quantify the accelerator impedance budget and the major impedance sources, and possibly cure them. In this MD note we summarize the results of the 2013 transverse impedance measurements in the AGS and RHIC. The studies have been performed measuring the tune shift as a function of bunch intensity and deriving the total accelerator machine transverse impedance. For RHIC, we could obtain first promising results of impedance localization measurements as well.

  6. Validation of a Numerical Method for Determining Liner Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Tanner, Sharon E.; Parrott, Tony L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the initial results of a test series to evaluate a method for determining the normal incidence impedance of a locally reacting acoustically absorbing liner, located on the lower wall of a duct in a grazing incidence, multi-modal, non-progressive acoustic wave environment without flow. This initial evaluation is accomplished by testing the methods' ability to converge to the known normal incidence impedance of a solid steel plate, and to the normal incidence impedance of an absorbing test specimen whose impedance was measured in a conventional normal incidence tube. The method is shown to converge to the normal incident impedance values and thus to be an adequate tool for determining the impedance of specimens in a grazing incidence, multi-modal, nonprogressive acoustic wave environment for a broad range of source frequencies.

  7. An AC impedance study of steel in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, P.; Lawrence, P. F.; Wilkins, N. J. M.; Williams, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Impedance measurements executed between both steel and platinum electrodes embedded in both porous and non-porous concretes were used to explore the physical characteristics of the system. A simple method is described for measuring high impedances (up to 500 M) in which the unknown impedance is compared with the imput impedance of the measuring instrument, previously calibrated. Impedance measurements on concrete immersed in an electrolyte were used to quantify concrete quality, and the dynamics of wetting, drying and electrolyte exchange were explored: the dynamics of such processes are considered to be among the factors determining the rate of corrosion of steel reinforcement under some conditions, since intermittent wetting is an efficient method for transporting oxygen and salt into the concrete. The existence of cracks along the electrode-concrete interface was inferred. Impedance changes consequent on the initiation of corrosion of steel electrodes were noted, but the changes were small and not clear-cut.

  8. Rational design of a cytotoxic dinuclear Cu2 complex that binds by molecular recognition at two neighboring phosphates of the DNA backbone.

    PubMed

    Jany, Thomas; Moreth, Alexander; Gruschka, Claudia; Sischka, Andy; Spiering, Andre; Dieding, Mareike; Wang, Ying; Samo, Susan Haji; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Fischer von Mollard, Gabriele; Anselmetti, Dario; Glaser, Thorsten

    2015-03-16

    The mechanism of the cytotoxic function of cisplatin and related anticancer drugs is based on their binding to the nucleobases of DNA. The development of new classes of anticancer drugs requires establishing other binding modes. Therefore, we performed a rational design for complexes that target two neighboring phosphates of the DNA backbone by molecular recognition resulting in a family of dinuclear complexes based on 2,7-disubstituted 1,8-naphthalenediol. This rigid backbone preorganizes the two metal ions for molecular recognition at the distance of two neighboring phosphates in DNA of 6-7 Å. Additionally, bulky chelating pendant arms in the 2,7-position impede nucleobase complexation by steric hindrance. We successfully synthesized the Cu(II)2 complex of the designed family of dinuclear complexes and studied its binding to dsDNA by independent ensemble and single-molecule methods like gel electrophoresis, precipitation, and titration experiments followed by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), as well as optical tweezers (OT) and magnetic tweezers (MT) DNA stretching. The observed irreversible binding of our dinuclear Cu(II)2 complex to dsDNA leads to a blocking of DNA synthesis as studied by polymerase chain reactions and cytotoxicity for human cancer cells.

  9. Selective DNA Recognition and Cytotoxicity of Water-Soluble Helical Metallosupramolecular Polymers.

    PubMed

    Rana, Utpal; Chakraborty, Chanchal; Pandey, Rakesh K; Hossain, Md Delwar; Nagano, Reiko; Morita, Hiromi; Hattori, Shinya; Minowa, Takashi; Higuchi, Masayoshi

    2016-10-19

    Water-soluble helical Fe(II)-based metallosupramolecular polymers ((P)- and (M)-polyFe) were synthesized by 1:1 complexation of Fe(II) ions and bis(terpyridine)s bearing a (R)- and (S)-BINOL spacer, respectively. The binding affinity to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by titration measurements. (P)-PolyFe with the same helicity as B-DNA showed 40-fold higher binding activity (Kb = 13.08 × 10(7) M(-1)) to ct-DNA than (M)-polyFe. The differences in binding affinity were supported by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. The charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of (P)-polyFe increased from 2.5 to 3.9 kΩ upon DNA binding, while that of (M)-polyFe was nearly unchanged. These results indicate that ionically strong binding of (P)-polyFe to DNA chains decreased the mobility of ions in the conjugate. Unique rod-like images were obtained by atomic force microscopy measurement of the DNA conjugate with (P)-polyFe, likely because of the rigid binding between DNA chains and the polymer. Differences in polymer chirality lead to significantly different cytotoxicity levels in A549 cells. (P)-PolyFe showed higher binding affinity to B-DNA and much higher cytotoxicity than (M)-polyFe. The helicity in metallosupramolecular polymer chains was important not only for chiral recognition of DNA but also for coordination to a biological target in the cellular environment.

  10. Development of impedance/external field potential dual measurement system for evaluation of electrophysiological properties of cells on microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Fumimasa; Matsuura, Kenji; Hattori, Akihiro; Odaka, Masao; Sugio, Yoshihiro; Kurotobi, Hiromi; Terazono, Hideyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    A combination of extracellular field potential (FP) and impedance measurement technologies for multielectrode array (MEA) chip architecture is developed for the simultaneous evaluation of information on the ion current and resistance of cells and microelectrodes. The simultaneous measurement system can not only evaluate the time course changes of characteristics in the MEAs but also clarification of the origin of the difference in the waveform of the field potentials of each cell on an microelectrode whether it is caused by the changes in the electrophysiological properties of cells or by the changes in the performance of an microelectrode (and cell-to-electrode contacts). The automatic impedance measurement technology in the system exploited the swiping of the wide frequency range of impedances of microelectrodes and calculated the true impedance of each microelectrode without significant effects on the cells on the MEA chip. Hence, the system can give us invisible cell-to-electrode contact information and its change, and also information on the degradation of the performance of microelectrodes during long-term cultivation and after the application of compounds into the MEA chip. The impedance spectrum measurement showed that (1) the increase in the impedance of microelectrodes correlated with its area decrease from 10-7 to 10-10 m2, (2) even the area of microelectrodes decreased from 10-8 to 10-10 m2, the noise level of field potential signals was independent and did not change, and (3) the attachment of cells on the microelectrode surface can be determined by a significant increase in impedance at 1 kHz corresponding to the width of the depolarization peak on the field potential recordings. These results indicate the potential to evaluate the cell-to-electrode contact and degradation of microelectrodes, which was not evaluated in conventional FP measurements only. These results also indicate that this method should be used for the evaluation of the changes in

  11. High-Frequency Acoustic Impedance Imaging of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Fadhel, Muhannad N; Berndl, Elizabeth S L; Strohm, Eric M; Kolios, Michael C

    2015-10-01

    Variations in the acoustic impedance throughout cells and tissue can be used to gain insight into cellular microstructures and the physiologic state of the cell. Ultrasound imaging can be used to create a map of the acoustic impedance, on which fluctuations can be used to help identify the dominant ultrasound scattering source in cells, providing information for ultrasound tissue characterization. The physiologic state of a cell can be inferred from the average acoustic impedance values, as many cellular physiologic changes are linked to an alteration in their mechanical properties. A recently proposed method, acoustic impedance imaging, has been used to measure the acoustic impedance maps of biological tissues, but the method has not been used to characterize individual cells. Using this method to image cells can result in more precise acoustic impedance maps of cells than obtained previously using time-resolved acoustic microscopy. We employed an acoustic microscope using a transducer with a center frequency of 375 MHz to calculate the acoustic impedance of normal (MCF-10 A) and cancerous (MCF-7) breast cells. The generated acoustic impedance maps and simulations suggest that the position of the nucleus with respect to the polystyrene substrate may have an effect on the measured acoustic impedance value of the cell. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy were used to correlate acoustic impedance images with the position of the nucleus within the cell. The average acoustic impedance statistically differed between normal and cancerous breast cells (1.636 ± 0.010 MRayl vs. 1.612 ± 0.006 MRayl), indicating that acoustic impedance could be used to differentiate between normal and cancerous cells.

  12. Impedance Matched to Vacuum, Invisible Edge, Diffraction Suppressed Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor); Shiri, Sharham (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction suppressed mirrors having an invisible edge are disclosed for incident light at both targeted wavelengths and broadband incident light. The mirrors have a first having at least one discontiguous portion having a plurality of nanostructured apertures. The discontiguous mirror portion impedance matches a relatively high impedance portion of the mirror to a relatively low impedance portion of the mirror, thereby reducing the diffraction edge effect otherwise present in a conventional mirror.

  13. Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.

    1975-01-01

    The mutual impedance expressions for parallel dipoles in terms of sine-integrals and cosine-integrals have been published by King (1957). The investigation reported provides analogous expressions for nonparallel dipoles. The expressions presented are most useful when the monopoles are close together. The theory of moment methods shows an approach for employing the mutual impedance of filamentary sinusoidal dipoles to calculate the impedance and scattering properties of straight and bent wires with small but finite diameter.

  14. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: Sensing behavior and logic operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit3-) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo6+ which responds at 4.0 nmol L-1 concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo6+ in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67 × 10-7 to 1.22 × 10-5 M and a detection limit of 2.0 × 10-8 M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo6+ and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo6+ ion and Cit3- as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo6+ and Cit3- ions in real samples.

  15. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: sensing behavior and logic operation.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit(3-)) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo(6+) which responds at 4.0 nmol L(-1) concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo(6+) in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67×10(-7) to 1.22×10(-5) M and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-8) M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo(6+) and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo(6+) ion and Cit(3-) as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo(6+) and Cit(3-) ions in real samples.

  16. Validation of an Impedance Education Method in Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports results of a research effort to validate a method for educing the normal incidence impedance of a locally reacting liner, located in a grazing incidence, nonprogressive acoustic wave environment with flow. The results presented in this paper test the ability of the method to reproduce the measured normal incidence impedance of a solid steel plate and two soft test liners in a uniform flow. The test liners are known to be locally react- ing and exhibit no measurable amplitude-dependent impedance nonlinearities or flow effects. Baseline impedance spectra for these liners were therefore established from measurements in a conventional normal incidence impedance tube. A key feature of the method is the expansion of the unknown impedance function as a piecewise continuous polynomial with undetermined coefficients. Stewart's adaptation of the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell optimization algorithm is used to educe the normal incidence impedance at each Mach number by optimizing an objective function. The method is shown to reproduce the measured normal incidence impedance spectrum for each of the test liners, thus validating its usefulness for determining the normal incidence impedance of test liners for a broad range of source frequencies and flow Mach numbers. Nomenclature

  17. Impedance generalization for plasmonic waveguides beyond the lumped circuit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Thomas; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Paul, Thomas; Pertsch, Thomas; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    We analytically derive a rigorous expression for the relative impedance ratio between two photonic structures based on their electromagnetic interaction. Our approach generalizes the physical meaning of the impedance to a measure for the reciprocity-based overlap of eigenmodes. The consistency with known cases in the radio-frequency and optical domain is shown. The analysis reveals where the applicability of simple circuit parameters ends and how the impedance can be interpreted beyond this point. We illustrate our approach by successfully describing a Bragg reflector that terminates an insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic waveguide in the near infrared by our impedance concept.

  18. Time-Domain Impedance Boundary Conditions for Computational Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Auriault, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    It is an accepted practice in aeroacoustics to characterize the properties of an acoustically treated surface by a quantity known as impedance. Impedance is a complex quantity. As such, it is designed primarily for frequency-domain analysis. Time-domain boundary conditions that are the equivalent of the frequency-domain impedance boundary condition are proposed. Both single frequency and model broadband time-domain impedance boundary conditions are provided. It is shown that the proposed boundary conditions, together with the linearized Euler equations, form well-posed initial boundary value problems. Unlike ill-posed problems, they are free from spurious instabilities that would render time-marching computational solutions impossible.

  19. Impedance measurements for detecting pathogens attached to antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.; Fuller, Christopher K.

    2004-12-28

    The use of impedance measurements to detect the presence of pathogens attached to antibody-coated beads. In a fluidic device antibodies are immobilized on a surface of a patterned interdigitated electrode. Pathogens in a sample fluid streaming past the electrode attach to the immobilized antibodies, which produces a change in impedance between two adjacent electrodes, which impedance change is measured and used to detect the presence of a pathogen. To amplify the signal, beads coated with antibodies are introduced and the beads would stick to the pathogen causing a greater change in impedance between the two adjacent electrodes.

  20. A two electrode apparatus for electrical impedance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merriam, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    A two electrode cell for complex impedance measurements on core samples in the range 1 mHz - 0.3 kHz is described. Two electrode cells are more convenient than four electrode cells but some restrictions need to be observed. I will show that the contact impedance between the electrodes and the sample can be controlled and reduced to less than fifty ohms in most cases. The contact impedance is repeatable, with a peak phase near 10 Hz of less than one degree and a maximum change in impedance magnitude of less than fifty ohm. A model for the contact impedance is used to correct impedance measurements, leaving an un-modeled contact impedance of a few ohms. There is typically a drift of about 100 ohm during a measurement sequence due to diffusion between the ceramic frits at the ends of the sample. This is corrected by repeat measurements at 100 Hz. Un-modeled impedance changes due to drift are about ten ohm. The un-modeled impedance changes mean that the relative error on conductive samples is greater than on resistive samples. Repeat measurements on a sandstone sample with conductive pore water (0.14 S/m) yield a mean of 492 ohms with a standard deviation of 20 ohm, or about five percent. Measurements on mineralized core and on cells constructed from mixtures of silica sand and polarizable minerals demonstrate that the two electrode set up can be used even on heavily mineralized samples.

  1. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mason, R.J.

    1996-10-22

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode is disclosed. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources. 12 figs.

  2. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Rodney J.

    1996-01-01

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources.

  3. In vivo impedance spectroscopy of deep brain stimulation electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lempka, Scott F; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Johnson, Matthew D; Vitek, Jerrold L; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2009-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a powerful clinical technology, but a systematic characterization of the electrical interactions between the electrode and the brain is lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the in vivo changes in the DBS electrode impedance that occur after implantation and during clinically relevant stimulation. Clinical DBS devices typically apply high-frequency voltage-controlled stimulation, and as a result, the injected current is directly regulated by the impedance of the electrode-tissue interface. We monitored the impedance of scaled-down clinical DBS electrodes implanted in the thalamus and subthalamic nucleus of a rhesus macaque using electrode impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements ranging from 0.5 Hz to 10 kHz. To further characterize our measurements, equivalent circuit models of the electrode-tissue interface were used to quantify the role of various interface components in producing the observed electrode impedance. Following implantation, the DBS electrode impedance increased and a semicircular arc was observed in the high-frequency range of the EIS measurements, commonly referred to as the tissue component of the impedance. Clinically relevant stimulation produced a rapid decrease in electrode impedance with extensive changes in the tissue component. These post-operative and stimulation-induced changes in impedance could play an important role in the observed functional effects of voltage-controlled DBS and should be considered during clinical stimulation parameter selection and chronic animal research studies.

  4. Hydrodynamic and electrical considerations in the design of a four-electrode impedance-based microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Justin, Gusphyl; Nasir, Mansoor; Ligler, Frances S

    2011-05-01

    A four-electrode impedance-based microfluidic device has been designed with tunable sensitivity for future applications to the detection of pathogens and functionalized microparticles specifically bound to molecular recognition molecules on the surface of a microfluidic channel. In order to achieve tunable sensitivity, hydrodynamic focusing was employed to confine the electric current by simultaneous introduction of two fluids (high- and low-conductivity solutions) into a microchannel at variable flow-rate ratios. By increasing the volumetric flow rate of the low-conductivity solution (sheath fluid) relative to the high-conductivity solution (sample fluid), increased focusing of the high-conductivity solution over four coplanar electrodes was achieved, thereby confining the current during impedance interrogation. The hydrodynamic and electrical properties of the device were analyzed for optimization and to resolve issues that would impact sensitivity and reproducibility in subsequent biosensor applications. These include variability in the relative flow rates of the sheath and sample fluids, changes in microchannel dimensions, and ionic concentration of the sample fluid. A comparative analysis of impedance measurements using four-electrode versus two-electrode configurations for impedance measurements also highlighted the advantages of using four electrodes for portable sensor applications.

  5. Scheme for rapid adjustment of network impedance

    DOEpatents

    Vithayathil, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A static controlled reactance device is inserted in series with an AC electric power transmission line to adjust its transfer impedance. An inductor (reactor) is serially connected with two back-to-back connected thyristors which control the conduction period and hence the effective reactance of the inductor. Additional reactive elements are provided in parallel with the thyristor controlled reactor to filter harmonics and to obtain required range of variable reactance. Alternatively, the static controlled reactance device discussed above may be connected to the secondary winding of a series transformer having its primary winding connected in series to the transmission line. In a three phase transmission system, the controlled reactance device may be connected in delta configuration on the secondary side of the series transformer to eliminate triplen harmonics.

  6. Algorithmic Error Correction of Impedance Measuring Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Starostenko, Oleg; Alarcon-Aquino, Vicente; Hernandez, Wilmar; Sergiyenko, Oleg; Tyrsa, Vira

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes novel design concepts and some advanced techniques proposed for increasing the accuracy of low cost impedance measuring devices without reduction of operational speed. The proposed structural method for algorithmic error correction and iterating correction method provide linearization of transfer functions of the measuring sensor and signal conditioning converter, which contribute the principal additive and relative measurement errors. Some measuring systems have been implemented in order to estimate in practice the performance of the proposed methods. Particularly, a measuring system for analysis of C-V, G-V characteristics has been designed and constructed. It has been tested during technological process control of charge-coupled device CCD manufacturing. The obtained results are discussed in order to define a reasonable range of applied methods, their utility, and performance. PMID:22303177

  7. Corrosion Study Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farooq, Muhammad Umar

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion is a common phenomenon. It is the destructive result of chemical reaction between a metal or metal alloy and its environment. Stainless steel tubing is used at Kennedy Space Center for various supply lines which service the orbiter. The launch pads are also made of stainless steel. The environment at the launch site has very high chloride content due to the proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Also, during a launch, the exhaust products in the solid rocket boosters include concentrated hydrogen chloride. The purpose of this project was to study various alloys by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in corrosive environments similar to the launch sites. This report includes data and analysis of the measurements for 304L, 254SMO and AL-6XN in primarily neutral 3.55% NaCl. One set of data for 304L in neutral 3.55%NaCl + 0.1N HCl is also included.

  8. Bioelectrical impedance analysis. What does it measure?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeller, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been proposed for measuring fat-free mass, total body water, percent fat, body cell mass, intracellular water, and extracellular water: a veritable laboratory in a box. Although it is unlikely that BIA is quite this versatile, correlations have been demonstrated between BIA and all of these body compartments. At the same time, it is known that all of the compartments are correlated among themselves. Because of this, it is difficult to determine whether BIA is specific for any or all of these compartments. To investigate this question, we induced acute changes in total body water and its compartments over a 3-h period. Using this approach, we demonstrated that multifrequency BIA, using the Cole-Cole model to calculate the zero frequency and infinite frequency resistance, measures extracellular and intracellular water.

  9. Wave guide impedance matching method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for modifying the end portion of a wave guide, whether hollow or solid, carrying electromagnetic, acoustic or optical energy, to produce a gradual impedance change over the length of the end portion, comprising the cutting of longitudinal, V-shaped grooves that increase in width and depth from beginning of the end portion of the wave guide to the end of the guide so that, at the end of the guide, no guide material remains and no surfaces of the guide as modified are perpendicular to the direction of energy flow. For hollow guides, the grooves are cut beginning on the interior surface; for solid guides, the grooves are cut beginning on the exterior surface. One or more resistive, partially conductive or nonconductive sleeves can be placed over the exterior of the guide and through which the grooves are cut to smooth the transition to free space.

  10. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing

    PubMed Central

    Mattiucci, N.; Bloemer, M. J.; Aközbek, N.; D'Aguanno, G.

    2013-01-01

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin (<1 micron), polarization independent, extremely efficient absorbers (in principle being capable to reach A > 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others. PMID:24220284

  11. Modelling the distance impedance of protest attendance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traag, V. A.; Quax, R.; Sloot, P. M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Protesters are usually young, relatively well educated, middle class people that are politically engaged. But where do protesters come from? We here show, based on mobile phone data, that distance is an important impedance to protest attendance. Most protesters come from nearby regions, suggesting distance forms an obstacle to participation. Although this effect can be partly explained by social network effects, which show similar spatial dependencies, an effect of distance remains. This suggests distance still acts as an obstacle to participation, although it may also be that long-range contacts are less effective for recruitment. Face-to-face contacts seem more important in spreading protests through earlier participants, whereas central recruitment works better by telephone. Our results are important for understanding processes of recruitment.

  12. Sensing Estrogen with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Kim, Byung Kun; Im, Ji-Eun; Choi, Han Nim; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Cho, Seong In

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application feasibility of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in measuring estrogen (17β-estradiol) in gas phase. The present biosensor gives a linear response (R2 = 0.999) for 17β-estradiol vapor concentration from 3.7 ng/L to 3.7 × 10−4 ng/L with a limit of detection (3.7 × 10−4 ng/L). The results show that the fabricated biosensor demonstrates better detection limit of 17β-estradiol in gas phase than the previous report with GC-MS method. This estrogen biosensor has many potential applications for on-site detection of a variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the gas phase. PMID:27803838

  13. Electrochemical impedance study of the hematite/water interface.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kenichi; Lasia, Andrzej; Boily, Jean-François

    2012-05-22

    Reactions taking place on hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions are of paramount importance to environmental and technological processes. The electrochemical properties of the hematite/water interface are central to these processes and can be probed by open circuit potentials and cyclic voltammetric measurements of semiconducting electrodes. In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to extract resistive and capacitive attributes of this interface on millimeter-sized single-body hematite electrodes. This was carried out by developing equivalent circuit models for impedance data collected on a semiconducting hematite specimen equilibrated in solutions of 0.1 M NaCl and NH(4)Cl at various pH values. These efforts produced distinct sets of capacitance values for the diffuse and compact layers of the interface. Diffuse layer capacitances shift in the pH 3-11 range from 2.32 to 2.50 μF·cm(-2) in NaCl and from 1.43 to 1.99 μF·cm(-2) in NH(4)Cl. Furthermore, these values reach a minimum capacitance at pH 9, near a probable point of zero charge for an undefined hematite surface exposing a variety of (hydr)oxo functional groups. Compact layer capacitances pertain to the transfer of ions (charge carriers) from the diffuse layer to surface hydroxyls and are independent of pH in NaCl, with values of 32.57 ± 0.49 μF·cm(-2)·s(-φ). However, they decrease with pH in NH(4)Cl from 33.77 at pH 3.5 to 21.02 μF·cm(-2)·s(-φ) at pH 10.6 because of the interactions of ammonium species with surface (hydr)oxo groups. Values of φ (0.71-0.73 in NaCl and 0.56-0.67 in NH(4)Cl) denote the nonideal behavior of this capacitor, which is treated here as a constant phase element. Because electrode-based techniques are generally not applicable to the commonly insulating metal (oxyhydr)oxides found in the environment, this study presents opportunities for exploring mineral/water interface chemistry by EIS studies of single

  14. Smartphone-based portable biosensing system using impedance measurement with printed electrodes for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Diming; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Junye; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yanli; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Logan Liu, Gang; Liu, Qingjun

    2015-08-15

    Rapid, sensitive, selective and portable detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is in high demand for public safety and environmental monitoring. In this study, we reported a smartphone-based system using impedance monitoring for TNT detection. The screen-printed electrodes modified with TNT-specific peptides were used as disposable a biosensor to produce impedance responses to TNT. The responses could be monitored by a hand-held device and send out to smartphone through Bluetooth. Then, the smartphone was used to display TNT responses in real time and report concentration finally. In the measurement, the system was demonstrated to detect TNT at concentration as low as 10(-6) M and distinguish TNT versus different chemicals in high specificity. Thus, the smartphone-based biosensing platform provided a convenient and efficient approach to design portable instruments for chemical detections such as TNT recognition.

  15. New methods of subcooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard

    2001-08-01

    Two new methods of sub-cooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers are presented in this paper. The first one- impedance method use a new semiconductor mirror in which the dew point detector, the thermometer and the heaters were integrated all together. The second one an optical method based on a multi-section optical detector is discussed in the report. Experimental results of both methods are shown. New types of dew pont hydrometers of ability to recognized sub-cooled water were proposed.

  16. Polymer-based separations: Synthesis and application of polymers for ionic and molecular recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Polymer-based separations have utilized resins such as sulfonic, acrylic, and iminodiacetic acid resins and the XAD series. Selective polymeric reagents for reaction with a targeted metal ion were synthesized as polymers with two different types of functional groups, each operating on the ions through a different mechanism. There are 3 classes of DMBPs (dual mechanism bifunctional polymers). Research during this period dealing with metal ion recognition focused on two of these classes (reduction of metal ions to metal; selective complexation).

  17. Bioelectrical impedance techniques in medicine. Part III: Impedance imaging. First section: general concepts and hardware.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, B; Morucci, J P

    1996-01-01

    Measurement accuracy is a key point in impedance imaging and is mainly limited by factors that take place in the acquisition system. This part is a review of hardware solutions developed in acquisition systems for electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The general principles of EIT along with the changes that have taken place in the last decade, in terms of measurement strategy, and a certain number of definitions are introduced. The major hardware error sources that occur in the front end of EIT systems are presented. A review of the various alternatives published in the literature that are used to drive current, including current and voltage approaches, and the main solutions recommended in the literature to overcome the key point drawbacks of voltage measurement systems, including voltage buffers, instrumentation amplifiers, and demodulators, are provided. Some calibration procedures and approaches for the evaluation of the performance of EIT systems are also presented.

  18. Polymers for anion recognition and sensing.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali; Taylor, Mark S

    2012-01-16

    In biological systems, the selective and high-affinity recognition of anionic species is accomplished by macromolecular hosts (anion-binding proteins) that have been "optimized" through evolution. Surprisingly, it is only recently that chemists have systematically attempted to develop anion-responsive synthetic macromolecules for potential applications in medicine, national security, or environmental monitoring. Recent results indicating that unique features of polymeric systems such as signal amplification, multivalency, and cooperative behavior may be exploited productively in the context of anion recognition and sensing are documented. The wide variety of interactions-including Lewis acid/base, ion-pairing, and hydrogen bonding-that have been employed for this purpose is reflected in the structural diversity of anion-responsive macromolecules identified to date.

  19. Fluorescent BINOL-based sensor for thorium recognition and a density functional theory investigation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Dong, Liang; Tian, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Yan-Qiu; Huang, Zeng; Yu, Xiao-Qi; Hu, Chang-Wei; Hu, Sheng; Yang, Tong-Zai; Wang, Xiao-Lin

    2013-12-15

    A novel 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) derivative fluorescence sensor L-1 for the recognition of thorium ion with a fluorescence quench response. This ligand showed high selectivity and sensitivity for thorium ion recognition. Coordination effects were investigated by DFT calculations, and the coordination modes and sites were confirmed. Moreover, the coordination abilities of the L-1 ligand with Th(4+) and UO2(2+) were evaluated.

  20. A simple mathematical model for electric cell-substrate impedance sensing with extended applications.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Caide; Luong, John H T

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents a simple mathematical model to predict the impedance data acquired by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) at frequencies between 25 Hz and 60 kHz. With this model, the equivalent resistance (R) and capacitance (C) of biological samples adhered on gold surfaces could be more precisely measured at 4 kHz. ECIS applications were extended for real-time monitoring of living bacteria cultivated in Luria Bertani (LB) culture medium by two different approaches. In the former, we used a ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in LB medium as an indicator for bacterial multiplication. Because the redox couple was toxic to some bacteria, we developed a second approach, in which l-cysteine self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on gold electrodes were used to detect living bacteria. The l-cysteine SAM could also be detected by ECIS. Unlike traditional impedance microbiological methods which need special culture media with low ions, our procedures significantly enhanced signal/noise ratios so bacteria could be detected in general purpose culture media. It was easy and convenient to obtain bacterial doubling times and evaluate the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics from ECIS spectra.

  1. Efficient Simultaneous Reconstruction of Time-Varying Images and Electrode Contact Impedances in Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Boverman, Gregory; Isaacson, David; Newell, Jonathan C.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Amm, Bruce C.; Wang, Xin; Davenport, David M.; Chong, David H.; Sahni, Rakesh; Ashe, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    In Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), we apply patterns of currents on a set of electrodes at the external boundary of an object, measure the resulting potentials at the electrodes, and, given the aggregate data set, reconstruct the complex conductivity and permittivity within the object. It is possible to maximize sensitivity to internal conductivity changes by simultaneously applying currents and measuring potentials on all electrodes but this approach also maximizes sensitivity to changes in impedance at the interface. We have therefore developed algorithms to assess contact impedance changes at the interface as well as to efficiently and simultaneously reconstruct internal conductivity/permittivity changes within the body. We use simple linear algebraic manipulations, the generalized SVD, and a dual-mesh finite-element-based framework to reconstruct images in real time. We are also able to efficiently compute the linearized reconstruction for a wide range of regularization parameters and to compute both the Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV) parameter as well as the L-curve, objective approaches to determining the optimal regularization parameter, in a similarly efficient manner. Results are shown using data from a normal subject and from a clinical ICU patient, both acquired with the GE GENESIS prototype EIT system, demonstrating significantly reduced boundary artifacts due to electrode drift and motion artifact. PMID:27295649

  2. Lanthanide recognition: determination of thulium(III) ions in presence of other rare earth elements by a thulium(III) sensor based on 4-methyl-1,2-Bis(2-Pyridinecarboxamido)benzene as a sensing material

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P.; Farrokhi, R.; Faridbod, F.; Larijani, B.; Meghdadi, S.

    2008-07-01

    In this research, a novel thulium(III) potentiometric membrane sensor based on 4-methyl-1,2-bis(2-pyridinecarboxamido) benzene (MPB) is described. The sensor exhibits a Nernstian response over a concentration range of 1.010-7M to 1.010-1M, with a detection limit of 9.010-8M. The best performance was achieved with a membrane composition of 30% PVC, 60% nitrobenzene (NB), 6% MPB, and 4% sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB). It was found that at the pH range of 3.6 to 9.0, the potential response of the sensor was not affected by the pH. Furthermore, the electrode presents satisfactory reproducibility, very fast response time (15s), and relatively good discriminating ability for Tm(III) ions with respect to many common cations and lanthanide ions. The validation of the proposed electrode was tested by using Coal and Fuel Ash (FFA 1 Fly Ash) as a Certified Reference Material (CRM).

  3. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  4. Mechanical Impedance of the Human Body in the Horizontal Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlund, P.; Lundström, R.

    1998-08-01

    The mechanical impedance of the seated human body in horizontal directions (fore-and-aft and lateral) was measured during different experimental conditions, such as vibration level (0·25-1·4 m/s2r.m.s.), frequency (1·13-80 Hz), body weight (54-93 kg), upper body posture (relaxed and erect) and gender. The outcome showed that impedance, normalized by the sitting weight, varies with direction, level, posture and gender. Generally the impedance spectra show one peak for the fore-and-aft (X) direction while two peaks are found in the lateral (Y) direction. Males showed a lower normalized impedance than females. Increasing fore-and-aft vibration decreases the frequency at which maximum impedance occurs but also reduces the overall magnitude. For the lateral direction a more complex pattern was found. The frequency of impedance peaks are constant with increasing vibration level. The magnitude of the second peak decreases when changing posture from erect to relaxed. Males showed a higher impedance magnitude than females and a greater dip between the two peaks. The impedance spectra for the two horizontal directions have different shapes. This supports the idea of treating them differently; such as with respect to risk assessments and development of preventative measures.

  5. Impedance Matching of Tapered Slot Antenna using a Dielectric Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, R. N.; Lee, R. Q.

    1998-01-01

    A new impedance matching technique for tapered slot antennas using a dielectric transformer is presented. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the input impedance, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) and the gain of a Vivaldi antenna (VA). Measured results at Ka-Band frequencies are presented and discussed.

  6. An Inexpensive, Very High Impedance Digital Voltmeter for Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceci, Marco S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a compact, digital voltmeter which exceeds, both in accuracy and input impedance, most commercial pH meters and potentiometers. The instrument consists of two parts: a very high impedance hybrid operational amplifier used as a voltage follower (ICH8500/A, Intersil) and a four and one-half digits LED display panel meter (RP-4500,…

  7. The Impedance Response of Semiconductors: An Electrochemical Engineering Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orazem, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Shows that the principles learned in the study of mass transport, thermodynamics, and kinetics associated with electrochemical systems can be applied to the transport and reaction processes taking place within a semiconductor. Describes impedance techniques and provides several graphs illustrating impedance data for diverse circuit systems. (YP)

  8. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Square, Regina; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  9. Effect of Feeding and Suction on Gastric Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Nohra E; Sánchez-Miranda, Gustavo; Sacristan, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    A specific device and system has been developed and tested for clinical monitoring of gastric mucosal reactance in the critically ill as an early warning of splanchnic hypoperfusion associated with shock and sepsis. This device has been proven effective in clinical trials and is expected to become commercially available next year. The system uses a combination nasogastric tube and impedance spectroscopy probe as a single catheter. Because this device has a double function, the question is: Does enteral feeding or suction affect the gastric reactance measurements? This study was designed to evaluate the effect of feeding and suction on the measurement of gastric impedance spectroscopy in healthy volunteers. Impedance spectra were obtained from the gastric wall epithelia of 18 subjects. The spectra were measured for each of the following conditions: postinsertion of gastric probe, during active suction, postactive suction, and during enteral feeding (236 ml of nutritional supplement). Impedance spectra were reproducible in all volunteers under all conditions tested. There was a slight increase in impedance parameters after suction, and a decrease in impedance after feeding; however, these observed differences were insignificant compared to patient-to-patient variability, and truly negligible compared with previously observed changes associated with splanchnic ischemia in critically ill patients. Our results demonstrate that suction or feeding when using the impedance spectro-metry probe/nasogastric tube does not significantly interfere with gastric impedance spectrometer measurements.

  10. Modifying the acoustic impedance of polyurea-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantasetphong, Wiroj; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Jia, Zhanzhan; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2013-04-01

    Acoustic impedance is a material property that depends on mass density and acoustic wave speed. An impedance mismatch between two media leads to the partial reflection of an acoustic wave sent from one medium to another. Active sonar is one example of a useful application of this phenomenon, where reflected and scattered acoustic waves enable the detection of objects. If the impedance of an object is matched to that of the surrounding medium, however, the object may be hidden from observation (at least directly) by sonar. In this study, polyurea composites are developed to facilitate such impedance matching. Polyurea is used due to its excellent blast-mitigating properties, easy casting, corrosion protection, abrasion resistance, and various uses in current military technology. Since pure polyurea has impedance higher than that of water (the current medium of interest), low mass density phenolic microballoon particles are added to create composite materials with reduced effective impedances. The volume fraction of particles is varied to study the effect of filler quantity on the acoustic impedance of the resulting composite. The composites are experimentally characterized via ultrasonic measurements. Computational models based on the method of dilute-randomly-distributed inclusions are developed and compared with the experimental results. These experiments and models will facilitate the design of new elastomeric composites with desirable acoustic impedances.

  11. Flip-Chip Carrier Would Match Microwave FET Impedances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed field-effect transistor consists of three cells which make up one complete FET pellet. Pellet is flip-chip mounted on carrier with source grounded gate and drain posts connected directly to impedance-matching transmission-line segments. Impedance transformers are part of mounting and contact strips.

  12. Constant current load matches impedances of electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    Constant current load with negative resistance characteristics actively compensates for impedance variations in circuit components. Through a current-voltage balancing operation the internal impedance of the diodes is maintained at a constant value. This constant current load circuit can be used in simple telemetry systems.

  13. Induced optical metric in the non-impedance-matched media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. A.; Roknizadeh, R.; Sahebdivan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In non-magnetic anisotropic media, the behavior of electromagnetic waves depends on the polarization and direction of the incident light. Therefore, to tame the unwanted wave responses such as polarization dependent reflections, the artificial impedance-matched media are suggested to be used in optical devices like invisibility cloak or super lenses. Nevertheless, developing the impedance-matched media is far from trivial in practice. In this paper, we are comparing the samples of both impedance-matched and non-impedance-matched (non-magnetic) media regarding their electromagnetic response in constructing a well-defined optical metric. In the case of similar anisotropic patterns, we show that the optical metric in an impedance-matched medium for unpolarized light is the same as the optical metric of an electrical birefringent medium when the extraordinary mode is concerned. By comparing the eikonal equation in an empty curved space-time and its counterparts in the medium, we have shown that a non-impedance-matched medium can resemble an optical metric for a particular polarization. As an example of non-impedance-matched materials, we are studying a medium with varying optical axis profile. We show that such a medium can be an alternative to impedance-matched materials in various optical devices.

  14. Impedance study for the PEP-II B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.; Daly, C.E.; Ko, K.

    1995-06-01

    The paper summarizes results of the impedance studies of the components of the B-factory. The prime goal of this activity was to support the design of the vacuum chamber and, at the same time, to get a reasonable model of the machine impedance, which can be used later for detail studies of collective effects.

  15. Development of impedance matching technologies for ICRF antenna arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R.I.

    1998-03-01

    All high power ICRF heating systems include devices for matching the input impedance of the antenna array to the generator output impedance. For most types of antennas used, the input impedance is strongly time-dependent on timescales as rapid as 10-4 s, while the rf generators used are capable of producing full power only into a stationary load impedance. Hence, the dynamic response of the matching method is of great practical importance. In this paper, world-wide developments in this field over the past decade are reviewed. These techniques may be divided into several classes. The edge plasma parameters that determine the antenna array`s input impedance may be controlled to maintain a fixed load impedance. The frequency of the rf source can be feedback controlled to compensate for changes in the edge plasma conditions, or fast variable tuning elements in the transmission line between the generator output and the antenna input connections can provide the necessary time-varying impedance transformation. In lossy passive schemes, reflected power due to the time-varying impedance of the antenna array is diverted to a dummy load. Each of these techniques can be applied to a pre-existing antenna system. If a new antenna is to be designed, recent advances allow the antenna array to have the intrinsic property of presenting a constant load to the feeding transmission lines despite the varying load seen by each antenna in the array.

  16. Electrochemical impedance measurement of a carbon nanotube probe electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Akira; Takei, Yusuke; Kan, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2012-12-01

    We measured and analyzed the electrochemical impedance of carbon nanotube (CNT) probe electrodes fabricated through the physical separation of insulated CNT bridges. The fabricated CNT electrodes were free-standing CNTs that were completely covered with an insulator, except for their tips. Typical dimensions of the nanoelectrodes were 1-10 nm in CNT diameter, 80-300 nm in insulator diameter, 0.5-4 μm in exposed CNT length and 1-10 μm in probe length. The electrochemical impedance at frequencies ranging from 40 Hz to 1 MHz was measured in physiological saline. The measured impedance of the CNT electrode was constant at 32 MΩ at frequencies below 1 kHz and was inversely proportional to frequency at frequencies above 10 kHz. By means of comparison with the parasitic capacitive impedance of the insulator membrane, we confirmed that the electrode was sufficiently insulated such that the measured constant impedance was given by the exposed CNT tip. Consequently, we can use the CNT electrode for highly localized electrochemical impedance measurements below 1 kHz. Considering an equivalent circuit and the nanoscopic dimensions of the CNT electrode, we demonstrated that the constant impedance was governed by diffusion impedance, whereas the solution resistance, charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance were negligible.

  17. Electrokinetics Models for Micro and Nano Fluidic Impedance Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    1 ELECTROKINETICS MODELS FOR MICRO AND NANO FLUIDIC IMPEDANCE SENSORS Yi Wang*, Hongjun Song, Ketan Bhatt, Kapil Pant CFD Research Corporation...analysis, design, and protocol development of novel micro - and nano - fluidics based impedance sensors. 1. INTRODUCTION Exposure to toxic...electrokinetic transport process at the micro - and nano -scale and to interrogate the sensor performance subject to the variations in design

  18. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the... evaluate the functional condition of the middle ear. The device is used to determine abnormalities in...

  19. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the... evaluate the functional condition of the middle ear. The device is used to determine abnormalities in...

  20. Equivalent Circuits For AC-Impedance Analysis Of Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of equivalent circuits for ac-impedance analysis of corrosion. Impedance between specimen and electrolyte measured as function of frequency. Data used to characterize corrosion electrochemical system in terms of equivalent circuit. Eleven resistor/capacitor equivalent-circuit models were analyzed.

  1. Effect of 60Co gamma irradiation on dielectric and complex impedance properties of Dy3+ substituted Ni-Zn nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veena, M.; Somashekarappa, A.; Shankaramurthy, G. J.; Jayanna, H. S.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni1-xZnxFe2-yDyyO4 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0; y=0.0 and 0.1) ferrites were synthesized by combustion method. Ni-Zn-Dy nanoferrites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric and impedance properties, before and after γ-irradiation process by 60Co γ-radiation with a dose rate of 310 kGy. The lattice parameter of irradiated samples increased attributed to the conversion of smaller size Fe3+ ions to larger size Fe2+ ions on ionizing effect of gamma radiation. Experimental results reveal that reduction in dielectric constant (ε‧), loss tangent (tan δ), real (Z‧) and imaginary (Z‧‧) impedance and increase in ac conductivity (σac) have been increased with increasing in frequency. It was found that ε‧, tan δ, σac increase, Z‧‧ and Z‧‧ reach a maximum value and thereafter decrease with further Zn ion substitution. The values of ε‧, tan δ and σac decrease with Dy3+ substitution and enhanced after irradiation. The complex impedance analysis suggesting predominant contribution to conduction was through the grain boundary.

  2. Ion-Ion Neutralization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    plasma were identified using a downstream quadrupole mass spectrometer. In these experimento it is a simple matter to establish H+(H 2 0):f as the...pressure as predicted by the Thomson t2rnary mechanism whicK hzr been suownr to be valid experimentally at hiTh rrsurs (,han and Peron, 1:EI4 hereafter t...of NO , NO2 ions in various gases and the ternary recombination coefficients of these ions in the higher pres:;ure ( Thomson ) re"ie. Equation (5) cr>n

  3. Development on electromagnetic impedance function modeling and its estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutarno, D.

    2015-09-30

    Today the Electromagnetic methods such as magnetotellurics (MT) and controlled sources audio MT (CSAMT) is used in a broad variety of applications. Its usefulness in poor seismic areas and its negligible environmental impact are integral parts of effective exploration at minimum cost. As exploration was forced into more difficult areas, the importance of MT and CSAMT, in conjunction with other techniques, has tended to grow continuously. However, there are obviously important and difficult problems remaining to be solved concerning our ability to collect process and interpret MT as well as CSAMT in complex 3D structural environments. This talk aim at reviewing and discussing the recent development on MT as well as CSAMT impedance functions modeling, and also some improvements on estimation procedures for the corresponding impedance functions. In MT impedance modeling, research efforts focus on developing numerical method for computing the impedance functions of three dimensionally (3-D) earth resistivity models. On that reason, 3-D finite elements numerical modeling for the impedances is developed based on edge element method. Whereas, in the CSAMT case, the efforts were focused to accomplish the non-plane wave problem in the corresponding impedance functions. Concerning estimation of MT and CSAMT impedance functions, researches were focused on improving quality of the estimates. On that objective, non-linear regression approach based on the robust M-estimators and the Hilbert transform operating on the causal transfer functions, were used to dealing with outliers (abnormal data) which are frequently superimposed on a normal ambient MT as well as CSAMT noise fields. As validated, the proposed MT impedance modeling method gives acceptable results for standard three dimensional resistivity models. Whilst, the full solution based modeling that accommodate the non-plane wave effect for CSAMT impedances is applied for all measurement zones, including near-, transition

  4. Method of estimating pulse response using an impedance spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Christophersen, Jon P; Motloch, Chester G

    2014-10-21

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum data are used to predict pulse performance of an energy storage device. The impedance spectrum may be obtained in-situ. A simulation waveform includes a pulse wave with a period greater than or equal to the lowest frequency used in the impedance measurement. Fourier series coefficients of the pulse train can be obtained. The number of harmonic constituents in the Fourier series are selected so as to appropriately resolve the response, but the maximum frequency should be less than or equal to the highest frequency used in the impedance measurement. Using a current pulse as an example, the Fourier coefficients of the pulse are multiplied by the impedance spectrum at corresponding frequencies to obtain Fourier coefficients of the voltage response to the desired pulse. The Fourier coefficients of the response are then summed and reassembled to obtain the overall time domain estimate of the voltage using the Fourier series analysis.

  5. Convolution quadrature for the wave equation with impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, S. A.; Schanz, M.

    2017-04-01

    We consider the numerical solution of the wave equation with impedance boundary conditions and start from a boundary integral formulation for its discretization. We develop the generalized convolution quadrature (gCQ) to solve the arising acoustic retarded potential integral equation for this impedance problem. For the special case of scattering from a spherical object, we derive representations of analytic solutions which allow to investigate the effect of the impedance coefficient on the acoustic pressure analytically. We have performed systematic numerical experiments to study the convergence rates as well as the sensitivity of the acoustic pressure from the impedance coefficients. Finally, we apply this method to simulate the acoustic pressure in a building with a fairly complicated geometry and to study the influence of the impedance coefficient also in this situation.

  6. Utilization of bone impedance for age estimation in postmortem cases.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Noboru; Suganami, Hideki; Nishida, Atsushi; Miyamori, Daisuke; Kakiuchi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Naotake; Wook-Cheol, Kim; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    In the field of Forensic Medicine the number of unidentified cadavers has increased due to natural disasters and international terrorism. The age estimation is very important for identification of the victims. The degree of sagittal closure is one of such age estimation methods. However it is not widely accepted as a reliable method for age estimation. In this study, we have examined whether measuring impedance value (z-values) of the sagittal suture of the skull is related to the age in men and women and discussed the possibility to use bone impedance for age estimation. Bone impedance values increased with aging and decreased after the age of 64.5. Then we compared age estimation through the conventional visual method and the proposed bone impedance measurement technique. It is suggested that the bone impedance measuring technique may be of value to forensic science as a method of age estimation.

  7. Twelve years evolution of skin as seen by electrical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicander, Ingrid; Emtestam, Lennart; Åberg, Peter; Ollmar, Stig

    2010-04-01

    Twelve years ago we reported an electrical impedance baseline study related to age, sex and body locations. The results showed significant differences between different anatomical locations and ages. In this study, the same participants were recalled to explore how the skin had evolved at the individual level over time. A total of 50 subjects, divided into an older and a younger group, were recalled for measurements of electrical impedance at eight anatomical locations. Readings were taken with an electrical impedance spectrometer. Information was extracted from the impedance spectra using indices based on magnitude and phase at two frequencies as in the earlier study. All included body sites had undergone alterations over time, and the size of the changes varied at different locations. The results also showed that changes in the younger group were different over time compared with the older group. In conclusion: Electrical impedance can be used to monitor skin evolution over time and baseline characteristics differ between various locations.

  8. Finite difference time domain implementation of surface impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Yee, Kane S.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Surface impedance boundary conditions are employed to reduce the solution volume during the analysis of scattering from lossy dielectric objects. In a finite difference solution, they also can be utilized to avoid using small cells, made necessary by shorter wavelengths in conducting media throughout the solution volume. The standard approach is to approximate the surface impedance over a very small bandwidth by its value at the center frequency, and then use that result in the boundary condition. Two implementations of the surface impedance boundary condition are presented. One implementation is a constant surface impedance boundary condition and the other is a dispersive surface impedance boundary condition that is applicable over a very large frequency bandwidth and over a large range of conductivities. Frequency domain results are presented in one dimension for two conductivity values and are compared with exact results. Scattering width results from an infinite square cylinder are presented as a 2-D demonstration. Extensions to 3-D should be straightforward.

  9. Development of galvanostatic Fourier transform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kwang-Mo; Shin, Dong-Hyup; Jung, Namchul; Joo, Moon G; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Su-Moon; Chang, Byoung-Yong

    2013-02-19

    Here, we report development of the galvanostatic Fourier transform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (FTEIS), which monitors impedance of electrochemical reactions activated by current steps. We first derive relevant relations for potential change upon application of a step current, obtain impedances theoretically from the relations by simulation, and verify them with experimental results. The validity of the galvanostatic FTEIS technique is demonstrated by measuring impedances of a semiconductive silicon wafer using the conventional frequency response analysis (FRA), the potentiostatic FTEIS, and the galvanostatic FTEIS methods, and the results are in excellent agreement with each other. This work is significant in that the galvanostatic FTEIS would allow one to record impedance changes during charge/discharge cycles of secondary batteries and fuel cells as well as electrochemically irreversible systems which may produce noise level chronoamperometric currents by potentiostatic techniques.

  10. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  11. Plasmonic-Based Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy: Application to Molecular Binding

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shaopeng; Shan, Xiaonan; Li, Jinghong; Tao, Nongjian

    2012-01-01

    Plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (P-EIS) is developed to investigate molecular binding on surfaces. Its basic principle relies on the sensitive dependence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signal on surface charge density, which is modulated by applying an AC potential to a SPR chip surface. The AC component of the SPR response gives the electrochemical impedance, and the DC component provides the conventional SPR detection. The plasmonic-based impedance measured over a range of frequency is in quantitative agreement with the conventional electrochemical impedance. Compared to the conventional SPR detection, P-EIS is sensitive to molecular binding taking place on the chip surface, and less sensitive to bulk refractive index changes or non-specific binding. Moreover, this new approach allows for simultaneous SPR and surface impedance analysis of molecular binding processes. PMID:22122514

  12. Finite difference time domain implementation of surface impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Yee, Kane S.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Surface impedance boundary conditions are employed to reduce the solution volume during the analysis of scattering from lossy dielectric objects. In the finite difference solution, they also can be utilized to avoid using small cells, made necessary by shorter wavelengths in conducting media throughout the solution volume. The standard approach is to approximate the surface impedance over a very small bandwidth by its value at the center frequency, and then use that result in the boundary condition. Here, two implementations of the surface impedance boundary condition are presented. One implementation is a constant surface impedance boundary condition and the other is a dispersive surface impedance boundary condition that is applicable over a very large frequency bandwidth and over a large range of conductivities. Frequency domain results are presented in one dimension for two conductivity values and are compared with exact results. Scattering width results from an infinite square cylinder are presented as a two dimensional demonstration. Extensions to three dimensions should be straightforward.

  13. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  14. Units of Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Carol M.; And Others

    Both psychologists and reading specialists have been interested in whether words are processed letter by letter or in larger units. A reaction time paradigm was used to evaluate these options with interest focused on potential units of word recognition which might be functional within single syllable words. The basic paradigm involved presenting…

  15. Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  16. Automated Optical Target Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    A multi-resolution signal processing approach to object recognition is presented using an optical correlator for generating a wavelet transform . The...This report presents an overview of continuous and discrete wavelet transforms. Both digital and optical implementations of the discrete wavelet ... transform are discussed. Examples of typical wavelet basis functions are compared and the constraints imposed by optical implementations are discussed

  17. Teaching Word Recognition Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Mildred A., Comp.

    A series of articles with the chief emphasis on phonics as a means of analyzing words is presented. Various articles pertain to elementary, secondary, and college level instruction. The first of the five parts into which the volume is divided is comprised of a single article which gives an excellent overview of the field of word recognition. Part…

  18. View Invariant Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Richard D.; Goffredo, Michela; Carter, John N.; Nixon, Mark S.

    Recognition by gait is of particular interest since it is the biometric that is available at the lowest resolution, or when other biometrics are (intentionally) obscured. Gait as a biometric has now shown increasing recognition capability. There are many approaches and these show that recognition can achieve excellent performance on current large databases. The majority of these approaches are planar 2D, largely since the early large databases featured subjects walking in a plane normal to the camera view. To extend deployment capability, we need viewpoint invariant gait biometrics. We describe approaches where viewpoint invariance is achieved by 3D approaches or in 2D. In the first group, the identification relies on parameters extracted from the 3D body deformation during walking. These methods use several video cameras and the 3D reconstruction is achieved after a camera calibration process. On the other hand, the 2D gait biometric approaches use a single camera, usually positioned perpendicular to the subject’s walking direction. Because in real surveillance scenarios a system that operates in an unconstrained environment is necessary, many of the recent gait analysis approaches are orientated toward view-invariant gait recognition.

  19. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  20. Impedance Mismatch study between the Microwave Generator and the PUPR Plasma Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudier, Jorge R.; Castellanos, Ligeia; Encarnacion, Kabir; Zavala, Natyaliz; Rivera, Ramon; Farahat, Nader; Leal, Edberto

    2006-12-04

    Impedance mismatch inside the connection from the microwave power generator to the plasma machine is studied. A magnetron power generator transmits microwaves of 2.45 GHz and variable power from 50W to 5000W, through a flexible rectangular waveguide to heat plasma inside a Mirror Cusp devise located at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico. Before the production of plasma, the residual gas of the devise must be extracted by a vacuum system (5Torr or better), then Argon gas is injected to the machine. The microwaves heat the Argon ions to initiate ionization and plasma is produced. A dielectric wall is used inside the rectangular waveguide to isolate the plasma machine and maintain vacuum. Even though the dielectric will not block the wave propagation, some absorption of microwaves will occur. This absorption will cause reflection, reducing the efficiency of the power transfer. Typically a thin layer of Teflon is used, but measurements using this dielectric show a significant reflection of power back to the generator. Due to the high-power nature of the generator (5KW), this mismatch is not desirable. An electromagnetic field solver based on the Finite Difference Time Domain Method(FDTD) is used to model the rectangular waveguide connection. The characteristic impedance of the simulation is compared with the analytical formula expression and a good agreement is obtain. Furthermore the Teflon-loaded guide is modeled using the above program and the input impedance is computed. The reflection coefficient is calculated based on the transmission line theory with the characteristic and input impedances. Based on the simulation results it is possible to optimize the thickness, shape and dielectric constant of the material, in order to seal the connection with a better match.

  1. Kinetic Description of the Impedance Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberrath, Jens; Lapke, Martin; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2011-10-01

    Active plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well known diagnostic method. Many concepts of this method are theoretically investigated and realized as a diagnostic tool, one of which is the impedance probe (IP). The application of such a probe in plasmas with pressures of a few Pa raises the question whether kinetic effects have to be taken into account or not. To address this question a kinetic model is necessary. A general kinetic model for an electrostatic concept of active plasma spectroscopy was presented by R.P. Brinkmann and can be used to describe the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In principle the IP is interpretable as a special case of the MRP in lower order. Thus, we are able to describe the IP by the kinetic model of the MRP. Based on this model we derive a solution to investigate the influence of kinetic effects to the resonance behavior of the IP. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well known diagnostic method. Many concepts of this method are theoretically investigated and realized as a diagnostic tool, one of which is the impedance probe (IP). The application of such a probe in plasmas with pressures of a few Pa raises the question whether kinetic effects have to be taken into account or not. To address this question a kinetic model is necessary. A general kinetic model for an electrostatic concept of active plasma spectroscopy was presented by R.P. Brinkmann and can be used to describe the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In principle the IP is interpretable as a special case of the MRP in lower order. Thus, we are able to describe the IP by the kinetic model of the MRP. Based on this model we derive a solution to investigate the influence of kinetic effects to the resonance behavior of the IP. The authors acknowledge the support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via the Ruhr University Research School and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in frame of the PluTO project.

  2. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  3. A real time affinity biosensor on an insulated polymer using electric impedance spectroscopy in dielectric microchips.

    PubMed

    Kechadi, Mohammed; Sotta, Bruno; Chaal, Lila; Tribollet, Bernard; Gamby, Jean

    2014-06-21

    This paper presents development of real time monitoring of binding events on flexible plastic in microchips. Two planar carbon microelectrodes are integrated into an insulated polyethylene terephthalate microchip without direct electrical contact with the solution in the microchannel. It has been possible to probe the electric impedance changes through the interface constituted by the microelectrode/PET microchannel/solution when a biomolecular interaction takes place on the polymer surface. This new transduction for biosensing was demonstrated for the molecular recognition of BSA immobilized on the polymer microchannel surface using the corresponding rabbit anti-BSA antibodies as an analyte in the flow microchannel at the nanomolar range concentration. The equilibrium association constant was determined for the affinity reaction between both ligands and was obtained equal to 5 × 10(7) M(-1). The promising results obtained with this new device make it a competitive biosensor.

  4. Contribution to classification of buried objects based on acoustic impedance matching.

    PubMed

    Stepanić, J; Wüstenberg, H; Krstelj, V; Mrasek, H

    2003-03-01

    Determination of material the buried objects are made of could contribute significantly to their recognition, or classification. This is important in detecting buried antipersonnel landmines within the context of humanitarian demining, as well as in a variety of other applications. In this article the concept has been formulated of the approach to buried object's material determination starting with ultrasonic impulse propagation analysis in a particular testing set configuration. The impulse propagates through a characterized transfer material in such a way that a part of it, a reflected wave, carries the information about the buried object's surface material acoustic impedance. The limit of resolution capability is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated and the influencing factors described. Among these, the contact between clean surfaces of the transfer material and buried object is emphasized.

  5. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  6. Low impedance printed circuit radiating element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahm, James K. (Inventor); Frankievich, Robert H. (Inventor); Martinko, John D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A printed circuit radiating element comprises a geometrically symmetric planar area of a conducting material separated from a ground plane by a dielectric medium. The driving point of the radiating element is at the base of a notch in one side thereof so that the driving impedance is reduced from that obtained when the element is driven at its edge. Symmetrically disposed on opposite sides of an axis of symmetry of the element along which the driving point lies are two notches which restore the electrical symmetry of the radiating element thereby to suppress higher order modes. The suppression of these higher order modes results in a radiation pattern with minimal cross-polarized energy in the principal planes and high port-to-port isolation which could not be achieved with an asymmetrical element. Two driving points may be employed with the radiating element to produce a dual linearly polarized antenna and a reactive combiner or hybrid may be employed to obtain circularly-polarized radiations. The shape of the radiating element may be square, rectangular or circular, for example, in accordance with the desired characteristics. A plurality of radiating elements may be interconnected via appropriate transmission paths to form an antenna array.

  7. Boronate-Modified Interdigitated Electrode Array for Selective Impedance-Based Sensing of Glycated Hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Chailapakul, Orawon; Emnéus, Jenny; Heiskanen, Arto R

    2016-10-04

    An impedance-based label-free affinity sensor was developed for the recognition of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Interdigitated gold microelectrode arrays (IDAs) were first modified with a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and subsequent binding of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA), which selectively binds HbA1c via cis-diol interactions. Impedance sensing was demonstrated to be highly responsive to the clinically relevant HbA1c levels (0.1%-8.36%) with a detection and quantitation limit of 0.024% (3σ/slope) and 0.08% (10σ/slope), respectively. The specificity of the assay was evaluated with nonglycated hemoglobin (HbAo), showing that the impedance response remained unchanged over the concentration range of 10 to 20 g dL(-1) HbAo. This demonstrated that the sensor system could be used to specifically distinguish HbA1c from HbAo. Moreover, the binding of HbA1c to the APBA-modified electrodes was reversible, providing a reusable sensing interface as well as showing a stable response after 4 weeks (96% of the initial response). When assaying normal (4.10%) and diabetic (8.36%) HbA1c levels (10 assays per day during a three-day period including a regeneration step after each assay), the overall assay reproducibility, expressed as relative standard error of the mean (n = 30), was 1.1%. The performance of the sensor system was also compared with a commercial method (n = 15) using patient-derived blood samples. A good agreement (Bland-Altman bias plot) and correlation (Passing-Bablok regression analysis) was demonstrated between the boronate-based affinity sensor and the standard method.

  8. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  9. International Recognition of Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Bradford W.

    Certain issues are relevant to the international recognition of vocational qualifications: (1) the assumption that each country does or should value vocational education and training; (2) the quality of the national system and the implications for international recognition of qualifications, including recognition of the accrediting and awarding…

  10. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  11. Speech Recognition: A General Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sopena, Luis

    Speech recognition is one of five main areas in the field of speech processing. Difficulties in speech recognition include variability in sound within and across speakers, in channel, in background noise, and of speech production. Speech recognition can be used in a variety of situations: to perform query operations and phone call transfers; for…

  12. Neutralized ion beam modification of cellulose membranes for study of ion charge effect on ion-beam-induced DNA transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Wanichapichart, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-02-01

    Low-energy ion beam biotechnology (IBBT) has recently been rapidly developed worldwide. Ion-beam-induced DNA transfer is one of the important applications of IBBT. However, mechanisms involved in this application are not yet well understood. In this study plasma-neutralized ion beam was applied to investigate ion charge effect on induction of DNA transfer. Argon ion beam at 7.5 keV was neutralized by RF-driven plasma in the beam path and then bombarded cellulose membranes which were used as the mimetic plant cell envelope. Electrical properties such as impedance and capacitance of the membranes were measured after the bombardment. An in vitro experiment on plasmid DNA transfer through the cellulose membrane was followed up. The results showed that the ion charge input played an important role in the impedance and capacitance changes which would affect DNA transfer. Generally speaking, neutral particle beam bombardment of biologic cells was more effective in inducing DNA transfer than charged ion beam bombardment.

  13. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  14. Electron density dependence of impedance probe plasma potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D. N.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2015-08-15

    In earlier works, we used spheres of various sizes as impedance probes in demonstrating a method of determining plasma potential, φ{sub p}, when the probe radius is much larger than the Debye length, λ{sub D}. The basis of the method in those works [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 032108 (2006); ibid. 15, 123506 (2008); ibid. 17, 113503 (2010)] relies on applying a small amplitude signal of fixed frequency to a probe in a plasma and, through network analyzer-based measurements, determining the complex reflection coefficient, Γ, for varying probe bias, V{sub b}. The frequency range of the applied signal is restricted to avoid sheath resonant effects and ion contributions such that ω{sub pi} ≪ ω ≪ ω{sub pe}, where ω{sub pi} is the ion plasma frequency and ω{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency. For a given frequency and applied bias, both Re(Z{sub ac}) and Im(Z{sub ac}) are available from Γ. When Re(Z{sub ac}) is plotted versus V{sub b}, a minimum predicted by theory occurs at φ{sub p} [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 113503 (2010)]. In addition, Im(Z{sub ac}) appears at, or very near, a maximum at φ{sub p}. As n{sub e} decreases and the sheath expands, the minimum becomes harder to discern. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that when using network analyzer-based measurements, Γ itself and Im(Z{sub ac}) and their derivatives are useful as accompanying indicators to Re(Z{sub ac}) in these difficult cases. We note the difficulties encountered by the most commonly used plasma diagnostic, the Langmuir probe. Spherical probe data is mainly used in this work, although we present limited data for a cylinder and a disk. To demonstrate the effect of lowered density as a function of probe geometry, we compare the cylinder and disk using only the indicator Re(Z{sub ac})

  15. Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 Ω was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

  16. Summary of Human Ankle Mechanical Impedance During Walking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunglae; Rouse, Elliott J; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2016-01-01

    The human ankle joint plays a critical role during walking and understanding the biomechanical factors that govern ankle behavior and provides fundamental insight into normal and pathologically altered gait. Previous researchers have comprehensively studied ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during many biomechanical tasks, including locomotion; however, only recently have researchers been able to quantify how the mechanical impedance of the ankle varies during walking. The mechanical impedance describes the dynamic relationship between the joint position and the joint torque during perturbation, and is often represented in terms of stiffness, damping, and inertia. The purpose of this short communication is to unify the results of the first two studies measuring ankle mechanical impedance in the sagittal plane during walking, where each study investigated differing regions of the gait cycle. Rouse et al. measured ankle impedance from late loading response to terminal stance, where Lee et al. quantified ankle impedance from pre-swing to early loading response. While stiffness component of impedance increases significantly as the stance phase of walking progressed, the change in damping during the gait cycle is much less than the changes observed in stiffness. In addition, both stiffness and damping remained low during the swing phase of walking. Future work will focus on quantifying impedance during the "push off" region of stance phase, as well as measurement of these properties in the coronal plane.

  17. Experiences with active damping and impedance-matching compensators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betros, Robert S.; Alvarez, Oscar S.; Bronowicki, Allen J.

    1993-09-01

    TRW has been implementing active damping compensators on smart structures for the past five years. Since that time there have been numerous publications on the use of impedance matching techniques for structural damping augmentation. The idea of impedance matching compensators came about by considering the flow of power in a structure undergoing vibration. The goal of these compensators is to electronically dissipate as much of this flowing power as possible. This paper shows the performance of impedance matching compensators used in smart structures to be comparable to that of active damping compensators. Theoretical comparisons between active damping and impedance matching methods are made using PZT actuators and sensors. The effects of these collocated and non-collocated PZT sensors and actuators on the types of signals they sense and actuate are investigated. A method for automatically synthesizing impedance matching compensators is presented. Problems with implementing broad band active damping and impedance matching compensators on standard Digital Signal Processing (DSP) chips are discussed. Simulations and measurements that compare the performance of active damping and impedance matching techniques for a lightly damped cantilevered beam are shown.

  18. Summary of Human Ankle Mechanical Impedance During Walking

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Elliott J.; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2016-01-01

    The human ankle joint plays a critical role during walking and understanding the biomechanical factors that govern ankle behavior and provides fundamental insight into normal and pathologically altered gait. Previous researchers have comprehensively studied ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during many biomechanical tasks, including locomotion; however, only recently have researchers been able to quantify how the mechanical impedance of the ankle varies during walking. The mechanical impedance describes the dynamic relationship between the joint position and the joint torque during perturbation, and is often represented in terms of stiffness, damping, and inertia. The purpose of this short communication is to unify the results of the first two studies measuring ankle mechanical impedance in the sagittal plane during walking, where each study investigated differing regions of the gait cycle. Rouse et al. measured ankle impedance from late loading response to terminal stance, where Lee et al. quantified ankle impedance from pre-swing to early loading response. While stiffness component of impedance increases significantly as the stance phase of walking progressed, the change in damping during the gait cycle is much less than the changes observed in stiffness. In addition, both stiffness and damping remained low during the swing phase of walking. Future work will focus on quantifying impedance during the “push off” region of stance phase, as well as measurement of these properties in the coronal plane. PMID:27766187

  19. Measurement and simulation of the RHIC abort kicker longitudinal impedence

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu,N.P.; Hahn,H.; Choi, E.

    2009-09-01

    In face of the new upgrades for RHIC the longitudinal impedance of the machine plays an important role in setting the threshold for instabilities and the efficacy of some systems. In this paper we describe the measurement of the longitudinal impedance of the abort kicker for RHIC as well as computer simulations of the structure. The impedance measurement was done by the S{sub 21} wire method covering the frequency range from 9 kHz to 2.5 GHz. We observed a sharp resonance peak around 10 MHz and a broader peak around 20 MHz in both, the real and imaginary part, of the Z/n. These two peaks account for a maximum imaginary longitudinal impedance of j15 {Omega}, a value an order of magnitude larger than the estimated value of j0.2 {Omega}, which indicates that the kicker is one of the main sources of longitudinal impedance in the machine. A computer model was constructed for simulations in the CST MWS program. Results for the magnet input and the also the beam impedance are compared to the measurements. A more detail study of the system properties and possible changes to reduce the coupling impedance are presented.

  20. Retrieval and reconsolidation of object recognition memory are independent processes in the perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Balderas, I; Rodriguez-Ortiz, C J; Bermudez-Rattoni, F

    2013-12-03

    Reconsolidation refers to the destabilization/re-stabilization process upon memory reactivation. However, the parameters needed to induce reconsolidation remain unclear. Here we evaluated the capacity of memory retrieval to induce reconsolidation of object recognition memory in rats. To assess whether retrieval is indispensable to trigger reconsolidation, we injected muscimol in the perirhinal cortex to block retrieval, and anisomycin (ani) to impede reconsolidation. We observed that ani impaired reconsolidation in the absence of retrieval. Therefore, stored memory underwent reconsolidation even though it was not recalled. These results indicate that retrieval and reconsolidation of object recognition memory are independent processes.

  1. Ground effects of space weather investigated by the surface impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, R.; Boteler, D.; Trichtchenko, L.

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a discussion of the surface impedance applicable in connection with studies of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems. This viewpoint means that the surface impedance is regarded as a tool to determine the horizontal (geo)electric field at the Earth's surface, which is the key quantity for GIC. Thus the approach is different from the traditional magnetotelluric viewpoint. The definition of the surface impedance usually involves wavenumber-frequency-domain fields, so inverse Fourier transforming the expression of the electric field in terms of the surface impedance and the geomagnetic field results in convolution integrals in the time and space domains. The frequency-dependent surface impedance has a high-pass filter character whereas the corresponding transfer function between the electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field is of a low-pass filter type. The relative change of the latter transfer function with frequency is usually smaller than that of the surface impedance, which indicates that the geoelectric field is closer to the time derivative than to the magnetic field itself. An investigation of the surface impedance defined by the space-domain electric and magnetic components indicates that the largest electric fields are not always achieved by the plane wave assumption, which is sometimes regarded as an extreme case for GIC. It is also concluded in this paper that it is often possible to apply the plane wave relation locally between the surface electric and magnetic fields. The absolute value of the surface impedance decreases with an increasing wavenumber although the maximum may also be at a non-zero value of the wavenumber. The imaginary part of the surface impedance usually much exceeds the real part.

  2. BROADBAND ANTENNA MATCHING NETWORK DESIGN AND APPLICATION FOR RF PLASMA ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ki; Kang, Yoon W; Piller, Chip; Fathy, Aly

    2011-01-01

    The RF ion source at Spallation Neutron Source has been upgraded to meet higher beam power requirement. One important subsystem for efficient operation of the ion source is the 2MHz RF impedance matching network. The real part of the antenna impedance is very small and is affected by plasma density for 2MHz operating frequency. Previous impedance matching network for the antenna has limited tuning capability to cover this potential variation of the antenna impedance since it employed a single tuning element and an impedance transformer. A new matching network with two tunable capacitors has been built and tested. This network can allow precision matching and increase the tunable range without using a transformer. A 5-element broadband matching network also has been designed, built and tested. The 5-element network allows wide band matching up to 50 kHz bandwidth from the resonance center of 2 MHz. The design procedure, simulation and test results are presented.

  3. Single cell array impedance analysis in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinagac, Emre; Taskin, Selen; Kizil, Huseyin

    2016-10-01

    Impedance analysis of single cells is presented in this paper. Following the separation of a target cell type by dielectrophoresis in our previous work, this paper focuses on capturing the cells as a single array and performing impedance analysis to point out the signature difference between each cell type. Lab-on-a-chip devices having a titanium interdigitated electrode layer on a glass substrate and a PDMS microchannel are fabricated to capture each cell in a single form and perform impedance analysis. HCT116 (homosapiens colon colorectal carcin) and HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells are used in our experiments.

  4. Low Impedance Bellows for High-current Beam Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G; Nassiri, A; Waldschmidt, G J; Yang, Y; Feingold, J J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Wang, H; Jang, J; Kim, S H

    2012-07-01

    In particle accelerators, bellows are commonly used to connect beamline components. Such bellows are traditionally shielded to lower the beam impedance. Excessive beam impedance can cause overheating in the bellows, especially in high beam current operation. For an SRF-based accelerator, the bellows must also be particulate free. Many designs of shielded bellows incorporate rf slides or fingers that prevent convolutions from being exposed to wakefields. Unfortunately these mechanical structures tend to generate particulates that, if left in the SRF accelerator, can migrate into superconducting cavities, the accelerator's critical components. In this paper, we describe a prototype unshielded bellows that has low beam impedance and no risk of particulate generation.

  5. Impedance hand controllers for increasing efficiency in teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, Craig; Tarrant, Janice

    1989-01-01

    An impedance hand controller with direct force feedback is examined as an alternative to bilateral force reflection in teleoperations involving force contact. Experimentation revealed an operator preference for direct force feedback which provided a better feel of contact with the environment. The advantages of variable arm impedance were also made clear in tracking tests where subjects preferred the larger hand controller inertias made possible by the acceleration feedback loop in the master arm. The ability to decouple the hand controller impedance from the slave arm dynamics is expected to be even more significant when the inertial properties of various payloads in the slave arm are considered.

  6. The Design of Impedance- Matching Networks for Broadband Antennas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    AD-RIB? GN THE DESIGN OF IMPEDANCE - MATCHING NETWORKS FOR / BRORDBAM RNTENNAS(U) NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER SAN DDIEGO CA S T LI .ET AL. SEP 87 NOSC...z Technical Document 1148 September 1987 The Design of Impedance - Matching Networks for Broadband Antennas o S. T.LU DTIC D. W. S. TamSJANO06 1988~1...over a given frequency band of interest. The device used to perform this impedance matching is called an antenna matching network. The number of

  7. Impedance sensing device for monitoring ulcer healing in human patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Amy; Lin, Monica C; Ritz, Lauren C; Swisher, Sarah L; Ni, David; Mann, Kaylee; Khan, Yasser; Roy, Shuvo; Harrison, Michael R; Arias, Ana C; Subramanian, Vivek; Young, David; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic skin wounds affect millions of people each year and take billions of dollars to treat. Ulcers are a type of chronic skin wound that can be especially painful for patients and are tricky to treat because current monitoring solutions are subjective. We have developed an impedance sensing tool to objectively monitor the progression of healing in ulcers, and have begun a clinical trial to evaluate the safety and feasibility of our device to map damaged regions of skin. Impedance data has been collected on five patients with ulcers, and impedance was found to correlate with tissue health. A damage threshold was applied to effectively identify certain regions of skin as "damaged tissue".

  8. Impedance Measurement for the Analysis of Corrosion Induced Failures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    for a C-Mn Steel (C1117) in 1 M Na3PO4 , pH=4, T-21 C and in 1.0 M NaHCO3/0.1 M Na CO, T=70 C at controlled potentials with continuous recording of the...Impedance Parameters for C1117 Steel in 1 N Na3PO4 , pH = 4.............................................. 25 IV A.C. Impedance Parameters for Al 7075...CERT with continuous recording of the ac impedance.........................5 2 Anodic potentiodynamic polarization curves for 1008 steel in 1N Na3PO4

  9. Analytical evaluations of coupling impedances of resistive and magnetic bellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobuda, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-01

    A theory is developed to calculate both the longitudinal and transverse impedances of magnetic as well as resistive bellows with cylindrical symmetry that is sandwiched between chambers with perfectly conductive metal fittings. Analytical estimations of the impedances are necessary because the skin depth is too small to make sufficiently tiny mesh sizes in current numerical codes. The impedances of bellows made of materials having both large conductivity and permeability are drastically increased owing to magnetic effects, compared with those of bellows made of perfectly conductive materials.

  10. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  11. Recognition of teaching excellence.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-11-10

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs.

  12. Homology recognition funnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dominic; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2009-10-01

    The recognition of homologous sequences of DNA before strand exchange is considered to be the most puzzling stage of homologous recombination. A mechanism for two homologous dsDNAs to recognize each other from a distance in electrolytic solution without unzipping had been proposed in an earlier paper [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 366 (2001)]. In that work, the difference in the electrostatic interaction energy between homologous duplexes and between nonhomologous duplexes, termed the recognition energy, has been calculated. That calculation was later extended in a series of papers to account for torsional elasticity of the molecules. A recent paper [A. A. Kornyshev and A. Wynveen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 4683 (2009)] investigated the form of the potential well that homologous DNA molecules may feel when sliding along each other. A simple formula for the shape of the well was obtained. However, this latter study was performed under the approximation that the sliding molecules are torsionally rigid. Following on from this work, in the present article we investigate the effect of torsional flexibility of the molecules on the shape of the well. A variational approach to this problem results in a transcendental equation that is easily solved numerically. Its solutions show that at large interaxial separations the recognition well becomes wider and shallower, whereas at closer distances further unexpected features arise related to an abrupt change in the mean azimuthal alignment of the molecules. The energy surface as a function of interaxial separation and the axial shift defines what we call the recognition funnel. We show that it depends dramatically on the patterns of adsorption of counterions on DNA.

  13. Assessment of cytotoxicity by emerging impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Caide; Luong, John H.T. . E-mail: john.luong@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca

    2005-08-07

    An on-line and continuous technique based on electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was developed for measuring the concentration and time response function of fibroblastic V79 cells exposed to toxicants. Mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}), cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), benzalkonium chloride (BAK), sodium arsenate (Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4}), and trinitrobenzene (TNB) were used as five test models. The first four chemicals serve as a model for acute toxicants, and TNB represents a model for long-term cytotoxicity effects. Adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of V79 fibroblastic cells cultured on a microarray of small gold electrodes precoated with fibronectin were detected as resistance changes. The response function was derived to reflect the resistance change as a result of cell attachment, spreading, mitosis and cytotoxicity effect. Exposure of V79 cells to toxicants led to alterations in cell behavior, and therefore, chemical cytotoxicity was easily screened by measuring the response function of the attached and spread cells in the presence of inhibitor. The half inhibition concentration, the required concentration to achieve 50% inhibition, was obtained from the response function to provide dynamic information about cytotoxicity during the course of the assay. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe the responses of ECIS that were related to the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of V79 fibroblastic cells. The novel results of this paper are mainly characterized by the systematic study of several parameters including the cell number, detection limit, sensor sensitivity, and cytotoxicity, and they may motivate further research and study of ECIS sensors.

  14. Impedance Biosensing to detect food allergens, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and food pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran

    Electrochemical impedance biosensors can be viewed as an AC electroanalytical method for the analyte detection in the fields of biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and food and agriculture, amongst others. The most common format for AC impedance biosensing involves surface immobilization of an antibody, receptor protein, DNA strand, or other species capable of bio-recognition, and AC impedance detection of the binding event. Technological application of AC impedance biosensors has been hindered by several obstacles, including the more complex circuitry required for AC relative to DC electrochemistry, chemical and physical interference arising from non-specific adsorption, and the stability and reproducibility of protein immobilization. One focus of these PhD studies is on methods to reduce or compensate for non-specific adsorption, including sample dilution, site blocking with BSA, and the use of control electrodes onto which reference antibodies are immobilized. Examples that will be presented include impedance detection of food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, using a mouse monoclonal antibody immobilized onto an Au electrode. This yields detection limits of 5 CFU/ml and 4 CFU/ml for ideal solutions and filtered tomato extract, respectively. Control experiments with an Au electrode onto which a mouse monoclonal antibody to GAPDH is immobilized demonstrate that non-specific adsorption is insignificant for the system and methodology studied here. Control experiments with Salmonella enterica demonstrate no cross-reactivity to this food pathogen. In addition, Detection of two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), norfluoxetine and BDE-47, is reported here by impedance biosensing, with a detection limit of 8.5 and 1.3 ng/ml for norfluoxetine and BDE-47, respectively. Additional research has focused on alternative substrates and linker chemistries for protein immobilization, including the use of degenerate (highly doped) Si and bidendate thiol monolayer

  15. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C; Bex, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia--a perceived distortion of visual space--is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment.

  16. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  17. Limited Bandwidth Recognition of Collective Behaviors in Bio-Inspired Swarms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Limited Bandwidth Recognition of Collective Behaviors in Bio - Inspired Swarms Daniel S. Brown AFRL Information Directorate 26 Electronic Parkway Rome...that impedes scalable human interaction with large bio - inspired robot swarms, namely, how do you know what the swarm is doing if you can’t ob- serve...through limited samples from a small subset of agents. We present a novel framework for classifying the collective behavior of a bio - inspired robot

  18. Unstained viable cell recognition in phase-contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Rakowski, W.; Cherubini, R.; Gerardi, S.

    2011-09-01

    Individual cell recognition is a relevant task to be accomplished when single-ion microbeam irradiations are performed. At INFN-LNL facility cell visualization system is based on a phase-contrast optical microscope, without the use of any cell dye. Unstained cells are seeded in the special designed Petri dish, between two mylar foils, and at present the cell recognition is achieved manually by an expert operator. Nevertheless, this procedure is time consuming and sometimes it could be not practical if the amount of living cells to be irradiated is large. To reduce the time needed to recognize unstained cells on the Petri dish, it has been designed and implemented an automated, parallel algorithm. Overlapping ROIs sliding in steps over the captured grayscale image are firstly pre-classified and potential cell markers for the segmentation are obtained. Segmented objects are additionally classified to categorize cell bodies from other structures considered as sample dirt or background. As a result, cell coordinates are passed to the dedicated CELLView program that controls all the LNL single-ion microbeam irradiation protocol, including the positioning of individual cells in front of the ion beam. Unstained cell recognition system was successfully tested in experimental conditions with two different mylar surfaces. The recognition time and accuracy was acceptable, however, improvements in speed would be useful.

  19. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhir, Dass Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-15

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  20. Pitfalls in assessing microvascular endothelial barrier function: impedance-based devices versus the classic macromolecular tracer assay

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Iris; Hornburger, Michael C.; Mayer, Bettina A.; Beyerle, Andrea; Wegener, Joachim; Fürst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The most frequently used parameters to describe the barrier properties of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro are (i) the macromolecular permeability, indicating the flux of a macromolecular tracer across the endothelium, and (ii) electrical impedance of ECs grown on gold-film electrodes reporting on the cell layer’s tightness for ion flow. Due to the experimental differences between these approaches, inconsistent observations have been described. Here, we present the first direct comparison of these assays applied to one single cell type (human microvascular ECs) under the same experimental conditions. The impact of different pharmacological tools (histamine, forskolin, Y-27632, blebbistatin, TRAP) on endothelial barrier function was analyzed by Transwell® tracer assays and two commercial impedance devices (xCELLigence®, ECIS®). The two impedance techniques provided very similar results for all compounds, whereas macromolecular permeability readings were found to be partly inconsistent with impedance. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed. We conclude that the complementary combination of both approaches is highly recommended to overcome the restrictions of each assay. Since the nature of the growth support may contribute to the observed differences, structure-function relationships should be based on cells that are consistently grown on either permeable or impermeable growth supports in all experiments. PMID:27025965

  1. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  2. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  3. Theory and cardiac applications of electrical impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Penney, B C

    1986-01-01

    The methodology of the two-electrode, four-electrode, and guard-ring techniques is presented following a brief history of impedance plethysmography. The theoretical basis for predicting the sampling fields for conductivity and volume changes is presented. Theoretical and experimental studies of the sampling field associated with various electrode arrays are reviewed. With this background, the use of impedance plethysmography for cardiac monitoring and diagnosis is reviewed. The basic methodology is presented and models used to interpret the signal are reviewed. Theoretical and experimental studies of what is sampled are summarized. The accuracy of impedance stroke volume estimates is evaluated by surveying the results of human studies and examining critical animal studies. The usefulness of impedance cardiography for ventricular performance evaluation is also reviewed. Additional uses for cardiopulmonary diagnosis are briefly presented.

  4. Plate damage identification using wave propagation and impedance methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Wait, J. R.; Park, G. H.; Sohn, H.; Farrar, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated approach for identifying structural damage in an aluminum plate. Piezoelectric (PZT) materials are used to actuatehense the dynamic response of the structure. Two damage identification techniques are integrated in this study, including Lamb wave propagations and impedance methods. In Lamb wave propagations, one PZT launches an elastic wave through the structure, and responses are measured by an array of PZT sensors. The changes in both wave attenuation and reflection are used to detect and locate the damage. The impedance method monitors the variations in structural mechanical impedance, which is coupled with the electrical impedance of the PZT. Both methods operate in high frequency ranges at which there are measurable changes in structural responses even for incipient damage such as small cracks or loose connections. This paper summarizes two methods used for damage identification, experimental procedures, and additional issues that can be used as a guideline for future investigations.

  5. Impedance and Otoscopy Screening of Multiply Handicapped Children in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Janet M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness of impedance and otoscopic screening in the determination of middle ear abnormalities, 79 physically handicapped, mentally retarded school children (mean age 8 years) were examined. (Author/PHR)

  6. Experimental verification of the feasibility of the cardiovascular impedance simulator.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Kwan-Woong; Paden, Brad E; Antaki, James F; Ahn, Ihn-Seok

    2010-05-01

    Mock circulatory systems (MCS) are often used for the development of cardiovascular devices and for the study of the dynamics of blood flow through the cardiovascular system. However, conventional MCS suffer from the repeatability, flexibility, and precision problems because they are typically built up with passive and linear fluidic elements such as compliance chamber, manual valve, and tube. To solve these limitations, we have developed an impedance simulator, comprised of a feedback-controlled positive displacement pump that is capable of generating analogous dynamic characteristics as the conventional fluidic elements would generate, thereby replacing the conventional passive fluidic elements that often cause problems. The impedance simulator is experimentally proven to reproduce the impedance of the various discrete elements, such as resistance and compliance of the cardiovascular system model, as well as the combined impedances of them.

  7. Conductive magnetorheological elastomer: fatigue dependent impedance-mechanic coupling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Xuan, Shouhu; Ge, Lin; Wen, Qianqian; Gong, Xinglong

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the relationship between the impedance properties and dynamic mechanical properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) under fatigue loading. The storage modulus and the impedance properties of MREs were highly influenced by the pressure and magnetic field. Under the same experimental condition, the two characteristics exhibited similar fatigue dependent change trends. When pressure was smaller than 10 N, the capacitance of MRE could be divided into four sections with the increase of the cyclic numbers. The relative equivalent circuit model was established to fit the experimental results of the impedance spectra. Each parameter of circuit element reflected the change of fatigue loading, relative microstructure of MRE, MRE-electrode interface layer, respectively. Based on the above analysis, the real-time and nondestructive impedance method was demonstrated to be high potential on detecting the fatigue of the MRE device.

  8. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  9. Impedance Biosensors: Applications to Sustainability and Remaining Technical Challenges.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian I; Bever, Candace S; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-07-07

    Due to their all-electrical nature, impedance biosensors have significant potential for use as simple and portable sensors for environmental studies and environmental monitoring. Detection of two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), norfluoxetine and BDE-47, is reported here by impedance biosensing, with a detection limit of 8.5 and 1.3 ng/mL for norfluoxetine and BDE-47, respectively. Although impedance biosensors have been widely studied in the academic literature, commercial applications have been hindered by several technical limitations, including possible limitations to small analytes, the complexity of impedance detection, susceptibility to nonspecific adsorption, and stability of biomolecule immobilization. Recent research into methods to overcome these obstacles is briefly reviewed. New results demonstrating antibody regeneration atop degenerate (highly doped) Si are also reported. Using 0.2 M KSCN and 10 mM HF for antibody regeneration, peanut protein Ara h 1 is detected daily during a 30 day trial.

  10. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  11. Manipulating acoustic wavefront by inhomogeneous impedance and steerable extraordinary reflection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Baowen; Chen, Zhining; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We unveil the connection between the acoustic impedance along a flat surface and the reflected acoustic wavefront, in order to empower a wide wariety of novel applications in acoustic community. Our designed flat surface can generate double reflections: the ordinary reflection and the extraordinary one whose wavefront is manipulated by the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law of reflection (IGSL). IGSL is based on Green's function and integral equation, instead of Fermat's principle for optical wavefront manipulation. Remarkably, via the adjustment of the designed specific acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be steered for unprecedented acoustic wavefront while that ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. The realization of the complex discontinuity of the impedance surface has been proposed using Helmholtz resonators.

  12. Manipulating Acoustic Wavefront by Inhomogeneous Impedance and Steerable Extraordinary Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Baowen; Chen, Zhining; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We unveil the connection between the acoustic impedance along a flat surface and the reflected acoustic wavefront, in order to empower a wide wariety of novel applications in acoustic community. Our designed flat surface can generate double reflections: the ordinary reflection and the extraordinary one whose wavefront is manipulated by the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law of reflection (IGSL). IGSL is based on Green's function and integral equation, instead of Fermat's principle for optical wavefront manipulation. Remarkably, via the adjustment of the designed specific acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be steered for unprecedented acoustic wavefront while that ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. The realization of the complex discontinuity of the impedance surface has been proposed using Helmholtz resonators. PMID:23985717

  13. Impedance Biosensors: Applications to Sustainability and Remaining Technical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Due to their all-electrical nature, impedance biosensors have significant potential for use as simple and portable sensors for environmental studies and environmental monitoring. Detection of two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), norfluoxetine and BDE-47, is reported here by impedance biosensing, with a detection limit of 8.5 and 1.3 ng/mL for norfluoxetine and BDE-47, respectively. Although impedance biosensors have been widely studied in the academic literature, commercial applications have been hindered by several technical limitations, including possible limitations to small analytes, the complexity of impedance detection, susceptibility to nonspecific adsorption, and stability of biomolecule immobilization. Recent research into methods to overcome these obstacles is briefly reviewed. New results demonstrating antibody regeneration atop degenerate (highly doped) Si are also reported. Using 0.2 M KSCN and 10 mM HF for antibody regeneration, peanut protein Ara h 1 is detected daily during a 30 day trial. PMID:25068095

  14. Ventilation mapping of chest using Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, M. Abdul; Ferdous, Humayra; Baig, Tanvir Noor; Siddique-e-Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    Focused Impedance Method (FIM) provides an opportunity for localized impedance measurement down to reasonable depths within the body using surface electrodes, and has a potential application in localized lung ventilation study. This however needs assessment of normal values for healthy individuals. In this study, localized ventilation maps in terms of electrical impedance in a matrix formation around the thorax, both from the front and the back, were obtained from two normal male subjects using a modified configuration of FIM. For this the focused impedance values at full inspiration and full expiration were measured and the percentage difference with respect to the latter was used. Some of the measured values would have artefacts due to movements of the heart and the diaphragm in the relevant anatomical positions which needs to be considered with due care in any interpretation.

  15. Impedance Calculations for the NSLS-II Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Blednykh,A.; Ferreira, M.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Impedance of two vacuum chamber components, Bellows and BPM, is considered in some detail. In order to avoid generation of Higher-Order Modes (HOM's) in the NSLS-II bellows, we designed a new low-impedance RF shielding consisting of 6 wide and 2 narrow metal plates without opening slots between them. The short-range wakepotential has been optimized taking into account vertical offset of RF fingers from their nominal position. The results were compared with data of bellows designed at other laboratories. Narrow-band impedance of the BPM Button has been studied. TE-modes in the BPM button were suppressed by a factor of 8 by modification of existing housings. Two new types of housings are shown. The total impedance of the NSLS-II storage ring is discussed in terms of the loss factor and the vertical kick factor for a 3mm-Gaussian bunch.

  16. Time domain solutions for a coasting beam with impedance feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    1993-06-01

    Time domain solutions for a coasting beam interacting with a longitudinal or transverse impedance are presented. The treatment is limited to first order perturbation theory, but it includes Landau damping.

  17. Time domain solutions for a coasting beam with impedance feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    1993-01-01

    Time domain solutions for a coasting beam interacting with a longitudinal or transverse impedance are presented. The treatment is limited to first order perturbation theory, but it includes Landau damping.

  18. Impedance inversion: A valuable tool in geological interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, P.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Impedance inversion is a newly evolving geophysical technique that offers the explorationist an additional method for understanding and predicting lateral and vertical lithological changes in the subsurface. Its true significance to the interpretation of complex geology and to reservoir delineation is now being realized and the technique is likely to become a vital exploration tool in the 1990s. Using the case study of an oil prospect in the Bredasdorp basin, offshore South Africa, computer-generated high-resolution color impedance inversion plots show lateral lithological changes across an intricate channel complex and reservoir zone. Borehole information from two wells drilled through the reservoir zone are correlated with the impedance inversion data. These combination displays illustrate the importance of conducting impedance inversion programs on prospective targets. The display further illustrates their usefulness when calculating stepout wells or primary well-site positions, especially in wildcat areas where little or no borehole data is available.

  19. Comparison of Two Acoustic Waveguide Methods for Determining Liner Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Tracy, Maureen B.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2001-01-01

    Acoustic measurements taken in a flow impedance tube are used to assess the relative accuracy of two waveguide methods for impedance eduction in the presence of grazing flow. The aeroacoustic environment is assumed to contain forward and backward-traveling acoustic waves, consisting of multiple modes, and uniform mean flow. Both methods require a measurement of the complex acoustic pressure profile over the length of the test liner. The Single Mode Method assumes that the sound pressure level and phase decay-rates of a single progressive mode can be extracted from this measured complex acoustic pressure profile. No a priori assumptions are made in the Finite Element. Method regarding the modal or reflection content in the measured acoustic pressure profile. The integrity of each method is initially demonstrated by how well their no-flow impedances match those acquired in a normal incidence impedance tube. These tests were conducted using ceramic tubular and conventional perforate liners. Ceramic tubular liners were included because of their impedance insensitivity to mean flow effects. Conversely, the conventional perforate liner was included because its impedance is known to be sensitive to mean flow velocity effects. Excellent comparisons between impedance values educed with the two waveguide methods in the absence of mean flow and the corresponding values educed with the normal incident impedance tube were observed. The two methods are then compared for mean flow Mach numbers up to 0.5, and are shown to give consistent results for both types of test liners. The quality of the results indicates that the Single Mode Method should be used when the measured acoustic pressure profile is clearly dominated by a single progressive mode, and the Finite Element Method should be used for all other cases.

  20. Electrical impedance measurements: rapid method for detecting and monitoring microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Cady, P; Dufour, S W; Shaw, J; Kraeger, S J

    1978-01-01

    A conceptually simple and east-to-use technique is described that uses continuous impedance measurements for automated monitoring of microbial growth and metabolism. The method has been applied to a wide range of microorganisms. Optical clarity is not required. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method are demonstrated. The mechanism whereby microbial growth alters the impedance of the medium is discussed, as well as potential applications of the method to clinical microbiology. Images PMID:348718

  1. Anisotropic water reorientation around ions.

    PubMed

    Tielrooij, K J; van der Post, S T; Hunger, J; Bonn, M; Bakker, H J

    2011-11-03

    We study the reorientation dynamics of water molecules around ions using terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and polarization-resolved femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. The results are discussed in relation to the ion-specific Hofmeister series and the concomitant "structure-making" and "structure-breaking" effects of ions on water. We show that when a dissolved salt consists of a strongly hydrated ion with a weakly hydrated counterion the reorientation of water molecules around the strongly hydrated ion is anisotropic, in the sense that differently charged ions affect reorientation along different molecular axes: cations mainly slow the reorientation dynamics of the water dipole vectors, and anions mainly slow down the reorientation dynamics of the hydroxyl group that points toward the anion. In both cases, motion along only one molecular axis is impeded, so that the hydration shell is best described as semirigid. In this semirigid hydration picture, water molecules in the first hydration shell show anisotropic reorientation, whereas water molecules outside the first hydration shell remain unaffected. The inferred anisotropy in molecular motion explains why terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, which probes dipolar relaxation, is more sensitive to cation hydration effects while femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy, which is sensitive to reorientation of hydroxyl groups, is more sensitive to anion hydration effects. We also show that dissolution of CsI-a salt for which both cation and anion are weakly hydrated-has little effect on water reorientation dynamics, with hydration water displaying dynamics that are similar to those in bulk water.

  2. Implementation and Validation of an Impedance Eduction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Gerhold, Carl H.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a pressure gradient method of impedance eduction in two NASA Langley flow ducts is described. The Grazing Flow Impedance Tube only supports plane-wave sources, while the Curved Duct Test Rig supports sources that contain higher-order modes. Multiple exercises are used to validate this new impedance eduction method. First, synthesized data for a hard wall insert and a conventional liner mounted in the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube are used as input to the two impedance eduction methods, the pressure gradient method and a previously validated wall pressure method. Comparisons between the two results are excellent. Next, data measured in the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube are used as input to both methods. Results from the two methods compare quite favorably for sufficiently low Mach numbers but this comparison degrades at Mach 0.5, especially when the hard wall insert is used. Finally, data measured with a hard wall insert mounted in the Curved Duct Test Rig are used as input to the pressure gradient method. Significant deviation from the known solution is observed, which is believed to be largely due to 3-D effects in this flow duct. Potential solutions to this issue are currently being explored.

  3. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  4. Optimization and Control of Acoustic Liner Impedance with Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Houston; Follet, Jesse

    2000-01-01

    Because communities are impacted by steady increases in aircraft traffic, aircraft noise continues to be a growing problem for the growth of commercial aviation. Research has focused on improving the design of specific high noise source areas of aircraft and on noise control measures to alleviate noise radiated from aircraft to the surrounding environment. Engine duct liners have long been a principal means of attenuating engine noise. The ability to control in-situ the acoustic impedance of a liner would provide a valuable tool to improve the performance of liners. The acoustic impedance of a liner is directly related to the sound absorption qualities of that liner. Increased attenuation rates, the ability to change liner acoustic impedance to match various operating conditions, or the ability to tune a liner to more precisely match design impedance represent some ways that in-situ impedance control could be useful. With this in mind, the research to be investigated will focus on improvements in the ability to control liner impedance using a mean flow through the liner which is referred to as bias flow.

  5. Feasibility of Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurement before and after Thoracentesis

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Sören; Pauly, Karolin; Napp, Andreas; Dreher, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Nikolaus; Schauerte, Patrick; Mischke, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure changes in tissue composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate its feasibility in measuring the fluid shift after thoracentesis in patients with pleural effusion. Methods. 45 participants (21 with pleural effusion and 24 healthy subjects) were included. Bioelectrical impedance was analyzed for “Transthoracic,” “Foot to Foot,” “Foot to Hand,” and “Hand to Hand” vectors in low and high frequency domain before and after thoracentesis. Healthy subjects were measured at a single time point. Results. The mean volume of removed pleural effusion was 1169 ± 513 mL. The “Foot to Foot,” “Hand to Hand,” and “Foot to Hand” vector indicated a trend for increased bioelectrical impedance after thoracentesis. Values for the low frequency domain in the “Transthoracic” vector increased significantly (P < 0.001). A moderate correlation was observed between the amount of removed fluid and impedance change in the low frequency domain using the “Foot to Hand” vector (r = −0.7). Conclusion. Bioelectrical impedance changes in correlation with the thoracic fluid level. It was feasible to monitor significant fluid shifts and loss after thoracentesis in the “Transthoracic” vector by means of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The trial is registered with Registration Numbers IRB EK206/11 and NCT01778270. PMID:25861647

  6. Impedance analysis of bio-fuel cell electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ouitrakul, Sarinee; Sriyudthsak, Mana; Charojrochkul, Sumittra; Kakizono, Toshihide

    2007-12-15

    To determine the criteria for the selection of an electrode suitable for a bio-fuel cell (BFC), five electrodes, i.e. silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel and carbon fiber cloth were investigated. The performance of the BFC according to the electrode material, including the generated voltage, current density and power density was observed. These results show that the materials used for constructing the electrodes affect the performance of the BFC. An impedance analysis was used to describe the characteristics of the electrodes in the solution. Equivalent circuits of each component such as solution, electrodes-solution interface and electrode were determined from the impedance data. The constant-phase element (CPE) model was applied for data analyzing. It was found that stainless steel, nickel and aluminum behaved like a polarized electrode which has a high electrode-solution interfacial impedance, while carbon fiber cloth and silver had a low impedance like a non-polarized electrode. The impedance data indicated that a higher interfacial impedance will result in a higher loading effect. The results can be summarized that the carbon fiber cloth electrode offers a good electron transfer in the system and thus supplies higher power to the external load.

  7. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3−x crystals. The resistance of WO3−x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors. PMID:27150936

  8. Microbial Sulfate Reduction Measured by an Automated Electrical Impedance Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical impedance measurements are used to investigate the rates of sulfate reduction by pure cultures of and sediments containing sulfur-reducing bacteria. Changes in the electrical impedance ratios of pure cultures of Desulfovibrio aestuarii and samples of reduced sediments from San Francisco Bay were measured by a Bactometer 32, and sulfate reduction was followed by measuring the incorporation of (S-35) sulfate into metal sulfides. The growth of the bacteria in pure culture is found to result in an increase of 0.2200 in the impedance ratio within 24 h, accompanied by increases in protein, ATP, sulfide and absorptance at 660 nm, all of which are inhibited by the addition of molybdate. Similar responses were observed in the sediments, although impedance ratio responses were not completely inhibited upon the addition of molybdate, due to the presence of nonsulfate-respiring microorganisms. Experiments conducted with sterile media and autoclaved sediments indicate that the presence of H2S together with iron is responsible for the impedance effect, and sulfate reduction rates ranging between 0.85 and 1.78 mmol/l per day are estimated for the sediments by the impedance technique.

  9. Reducing the cost of impedance-based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peairs, Daniel M.; Park, Gyuhae; Inman, Daniel J.

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents the current research on impedance-based structural health monitoring technique at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply high frequency structural excitations (typically higher than 30 kHz) through the surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers, and measure the impedance of structures by monitoring the current and voltage applied to the piezoelectric transducers. Changes in impedance indicate changes in the structure, which in turn can indicate that damage has occurred. Three examples, including a bolted joint, gas pipeline and composite structure, are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this health monitoring technique to the wide variety of practical field applications. Although many proof-of-concept experiments have been performed using the impedance methods, the impedance-measuring device (HP4194A) is still bulky and expensive. Therefore, we have developed an operational amplifier-based turnkey device that can measure and record the electric impedance of a PZT. The performance of this miniaturized and portable device has been compared to our previous results and its effectiveness has been demonstrated. This paper summarizes the experimental setup, procedures, considerations needed to implement the device in field applications.

  10. Validation of an Acoustic Impedance Prediction Model for Skewed Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2009-01-01

    An impedance prediction model was validated experimentally to determine the composite impedance of a series of high-aspect ratio slot resonators incorporating channel skew and sharp bends. Such structures are useful for packaging acoustic liners into constrained spaces for turbofan noise control applications. A formulation of the Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line (ZKTL) model, incorporating the Richards correction for rectangular channels, is used to calculate the composite normalized impedance of a series of six multi-slot resonator arrays with constant channel length. Experimentally, acoustic data was acquired in the NASA Langley Normal Incidence Tube over the frequency range of 500 to 3500 Hz at 120 and 140 dB OASPL. Normalized impedance was reduced using the Two-Microphone Method for the various combinations of channel skew and sharp 90o and 180o bends. Results show that the presence of skew and/or sharp bends does not significantly alter the impedance of a slot resonator as compared to a straight resonator of the same total channel length. ZKTL predicts the impedance of such resonators very well over the frequency range of interest. The model can be used to design arrays of slot resonators that can be packaged into complex geometries heretofore unsuitable for effective acoustic treatment.

  11. Dendritic atrophy constricts functional maps in resonance and impedance properties of hippocampal model neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dhupia, Neha; Rathour, Rahul K.; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2015-01-01

    A gradient in the density of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated (HCN) channels is necessary for the emergence of several functional maps within hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Here, we systematically analyzed the impact of dendritic atrophy on nine such functional maps, related to input resistance and local/transfer impedance properties, using conductance-based models of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We introduced progressive dendritic atrophy in a CA1 pyramidal neuron reconstruction through a pruning algorithm, measured all functional maps in each pruned reconstruction, and arrived at functional forms for the dependence of underlying measurements on dendritic length. We found that, across frequencies, atrophied neurons responded with higher efficiency to incoming inputs, and the transfer of signals across the dendritic tree was more effective in an atrophied reconstruction. Importantly, despite the presence of identical HCN-channel density gradients, spatial gradients in input resistance, local/transfer resonance frequencies and impedance profiles were significantly constricted in reconstructions with dendritic atrophy, where these physiological measurements across dendritic locations converged to similar values. These results revealed that, in atrophied dendritic structures, the presence of an ion channel density gradient alone was insufficient to sustain homologous functional maps along the same neuronal topograph. We assessed the biophysical basis for these conclusions and found that this atrophy-induced constriction of functional maps was mediated by an enhanced spatial spread of the influence of an HCN-channel cluster in atrophied trees. These results demonstrated that the influence fields of ion channel conductances need to be localized for channel gradients to express themselves as homologous functional maps, suggesting that ion channel gradients are necessary but not sufficient for the emergence of functional maps within single neurons

  12. Dendritic atrophy constricts functional maps in resonance and impedance properties of hippocampal model neurons.

    PubMed

    Dhupia, Neha; Rathour, Rahul K; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2014-01-01

    A gradient in the density of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated (HCN) channels is necessary for the emergence of several functional maps within hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Here, we systematically analyzed the impact of dendritic atrophy on nine such functional maps, related to input resistance and local/transfer impedance properties, using conductance-based models of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We introduced progressive dendritic atrophy in a CA1 pyramidal neuron reconstruction through a pruning algorithm, measured all functional maps in each pruned reconstruction, and arrived at functional forms for the dependence of underlying measurements on dendritic length. We found that, across frequencies, atrophied neurons responded with higher efficiency to incoming inputs, and the transfer of signals across the dendritic tree was more effective in an atrophied reconstruction. Importantly, despite the presence of identical HCN-channel density gradients, spatial gradients in input resistance, local/transfer resonance frequencies and impedance profiles were significantly constricted in reconstructions with dendritic atrophy, where these physiological measurements across dendritic locations converged to similar values. These results revealed that, in atrophied dendritic structures, the presence of an ion channel density gradient alone was insufficient to sustain homologous functional maps along the same neuronal topograph. We assessed the biophysical basis for these conclusions and found that this atrophy-induced constriction of functional maps was mediated by an enhanced spatial spread of the influence of an HCN-channel cluster in atrophied trees. These results demonstrated that the influence fields of ion channel conductances need to be localized for channel gradients to express themselves as homologous functional maps, suggesting that ion channel gradients are necessary but not sufficient for the emergence of functional maps within single neurons.

  13. Parallel plate radiofrequency ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, S.

    1982-01-01

    An 8-cm-diam. argon ion thruster is described. It is operated by applying 100 to 160 Mhz rf power across a thin plasma volume in a strongly divergent static magnetic field. No cathode or electron emitter is required to sustain a continuous wave plasma discharge over a broad range of propellant gas flow. Preliminary results indicate that a large fraction of the incident power is being reflected by impedance mismatching in the coupling structure. Resonance effects due to plasma thickness, magnetic field strength, and distribution are presented. Typical discharge losses obtained to date are 500 to 600 W per beam ampere at extracted beam currents up to 60 mA.

  14. Lithium ion phase-transfer reaction at the interface between the lithium manganese oxide electrode and the nonaqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-07-14

    The lithium ion phase-transfer reaction between the spinel lithium manganese oxide electrode and a nonaqueous electrolyte was investigated by the ac impedance spectroscopic method. The dependence of the impedance spectra on the electrochemical potential of the lithium ion in the electrode, the lithium salt concentration in the electrolyte, the kind of solvent, and the measured temperature were examined. Nyquist plots, obtained from the impedance measurements, consist of two semicircles for high and medium frequency and warburg impedance for low frequency, indicating that the reaction process of two main steps for high and medium frequency obey the Butler-Volmer type equation and could be related to the charge-transfer reaction process accompanied with lithium ion phase-transfer at the interface. The dependency on the solvent suggests that both steps in the lithium ion phase-transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface include the desolvation process and have high activation barriers.

  15. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  16. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  17. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  18. Analysis and design of triple-band high-impedance surface absorber with periodic diversified impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui Zhang, Guo; Heng Zhou, Pei; Bin Zhang, Hui; Bo Zhang, Lin; Liang Xie, Jian; Jiang Deng, Long

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a triple-band planar absorber with high-impedance surface (HIS) is designed and fabricated. The absorber structure is composed of polyurethane foam sandwiched between a lossy sheet of frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and a perfect electric conductor. The lossy FSS possesses different resistances in a periodic composite unit as compared with typical HIS absorber. Losses in the FSS are introduced by printing the periodic composite square ring pattern on blank stickers using various resistive inks. Physical mechanism of the HIS absorbers is analyzed by equivalent circuit model and electric field distribution studies. The proposed absorber with periodic composite units offers superimposed triple-band absorption as compared with that of the single units having single- or dual-band absorption characteristics. The reflection loss measurements show that the 90% absorption bandwidth of the HIS absorber is increased by 42% by the proposed composite periodic units.

  19. Sparsity Motivated Automated Target Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-29

    been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of such methods for automatic target...Sparsity-based methods have recently been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of...have recently been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of such methods for

  20. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  1. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Cotí, Karla K.; Benítez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John-Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmielli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2010-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication.

  2. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  3. [Experimental study on electrical impedance properties of human hepatoma cells].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yun; Tang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Xin; Ma, Qing

    2014-10-01

    The AC impedance of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells were measured in our laboratory by Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer in the frequency range of 0.01-100 MHz. And then the effect of hematocrit on electrical impedance characteristics of hepatoma cells was observed by electrical impedance spectroscopy, Bode diagram, Nyquist diagram and Nichols diagram. The results showed that firstly, there is a frequency dependence, i.e., the increment of real part and the imaginary part of complex electrical impedance (δZ', δZ"), the increment of the amplitude modulus of complex electrical impedance (δ[Z *]) and phase angle (δθ) were all changed with the increasing frequency. Secondly, it showed cell volume fraction (CVF) dependence, i. e. , the increment of low-frequency limit (δZ'0, δ[Z*] 0), peak (δZ"(p), δθ(p)), area and radius (Nyquist diagram, Nichols diagram) were all increased along with the electric field frequency. Thirdly, there was the presence of two characteristic frequencies: the first characteristic frequency (f(c1)) and the second characteristic frequency (f(c2)), which were originated respectively in the polarization effects of two interfaces that the cell membrane and extracellular fluid, cell membrane and cytoplasm. A conclusion can be drawn that the electrical impedance spectroscopy is able to be used to observe the electrical characteristics of human hepatoma cells, and therefore this method can be used to investigate the electrophysiological mechanisms of liver cancer cells, and provide research tools and observation parameters, and it also has important theoretical value and potential applications for screening anticancer drugs.

  4. Correcting electrode impedance effects in broadband SIP measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Johan Alexander; Zimmermann, Egon; Esser, Odilia; Haegel, Franz-Hubert; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Broadband spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements of the complex electrical resistivity can be affected by the contact impedance of the potential electrodes above 100 Hz. In this study, we present a correction procedure to remove electrode impedance effects from SIP measurements. The first step in this correction procedure is to estimate the electrode impedance using a measurement with reversed current and potential electrodes. In a second step, this estimated electrode impedance is used to correct SIP measurements based on a simplified electrical model of the SIP measurement system. We evaluated this new correction procedure using SIP measurements on water because of the well-defined dielectric properties. It was found that the difference between the corrected and expected phase of the complex electrical resistivity of water was below 0.1 mrad at 1 kHz for a wide range of electrode impedances. In addition, SIP measurements on a saturated unconsolidated sediment sample with two types of potential electrodes showed that the measured phase of the electrical resistivity was very similar (difference <0.2 mrad) up to a frequency of 10 kHz after the effect of the different electrode impedances was removed. Finally, SIP measurements on variably saturated unconsolidated sand were made. Here, the plausibility of the phase of the electrical resistivity was improved for frequencies up to 1 kHz, but errors remained for higher frequencies due to the approximate nature of the electrode impedance estimates and some remaining unknown parasitic capacitances that led to current leakage. It was concluded that the proposed correction procedure for SIP measurements improved the accuracy of the phase measurements by an order of magnitude in the kHz frequency range. Further improvement of this accuracy requires a method to accurately estimate parasitic capacitances in situ.

  5. A novel broadband impedance method for detection of cell-derived microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lvovich, Vadim; Srikanthan, Sowmya; Silverstein, Roy L.

    2010-01-01

    A novel label-free method is presented to detect and quantify cell-derived microparticles (MPs) by the electrochemical potential-modulated electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). MPs are present in elevated concentrations during pathological conditions and play a major role in the establishment and pathogenesis of many diseases. Considering this, accurate detection and quantification of MPs is very important in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. A combination of bulk solution electrokinetic sorting and interfacial impedance responses allows achieving detection limits as low as several MPs per µL. By fitting resulting EIS spectra with an equivalent electrical circuit, the bulk solution electrokinetic and interfacial impedance responses were characterized. In the bulk solution two major relaxations were prominent - β-relaxation in low MHz region due to the MP capacitive membrane bridging, and α-relaxation at ∼ 10 kHz due to counter ions diffusion. At low frequencies (10-0.1 Hz) at electrochemical potentials exceeding −100 mV, a facile interfacial Faradaic process of oxidation in MPs coupled with diffusion and non Faradaic double layer charging dominate, probably due to oxidation of phospholipids and/or proteins on the MP surface and MP lysis. Buffer influence on the MP detection demonstrated that that a relatively low conductivity Tyrode’s buffer background solution is preferential for the MP electrokinetic separation and characterization. This study also demonstrated that standard laboratory methods such as flow cytometry underestimate MP concentrations, especially those with smaller average sizes, by as much as a factor of 2 to 40. PMID:20729061

  6. Nonlinear feature identification of impedance-based structural health monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, A. C.; Park, G. H.; Sohn, H.; Farrar, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The impedance-based structural health monitoring technique, which utilizes electromechanical coupling properties of piezoelectric materials, has shown feasibility for use in a variety of structural health monitoring applications. Relying on high frequency local excitations (typically > 30 kHz), this technique is very sensitive to minor changes in structural integrity in the near field of piezoelectric sensors. Several damage sensitive features have been identified and used coupled with the impedance methods. Most of these methods are, however, limited to linearity assumptions of a structure. This paper presents the use of experimentally identified nonlinear features, combined with impedance methods, for structural health monitoring. Their applicability to damage detection in various frequency ranges is demonstrated using actual impedance signals measured from a portal frame structure. The performance of the nonlinear feature is compared with those of conventional impedance methods. This paper reinforces the utility of nonlinear features in structural health monitoring and suggests that their varying sensitivity in different frequency ranges may be leveraged for certain applications.

  7. Effects of Flow Profile on Educed Acoustic Liner Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie r.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation of the effects of shear flow profile on impedance eduction processes employed at NASA Langley. Uniform and 1-D shear-flow propagation models are used to educe the acoustic impedance of three test liners based on aeroacoustic data acquired in the Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube, at source levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB, and at centerline Mach numbers of 0.0, 0.3 and 0.5. A ceramic tubular, calibration liner is used to evaluate the propagation models, as this liner is expected to be insensitive to SPL, grazing flow Mach number, and flow profile effects. The propagation models are then used to investigate the effects of shear flow profile on acoustic impedances educed for two conventional perforate-over-honeycomb liners. Results achieved with the uniform-flow models follow expected trends, but those educed with the 1-D shear-flow model do not, even for the calibration liner. However, when the flow profile used with the shear-flow model is varied to increase the Mach number gradient near the wall, results computed with the shear-flow model are well matched to those achieved with the uniform-flow model. This indicates the effects of flow profile on educed acoustic liner impedance are small, but more detailed investigations of the flow field throughout the duct are needed to better understand these effects.

  8. In situ impedance measurement of microwave atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. T.; Nam, W. J.; Lee, J. K.; Yun, G. S.

    2017-04-01

    The impedance of atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets driven by microwave frequency is determined in situ by a novel ‘two frequency method’. In the conventional method of reflection coefficient ({{S}}11) measurement, the frequency of the driving microwave power is scanned, which inevitably affects the plasma characters and leads to uncertainty in the estimated plasma impedance. In our proposed method, the frequency-scanning signal additional to the driving power is used to measure {{S}}11 over a wide frequency range, which enables accurate determination of the plasma impedance based on an equivalent circuit model. The measured resistance and reactance of the plasma increase with the driving power in agreement with the transmission line theory. Based on this in situ measurement of the plasma impedance, the net power coupled to the plasma has been determined. The overall power efficiency remains approximately unchanged around 45% for different input power levels owing to the competing effects between the impedance mismatch and the volume change of the plasma.

  9. Maximizing switching current of superconductor nanowires via improved impedance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Labao; Yan, Xiachao; Jia, Xiaoqing; Chen, Jian; Kang, Lin; Wu, Peiheng

    2017-02-01

    The temporary resistance triggered by phase slips will result in the switching of a superconductor nanowire to a permanent normal state, decreasing the switching current. In this letter, we propose an improved impedance matching circuit that releases the transition triggered by phase slips to the load resistor through the radio frequency (RF) port of a bias tee. The transportation properties with different load resistors indicate that the switching current decreases due to the reflection caused by impedance mismatching, and it is maximized by optimized impedance matching. Compared to the same setup without the impedance matching circuit, the switching current was increased from 8.0 μA to 12.2 μA in a niobium nitride nanowire after releasing the temporary transition triggered by phase slips. The leakage process with impedance matching outputs a voltage pulse, which enables the user to directly register the transition triggered by phase slips. The technique for maximizing the switching current has a potential practical application in superconductor devices, and the technique for counting phase slips may be applied to explore the behavior of phase slips.

  10. Microfluidic impedance cytometry of tumour cells in blood

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Daniel; Morgan, Hywel

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric properties of tumour cells are known to differ from normal blood cells, and this difference can be exploited for label-free separation of cells. Conventional measurement techniques are slow and cannot identify rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in a realistic timeframe. We use high throughput single cell microfluidic impedance cytometry to measure the dielectric properties of the MCF7 tumour cell line (representative of CTCs), both as pure populations and mixed with whole blood. The data show that the MCF7 cells have a large membrane capacitance and size, enabling clear discrimination from all other leukocytes. Impedance analysis is used to follow changes in cell viability when cells are kept in suspension, a process which can be understood from modelling time-dependent changes in the dielectric properties (predominantly membrane conductivity) of the cells. Impedance cytometry is used to enumerate low numbers of MCF7 cells spiked into whole blood. Chemical lysis is commonly used to remove the abundant erythrocytes, and it is shown that this process does not alter the MCF7 cell count or change their dielectric properties. Combining impedance cytometry with magnetic bead based antibody enrichment enables MCF7 cells to be detected down to 100 MCF7 cells in 1 ml whole blood, a log 3.5 enrichment and a mean recovery of 92%. Microfluidic impedance cytometry could be easily integrated within complex cell separation systems for identification and enumeration of specific cell types, providing a fast in-line single cell characterisation method. PMID:25553198

  11. Impedance spectroscopy for monitoring ischemic injury in the intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    González, César A; Villanueva, Cleva; Othman, Salah; Narváez, Raúl; Sacristán, Emilio

    2003-05-01

    This work evaluates the feasibility of monitoring ischemic injury in the gastrointestinal mucosa by impedance spectroscopy, using a minimally invasive intestinal catheter. The disruption of the intestinal mucosa plays a key role in the evolution of shock and is the 'motor of multiple organ failure'. Different technologies have been developed to monitor mucosal perfusion, oxygenation and/or ischemia, but no practical method exists to assess tissue damage, which may be crucial for preventing multiple organ failure. The experimental protocol of this study relied on an isobaric model of hypovolemic shock in 16 anaesthetized rabbits assigned to three groups: sham (n = 6), ischemia (n = 5) and ischemia + reperfusion (n = 5). Complex impedance spectra were recorded in the range of 0.05 to 300 kHz, with simultaneous measurements of tonometric pHi in the ileum every 30 min for 4 h. Impedance spectra were reproducible, and those of tissue under prolonged ischemia were clearly differentiable from those of normally perfused tissue. The dynamic changes in impedance did not correlate directly with either tissue perfusion or pHi, but instead correlated well with the duration of ischemia. It is concluded that impedance spectroscopy does indeed measure changes in tissue injury, and could be a very useful tool to guide therapy of patients in shock.

  12. A systematic uncertainty analysis for liner impedance eduction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Bodén, Hans

    2015-11-01

    The so-called impedance eduction technology is widely used for obtaining acoustic properties of liners used in aircraft engines. The measurement uncertainties for this technology are still not well understood though it is essential for data quality assessment and model validation. A systematic framework based on multivariate analysis is presented in this paper to provide 95 percent confidence interval uncertainty estimates in the process of impedance eduction. The analysis is made using a single mode straightforward method based on transmission coefficients involving the classic Ingard-Myers boundary condition. The multivariate technique makes it possible to obtain an uncertainty analysis for the possibly correlated real and imaginary parts of the complex quantities. The results show that the errors in impedance results at low frequency mainly depend on the variability of transmission coefficients, while the mean Mach number accuracy is the most important source of error at high frequencies. The effect of Mach numbers used in the wave dispersion equation and in the Ingard-Myers boundary condition has been separated for comparison of the outcome of impedance eduction. A local Mach number based on friction velocity is suggested as a way to reduce the inconsistencies found when estimating impedance using upstream and downstream acoustic excitation.

  13. Application of plant impedance for diagnosing plant disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Jiang, Xuesong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Biological cells have components acting as electrical elements that maintain the health of the cell by regulation of the electrical charge content. Plant impedance is decided by the state of plant physiology and pathology. Plant physiology and pathology can be studies by measuring plant impedance. The effect of Cucumber Mosaic Virus red bean isolate (CMV-RB) on electrical resistance of tomato leaves was studied by the method of impedance measurement. It was found that the value of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB was smaller than that in sound plant leaves. This decrease of impedances in leaf tissue was occurred with increased severity of disease. The decrease of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB could be detected by electrical resistance detecting within 4 days after inoculation even though significant visible differences between the control and the infected plants were not noted, so that the technique for measurement of tomato leaf tissue impedance is a rapid, clever, simple method on diagnosis of plant disease.

  14. Broadband spectroscopy of dynamic impedances with short chirp pulses.

    PubMed

    Min, M; Land, R; Paavle, T; Parve, T; Annus, P; Trebbels, D

    2011-07-01

    An impedance spectrum of dynamic systems is time dependent. Fast impedance changes take place, for example, in high throughput microfluidic devices and in operating cardiovascular systems. Measurements must be as short as possible to avoid significant impedance changes during the spectrum analysis, and as long as possible for enlarging the excitation energy and obtaining a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The authors propose to use specific short chirp pulses for excitation. Thanks to the specific properties of the chirp function, it is possible to meet the needs for a spectrum bandwidth, measurement time and SNR so that the most accurate impedance spectrogram can be obtained. The chirp wave excitation can include thousands of cycles when the impedance changes slowly, but in the case of very high speed changes it can be shorter than a single cycle, preserving the same excitation bandwidth. For example, a 100 kHz bandwidth can be covered by the chirp pulse with durations from 10 µs to 1 s; only its excitation energy differs also 10(5) times. After discussing theoretical short chirp properties in detail, the authors show how to generate short chirps in the microsecond range with a bandwidth up to a few MHz by using digital synthesis architectures developed inside a low-cost standard field programmable gate array.

  15. Possibilities for predictive measurement of the transthoracic impedance in defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, V; Hatib, F A; Trendafilova, E; Daskalov, I

    2001-01-01

    Transthoracic electrical defibrillation is administered by high voltages and currents applied through large size electrodes. Therefore, the defibrillator load impedance becomes an essential factorfor the efficacy of the procedure. Attempts at prediction of transthoracic impedance by pre-shock measurement with low-amplitude high-frequency current have yielded apparently promising results. A reassessment was undertaken of the comparison between transthoracic impedance measured over a wide frequency range (bioimpedance spectroscopy) and measured during the shock. An estimation of the possibilities for pre-shock 'prediction ' of the impedance was performed, to allow adequate selection of the defibrillation energy or current with the intention of increasing the possibility for positive results with the first shock. Data were obtained from experimental fibrillation/defibrillation cycles on dogs andfrom cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter in patients. The final results suggest that high-frequency low-amplitude impedance measurements cannot predict the corresponding value during the shock with very high accuracy, as differences up to 15-17% were found using biphasic pulses in patients. However, the method can be used for approximate assessments.

  16. Diagnostic criteria for mass lesions differentiating in electrical impedance mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Karpov; M, Korotkova

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the diagnostic criteria for differentiating volumetric lesions in the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography. The research was carried out utilizing the electrical impedance computer mammograph llMEIK v.5.6gg®, which enables to acquire images of 3-D conductivity distribution layers within mamma's tissues up to 5 cm depth. The weighted reciprocal projection method was employed to reconstruct the 3-D electric conductivity distribution of the examined organ. The results of 3,710 electrical impedance examinations were analyzed. The analysis of a volumetric lesion included assessment of its shape, contour, internal electrical structure and changes of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, mammary gland status was evaluated with the help of comparative and age-related electrical conductivity curves. The diagnostic chart is provided. Each criterion is measured in points. Using the numerical score for evaluation of mass and non-volumetric lesions within the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography allowed comparing this information to BI-RADS categories developed by American College of Radiology experts. The article is illustrated with electrical impedance mammograms and tables.

  17. Uncertainty Analysis of the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Martha C.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to identify the measurement uncertainty of NASA Langley s Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT) over its operating range, and to identify the parameters that most significantly contribute to the acoustic impedance prediction. Two acoustic liners are used for this study. The first is a single-layer, perforate-over-honeycomb liner that is nonlinear with respect to sound pressure level. The second consists of a wire-mesh facesheet and a honeycomb core, and is linear with respect to sound pressure level. These liners allow for evaluation of the effects of measurement uncertainty on impedances educed with linear and nonlinear liners. In general, the measurement uncertainty is observed to be larger for the nonlinear liners, with the largest uncertainty occurring near anti-resonance. A sensitivity analysis of the aerodynamic parameters (Mach number, static temperature, and static pressure) used in the impedance eduction process is also conducted using a Monte-Carlo approach. This sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the impedance eduction process is virtually insensitive to each of these parameters.

  18. Multivariable static ankle mechanical impedance with relaxed muscles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunglae; Ho, Patrick; Rastgaar, Mohammad A; Krebs, Hermano I; Hogan, Neville

    2011-07-07

    Quantitative characterization of ankle mechanical impedance is important to understand how the ankle supports lower-extremity functions during interaction with the environment. This paper reports a novel procedure to characterize static multivariable ankle mechanical impedance. An experimental protocol using a wearable therapeutic robot, Anklebot, enabled reliable measurement of torque and angle data in multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, a combination of inversion-eversion and dorsiflexion-plantarflexion. The measured multivariable torque-angle relation was represented as a vector field, and approximated using a method based on thin-plate spline smoothing with generalized cross validation. The vector field enabled assessment of several important characteristics of static ankle mechanical impedance, which are not available from prior single degree of freedom studies: the directional variation of ankle mechanical impedance, the extent to which the ankle behaves as a spring, and evidence of uniquely neural contributions. The method was validated by testing a simple physical "mock-up" consisting of passive elements. Experiments with young unimpaired subjects quantified the behavior of the maximally relaxed human ankle, showing that ankle mechanical impedance is spring-like but strongly direction-dependent, being weakest in inversion. Remarkably, the analysis was sufficiently sensitive to detect a subtle but statistically significant deviation from spring-like behavior if subjects were not fully relaxed. This method may provide new insight about the function of the ankle, both unimpaired and after biomechanical or neurological injury.

  19. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  20. How the Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) output impedance affects impedance dynamics of a Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renk, Timothy; Simpson, Sean; Webb, Timothy; Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The SMP diode, fielded on the RITS-6 (3.5-8.5 MV) IVA accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, produces a focused electron beam (<3mm diameter) onto a high Z metal converter for flash x-ray applications. Experiments have been undertaken with two different magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) center conductors, of 40 and 80 ohms flow impedance. We have operated in-situ heating and discharge-cleaning hardware in the load region, in order to address the tendency of some shots to undergo premature impedance (Z) collapse, defined as a fall in impedance beyond that due to normal movement of electrode plasmas that reduces the effective A-K gap. The goal of heating/cleaning was to reduce the volume of evolving gases near the A-K gap. Despite clear evidence that the cleaning techniques removed the proton portion of beam current, we observed no consistent increase in diode impedance (ZDIODE). This forced an examination of the role that the IVA flow impedance has on ZDIODE. A preliminary conclusion is that ZDIODE should be at least 1.5 times the flow impedance before ZDIODE is a parameter independent of flow impedance. This has implications for SMP as a load for a IVA, since ZDIODE >100 ohms has not been consistently demonstrated. Data analysis is ongoing, and latest results will be reported. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.