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Sample records for ionic responses rapidly

  1. Xylan-rich hemicelluloses-graft-acrylic acid ionic hydrogels with rapid responses to pH, salt, and organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xin-Wen; Ren, Jun-Li; Zhong, Lin-Xin; Peng, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2011-08-10

    Exploitation of biomaterials derived from renewable resources is an important approach to address environmental and resource problems in the world today. In this paper, novel ionic hydrogels based on xylan-rich hemicelluloses were prepared by free radical graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and xylan-rich hemicelluloses (XH) by using N,N-methylene-bis(acrylamide) (MBA) as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate/N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (APS/TMEDA) as redox initiator system. The network characteristics of the ionic hydrogels were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as by determination of mechanical properties, swelling, and stimuli responses to pH, salts, and organic solvents. The results showed that an increase in the MBA/XH or AA/XH ratio resulted in higher cross-linking density of the network and thus decreased the swelling ratio. Expansion of the network hydrogels took place at high pH, whereas shrinkage occurred at low pH or in salt solutions as well as in organic solvents. The ionic hydrogels had high water adsorption capacity and showed rapid and multiple responses to pH, ions, and organic solvents, which may allow their use in several areas such as adsorption, separation, and drug release systems.

  2. A More Rapid, Rapid Response.

    PubMed

    Robison, Justin; Slamon, Nicholas B

    2016-09-01

    Critical care physicians' standard for arrival to a rapid response team activation is 10 minutes or less at this institution. This study proposes that a FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) video call between the staff at the bedside and the critical care physician will allow the implementation of potentially life-saving therapies earlier than the current average response (4.5 min). Prospective cohort study. Freestanding, tertiary-care children's hospital. Pediatric patients ages 0-17. Six units were chosen as matched pairs. In the telemedicine units, after notification of an rapid response team, the critical care intensivist established a FaceTime video call with the nurse at the bedside and gathered history, visually assessed the patient, and suggested interventions. Simultaneously, the rapid response nurse, respiratory therapist, and fellow were dispatched to respond to the bedside. After the video call, the intensivist also reported to the bedside. The control units followed the standard rapid response team protocol: the intensivist physically responded to the bedside. Differences in response time, number of interventions, Pediatric Early Warning System scores, and disposition were measured, and the PICU course of those transferred was evaluated. The telemedicine group's average time to establish FaceTime interface was 2.6 minutes and arrival at bedside was 3.7 minutes. The control group average arrival time was 3.6 minutes. The difference between FaceTime interface and physical arrival in the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Physical arrival times between the telemedicine and control groups remained consistent. Fifty-eight percent of the telemedicine patients and 73% of the control patients were admitted to the PICU (p = 0.13). Of patients transferred to the PICU, there was no difference in rate of intubation, initiation of bilevel positive airway pressure, central line placement, or vasopressors. The study group averaged 1.4 interventions

  3. Rapid response deluge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    The development of a rapid response deluge system by the Ammunition Equipment Directorate (AED) for use in suppressing propellant fires during demilitarization shows great promise. Prototype systems have been tested and data acquired on their efficiencies. Present system vs previous generations and lessons learned are discussed.

  4. Ionic Strength Responsive Sulfonated Polystyrene Opals.

    PubMed

    Nucara, Luca; Piazza, Vincenzo; Greco, Francesco; Robbiano, Valentina; Cappello, Valentina; Gemmi, Mauro; Cacialli, Franco; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2017-02-08

    Stimuli-responsive photonic crystals (PCs) represent an intriguing class of smart materials very promising for sensing applications. Here, selective ionic strength responsive polymeric PCs are reported. They are easily fabricated by partial sulfonation of polystyrene opals, without using toxic or expensive monomers and etching steps. The color of the resulting hydrogel-like ordered structures can be continuously shifted over the entire visible range (405-760 nm) by changing the content of ions over an extremely wide range of concentration (from about 70 μM to 4 M). The optical response is completely independent from pH and temperature, and the initial color can be fully recovered by washing the sulfonated opals with pure water. These new smart photonic materials could find important applications as ionic strength sensors for environmental monitoring as well as for healthcare screening.

  5. Media ionic strength impacts embryonic responses to engineered nanoparticle exposure

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Lisa; Zaikova, Tatiana; Richman, Erik K.; Hutchison, James E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic zebrafish were used to assess the impact of solution ion concentrations on agglomeration and resulting in vivo biological responses of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The minimum ion concentration necessary to support embryonic development was determined. Surprisingly, zebrafish exhibit no adverse outcomes when raised in nearly ion-free media. During a rapid throughput screening of AuNPs, 1.2-nm 3-mercaptopropionic acid-functionalized AuNPs (1.2-nm 3-MPA-AuNPs) rapidly agglomerate in exposure solutions. When embryos were exposed to 1.2-nm 3-MPA-AuNPs dispersed in low ionic media, both morbidity and mortality were induced, but when suspended in high ionic media, there was little to no biological response. We demonstrated that the media ionic strength greatly affects agglomeration rates and biological responses. Most importantly, the insensitivity of the zebrafish embryo to external ions indicates that it is possible, and necessary, to adjust the exposure media conditions to optimize NP dispersion prior to assessment. PMID:21809903

  6. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  7. Building a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  8. Nonlinear capacitance and electrochemical response of ionic liquid-ionic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jacob D.; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present a physics-based model for the electrochemical response of ionic liquid-ionic polymer transducers (IPTs) and show how the mobile ionic liquid ions influence the charging characteristics and actuation performance of a device. It is assumed that a certain fraction of the ionic liquid ions exist as "free," making for a total of 3 mobile ions. This leads to predictions of distinctly different charging characteristics for ionic liquid versus water-based IPTs, since for the latter there is only a single mobile ion. The large ionic liquid ions are modeled by including steric effects in a set of modified Nernst-Planck/Poisson equations, and the resulting system of equations is solved using the method of matched asymptotic expansions (MAE). The inclusion of steric effects allows for a realistic description of boundary layer composition near actuator operating voltages (~1 V). Analytical expressions for the charge transferred and differential capacitance are derived as a function of the fraction of free ionic liquid ions, influence of steric effects in formation of the electric double layer, and applied voltage. It is shown that the presence of free ionic liquid ions tends to increase the overall amount of charge transferred, and also leads to a nonmonotonic capacitance-voltage curve. We suggest that these results could be used to experimentally identify the extent of free ionic liquid ion movement and to test the validity of the assumptions made in the underlying theory. A comparison with numerical results shows that while the MAE solution procedure gives valid results for capacitance and charge transferred, it cannot predict the dynamic response due to the presence of multiple time scales in the current decay. This is in contrast to previous results in analyzing water-based IPTs, where the MAE solution is in good agreement with numerical results at all times and applied voltages due to the presence of only a single mobile ion. By examining the

  9. Morphology and Ionic Conductivity of Humidity-Responsive Polymerized Ionic Liquid Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharick, Sharon; Meek, Kelly; Ye, Yuesheng; Elabd, Yossef A.; Winey, Karen I.

    2014-03-01

    We present the ionic conductivity and morphology of humidity-responsive polymerized ionic liquid block copolymers (PIL BCPs), poly(methyl methacrylate- b-1-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-3-butylimidazolium-X), where X is a bromide (Br) or hydroxide (OH) anion, as a function of relative humidity (RH), temperature, and PIL composition (ϕPIL) . PIL BCPs were characterized by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These PIL BCPs have microphase separated morphologies and long-range order increases as ϕPIL increases. Notably, ionic conductivity increases 3 to 4 orders of magnitude when RH increases from 30 to 90 percent. When ϕPIL is greater than 0.37, BCP ionic conductivity approaches or exceeds that of the homopolymer, suggesting that the dynamics in PIL microdomains mimic the homopolymer and long-range order aids ion transport. Moreover, over 60 percent of the BCP is nonconductive without a penalty in ion transport. When ϕPIL is less than 0.37, BCP conductivity is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than the homopolymer and non-conductive PMMA segments dominate ion transport, as expected. Ionic conductivities at 80 °C, 90 percent RH, are 7.6 mS/cm for the Br-containing BCP with ϕPIL = 0.53 and 25.0 mS/cm for the OH-containing BCP with ϕPIL = 0.50.

  10. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  11. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Jeremiah M; Massa, Gioia D; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-06-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  12. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  13. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  14. A rapid and efficient way to dynamic creation of cross-reactive sensor arrays based on ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Weina; Yang, Haowei; Jiang, Yin; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yu; Li, Guangtao

    2013-08-26

    Based on the simple counterion exchange of ionic liquids, a rapid, facile, and efficient strategy to create a cross-reactive sensor array with a dynamic tunable feature was developed, and exemplified by the construction of a sensor array for the identification and classification of nitroaromatics and explosives mimics. To achieve a good sensing system with fast response, good sensitivity, and low detection limit, the synthesized ionic liquid receptors were tethered onto a silica matrix with a macro-mesoporous hierarchical structure. Through the facile anion exchange approach, abundant ionic-liquid-based individual receptors with diversiform properties, such as different micro-environments, diverse molecular interactions, and distinctive physico-chemical properties, were easily and quickly synthesized to generate a distinct fingerprint of explosives for pattern recognition. The reversible anion exchange ability further endowed the sensor array with a dynamic tunable feature as well as good controllability and practicality for real-world application. With the assistance of statistical analysis, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA), an optimized-size array with a good resolution was rationally established from a large number of IL-based receptors. The performed experiments suggested that the ionic-liquid-based sensing protocol is a general and powerful strategy for creating a cross-reactive sensor array that could find a wide range of applications for sensing various analytes or complex mixtures. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nonequilibrium Ionic Response of Biased Mechanically Controllable Break Junction (MCBJ) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Novel experimental techniques allow for the manipulation and interrogation of biomolecules between metallic probes immersed in micro/nanofluidic channels. The behavior of ions in response to applied fields is a major issue in the use of these techniques in sensing applications. Here, we experimentally and theoretically elucidate the behavior of background currents in these systems. These large currents have a slowly decaying transient response, as well as noise that increases with ionic concentration. Using mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ), we study the ionic response in nanogaps with widths ranging from a few nanometers to millimeters. Moreover, we obtain an expression for the ionic current by solving time-dependent Nernst–Planck and Poisson equations. This expression shows that after turning on an applied voltage, ions rapidly respond to the strong fields near the electrode surface, screening the field in the process. Ions subsequently translocate in the weak electric field and slowly relax within the diffusion layer. Our theoretical results help to explain the short- and long-time behavior of the ionic response found in experiments, as well as the various length scales involved. PMID:24803976

  16. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  17. Gravisensing: ionic responses, cytoskeleton and amyloplast behavior.

    PubMed

    Allen, N Strömgren; Chattaraj, P; Collings, D; Johannes, E

    2003-01-01

    In Zea mays L., changes in orientation of stems are perceived by the pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. Gravity is perceived in the bundle sheath cells, which contain amyloplasts that sediment to the new cell base when a change in the gravity vector occurs. The mechanism by which the mechanical signal is transduced into a physiological response is so far unknown for any gravity perceiving tissue. It is hypothesized that this involves interactions of amyloplasts with the plasma membrane and/or ER via cytoskeletal elements. To gain further insights into this process we monitored amyloplast movements in response to gravistimulation. In a pharmacological approach we investigated how the dynamics of plastid sedimentation are affected by actin and microtubule (MT) disrupting drugs. Dark grown caulonemal filaments of the moss Physcomitrella patens respond to gravity vector changes with a reorientation of tip growth away from the gravity vector. MT distributions in tip cells were monitored over time and MTs were seen to accumulate preferentially on the lower flank of the tip 30 min after a 90 degree turn. Using a self-referencing Ca2+ selective ion probe, we found that growing caulonemal filaments exhibit a Ca2+ influx at the apical dome, similar to that reported previously for other tip growing cells. However, in gravistimulated Physcomitrella filaments the region of Ca2+ influx is not confined to the apex, but extends about 60 micrometers along the upper side of the filament. Our results indicate an asymmetry in the Ca2+ flux pattern between the upper and side of the filament suggesting differential activation of Ca2+ permeable channels at the plasma membrane. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gravisensing: Ionic responses, cytoskeleton and amyloplast behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, N.; Chattaraj, P.; Collings, D.; Johannes, E.

    In Zea mays L., changes in orientation of stems are perceived by the pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. Gravity is perceived in the bundle sheath cells, which contain amyloplasts that sediment to the new cell base when a change in the gravity vector occurs. The mechanism by which the mechanical signal is transduced into a physiological response is so far unknown for any gravity perceiving tissue. It is hypothesized that this involves interactions of amyloplasts with the plasma membrane and/or ER via cytoskeletal elements. To gain further insights into this process we monitored amyloplast movements in response to gravistimulation In a pharmacological approach we investigated how the dynamics of plastid sedimentation are affected by actin and microtubule disrupting drugs and modifiers of cytoplasmic pH, which is a key player in early gravitropic signaling. pHc was monitored in the cells composing the maize pulvinus before and after gravistimulation. pHc changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells, where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. The results suggest that pHc has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism. Dark grown caulonemal filaments of the moss Physcomitrella patens respond to gravity vector changes with a reorientation of tip growth away from the gravity vector. Microtubule distributions in tip cells were monitored over time and seen to accumulate preferentially on the lower flank of the tip filaments 30 minutes after a 90 degree turn. Using a self-referencing Ca 2 + selective ion probe, we found that growing caulonemal filaments exhibit a Ca 2 + influx at the apical dome, similar to that reported previously for other tip growing cells. However, in

  19. Responses of proteins to different ionic environment are linearly interrelated.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Uversky, Alexey V; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-03-27

    Protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) is widely used as a convenient, inexpensive, and readily scaled-up separation technique. Protein partition behavior in ATPS is known to be readily manipulated by ionic composition. However, the available data on the effects of salts and buffer concentrations on protein partitioning are very limited. To fill this gap, partitioning of 15 proteins was examined in dextran-poly(ethylene glycol) ATPSs with different salt additives (Na2SO4, NaClO4, NaSCN, CsCl) in 0.11 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. This analysis reveals that there is a linear relationship between the logarithms of the protein partition coefficients determined in the presence of different salts. This relationship suggests that the protein response to ionic environment is determined by the protein structure and type and concentrations of the ions present. Analysis of the differences between protein structures (described in terms of proteins responses to different salts) and that of cytochrome c chosen as a reference showed that the peculiarities of the protein surface structure and B-factor used as a measure of the protein flexibility are the determining parameters. Our results provide better insight into the use of different salts in manipulating protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. These data also demonstrate that the protein responses to different ionic environments are interrelated and are determined by the structural peculiarities of protein surface. It is suggested that changes in ionic microenvironment of proteins may regulate protein transport and behavior in biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pressure-responsive mesoscopic structures in room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Russina, Olga; Lo Celso, Fabrizio; Triolo, Alessandro

    2015-11-28

    Among the most spectacular peculiarities of room temperature ionic liquids, their mesoscopically segregated structural organization keeps on attracting attention, due to its major consequences for the bulk macroscopic properties. Herein we use molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nm-scale architecture in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, as a function of pressure. This study reveals an intriguing new feature: the mesoscopic segregation in ionic liquids is characterized by a high level of pressure-responsiveness, which progressively vanishes upon application of high enough pressure. These results are in agreement with recent X-ray scattering data and are interpreted in terms of the microscopic organization. This new feature might lead to new methods of developing designer solvents for enhanced solvation capabilities and selectivity.

  1. Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles from ionic cellulose derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggui; Heinze, Thomas; Zhang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) based on sustainable polymeric feedstock still need more exploration in comparison with NPs based on synthetic polymers. In this report, stimuli-responsive NPs from novel ionic cellulose derivatives were prepared via a facile nanoprecipitation. Cellulose 10-undecenoyl ester (CUE) with a degree of substitution (DS) of 3 was synthesized by esterification of cellulose with 10-undecenoyl chloride. Then, CUE was modified by photo-induced thiol-ene reactions, in order to obtain organo-soluble ionic cellulose derivatives with DSs of ~3, namely cellulose 11-((3-carboxyl)ethylthio)undecanoate (CUE-MPA), cellulose 11-((2-aminoethyl)thio)undecanoate (CUE-CA), cellulose 11-(2-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)thio)undecanoate (CUE-DEAET) and cellulose 11-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)thio)undecanoate (CUE-DMAET). CUE-MPA could be transformed into NPs with average diameters in the range of 80-330 nm, but these NPs did not show particular stimuli-responsive properties. Moreover, the dropping technique resulted in smaller NPs than a dialysis technique. Stable NPs with average diameters in the range of 90-180 nm showing pH-responsive and switchable sizes were obtained from CUE-DEAET and CUE-DMAET possessing tertiary amines using nanoprecipitation. Thus, altering the terminal functional groups will be a new approach to prepare stimuli-responsive cellulose-derived polymeric NPs.Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) based on sustainable polymeric feedstock still need more exploration in comparison with NPs based on synthetic polymers. In this report, stimuli-responsive NPs from novel ionic cellulose derivatives were prepared via a facile nanoprecipitation. Cellulose 10-undecenoyl ester (CUE) with a degree of substitution (DS) of 3 was synthesized by esterification of cellulose with 10-undecenoyl chloride. Then, CUE was modified by photo-induced thiol-ene reactions, in order to obtain organo-soluble ionic cellulose derivatives with DSs of ~3, namely cellulose

  2. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  3. Effects for rapid conversion from abalone shell to hydroxyapaptite nanosheets by ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shengnan; Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Li, Qian; Shi, Xuetao; Ding, Shinnjyh; Zhang, Qiqing

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been widely used for repairing or substituting human hard tissues. In this paper, two typical ionic surfactants, cation hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were used for rapid conversion of HAP from abalone shell. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the prepared HAP is flake-like structure. From X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis, these samples contain a small amount of calcium carbonate whose content gradually increases by increasing the surfactants. The results showed that the HAP formed fast on the layer of abalone shell powder with the assistance of CTAB and SDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanoscale mapping of electromechanical response in ionic conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Daehee; Seo, Hosung; Jesse, Stephen; Kim, Yunseok

    2015-08-19

    Electromechanical (EM) response in ion conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions was spatially explored using strain-based atomic force microscopy. Since the sample is composed of two dominant phases of ionic and piezoelectric phases, it allows us to explore two different EM responses of electrically induced ionic response and piezoresponse over the same surface. Furthermore, EM response of the ionic phase, i.e., electrochemical strain, was quantitatively investigated from the comparison with that of the piezoelectric phase, i.e., piezoresponse. Finally, these results could provide additional information on the EM properties, including the electrochemical strain at nanoscale.

  5. Nanoscale mapping of electromechanical response in ionic conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions

    DOE PAGES

    Seol, Daehee; Seo, Hosung; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2015-08-19

    Electromechanical (EM) response in ion conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions was spatially explored using strain-based atomic force microscopy. Since the sample is composed of two dominant phases of ionic and piezoelectric phases, it allows us to explore two different EM responses of electrically induced ionic response and piezoresponse over the same surface. Furthermore, EM response of the ionic phase, i.e., electrochemical strain, was quantitatively investigated from the comparison with that of the piezoelectric phase, i.e., piezoresponse. Finally, these results could provide additional information on the EM properties, including the electrochemical strain at nanoscale.

  6. Nanoscale mapping of electromechanical response in ionic conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Daehee; Seo, Hosung; Kim, Yunseok; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-08-21

    Electromechanical (EM) response in ion conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions was spatially explored using strain-based atomic force microscopy. Since the sample is composed of two dominant phases of ionic and piezoelectric phases, it allows us to explore two different EM responses of electrically induced ionic response and piezoresponse over the same surface. Furthermore, EM response of the ionic phase, i.e., electrochemical strain, was quantitatively investigated from the comparison with that of the piezoelectric phase, i.e., piezoresponse. These results could provide additional information on the EM properties, including the electrochemical strain at nanoscale.

  7. Rapid Response Reforestation: Studies in Fire Restoration

    Treesearch

    Robin Rose; Diane L. Haase

    2005-01-01

    The Nursery Technology Cooperative has been conducting projects to examine forest seedling quality and reforestation success in the Pacific Northwest for more than 20 years. Because of the large wildfires in recent years, there is a growing interest in studying reforestation strategies for optimum restoration following a fire. We have developed 2 “Rapid Response...

  8. Blackbody cavity radiometer has rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, F. C.

    1966-01-01

    Fast response, spectrally linear standard detector in the form of a blackbody cavity radiometer calibrates rapidly responding photodetectors against a calibrated standard detector. A power amplifier with maximum available gain reduces error signal without stability loss. It may be used as a blackbody radiator by manipulation of the bridge variable arm.

  9. Osmotic Heat Engine Using Thermally Responsive Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yujiang; Wang, Xinbo; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Telalovic, Selvedin; Gnanou, Yves; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Hu, Xiao; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-08-15

    The osmotic heat engine (OHE) is a promising technology for converting low grade heat to electricity. Most of the existing studies have focused on thermolytic salt systems. Herein, for the first time, we proposed to use thermally responsive ionic liquids (TRIL) that have either an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) type of phase behavior as novel thermolytic osmotic agents. Closed-loop TRIL-OHEs were designed based on these unique phase behaviors to convert low grade heat to work or electricity. Experimental studies using two UCST-type TRILs, protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide ([Hbet][Tf2N]) and choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([choline][Tf2N]) showed that (1) the specific energy of the TRIL-OHE system could reach as high as 4.0 times that of the seawater and river water system, (2) the power density measured from a commercial FO membrane reached up to 2.3 W/m(2), and (3) the overall energy efficiency reached up to 2.6% or 18% of the Carnot efficiency at no heat recovery and up to 10.5% or 71% of the Carnet efficiency at 70% heat recovery. All of these results clearly demonstrated the great potential of using TRILs as novel osmotic agents to design high efficient OHEs for recovery of low grade thermal energy to work or electricity.

  10. Temperature-Responsive Ionic Liquids: Fundamental Behaviors and Catalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yunxiang; Ma, Wenbao; Theyssen, Nils; Chen, Chen; Hou, Zhenshan

    2017-05-24

    Temperature-responsive ionic liquids (ILs), their fundanmental behaviors, and catalytic applications were introduced, especially the concepts of upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and lower critical solution temperature (LCST). It is described that, during a catalytic reaction, they form a homogeneous mixture with the reactants and products at reaction temperature but separate from them afterward at ambient conditions. It is shown that this behavior offers an effective alternative approach to overcome gas/liquid-solid interface mass transfer limitations in many catalytic transformations. It should be noted that IL-based thermomorphic systems are rarely elaborated until now, especially in the field of catalytic applications. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review about thermomorphic mixtures of an IL with H2O and/or organic compounds. Special focus is laid on their temperature dependence concerning UCST and LCST behavior, including systems with conventional ILs, metal-containing ILs, polymerized ILs, as well as the thermomorphic behavior induced via host-guest complexation. A wide range of applications using thermoregulated IL systems in chemical catalytic reactions as well as enzymatic catalysis were also demonstrated in detail. The conclusion is drawn that, due to their highly attractive behavior, thermoregulated ILs have already and will find more applications, not only in catalysis but also in other areas.

  11. Specific ionic effect for simple and rapid colorimetric sensing assays of amino acids using gold nanoparticles modified with task-specific ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Tao, Zhihao; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle (TSIL-GNP) was successfully prepared and applied in the recognition of amino acids. Particularly, the surface of GNP was modified with the ionic liquid containing carbamido and ester group via thiol, which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability of this material in aqueous solution improves apparently and can remain unchanged for more than three months. The effect of pH was also discussed in this study. Attractive ionic interaction would effectively weaken intensity of the covalent coupling between the metal ion and the functional groups of amino acids. Thus, TSIL-GNP was successfully applied to recognizing serine, aspartic acid, lysine, arginine, and histidine in the presence of Cu(2+) through distinctive color changes. Suspension would be generated once a spot of cysteine was added into the GNPs solution. Results indicated that it had a good linear relationship between extinction coefficients and concentration of amino acids in a wide range of 10(-3)-10(-6) M. Moreover, the proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in urinary samples. In brief, TSIL-GNP is a suitable substrate for discrimination of five amino acids in a rapid and simple way without sophisticated instruments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionic solution and nanoparticle assisted MALDI-MS as bacterial biosensors for rapid analysis of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsun; Gopal, Judy; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2012-01-15

    Bacterial analysis from food samples is a highly challenging task because food samples contain intensive interferences from proteins and carbohydrates. Three different conditions of yogurt were analyzed: (1) the fresh yogurt immediately after purchasing, (2) the yogurt after expiry date stored in the refrigerator and (3) the yogurt left outside, without refrigeration. The shelf lives of both these yogurt was compared in terms of the decrease in bacterial signals. AB which initially contained 10(9) cells/mL drastically reduced to 10(7) cells/mL. However, Lin (Feng-Yin) yogurt which initially (fresh) had 10(8) cells/mL, even after two weeks beyond the expiry period showed no marked drop in bacterial count. Conventional MALDI-MS analysis showed limited sensitivity for analysis of yogurt bacteria amidst the complex milk proteins present in yogurt. A cost effective ionic solution, CrO(4)(2-) solution was used to enable the successful detection of bacterial signals (40-fold increased in sensitivity) selectively without the interference of the milk proteins. 0.035 mg of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were also found to improve the detection of bacteria 2-6 times in yogurt samples. The current approach can be further applied as a rapid, sensitive and effective platform for bacterial analysis from food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid GRB Afterglow Response With SARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, K. V.; Homewood, A. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Riddle, C.; Fuller, S.; Manning, A.; McIntyre, T.; Henson, G.

    2006-05-01

    The Clemson GRB Follow-Up program utilizes the SARA 0.9-m telescope to observe optical afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts. SARA is not yet robotic; it operates under direct and Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) interrupt modes. To facilitate rapid response and timely reporting of data analysis results, we developed a software suite that operates in two phases: first, to notify observers of a burst and assist in data collection, and second, to quickly analyze the images.

  14. Extraction of DNA by magnetic ionic liquids: tunable solvents for rapid and selective DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin D; Nacham, Omprakash; Yu, Honglian; Li, Tianhao; Yamsek, Melissa M; Ronning, Donald R; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-02-03

    DNA extraction represents a significant bottleneck in nucleic acid analysis. In this study, hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were synthesized and employed as solvents for the rapid and efficient extraction of DNA from aqueous solution. The DNA-enriched microdroplets were manipulated by application of a magnetic field. The three MILs examined in this study exhibited unique DNA extraction capabilities when applied toward a variety of DNA samples and matrices. High extraction efficiencies were obtained for smaller single-stranded and double-stranded DNA using the benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate(III) ([(C8)3BnN(+)][FeCl3Br(-)]) MIL, while the dicationic 1,12-di(3-hexadecylbenzimidazolium)dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide bromotrichloroferrate(III) ([(C16BnIM)2C12(2+)][NTf2(-), FeCl3Br(-)]) MIL produced higher extraction efficiencies for larger DNA molecules. The MIL-based method was also employed for the extraction of DNA from a complex matrix containing albumin, revealing a competitive extraction behavior for the trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([P6,6,6,14(+)][FeCl4(-)]) MIL in contrast to the [(C8)3BnN(+)][FeCl3Br(-)] MIL, which resulted in significantly less coextraction of albumin. The MIL-DNA method was employed for the extraction of plasmid DNA from bacterial cell lysate. DNA of sufficient quality and quantity for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was recovered from the MIL extraction phase, demonstrating the feasibility of MIL-based DNA sample preparation prior to downstream analysis.

  15. Rapid and accurate estimation of densities of room-temperature ionic liquids and salts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chengfeng; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2007-03-01

    Volume parameters for room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and salts were developed. For 59 of the most common imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, tetralkylammonium, and phosphonium-based RTILs, the mean absolute deviation (MAD) of the densities is 0.007 g cm-3; for 35 imidazolium-based room-temperature salts, the MAD is 0.020 g cm-3; and for 150 energetic salts, the MAD is 0.035 g cm-3. The experimental density (Y) for an alkylated imidazolium or pyridinium-based room-temperature ionic liquid is approximately proportional to its calculated density (X) in the solid state: Y = 0.948X - 0.110 (correlation coefficient: R2 = 0.998, for BF4-, PF6-, NTf2- -containing ionic liquids); Y = 0.934X - 0.070 (correlation coefficient: R2 = 0.999, for OTf-, CF3CO2-, N(CN)2- -containing ionic liquids).

  16. Creative education for rapid response team implementation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Healthcare Improvement advocates implementation of rapid response teams (RRTs) to bring experts to the bedside to assist with patient assessment and treatment. Due to shrinking budgets and limited resources, initiating new programs and policies can be challenging in the health care environment. This article highlights a creative approach that a community hospital used to provide staff education during the RRT implementation process. This education plan includes a review of learning considerations, creation of a video, and other strategies that could be used by staff development educators for a variety of other topics.

  17. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  18. Rapid Response of the Yeast Plasma Membrane Proteome to Salt Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Szopinska, Aleksandra; Degand, Hervé; Hochstenbach, Jean-François; Nader, Joseph; Morsomme, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cell from the external environment and plays an important role in the stress response of the cell. In this study, we compared plasma membrane proteome modifications of yeast cells exposed to mild (0.4 m NaCl) or high (1 m NaCl) salt stress for 10, 30, or 90 min. Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were isolated, purified, and subjected to iTRAQ labeling for quantitative analysis. In total, 88–109 plasma membrane proteins were identified and quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed significant changes in the abundance of several plasma membrane proteins. Mild salt stress caused an increase in abundance of 12 plasma membrane proteins, including known salt-responsive proteins, as well as new targets. Interestingly, 20 plasma membrane proteins, including the P-type H+-ATPase Pma1, ABC transporters, glucose and amino acid transporters, t-SNAREs, and proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis showed a significant and rapid decrease in abundance in response to both 0.4 m and 1 m NaCl. We propose that rapid protein internalization occurs as a response to hyper-osmotic and/or ionic shock, which might affect plasma membrane morphology and ionic homeostasis. This rapid response might help the cell to survive until the transcriptional response takes place. PMID:21825281

  19. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  20. Rapid and efficient functionalized ionic liquid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions associated with microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang; Liu, Jing; Leng, Wenguang; Gao, Yanan

    2014-01-17

    Five quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) and two tetrabutylphosphonium ILs were prepared and characterized. An environmentally benign and convenient functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system was thus explored in the aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes with acetone. The aldol reactions proceeded more efficiently through microwave-assisted heating than through conventional thermal heating. The yield of products obtained under microwave heating for 30 min was approximately 90%, and the ILs can be recovered and reused at least five times without apparent loss of activity. In addition, this catalytic system can be successfully extended to the Henry reactions.

  1. Rapid and Efficient Functionalized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions Associated with Microwave Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang; Liu, Jing; Leng, Wenguang; Gao, Yanan

    2014-01-01

    Five quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) and two tetrabutylphosphonium ILs were prepared and characterized. An environmentally benign and convenient functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system was thus explored in the aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes with acetone. The aldol reactions proceeded more efficiently through microwave-assisted heating than through conventional thermal heating. The yield of products obtained under microwave heating for 30 min was approximately 90%, and the ILs can be recovered and reused at least five times without apparent loss of activity. In addition, this catalytic system can be successfully extended to the Henry reactions. PMID:24445262

  2. A rapid method for the evaluation of the ionic permeabilities across epithelial cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Movileanu, L

    1999-02-08

    This short note presents a recipe for the calculation of the ionic permeabilities across epithelial cell membranes. The method requires the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz formalism as well as the consideration of the equivalent electrical circuit for an epithelial cell. The equivalent electrical circuit is solved in terms of the equivalent electromotive forces coupled in series with the ionic resistances of both cell membranes (apical and basolateral). The present procedure is feasible for any leaky epithelial cell membrane with the condition that this membrane (apical or basolateral) does not contain primary or secondary mechanisms for active transport.

  3. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lannutti, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 μm diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9±0.12 seconds – 4–10 times faster than previous reports – while the t95 for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79±0.23 s and 2.29±0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 μm would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50°C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern-Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES-PCL core-shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. PMID:23706233

  4. CO₂-responsive microemulsions based on reactive ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Wasbrough, Matthew J; Gurkan, Burcu E; Hatton, T Alan

    2014-04-22

    We demonstrate that the nanodomains within a ternary system consisting of oil, surfactant, and a new reactive ionic liquid can be tuned reversibly upon exposure to and removal of CO2 under mild conditions of temperature and pressure. The equilibrium microstructures of these domains have been characterized by small-angle neutron scattering and demonstrate that control over emulsion morphology (and therefore physicochemical properties such as viscosity) and the breaking of emulsions can be achieved without the need for irreversible changes in system composition or significant energy input.

  5. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  6. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  7. Rapid conversion of sorbitol to isosorbide in hydrophobic ionic liquids under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Murata, Kengo; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Okagawa, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kaiso, Kouji; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol was effectively converted to isosorbide by treatment with [TMPA][NTf2 ] in the presence of catalytic amounts of TsOH under microwave heating at 180 °C. The reaction completed within 10 min and isosorbide was isolated to about 60%. Ionic liquids were readily recovered by an extraction treatment and reused several times.

  8. Synthesis of a novel ionic liquid modified copolymer hydrogel and its rapid removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yinhua; Li, Fan; Ding, Guibing; Chen, Yecheng; Liu, Yan; Hong, Yuanzhi; Liu, Peipei; Qi, Xiuxiu; Ni, Liang

    2015-10-01

    A novel ionic liquid modified copolymer hydrogel (PAMDA) was successfully synthesized by a simple water solution copolymerization using acrylamide (AM), dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and ionic liquid (1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride; [Amim]Cl) as copolymerization monomers. The structure and morphology of as-prepared copolymer hydrogel PAMDA were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The copolymer hydrogel was applied as a novel adsorbent for the rapid removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution. The effects of several parameters such as the content of ionic liquid [Amim]Cl, solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial Cr (VI) concentration on the adsorption were also investigated. The modification of [Amim]Cl significantly enhanced Cr (VI) adsorption. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted with Langmuir isotherm model better than Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cr (VI) ions was 74.5 mg L(-1) at 323 K based on Langmuir isotherm model. The removal rate could reach 95.9% within 10 min at 323 K and the adsorption process of Cr (VI) on PAMDA was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy of adsorption was further investigated and found to be 1.094 kJ mol(-1), indicating the adsorption of Cr (VI) onto PAMDA was physisorption.

  9. (Fuel efficient rapid response water heating module)

    SciTech Connect

    Ripka, C.D.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a fuel efficient rapid response water heating module. It comprises: a water heating tank; a burner cavity disposed within the water heating tank; a burner disposed within the burner cavity; means for supplying a mixture of fuel and air to the burner; preheater jacket means, surrounding the water heating tank; flue means disposed within the water heating tank forming a path for the transfer of combustion gases from the burner cavity to the preheater jacket means; means for supplying cold water to the module; outlet means for providing service hot water from the module; preheater means disposed within the preheater jacket means both to preheat water coming into the module from the cold water supply means and to condense combustion gases within the jacket means; means for transferring preheated water from the preheater jacket means to the water heating tank; means, in flow communication with the preheater jacket means, for draining condensate from the preheater jacket means; and means for causing a flow of the fuel and air mixture to the burner and for causing a flow of combustion gases from the burner cavity, through the flue means and through the preheater jacket means to the atmosphere.

  10. Ultrasound response of aqueous poly(ionic liquid) solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound (US) effects on aqueous poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) solution were investigated using viscosity and FT-IR spectroscopy after exposure to US of 23, 43, and 96 kHz frequencies at 50 W. The viscosity of the poly(1-vinyl-3-butyl-imidazolium chloride) (PIL) aqueous solution decreased during exposure to US. It then increased gradually within about 10 min as US stopped. The aqueous PIL behavior was then observed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The US exposure enhanced the FT-IR band intensity of the OH stretching. The band intensity returned to its original value after the US stopped. These results responded cyclically to the US on/off. Analysis of the FT-IR spectra revealed that US influenced the breakage and reformation of hydrogen bonds in the PIL and water. Two-dimensional correlation and deconvolution were used to analyze the change of components in the region of 3000-3700 cm(-1) for US exposure. Results of these analyses suggest that US exposure might break hydrogen bonds between PIL segments and water. In the absence of US, hydrogen bonds reformation was also observed between the PIL and water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermo- and electro-dual responsive poly(ionic liquid) electrolyte based smart windows.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Yongyuan; Guo, Jiangna; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-31

    Thermo- and electro-dual responsive poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) based electrolytes were synthesized by co-polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with (or without) 3-butyl-1-vinyl-imidazolium bromide ([BVIm][Br]) using diallyl-viologen (DAV) as both the cross-linking agent and electrochromic material.

  12. Rapid response teams seen through the eyes of the nurse.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Susan E; Donaldson, Nancy E; Scott, Mary B

    2010-06-01

    This article reports on the findings of an evaluation project that explored the impact of rapid response teams from the perspective of the nurses who use them-to give voice to the experience of nurses. Interviews with 56 staff nurses were analyzed, using thematic analysis, to describe the impact of rapid response teams on staff nurses' practice; the nurses' perspectives on what constitutes a successful rapid response team; their experiences before, during, and after activating a rapid response team; and the challenges they encountered when rapid response teams were used. Nurses described rapid response teams as quickly bringing needed resources to patients and, when necessary, facilitating patients' transfer to ICUs. They especially appreciated the ability to gather these resources with a single phone call. Nurses also expressed profound relief that rapid response teams were available to expedite patient care; this was so important that some stated they wouldn't work in a facility that didn't have a rapid response team. Successful rapid response systems were described as those in which nurses activated the team without hesitation when they felt it was needed. Challenges to successful use of rapid response teams included mixed messages from leadership about when to activate the team and the need for nurses who were themselves on a rapid response team to leave their patients in order to respond to an activation. Despite some limitations, this evaluation provides much-needed insight into the effects of rapid response teams on nurses' work environment. Further research is needed to explicate how having a successful rapid response team influences nurse recruitment and retention, as well as how such teams affect patient outcomes.

  13. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  14. Magnetic ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system coupled with high performance liquid chromatography: A rapid approach for determination of chloramphenicol in water environment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tian; Yao, Shun

    2017-01-20

    A novel organic magnetic ionic liquid based on guanidinium cation was synthesized and characterized. A new method of magnetic ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (MILATPs) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established to preconcentrate and determine trace amount of chloramphenicol (CAP) in water environment for the first time. In the absence of volatile organic solvents, MILATPs not only has the excellent properties of rapid extraction, but also exhibits a response to an external magnetic field which can be applied to assist phase separation. The phase behavior of MILATPs was investigated and phase equilibrium data were correlated by Merchuk equation. Various influencing factors on CAP recovery were systematically investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the preconcentration factor was 147.2 with the precision values (RSD%) of 2.42% and 4.45% for intra-day (n=6) and inter-day (n=6), respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.14ngmL(-1) and 0.42ngmL(-1), respectively. Fine linear range of 12.25ngmL(-1)-2200ngmL(-1) was obtained. Finally, the validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of CAP in some environmental waters with the recoveries for the spiked samples in the acceptable range of 94.6%-99.72%. Hopefully, MILATPs is showing great potential to promote new development in the field of extraction, separation and pretreatment of various biochemical samples.

  15. Rapid Response Teams: Policy Implications and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Stolldorf, Deonni

    2008-07-01

    Health care organizations are continually challenged with improving the safety of and the quality of care delivered to patients. Research studies often bring to the forefront interventions that health care organizations may choose to institute in an effort to provide evidence-based, quality care. Rapid response teams are one such intervention. Rapid response teams were introduced by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement as part of their "100,000 Lives" Campaign. Rapid response teams are one initiative health care organizations can implement in an effort to improve the quality of care delivered to patients. This article uses Donabedian's model of structure, process, and outcomes to discuss the United States health care systems, rapid response teams, and the outcomes of rapid response teams. National and organizational policy implications associated with rapid response teams are discussed and recommendations made for future research.

  16. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  17. Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

  18. Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

  19. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Peteet, D

    2000-02-15

    Rapid climate change characterizes numerous terrestrial sediment records during and since the last glaciation. Vegetational response is best expressed in terrestrial records near ecotones, where sensitivity to climate change is greatest, and response times are as short as decades.

  20. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid climate change characterizes numerous terrestrial sediment records during and since the last glaciation. Vegetational response is best expressed in terrestrial records near ecotones, where sensitivity to climate change is greatest, and response times are as short as decades.

  1. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  2. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  3. A biomimetic multi-stimuli-response ionic gate using a hydroxypyrene derivation-functionalized asymmetric single nanochannel.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kai; Xie, Ganhua; Li, Pei; Liu, Qian; Hou, Guanglei; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jie; Tian, Ye; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2014-10-01

    A highly efficient multi-stimuli-response ionic gate that can be activated separately or cooperatively by pH and UV light has been demonstrated by modifying the environmental stimuli-responsive molecule 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate into a track-etched single conical nanochannel. Such a multi-response ionic gate can find applications in areas such as electronics, actuators, and biosensors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pumping ions: rapid parallel evolution of ionic regulation following habitat invasions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Kiergaard, Michael; Gelembiuk, Gregory William; Eads, Brian Donovan; Posavi, Marijan

    2011-08-01

    Marine to freshwater colonizations constitute among the most dramatic evolutionary transitions in the history of life. This study examined evolution of ionic regulation following saline-to-freshwater transitions in an invasive species. In recent years, the copepod Eurytemora affinis has invaded freshwater habitats multiple times independently. We found parallel evolutionary shifts in ion-motive enzyme activity (V-type H(+) ATPase, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase) across independent invasions and in replicate laboratory selection experiments. Freshwater populations exhibited increased V-type H(+) ATPase activity in fresh water (0 PSU) and declines at higher salinity (15 PSU) relative to saline populations. This shift represented marked evolutionary increases in plasticity. In contrast, freshwater populations displayed reduced Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity across all salinities. Most notably, modifying salinity alone during laboratory selection experiments recapitulated the evolutionary shifts in V-type H(+) ATPase activity observed in nature. Maternal and embryonic acclimation could not account for the observed shifts in enzyme activity. V-type H(+) ATPase function has been hypothesized to be critical for freshwater and terrestrial adaptations, but evolution of this enzyme function had not been previously demonstrated in the context of habitat transitions. Moreover, the speed of these evolutionary shifts was remarkable, within a few generations in the laboratory and a few decades in the wild.

  5. Poly(Ionic Liquid) Semi-Interpenetrating Network Multi-Responsive Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Alexandru; Florea, Larisa; Gallagher, Simon; Burns, John; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe poly(ionic liquid) hydrogel actuators that are capable of responding to multiple stimuli, namely temperature, ionic strength and white light irradiation. Using two starting materials, a crosslinked poly ionic liquid (PIL) and a linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-spiropyran-co-acrylic acid), several semi-interpenetrating (sIPN) hydrogels were synthesised. The dimensions of hydrogels discs were measured before and after applying the stimuli, to quantify their response. Samples composed of 100% crosslinked PIL alone showed an average area reduction value of ~53% when the temperature was raised from 20 °C to 70 °C, ~24% when immersed in 1% w/w NaF salt solution and no observable photo-response. In comparison, sIPNs containing 300% w/w linear polymer showed an average area reduction of ~45% when the temperature was raised from 20 °C to 70 °C, ~36% when immersed in 1% NaF w/w salt solution and ~10% after 30 min exposure to white light irradiation, respectively. Moreover, by varying the content of the linear component, fine-control over the photo-, thermo- and salt response, swelling-deswelling rate and mechanical properties of the resulting sIPN was achieved. PMID:26861339

  6. Poly(Ionic Liquid) Semi-Interpenetrating Network Multi-Responsive Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Alexandru; Florea, Larisa; Gallagher, Simon; Burns, John; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-02-06

    Herein we describe poly(ionic liquid) hydrogel actuators that are capable of responding to multiple stimuli, namely temperature, ionic strength and white light irradiation. Using two starting materials, a crosslinked poly ionic liquid (PIL) and a linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-spiropyran-co-acrylic acid), several semi-interpenetrating (sIPN) hydrogels were synthesised. The dimensions of hydrogels discs were measured before and after applying the stimuli, to quantify their response. Samples composed of 100% crosslinked PIL alone showed an average area reduction value of ~53% when the temperature was raised from 20 °C to 70 °C, ~24% when immersed in 1% w/w NaF salt solution and no observable photo-response. In comparison, sIPNs containing 300% w/w linear polymer showed an average area reduction of ~45% when the temperature was raised from 20 °C to 70 °C, ~36% when immersed in 1% NaF w/w salt solution and ~10% after 30 min exposure to white light irradiation, respectively. Moreover, by varying the content of the linear component, fine-control over the photo-, thermo- and salt response, swelling-deswelling rate and mechanical properties of the resulting sIPN was achieved.

  7. Correlates of rapid neuroleptic response in male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Petrie, E C; Faustman, W O; Moses, J A; Lombrozo, L; Csernansky, J G

    1990-08-01

    Correlates of neuroleptic response latency were assessed in 16 male schizophrenic inpatients during 4 weeks of fixed dose (20 mg/day) haloperidol treatment. Rapid responders showed a mean 40% reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) positive symptom scores by day 10 of treatment. Rapid responders had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations compared to non-rapid responders during week 4 of haloperidol treatment. However, rapid versus non-rapid responders did not differ with respect to demographics, baseline positive or negative BPRS symptom scores, performance on tests of neuropsychological function, or mean plasma haloperidol concentrations.

  8. Rapid Response Small Machining NNR Project 703025

    SciTech Connect

    Kanies, Tim

    2008-12-05

    This project was an effort to develop a machining area for small sized parts that is capable of delivering product with a quick response time. This entailed focusing efforts on leaning out specific work cells that would result in overall improvement to the entire machining area. This effort involved securing the most efficient available technologies for these areas. In the end, this incorporated preparing the small machining area for transformation to a new facility.

  9. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. 3D printed rapid disaster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Mottern, Edward; Corley, Katrina; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2014-05-01

    Under the Department of Homeland Security-sponsored Sensor-smart Affordable Autonomous Robotic Platforms (SAARP) project, Robotic Research, LLC is developing an affordable and adaptable method to provide disaster response robots developed with 3D printer technology. The SAARP Store contains a library of robots, a developer storefront, and a user storefront. The SAARP Store allows the user to select, print, assemble, and operate the robot. In addition to the SAARP Store, two platforms are currently being developed. They use a set of common non-printed components that will allow the later design of other platforms that share non-printed components. During disasters, new challenges are faced that require customized tools or platforms. Instead of prebuilt and prepositioned supplies, a library of validated robots will be catalogued to satisfy various challenges at the scene. 3D printing components will allow these customized tools to be deployed in a fraction of the time that would normally be required. While the current system is focused on supporting disaster response personnel, this system will be expandable to a range of customers, including domestic law enforcement, the armed services, universities, and research facilities.

  11. Lessons learned from Rapid Response Research on wildland fires

    Treesearch

    Leigh Lentile; Penny Morgan; Colin Hardy; Andrew Hudak; Robert Means; Roger Ottmar; Peter Robichaud; Elaine Sutherland; Frederick Way; Sarah Lewis

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more researchers are collecting data either on active wildfires or immediately after wildfire occurrence. Known as Rapid Response Research, this important undertaking provides real-time information, useful data, and improved tools for managers.

  12. Ionic Control of the Reversal Response of Cilia in Paramecium caudatum

    PubMed Central

    Naitoh, Yutaka

    1968-01-01

    The duration of ciliary reversal of Paramecium caudatum in response to changes in external ionic factors was determined with various ionic compositions of both equilibration and stimulation media. The reversal response was found to occur when calcium ions bound by an inferred cellular cation exchange system were liberated in exchange for externally applied cations other than calcium. Factors which affect the duration of the response were (a) initial amount of calcium bound by the cation exchange system, (b) final amount of calcium bound by the system after equilibration with the stimulation medium, and (c) concentration of calcium ions in the stimulation medium. An empirical equation is presented which relates the duration of the response to these three factors. On the basis of these and previously published data, the following hypothesis is proposed for the mechanism underlying ciliary reversal in response to cationic stimulation: Ca++ liberated from the cellular cation exchange system activates a contractile system which is energized by ATP. Contraction of this component results in the reversal of effective beat direction of cilia by a mechanism not yet understood. The duration of reversal in live paramecia is related to the time course of bound calcium release. PMID:4966766

  13. Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, Matthew J.; Vinck, Martin; Reimer, Jacob; Batista-Brito, Renata; Zagha, Edward; Cadwell, Cathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow time scales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by which optimal sensory encoding and behavioral performance are achieved. Fluctuations in state, as indexed by pupillometry, impact both the “signal” (sensory evoked response) and the “noise” (spontaneous activity) of cortical responses. By taking these fluctuations into account, neural response (co-)variability is significantly reduced, revealing the brain to be more reliable and predictable than previously thought. PMID:26402600

  14. Proteomic responses of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to silver nanoparticles and ionic silver.

    PubMed

    Oberemm, Axel; Hansen, Ulf; Böhmert, Linda; Meckert, Christine; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    Even although quite a number of studies have been performed so far to demonstrate nanoparticle-specific effects of substances in living systems, clear evidence of these effects is still under debate. The present study was designed as a comparative proteomic analysis of human intestinal cells exposed to a commercial silver nanoparticle reference material and ions from AgNO3. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/MALDI mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was conducted after 24-h incubation of differentiated Caco-2 cells with non-cytotoxic and low cytotoxic silver concentrations (2.5 and 25 µg ml(-1) nanosilver, 0.5 and 5 µg ml(-1) AgNO3). Out of an overall number of 316 protein spots differentially expressed at a fold change of ≥ 1.4 or ≤ -1.4 in all treatments, 169 proteins could be identified. In total, 231 spots were specifically deregulated in particle-treated groups compared with 41 spots, which were limited to AgNO3-treatments. Forty-four spots (14 %) were commonly deregulated by both types of treatment. A considerable fraction of the proteins differentially expressed after treatment with nanoparticles is related to protein folding, synthesis or modification of proteins as well as cellular assembly and organization. Overlays of networks obtained for particulate and ionic treatments showed matches, indicating common mechanisms of combined particle and ionic silver exposure and exclusive ionic silver treatment. However, proteomic responses of Caco-2 cells treated with higher concentrations of silver species also showed some differences, for example regarding proteins related to fatty acid and energy metabolism, suggesting an induction of also some different molecular mechanisms for particle exposure and ionic treatment.

  15. Fluorescence energy transfer efficiency in labeled yeast cytochrome c: a rapid screen for ion biocompatibility in aqueous ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Sheila N; Zhao, Hua; Pandey, Siddharth; Heller, William T; Bright, Frank; Baker, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    A fluorescence energy transfer de-quenching assay was implemented to follow the equilibrium unfolding behaviour of site-specific tetramethylrhodamine-labelled yeast cytochrome c in aqueous ionic liquid solutions; additionally, this approach offers the prospect of naked eye screening for biocompatible ion combinations in hydrated ionic liquids.

  16. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change

    PubMed Central

    Peteet, Dorothy

    2000-01-01

    Rapid climate change characterizes numerous terrestrial sediment records during and since the last glaciation. Vegetational response is best expressed in terrestrial records near ecotones, where sensitivity to climate change is greatest, and response times are as short as decades. PMID:10677467

  17. Computational modeling predicts the ionic mechanism of late-onset responses in unipolar brush cells.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyam, Sathyaa; Solinas, Sergio; Perin, Paola; Locatelli, Francesca; Masetto, Sergio; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    Unipolar Brush Cells (UBCs) have been suggested to play a critical role in cerebellar functioning, yet the corresponding cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. UBCs have recently been reported to generate, in addition to early-onset glutamate receptor-dependent synaptic responses, a late-onset response (LOR) composed of a slow depolarizing ramp followed by a spike burst (Locatelli et al., 2013). The LOR activates as a consequence of synaptic activity and involves an intracellular cascade modulating H- and TRP-current gating. In order to assess the LOR mechanisms, we have developed a UBC multi-compartmental model (including soma, dendrite, initial segment, and axon) incorporating biologically realistic representations of ionic currents and a cytoplasmic coupling mechanism regulating TRP and H channel gating. The model finely reproduced UBC responses to current injection, including a burst triggered by a low-threshold spike (LTS) sustained by CaLVA currents, a persistent discharge sustained by CaHVA currents, and a rebound burst following hyperpolarization sustained by H- and CaLVA-currents. Moreover, the model predicted that H- and TRP-current regulation was necessary and sufficient to generate the LOR and its dependence on the intensity and duration of mossy fiber activity. Therefore, the model showed that, using a basic set of ionic channels, UBCs generate a rich repertoire of bursts, which could effectively implement tunable delay-lines in the local microcircuit.

  18. Responses of polar organic compounds to different ionic environments in aqueous media are interrelated.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L A; Chervenak, A; Placko, S; Kestranek, A; Madeira, P P; Zaslavsky, B Y

    2014-11-14

    Solubilities of 17 polar organic compounds in aqueous solutions of Na2SO4, NaCl, NaClO4, and NaSCN at the salt concentrations of up to 1.0-2.0 M were determined and the Setschenow constant, ksalt, values were estimated. It was found that NaClO4 may display both salting-in and salting-out effects depending on the particular compound structure. The Setschenow constant values for all the polar compounds examined in different salt solutions are found to be interrelated. Similar relationships were observed for partition coefficients of nonionic organic compounds in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems in the presence of different salt additives reported previously [Ferreira et al., J. Chromatogr. A, 2011, 1218, 5031], and for the effects of different salts on optical rotation of amino acids reported by Rossi et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B, 2007, 111, 10510]. In order to explain the observed relationships it is suggested that all the effects observed originate as responses of the compounds to the presence of a given ionic environment and its interaction with the compounds by forming direct or solvent-separated ionic pairs. The response is compound-specific and its strength is determined by the compound structure and the type (and concentration) of ions inducing the response.

  19. Design and Development of a Proactive Rapid Response System.

    PubMed

    Heal, Michelle; Silvest-Guerrero, Sarah; Kohtz, Cindy

    2017-02-01

    Timely identification of patient deterioration can prompt intervention and prevent the escalation of care and unplanned intensive care admissions. However, both personal experience and professional literature reveals that staff nurses in the acute care setting may not notice subtle signs of patient deterioration or may be reluctant to activate the rapid response system. To overcome these barriers, a proactive rapid response system with early warning signs was created and studied. Using a quasi-experimental design, data were collected from two medical-surgical nursing units at one large tertiary medical center over a 6-month period. One unit used the new rapid response system and early warning sign criteria with real-time data entry and trigger activation. A second unit served as the control and relied on the nurse for rapid response system activation. Findings revealed that the use of the newly developed rapid response system demonstrated significantly greater sensitivity to subtle signs of patient deterioration and prompted early evaluation and intervention.

  20. A New Procedure for Detection of Students' Rapid Guessing Responses Using Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Hongwen; Rios, Joseph A.; Haberman, Shelby; Liu, Ou Lydia; Wang, Jing; Paek, Insu

    2016-01-01

    Unmotivated test takers using rapid guessing in item responses can affect validity studies and teacher and institution performance evaluation negatively, making it critical to identify these test takers. The authors propose a new nonparametric method for finding response-time thresholds for flagging item responses that result from rapid-guessing…

  1. Double-stimuli-responsive spherical polymer brushes with a poly(ionic liquid) core and a thermoresponsive shell.

    PubMed

    Men, Yongjun; Drechsler, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis of poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) nanoparticles grafted with a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) brush shell is reported, which shows responsiveness to temperature and ionic strength in an aqueous solution. The PIL nanoparticles are first prepared via aqueous dispersion polymerization of a vinyl imidazolium-based ionic liquid monomer, which is purposely designed to bear a distal atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiating group attached to the long alkyl chain via esterification reaction. The size of the PIL nanoparticles can be readily tuned from 25 to 120 nm by polymerization at different monomer concentrations. PNIPAM brushes are successfully grafted from the surface of the poly(ionic liquid) nanoparticles via ATRP. The stimuli-responsive behavior of the poly(ionic liquid) nanoparticles grafted with PNIPAM brushes (NP-g-PNIPAM) in aqueous phase is studied in detail. Enhanced colloidal stability of the NP-g-PNIPAM brush particles at high ionic strength compared to pure PIL nanoparticles at room temperature is achieved. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM, the brush particles remain stable, but a decrease in hydrodynamic radius due to the collapse of the PNIPAM brush onto the PIL nanoparticle surface is observed.

  2. Ionic and spectral mechanisms of the off response to light in hyperpolarizing photoreceptors of the clam, Lima scabra.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, M C; Gorman, A L

    1983-12-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from distal photoreceptor cells of the file clam Lima scabra in order to examine the ionic and spectral mechanisms which underly the response to light decrement. These receptors are primary sensory neurons that generate nerve impulses in the optic nerve upon light termination without benefit of synaptic interconnections between photoreceptor cells. Microelectrode measurements were made on these cells. Membrane conductance changes were assessed by measuring membrane voltage changes elicited under different conditions while passing constant-current pulses through the microelectrode from an active bridge amplifier. Responses of membrane potential in light and darkness in different concentrations of external potassium ions were fitted to a simplified form of the constant field equation. This analysis allowed an estimation of internal potassium activity (281 mM) as well as changes in PNa/PK in darkness and light. PNa/PK changed from 0.09 in darkness to 0.03 at the peak of the light response. A persistent decrease in membrane conductance at the termination of light is associated with a depolarization that overshoots the dark resting membrane potential. This transient depolarization is dependent on the intensity and duration of the preceding period of light. The amplitude of the dark-dependent depolarization is related to the absorbance of light during the preceding period of light by a long wavelength intermediate of rhodopsin bleaching (metarhodopsin). The frequency of discharge of action potentials with rapid kinetics which occurs following light is proportional to the amplitude of the after depolarizing response. The delay to onset of the discharge is inversely proportional to the amplitude of the after depolarizing response. The sensitivity (response/photon) of distal cells can be modified by background light which passes through a screening pigment found in cells that surround the eye. These data, taken together, provide an

  3. Binding of Alpha-Bungarotoxin to Single Identified Neurons of ’Aplysia’ which have Different Ionic Responses to Acetylcholine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Identifiable Aplysia neurons have one or more of three different ionic responses to acetylcholine, due to Na, Cl, and K conductance increases... Aplysia acetylcholine receptors. Thus the inhibition of the Na response by hexamethonium may be a result of the binding to a site which prevent the conductance change rather than preventing acetylcholine from binding to its receptor.

  4. Rapid response teams: qualitative analysis of their effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Leach, Linda Searle; Mayo, Ann M

    2013-05-01

    Multidisciplinary rapid response teams focus on patients' emergent needs and manage critical situations to prevent avoidable deaths. Although research has focused primarily on outcomes, studies of the actual team effectiveness within the teams from multiple perspectives have been limited. To describe effectiveness of rapid response teams in a large teaching hospital in California that had been using such teams for 5 years. The grounded-theory method was used to discover if substantive theory might emerge from interview and/or observational data. Purposeful sampling was used to conduct in-person semistructured interviews with 17 key informants. Convenience sampling was used for the 9 observed events that involved a rapid response team. Analysis involved use of a concept or indicator model to generate empirical results from the data. Data were coded, compared, and contrasted, and, when appropriate, relationships between concepts were formed. Results Dimensions of effective team performance included the concepts of organizational culture, team structure, expertise, communication, and teamwork. Professionals involved reported that rapid response teams functioned well in managing patients at risk or in crisis; however, unique challenges were identified. Teams were loosely coupled because of the inconsistency of team members from day to day. Team members had little opportunity to develop relationships or team skills. The need for team training may be greater than that among teams that work together regularly under less time pressure to perform. Communication between team members and managing a crisis were critical aspects of an effective response team.

  5. Enhanced electromechanical response of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators by various Nafion roughening levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Jiayu; Chen, Hualing

    2016-04-01

    Recently, Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), becoming an increasingly popular material, are used as soft actuators for its inherent properties of light weight, flexibility, softness, especial efficient transformation from electrical energy to mechanical energy with large bending strain response to low activation voltage. This paper mainly focuses on the suitable conditions for surface-roughening of Nafion 117 membrane. The surfaces of Nafion membrane were pretreated and optimized by sandblasting, mainly considering the change of sandblasting time and powder size. The modified surfaces are characterized in terms of their topography from the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and SEM. Then, the detailed change in surface and interfacial electrodes and performances for IPMC actuators prepared by the roughened membranes, were measured and discussed. The results show that an optimized roughening condition with large interface area (capacitance) can effectively increases the electromechanical responses of IPMC.

  6. Reward prospect rapidly speeds up response inhibition via reactive control.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Carsten N; Schevernels, Hanne; Hopf, Jens-Max; Stoppel, Christian M; Krebs, Ruth M

    2014-06-01

    Response inhibition is an important cognitive-control function that allows for already-initiated or habitual behavioral responses to be promptly withheld when needed. A typical paradigm to study this function is the stop-signal task. From this task, the stop-signal response time (SSRT) can be derived, which indexes how rapidly an already-initiated response can be canceled. Typically, SSRTs range around 200 ms, identifying response inhibition as a particularly rapid cognitive-control process. Even so, it has recently been shown that SSRTs can be further accelerated if successful response inhibition is rewarded. Since this earlier study effectively ruled out differential preparatory (proactive) control adjustments, the reward benefits likely relied on boosted reactive control. Yet, given how rapidly such control processes would need to be enhanced, alternative explanations circumventing reactive control are important to consider. We addressed this question with an fMRI study by gauging the overlap of the brain networks associated with reward-related and response-inhibition-related processes in a reward-modulated stop-signal task. In line with the view that reactive control can indeed be boosted swiftly by reward availability, we found that the activity in key brain areas related to response inhibition was enhanced for reward-related stop trials. Furthermore, we observed that this beneficial reward effect was triggered by enhanced connectivity between task-unspecific (reward-related) and task-specific (inhibition-related) areas in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present data hence suggest that reward information can be translated very rapidly into behavioral benefits (here, within ~200 ms) through enhanced reactive control, underscoring the immediate responsiveness of such control processes to reward availability in general.

  7. Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Matthew J; Vinck, Martin; Reimer, Jacob; Batista-Brito, Renata; Zagha, Edward; Cadwell, Cathryn R; Tolias, Andreas S; Cardin, Jessica A; McCormick, David A

    2015-09-23

    The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow timescales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and the behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by which optimal sensory encoding and behavioral performance are achieved. Fluctuations in state, as indexed by pupillometry, impact both the "signal" (sensory evoked response) and the "noise" (spontaneous activity) of cortical responses. By taking these fluctuations into account, neural response (co)variability is significantly reduced, revealing the brain to be more reliable and predictable than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of cation on electrical responses of ionic polymer-metal composite sensors at various ambient humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kentaro; Takeda, Jun; Chang, Longfei; Asaka, Kinji

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of various cations on the electrical responses of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) sensors at various ambient humidities. Four typical Au-Nafion IPMC samples were prepared with H+, Li+, Na+, and K+ cations. The voltage and current responses of the IPMCs were investigated under static and dynamic bending displacements. The orders of the voltage and current amplitudes were generally Li+ > Na+ > K+ > H+ and depended on the cation transport properties and the water content. The static voltage response first increased to a peak and then slowly decreased to a steady state. A negative steady-state voltage was initially observed for the IPMC with H+ cations under near saturation conditions. The voltage amplitude increased monotonously with increasing frequency from 0.1 to 10 Hz at a high relative humidity (RH, ˜90%), first increased and then decreased at moderate humidity (RH, ˜50%), and decreased continuously at low humidity (RH, ˜20%). The static current response first rapidly increased to a peak and then quickly decayed. During current decay, free oscillation decay occurred at high humidity and attenuated with decreasing humidity. This was confirmed to be the result of cation movement in the IPMC. There are three necessary conditions for oscillation: sufficient migrated cations, high cation mobility, and high stiffness of the polymer network. For the dynamic current response, the amplitude increased with increasing frequency (0.1-10 Hz) and showed good linearity. The underlying physics, mainly involving cation forward migration and back diffusion caused by mechano-chemo-electrical coupling, was clarified.

  9. Responsive ionic liquid-polymer 2D photonic crystal gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Natasha L; Hong, Zhenmin; Asher, Sanford A

    2014-12-21

    We developed novel air-stable 2D polymerized photonic crystal (2DPC) sensing materials for visual detection of gas phase analytes such as water and ammonia by utilizing a new ionic liquid, ethylguanidine perchlorate (EGP) as the mobile phase. Because of the negligible ionic liquid vapor pressure these 2DPC sensors are indefinitely air stable and, therefore, can be used to sense atmospheric analytes. 2D arrays of ~640 nm polystyrene nanospheres were attached to the surface of crosslinked poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)-based polymer networks dispersed in EGP. The wavelength of the bright 2D photonic crystal diffraction depends sensitively on the 2D array particle spacing. The volume phase transition response of the EGP-pHEMA system to water vapor or gaseous ammonia changes the 2DPC particle spacing, enabling the visual determination of the analyte concentration. Water absorbed by EGP increases the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, which shrinks the polymer network and causes a blue shift in the diffracted light. Ammonia absorbed by the EGP deprotonates the pHEMA-co-acrylic acid carboxyl groups, swelling the polymer which red shifts the diffracted light.

  10. High-temperature rapid-response thermocouple for reducing atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, C. M.; Hoff, R. G.

    1970-01-01

    Thermocouple measures continuously in flowing gaseous hydrogen at temperatures up to 4000 deg F, in environments made hazardous by radiation, and where rapid response and calibration reproducibility are critically important. Thermocouple wires extend continuously, without splice or foreign material, from cold junction to probe's tip.

  11. Notification: Administration of Emergency and Rapid Response Services Contracts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY13-0046, October 23, 2012. The EPA OIG’s Office of Audit plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an audit evaluating Region 6’s administration and management of the Emergency and Rapid Response Services (ERRS) contracts.

  12. Experience with family activation of rapid response teams.

    PubMed

    Bogert, Soudi; Ferrell, Carmen; Rutledge, Dana N

    2010-01-01

    Condition H allows family activation of a rapid response team in a hospital setting. Systematic implementation of Condition H at a 500-bed Magnet community hospital led to varied types of calls, all of which met the policy criteria. Many communication issues were discovered through this process.

  13. Rapid response teams: a proactive strategy for improving patient care.

    PubMed

    Garretson, Sharon; Rauzi, Mary Beth; Meister, Janice; Schuster, Janet

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation success rates have not changed in 30 years. Patient outcomes may improve if changes in a patient's condition are addressed at the onset of subtle deteriorations, rather than at the point of cardiac arrest. The rapid response team involves early intervention that demonstrates the ability to decrease cardiac arrest rates and improve patient mortality.

  14. Ionic-liquid-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS for the rapid analysis of essential oil in Dryopteris fragrans.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2013-12-01

    A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation technique, ionic-liquid-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction was developed for the extraction of essential oil from dried Dryopteris fragrans. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was the optimal ionic liquid as the destruction agent of plant cell walls and microwave absorption was medium. n-Heptadecane (2.0 μL) was adopted as the suspended microdrop solvent in the headspace for the extraction and concentration of essential oil. The optimal parameters of the proposed method were an irradiation power of 300 W, sample mass of 0.9 g, mass ratio of ionic liquids to sample of 2.8, extraction temperature of 79°C, and extraction time of 3.6 min. In comparison to the previous reports, the proposed technique could equally monitor all the essential oil components with no significant differences in a simple way, which was more rapid and required a much lower amount of sample.

  15. Oxygen flux and dielectric response study of Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conducting (MIEC) heterogeneous functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbi, Fazle

    -50%CFO and 80%GDC-20%CFO mixtures. Material characterization suggests the emergence of a third phase contributing to the behavior. Microstructural studies suggested changes in micro-structure of a given volume fraction for different sintering temperature and sintering time. Flux variation was observed for membranes with the same constituent volume fraction but different micro-structure indicating the effects of the micro-structure on the overall oxygen permeation. To correlate the experimental flux measurement with a standard Wagner's flux equation, different microstructural characteristics were studied to incorporate them into a modified Wagner's flux equation. In-situ broadband dielectric spectroscopy measurements over a temperature range of 850°C-1060°C and frequency range of (0.1Hz-1MHz) of the operating 60%GDC-40%CFO mixture oxygen separation membranes were measured using a NOVOCONTROL dielectric spectroscopy test system. Dielectric response of the operating membrane was studied to identify the charge transfer process in the membrane. A computational model to study the dielectric impedance response of different microstructure was developed using a COMSOL(TM) Multiphysics qasi-static electromagnetic module. This model was validated using model materials with regular geometric shapes. To measure impedance of real micro/nano-structures of the membrane material, domains required for the COMSOL calculation were obtained from actual micro/nano structures by using 3D scans from X-ray nano and micro tomography. Simpleware(TM) software was used to generate 3D domains from image slices obtained from the 3D x-ray scans. Initial voltage distributions on the original microstructure were obtained from the computational model. Similarly, development of a primary model for simulating ionic/electronic species flow inside of an MIEC was also begun. The possibility of using broadband dielectric spectroscopy methods to understand and anticipate the flux capabilities of MIECs to

  16. Rapid response to artificial selection on flower size in Phlox.

    PubMed

    Lendvai, G; Levin, D A

    2003-04-01

    Quantitative characters are often said to evolve rather slowly, taking many generations to exhibit appreciable differences among populations. We tested this notion experimentally by performing bi-directional selection on corolla diameter of plants from a wild population of Phlox drummondii for three generations. By monitoring flower size, tube length and stigma-anther proximity of flowers, we obtained the direct and indirect responses to selection, and calculated genetic correlations, realized and narrow sense heritabilities using offspring-mother regression. Realized heritability of flower size was high (0.83), whereas genetic correlations among traits were weak or not significant. The per-generation average of the response in corolla diameter was about 5%. We found that P. drummondii has a great capacity to respond rapidly to selection, and this capacity may be in part responsible for the observed high degree of differentiation within the species. We also concluded that rapid evolution of morphological floral traits is possible.

  17. Malignant melanoma showing a rapid response to nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Miho; Asai, Jun; Wada, Makoto; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin tumour, with a recent rise in incidence. Nivolumab is a recently developed anti-programmed cell death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor and its usage has resulted in a significant improvement in the overall survival of patients with metastatic melanomas. We report a case of advanced melanoma that showed a significant and rapid response to nivolumab treatment. The patient displayed multiple melanoma-associated vitiligo prior to treatment; this symptom was theorised to indicate potentially immunoreactive melanoma and the need for nivolumab. In addition, interferon-β was injected prior to nivolumab treatment. The significant rapid response to nivolumab suggested the induction of a marked immune response against melanoma by interferon-β. Therefore, interferon-β could be a useful and effective adjuvant for nivolumab therapy.

  18. Point-of-Care Ultrasound and the Rapid Response System.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, Daniel J; Barghash, Maya H; Lorin, Scott; Ungaro, Ryan; Nguyen, Vinh-Tung; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Nelson, Bret P; Narula, Jagat

    2013-12-01

    Over the years, the use of ultrasound has moved solely from the domain of the radiologist to that of the intensivist and emergentologist for use in acute care settings. By virtue of its ease of use and rapid learning curve to proficiency, we are now seeing an increased desire by internists to learn the modality and apply it at the patient's bedside. The rapid response system represents a rational starting point for the introduction of point-of-care ultrasound to the inpatient ward setting. Copyright © 2013 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiphysics modelling of volume phase transition of ionic hydrogels responsive to thermal stimulus.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Wang, Xiaogui; Wang, Zijie; Lam, K Y

    2005-09-16

    This paper presents the analysis of the volume phase transition of ionic thermo-sensitive hydrogels to thermal stimulus through mathematical modelling. The model is termed the multi-effect-coupling thermal-stimulus (MECtherm) model and it considers the effects of multi-phases and multi-physics. Its application to steady-state analysis of the hydrogels in swelling equilibrium is validated against available experimental data for the relation between volume swelling ratio and temperature, in which very good agreement is achieved. The phenomenon of volume phase transition is studied for the thermal-stimulus responsive hydrogel. The numerical studies predict well the influences of initially fixed charge density and initial volume fraction of polymeric network on the swelling equilibrium of the hydrogels.

  20. Distinct physiological and molecular responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles and ionic aluminum.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yujian; Fan, Xiaoji; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Zhenyan; Sun, Liwei; Fu, Zhengwei; Lavoie, Michel; Pan, Xiangliang; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-09-01

    Nano-aluminium oxide (nAl2O3) is one of the most widely used nanomaterials. However, nAl2O3 toxicity mechanisms and potential beneficial effects on terrestrial plant physiology remain poorly understood. Such knowledge is essential for the development of robust nAl2O3 risk assessment. In this study, we studied the influence of a 10-d exposure to a total selected concentration of 98 μM nAl2O3 or to the equivalent molar concentration of ionic Al (AlCl3) (196 μM) on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana on the physiology (e.g., growth and photosynthesis, membrane damage) and the transcriptome using a high throughput state-of-the-art technology, RNA-seq. We found no evidence of nAl2O3 toxicity on photosynthesis, growth and lipid peroxidation. Rather the nAl2O3 treatment stimulated root weight and length by 48% and 39%, respectively as well as photosynthesis opening up the door to the use of nAl2O3 in biotechnology and nano agriculture. Transcriptomic analyses indicate that the beneficial effect of nAl2O3 was related to an increase in the transcription of several genes involved in root growth as well as in root nutrient uptake (e.g., up-regulation of the root hair-specific gene family and root development genes, POLARIS protein). By contrast, the ionic Al treatment decreased shoot and root weight of Arabidopsis thaliana by 57.01% and 45.15%, respectively. This toxic effect was coupled to a range of response at the gene transcription level including increase transcription of antioxidant-related genes and transcription of genes involved in plant defense response to pathogens. This work provides an integrated understanding at the molecular and physiological level of the effects of nAl2O3 and ionic Al in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrical Potentials of Plant Cell Walls in Response to the Ionic Environment1

    PubMed Central

    Shomer, Ilan; Novacky, Anton J.; Pike, Sharon M.; Yermiyahu, Uri; Kinraide, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical potentials in cell walls (ψWall) and at plasma membrane surfaces (ψPM) are determinants of ion activities in these phases. The ψPM plays a demonstrated role in ion uptake and intoxication, but a comprehensive electrostatic theory of plant-ion interactions will require further understanding of ψWall. ψWall from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots was monitored in response to ionic changes by placing glass microelectrodes against cell surfaces. Cations reduced the negativity of ψWall with effectiveness in the order Al3+ > La3+ > H+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Ca2+ > Co2+ > Cd2+ > Mg2+ > Zn2+ > hexamethonium2+ > Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+. This order resembles substantially the order of plant-root intoxicating effectiveness and indicates a role for both ion charge and size. Our measurements were combined with the few published measurements of ψWall, and all were considered in terms of a model composed of Donnan theory and ion binding. Measured and model-computed values for ψWall were in close agreement, usually, and we consider ψWall to be at least proportional to the actual Donnan potentials. ψWall and ψPM display similar trends in their responses to ionic solutes, but ions appear to bind more strongly to plasma membrane sites than to readily accessible cell wall sites. ψWall is involved in swelling and extension capabilities of the cell wall lattice and thus may play a role in pectin bonding, texture, and intercellular adhesion. PMID:12970506

  2. Rapid response to coastal upwelling in a semienclosed bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilcoto, Miguel; Largier, John L.; Barton, Eric D.; Piedracoba, Silvia; Torres, Ricardo; Graña, Rocío.; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolás.; de la Granda, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    Bays/estuaries forced by local wind show bidirectional exchange flow. When forced by remote wind, they exhibit unidirectional flow adjustment to coastal sea level. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations over 1 year show that the Ria de Vigo (Iberian Upwelling) responds to coastal wind events with bidirectional exchange flow. The duration of the upwelling and downwelling events, estimated from the current variability, was 3.3 days and 2.6 days, respectively. Vectorial correlations reveal a rapid response to upwelling/downwelling, in which currents lag local wind by <6 h and remote wind by <14 h, less than the Ekman spinup (17.8 h). This rapidity arises from the ria's narrowness (nonrotational local response), equatorward orientation (additive remote and local wind responses), depth greater than the Ekman depth (penetration of shelf circulation into the interior), and vertical stratification (shear reinforcing shelf circulation). Similar rapid responses are expected in other narrow bays where local and remote winds act together and stratification enhances bidirectional flow.

  3. Optically responsive switchable ionic liquid for internally-referenced fluorescence monitoring and visual determination of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shubha; Baker, Sheila N; Pandey, Siddharth; Baker, Gary A

    2012-07-18

    Modulation in the local viscosity and polarity within a reversible carbamate ionic liquid system forms the basis for the fluorescence excimer-based estimation of CO(2). Inherently self-referencing, the photonic response to CO(2) recognition shows excellent sensitivity and complete reversibility, making possible a striking visual display discernible to the naked eye.

  4. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses

    PubMed Central

    Saulou-Bérion, Claire; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Enjalbert, Brice; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Fourquaux, Isabelle; Jamme, Frédéric; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel; Girbal, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins), for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR) and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes). The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL) and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA). The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq) and chaperone (dnaJ), and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB). Interestingly, as these transpeptidases act on

  5. Nicolaus Copernicus and the rapid vascular responses to aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Meyer, Matthias R

    2015-08-01

    For decades, rapid steroid responses initiated by membrane receptors have been a primary research focus. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is activated by 17β-estradiol and participates in functional crosstalk with other steroid receptors. With reference to the physician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), who used rigorous scientific approaches to shift paradigms and change dogma, we discuss whether GPER can also be considered an aldosterone receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation and outcomes of a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    McFarlan, Susan J; Hensley, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Adverse events in hospitalized patients are preceded by clinical signs of decline. Thus, early recognition and intervention should improve patient outcomes. At the University of Kentucky Hospital, the impetus to start a rapid response team (RRT) was to decrease unplanned admissions to ICU, adverse events, and mortality overall. On the basis of the outcomes at our hospital, we conclude that there is benefit to having an RRT. The following article outlines processes for RRT implementation and our outcomes to date.

  7. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  8. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  9. Rapid response of thermo-sensitive hydrogels with porous structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shingo; Kato, Terukazu; Kogure, Hikaru; Hosoya, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm) hydrogel is thermo-sensitive, and undergoes a volume phase transition from a swollen state to a shrunken state. Typically, after immersing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels into hot water above the critical temperature, they undergo a two-step shrinking process, which leads to very slow dynamics. However, potential applications, including soft actuators, drug delivery systems, and cell cultures, demand a quick response. Herein, we synthesize chemically crosslinked PNIPAAm porous hydrogels made of nanofiber mats. Our hydrogels rapidly shrink without the two-step shrinking. The response of this porous gel is over 100 times faster than that of the typical gel.

  10. Anion-Responsive Poly(ionic liquid)s Gating Membranes with Tunable Hydrodynamic Permeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Sheng; Zhou, Jukai; Zhao, Weifeng; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2017-09-20

    Novel anion-responsive "intelligent" membranes with functional gates are fabricated by filling polyethersulfone microporous membranes with poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) gels. The wetting properties of the PILs could be controlled by changing their counteranions (CAs), and thus, the filled PILs gel gates in the membrane pores could spontaneously switch from the "closed" state to the "open" one by recognizing the hydrophilic CAs in the environment and vice versa. As a result, the fluxes of the "intelligent" membranes could be tuned from a very low level (0 mL/m(2)·mmHg for Cl(-), Br(-), and BF4(-)) to a relatively high one (430 mL/m(2)·mmHg for TFSI). The anion-responsive gating behavior of the PILs filled membranes is fast, reversible, and reproducible. In addition, the "intelligent" membranes are sensitive to contact time and ion concentrations of the hydrophobic CA species. The proposed anion-responsive "intelligent" membranes are highly attractive for ion-recognizable chemical/biomedical separations and purifications.

  11. Stimuli-Responsive Polyoxometalate/Ionic Liquid Supramolecular Spheres: Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Applications.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanjun; Hu, Qiongzheng; Wang, Chen; Zang, Ling; Yu, Li

    2016-01-19

    We report fabrication, characterization, and potential applications of polyoxometalate (POM)/ionic liquid (IL) supramolecular spheres in water for the first time. These supramolecular spheres have highly ordered structures and show excellent reversible self-assembly and tunable photoluminescence properties, which can be manipulated by adjusting pH of the aqueous solution. Specifically, the formation of POM/IL supramolecular spheres results in quenching of fluorescence emitted by Eu-POM because hopping of the d1 electron in the POM molecule is blocked by hydrogen bond existing between the oxygen atom of POM and the carboxylic acid group of IL. However, the fluorescence can be completely recovered by gradually increasing pH of the aqueous solution due to the pH-induced deprotonation of the carboxylic acid group of IL, which results in disassembly of the fabricated supramolecular spheres. Applications of these stimuli-responsive photoluminescent POM-based supramolecular materials are demonstrated in biological media. Dual signaling responses of turbidity and fluorescence are observed simultaneously in the detection of urease and heavy metals based on pH-induced disassembly of the supramolecular spheres during the biochemical events in aqueous solution. In addition, guest molecules are encapsulated into the supramolecular spheres, and controlled release of these entrapped molecules is demonstrated in the presence of external stimuli. This study shows potential of stimuli-responsive POM/IL supramolecular materials in biological applications.

  12. Design of an electrolyte composition for stable and rapid charging-discharging of a graphite negative electrode in a bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Yukiko; Yamagata, Masaki; Murakami, Satoshi; Saito, Yasuteru; Higashizaki, Tetsuya; Ishiko, Eriko; Kono, Michiyuki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    We evaluate the effects of lithium salt on the charge-discharge performance of a graphite negative electrode in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (EMImFSI) ionic liquid-based electrolytes. Although the graphite negative electrode exhibits good cyclability and rate capability in both 0.43 mol dm-3 LiFSI/EMImFSI and LiTFSI/EMImFSI (TFSI- = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) at room temperature, only the LiFSI/EMImFSI system enables the graphite electrode to be operated with sufficient discharge capacity at the low temperature of 0 °C, even though there is no noticeable difference in ionic conductivity, compared with LiTFSI/EMImFSI. Furthermore, a clear difference in the low-temperature behaviors of the two cells composed of EMImFSI with a high-concentration of lithium salts is observed. Additionally, charge-discharge operation of the graphite electrode at C-rate of over 5.0 can be achieved using of the high-concentration LiFSI/EMImFSI electrolyte. Considering the low-temperature characteristics in both high-concentration electrolytes, the stable and rapid charge-discharge operation in the high-concentration LiFSI/EMImFSI is presumably attributed to a suitable electrode/electrolyte interface with low resistivity. These results suggest that optimization of the electrolyte composition can realize safe and high-performance lithium-ion batteries that utilize ionic liquid-based electrolytes.

  13. The Status of Rapid Response Learning in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for an age-related impairment in associative processing under intentional encoding and retrieval conditions, but the status of incidental associative processing has been less clear. Two experiments examined the effects of age on rapid response learning – the incidentally learned stimulus-response association that results in a reduction in priming when a learned response becomes inappropriate for a new task. Specifically, we tested whether priming was equivalently sensitive in both age groups to reversing the task-specific decision cue. Experiment 1 showed that cue inversion reduced priming in both age groups using a speeded inside/outside classification task, and in Experiment 2 cue inversion eliminated priming on an associative version of this task. Thus, the ability to encode an association between a stimulus and its initial task-specific response appears to be preserved in aging. These findings provide an important example of a form of associative processing that is unimpaired in older adults. PMID:20853961

  14. Rapid acid treatment of Escherichia coli: transcriptomic response and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Geetha; Wilks, Jessica C; Fitzgerald, Devon M; Jones, Brian D; BonDurant, Sandra S; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2008-01-01

    Background Many E. coli genes show pH-dependent expression during logarithmic growth in acid (pH 5–6) or in base (pH 8–9). The effect of rapid pH change, however, has rarely been tested. Rapid acid treatment could distinguish between genes responding to external pH, and genes responding to cytoplasmic acidification, which occurs transiently following rapid external acidification. It could reveal previously unknown acid-stress genes whose effects are transient, as well as show which acid-stress genes have a delayed response. Results Microarray hybridization was employed to observe the global gene expression of E. coli K-12 W3110 following rapid acidification of the external medium, from pH 7.6 to pH 5.5. Fluorimetric observation of pH-dependent tetR-YFP showed that rapid external acidification led to a half-unit drop in cytoplasmic pH (from pH 7.6 to pH 6.4) which began to recover within 20 s. Following acid treatment, 630 genes were up-regulated and 586 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes included amino-acid decarboxylases (cadA, adiY, gadA), succinate dehydrogenase (sdhABCD), biofilm-associated genes (bdm, gatAB, and ymgABC), and the Gad, Fur and Rcs regulons. Genes with response patterns consistent with cytoplasmic acid stress were revealed by addition of benzoate, a membrane-permeant acid that permanently depresses cytoplasmic pH without affecting external pH. Several genes (yagU, ygiN, yjeI, and yneI) were up-regulated specifically by external acidification, while other genes (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA) presented a benzoate response consistent with cytoplasmic pH stress. Other genes (the nuo operon for NADH dehydrogenase I, and the HslUV protease) showed delayed up-regulation by acid, with expression rising by 10 min following the acid shift. Conclusion Transcriptomic profiling of E. coli K-12 distinguished three different classes of change in gene expression following rapid acid treatment: up-regulation with or without recovery, and

  15. Modifying dielectrophoretic response of nonviable yeast cells by ionic surfactant treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhang, Wei; Baratchi, Sara; Nasabi, Mahyar; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2013-07-02

    Nonviable cells are essential biosystems, due to the functionalities they offer and their effects on viable cells. Therefore, the separation and immobilization of nonviable cells separately or in the vicinity of viable cells is of great importance for many fundamentals investigations in cell biology. However, most nonviable cells become less polarizable than the surrounding medium at conductivities above 0.01 S/m. This means that in such a medium, dielectrophoresis, despite its great versatilities for manipulation of cells, cannot be employed for immobilizing nonviable cells. Here, we present a novel approach to change the dielectrophoretic (DEP) response of nonviable yeast cells by treating them with low concentrations of ionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. After this treatment, they exhibit a strong positive DEP response, even at high medium conductivities. The capability of this treatment is demonstrated in two proof-of-concept experiments. First, we show the sorting and immobilization of viable and nonviable yeast cells, along consecutive microelectrode arrays. Second, we demonstrate the immobilization of viable and nonviable cells in the vicinity of each other along the same microelectrode array. The proposed technique allows DEP platforms to be utilized for the immobilization and subsequent postanalysis of both viable and nonviable cells with and without the presence of each other.

  16. Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis and characterization of CaF₂ particles-filled cellulose nanocomposites in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fu; Fu, Lian-Hua; Ma, Ming-Guo

    2015-05-05

    In this article, we try to compound cellulose/alkali earth metal fluorides (MF2, M=Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) nanocomposites via microwave-assisted ionic liquid method, wherein cellulose/CaF2 and cellulose/MgF2 were successfully synthesized through this method while cellulose/SrF2 and cellulose/BaF2 could not be synthesized. We focused on the synthesis of cellulose/CaF2 and investigated the influences of the different time and different temperature for the synthesis of cellulose/CaF2 nanocomposites. The influence of different heating methods such as oil-bath heating method was also studied. Ionic liquid ([Bmim][BF4]) was used for dissolving microcrystalline cellulose and providing the source of fluoride ionic and the alkali earth metal nitrate (Ca(NO3)2, Mg(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2, and Ba(NO3)2) was used as the reaction initiator. They were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS). The different heating modes have influence on the morphology and property. The different temperature and heating time also have a certain influence on the morphology and crystallinity of calcium fluoride.

  17. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate warming and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid environmental shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of warming on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.

  18. Rapid response, flow diversion saves wildlife habitat after oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills can create operational, financial and public relations nightmares for petroleum companies. Fast, effective response in the hours following a spill can minimize the impacts and ensure that biological recovery can proceed without residual effects. Such a rapid, successful response was made to one of California`s largest inland oil spills by ARCO Pipe Line Co., its consultants, Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, and its contractors. The spill occurred about 70 miles north of Los Angeles in a pipeline designed to transport oil to Los angeles-area refineries from the San Joaquin Valley. The pipeline ruptured on April 6, 1993, spraying 6,200 barrels of blended crude oil onto the northbound lanes of a major freeway. The crude oil flowed through the freeway`s stormwater collection system and into a nearby creek. Because response to the spill was rapid and appropriate, all cleanup activities were completed and approved by the California Department of Fish and Game within 21 days of the release. In addition, a sensitive wildlife habitat recovered quickly after floating oil, oil-contaminated soil and vegetation were removed. Follow-up soil and water samples and biological surveys confirmed that plant and animal life had suffered only short-term, localized impacts.

  19. UAS Photogrammetry for Rapid Response Characterization of Subaerial Coastal Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, C.; Anarde, K.; Figlus, J.; Prouse, W.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) provide an exciting new platform for rapid response measurement of subaerial coastal change. Here we validate the use of a coupled hobbyist UAS and optical photogrammetry framework for high-resolution mapping of portions of a low-lying barrier island along the Texas Gulf Coast. A DJI Phantom 3 Professional was used to capture 2D nadir images of the foreshore and back-beach environments containing both vegetated and non-vegetated features. The images were georeferenced using ground-truth markers surveyed via real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS and were then imported into Agisoft Photoscan, a photo-processing software, to generate 3D point clouds and digital elevation maps (DEMs). The georeferenced elevation models were then compared to RTK measurements to evaluate accuracy and precision. Thus far, DEMs derived from UAS photogrammetry show centimeter resolution for renderings of non-vegetated landforms. High-resolution renderings of vegetated and back-barrier regions have proven more difficult due to interstitial wetlands (surface reflectance) and uneven terrain for GPS backpack surveys. In addition to producing high-quality models, UAS photogrammetry has demonstrated to be more time-efficient than traditional mapping methods, making it advantageous for rapid response deployments. This study is part of a larger effort to relate field measurements of storm hydrodynamics to subaerial evidence of geomorphic change to better understand barrier island response to extreme storms.

  20. Rapid response radiation sensors for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory is developing a rapid response radiation detection system for homeland security field applications. The intelligence-driven system is deployed only when non-radiological information about the target is verifiable. The survey area is often limited, so the detection range is small; in most cases covering a distance of 10 meters or less suffices. Definitive response is required in no more than 3 seconds and should minimize false negative alarms, but can err on the side of positive false alarms. The detection system is rapidly reconfigurable in terms of size, shape, and outer appearance; it is a plug-and-play system. Multiple radiation detection components (viz., two or more sodium iodide scintillators) are used to independently "over-determine" the existence of the threat object. Rapid response electronic dose rate meters are also included in the equipment suite. Carefully studied threat signatures are the basis of the decision making. The use of Rad-Detect predictive modeling provides information on the nature of the threat object. Rad-Detect provides accurate dose rate from heavily shielded large sources; for example those lost in Mexico were Category 1 radiation sources (~3,000 Ci of 60Co), the most dangerous of five categories defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Taken out of their shielding containers, Category 1 sources can kill anyone who is exposed to them at close range for a few minutes to an hour. Whenever possible sub-second data acquisition will be attempted, and, when deployed, the system will be characterized for false alarm rates. Although the radiation detection materials selected are fast (viz., faster scintillators), their speed is secondary to sensitivity, which is of primary importance. Results from these efforts will be discussed and demonstrated.

  1. Fractionation of muscle activity in rapid responses to startling cues

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Lauren R.

    2017-01-01

    Movements in response to acoustically startling cues have shorter reaction times than those following less intense sounds; this is known as the StartReact effect. The neural underpinnings for StartReact are unclear. One possibility is that startling cues preferentially invoke the reticulospinal tract to convey motor commands to spinal motoneurons. Reticulospinal outputs are highly divergent, controlling large groups of muscles in synergistic patterns. By contrast the dominant pathway in primate voluntary movement is the corticospinal tract, which can access small groups of muscles selectively. We therefore hypothesized that StartReact responses would be less fractionated than standard voluntary reactions. Electromyogram recordings were made from 15 muscles in 10 healthy human subjects as they carried out 32 varied movements with the right forelimb in response to startling and nonstartling auditory cues. Movements were chosen to elicit a wide range of muscle activations. Multidimensional muscle activity patterns were calculated at delays from 0 to 100 ms after the onset of muscle activity and subjected to principal component analysis to assess fractionation. In all cases, a similar proportion of the total variance could be explained by a reduced number of principal components for the startling and the nonstartling cue. Muscle activity patterns for a given task were very similar in response to startling and nonstartling cues. This suggests that movements produced in the StartReact paradigm rely on similar contributions from different descending pathways as those following voluntary responses to nonstartling cues. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate that the ability to activate muscles selectively is preserved during the very rapid reactions produced following a startling cue. This suggests that the contributions from different descending pathways are comparable between these rapid reactions and more typical voluntary movements. PMID:28003416

  2. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  3. The limitations in implementing and operating a rapid response system.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, A; Botha, J; Tiruvoipati, R

    2016-10-01

    Despite the widespread introduction of rapid response systems (RRS)/medical emergency teams (MET), there is still controversy regarding how effective they are. While there are some observational studies showing improved outcomes with RRS, there are no data from randomised controlled trials to support the effectiveness. Nevertheless, the MET system has become a standard of care in many healthcare organisations. In this review, we present an overview of the limitations in implementing and operating a RRS in modern healthcare. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them? 665.300 Section 665.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.300 What are rapid response activities and who is...

  5. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them? 665.300 Section 665.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.300 What are rapid response activities and who...

  6. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  7. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  8. Ionic self-assembled porphyrin-graphene composite for enhanced photocurrent response and electrochemical property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Sun, Ruirui; Tang, Mingyi; Ren, Shi

    2017-02-01

    We have synthesized cationic mesa-tetra(4-pyridyl) porphine (TPyP)-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid structures through chemical reduction and subsequent ionic self-assembly. UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies are used to analyze the structures, which indicate that TPyP covalent bonds present between the double surface of RGO sheets. A reversible on/off photo-current density of 45.89 A/cm2 has been observed when the as-formed TPyP/RGO nanocomposite is placed in the environment of pulsed white-light illumination. In addition, an ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor could be fabricated by the as-prepared TPyP/RGO to detect thrombin. A linear response to thrombin has been observed with the as-formed electrochemical aptasensor in the concentration range of 1-1200 nM. Besides, the limitation of detection is determined to be 0.3 nM.

  9. Ionic currents underlying difference in light response between type A and type B photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, K T

    2006-05-01

    In Hermissenda crassicornis, the memory of light associated with turbulence is stored as changes in intrinsic and synaptic currents in both type A and type B photoreceptors. These photoreceptor types exhibit qualitatively different responses to light and current injection, and these differences shape the spatiotemporal firing patterns that control behavior. Thus the objective of the study was to identify the mechanisms underlying these differences. The approach was to develop a type B model that reproduced characteristics of type B photoreceptors recorded in vitro, and then to create a type A model by modifying a select number of ionic currents. Comparison of type A models with characteristics of type A photoreceptors recorded in vitro revealed that type A and type B photoreceptors have five main differences, three that have been characterized experimentally and two that constitute hypotheses to be tested with experiments in the future. The three differences between type A and type B photoreceptors previously characterized include the inward rectifier current, the fast sodium current, and conductance of calcium-dependent and transient potassium channels. Two additional changes were required to produce a type A photoreceptor model. The very fast firing frequency observed during the first second after light onset required a faster time constant of activation of the delayed rectifier. The fast spike adaptation required a fast, noninactivating calcium-dependent potassium current. Because these differences between type A and type B photoreceptors have not been confirmed in comparative experiments, they constitute hypotheses to be tested with future experiments.

  10. Microwave-assisted rapid conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by ScCl3 in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuanmu; Zhang, Zehui; Liu, Bing; Xu, Zheng; Deng, Kejian

    2013-06-28

    In this study, synthesis of HMF from carbohydrates was carried out in ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) catalyzed by ScCl3 under microwave irradiation. Under the optimal reaction conditions, HMF was obtained in a high yield of 73.4% in 2 mins with the microwave power at 400 W. Compared with the conventional oil-bath heating manner, the use of microwave irradiation not only reduced reaction times from hours to minutes, but also improved HMF yield. This catalytic system could be reused several times without losing its catalytic activity. This efficient catalytic system will generate a promising application strategy for biomass transformation.

  11. Guatemala’s Ministry of Health Rapid Response Team Manuals

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Luis; Hanson, Kimberly M.; Martel, Lise D.

    2017-01-01

    The function of public health rapid response teams (RRTs) is to quickly identify, investigate, and control an outbreak before it can spread. The Central America Regional Office in Guatemala provided assistance to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS) to develop RRT manuals at the district and regional levels. The manuals are divided into 4 sections: background, activity lists, standard operating procedures, and annexes. The manuals outline Guatemala’s RRT members’ responsibilities and will be tested in the near future through tabletop exercises. The development of the manuals is a concrete and significant step toward the attainment of Guatemala’s IHR goals and should be integrated into a larger emergency management system to promote “a world safe and secure from global health threats posed by infectious diseases.” PMID:25254918

  12. Guatemala's ministry of health rapid response team manuals.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis; Hanson, Kimberly M; Martel, Lise D

    2014-01-01

    The function of public health rapid response teams (RRTs) is to quickly identify, investigate, and control an outbreak before it can spread. The Central America Regional Office in Guatemala provided assistance to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS) to develop RRT manuals at the district and regional levels. The manuals are divided into 4 sections: background, activity lists, standard operating procedures, and annexes. The manuals outline Guatemala's RRT members' responsibilities and will be tested in the near future through tabletop exercises. The development of the manuals is a concrete and significant step toward the attainment of Guatemala's IHR goals and should be integrated into a larger emergency management system to promote "a world safe and secure from global health threats posed by infectious diseases."

  13. Rapid versus Non-rapid Cycling Bipolar II Depression: Response to Venlafaxine and Lithium and Hypomanic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Soeller, Irene; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and effectiveness of antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy in rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II disorder. Method Subjects ≥18 years old with bipolar II depression (n=129) were randomized to double-blind venlafaxine or lithium carbonate monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n=59) received continuation monotherapy for 6 additional months. Results Rapid cycling did not affect frequency of response or change over time in depressive symptoms. Rapid cycling status did not affect frequency of depressive relapse or sustained treatment response. Rapid cyclers were more likely to experience hypomanic symptoms (p=0.005) during continuation monotherapy; however, rates were similar in venlafaxine (17.6%) and lithium (42.9%) (p=0.31). Conclusion Rapid cycling status may not be associated with an increased risk of diminished response or greater depressive relapse during venlafaxine, relative to lithium monotherapy, in bipolar II subjects. Additional randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26803764

  14. Rapid Prototyping of Simulated VIIRS Data in the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easson, G.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Irwin, D.; Cherrington, E.

    2006-12-01

    A rapid prototyping capability experiment has been established involving the application of the SERVIR (Sistema Regional de Visualización y Monitoreo) decision support tool, which is NASA's and its partner agencies' tool to monitor groundcover and climatic conditions in Mesoamerica. As an information system, the SERVIR tool processes data products from multiple sources and the outcome is visualized through interactive digital maps, standard view map outputs or 3D real-time visualization. The focus of this research is one of the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response products known as the MODIS SERVIR Fire Extent Product, which was developed to meet the requirements of the Guatemalan Park Service. The credibility of SERVIR's monitoring tools currently depends upon NASA's MODIS data, which is nearing the end of its availability. This will make it necessary to transition to the planned replacement sensor, VIIRS. The impact of this transition on the performance of SERVIR's fire detection tools is the current focus of our investigation. A quantitative assessment of fire conditions in Guatemala is made using MODIS data and is compared to the anticipated performance using simulated data that would have been produced by a VIIRS-like sensor. Using a low-density geospatial database, the comparison is made for a number of dates from the 2003 Guatemalan fire season, where ground validation data is available. A comparative assessment is also made using the kappa statistic applied to the land classifications resulting from both the MODIS- and VIIRS- based fire detection algorithms.

  15. Addressing Patient Safety in Rapid Response Activations for Nonhospitalized Persons.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, Pradeep H; Darby, Joseph M; Simmons, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) have been widely accepted as useful adjuncts to the care of inpatients with unanticipated emergencies. One study suggested that leadership of such teams could be assigned to midlevel providers, especially when nonhospitalized person (NHP)-related emergencies occur. However, in our tertiary medical center, a critical care medicine (CCM) physician always leads all RRT events including those related to NHPs. In this study, we postulate reasons in favor of a single structured RRT led by an intensivist for both inpatients and NHPs. An observational study conducted at an academic medical center. Demographic and clinical characteristics of NHP-related RRT events were evaluated over a 9-month period. Rapid response teams were activated 1,952 times, of which, 154 events were NHP related. Only 42 RRT activations occurred for employees and visitors. Most of the NHP activations (112 events) occurred in response to events involving persons who were on the premises because of preexisting illnesses, either visiting physician offices (46 events), undergoing ambulatory diagnostic procedures (30 events), in transit to the emergency department (13 events), or undergoing emergency psychiatry evaluation (11 events). Most patients (83 NHPs) required admission to the hospital including 22 NHPs to intensive care units (ICUs) either directly from the event location or subsequently from the emergency department. The physician team leader admitted 20 NHPs directly from the scene, of which, 13 were admitted directly to ICUs. Nonhospitalized patients requiring RRT activation often have complex pre-existent illnesses. A standardized team composition for both inpatients and NHPs in crisis is an appropriate administrative structure enhancing patient safety in hospitals where ambulatory and inpatient facilities are combined.

  16. Thermodynamics, electrostatics, and ionic current in nanochannels grafted with pH-responsive end-charged polyelectrolyte brushes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study the thermodynamics, electrostatics, and an external electric field driven ionic current in a pH-responsive, end-charged polyelectrolyte (PE) brush grafted nanochannel. By employing a mean field theory, we unravel a highly nonintuitive interplay of pH and electrolyte salt concentration in dictating the height of the end-charged PE brush. Larger pH or weak hydrogen ion concentration leads to maximum ionization of the charge-producing group-as a consequence, the resulting the electric double layer (EDL) energy get maximized causing a maximum deviation of the brush height from the value (d0 ) of the uncharged brush. This deviation may result in enhancement or lowering of the brush height as compared to d0 depending on whether the PE end locates lower or higher than h/2 (h is the nanochannel half height) and the salt concentration. Subsequently, we use this combined PE-brush-configuration-EDL-electrostatics framework to compute the ionic current in the nanochannel. We witness that the ionic current for smaller pH is much larger despite the corresponding magnitude of the EDL electrostatic potential being much smaller-this stems from the presence of a much larger concentration of H+ ions at small pH and the fact that H+ ions have very large mobilities. In fact, this ionic current shows a steep variation with pH that can be useful in exploring new designs for applications involving quantification and characterization of ionic current in PE-brush-grafted nanochannels. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ionic liquid molecularly imprinted polymers for application in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography for rapid screening of dicofol in celery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongyuan; Yang, Chen; Sun, Yunyun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2014-09-26

    A new type of ionic liquid molecularly imprinted polymers (IL-MIPs) synthesized by precipitation polymerization using 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as an auxiliary solvent and α-chloro-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (α-chloro-DDT) as the template was applied as a selective sorbent of minimized pipette tip-solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) for rapid isolation and extraction of dicofol (DCF) from celery samples. The pretreatment procedure of celery samples involved only 2.0mg of IL-MIPs, 0.8 mL of acetonitrile-water (ACN-H2O; 1:1, v/v) (washing solvent), and 1.0 mL of acetone-10% acetic acid (HOAc) (elution solvent). Compared with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), ionic liquid-non-imprinted polymers (IL-NIPs) and conventional sorbents such as C18, Si, NH2, and Al2O3-N, IL-MIPs showed higher adsorption and purification capacity to DCF in aqueous solution. Good linearity for DCF was observed in the range from 2.3 to 232.5 ng g(-1) (r(2)=0.9995). The average recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 86.6% to 101.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of ≤ 6.5% (n=3). The presented IL-MIPs-PT-SPE-GC/ECD method combines the advantages of MIPs, IL, and PT-SPE, and can be used in aqueous conditions with high affinity and selectivity to analytes of complex samples.

  18. Ionic liquid-mediated molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detector for rapid screening of dicofol in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongyuan; Sun, Ning; Han, Yehong; Yang, Chen; Wang, Mingyu; Wu, Ruijun

    2013-09-13

    New ionic liquid-mediated molecularly imprinted polymers (IL-MIPs) were prepared by precipitation polymerization using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM(+)PF6(-)) as the auxiliary solvent, α-chloro-DDT as the dummy template, and they were successfully applied as the sorbents of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for rapid screening of dicofol from cabbage, tomato, and carrot samples. The IL-MIPs were characterized by FTIR, FE-SEM, static adsorption and chromatographic evaluation, and the results revealed that the IL-MIPs had higher adsorption capacity and selectivity to dicofol in aqueous solution than that of ionic liquid-mediated non-imprinted polymers (IL-NIPs) and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). Under the optimized conditions, the IL-MIPs-SPE-GC method offered good linearity (0.4-40.0ngg(-1), r(2)=0.9995) and the average recoveries of dicofol at three spiked levels were in a range of 84.6-104.1% (n=3) with RSD≤7.6%. The proposed method obviously improved the selectivity and purification effect, and eliminated the effect of template leakage on dicofol quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid analysis of Fructus forsythiae essential oil by ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Ma, Dan-Hui; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2013-12-04

    A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation and analytical technique, i.e. ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction (ILAMD-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the analysis of essential oil (EO) in Fructus forsythiae. In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) were not only used as the absorption medium of microwave irradiation but also as the destruction agent of plant cell walls. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) was chosen as the optimal ILs. Moreover, n-heptadecane (2.0 μL) was selected as the appropriate suspended solvent for the extraction and concentration of EO. Extraction conditions of the proposed method were optimized using the relative peak area of EO constituents as the index, and the optimal operational parameters were obtained as follows: irradiation power (300 W), sample mass (0.7 g), mass ratio of ILs to sample (2.4), temperature (78°C) and time (3.4 min). In comparison to previous reports, the proposed method was faster and required smaller sample amount but could equally monitor all EO constituents with no significant differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid carbonation for calcite from a solid-liquid-gas system with an imidazolium-based ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdul-Rauf; Vuningoma, Jean Bosco; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun

    2014-06-25

    Aqueous carbonation of Ca(OH)2 is a complex process that produces calcite with scalenohedral calcite phases and characterized by inadequate carbonate species for effective carbonation due to the poor dissolution of CO2 in water. Consequently, we report a solid-liquid-gas carbonation system with an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, in view of enhancing the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2. The use of the IL increased the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous environment and enhanced the transport of the reactive species (Ca2+ and CO32-) and products. The presence of the IL also avoided the formation of the CaCO3 protective and passivation layer and ensured high carbonation yields, as well as the production of stoichiometric rhombohedral calcite phases in a short time.

  1. Rapid Carbonation for Calcite from a Solid-Liquid-Gas System with an Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdul-Rauf; Vuningoma, Jean Bosco; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous carbonation of Ca(OH)2 is a complex process that produces calcite with scalenohedral calcite phases and characterized by inadequate carbonate species for effective carbonation due to the poor dissolution of CO2 in water. Consequently, we report a solid-liquid-gas carbonation system with an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, in view of enhancing the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2. The use of the IL increased the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous environment and enhanced the transport of the reactive species (Ca2+ and CO32−) and products. The presence of the IL also avoided the formation of the CaCO3 protective and passivation layer and ensured high carbonation yields, as well as the production of stoichiometric rhombohedral calcite phases in a short time. PMID:24968273

  2. Information needs for the rapid response team electronic clinical tool.

    PubMed

    Barwise, Amelia; Caples, Sean; Jensen, Jeffrey; Pickering, Brian; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-10-02

    Information overload in healthcare is dangerous. It can lead to critical errors and delays. During Rapid Response Team (RRT) activations providers must make decisions quickly to rescue patients from physiological deterioration. In order to understand the clinical data required and how best to present that information in electronic systems we aimed to better assess the data needs of providers on the RRT when they respond to an event. A web based survey to evaluate clinical data requirements was created and distributed to all RRT providers at our institution. Participants were asked to rate the importance of each data item in guiding clinical decisions during a RRT event response. There were 96 surveys completed (24.5% response rate) with fairly even distribution throughout all clinical roles on the RRT. Physiological data including heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were ranked by more than 80% of responders as being critical information. Resuscitation status was also considered critically useful by more than 85% of providers. There is a limited dataset that is considered important during an RRT. The data is widely available in EMR. The findings from this study could be used to improve user-centered EMR interfaces.

  3. Designing light responsive bistable arches for rapid, remotely triggered actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew L.; Shankar, M. Ravi; Backman, Ryan; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; Lee, Kyung Min; McConney, Michael E.; Wang, David H.; Tan, Loon-Seng; White, Timothy J.

    2014-03-01

    Light responsive azobenzene functionalized polymer networks enjoy several advantages as actuator candidates including the ability to be remotely triggered and the capacity for highly tunable control via light intensity, polarization, wavelength and material alignments. One signi cant challenge hindering these materials from being employed in applications is their often relatively slow actuation rates and low power densities, especially in the absence of photo-thermal e ects. One well known strategy employed in nature for increasing actuation rate and power output is the storage and quick release of elastic energy (e.g., the Venus ytrap). Using nature as inspiration we have conducted a series of experiments and developed an equilibrium mechanics model for investigating remotely triggered snap-through of bistable light responsive arches made from glassy azobenzene functionalized polymers. After brie y discussing experimental observations we consider in detail a geometrically exact, planar rod model of photomechanical snap-through. Theoretical energy release characteristics and unique strain eld pro les provide insight toward design strategies for improved actuator performance. The bistable light responsive arches presented here are potentially a powerful option for remotely triggered, rapid motion from apparently passive structures in applications such as binary optical switches and positioners, surfaces with morphing topologies, and impulse locomotion in micro or millimeter scale robotics.

  4. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  5. Rapid Metabolic Changes in the Wounding Response of Leaf Discs following Excision

    PubMed Central

    Macnicol, Peter K.

    1976-01-01

    The dark respiration rate of discs from fully expanded tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) increased linearly with decreasing diameter, the relative increase being independent of leaf age. The wound respiration responsible for this situation reached a plateau within 15 minutes of excision. Metabolite analysis gave evidence for two independent effects, also unrelated to age. The first was a forward crossover between phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate which was found as early as 1 minute after excision and persisted for up to 40 minutes. It was attributed to activation of pyruvate kinase by a changed ionic balance resulting from membrane damage, was accompanied by a reverse crossover between triose phosphates and 3-phosphoglycerate, and was localized in the outer region of the discs. The second effect was a rapid rise in hexose monophosphate and ATP levels throughout the discs. After 1 to 10 minutes the ATP/ADP ratio rose strongly for at least 3 hours; after 20 to 40 minutes there was net synthesis of adenine nucleotide as ATP. These results indicate that extrapolation from leaf discs to intact leaves is highly inadvisable. PMID:16659430

  6. Sensor web enables rapid response to volcanic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, Ashley G.; Chien, Steve; Wright, Robert; Miklius, Asta; Kyle, Philip R.; Welsh, Matt; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Tran, Daniel; Schaffer, Steven R.; Sherwood, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Rapid response to the onset of volcanic activity allows for the early assessment of hazard and risk [Tilling, 1989]. Data from remote volcanoes and volcanoes in countries with poor communication infrastructure can only be obtained via remote sensing [Harris et al., 2000]. By linking notifications of activity from ground-based and spacebased systems, these volcanoes can be monitored when they erupt.Over the last 18 months, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a Volcano Sensor Web (VSW) in which data from ground-based and space-based sensors that detect current volcanic activity are used to automatically trigger the NASA Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft to make highspatial-resolution observations of these volcanoes.

  7. Rapid evolutionary response to a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Brendan; Jones, Menna; Hamede, Rodrigo; Hendricks, Sarah; McCallum, Hamish; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Schönfeld, Barbara; Wiench, Cody; Hohenlohe, Paul; Storfer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Although cancer rarely acts as an infectious disease, a recently emerged transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) is virtually 100% fatal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has swept across nearly the entire species' range, resulting in localized declines exceeding 90% and an overall species decline of more than 80% in less than 20 years. Despite epidemiological models that predict extinction, populations in long-diseased sites persist. Here we report rare genomic evidence of a rapid, parallel evolutionary response to strong selection imposed by a wildlife disease. We identify two genomic regions that contain genes related to immune function or cancer risk in humans that exhibit concordant signatures of selection across three populations. DFTD spreads between hosts by suppressing and evading the immune system, and our results suggest that hosts are evolving immune-modulated resistance that could aid in species persistence in the face of this devastating disease. PMID:27575253

  8. Applying Bayesian belief networks in rapid response situations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, William L; Deborah, Leishman, A.; Van Eeckhout, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed an enhanced Bayesian analysis tool called the Integrated Knowledge Engine (IKE) for monitoring and surveillance. The enhancements are suited for Rapid Response Situations where decisions must be made based on uncertain and incomplete evidence from many diverse and heterogeneous sources. The enhancements extend the probabilistic results of the traditional Bayesian analysis by (1) better quantifying uncertainty arising from model parameter uncertainty and uncertain evidence, (2) optimizing the collection of evidence to reach conclusions more quickly, and (3) allowing the analyst to determine the influence of the remaining evidence that cannot be obtained in the time allowed. These extended features give the analyst and decision maker a better comprehension of the adequacy of the acquired evidence and hence the quality of the hurried decisions. They also describe two example systems where the above features are highlighted.

  9. Rapid Enzymatic Response to Compensate UV Radiation in Copepods

    PubMed Central

    Souza, María Sol; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Hylander, Samuel; Modenutti, Beatriz; Balseiro, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes physical damage to DNA, carboxylation of proteins and peroxidation of lipids in copepod crustaceans, ubiquitous and abundant secondary producers in most aquatic ecosystems. Copepod adaptations for long duration exposures include changes in behaviour, changes in pigmentation and ultimately changes in morphology. Adaptations to short-term exposures are little studied. Here we show that short-duration exposure to UVR causes the freshwater calanoid copepod, Eudiaptomus gracilis, to rapidly activate production of enzymes that prevent widespread collateral peroxidation (glutathione S-transferase, GST), that regulate apoptosis cell death (Caspase-3, Casp-3), and that facilitate neurotransmissions (cholinesterase-ChE). None of these enzyme systems is alone sufficient, but they act in concert to reduce the stress level of the organism. The interplay among enzymatic responses provides useful information on how organisms respond to environmental stressors acting on short time scales. PMID:22384136

  10. Rapid evolutionary response to a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Brendan; Jones, Menna; Hamede, Rodrigo; Hendricks, Sarah; McCallum, Hamish; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Schönfeld, Barbara; Wiench, Cody; Hohenlohe, Paul; Storfer, Andrew

    2016-08-30

    Although cancer rarely acts as an infectious disease, a recently emerged transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) is virtually 100% fatal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has swept across nearly the entire species' range, resulting in localized declines exceeding 90% and an overall species decline of more than 80% in less than 20 years. Despite epidemiological models that predict extinction, populations in long-diseased sites persist. Here we report rare genomic evidence of a rapid, parallel evolutionary response to strong selection imposed by a wildlife disease. We identify two genomic regions that contain genes related to immune function or cancer risk in humans that exhibit concordant signatures of selection across three populations. DFTD spreads between hosts by suppressing and evading the immune system, and our results suggest that hosts are evolving immune-modulated resistance that could aid in species persistence in the face of this devastating disease.

  11. Tibolone Rapidly Attenuates the GABAB Response in Hypothalamic Neurones

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Bosch, Martha A.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kloosterboer, Helenius J.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Tibolone is primarily used for the treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone is rapidly converted into three major metabolites: 3α- and 3β-hydroxy-tibolone (3α- and 3βOH-tibolone), which have oestrogenic effects, and the Δ4-isomer (Δ4-tibolone), which has progestogenic and androgenic effects. Since tibolone is effective in treating climacteric symptoms, the effects on the brain may be explained by the oestrogenic activity of tibolone. Previously using whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found that 17β-oestradiol (E2) rapidly altered GABA neurotransmission in hypothalamic neurones through a membrane oestrogen receptor (mER). E2 reduced the potency of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen to activate G-protein-coupled, inwardly rectifying K+ channels in hypothalamic neurones. Therefore, we hypothesized that tibolone may have some rapid effects through the mER and sought to elucidate the signalling pathway of tibolone’s action using selective inhibitors and whole cell recording in ovariectomized female guinea pigs and mice. A sub-population of neurones was identified post hoc as proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones by immunocytochemical staining. Similar to E2, we have found that tibolone and its active metabolite 3βOH-tibolone rapidly reduced the potency of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen to activate GIRK channels in POMC neurones. The effects were blocked by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Other metabolites of tibolone (3αOH-tibolone and Δ4-tibolone) had no effect. Furthermore, tibolone (and 3βOH-tibolone) was fully efficacious in ERαKO and ERβKO mice to attenuate GABAB responses. The effects of tibolone were blocked by phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. However, in contrast to E2, the effects of tibolone were not blocked by protein kinase C inhibitors or protein kinase A inhibitors. It appears that tibolone (and 3βOH-tibolone) activates phospholipase C leading to PIP2 metabolism and direct alteration of GIRK channel function. Therefore, tibolone

  12. Immobilization of flax protoplasts in agarose and alginate beads. Correlation between ionically bound cell-wall proteins and morphogenetic response.

    PubMed Central

    Roger, D; David, A; David, H

    1996-01-01

    Linum usitatissimum protoplast-derived colonies that are cultured in auxin-supplemented medium and immobilized in Ca(2+)-alginate matrix form round colonies that develop into polarized, embryo-like structures. On the other hand, protoplast-derived colonies that are immobilized in agarose do not show an organized morphogenetic response, and unique, ionically bound cell-wall protein patterns match this response. Although only slight differences in neosynthesized or total constitutive polypeptides are observed, dramatic changes in ionically bound cell-wall proteins are seen. In protoplasts grown on Ca(2+)-alginate-solidified, auxin-containing medium, several basic polypeptides were strongly induced and were found tightly bound to the cell wall. In contrast, these basic proteins were found only weakly bound to the walls of protoplasts grown on agarose-solidified, auxin-containing medium or on Ca(2+)-alginate-solidified, auxin-free medium, in which they were released into the medium. Our results suggest that plant cells can perceive and respond to the adjacent extracellular matrix, since we show that the growth of flax cells on Ca(2+)-alginate in the presence of auxin-containing medium may promote the binding of specific proteins to the walls. This establishes a direct correlation of an embryo-like morphogenesis with ionically bound cell-wall basic proteins in flax protoplasts grown on Ca(2+)-alginate-solidified, auxin-containing medium. PMID:8938417

  13. Anionic structure-dependent photoelectrochemical responses of dye-sensitized solar cells based on a binary ionic liquid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Hao, Feng; Lin, Hong; Liu, Yizhu; Li, Jianbao

    2011-04-14

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as electrolytes to investigate the anionic structure dependence of the photoelectrochemical responses of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A series of RTILs with a fixed cation structure coupling with various anion structures are employed, in which 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (PMII) and I(2) are dissolved as redox couples. It is found that both the diffusivity of the electrolyte and the photovoltaic performance of the device show a strong dependence on the fluidity of the ionic liquids, which is primarily altered by the anion structure. Further insights into the structure-dependent physical properties of the employed RTILs are discussed in terms of the reported van der Waals radius, the atomic charge distribution over the anion backbones, the interaction energy of the anion and cation, together with the existence of ion-pairs and ion aggregates. Particularly, both the short-circuit photocurrent and open-circuit voltage exhibit obvious fluidity dependence. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photovoltage/photocurrent spectroscopy analysis further reveal that increasing the fluidity of the ionic liquid electrolytes could significantly decrease the diffusion resistance of I(3)(-) in the electrolyte, and retard the charge recombination between the injected electrons with triiodide in the high-viscous electrolyte, thus improving the electron diffusion length in the device, as well as the photovoltaic response. However, the variation of the electron diffusion coefficients is trivial primarily due to the effective charge screening of the high cation concentration.

  14. Rapid Responses of Groundwater Systems in Reservoir Sediment Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskiy, M.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phreatic aquifers that develop within reservoir sediment deposits contribute to the water and mass balances of reservoir systems and in turn strongly influence their ecology. As a case study, we examine the response of an aquifer formed within the sediment deposit of Searsville Reservoir (California, U.S.A.) using data from a set of 18 piezometers installed in the deposit and the adjacent native material. Searsville Reservoir is located in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve of Stanford University in the low foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. As is typical of Mediterranean climates, almost all precipitation occurs as rain in the winters, and summers are dry. Approximately weekly data are available from the piezometers, in addition to high-frequency streamflow and meteorological data collected in the vicinity of the reservoir. High-frequency pressure head data at some of the piezometer locations are also available for portions of the record. We combine time series and spatial analysis to explore how the water table responds to precipitation and evaporation patterns. Analysis reveals that fluctuations in the water table are highly responsive to precipitation and evaporation stimuli, with more muted responses to reservoir water surface elevation and streamflow across the sediment surface. Spatially, we see distinct patterns across the sediment body, along with consistent, periodic reversals in direction of groundwater flow at some locations. Temporally, in addition to rapid responses during rainfall events, we observe diurnal fluctuations due to evapotranspiration and a seasonal signal tempered by water surface regulation at the dam. Taken together, our data reveal reservoir sediment deposits to be dynamic ecohydrologic environments over multiple scales.

  15. Sulfonated Copper Phthalocyanine/Sulfonated Polysulfone Composite Membrane for Ionic Polymer Actuators with High Power Density and Fast Response Time.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taehoon; Cho, Hyeongrae; Lee, Jang-Woo; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Kang, Youngjong; Koo, Chong Min

    2017-08-30

    Ionic polymer composite membranes based on sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) and copper(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (CuPCSA) are assembled into bending ionic polymer actuators. CuPCSA is an organic filler with very high sulfonation degree (IEC = 4.5 mmol H(+)/g) that can be homogeneously dispersed on the molecular scale into the SPAES membrane, probably due to its good dispersibility in SPAES-containing solutions. SPAES/CuPCSA actuators exhibit larger ion conductivity (102 mS cm(-1)), tensile modulus (208 MPa), strength (101 MPa), and strain (1.21%), exceptionally faster response to electrical stimuli, and larger mechanical power density (3028 W m(-3)) than ever reported for ion-conducting polymer actuators. This outstanding actuation performance of SPAES/CuPCSA composite membrane actuators makes them attractive for next-generation transducers with high power density, which are currently developed, e.g., for underwater propulsion and endoscopic surgery.

  16. Rapid ionic liquid-based ultrasound assisted dual magnetic microextraction to preconcentrate and separate cadmium-4-(2-thiazolylazo)-resorcinol complex from environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sumaira; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Soylak, Mustafa

    2014-04-05

    A rapid and innovative microextraction technique named as, ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dual magnetic microextraction (IL-UA-DMME) was developed for the preconcentration and extraction of trace cadmium from environmental and biological samples, prior to analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The proposed method has many obvious advantages, including evading the use of organic solvents and achieved high extraction yields by the combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and magnetic mediated-solid phase extraction (MM-SPE). In this approach ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4mim][PF6] play an important role to extract the cadmium-4-(2-thiazolylazo)-resorcinol (Cd-TAR) complex from acid digested sample solutions and ultrasonic irradiation was applied to assist emulsification. After then, dispersed small amount of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in sample solutions to salvaged the IL and complete phase separation was attained. Some analytical parameters that influencing the efficiency of proposed (IL-UA-DMME) method, such as pH, volume of IL, ligand concentration, ultra-sonication time, amount of Fe3O4 MNPs, sample volume and matrix effect were optimized. Limit of detection (LOD) and enrichment factor (EF) of the method under optimal experimental conditions were found to be 0.40μgL(-1) and 100, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of 50μgL(-1) Cd was 4.29%. The validity and accuracy of proposed method, was assessed to analyzed certified reference materials of fortified lake water TMDA-54.4, SPS-WW2 waste water, spinach leaves 1570a and also checked by standard addition method. The obtained values showed good agreement with the certified values and sufficiently high recovery were found in the range of 98.1-101% for Cd. The proposed method was facile, rapid and successfully applied for the determination of Cd in environmental and different biological samples.

  17. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p < 0.001; 1.09 vs 1.13, p = 0.001, respectively), the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence was significantly decreased after rapid response system (1.60 vs 1.23; p = 0.021), and mortality (%) was unchanged (1.38 vs 1.33; p = 0.322). After rapid response system implementation, the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence significantly decreased by 40% during rapid response system operating times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  18. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  19. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  20. Rapid and sensitive analysis of microcystins using ionic liquid-based in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Honglian; Clark, Kevin D; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-08-07

    Three structurally different ionic liquids (ILs), namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]), 1-(6-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([HeOHMIM][Cl]) and 1-benzyl-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)imidazolium bromide ([BeEOHIM][Br]), were applied as extraction solvents using in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ DLLME) for the preconcentration of two microcystin variants, microcystin-RR (MC-RR) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from aqueous samples. Extraction parameters including sample solution pH, ratio of IL to metathesis reagent, sample volume, IL quantity, and salt concentration were optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. The [BeEOHIM][Br] IL, which contains both an aromatic moiety and a hydroxyl group within its chemical structure, exhibited superior extraction efficiency compared to the other two ILs. The analytical performance of the [BeEOHIM][Br] IL as an extraction solvent for in situ DLLME of microcystins was investigated using HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS. The limits of detection (LODs) for MC-RR and MC-LR were 0.7μgL(-1) using UV detection with a linear range from 1 to 50μgL(-1). The separation method was successfully adapted for ESI-MS/SIM detection, wherein the LODs for MC-RR and MC-LR were greatly improved to 0.005 and 0.003μgL(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by examining the relative recovery using tap water and river water and produced recoveries ranging from 45.0 to 109.7% and from 46.3 to 103.2%, respectively.

  1. Sensor Webs: Autonomous Rapid Response to Monitor Transient Science Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Grosvenor, Sandra; Frye, Stu; Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Cichy, Ben; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix

    2005-01-01

    To better understand how physical phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions, evolve over time, multiple sensor observations over the duration of the event are required. Using sensor web approaches that integrate original detections by in-situ sensors and global-coverage, lower-resolution, on-orbit assets with automated rapid response observations from high resolution sensors, more observations of significant events can be made with increased temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. This paper describes experiments using Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) along with other space and ground assets to implement progressive mission autonomy to identify, locate and image with high resolution instruments phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, floods and ice breakup. The software that plans, schedules and controls the various satellite assets are used to form ad hoc constellations which enable collaborative autonomous image collections triggered by transient phenomena. This software is both flight and ground based and works in concert to run all of the required assets cohesively and includes software that is model-based, artificial intelligence software.

  2. Rapid Response Team composition, resourcing and calling criteria in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daryl; Drennan, Kelly; Hart, Graeme K; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Web, Steven A R

    2012-05-01

    Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) have been introduced into at least 60% of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) - equipped Australian hospitals to review deteriorating ward patients. Most studies have assessed their impact on patient outcome and less information exists on team composition or aspects of their calling criteria. We obtained information on team composition, resourcing and details of activation criteria from 39 of 108 (36.1%) RRT-equipped Australian hospitals. We found that all 39 teams operated 24/7 (h/days), but only 10 (25.6%) had received additional funding for the service. Although 38/39 teams, were physician-led medical emergency teams, in 7 (17.9%) sites the most senior member would be unlikely to have advanced airway skills. Three quarters of calling criteria were structured into "ABCD", and approximately 40% included cardiac and/or respiratory arrest as a calling criterion. Thresholds for calling criteria varied widely (particularly for respiratory rate and heart rate), as did the wording of the worried/concerned criterion. There was also wide variation in the number and nature of additional activation criteria. Our findings imply the likelihood of significant practice variation in relation to RRT composition, staff skill set and activation criteria between hospitals. We recommend improved resourcing of RRTs, training of the team members, and consideration for improved standardisation of calling criteria across institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-06-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak.

  4. Rapid response teams in adult hospitals: time for another look?

    PubMed

    White, K; Scott, I A; Vaux, A; Sullivan, C M

    2015-12-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT), alternatively termed medical emergency teams, have become part of the clinical landscape in the majority of adult hospitals throughout Australia and New Zealand. These teams aim to bring critical care expertise to the bedside of clinically deteriorating patients residing in general hospital wards with the aim of preventing adverse outcomes, in particular death or cardiorespiratory arrests. While the concept of RRT has considerable face validity, there is little high quality evidence of their effectiveness and much uncertainty as to the optimal methods for identifying patients in need of RRT and calling the RRT (afferent limb) and how, and with whom, the RRT should then respond (efferent limb). Adverse unintended consequences of RRT systems and the opportunity costs involved in maintaining such systems have not been subject to study, amid concerns RRT may be compensating for other potentially remediable system of care failures. This article presents an overview of the current state of play of RRT in hospital practice as they pertain to the care of adult patients and identifies several issues around their implementation and evaluation that should be subject to further research.

  5. The epidemiology of adult Rapid Response Team patients in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, D

    2014-03-01

    Rapid Response Teams (RRT) are specialised teams that review deteriorating ward patients in an attempt to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most studies have assessed the effect of implementing an RRT into a hospital. There is much less literature on the characteristics and outcomes of RRT patients themselves. This article reviews the epidemiology of adult RRT patients in Australia and proposes three models of RRT syndromes. The number of RRT calls varies considerably in Australian hospitals from 1.35 to 71.3/1000 hospital admissions. Common causes of RRT calls include sepsis, atrial fibrillation, seizures and pulmonary oedema. Approximately 20% of patients to whom an RRT has responded have more than one RRT call, and up to one-third have issues around end-of-life care. Calls are least common overnight. Between 10 to 25% of patients are admitted to a critical care area after the call. The in-hospital mortality for RRT patients is approximately 25% overall but only 15% in patients without a limitation of medical therapy. RRT syndromes can be conceptually described by the trigger for the call (e.g. hypotension) or the clinical condition causing the call (e.g. sepsis). Alternatively, the RRT call can be described by the major theme of the call: "end-of-life care", "requiring critical care" and "stable enough to initially remain on the ward". Based on these themes, education strategies and quality improvement initiatives may be developed to reduce the incidence of RRT calls, further improving patient outcome.

  6. The Simulation-Based Assessment of Pediatric Rapid Response Teams.

    PubMed

    Fehr, James J; McBride, Mary E; Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2017-09-01

    To create scenarios of simulated decompensating pediatric patients to train pediatric rapid response teams (RRTs) and to determine whether the scenario scores provide a valid assessment of RRT performance with the hypothesis that RRTs led by intensivists-in-training would be better prepared to manage the scenarios than teams led by nurse practitioners. A set of 10 simulated scenarios was designed for the training and assessment of pediatric RRTs. Pediatric RRTs, comprising a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) registered nurse and respiratory therapist, led by a PICU intensivist-in-training or a pediatric nurse practitioner, managed 7 simulated acutely decompensating patients. Two raters evaluated the scenario performances and psychometric analyses of the scenarios were performed. The teams readily managed scenarios such as supraventricular tachycardia and opioid overdose but had difficulty with more complicated scenarios such as aortic coarctation or head injury. The management of any particular scenario was reasonably predictive of overall team performance. The teams led by the PICU intensivists-in-training outperformed the teams led by the pediatric nurse practitioners. Simulation provides a method for RRTs to develop decision-making skills in managing decompensating pediatric patients. The multiple scenario assessment provided a moderately reliable team score. The greater scores achieved by PICU intensivist-in-training-led teams provides some evidence to support the validity of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid Particle Patterning in Surface Deposited Micro-Droplets of Low Ionic Content via Low-Voltage Electrochemistry and Electrokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Sidelman, Noam; Cohen, Moshik; Kolbe, Anke; Zalevsky, Zeev; Herrman, Andreas; Richter, Shachar

    2015-01-01

    Electrokinetic phenomena are a powerful tool used in various scientific and technological applications for the manipulation of aqueous solutions and the chemical entities within them. However, the use of DC-induced electrokinetics in miniaturized devices is highly limited. This is mainly due to unavoidable electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, which hinder successful manipulation. Here we present experimental evidence that on-chip DC manipulation of particles between closely positioned electrodes inside micro-droplets can be successfully achieved, and at low voltages. We show that such manipulation, which is considered practically impossible, can be used to rapidly concentrate and pattern particles in 2D shapes in inter-electrode locations. We show that this is made possible in low ion content dispersions, which enable low-voltage electrokinetics and an anomalous bubble-free water electrolysis. This phenomenon can serve as a powerful tool in both microflow devices and digital microfluidics for rapid pre-concentration and particle patterning. PMID:26293477

  8. Rapid determination of oxindole alkaloids in cat's claw by HPLC using ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction and silica monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Yeh, Yu-Ying; Chang, Li-Ching; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Wu, Yu-Tse

    2017-08-01

    Cat's claw is a large woody vine with hook-like thorns, and has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory disorders in South and Central America. In this study, a rapid, validated high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using a silica monolithic column was developed for the simultaneous determination of oxindole alkaloids, namely rhynchophylline, pteropodine, isomitraphylline and isopteropodine, in cat's claw. The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE), considered as an environmentally friendly and powerful tool, was first applied in the extraction of oxindole alkaloids. To optimize the HPLC method, the stationary phases, pH values of mobile phase and flow rates were investigated. The validated HPLC method using a Monolithic RP18e column (100 × 4.6 mm) enables these analytes to be separated almost twice as fast as with a conventional particulate column (~16 vs ~30 min) with limits of quantification and detection of 0.5 and 0.15 μg/mL, respectively. The ILMAE conditions were optimized by the Taguchi orthogonal array design. In comparison with conventional water boiling extraction, ILMAE offers almost four times higher yields within an extremely short extraction time. The developed HPLC coupled with ILMAE method could be efficient and practical for rapid determination of oxindole alkaloids in cat's claw. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Rapid synthesis of flower-like Cu2O architectures in ionic liquids by the assistance of microwave irradiation with high photochemical activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Kuo; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Yang; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Shen, Yu-Hua; Wang, Xue-Mei; Xie, An-Jian

    2011-07-07

    A novel and facile protocol for the rapid synthesis of flower-like Cu(2)O architectures is reported in the presence of ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF(4)) with the assistance of microwave irradiation. The hierarchical structures are assembled from many thin nanosheets with tunable sizes by adjusting the amount of [BMIM]BF(4) in the reaction solution. Noticeably, the flower-like Cu(2)O architectures present a high surface area of 65.77 cm(2) g(-1) with a band gap of about 2.25 eV, and exhibit high and stable photochemical activity for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) under visible light irradiation. A reasonable model of an absorption and diffusion-limited aggregation process is proposed for explaining the possible formation mechanism of the flower-like Cu(2)O. The approach described in this study provides a feasible and rapid method to synthesize flower-like Cu(2)O with a hierarchical structure that is ready for application in the fields of photocatalytic hazard pollutants. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  11. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  12. Effectiveness of Kanban Approaches in Systems Engineering within Rapid Response Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    University of Science and Technology Effectiveness of kanban approaches in systems engineering within rapid response environments Richard Turner...examines one of those approaches, kanban (pull) scheduling techniques, to determine its applicability to systems and software engineering in a rapid...response environment. The paper describes work in progress defining a general systems engineering kanban approach, a specific kanban process for rapid

  13. Storey building early monitoring based on rapid seismic response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julius, Musa, Admiral; Sunardi, Bambang; Rudyanto, Ariska

    2016-05-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method.The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration give a different viewpoint of building dynamic because duration of Kebumen earthquake shows the highest energy in the highest floor but Pandeglang and Lebak earthquake in the lowest floor. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the

  14. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    the sensorimotor consequences of the system alterations imposed by the postural tasks used in those studies. Preliminary results from two younger patients who lost vestibular function as infants indicate that age, duration of vestibular loss, and/or the timing of the loss may also be factors that can influence the use of hip strategy as a rapid postural response.

  15. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    the sensorimotor consequences of the system alterations imposed by the postural tasks used in those studies. Preliminary results from two younger patients who lost vestibular function as infants indicate that age, duration of vestibular loss, and/or the timing of the loss may also be factors that can influence the use of hip strategy as a rapid postural response.

  16. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses.

    PubMed

    Runge, C F; Shupert, C L; Horak, F B; Zajac, F E

    1998-10-01

    the sensorimotor consequences of the system alterations imposed by the postural tasks used in those studies. Preliminary results from two younger patients who lost vestibular function as infants indicate that age, duration of vestibular loss, and/or the timing of the loss may also be factors that can influence the use of hip strategy as a rapid postural response.

  17. The MAPK pathway is involved in the regulation of rapid pacing-induced ionic channel remodeling in rat atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Haidong

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to the expression L‑type calcium channels (LTCCs) and Kv4.3 potassium channels form the possible basis of atrial electrical remodeling during rapid pacing. The mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is affected by increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+, and therefore represents an attractive candidate for the regulation and mediation of Ca2+‑induced ion channel remodeling. The present study aimed to investigate alterations to the ion channel‑MAPK axis, and to determine its influence on ion channel remodeling during atrial fibrillation. Rat atrial myocytes were isolated, cultured, and in vitro rapid pacing was established. Intracellular Ca2+ signals were monitored using the Fluo‑3/AM Ca2+ indicator. Verapamil, PD98058 and SB203580 were added to the culture medium of various groups at specific time‑points. The mRNA expression levels of LTCC‑α1c and Kv4.3 potassium channels were detected by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression levels of channel and signaling proteins. The results demonstrated that fast pacing significantly increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in atrial myocytes, whereas treatment with verapamil markedly inhibited this increase. In addition, verapamil significantly antagonized the rapid pacing‑induced activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and p38MAPK. These results indicated that the MAPK pathway may have an important role in the opening of LTCCs, and alterations to MAPK molecule expression could affect the expression and remodeling of ion channels.

  18. Acute Decompensation in Pediatric Cardiac Patients: Outcomes After Rapid Response Events.

    PubMed

    Bavare, Aarti C; Rafie, Kimia S; Bastero, Patricia X; Hagan, Joseph L; Checchia, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    We studied rapid response events after acute clinical instability outside ICU settings in pediatric cardiac patients. Our objective was to describe the characteristics and outcomes after rapid response events in this high-risk cohort and elucidate the cardiac conditions and risk factors associated with worse outcomes. A retrospective single-center study was carried out over a 3-year period from July 2011 to June 2014. Referral high-volume pediatric cardiac center located within a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. All rapid response events that occurred during the study period were reviewed to identify rapid response events in cardiac patients. None. We reviewed 1,906 rapid response events to identify 152 rapid response events that occurred in 127 pediatric cardiac patients. Congenital heart disease was the baseline diagnosis in 74% events (single ventricle, 28%; biventricle physiology, 46%). Seventy-four percent had a cardiac surgery before rapid response, 37% had ICU stay within previous 7 days, and acute kidney injury was noted in 41% post rapid response. Cardiac and/or pulmonary arrest occurred during rapid response in 8.5%. Overall, 81% were transferred to ICU, 22% had critical deterioration (ventilation or vasopressors within 12 hr of transfer), and 56% received such support and/or invasive procedures within 72 hours. Mortality within 30 days post event was 14%. Significant outcome associations included: single ventricle physiology-increased need for invasive procedures and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; p = 0.02); multiple rapid response triggers-increased ICU transfer and interventions at 72 hours; critical deterioration-cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality; and acute kidney injury-cardiopulmonary arrest and need for hemodynamic support. Congenital heart disease, previous cardiac surgery, and recent discharge from ICU were common among pediatric cardiac rapid responses. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response, need for ICU

  19. [Highly efficient and rapid capillary electrophoretic analysis of seven organic acid additives in beverages using polymeric ionic liquid as additive].

    PubMed

    Han, Haifeng; Wang, Qing; Liu, Xi; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2012-05-01

    A new capillary electrophoretic method for the rapid and direct separation of seven organic acids in beverages was developed, with poly (1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide) as the reliable background electrolyte modifier to reverse the direction of anode electroosmotic flow (EOF) severely. Several factors that affected the separation efficiency were investigated in detail. The optimal running buffer consisted of 125 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 6.5) and 0.01 g/L poly (1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide). Highly efficient separation (105,000 to 636,000 plates/m) was achieved within 4 min and standard deviations of the migration times (n=3) were lower than 0.0213 min under optimal conditions. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 g/L. The present method was applied to determine a beverage sample (Mirinda) for sodium citrate, benzoic acid and sorbic acid with concentration of 2.64, 0.10 and 0.08 g/L, respectively. The recoveries of the three analytes in the sample were 100.3%, 100.7% and 131.7%, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and can be applied to determine organic acids as additives in beverages.

  20. Spectrophotometric Rapid-Response Classification of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Butler, Nat; Axelrod, Tim; Moskovitz, Nick; Jedicke, Robert; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks after their discovery. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs.We present results from our rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization program of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. We derive taxonomic classifications for our targets using machine-learning techniques that are trained on a large sample of measured asteroid spectra. For each target we assign a probability for it to belong to a number of different taxa. Target selection, observation, data reduction, and analysis are highly automated, requiring only a minimum of user interaction, making this technique powerful and fast. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques, or would require many hours of large telescope time.

  1. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  2. Rapid-Response Impulsivity: Definitions, Measurement Issues, and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kristen R.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Anastasio, Noelle C.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Fink, Latham H.; Wing, Victoria C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Lane, Scott D.; Schutz, Christian; Swann, Alan C.; Lejuez, C.W.; Clark, Luke; Moeller, F. Gerard; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-faceted construct that is a core feature of multiple psychiatric conditions and personality disorders. However, progress in understanding and treating impulsivity in the context of these conditions is limited by a lack of precision and consistency in its definition and assessment. Rapid-response-impulsivity (RRI) represents a tendency toward immediate action that occurs with diminished forethought and is out of context with the present demands of the environment. Experts from the International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI) met to discuss and evaluate RRI-measures in terms of reliability, sensitivity, and validity with the goal of helping researchers and clinicians make informed decisions about the use and interpretation of findings from RRI-measures. Their recommendations are described in this manuscript. Commonly-used clinical and preclinical RRI-tasks are described, and considerations are provided to guide task selection. Tasks measuring two conceptually and neurobiologically distinct types of RRI, “refraining from action initiation” (RAI) and “stopping an ongoing action” (SOA) are described. RAI and SOA-tasks capture distinct aspects of RRI that may relate to distinct clinical outcomes. The InSRI group recommends that: 1) selection of RRI-measures should be informed by careful consideration of the strengths, limitations, and practical considerations of the available measures; 2) researchers use both RAI and SOA tasks in RRI studies to allow for direct comparison of RRI types and examination of their associations with clinically relevant measures; and, 3) similar considerations should be made for human and non-human studies in an effort to harmonize and integrate pre-clinical and clinical research. PMID:25867840

  3. Stigma in Canada: results from a rapid response survey.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-10-01

    Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian's expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health-related variables. Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time.

  4. Rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II depression: response to venlafaxine and lithium and hypomanic risk.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Luaces, L; Amsterdam, J D; Soeller, I; DeRubeis, R J

    2016-06-01

    To examine the safety and effectiveness of antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy in rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II disorder. Subjects ≥18 years old with bipolar II depression (n = 129) were randomized to double-blind venlafaxine or lithium carbonate monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n = 59) received continuation monotherapy for six additional months. Rapid cycling did not affect frequency of response or change over time in depressive symptoms. Rapid cycling status did not affect frequency of depressive relapse or sustained treatment response. Rapid cyclers were more likely to experience hypomanic symptoms (P = 0.005) during continuation monotherapy; however, rates were similar in venlafaxine (17.6%) and lithium (42.9%) (P = 0.31). Rapid cycling status may not be associated with an increased risk of diminished response or greater depressive relapse during venlafaxine, relative to lithium monotherapy, in bipolar II subjects. Additional randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Thickness dependence of curvature, strain, and response time in ionic electroactive polymer actuators fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazami, Reza; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiming; Heflin, James R.

    2011-05-01

    Ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators containing porous conductive network composites (CNCs) and ionic liquids can result in high strain and fast response times. Incorporation of spherical gold nanoparticles in the CNC enhances conductivity and porosity, while maintaining relatively small thickness. This leads to improved mechanical strain and bending curvature of the actuators. We have employed the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to fabricate a CNC with enhanced curvature (0.43 mm-1) and large net intrinsic strain (6.1%). The results demonstrate that curvature and net strain of IEAP actuators due to motion of the anions increase linearly with the thickness of the CNC as a result of the increased volume in which the anions can be stored. In addition, after subtracting the curvature of a bare Nafion actuator without a CNC, it is found that the net intrinsic strain of the CNC layer is independent of thickness for the range of 20-80 nm, indicating that the entire CNC volume contributes equivalently to the actuator motion. Furthermore, the response time of the actuator due to anion motion is independent of CNC thickness, suggesting that traversal through the Nafion membrane is the limiting factor in the anion motion.

  6. Rapid Response to the Howard Hanson Dam Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Carter, G.; White, A.; Neiman, P. J.; King, C.; Jankov, I.; Colman, B.; Cook, K.; Buehner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Dedicated in 1962, the Howard A. Hanson Dam (HHD) brought necessary flood relief to the Green River Valley in the Metropolitan Area of Seattle, Washington, and opened the way for increased valley development. For example, the flood damage prevented by HHD during the extreme precipitation event in early January 2009 is estimated to be about $4 billion. However, following the record high level of water behind HHD caused by this event, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) became concerned about the Dam’s safety. Despite short-term measures to improve HHD during 2009, the chance for a significant Green River Valley flood event was estimated by the ACE to be 1 in 25 for the 2009/10 winter season. In response to this elevated risk, NOAA organized a coordinated effort across research and forecast operations to implement new observations, modeling and dissemination tools, and knowledge of the role of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in producing extreme precipitation, prototyped in California within NOAA’s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov). Fortunately, although seasonal observed precipitation (October 2009 through March 2010) in the Seattle area was slightly greater than normal (e.g., 112% of normal at the Seattle National Weather Service Forecast Office), there were no threatening floods observed along the Green River. This outcome was influenced by a synoptic pattern that was progressive, i.e., storms did not stall over this vulnerable watershed, which reduced the chance for an extensive (time and space) extreme event. More than a decade of West Coast winter storm research conducted primarily in California by NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory/Physical Sciences Division (ESRL/PSD) has identified atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow regions of enhanced water vapor transport, as the culprits that cause extreme precipitation events, such as the January 2009 event that stressed HHD. ESRL/PSD extended this AR research to the coast of Washington by deploying a

  7. Rapid Response Team Activations in Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Wathen, Beth; Roosevelt, Genie E; Hill, Lauren R S; Schubert, Anna; Reese, Jenny; Bensard, Denis D; Kulungowski, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    Introduction The rapid response team (RRT) is a multidisciplinary team who evaluates hospitalized patients for concerns of nonemergent clinical deterioration. RRT evaluations are mandatory for children whose Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score (assessment of child's behavior, cardiovascular and respiratory status) is ≥4. We aimed to determine if there were differences in characteristics of RRT calls between children who were admitted primarily to either medical or surgical services. We hypothesized that RRT activations would be called for less severely ill children with lower PEWS score on surgical services compared with children admitted to a medical service. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of all children with RRT activations between January 2008 and April 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We evaluated the characteristics of RRT calls and made comparisons between RRT calls made for children admitted primarily to medical or surgical services. Results A total of 2,991 RRT activations were called, and 324 (11%) involved surgical patients. Surgical patients were older than medical patients (median: 7 vs. 4 years; p < 0.001). RRT evaluations were called for lower PEWS score in surgical patients compared with medical (median: 3 vs. 4, p < 0.001). Surgical patients were more likely to remain on the inpatient ward following the RRT (51 vs. 39%, p < 0.001) and were less likely to require an advanced airway than medical patients (0.9 vs. 2.1%; p = 0.412). RRT evaluations did not differ between day and night shifts (52% day vs. 48% night; p = 0.17). All surgical patients and all but one medical patient survived the event; surgical patients were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (97 vs. 91%, p < 0.001) Conclusions RRT activations are rare events among pediatric surgical patients. When compared with medical patients, RRT evaluation is requested for surgical patients with a lower PEWS

  8. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A systematic realist review.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-07-20

    To determine the Rapid Response System programme theory and investigate how the mechanisms of implementation and the characteristics of context combine to enable or constrain the implementation of Rapid Response Systems and the achievement of desired outcomes. Rapid Response Systems have been implemented internationally to improve the recognition and management of patient deterioration, reduce the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and improve patient outcomes. Realist review. We searched DARE, CENTRAL, NHSEED, MEDLINE, Medline In Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, The Web of Science and PychInfo databases from 1997 - 2017 in addition to purposively searching the grey literature looking for articles supporting, refuting or explaining Rapid Response System programme theories. Included studies were critically appraised and graded using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Data extraction and synthesis investigated the Rapid Response System theoretical propositions against the empirical evidence to refine Rapid Response System programme theories. The review found that the Rapid Response System programme theory achieved desired outcomes when there were sufficient skills mix of experienced staff, EWS protocols were used flexibly alongside clinical judgement and staff had access to ongoing, multiprofessional, competency-based education. However, ward cultures, hierarchical referral systems, workload and staffing resources had a negative impact on the implementation of the Rapid Response System. To improve the recognition and management of patient deterioration, policymakers need to address those cultural, educational and organizational factors that have an impact on the successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems in practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rapid Response Measurements of Hurricane Waves and Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravois, U.

    2010-12-01

    Andrew (1992), Katrina (2005), and Ike (2008) are recent examples of extensive damage that resulted from direct hurricane landfall. Some of the worst damages from these hurricanes are caused by wind driven waves and storm surge flooding. The potential for more hurricane disasters like these continues to increase as a result of population growth and real estate development in low elevation coastal regions. Observational measurements of hurricane waves and storm surge play an important role in future mitigation efforts, yet permanent wave buoy moorings and tide stations are more sparse than desired. This research has developed a rapid response method using helicopters to install temporary wave and surge gauges ahead of hurricane landfall. These temporary installations, with target depths from 10-15 m and 1-7 km offshore depending on the local shelf slope, increase the density of measurement points where the worst conditions are expected. The method has progressed to an operational state and has successfully responded to storms Ernesto (2006), Noel (2007), Fay (2008), Gustav (2008), Hanna (2008) and Ike (2008). The temporary gauges are pressure data loggers that measure at 1 Hz continuously for 12 days and are post-processed to extract surge and wave information. For the six storms studied, 45 out of 49 sensors were recovered by boat led scuba diver search teams, with 43 providing useful data for an 88 percent success rate. As part of the 20 sensor Hurricane Gustav response, sensors were also deployed in lakes and bays inLouisiana, east of the Mississippi river delta. Gustav was the largest deployment to date. Generally efforts were scaled back for storms that were not anticipated to be highly destructive. For example, the cumulative total of sensors deployed for Ernesto, Noel, Fay and Hanna was only 20. Measurement locations for Gustav spanned over 800 km of exposed coastline from Louisiana to Florida with sensors in close proximity to landfall near Cocodrie

  10. Layer-by-layer self-assembled conductor network composites in ionic polymer metal composite actuators with high strain response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng; Montazami, Reza; Liu, Yang; Jain, Vaibhav; Lin, Minren; Heflin, James R.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the electromechanical response of conductor network composite (CNC) fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The process makes it possible for CNCs to be fabricated at submicron thickness with high precision and quality. This CNCs exhibits high strain ˜6.8% under 4 V, whereas the RuO2/Nafion CNCs exhibit strain ˜3.3%. The high strain and submicron thickness of the LbL layers in an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) yield large and fast actuation. The response time of a 26 μm thick IPMC with 0.4 μm thick LbL CNCs to step voltage of 4 V is 0.18 s.

  11. A Rapid Response Study of the Hercules Gas Well Blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Samantha B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Murawski, Steven A.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Wade, Terry L.; Montuoro, Raffaele; Roberts, Brian J.; Hollander, David J.; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Chanton, Jeffery P.

    2014-09-01

    On 20 April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig lost well control while drilling at the Macondo prospect in the Gulf of Mexico. At the time of the Macondo blowout, the academic scientific community was ill prepared to initiate and rapidly conduct the necessary coordinated interdisciplinary studies of the environments around the discharge area.

  12. Nonlinear space charge dynamics in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Resistive switching and ferroelectric-like hysteresis of electromechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Kim, Yunseok; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Morozovsky, Nicholas V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-08-01

    We performed self-consistent modelling of nonlinear electrotransport and electromechanical response of thin films of mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) allowing for steric effects of mobile charged defects (ions, protons, or vacancies), electron degeneration, and Vegard stresses. We establish correlations between the features of the nonlinear space-charge dynamics, current-voltage, and bending-voltage curves for different types of the film electrodes. A pronounced ferroelectric-like hysteresis of the bending-voltage loops and current maxima on the double hysteresis current-voltage loops appear for the electron-transport electrodes. The double hysteresis loop with pronounced humps indicates a memristor-type resistive switching. The switching occurs due to the strong nonlinear coupling between the electronic and ionic subsystems. A sharp meta-stable maximum of the electron density appears near one open electrode and moves to another one during the periodic change of applied voltage. Our results can explain the nonlinear nature and correlation of electrical and mechanical memory effects in thin MIEC films. The analytical expression proving that the electrically induced bending of MIEC films can be detected by interferometric methods is derived.

  13. Nonlinear space charge dynamics in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Resistive switching and ferroelectric-like hysteresis of electromechanical response

    SciTech Connect

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Morozovsky, Nicholas V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Kim, Yunseok; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-08-14

    We performed self-consistent modelling of nonlinear electrotransport and electromechanical response of thin films of mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) allowing for steric effects of mobile charged defects (ions, protons, or vacancies), electron degeneration, and Vegard stresses. We establish correlations between the features of the nonlinear space-charge dynamics, current-voltage, and bending-voltage curves for different types of the film electrodes. A pronounced ferroelectric-like hysteresis of the bending-voltage loops and current maxima on the double hysteresis current-voltage loops appear for the electron-transport electrodes. The double hysteresis loop with pronounced humps indicates a memristor-type resistive switching. The switching occurs due to the strong nonlinear coupling between the electronic and ionic subsystems. A sharp meta-stable maximum of the electron density appears near one open electrode and moves to another one during the periodic change of applied voltage. Our results can explain the nonlinear nature and correlation of electrical and mechanical memory effects in thin MIEC films. The analytical expression proving that the electrically induced bending of MIEC films can be detected by interferometric methods is derived.

  14. Rapid and sensitive analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and acrylamide in food samples using ionic liquid-based in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Cagliero, Cecilia; Pierson, Stephen A; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-01-20

    A simple and rapid ionic liquid (IL)-based in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method was developed and coupled to headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) employing electron capture (ECD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and acrylamide at trace levels from milk and coffee samples. The chemical structures of the halide-based ILs were tailored by introducing various functional groups to the cations to evaluate the effect of different structural features on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes. Extraction parameters including the molar ratio of IL to metathesis reagent and IL mass were optimized. The effects of HS oven temperature and the HS sample vial volume on the analyte response were also evaluated. The optimized in situ DLLME method exhibited good analytical precision, good linearity, and provided detection limits down to the low ppt level for PCBs and the low ppb level for acrylamide in aqueous samples. The matrix-compatibility of the developed method was also established by quantifying acrylamide in brewed coffee samples. This method is much simpler and faster compared to previously reported GC-MS methods using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the extraction/preconcentration of PCBs and acrylamide from complex food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  16. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  17. Rapid response to eating disorder treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Linardon, Jake; Brennan, Leah; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl

    2016-10-01

    This review aimed to (a) examine the effects of rapid response on behavioral, cognitive, and weight-gain outcomes across the eating disorders, (b) determine whether diagnosis, treatment modality, the type of rapid response (changes in disordered eating cognitions or behaviors), or the type of behavioral outcome moderated this effect, and (c) identify factors that predict a rapid response. Thirty-four articles met inclusion criteria from six databases. End of treatment and follow-up outcomes were divided into three categories: Behavioral (binge eating/purging), cognitive (EDE global scores), and weight gain. Average weighted effect sizes(r) were calculated. Rapid response strongly predicted better end of treatment and follow-up cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Moderator analyses showed that the effect size for rapid response on behavioral outcomes was larger when studies included both binge eating and purging (as opposed to just binge eating) as a behavioral outcome. Diagnosis, treatment modality, and the type of rapid response experienced did not moderate the relationship between early response and outcome. The evidence for weight gain was mixed. None of the baseline variables analyzed (eating disorder psychopathology, demographics, BMI, and depression scores) predicted a rapid response. As there is a solid evidence base supporting the prognostic importance of rapid response, the focus should shift toward identifying the within-treatment mechanisms that predict a rapid response so that the effectiveness of eating disorder treatment can be improved. There is a need for future research to use theories of eating disorders as a guide to assess within-treatment predictors of rapid response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:905-919. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Science Partnerships Enabling Rapid Response: Designing a Strategy for Improving Scientific Collaboration during Crisis Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, L.; Gibbs, T.; Adiseshan, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster required unprecedented engagement and collaboration with scientists from multiple disciplines across government, academia, and industry. Although this spurred the rapid advancement of valuable new scientific knowledge and tools, it also exposed weaknesses in the system of information dissemination and exchange among the scientists from those three sectors. Limited government communication with the broader scientific community complicated the rapid mobilization of the scientific community to assist with spill response, evaluation of impact, and public perceptions of the crisis. The lessons and new laws produced from prior spills such as Exxon Valdez were helpful, but ultimately did not lead to the actions necessary to prepare a suitable infrastructure that would support collaboration with non-governmental scientists. As oil demand pushes drilling into increasingly extreme environments, addressing the challenge of effective, science-based disaster response is an imperative. Our study employs a user-centered design process to 1) understand the obstacles to and opportunity spaces for effective scientific collaboration during environmental crises such as large oil spills, 2) identify possible tools and strategies to enable rapid information exchange between government responders and non-governmental scientists from multiple relevant disciplines, and 3) build a network of key influencers to secure sufficient buy-in for scaled implementation of appropriate tools and strategies. Our methods include user ethnography, complex system mapping, individual and system behavioral analysis, and large-scale system design to identify and prototype a solution to this crisis collaboration challenge. In this talk, we will present out insights gleaned from existing analogs of successful scientific collaboration during crises and our initial findings from the 60 targeted interviews we conducted that highlight key collaboration challenges that government

  19. [Responses of tomato leaf photosynthesis to rapid water stress].

    PubMed

    Han, Guo-Jun; Chen, Nian-lai; Huang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Yan-hong

    2013-04-01

    By using polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution to regulate the water potential of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) rhizosphere to simulate water stress, this paper studied the dynamic changes of net photosynthetic rate, dark respiratory rate and CO2 compensatory concentration of detached tomato leaves in the process of photosynthetic induction. Under 1000 micromol m-2 s-1 of light induction, the time required to reach the maximum net photosynthetic rate of water-stressed tomato leaves was shortened by 1/3, while the stomatal conductance was increased by 1.5 times, as compared to the non-stress control. Also, the light saturation point (LSP) of water-stressed tomato leaves was lowered by 65% to 85%, and the light compensation point (LCP) was increased by 75% to 100%, suggesting that the effective range of light utilized by tomato leaves was reduced. Furthermore, water stress decreased the maximum photosynthetic capacity of tomato leaves by 40%, but increased the dark respiration rate by about 45% . It was suggested that rapid water stress made the stomata of tomato leaves quickly opened, without initial photosynthetic induction stage. In conclusion, water stress could induce the decrease of plant light-energy use efficiency and potential, being the main reason for the decrease of plant productivity, and stomatal regulation could be the main physiological mechanism of tomato plants to adapt to rapid water stress.

  20. Specialized Mechanosensory Nociceptors Mediating Rapid Responses to Hair Pull.

    PubMed

    Ghitani, Nima; Barik, Arnab; Szczot, Marcin; Thompson, James H; Li, Chia; Le Pichon, Claire E; Krashes, Michael J; Chesler, Alexander T

    2017-08-16

    The somatosensory system provides animals with the ability to detect, distinguish, and respond to diverse thermal, mechanical, and irritating stimuli. While there has been progress in defining classes of neurons underlying temperature sensation and gentle touch, less is known about the neurons specific for mechanical pain. Here, we use in vivo functional imaging to identify a class of cutaneous sensory neurons that are selectively activated by high-threshold mechanical stimulation (HTMRs). We show that their optogenetic excitation evokes rapid protective and avoidance behaviors. Unlike other nociceptors, these HTMRs are fast-conducting Aδ-fibers with highly specialized circumferential endings wrapping the base of individual hair follicles. Notably, we find that Aδ-HTMRs innervate unique but overlapping fields and can be activated by stimuli as precise as the pulling of a single hair. Together, the distinctive features of this class of Aδ-HTMRs appear optimized for accurate and rapid localization of mechanical pain. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A perspective on multisensory integration and rapid perturbation responses.

    PubMed

    Cluff, Tyler; Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Scott, Stephen H

    2015-05-01

    In order to perform accurate movements, the nervous system must transform sensory feedback into motor commands that compensate for errors caused by motor variability and external disturbances. Recent studies focusing on the importance of sensory feedback in motor control have illustrated that the brain generates highly flexible responses to visual perturbations (hand-cursor or target jumps), or following mechanical loads applied to the limb. These parallel approaches have emphasized sophisticated, goal-directed feedback control, but also reveal that flexible perturbation responses are expressed at different latencies depending on what sensory system is engaged by the perturbation. Across studies, goal-directed visuomotor responses consistently emerge in muscle activity ∼100ms after a perturbation, while mechanical perturbations evoke goal-directed muscle responses in as little as ∼60ms (long-latency responses). We discuss the limitation of current models of multisensory integration in light of these asynchronous processing delays, and suggest that understanding how the brain performs real-time multisensory integration is an open question for future studies.

  2. Rapid eco-evolutionary responses in perturbed phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Geneviève; Walsh, David A; Beisner, Beatrix E

    2015-09-07

    Biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats owing to species extinctions. Ecologically, compensatory dynamics can ensure stable community biomass following perturbation. However, whether there is a contribution of genetic diversity to community responses is an outstanding question. To date, the contribution of evolutionary processes through genotype shifts has not been assessed in naturally co-occurring multi-species communities in the field. We examined the mechanisms contributing to the response of a lake phytoplankton community exposed to either a press or pulse acidification perturbation in lake mesocosms. To assess community shifts in the ecological response of morphospecies, we identified taxa microscopically. We also assessed genotype shifts by sequencing the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA. We observed ecological and genetic contributions to community responses. The ecological response was attributed to compensatory morphospecies dynamics and occurred primarily in the Pulse perturbation treatment. In the Press treatments, in addition to compensatory dynamics, we observed evidence for genotype selection in two species of chlorophytes, Desmodesmus cuneatus and an unidentified Chlamydomonas. Our study demonstrates that while genotype selection may be rare, it is detectable and occurs especially when new environmental conditions are maintained for long enough to force selection processes on standing variation.

  3. Rapid eco-evolutionary responses in perturbed phytoplankton communities

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Geneviève; Walsh, David A.; Beisner, Beatrix E.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats owing to species extinctions. Ecologically, compensatory dynamics can ensure stable community biomass following perturbation. However, whether there is a contribution of genetic diversity to community responses is an outstanding question. To date, the contribution of evolutionary processes through genotype shifts has not been assessed in naturally co-occurring multi-species communities in the field. We examined the mechanisms contributing to the response of a lake phytoplankton community exposed to either a press or pulse acidification perturbation in lake mesocosms. To assess community shifts in the ecological response of morphospecies, we identified taxa microscopically. We also assessed genotype shifts by sequencing the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA. We observed ecological and genetic contributions to community responses. The ecological response was attributed to compensatory morphospecies dynamics and occurred primarily in the Pulse perturbation treatment. In the Press treatments, in addition to compensatory dynamics, we observed evidence for genotype selection in two species of chlorophytes, Desmodesmus cuneatus and an unidentified Chlamydomonas. Our study demonstrates that while genotype selection may be rare, it is detectable and occurs especially when new environmental conditions are maintained for long enough to force selection processes on standing variation. PMID:26311667

  4. Effect of nucleation time on bending response of ionic polymer–metal composite actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suran; Hong, Seungbum; Choi, Yoon-Young; Song, Hanwook; No, Kwangsoo

    2013-07-02

    We attempted an autocatalytic electro-less plating of nickel in order to replace an electroless impregnation-reduction (IR) method in ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) actuators to reduce cost and processing time. Because nucleation time of Pd–Sn colloids is the determining factor of overall processing time, we used the nucleation time as our control parameter. In order to optimize nucleation time and investigate its effect on the performance of IPMC actuators, we analyzed the relationship between the nucleation time, interface morphology and electrical properties. The optimized nucleation time was 10 h. Furthermore, the trends of the performance and electrical properties as a function of nucleation time were attributed to the fact that the Ni penetration depth was determined by the minimum diffusion length of either Pd–Sn colloids or reducing agent ions. The Ni-IPMC actuators can be fabricated less than 14 h processing time without deteriorating performance of the actuators, which is comparable to Pt-IPMC prepared by IR method.

  5. Effect of nucleation time on bending response of ionic polymer–metal composite actuators

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Suran; Hong, Seungbum; Choi, Yoon-Young; ...

    2013-07-02

    We attempted an autocatalytic electro-less plating of nickel in order to replace an electroless impregnation-reduction (IR) method in ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) actuators to reduce cost and processing time. Because nucleation time of Pd–Sn colloids is the determining factor of overall processing time, we used the nucleation time as our control parameter. In order to optimize nucleation time and investigate its effect on the performance of IPMC actuators, we analyzed the relationship between the nucleation time, interface morphology and electrical properties. The optimized nucleation time was 10 h. Furthermore, the trends of the performance and electrical properties as a functionmore » of nucleation time were attributed to the fact that the Ni penetration depth was determined by the minimum diffusion length of either Pd–Sn colloids or reducing agent ions. The Ni-IPMC actuators can be fabricated less than 14 h processing time without deteriorating performance of the actuators, which is comparable to Pt-IPMC prepared by IR method.« less

  6. Suitability of rapid energy magnitude determinations for emergency response purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Bormann, Peter; Grosser, Helmut; Saul, Joachim; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    It is common practice in the seismological community to use, especially for large earthquakes, the moment magnitude Mw as a unique magnitude parameter to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, as a static measure of earthquake size, Mw does not provide direct information about the released seismic wave energy and its high frequency content, which is the more interesting information both for engineering purposes and for a rapid assessment of the earthquake's shaking potential. Therefore, we recommend to provide to disaster management organizations besides Mw also sufficiently accurate energy magnitude determinations as soon as possible after large earthquakes. We developed and extensively tested a rapid method for calculating the energy magnitude Me within about 10-15 min after an earthquake's occurrence. The method is based on pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions obtained from numerical simulations of Green's functions. After empirical validation, the procedure has been applied offline to a large data set of 767 shallow earthquakes that have been grouped according to their type of mechanism (strike-slip, normal faulting, thrust faulting, etc.). The suitability of the proposed approach is discussed by comparing our rapid Me estimates with Mw published by GCMT as well as with Mw and Me reported by the USGS. Mw is on average slightly larger than our Me for all types of mechanisms. No clear dependence on source mechanism is observed for our Me estimates. In contrast, Me from the USGS is generally larger than Mw for strike-slip earthquakes and generally smaller for the other source types. For ~67 per cent of the event data set our Me differs <= +/-0.3 magnitude units (m.u.) from the respective Me values published by the USGS. However, larger discrepancies (up to 0.8 m.u.) may occur for strike-slip events. A reason of that may be the overcorrection of the energy flux applied by the USGS for this type of earthquakes. We follow the original

  7. 77 FR 11517 - Rapid Response Team for Transmission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Response Team for Transmission AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity... be addressed to: Lamont Jackson, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Mail Code:...

  8. Robust Research and Rapid Response: The Plum Pox Virus Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Theodore R.; Bridger, Jeffrey C.; Travis, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Universities are frequently criticized for being unresponsive to the needs of their stakeholders. In response to this perception, many institutions of higher learning have taken steps to become more productively engaged with the people, organizations, and communities they serve. In this article, we analyze the process of engagement by focusing on…

  9. Rapid Educational Response in Complex Emergencies: A Discussion Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Pilar; Retamal, Gonzalo

    On-going political and economic instability impede access to regular education for large numbers of war-affected children and young adults. This brochure represents an effort to consolidate a systematic response to the special needs of children from the outset of the crisis until they can attend regular basic education. Attempts are made to ensure…

  10. Non-ionic, thermo-responsive DEA/DMA nanogels: synthesis, characterization, and use for DNA separations by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xihua; Sun, Mingyun; Barron, Annelise E

    2011-05-15

    Thermo-responsive polymer "nanogels" (crosslinked hydrogel particles with sub-100 nm diameters) are intriguing for many potential applications in biotechnology and medicine. There have been relatively few reports of electrostatically neutral, thermosensitive nanogels comprising a high fraction of hydrophilic co-monomer. Here we demonstrate the syntheses and characterization of novel, non-ionic nanogels based on random N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEA)/N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) copolymers, made by free-radical, surfactant-free dispersion polymerization. The volume-phase transition temperatures of these DEA/DMA nanogels are strongly affected by co-monomer composition, providing a way to "tune" the phase transition temperature of these non-ionic nanogels. While DEA nanogels (comprising no DMA) can be obtained at 70 °C by standard emulsion precipitation, DEA/DMA random co-polymer nanogels can be obtained only in a particular range of temperatures, above the initial phase transition temperature and below the critical precipitation temperature of the DEA/DMA copolymer, controlled by co-monomer composition. Increasing percentages of DMA in the nanogels raises the phase transition temperature, and attenuates and broadens it as well. We find that concentrated DEA/DMA nanogel dispersions are optically clear at room temperature. This good optical clarity was exploited for their use in a novel DNA sieving matrix for microfluidic chip electrophoresis. An ultrafast, high-efficiency dsDNA separation was achieved in less than 120 s for dsDNA ranging from 75 bp to 15,000 bp.

  11. A review of the biological response to ionic dissolution products from bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Alexander; Güldal, Nusret S; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2011-04-01

    Several inorganic materials such as special compositions of silicate glasses, glass-ceramics and calcium phosphates have been shown to be bioactive and resorbable and to exhibit appropriate mechanical properties which make them suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. However, the exact mechanism of interaction between the ionic dissolution products of such inorganic materials and human cells are not fully understood, which has prompted considerable research work in the biomaterials community during the last decade. This review comprehensively covers literature reports which have investigated specifically the effect of dissolution products of silicate bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics in relation to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Particularly, recent advances made in fabricating dense biomaterials and scaffolds doped with trace elements (e.g. Zn, Sr, Mg, and Cu) and investigations on the effect of these elements on the scaffold biological performance are summarized and discussed in detail. Clearly, the biological response to artificial materials depends on many parameters such as chemical composition, topography, porosity and grain size. This review, however, focuses only on the ion release kinetics of the materials and the specific effect of the released ionic dissolution products on human cell behaviour, providing also a scope for future investigations and identifying specific research needs to advance the field. The biological performance of pure and doped silicate glasses, phosphate based glasses with novel specific compositions as well as several other silicate based compounds are discussed in detail. Cells investigated in the reviewed articles include human osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells as well as endothelial cells and stem cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid response to climate change in a marginal sea.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Josey, S A; Borghini, M; Aracri, S; Sparnocchia, S

    2017-06-22

    The Mediterranean Sea is a mid-latitude marginal sea, particularly responsive to climate change as reported by recent studies. The Sicily Channel is a choke point separating the sea in two main basins, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Western Mediterranean Sea. Here, we report and analyse a long-term record (1993-2016) of the thermohaline properties of the Intermediate Water that crosses the Sicily Channel, showing increasing temperature and salinity trends much stronger than those observed at intermediate depths in the global ocean. We investigate the causes of the observed trends and in particular determine the role of a changing climate over the Eastern Mediterranean, where the Intermediate Water is formed. The long-term Sicily record reveals how fast the response to climate change can be in a marginal sea like the Mediterranean Sea compared to the global ocean, and demonstrates the essential role of long time series in the ocean.

  13. Database Development for Ocean Impacts: Imaging, Outreach, and Rapid Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    butterflyfishes: ‘Hearing generalists’ on noisy coral reefs ? Journal of Fish Biology, 77: 1434-1451. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02765[published, refereed...at the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium 9-13 July 2012 Cairns, Queensland, Australia[refereed] 2012 Shorter, K. A. , T. Hurst, M. Johnson...implications for reef responses to climatechange. Paper presented at the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium 9-13 July 2012 Cairns, Queensland

  14. Rapid innate defensive responses of mice to looming visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Melis; Meister, Markus

    2013-10-21

    Much of brain science is concerned with understanding the neural circuits that underlie specific behaviors. While the mouse has become a favorite experimental subject, the behaviors of this species are still poorly explored. For example, the mouse retina, like that of other mammals, contains ∼20 different circuits that compute distinct features of the visual scene [1, 2]. By comparison, only a handful of innate visual behaviors are known in this species--the pupil reflex [3], phototaxis [4], the optomotor response [5], and the cliff response [6]--two of which are simple reflexes that require little visual processing. We explored the behavior of mice under a visual display that simulates an approaching object, which causes defensive reactions in some other species [7, 8]. We show that mice respond to this stimulus either by initiating escape within a second or by freezing for an extended period. The probability of these defensive behaviors is strongly dependent on the parameters of the visual stimulus. Directed experiments identify candidate retinal circuits underlying the behavior and lead the way into detailed study of these neural pathways. This response is a new addition to the repertoire of innate defensive behaviors in the mouse that allows the detection and avoidance of aerial predators.

  15. ESTRADIOL RAPIDLY MODULATES ODOR RESPONSES IN MOUSE VOMERONASAL SENSORY NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    CHERIAN, S.; LAM, Y. WAI; MCDANIELS, I.; STRUZIAK, M.; DELAY, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, many social behaviors are driven by the sense of smell. The vomeronasal organ (VNO), part of the accessory olfactory system mediates many of these chemically driven behaviors. The VNO is heavily vascularized, and is readily accessible to circulating peptide or steroid hormones. Potentially, this allows circulating hormones to alter behavior through modulating the output of the primary sensory neurons in the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Based on this, we hypothesized that steroid hormones, in particular 17β-estradiol, would modulate activity of VSNs. In this paper, we show that the estrogen receptors, GPR30 and ERα, were present in VSNs and that estradiol may be synthesized locally in the VNO. Our results also showed that 17β-estradiol decreased responses of isolated VSNs to dilute urine, a potent natural stimulus, with respect to current amplitudes and depolarization. Further, 17β-estradiol increased the latency of the first action potential (AP) and the AP amplitude. Additionally, calcium responses to sulfated steroids (present in the low molecular weight fraction of urine) that act as ligands for apical vomeronasal receptors were decreased by 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, we show that estradiol modulates odorant responses mediated by VSNs and hence paves the way for future studies to better understand the mechanisms by which odorant mediated behavior is altered by endocrine status of the animal. PMID:24680884

  16. Dissociation of rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks of person recognition.

    PubMed

    Valt, Christian; Klein, Christoph; Boehm, Stephan G

    2015-08-01

    Repetition priming is a prominent example of non-declarative memory, and it increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Major long-hold memory theories posit that repetition priming results from facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks for stimulus recognition and categorization. Stimuli can also be bound to particular responses, and it has recently been suggested that this rapid response learning, not network facilitation, provides a sound theory of priming of object recognition. Here, we addressed the relevance of network facilitation and rapid response learning for priming of person recognition with a view to advance general theories of priming. In four experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions like occupation or nationality judgments for famous faces. The magnitude of rapid response learning varied across experiments, and rapid response learning co-occurred and interacted with facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks. These findings indicate that rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks are complementary rather than competing theories of priming. Thus, future memory theories need to incorporate both rapid response learning and network facilitation as individual facets of priming.

  17. Rapid Response Sensor for Analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. The key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, but this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM

  18. Zinc rapidly induces a metal response element-binding factor.

    PubMed Central

    Czupryn, M; Brown, W E; Vallee, B L

    1992-01-01

    Metal activation of metallothionein gene transcription is mediated by specific promoter sequences, termed metal regulatory elements (MREs). Nuclear extracts prepared from various human cell lines were assayed for their capacity to bind to a synthetic human MREa (hMREa) oligomer. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays with extracts from control cells detected a single hMREa-containing complex. Addition to the growth medium of zinc, cadmium, or copper--metals known to induce MT biosynthesis in vivo--resulted in the rapid but reversible appearance of a second distinct hMREa-protein complex in all cell lines studied. This result was not seen when the metals were added directly to the extracts from control cells. DNA-binding protein blotting, UV crosslinking, and electroelution experiments were used to characterize the two hMREa-binding factors, termed BF1 and BF2. MRE-BF1 has an apparent molecular mass of approximately 86 kDa and binds to the hMREa in control cells, whereas MRE-BF2 consists of two molecules of approximately 28 kDa and binds to the hMREa in metal-treated cells. EDTA and o-phenanthroline inhibited binding of both factors to hMREa in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that a metal atom or atoms are essential for interaction of the factors with DNA. Images PMID:1332048

  19. Automating Hyperspectral Data for Rapid Response in Volcanic Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley G.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2013-01-01

    In a volcanic emergency, time is of the essence. It is vital to quantify eruption parameters (thermal emission, effusion rate, location of activity) and distribute this information as quickly as possible to decision-makers in order to enable effective evaluation of eruption-related risk and hazard. The goal of this work was to automate and streamline processing of spacecraft hyperspectral data, automate product generation, and automate distribution of products. Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Images of volcanic eruption in Iceland in May 2010." class="caption" align="right">The software rapidly processes hyperspectral data, correcting for incident sunlight where necessary, and atmospheric transmission; detects thermally anomalous pixels; fits data with model black-body thermal emission spectra to determine radiant flux; calculates atmospheric convection thermal removal; and then calculates total heat loss. From these results, an estimation of effusion rate is made. Maps are generated of thermal emission and location (see figure). Products are posted online, and relevant parties notified. Effusion rate data are added to historical record and plotted to identify spikes in activity for persistently active eruptions. The entire process from start to end is autonomous. Future spacecraft, especially those in deep space, can react to detection of transient processes without the need to communicate with Earth, thus increasing science return. Terrestrially, this removes the need for human intervention.

  20. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.

  1. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    DOE PAGES

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolatingmore » these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.« less

  2. Data bases for rapid response to power reactor problems

    SciTech Connect

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The urgency of the TMI-2 incident demanded prompt answers to an imperious situation. In responding to these challenging circumstances, both government and industry recognized deficiencies in both availability of essential retrievable data and calculational capabilities designed to respond immediately to actual abnormal events. Each responded by initiating new programs to provide a remedy for the deficiencies and to generally improve all safety measures in the nuclear power industry. Many data bases and information centers offer generic data and other technology resources which are generally useful in support of nuclear safety programs. A few centers can offer rapid access to calculational methods and associated data and more will make an effort to do so. As a beneficial spin-off from the lessons learned from TMI-2, more technical effort and financial resources will be devoted to the prevention of accidents, and to improvement of safety measures in the immediate future and for long term R and D programs by both government and the nuclear power industry.

  3. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  4. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  5. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2017-01-04

    Vibrational spectroscopy has continued use as a powerful tool to characterize ionic liquids since the literature on room temperature molten salts experienced the rapid increase in number of publications in the 1990's. In the past years, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies have provided insights on ionic interactions and the resulting liquid structure in ionic liquids. A large body of information is now available concerning vibrational spectra of ionic liquids made of many different combinations of anions and cations, but reviews on this literature are scarce. This review is an attempt at filling this gap. Some basic care needed while recording IR or Raman spectra of ionic liquids is explained. We have reviewed the conceptual basis of theoretical frameworks which have been used to interpret vibrational spectra of ionic liquids, helping the reader to distinguish the scope of application of different methods of calculation. Vibrational frequencies observed in IR and Raman spectra of ionic liquids based on different anions and cations are discussed and eventual disagreements between different sources are critically reviewed. The aim is that the reader can use this information while assigning vibrational spectra of an ionic liquid containing another particular combination of anions and cations. Different applications of IR and Raman spectroscopies are given for both pure ionic liquids and solutions. Further issues addressed in this review are the intermolecular vibrations that are more directly probed by the low-frequency range of IR and Raman spectra and the applications of vibrational spectroscopy in studying phase transitions of ionic liquids.

  6. Fluorescence response of a dipolar organic solute in a dicationic ionic liquid (IL): is the behavior of dicationic IL different from that of usual monocationic IL?

    PubMed

    Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Das, Sudhir Kumar; Sarkar, Moloy

    2014-07-07

    The solvation and rotational relaxation dynamics of coumarin 153 have been investigated in a dicationic ionic liquid (IL), 1,6-bis-(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl)hexane bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([C6(MIm)2][NTf2]2), for the first time to provide a comprehensive and a quantitative understanding of the nature of the ionic fluid and its influence on the average solvation and rotational relaxation time. On several occasions, the photophysical data obtained in the present dicationic IL have also been compared with the monocationic imidazolium-based ionic liquid so as to find out the difference between their behaviors. The dicationic ionic liquid has been synthesized via a two step process and subsequently characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. Steady state absorption and fluorescence measurements reveal that the polarity of the ionic liquid is close to that of dichloromethane. Steady state excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence measurement indicates the micro-heterogeneous nature of the ionic liquid. However, the steady state excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence response is found to be similar for both the dicationic and a structurally similar monocationic ionic liquid. In the time-resolved fluorescence studies, contrary to the monocationic imidazolium-based ionic liquid, no missing ultra-fast component of solvation has been observed in the present dicationic IL. Excitation wavelength dependence of the average solvation and rotation times also indicates the micro-heterogeneous nature of these media. When viscosity dependence (η) of the measured average solvation 〈τs〉 and rotation 〈τr〉 times are verified by the relation: 〈τx〉 ∝ (η/T)(p) (where 'x' is solvation or rotation, p is the exponent and T is the temperature), the fractional dependence of both average solvation and rotational times with the medium viscosity have been observed. The recent findings (J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 136, 174503; Chem. Phys. Lett., 2011, 517

  7. Employment Threat, Equality of Opportunities and Educators' Response to the Rapid Feminization of School Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Michael; Addi, Audrey

    This paper examines the responses of men and women in the Israeli educational system toward the rapid feminization of school administration. Two theoretical perspectives--the "enlightened" approach and conflict theory--provide a framework for understanding the responses. Data were obtained from the responses to a questionnaire of 156…

  8. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  9. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torda, Gergely; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Aranda, Manuel; Barshis, Daniel J.; Bay, Line; Berumen, Michael L.; Bourne, David G.; Cantin, Neal; Foret, Sylvain; Matz, Mikhail; Miller, David J.; Moya, Aurelie; Putnam, Hollie M.; Ravasi, Timothy; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Voolstra, Christian R.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Whitelaw, Emma; Willis, Bette L.; Munday, Philip L.

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  10. Biological and psychological responses to two rapid shiftwork schedules.

    PubMed

    Lac, G; Chamoux, A

    2004-10-10

    This study presents the biological responses to shiftwork in two groups of workers with different shiftwork rotas. Biological responses were studied by recording the heart rate and the changes in the circadian profile of salivary cortisol over 24 h (RIA assays). Various items were recorded through questionnaires aimed at determining self appreciation of sleep quantity, stress, health, satisfaction at work and in private lives. Thirty two male subjects aged from 23 to 56, working for the same company, having given their informed consent, took part in the study. The study was carried out under realistic conditions (at the work place) under the control of an occupational physician. Sixteen day-workers (8 am-6 pm) served as a reference group. Eight shiftworkers included in alternate schedules (morning M 4 am-12 am, evening E 12 am-8 pm, night N 8 pm-4 am) according to a system M, S, N 3/2, (3 work, 2 rest) and eight according to a system 7/5 (3M/2S/2N/5R, 2/3/2/5, 2/2/3/5) constituted the groups of shiftworkers respectively named 3/2 and 7/5. All subjects had comparable ages and BMIs. Shiftworkers expressed a higher stress level and frequency of health problems and a lower satisfaction at work than the control. Among the three groups, the 7/5 group had the best health and fitness score and was in need of less sleep. Heart rate was not affected by shift work. Conversely, consistent changes appeared in cortisol circadian profiles, the greatest changes appearing for the night shift and among the two groups of shiftworkers, more particularly for the 7/5 group. These changes correlated with self-perceived constraints of work and showed the difficulties of adaptation to shiftwork.

  11. The Ionic Permeability Changes during Acetylcholine-Induced Responses of Aplysia Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makoto; Austin, George; Yai, Hideko; Maruhashi, Juro

    1968-01-01

    ACh-induced depolarization (D response) in D cells markedly decreases as the external Na+ is reduced. However, when Na+ is completely replaced with Mg++, the D response remains unchanged. When Na+ is replaced with Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, the D response completely disappears, except for a slight decrease in membrane resistance. ACh-induced hyperpolarization (H response) in H cells is markedly depressed as the external Cl- is reduced. Frequently, the reversal of the H response; i.e., depolarization, is observed during perfusion with Cl--free media. In cells which show both D and H responses superimposed, it was possible to separate these responses from each other by perfusing the cells with either Na+-free or Cl--free Ringer's solution. High [K+]0 often caused a marked hyperpolarization in either D or H cells. This is due to the primary effect of high [K+]0 on the presynaptic inhibitory fibers. The removal of this inhibitory afferent interference by applying Nembutal readily disclosed the predicted K+ depolarization. In perfusates containing normal [Na+]0, the effects of Ca++ and Mg++ on the activities of postsynaptic membrane were minimal, supporting the current theory that the effects of these ions on the synaptic transmission are mainly presynaptic. The possible mechanism of the hyperpolarization produced by simultaneous perfusion with both high [K+]0 and ACh in certain H cells is explained quantitatively under the assumption that ACh induces exclusively an increase in Cl- permeability of the H membrane. PMID:5648831

  12. Notification: Audit of Region 6's Emergency and Rapid Response Services Contracts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY13-0046, March 20, 2013. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin the fieldwork phase of our audit of Region 6’s management of the Emergency and Rapid Response Services contracts.

  13. Calling for a rapid recognition and response program for stroke in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Renyu

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we provide evidences indicating that a a rapid recognition and response program based on FAST (face, Arm, Speech, Time) for stroke suitable for China is desperately needed. PMID:28105445

  14. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  15. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  16. Swelling and Shrinking Properties of Thermo-Responsive Polymeric Ionic Liquid Hydrogels with Embedded Linear pNIPAAM

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Simon; Florea, Larisa; Fraser, Kevin J.; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50–80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL. PMID:24681582

  17. Swelling and shrinking properties of thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid hydrogels with embedded linear pNIPAAM.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Simon; Florea, Larisa; Fraser, Kevin J; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-03-27

    In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50-80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL.

  18. Near-infrared instrumentation for rapid-response astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, John Isaac

    gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the Universe's most luminous transient events. Since the discovery of GRBs was announced in 1973, efforts have been ongoing to obtain data over a broader range of the electromagnetic spectrum at the earliest possible times following the initial detection. The discovery of the theorized "afterglow'' emission in radio through X-ray bands in the late 1990s confirmed the cosmological nature of these events. At present, GRB afterglows are among the best probes of the early Universe (z ≥ 9). In addition to informing theories about GRBs themselves, observations of afterglows probe the circum-burst medium (CBM), properties of the host galaxies and the progress of cosmic reionization. To explore the early-time variability of afterglows, I have developed a generalized analysis framework which models near-infrared (NIR), optical, ultra-violet (UV) and X-ray light curves without assuming an underlying model. These fits are then used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of afterglows at arbitrary times within the observed window. Physical models are then used to explore the evolution of the SED parameter space with time. I demonstrate that this framework produces evidence of the photodestruction of dust in the CBM of GRB 120119A, similar to the findings from a previous study of this afterglow. The framework is additionally applied to the afterglows of GRB 140419A and GRB 080607. In these cases the evolution of the SEDs appears consistent with the standard fireball model. Having introduced the scientific motivations for early-time observations, I introduce the Rapid Infrared Imager-Spectrometer (RIMAS). Once commissioned on the 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), RIMAS will be used to study the afterglows of GRBs through photometric and spectroscopic observations beginning within minutes of the initial burst. The instrument will operate in the NIR, from 0.97 microm to 2.37 microm, permitting the detection of very high

  19. Rapid alpha spectroscopy of evaporated liquid residues for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Semkow, T M; Khan, A J; Haines, D K; Bari, A

    2009-04-01

    A new method for alpha spectroscopy of evaporated water residues was developed, consisting of evaporation of drinking water, flaming of the planchets, and alpha-spectroscopic measurements using a grid ionization chamber. The method can identify and quantify radioactivity concentrations > or =3 mBq L-1 in a matter of several hours, whereas determination of sub-mBq L-1 levels is achievable in 1 day. Detailed investigations of flaming of the planchets, the humidity effect, and alpha spectroscopy of thick sources are described. A three-dimensional calibration of the method was performed using standards containing 238U, 230Th, 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm radionuclides. In addition to its application to evaporated drinking water, this calibration is common for any environmental sample that can be prepared as a uniform layer, such as the residues from surface water, acidic washing or leaching from materials, as well as biological fluids such as urine. The developed method serves as a fast identifying or screening technique for emergency response involving alpha radioactivity.

  20. Analysis of responsive characteristics of ionic-strength-sensitive hydrogel with consideration of effect of equilibrium constant by a chemo-electro-mechanical model.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Lai, Fukun; Luo, Rongmo

    2009-11-17

    A multiphysics model is presented in this paper for analysis of the influence of various equilibrium constants on the smart hydrogel responsive to the ionic strength of environmental solution, and termed the multieffect-coupling ionic-strength stimulus (MECis) model. The model is characterized by a set of partial differential governing equations by consideration of the mass and momentum conservations of the system and coupled chemical, electrical, and mechanical multienergy domains. The Nernst-Planck equations are derived by the mass conservation of the ionic species in both the interstitial fluid of the hydrogel and the surrounding solution. The binding reaction between the fixed charge groups of the hydrogel and the mobile ions in the solution is described by the fixed charge equation, which is based on the Langmuir monolayer theory. As an important effect for the binding reaction, the equilibrium constant is incorporated into the fixed charge equation. The kinetics of the hydrogel swelling/deswelling is illustrated by the mechanical equation, based on the law of momentum conservation for the solid polymeric networks matrix within the hydrogel. The MECis model is examined by comparison of the numerical simulations and experiments from open literature. The analysis of the influence of different equilibrium constants on the responsive characteristics of the ionic-strength-sensitive hydrogel is carried out with detailed discussion.

  1. Calibration of membrane inlet mass spectrometric measurements of dissolved gases: differences in the responses of polymer and nano-composite membranes to variations in ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Miranda, L D; Byrne, R H; Short, R T; Bell, R J

    2013-11-15

    This work examines the transmission behavior of aqueous dissolved methane, nitrogen, argon and carbon dioxide through two types of membranes: a polysiloxane nano-composite (PNC) membrane and a conventional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. Transmission properties at 30 °C were examined by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) at nearly constant gas partial pressures in NaCl solutions over a range of ionic strength (0-1 molal). Gas flow rates were examined as a function of dissolved gas concentrations using the Setschenow equation. Although MIMS measurements with PDMS and PNC membranes produced signal responses that were directly proportional to aqueous dissolved gas concentrations, the proportionalities varied with ionic strength and were distinctly different for the two types of membranes. With the exception of carbon dioxide, the PNC membrane had membrane salting coefficients quite similar to Setschenow coefficients reported for gases in aqueous solution. In contrast, the PDMS membrane had membrane salting coefficients that were generally smaller than the corresponding Setschenow gas coefficient for each gas. Differences between Setschenow coefficients and membrane salting coefficients lead to MIMS calibrations (gas-flow vs. gas-concentration proportionalities) that vary with ionic strength. Accordingly, gas-flow vs. gas-concentration relationships for MIMS measurements with PDMS membranes are significantly dependent on ionic strength. In contrast, for PNC membranes, flow vs. concentration relationships are independent (argon, methane, nitrogen) or weakly dependent (CO2) on ionic strength. Comparisons of gas Setschenow and membrane salting coefficients can be used to quantitatively describe the dependence of membrane gas-flow on gas-concentrations and ionic strength for both PDMS and PNC membranes.

  2. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 2. Rapid response physiology and non-target-site resistance.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Van Horn, Christopher R; Robertson, Renae; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Douglas Sammons, R; Wang, Dafu; Ge, Xia; d' Avignon, André; Gaines, Todd A; Westra, Philip; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Christopher Hall, J; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Schulz, Burkhard

    2017-03-08

    The glyphosate-resistant rapid response (GR RR) resistance mechanism in Ambrosia trifida is not due to target-site resistance (TSR) mechanisms. This study explores the physiology of the rapid response and the possibility of reduced translocation and vacuolar sequestration as non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. GR RR leaf discs accumulated hydrogen peroxide within minutes of glyphosate exposure, but only in mature leaf tissue. The rapid response required energy either as light or exogenous sucrose. The combination of phenylalanine and tyrosine inhibited the rapid response in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced glyphosate translocation was observed in GR RR, but only when associated with tissue death caused by the rapid response. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that glyphosate enters the cytoplasm and reaches chloroplasts, and it is not moved into the vacuole of GR RR, GR non-rapid response or glyphosate-susceptible A. trifida. The GR RR mechanism of resistance is not associated with vacuole sequestration of glyphosate, and the observed reduced translocation is likely a consequence of rapid tissue death. Rapid cell death was inhibited by exogenous application of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The mechanism by which these amino acids inhibit rapid cell death in the GR RR phenotype remains unknown, and it could involve glyphosate phytotoxicity or other agents generating reactive oxygen species. Implications of these findings are discussed. The GR RR mechanism is distinct from the currently described glyphosate TSR or NTSR mechanisms in other species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The Hydrologic Cycle Response to Rapid Arctic Vegetation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last fifty years, the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land areas have warmed at rates well in excess of what can be explained by the atmospheric rise in greenhouse gases alone. Changes in the albedo of the ocean and land, whether from the loss of Arctic Ocean sea ice, changes in land cover, or changes in winter precipitation patterns account for much of the amplified warming. Although the loss of sea ice is directly related to greenhouse gas warming and low-level winds, changes in the discharge of freshwater from Arctic river basins are also responsible. While changes in river discharge can be related to precipitation, snow and ice melt, and human modification of the landscape, natural vegetation changes due to warming may also be altering the land surface hydrologic cycle and contributing to changes in the flux of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Satellite imagery has shown that the Arctic is becoming greener, which not only affects the surface and lower-tropospheric energy budget, but also modifies the hydrologic cycle through altering the partitioning of transpiration and plant-soil evaporation. This leads to changes in precipitation recycling and runoff, which can ultimately affect the discharge of freshwater. To illustrate this mechanism, results of a land cover change and precipitation-recycling analysis using North American Regional Reanalysis data will be presented for the Mackenzie Basin in North America. Additionally, results from a dynamic global vegetation model will be presented to evaluate the potential consequences of continued extreme warming and land cover changes to the discharge of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Rapid calcitonin response to experimental hypercalcemia in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Rourke, K M; Kohn, C W; Levine, A L; Rosol, T J; Toribio, R E

    2009-05-01

    Calcium has important physiological functions, and disorders of calcium homeostasis are frequent in horses. We have made important progress understanding equine calcium homeostasis; however, limited information on equine calcitonin (CT) is available, in part because of the lack of validated CT assays. To determine the CT response to high ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations in healthy horses, we induced hypercalcemia in 10 healthy horses using a calcium gluconate 23% solution (5mg/kg; 120 mL/500 kg horse) infused over 4 min. Four horses were infused with 120 mL of 0.9% NaCl and used as controls. We validated a human-specific CT radioimmunoassay for use in horses. Serum Ca(2+) concentrations increased from 6.2+/-0.3mg/dL to 9.9+/-0.5mg/dL (4 min; P<0.01). Serum CT increased from 16.7+/-8.0 pg/mL to 87.1+/-55.8 pg/mL at 2 min, and 102.5+/-51.1 pg/mL at 4 min (P<0.01). Serum CT returned to baseline by 20 min, whereas serum Ca(2+) returned to baseline by 40 min. Of interest, CT concentrations returned to baseline despite hypercalcemia, suggesting thyroid gland C-cell CT depletion. Resting CT values higher than 40 pg/mL were considered abnormally elevated. No significant changes in serum Ca(2+) or CT concentrations were found in control horses. The coefficients of variation for the CT radioimmunoassay were lower than 11.9%. We conclude that the equine thyroid gland C-cell responds quickly to changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations by secreting large quantities of CT into the systemic circulation, indicating that CT is important in equine calcium homeostasis. The human CT radioimmunoassay can be used to measure changes in equine CT.

  5. Hyperspectral Cubesat Constellation for Rapid Natural Hazard Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, D.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Ly, V. T.; Handy, M.; Ong, L.; Crum, G.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of high performance space networks that provide total coverage for Cubesats, the paradigm for low cost, high temporal coverage with hyperspectral instruments becomes more feasible. The combination of ground cloud computing resources, high performance with low power consumption onboard processing, total coverage for the cubesats and social media provide an opprotunity for an architecture that provides cost-effective hyperspectral data products for natural hazard response and decision support. This paper provides a series of pathfinder efforts to create a scalable Intelligent Payload Module(IPM) that has flown on a variety of airborne vehicles including Cessna airplanes, Citation jets and a helicopter and will fly on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) hexacopter to monitor natural phenomena. The IPM's developed thus far were developed on platforms that emulate a satellite environment which use real satellite flight software, real ground software. In addition, science processing software has been developed that perform hyperspectral processing onboard using various parallel processing techniques to enable creation of onboard hyperspectral data products while consuming low power. A cubesat design was developed that is low cost and that is scalable to larger consteallations and thus can provide daily hyperspectral observations for any spot on earth. The design was based on the existing IPM prototypes and metrics that were developed over the past few years and a shrunken IPM that can perform up to 800 Mbps throughput. Thus this constellation of hyperspectral cubesats could be constantly monitoring spectra with spectral angle mappers after Level 0, Level 1 Radiometric Correction, Atmospheric Correction processing. This provides the opportunity daily monitoring of any spot on earth on a daily basis at 30 meter resolution which is not available today.

  6. The effect of different ionic levels on the electrical response of toad skin to noradrenaline

    PubMed Central

    House, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    1. After the addition of noradrenaline (final concentration 4 × 10-5 M) to the inner medium of isolated toad skins, they underwent a depolarization (inner surface becoming less positive) followed by a hyperpolarization. 2. The dependence of the minimal and maximal levels of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing phases of the response upon the external concentrations of sodium and chloride ions was examined. 3. The experimental data were considered to support the view that the hyperpolarization was generated by an increase in the sodium to chloride permeability ratio for the outer barrier of the skin and that the depolarization resulted from a transient increase in the conductance of transient shunt pathways in the skin. 4. When the external sodium and chloride ions were replaced by magnesium (or potassium) and sulphate ions, noradrenaline initiated a transient hyperpolarization. During this hyperpolarizing response the time course of the change in the skin's conductance resembled that of the skin potential. The polarity of the response was changed by reversing the chloride concentration gradient across the skin. 5. The dependence of the maximal level of the hyperpolarizing response upon the internal potassium concentration was examined. 6. It was concluded that the hyperpolarizing response was generated partially by an increase in the potassium to chloride permeability ratio for the inner barrier of the skin and predominantly by the movement of chloride and accompanying cations through a transient shunt pathway, probably the active glands. PMID:5001388

  7. Non-covalent assembly of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/triethylamine microcapsules with ionic strength-responsiveness and auto-fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Zheng, Honghao; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2017-06-15

    Ionic strength-responsive microcapsules with auto-fluorescence were fabricated by incubation of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)-doped CaCO3 particles in triethylamine (Et3N), followed by core removal using HCl. Based on the combination of hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding, PAH and Et3N formed a complex with a molar ratio of 3:1 (repeating unit of PAH: Et3N). The as-prepared capsules showed extraordinary stability against 1M HCl, 1M NaOH and 6M urea solutions, and could swell or shrink reversibly in response to the ionic strength. Furthermore, the capsules possessed auto-fluorescence, allowing easily tracking of capsules during applications. Such interaction may be expanded to formation of stimuli-responsive multilayer films and other colloidal particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe₃O₄/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea.

    PubMed

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-06-25

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g-1 and 5.07 mg•g-1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  9. Rapid response to systemic bevacizumab therapy in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    MOHR, MICHAEL; SCHLIEMANN, CHRISTOPH; BIERMANN, CHRISTOPH; SCHMIDT, LARS-HENNING; KESSLER, TORSTEN; SCHMIDT, JOACHIM; WIEBE, KARSTEN; MÜLLER, KLAUS-MICHAEL; HOFFMANN, THOMAS K.; GROLL, ANDREAS H.; WERNER, CLAUDIUS; KESSLER, CHRISTINA; WIEWRODT, RAINER; RUDACK, CLAUDIA; BERDEL, WOLFGANG E.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a primary benign disease, which is characterized by papillomatous growth in the respiratory tract. Malignant transformation occurs in only 3–5% of cases, however, local growth of the benign papillomas is interpreted as clinically malignant in a markedly higher proportion of patients. Local surgical or endoscopic interventional debulking or excision is currently the commonly selected treatment method and antiviral therapy is a potential adjuvant approach. However, the long-term management of RRP patients, who commonly require multiple procedures over numerous years, is challenging and the overall therapeutic armamentarium remains unsatisfactory. The administration of systemic bevacizumab treatment in a series of five patients with long histories of RRP, who required repeated local interventions to control papilloma growth is evaluated. Treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab was administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg (n=1), 10 mg/kg (n=3) or 15 mg/kg (n=1) intravenously to the five RRP patients, who were clinically classified as exhibiting progressive disease. Endoscopic evaluations were performed prior to the first infusion of bevacizumab and intermittently at variable time points during the course of therapy. Histopathological analyses were performed using pre- and post-treatment papilloma biopsies, including immunohistochemical analyses of VEGF and phosphorylated VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression. The patients received between three and 16 courses of bevacizumab (median, six courses). The first course was initiated when progression following the previous intervention was observed. An immediate response to bevacizumab treatment was demonstrated in all five RRP patients. While the cumulative number of interventions in the five patients was 18 throughout the 12 months prior to the initiation of bevacizumab treatment, only one patient required interventional treatment due to a

  10. Utilization of rapid response resources and outcomes in a comprehensive cancer center*.

    PubMed

    Austin, Charles A; Hanzaker, Chris; Stafford, Renae; Mayer, Celeste; Culp, Loc; Lin, Feng-Chang; Chang, Lydia

    2014-04-01

    To compare the differences in characteristics and outcomes of cancer center patients with other subspecialty medical patients reviewed by rapid response teams. A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized general medicine patients, subspecialty medicine patients, and oncology patients requiring rapid response team activation over a 2-year period from September 2009 to August 2011. Five hundred fifty-seven subspecialty medical patients required rapid response team intervention. A single academic medical center in the southeastern United States (800+ bed) with a dedicated 50-bed inpatient comprehensive cancer care center. Data abstraction from computerized medical records and a hospital quality improvement rapid response database. Of the 557 patients, 135 were cancer center patients. Cancer center patients had a significantly higher Charlson Comorbidity Score (4.4 vs 2.9, < 0.001). Cancer center patients had a significantly longer hospitalization period prior to rapid response team activation (11.4 vs 6.1 d, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between proportions of patients requiring ICU transfer between the two groups (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8). Cancer center patients had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with the other subspecialty medical patients (33% vs 18%; odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.50-3.5). If the rapid response team event required an ICU transfer, this finding was more pronounced (56% vs 23%; odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.0-7.8). The utilization of rapid response team resources during the 2-year period studied was also much higher for the oncology patients with 37.34 activations per 1,000 patient discharges compared with 20.86 per 1,000 patient discharges for the general medical patients. Oncology patients requiring rapid response team activation have a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate, particularly if the rapid response team requires ICU transfer. Oncology patients also utilize rapid response team

  11. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress.

  12. 20 CFR 671.160 - What rapid response activities are required before a national emergency grant application is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What rapid response activities are required... § 671.160 What rapid response activities are required before a national emergency grant application is submitted? (a) Rapid response is a required Statewide activity under WIA section 134(a)(2)(A), to be carried...

  13. Association Between Survival and Time of Day for Rapid Response Team Calls in a National Registry.

    PubMed

    Churpek, Matthew Michael; Edelson, Dana P; Lee, Ji Yeon; Carey, Kyle; Snyder, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    Decreased staffing at nighttime is associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized patients. Rapid response teams were developed to decrease preventable harm by providing additional critical care resources to patients with clinical deterioration. We sought to determine whether rapid response team call frequency suffers from decreased utilization at night and how this is associated with patient outcomes. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected registry database. National registry database of inpatient rapid response team calls. Index rapid response team calls occurring on the general wards in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Medical Emergency Team database between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed. None. The primary outcome was inhospital mortality. Patient and event characteristics between the hours with the highest and lowest mortality were compared, and multivariable models adjusting for patient characteristics were fit. A total of 282,710 rapid response team calls from 274 hospitals were included. The lowest frequency of calls occurred in the consecutive 1 AM to 6:59 AM period, with 266 of 274 (97%) hospitals having lower than expected call volumes during those hours. Mortality was highest during the 7 AM hour and lowest during the noon hour (18.8% vs 13.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.41 [1.31-1.52]; p < 0.001). Compared with calls at the noon hour, those during the 7 AM hour had more deranged vital signs, were more likely to have a respiratory trigger, and were more likely to have greater than two simultaneous triggers. Rapid response team activation is less frequent during the early morning and is followed by a spike in mortality in the 7 AM hour. These findings suggest that failure to rescue deteriorating patients is more common overnight. Strategies aimed at improving rapid response team utilization during these vulnerable hours may improve patient outcomes.

  14. Rapid Dynamics of Contrast Responses in the Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The visual information we receive during natural vision changes rapidly and continuously. The visual system must adapt to the spatiotemporal contents of the environment in order to efficiently process the dynamic signals. However, neuronal responses to luminance contrast are usually measured using drifting or stationary gratings presented for a prolonged duration. Since motion in our visual field is continuous, the signals received by the visual system contain an abundance of transient components in the contrast domain. Here using a modified reverse correlation method, we studied the properties of responses of neurons in the cat primary visual cortex to different contrasts of grating stimuli presented statically and transiently for 40 ms, and showed that neurons can effectively discriminate the rapidly changing contrasts. The change in the contrast response function (CRF) over time mainly consisted of an increment in contrast gain (CRF shifts to left) in the developing phase of temporal responses and a decrement in response gain (CRF shifts downward) in the decay phase. When the distribution range of stimulus contrasts was increased, neurons demonstrated decrement in contrast gain and response gain. Our results suggest that contrast gain control (contrast adaptation) and response gain control mechanisms are well established during the first tens of milliseconds after stimulus onset and may cooperatively mediate the rapid dynamic responses of visual cortical neurons to the continuously changing contrast. This fast contrast adaptation may play a role in detecting contrast contours in the context of visual scenes that are varying rapidly. PMID:21998655

  15. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared four methods for setting item response time thresholds to differentiate rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior. Thresholds were either (a) common for all test items, (b) based on item surface features such as the amount of reading required, (c) based on visually inspecting response time frequency distributions, or (d)…

  16. Position paper: Rapid responses to steroids: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Alexandra; Baldi, Elisabetta; Harvey, Brian J; Nadal, Angel; Norman, Anthony; Wehling, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Steroids exert their actions through several pathways. The classical genomic pathway, which involves binding of steroids to receptors and subsequent modulation of gene expression, is well characterized. Besides this, rapid actions of steroids have been shown to exist. Since 30 years, research on rapid actions of steroids is an emerging field of science. Today, rapid effects of steroids are well established, and are shown to exist for every type of steroid. The classical steroid receptors have been shown to be involved in rapid actions, but there is also strong evidence that unrelated structures mediate these rapid effects. Despite increasing knowledge about the mechanisms and structures which mediate these actions, there is still no unanimous acceptance of this category. This article briefly reviews the history of the field including current controversies and challenges. It is not meant as a broad review of literature, but should increase the awareness of the endocrinology society for rapid responses to steroids. As members of the organizing committee of the VI International Meeting on Rapid Responses to Steroid Hormones 2009, we propose a research agenda focusing on the identification of new receptoral structures and the identification of mechanisms of actions at physiological steroid concentrations. Additionally, efforts for the propagation of translational studies, which should finally lead to clinical benefit in the area of rapid steroid action research, should be intensified.

  17. AC conductivity scaling behavior in grain and grain boundary response regime of fast lithium ionic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, C. R.

    2014-05-01

    AC conductivity spectra of Li-analogues NASICON-type Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5P3O12 (LAGP), Li-Al-Ti-P-O (LATP) glass-ceramics and garnet-type Li7La2Ta2O13 (LLTO) ceramic are analyzed by universal power law and Summerfield scaling approaches. The activation energies and pre-exponential factors of total and grain conductivities are following the Meyer-Neldel (M-N) rule for NASICON-type materials. However, the garnet-type LLTO material deviates from the M-N rule line of NASICON-type materials. The frequency- and temperature-dependent conductivity spectra of LAGP and LLTO are superimposed by Summerfield scaling. The scaled conductivity curves of LATP are not superimposed at the grain boundary response region. The superimposed conductivity curves are observed at cross-over frequencies of grain boundary response region for LATP by incorporating the exp ( {{{ - (EAt - EAg )} {{{ - (EAt - EAg )} {kT}}} ) factor along with Summerfield scaling factors on the frequency axis, where EAt and EAg are the activation energies of total and grain conductivities, respectively.

  18. Regional distribution of ionic currents and membrane voltage responses of type II hair cells in the vestibular neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Weng, T; Correia, M J

    1999-11-01

    Basolateral ionic currents and membrane voltage responses were studied in pigeon vestibular type II hair cells using a thin slice through either the semicircular canal (SCC) crista or utricular macular epithelium. Whole cell tight-seal patch-clamp recording techniques were used. Current-clamp and voltage-clamp studies were carried out on the same cell. One hundred ten cells were studied in the peripheral (Zone I) and central (Zone III) zones of the SCC crista, and 162 cells were studied in the striolar (S Zone) and extrastriolar (ES Zone) zones of the utricular macula. One of the major findings of this paper is that hair cells with fast activation kinetics of their outward currents are found primarily in one region of the SCC crista and utricular macula, whereas hair cells with slow activation kinetics are found in a different region. In Zone I of the crista, 95% of the cells have fast activation kinetics ("fast" cells) and in Zone III of the crista, 86% of the cells have slow activation kinetics ("slow" cells). In the utricular macula slice, 100% of the cells from the S Zone are slow cells, whereas 86% of the cells from the ES Zones are fast cells. Oscillation frequency (f) and quality factor (Q) of the damped oscillations of the membrane potential during extrinsic current injections were studied in hair cells in the different regions. The slow cells in Zone III and in the S Zone have a statistically significantly lower f, as a function of the amplitude of injected current, when compared with the fast cells in Zone I and the ES Zone. Although Q varied over a small range and was <2.6 for all cells tested, there was a statistically significant difference between Q for the membrane oscillations of the slow cells and fast cells in response to a range of current injections.

  19. Dielectric response of electron-doped ionic superconductor LixZrNCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botana, Antia S.; Pickett, Warren E.

    2014-09-01

    When electron doped, the layered transition metal nitrides TNCl (T =group IVB transition metal ion) become impressive superconductors with critical temperature Tc=15-26 K. Here we take the most studied member ZrNCl as a representative and calculate the dielectric response ɛ (ω) versus frequency and concentration of doped electronic carriers. The static dielectric constant ɛ∞=5 is reproduced extremely well. We establish that the differences between rigid band modeling and virtual crystal treatment are small, and compare also with actual lithium doping using supercells. We obtain the variations upon changing the doping level of the reflectivity and energy loss function as well, many of which are found not to be correlated with the observed (non)variation of Tc(x). The main plasmon peaks appear where the electron gas model suggests, in the range 1.2-2.0 eV for x varying from 0.16 to 0.50.

  20. Desiccation enhances rapid cold-hardening in the flesh fly Sarcophaga bullata: evidence for cross tolerance between rapid physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shu-Xia; Gantz, J D; Lee, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Many insects use rapid cold-hardening (RCH), a physiological response to sub-lethal exposure to stressors, such as chilling and desiccation, to enhance their cold tolerance within minutes. Recently, drought-induced RCH, triggered by brief, mild desiccation, was described in larvae of the freeze-tolerant gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis). However, its prevalence and ecological significance in other insects is not known. Consequently, we used a freeze-intolerant model, the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, to investigate the effects and mechanisms of drought-induced RCH. In addition, we investigated how drought- and cold-induced RCH interact by exposing flies to both desiccation and chilling. Desiccation for 3 h increased larval pupariation after cold shock from 28 to 40 %-the first example of drought-induced RCH in both a freeze-intolerant insect and in a non-overwintering life stage. We also found that desiccation and chilling together enhanced the cold hardiness of larvae and adults more than either did separately, suggesting that drought and cold trigger distinct physiological mechanisms that interact to afford greater cold tolerance. These results suggest that drought-induced RCH is a highly conserved response used by insects with diverse life history strategies. Furthermore, the protective interaction between drought- and cold-induced RCH suggests that, in nature, insects use multiple cues and physiological mechanisms to fine-tune their response to changing ambient conditions.

  1. Ultrafast terahertz-field-driven ionic response in ferroelectric BaTiO3

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, F.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, S.; ...

    2016-11-22

    The dynamical processes associated with electric field manipulation of the polarization in a ferroelectric remain largely unknown but fundamentally determine the speed and functionality of ferroelectric materials and devices. Here in this paper we apply subpicosecond duration, single-cycle terahertz pulses as an ultrafast electric field bias to prototypical BaTiO3 ferroelectric thin films with the atomic-scale response probed by femtosecond x-ray-scattering techniques. We show that electric fields applied perpendicular to the ferroelectric polarization drive large-amplitude displacements of the titanium atoms along the ferroelectric polarization axis, comparable to that of the built-in displacements associated with the intrinsic polarization and incoherent across unitmore » cells. This effect is associated with a dynamic rotation of the ferroelectric polarization switching on and then off on picosecond time scales. These transient polarization modulations are followed by long-lived vibrational heating effects driven by resonant excitation of the ferroelectric soft mode, as reflected in changes in the c-axis tetragonality. The ultrafast structural characterization described here enables a direct comparison with first-principles-based molecular-dynamics simulations, with good agreement obtained.« less

  2. Universal dielectric response of variously doped CeO{sub 2} ionically conducting ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Nowick, A.S.; Vaysleyb, A.V.; Kuskovsky, I.

    1998-10-01

    The Jonscher power law, or {open_quotes}universal dielectric response{close_quotes} (UDR) behavior was studied for a range of CeO{sub 2} solid solutions with Y{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+} dopants, with particular emphasis on dilute systems which possess relatively simple defect structures. The results show power-law frequency dependence of the ac conductivity, with exponent s=0.61{plus_minus}0.03, independent of temperature and concentration. The conductivity data also show scaling behavior in terms of a time constant {tau}, whose activation energy is very close to that of the dc conductivity. For 1{percent} Y and 1{percent} Gd samples, an additional Debye-type relaxation is observed due to dopant{endash}oxygen-vacancy pairs. Such samples are clearly in the association range (stage III). These results contradict the assumption by Almond and West that {tau}{sup {minus}1} is the hopping frequency of the carrier defects. At very low concentrations ({approximately}0.01{percent}), UDR behavior virtually disappears. The present results are then compared to the principal theories that describe UDR behavior. It is found that, while each theory suffers from some drawbacks, the more phenomenological theories fare better. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. A pH- and ionic strength-responsive polypeptide hydrogel: synthesis, characterization, and preliminary protein release studies.

    PubMed

    Markland, P; Zhang, Y; Amidon, G L; Yang, V C

    1999-12-15

    A novel polypeptide hydrogel has been synthesized by crosslinking poly(L-glutamic acid) (PLG) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The PLG-PEG hydrogel was shown to be highly hydrophilic, and the extent of swelling varied with pH, increasing at higher ionization of the PLG. Aside from electrostatic effects, such as ion-ion repulsion and internal ion osmotic pressure, circular dichroism studies showed that swelling response to pH also is affected by secondary structural attributes associated with the polypeptide backbone. Modification of the polypeptide by changing its hydrophobicity and degree of ionization was an effective method for altering the overall extent of pH-responsive swelling. Rapid de-swelling (contraction) was observed when the PLG-PEG hydrogel was transferred from high to low pH buffer solution, and this swelling/de-swelling behavior was reversible over repeated cycles. Drug release from swollen hydrogels was examined using the model protein lysozyme. Rapid de-swelling of the hydrogel was found to be an effective means of facilitating lysozyme release. The crosslinking of synthetic polypeptides with PEG appears to be a highly versatile approach to the preparation of pH-responsive biodegradable hydrogels.

  4. Temperature-responsive ionic liquid/water interfaces: relation between hydrophilicity of ions and dynamic phase change.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Yuki; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2012-04-21

    Phase separation between ionic liquids (ILs) and molecular liquids is of interest physico-chemically, and also has industrial relevance. IL/water mixtures are of great interest in many fields. Unlike static phase separation between IL and water, dynamic shifts of IL/water mixtures between a homogeneous mixture and separate phases have a wide variety of applications. The miscibility of ILs with water generally increases upon heating, and a few ILs undergo a lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase transition with water in which the separated biphases become miscible upon cooling. As the phase transition is controlled by changing the temperature by a few degrees, the LCST-type phase response of IL/water mixtures makes it possible to use ILs as solvents in various energy-saving processes. Since many hydrophilic ILs do not undergo phase separation with water, we aim to determine the necessary conditions under which hydrophobic ILs undergo the phase transition. Based on physico-chemical analysis of many hydrophobic ILs that undergo a phase separation after mixing with water, we find there is a particular range of "hydrophilicity" of these hydrophobic ILs within which the LCST-type phase transition is possible. Accordingly, a hydrophilicity index (HI) of ILs is proposed, in terms of the number of water molecules in the separated IL phase. The HI value proves to be a good indicator of the phase behaviour of IL/water mixtures, as well as their phase transition temperature. Potential application of the LCST-type phase change to the selective extraction of water-soluble proteins is also summarised. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  5. In situ response of phytoplankton fluorescence to rapid variations in light

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.R.; Richerson, P.J.; Powell, T.M.

    1982-03-01

    Phytoplankton chlorophyll a fluorescence responded to rapid fluctuations in light intensity in Lake Tahoe at three depths: 10, 35, and 60 m. Fluroescence yield was negatively correlated with surface irradiance at all depths, but there was a strong depth dependence in the intensity of this response. Phytoplankton at 35 m reacted more strongly to fluctuations than those at 10 or 60 m and therefore could show a noticeable response to more rapid variations. This may have been due to near-optimal light levels at 35 m, light inhibition at 10, and light limitation at 60 m.

  6. Modeled rapid adjustments in diurnal temperature range response to CO2 and solar forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Lawrence S.; Forster, Piers M.

    2013-03-01

    We used the National Center for Atmospheric Research single column climate model to determine if rapid adjustments to surface heat fluxes contribute to a change in skin surface or surface air diurnal temperature range (DTR) under 2 × CO2 and -2% solar forcings. An ensemble of model runs was employed with locations selected to represent a range of different climatic conditions and with forcing implemented hourly throughout the diurnal cycle. The change in skin surface DTR and surface energy fluxes during the 3 days after forcing were used to quantify the rapid adjustment response and temperature related feedback. Averaged over all locations, skin surface DTR reduced by 0.01°C after CO2 forcing and included a rapid adjustment to skin surface DTR of -0.12°C. Skin surface DTR reduced by 0.17°C after solar forcing and included a rapid adjustment of -0.01°C. The rapid adjustments in skin surface DTR were associated with rapid adjustments in surface sensible and latent heat fluxes necessary to balance the energy budget immediately after forcing. We find that the sensitivity of skin surface DTR to mean temperature related feedback is the same for CO2 and solar forcings when skin surface DTR rapid adjustments are allowed for. Rapid adjustments played a key role in the geographic variation of the skin surface DTR response to forcing. Our results suggest that diurnal variations in trends of downwelling longwave radiation and rapid reductions in DTR associated with CO2 forcing potentially contributed to the observed global trend in surface air DTR.

  7. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  8. Normal Evoked Response to Rapid Sequences of Tactile Pulses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Santosh; Khan, Sheraz; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Kenet, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder diagnosed behaviorally, with many documented neurophysiological abnormalities in cortical response properties. While abnormal sensory processing is not considered core to the disorder, most ASD individuals report sensory processing abnormalities. Yet, the neurophysiological correlates of these abnormalities have not been fully mapped. In the auditory domain, studies have shown that cortical responses in the early auditory cortex in ASD are abnormal in multiple ways. In particular, it has been shown that individuals with ASD have abnormal cortical auditory evoked responses to rapid, but not slow, sequences of tones. In parallel, there is substantial evidence of somatosensory processing abnormalities in ASD, including in the temporal domain. Here, we tested the somatosensory domain in ASD for abnormalities in rapid processing of tactile pulses, to determine whether abnormalities there parallel those observed in the auditory domain. Specifically, we tested the somatosensory cortex response to a sequence of two tactile pulses with different (short and long) temporal separation. We analyzed the responses in cortical space, in primary somatosensory cortex. As expected, we found no group difference in the evoked response to pulses with long (700 ms) temporal separation. Contrary to findings in the auditory domain, we also found no group differences in the evoked responses to the sequence with a short (200 ms) temporal separation. These results suggest that rapid temporal processing deficits in ASD are not generalized across multiple sensory domains, and are unlikely to underlie the behavioral somatosensory abnormalities observed in ASD. PMID:27695402

  9. Relationship between intracellular ionic strength and expression of tonicity-responsive genes in rat papillary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Bartels, Helmut; Fraek, Maria-L; Beck, Franz-X

    2002-08-15

    Intracellular ionic strength may play an important role in regulating the expression of genes encoding osmolyte-accumulating molecules. To establish whether a strict relation exists between these variables, intracellular ionic strength (sum of Na+, Cl- and K+ concentrations) and the relative abundance of mRNA derived from various tonicity-sensitive genes was examined using electron microprobe analysis and Northern blots on primary cultures of rat papillary collecting duct (PCD) cells following acute or long-term alterations in medium tonicity. Hypertonic medium (450 mosmol kg(-1)) evoked an initial rise in intracellular ionic strength (269 +/- 5 vs. 194 +/- 7 mmol (kg wet weight (wt))(-1) in isotonic controls; means +/- S.E.M.), which subsequently declined gradually, and a significantly higher abundance of bgt1 (Na+- and Cl- -dependent betaine transporter), smit (Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter), ar (aldose reductase) and osp94 (osmotic stress protein 94) mRNAs. Conversely, exposure to hypotonic medium (200 mosmol kg(-1)) for 12 h was associated with significantly reduced intracellular ionic strength (153 +/- 4 mmol (kg wet wt)(-1)) and significantly reduced the abundance of smit and ar mRNAs. PCD cells preconditioned in hypotonic medium and re-exposed to isotonic medium showed significantly higher abundance of these mRNAs than isotonic controls, although the intracellular ionic strength did not differ. Two further tonicity-sensitive genes responded differently to medium tonicity: while the abundance of hsp70 (heat shock protein 70) mRNA increased significantly following both hypo- and hypertonic stress, inos (inducible nitric oxide synthase) mRNA abundance correlated inversely with medium tonicity. These findings support the view that the effect of intracellular ionic strength on the expression of bgt1, smit, ar and osp94 is modulated by additional factors such as cell volume, and that its effect on the pathways regulating hsp70 and inos is even more complex.

  10. Relationship between intracellular ionic strength and expression of tonicity-responsive genes in rat papillary collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Bartels, Helmut; Fraek, Maria-L; Beck, Franz-X

    2002-01-01

    Intracellular ionic strength may play an important role in regulating the expression of genes encoding osmolyte-accumulating molecules. To establish whether a strict relation exists between these variables, intracellular ionic strength (sum of Na+, Cl− and K+ concentrations) and the relative abundance of mRNA derived from various tonicity-sensitive genes was examined using electron microprobe analysis and Northern blots on primary cultures of rat papillary collecting duct (PCD) cells following acute or long-term alterations in medium tonicity. Hypertonic medium (450 mosmol kg−1) evoked an initial rise in intracellular ionic strength (269 ± 5 vs. 194 ± 7 mmol (kg wet weight (wt))−1 in isotonic controls; means ± s.e.m.), which subsequently declined gradually, and a significantly higher abundance of bgt1 (Na+- and Cl−-dependent betaine transporter), smit (Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter), ar (aldose reductase) and osp94 (osmotic stress protein 94) mRNAs. Conversely, exposure to hypotonic medium (200 mosmol kg−1) for 12 h was associated with significantly reduced intracellular ionic strength (153 ± 4 mmol (kg wet wt)−1) and significantly reduced the abundance of smit and ar mRNAs. PCD cells preconditioned in hypotonic medium and re-exposed to isotonic medium showed significantly higher abundance of these mRNAs than isotonic controls, although the intracellular ionic strength did not differ. Two further tonicity-sensitive genes responded differently to medium tonicity: while the abundance of hsp70 (heat shock protein 70) mRNA increased significantly following both hypo- and hypertonic stress, inos (inducible nitric oxide synthase) mRNA abundance correlated inversely with medium tonicity. These findings support the view that the effect of intracellular ionic strength on the expression of bgt1, smit, ar and osp94 is modulated by additional factors such as cell volume, and that its effect on the pathways regulating hsp70 and inos is even more complex. PMID

  11. Disruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: Evidence from functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Temple, E.; Poldrack, R. A.; Protopapas, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Salz, T.; Tallal, P.; Merzenich, M. M.; Gabrieli, J. D. E.

    2000-01-01

    The biological basis for developmental dyslexia remains unknown. Research has suggested that a fundamental deficit in dyslexia is the inability to process sensory input that enters the nervous system rapidly and that deficits in processing rapid acoustic information are associated with impaired reading. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify the brain basis of rapid acoustic processing in normal readers and to discover the status of that response in dyslexic readers. Normal readers showed left prefrontal activity in response to rapidly changing, relative to slowly changing, nonlinguistic acoustic stimuli. Dyslexic readers showed no differential left frontal response. Two dyslexic readers participated in a remediation program and showed increased activity in left prefrontal cortex after training. These fMRI results identify left prefrontal regions as normally being sensitive to rapid relative to slow acoustic stimulation, insensitive to the difference between such stimuli in dyslexic readers, and plastic enough in adulthood to develop such differential sensitivity after intensive training. PMID:11095716

  12. A rapid one-pot synthesis of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives using Brønsted-acidic ionic liquid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Nia, Roghayeh Hossein; Mamaghani, Manouchehr; Tabatabaeian, Khalil; Shirini, Farhad; Rassa, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized regioselectivly in good to high yields by one-pot three-component condensation of 6-amino-2-(methylthio)pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, aromatic aldehydes and ethylcyanoacetate or meldrum's acid using 1,2-dimethyl-N-butanesulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([DMBSI]HSO4) Brønsted-acidic ionic liquid as catalyst. Solvent-free mild reaction conditions, short reaction times, easy work-up, and reusability of the catalyst are the main advantages of this protocol.

  13. Value and challenges of conducting rapid response research on wildland fires

    Treesearch

    L. Lentile; P. Morgan; C. Hardy; A. Hudak; R. Means; R. Ottmar; P. Robichaud; E. Kennedy Sutherland; J. Szymoniak; F. Way; J. Fites-Kaufman; S. Lewis; E. Mathews; H. Shovik; K. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Rapid Response Research is conducted during and immediately after wildland fires, in coordination with fire management teams, in order to collect information that can best be garnered in situ and in real-time. This information often includes fire behavior and fire effects data, which can be used to generate practical tools such as predictive fire models for managers....

  14. Rapid is relative until clearly defined: A response to Kleindl et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The response to Kleindl et al. replies to their claims that an analysis of rapid assessments published in an Environmental Protection Agency report and then in the peer-reviewed journal, Wetlands, wrongly eliminated the Hydrogeomorphic Assessment Method (HGM) from consideration. ...

  15. Sustaining innovations in complex healthcare environments: A multiple-case study of rapid response teams

    PubMed Central

    Stolldorf, Deonni P; Havens, Donna S.; Jones, Cheryl B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rapid response teams are one innovation previously deployed in U.S. hospitals with the goal to improve the quality of care. Sustaining rapid response teams is important to achieve the desired implementation outcomes, reduce the risk of program investments losses, and prevent employee disillusionment and dissatisfaction. This study sought to examine factors that do and do not support the sustainability of Rapid Response Teams. Methods The study was conceptually guided by an adapted version of the Planning Model of Sustainability. A multiple-case study was conducted using a purposive sample of two hospitals with high RRT sustainability scores and two hospitals with low RRT sustainability scores. Data collection methods included: (a) a hospital questionnaire that was completed by a nurse administrator at each hospital; (b) semi-structured interviews with leaders, RRT members, and those activating RRT calls; and, (c) review of internal documents. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics; qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Few descriptive differences were found between hospitals. However, there were notable differences in the operationalization of certain factors between high- and low-sustainability hospitals. Additional sustainability factors other than those captured by the Planning Model of Sustainability were also identified. Conclusions The sustainability of rapid response teams is optimized through effective operationalization of organizational and project design and implementation factors. Two additional factors—individual and team characteristics—should be included in the Planning Model of Sustainability and considered as potential facilitators (or inhibitors) of RRT sustainability. PMID:26756725

  16. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  17. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  18. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Bhola, Dennison S.; Wise, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study four methods were compared for setting a response time threshold that differentiates rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior when examinees are obliged to complete a low-stakes test. The four methods examined were: (1) a fixed threshold for all test items; (2) thresholds based on item surface features such as the amount of…

  19. Rapid is relative until clearly defined: A response to Kleindl et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The response to Kleindl et al. replies to their claims that an analysis of rapid assessments published in an Environmental Protection Agency report and then in the peer-reviewed journal, Wetlands, wrongly eliminated the Hydrogeomorphic Assessment Method (HGM) from consideration. ...

  20. Evaluation of a hospice rapid response community service: a controlled evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While most people faced with a terminal illness would prefer to die at home, less than a third in England are enabled to do so with many dying in National Health Service hospitals. Patients are more likely to die at home if their carers receive professional support. Hospice rapid response teams, which provide specialist palliative care at home on a 24/7 on-call basis, are proposed as an effective way to help terminally ill patients die in their preferred place, usually at home. However, the effectiveness of rapid response teams has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of patient, carer and cost outcomes. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic quasi-experimental controlled trial. The primary outcome for the quantitative evaluation for patients is dying in their preferred place of death. Carers’ quality of life will be evaluated using postal questionnaires sent at patient intake to the hospice service and eight months later. Carers’ perceptions of care received and the patient’s death will be assessed in one to one interviews at 6 to 8 months post bereavement. Service utilisation costs including the rapid response intervention will be compared to those of usual care. Discussion The study will contribute to the development of the evidence base on outcomes for patients and carers and costs of hospice rapid response teams operating in the community. Trial registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN32119670. PMID:22846107

  1. Communication at pediatric rapid response events: a survey of health care providers.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Michael C; Aboumatar, Hanan A; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore perceptions of communication quality at pediatric rapid response events and to determine whether these perceptions differed between rapid response team (RRT) members (RRTm) and floor providers (FP). This survey study was conducted of clinical providers involved in RRT events at a tertiary care children's hospital. Perceptions of RRT communication were assessed by using a 5-point Likert scale, and qualitative comments were collected. Responses were compared between RRTm (responder nurses and intensive care fellows) and FP (floor nurses and resident physicians). Survey response was 64% (18 of 28) for RRTm and 70% (194 of 278) for FP. RRTm gave lower ratings than FP for communication of: (1) the purpose of the call; (2) airway and breathing; (3) circulation; (4) background information; and (5) possible diagnosis and treatment. RRTm were more likely than FP to indicate that description of background information delayed communication of critical management problems ("often": RRTm, 7 of 17 [41%]; FP, 23 of 175 [13%]; "always": RRTm, 2 of 18 [12%]; FP, 19 of 175 [11%]; P=.001 for overall comparison). A structured approach for communication was generally supported, although less strongly among floor nurses. Themes from qualitative responses included role confusion, fractured room entry, and a dismissive attitude by RRTm. A disconnect in perceived quality of communication was observed between RRTm and FP at pediatric rapid response events. A structured approach with well-defined roles may improve communication quality. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. On- versus off-responses of raccoon glabrous skin rapidly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Pubols, B H

    1980-06-01

    1. The on- and off-responses of 50 raccoon median nerve fibers associated with rapidly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors in glabrous skin were examined under experimental conditions designed to allow comparable opportunities for on- and off-responses to occur. Trapezoidal stimuli were utilized, providing for equal stimulus indentation and retraction velocities and equal static displacement times and intertrial intervals. Principal findings were as follows: 2. At stimulus levels well above displacement and velocity thresholds for on-responses, 80% of units yielded a more vigorous on-response than off-response (as measured by the total number of ramp impulses); in 6%, the reverse was true; while in the remaining 14%, the off-discharge was absent. 3. On and off displacement thresholds were approximately equal (on median, 43 micron; off median, 42 micron). However, on velocity thresholds were significantly lower than off velocity thresholds (on median, 1.0 micron/ms; off median, 3.8 micron/ms). 4. Exponents (b) of power functions relating discharge rate to ramp velocity (frequency = a x velocityb) were consistently greater for on-responses than for off-responses, but intercept constants (a) were consistently greater for off-responses than for on-responses. 5. Previous findings that mammalian rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptors possess a "linear directionality" generally favoring on-responses were confirmed. 6. Results are discussed in relation to the role of viscoelastic properties of RA mechanoreceptors and neighboring skin. It is suggested that, when considerations is also given to the mechanical properties of surrounding tissues, the Loewenstein and Skalak (18) analysis of the mode of operation of Pacinian corpuscles might also apply, at least qualitatively, to the simple dermal (rapidly adapting) corpuscle of raccoon glabrous skin.

  3. The 6 "ws" of rapid response systems: best practices for improving development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Patzer, Brady; Robinson, Patricia; Wallace, Ruth; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Delays in care have been cited as one of the primary contributors of preventable mortality; thus, quality patient safety is often contingent upon the delivery of timely clinical care. Rapid response systems (RRSs) have been touted as one mechanism to improve the ability of suitable staff to respond to deteriorating patients quickly and appropriately. Rapid response systems are defined as highly skilled individual(s) who mobilize quickly to provide medical care in response to clinical deterioration. While there is mounting evidence that RRSs are a valid strategy for managing obstetric emergencies, reducing adverse events, and improving patient safety, there remains limited insight into the practices underlying the development and execution of these systems. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to synthesize the literature and answer the primary questions necessary for successfully developing, implementing, and evaluating RRSs within inpatient settings-the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of RRSs.

  4. The rapid A-Ci response: photosynthesis in the phenomic era.

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Morgan, Patrick B; Lynch, Douglas J; Saathoff, Aaron J; McDermitt, Dayle K; Hanson, David T

    2017-03-01

    Phenotyping for photosynthetic gas exchange parameters is limiting our ability to select plants for enhanced photosynthetic carbon gain and to assess plant function in current and future natural environments. This is due, in part, to the time required to generate estimates of the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylation (Vc,max ) and the maximal rate of electron transport (Jmax ) from the response of photosynthesis (A) to the CO2 concentration inside leaf air spaces (Ci ). To relieve this bottleneck, we developed a method for rapid photosynthetic carbon assimilation CO2 responses [rapid A-Ci response (RACiR)] utilizing non-steady-state measurements of gas exchange. Using high temporal resolution measurements under rapidly changing CO2 concentrations, we show that RACiR techniques can obtain measures of Vc,max and Jmax in ~5 min, and possibly even faster. This is a small fraction of the time required for even the most advanced gas exchange instrumentation. The RACiR technique, owing to its increased throughput, will allow for more rapid screening of crops, mutants and populations of plants in natural environments, bringing gas exchange into the phenomic era.

  5. Rapid response teams in hospitals: improving quality of care for patients and quality of the work environment for nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Terry

    2006-01-01

    As the healthcare delivery system continues to evolve in the new millennium, initiatives such as the Institute for HealthCare Improvement's 100,000 Lives Campaign include the development of rapid response teams in hospitals. Introduction of rapid response teams provides nurses assistance in difficult clinical situations and provides early clinical intervention to mitigate negative patient outcomes and save lives. Development, implementation strategies, and benefits of rapid response teams are described.

  6. Understanding the Rapid Precipitation Response to CO2 and Aerosol Forcing on a Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Thomas; Forster, Piers; Parker, Doug; Andrews, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Regional precipitation change is one of the most uncertain aspects of climate change prediction, and can have major societal implications. On a global scale, precipitation is tightly constrained by the radiative cooling of the troposphere. As a result, precipitation exhibits a significant rapid adjustment in response to certain forcing agents, which is important for understanding long term climate change. However, the mechanisms which drive the spatial pattern of rapid adjustment are not well understood. In this study we analyze the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation change using simulations with fixed sea surface temperature. Using data obtained from sixteen models participating in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate the response to three different forcing scenarios; an abrupt quadrupling of CO2, an increase in all aerosols, and an increase in sulphate aerosol from pre-industrial to present day levels. Analysis of the local atmospheric energy budget is used to understand the observed changes. We find that the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation adjustment due to forcing is primarily driven by the rapid land surface response. As a result, the spatial pattern due to quadrupling CO2 opposes that due to increased sulphate and increased all aerosols. Increasing CO2 levels causes warming of the land surface, due to enhanced downwelling longwave radiation. This destabilizes the atmosphere by warming the lower troposphere, producing an overall shift of convection and precipitation to over land. The reverse is observed for increased sulphate and increased all aerosols. Changes in tropospheric cooling are important in determining the magnitude of regional precipitation change, thereby satisfying global energy budget constraints. We find the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation change due to quadrupling CO2 levels is robust between models. The most significant precipitation changes occur in the tropics, with significant

  7. A rapid shaking-based ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction for the simultaneous determination of six synthetic food colourants in soft drinks, sugar- and gelatin-based confectionery by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Guo, Jing-Bo; Du, Li-Ming; Tian, Hong; Hao, Cheng-Xuan; Wang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Jie-Yan

    2013-11-01

    A novel and simple rapid shaking-based method of ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction for the determination of six synthetic food colourants (Tartrazine, Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, Allura Red, Ponceau 4R, and Erythrosine) in soft drinks, sugar- and gelatin-based confectionery was established. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector was used for the determinations. The extraction procedure did not require a dispersive solvent, heat, ultrasonication, or additional chemical reagents. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C8MIM][BF4]) was dispersed in an aqueous sample solution as fine droplets by manual shaking, enabling the easier migration of analytes into the ionic liquid phase. Factors such as the [C8MIM][BF4] volume, sample pH, extraction time, and centrifugation time were investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the proposed method showed excellent detection sensitivity with limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) within 0.015-0.32 ng/mL. The method was also successfully used in analysing real food samples. Good spiked recoveries from 95.8%-104.5% were obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity of ionic liquids: eco(cyto)activity as complicated, but unavoidable parameter for task-specific optimization.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Ksenia S; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2014-02-01

    Rapid progress in the field of ionic liquids in recent decades led to the development of many outstanding energy-conversion processes, catalytic systems, synthetic procedures, and important practical applications. Task-specific optimization emerged as a sharpening stone for the fine-tuning of structure of ionic liquids, which resulted in unprecedented efficiency at the molecular level. Ionic-liquid systems showed promising opportunities in the development of green and sustainable technologies; however, the chemical nature of ionic liquids is not intrinsically green. Many ionic liquids were found to be toxic or even highly toxic towards cells and living organisms. In this Review, we show that biological activity and cytotoxicity of ionic liquids dramatically depend on the nature of a biological system. An ionic liquid may be not toxic for particular cells or organisms, but may demonstrate high toxicity towards another target present in the environment. Thus, a careful selection of biological activity data is a must for the correct assessment of chemical technologies involving ionic liquids. In addition to the direct biological activity (immediate response), several indirect effects and aftereffects are of primary importance. The following principal factors were revealed to modulate toxicity of ionic liquids: i) length of an alkyl chain in the cation; ii) degree of functionalization in the side chain of the cation; iii) anion nature; iv) cation nature; and v) mutual influence of anion and cation.

  9. Label-free, rapid and quantitative phenotyping of stress response in E. coli via ramanome

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lin; Wang, Xian; Wang, Xiaojun; Gou, Honglei; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Yun; Ji, Yuetong; Huang, Wei E.; Xu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named “ramanome”, which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular population. SCRS of Escherichia coli cells are sensitive to both exposure time (eight time points) and dosage (six doses) of ethanol, with detection time as early as 5 min and discrimination rate of either factor over 80%. Moreover, the ramanomes upon six chemical compounds from three categories, including antibiotics of ampicillin and kanamycin, alcohols of ethanol and n-butanol and heavy metals of Cu2+ and Cr6+, were analyzed and 31 marker Raman bands were revealed which distinguish stress-responses via cytotoxicity mechanism and variation of inter-cellular heterogeneity. Furthermore, specificity, reproducibility and mechanistic basis of ramanome were validated by tracking stress-induced dynamics of metabolites and by contrasting between cells with and without genes that convey stress resistance. Thus ramanome enables rapid prediction and mechanism-based screening of cytotoxicity and stress-response programs at single-cell resolution. PMID:27756907

  10. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of cadmium from water samples.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, M; Kamalabadi, M; Jamali, M R; Zolgharnein, J; Asanjarani, N

    2013-06-01

    A new, rapid, and simple method for the determination of cadmium in water samples was developed using ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In the proposed approach, 2-(5-boromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethyamino) phenol was used as a chelating agent and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonyl)imide and acetone were selected as extraction and dispersive solvents, respectively. Sample pH, concentration of chelating agent, amount of ionic liquid (extraction solvent), disperser solvent volume, extraction time, salt effect, and centrifugation speed were selected as interested variables in IL-DLLME process. The significant variables affecting the extraction efficiency were determined using a Placket-Burman design. Thereafter, the significant variables were optimized using a Box-Behnken design and the quadratic model between the dependent and the independent variables was built. The optimum experimental conditions obtained from this statistical evaluation included: pH: 6.7; concentration of chelating agent: 1.1 10(-) (3) mol L(-1); and ionic liquid: 50.0 mg. Under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration factor obtained was 100. Calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.2-60 µg L(-1) with correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limit of detection was 0.06 µg L(-) (1), which is lower than other reported approaches applied to the determination of cadmium using FAAS. The relative SD (n = 8) was 2.4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of cadmium in the real water samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-06-21

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Thermally-responsive, nonflammable phosphonium ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium metal batteries: operating at 100 degrees celsius.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Kavian, R; Lu, Y; Hu, Q; Shao-Horn, Y; Grinstaff, M W

    2015-11-13

    Rechargeable batteries such as Li ion/Li metal batteries are widely used in the electronics market but the chemical instability of the electrolyte limits their use in more demanding environmental conditions such as in automotive, oil exploration, or mining applications. In this study, a series of alkyl phosphonium ionic liquid electrolyte are described with high thermal stability and solubility for LiTFSI. A lithium metal battery (LMB) containing a tailored phosphonium ionic liquid/LiTFSI electrolyte operates at 100 °C with good specific capacities and cycling stability. Substantial capacity is maintained during 70 cycles or 30 days. Instant on-off battery operation is realized via the significant temperature dependence of the electrolyte material, demonstrating the robustness and potential for use at high temperature.

  13. Smart Macroporous IPN Hydrogels Responsive to pH, Temperature, and Ionic Strength: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Controlled Release of Drugs.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Ecaterina Stela; Cocarta, Ana Irina

    2016-05-18

    Fast responsive macroporous interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels were fabricated in this work by a sequential strategy, as follows: the first network, consisting of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEM) cross-linked with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BAAm), was prepared at -18 °C, the second network consisting of poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) cross-linked with BAAm, being also generated by cryogelation technique. Both single network cryogels (SNC) and IPN cryogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water uptake. The presence of weak polycation PDMAEM endows the SNCs and the IPNs cryogels with sensitivity at numerous external stimuli such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, electric field, among which the first three were investigated in this work. It was found that the initial concentration of monomers in both networks was the key factor in tailoring the properties of IPN cryogels such as swelling kinetics, equilibrium water content (EWC), phase transition temperature and the response at ionic strength. The pore size increased after the formation of the second network, the swelling kinetics in pure water being comparable with that of the SNC, phase transition temperature being situated in the range 35-36 °C for IPN cryogels. The water uptake at equilibrium (WUeq) abruptly increased at pH < 3.0 in the case of SNCs, whereas the response of IPN cryogels at the decrease of pH from 6.0 to 1.0 was strongly dependent on the gel structure, the values of WUeq being lower at a higher concentration of DMAEM in the first network, the monomer concentration in the second network being about 10 wt %. The pH response was very much diminished when the monomer concentration was high in both networks (15 wt % in the first network, and 21 wt % in the second network). The increase of the ionic strength from 0 up to 0.3 M NaCl led to the decrease of the WUeq, for all cryogels, the level of dehydration

  14. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, iceberg calving, and volcanic eruptions. The MODIS Rapid Response System (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov) was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data for most of the Earth's land surface is processed just a few hours after data acquisition. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to federal fire managers. Active fire locations in the conterminous United States are produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System and communicated to the Forest Service within a few minutes of production. The MODIS Rapid Response processing was also adapted to Direct Broadcast to reduce the product turn-around to just minutes after data acquisition regionally. MODIS active fire locations are used by the Forest Service to generate regional fire maps over the United States, updated twice daily and provided to the fire managers to help them allocate firefighting resources. Active fire locations are also distributed in near-real-time to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (G.O.F.C.) user community through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) datasets. The suite of MODIS rapid fire products is currently being complemented with a Smoke Index product and a Burned Area product that will represent two new key tools available to the fire community. Finally a new collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service was

  15. Effect of Ionic Conductivity on Response Speed of SrTiO3-Based All-Solid-State Electric-Double-Layer Transistor.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Ochi, Masanori; Higuchi, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Aono, Masakazu

    2015-06-10

    An all-solid-state electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT) with a Y-stabilized ZrO₂ (YSZ) proton conductor/SrTiO₃ (STO) single crystal has been fabricated to investigate ionic conductivity effect on the response speed, which should be a key parameter for development of next-generation EDLTs. The drain current exhibited a 4-order-of-magnitude increment by electrostatic carrier doping at the YSZ/STO interface due to ion migration, and the behavior strongly depended on the operation temperature. An Arrhenius-type plot of the ionic conductivity (σ(i)) in the YSZ and t(c)⁻¹, which is a current-rise time needed for charge accumulation at the YSZ/STO interface, shows a synchronized variation, indicating a proportional relationship between the two parameters. Analysis of the σ(i)-t(c) diagram shows that, in contrast to conventional EDLTs, the response speed should reach picosecond order at room temperature by using extreme miniaturization and superionic conductors. Furthermore, the diagram indicates that plenty of solid electrolytes, which have not been used due to the lack of criteria for evaluation, can be a candidate for all-solid-state EDLTs exceeding the carrier density of conventional EDLTs, even though the response speed becomes comparably lower than those of FETs.

  16. Scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling, synaptogenesis, and antidepressant behavioral responses

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Bhavya; Navarria, Andrea; Liu, Rong-Jian; Banasr, Mounira; Li, Nanxin; Terwilliger, Rose; Sanacora, Gerard; Eid, Tore; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies report that scopolamine, an acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in depressed patients, but the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response have not been determined. The present study examines the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and synaptogenesis, which have been implicated in the rapid actions of NMDA receptor antagonists. Methods The influence of scopolamine on mTORC1 signaling was determined by analysis of the phosphorylated and activated forms of mTORC1 signaling proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The numbers and function of spine synapses were analyzed by whole cell patch clamp recording and 2-photon image analysis of PFC neurons. The actions of scopolamine were examined in the forced swim test in the absence or presence of selective mTORC1 and AMPA receptor inhibitors. Results The results demonstrate that a single, low dose of scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling and the number and function of spine synapses in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. Scopolamine administration also produces an antidepressant response in the forced swim test that is blocked by pretreatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor or by a glutamate AMPA receptor antagonist. Conclusions Taken together, the results demonstrate that the antidepressant actions of scopolamine require mTORC1 signaling and are associated with increased glutamate transmission, and synaptogenesis, similar to NMDA receptor antagonists. These findings provide novel targets for safer and more efficacious rapid acting antidepressant agents. PMID:23751205

  17. Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: rapid landscape response to climate variation.

    PubMed

    Allen, C D; Breshears, D D

    1998-12-08

    In coming decades, global climate changes are expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distributions at unprecedented rates. These shifts are expected to be most rapid and extreme at ecotones, the boundaries between ecosystems, particularly those in semiarid landscapes. However, current models do not adequately provide for such rapid effects-particularly those caused by mortality-largely because of the lack of data from field studies. Here we report the most rapid landscape-scale shift of a woody ecotone ever documented: in northern New Mexico in the 1950s, the ecotone between semiarid ponderosa pine forest and pinon-juniper woodland shifted extensively (2 km or more) and rapidly (<5 years) through mortality of ponderosa pines in response to a severe drought. This shift has persisted for 40 years. Forest patches within the shift zone became much more fragmented, and soil erosion greatly accelerated. The rapidity and the complex dynamics of the persistent shift point to the need to represent more accurately these dynamics, especially the mortality factor, in assessments of the effects of climate change.

  18. Drought-induced shift of a forest–woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Craig D.; Breshears, David D.

    1998-01-01

    In coming decades, global climate changes are expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distributions at unprecedented rates. These shifts are expected to be most rapid and extreme at ecotones, the boundaries between ecosystems, particularly those in semiarid landscapes. However, current models do not adequately provide for such rapid effects—particularly those caused by mortality—largely because of the lack of data from field studies. Here we report the most rapid landscape-scale shift of a woody ecotone ever documented: in northern New Mexico in the 1950s, the ecotone between semiarid ponderosa pine forest and piñon–juniper woodland shifted extensively (2 km or more) and rapidly (<5 years) through mortality of ponderosa pines in response to a severe drought. This shift has persisted for 40 years. Forest patches within the shift zone became much more fragmented, and soil erosion greatly accelerated. The rapidity and the complex dynamics of the persistent shift point to the need to represent more accurately these dynamics, especially the mortality factor, in assessments of the effects of climate change. PMID:9843976

  19. Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.D.; Breshears, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    In coming decades, global climate changes are expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distributions at unprecedented rates. These shifts are expected to be most rapid and extreme at ecotones, the boundaries between ecosystems, particularly those in semiarid landscapes. However, current models do not adequately provide for such rapid effects - particularly those caused by mortality - largely because of the lack of data from field studies. Here we report the most rapid landscape-scale shift of a woody ecotone ever documented: in northern New Mexico in the 1950s, the ecotone between semiarid ponderosa pine forest and pinon-juniper woodland shifted extensively (2 km or more) and rapidly (<5 years) through mortality of ponderosa pines in response to a severe drought. This shift has persisted for 40 years. Forest patches within the shift zone became much more fragmented, and soil erosion greatly accelerated. The rapidity and the complex dynamics of the persistent shift point to the need to represent more accurately these dynamics, especially the mortality factor, in assessments of the effects of climate change.

  20. Optimization of Ionic Liquid Based Simultaneous Ultrasonic- and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Rutin and Quercetin from Leaves of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunjian; Lu, Zhicheng; He, Xin; Li, Zhao; Shi, Kunming; Yang, Lei; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    An ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (ILs-UMAE) method has been proposed for the extraction of rutin (RU), quercetin (QU), from velvetleaf leaves. The influential parameters of the ILs-UMAE were optimized by the single factor and the central composite design (CCD) experiments. A 2.00 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br) was used as the experimental ionic liquid, extraction temperature 60°C, extraction time 12 min, liquid-solid ratio 32 mL/g, microwave power of 534 W, and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W. Compared to conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE), the RU and QU extraction yields obtained by ILs-UMAE were, respectively, 5.49 mg/g and 0.27 mg/g, which increased, respectively, 2.01-fold and 2.34-fold with the recoveries that were in the range of 97.62–102.36% for RU and 97.33–102.21% for QU with RSDs lower than 3.2% under the optimized UMAE conditions. In addition, the shorter extraction time was used in ILs-UMAE, compared with HRE. Therefore, ILs-UMAE was a rapid and an efficient method for the extraction of RU and QU from the leaves of velvetleaf. PMID:25243207

  1. Use of nutrient response techniques to assess the effectiveness of chlorination of rapid sand filter gravel.

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, M S; Adams, J C; Dickman, D G; Bressler, W R

    1989-01-01

    A direct viable counting method was used to rapidly assess the effectiveness of chlorination of biofilms on rapid sand filter gravel. A total of 50% of the cells were nutrient responsive after exposure to 0.5 mg of chlorine per liter, while this value was 25% after exposure to 25 mg of chlorine per liter. A large variation was seen in the numbers of nutrient-responsive cells on different rocks. More cells attached to the sandblasted side of marbles than to the smooth side, but there was no difference in eight of nine cases in the proportion of survival to chlorination between the two different sides. The effectiveness of chlorination appeared to be influenced by the species of bacterium in the biofilm. PMID:2705772

  2. Preparation for malaria resurgence in China: approach in risk assessment and rapid response.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Vong, Sirenda; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Duo-Quan; Xiao, Ning

    2014-01-01

    With the shrinking of indigenous malaria cases and endemic areas in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), imported malaria predominates over all reported cases accounting for more than 90% of the total. On the way to eliminate malaria, prompt detection and rapid response to the imported cases are crucial for the prevention of secondary transmission in previous endemic areas. Through a comprehensive literature review, this chapter aims to identify risk determinants of potential local transmission caused by the imported malaria cases and discusses gaps to be addressed to reach the elimination goal by 2020. Current main gaps with respect to dealing with potential malaria resurgence in P.R. China include lack of cross-sectoral cooperation, lack of rapid response and risk assessment, poor public awareness, and inadequate research and development in the national malaria elimination programme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ionic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G.D.

    1985-03-01

    The theme of the second Petra School of Physics was the optical properties of solids. The author's lectures will discuss the theory of ionic crystals such as the alkali halides. The general topics will include a discussion of: the local electric fields, multipole polarizability, core level spectra, and electron energy levels. The subject of alkali halides is today regarded as unfashionable. They were quite popular years ago, but fashions and fancies in science have moved elsewhere. One should not think they are well understood. The author's impression of this field is that activity stopped, not because the problems were solved, but rather because the workers got tired of not being able to solve them. For example, we still do not have a good theory of crystal structure, since microscopic forces are not well characterized. One concludes that other quantities which depend upon forces, such as the elastic constants, are also not well understood, although theories of them are published all of the time. As another example, we still do not have a good theory of bonding. Here there are two camps: one which regards the bonding as ionic, while the other advocates significant amounts of covalency. Recently we have shown that both the elastic constants, and the amount of covalent bonding, depend significantly upon the higher multipole polarizabilities. In summary, the subject of ionic crystals is a field where there are still many unresolved issues awaiting good research. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Observed and self-perceived teamwork in a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Pattie; Bawel-Brinkley, Karen; O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen

    2012-07-01

    Teamwork and communication between healthcare workers are vital for patient safety in the high-risk environment of health care. The purpose of this descriptive study was to measure the teamwork among members of the rapid response team (RRT) to design teamwork communication training for team members. Data were collected via live observation of RRT events and from RRT team member ratings of teamwork during events.

  5. Rapid continental-scale vegetation response to the Younger Dryas Cool Episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, M.; Gajewski, K.; Viau, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Younger Dryas Cool Episode had rapid and widespread effects on flora and fauna throughout the Americas. Fossil pollen records document how plant communities responded to this event, although such data are generally only representative of changes at local- to regional-scales. We use a new approach to provide insight into vegetation responses to the Younger Dryas at a continental-scale, by focusing on data extracted for a single taxon (Populus poplar, cottonwood, aspen) from pollen diagrams throughout North America. We show that Populus underwent a rapid and continent-wide decline as the climate rapidly cooled and dried. At the termination of the Younger Dryas, Populus underwent another widespread decline, this time in response to competition from boreal and temperate taxa as the climate abruptly warmed. Late glacial-early Holocene pollen assemblages with high quantities of Populus pollen often lack modern analogues and thus confound quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions; our results provide a context to interpret these assemblages. Furthermore, while Populus may continue to expand in the future in response to human disturbance and increasing temperatures, its sensitivity to competition may eventually put it at risk as global warming accelerates.

  6. Rapid Vegetational Change in Coastal North America: The Response to Climate Since the LGM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Kneller, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    The late-glacial interval provided rapid shifts in climate which are mirrored by dramatic vegetational changes in North America. Through a transect of lake and mire sites from Connecticut to Virginia on the east coast and Kodiak Island on the western coast, we trace the warming following the LGM with the response of forests and tundra. A brief cold reversal in Virginia is seen from 12,260 to 12,200. The subsequent longer and extreme Younger Dryas event is marked in the southern New England - New Jersey region by dramatic boreal and deciduous forest changes. In the southeastern US, forests also change rapidly, with hemlock forest expansion suggesting increased moisture. In Kodiak Island, the warm, moist tundra of the Bolling/Allerod is replaced by colder, windswept Empetrum-dominated tundra during the Younger Dryas. The Pleistocene/Holocene shift in vegetation is remarkably pronounced in eastern North America as well as the Alaskan coastline. Response time of vegetation to climate change appears to be on the order of decades throughout these coastal locations, probably because of the proximity of sites to important ecotonal boundaries, and the magnitude of the events. Even in Virginia's Holocene record, a cold reversal inferred from increases in spruce and fir is noted at 7500 C14 yr BP. This response of the forests to a short-lived cooling shows the sensitivity of the biosphere to a rapid climate shifts.

  7. Rapid Vegetational Change in Coastal North America: The Response to Climate Since the LGM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Kneller, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    The late-glacial interval provided rapid shifts in climate which are mirrored by dramatic vegetational changes in North America. Through a transect of lake and mire sites from Connecticut to Virginia on the east coast and Kodiak Island on the western coast, we trace the warming following the LGM with the response of forests and tundra. A brief cold reversal in Virginia is seen from 12,260 to 12,200. The subsequent longer and extreme Younger Dryas event is marked in the southern New England - New Jersey region by dramatic boreal and deciduous forest changes. In the southeastern US, forests also change rapidly, with hemlock forest expansion suggesting increased moisture. In Kodiak Island, the warm, moist tundra of the Bolling/Allerod is replaced by colder, windswept Empetrum-dominated tundra during the Younger Dryas. The Pleistocene/Holocene shift in vegetation is remarkably pronounced in eastern North America as well as the Alaskan coastline. Response time of vegetation to climate change appears to be on the order of decades throughout these coastal locations, probably because of the proximity of sites to important ecotonal boundaries, and the magnitude of the events. Even in Virginia's Holocene record, a cold reversal inferred from increases in spruce and fir is noted at 7500 C14 yr BP. This response of the forests to a short-lived cooling shows the sensitivity of the biosphere to a rapid climate shifts.

  8. MODIS Rapid Response: On-the-ground, real time applications of scientific satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Riebeek, H.; Kendall, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2001, NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response Project has been providing fire detections and imagery in near real time for a wide variety of application users. The project web site provides MODIS imagery in true color and false color band combinations, a vegetation index, and land surface temperature - in both uncorrected swath format and geographically corrected subset regions within a few hours of data acquisition. The uncorrected swath format data is available worldwide. Geographically corrected subset images cover the world's land areas and adjoining waters, as well as the entire Arctic and Antarctic. Images are available twice daily, in the morning from the Terra satellite and in the afternoon from the Aqua satellite. A wide range of user communities access this information to get a rapid, 250 meter-resolution overview of ground conditions for fire management, crop and famine monitoring and forecasting, disaster response (floods, storms), dust and aerosol monitoring, aviation (tracking volcanic ash), monitoring sea ice conditions, environmental monitoring, and more. The scientific community uses imagery to locate phenomena of interest prior to ordering and processing data and to support the day-to-day planning of field campaigns. Rapid Response imagery is used extensively to support education and public outreach, both by NASA and other organizations, and is frequently found in newspapers, books, TV, and the web. California wildfires, 26 October 2003, Terra MODIS

  9. Rapid estimation of frequency response functions by close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of a rapid method which estimates the frequency response function from stereoscopic dynamic data is computed. It is shown that reversal of the order of the operations of coordinate transformation and Fourier transformation, which provides a significant increase in computational speed, introduces error. A portion of the error, proportional to the perturbation components normal to the camera focal planes, cannot be eliminated. The remaining error may be eliminated by proper scaling of frequency data prior to coordinate transformation. Methods are developed for least squares estimation of the full 3x3 frequency response matrix for a three dimensional structure.

  10. Rapid acquisition of an alarm response by a neotropical primate to a newly introduced avian predator.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Palleroni, Alberto; Hauser, Marc D; Touchton, Janeene; Kelley, J Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Predation is an important selective pressure in natural ecosystems. Among non-human primates, relatively little is known about how predators hunt primate prey and how primates acquire adaptive responses to counteract predation. In this study we took advantage of the recent reintroduction of radio-tagged harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja) to Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama to explore how mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), one of their primary prey, acquire anti-predator defences. Based on the observation that harpies follow their prey prior to attack, and often call during this pursuit period, we broadcast harpy eagle calls to howlers on BCI as well as to a nearby control population with no harpy predation. Although harpies have been extinct from this area for 50-100 years, results indicate that BCI howlers rapidly acquired an adaptive anti-predator response to harpy calls, while showing no response to other avian vocalizations; howlers maintained this response several months after the removal of the eagles. These results not only show that non-human primates can rapidly acquire an alarm response to a newly introduced predator, but that they can detect and identify predators on the basis of acoustic cues alone. These findings have significant implications both for the role of learning mechanisms in the evolution of prey defence and for conservation strategies, suggesting that the use of 'probing' approaches, such as auditory playbacks, may highly enhance an a priori assessment of the impact of species reintroduction. PMID:12769460

  11. Device for rapid quantification of human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprenkle, J. M.; Eckberg, D. L.; Goble, R. L.; Schelhorn, J. J.; Halliday, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    A new device has been designed, constructed, and evaluated to characterize the human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response relation rapidly. This system was designed for study of reflex responses of astronauts before, during, and after space travel. The system comprises a new tightly sealing silicon rubber neck chamber, a stepping motor-driven electrodeposited nickel bellows pressure system, capable of delivering sequential R-wave-triggered neck chamber pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg, and a microprocessor-based electronics system for control of pressure steps and analysis and display of responses. This new system provokes classic sigmoid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses with threshold, linear, and saturation ranges in most human volunteers during one held expiration.

  12. Rapid determination of alkaloids in Macleaya cordata using ionic liquid extraction followed by multiple reaction monitoring UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Linqiu; Huang, Mingyuan; Shao, Junli; Lin, Bokun; Shen, Qing

    2017-02-20

    The ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) have been successfully applied in extracting of six alkaloids from M. cordata. 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C6MIM][BF4]) aqueous solution was used as extraction solvent. The target analytes in raw material were deposited into a single drop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6MIM][PF6]), which was in situ formed by mixing [C6MIM][BF4] and potassium hexafluorophosphate ([K][PF6]. Afterwards, the extract was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The proposed method was fully validated in terms of linearity (0.9983-0.9992), LOD (0.080ngmL(-1)), LOQ (0.25ngmL(-1)), intra-day precision (<5.46%), inter-day precision (<6.36%), and recovery (86.42-112.48%). The results indicate that the approach of combining IL-DLLME with UPLC-MS/MS is powerful and practical for analyzing alkaloids in M. cordata., and it also has great potential for comprehensive quality control of other herbal medicines.

  13. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  14. Rapid Detection of Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Capacity is Predictive of Whole Blood Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Philip J.; Schaub, Leasha J.; Dallelucca, Jurandir J.; Pusateri, Anthony E.; Sheppard, Forest R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maladaptive immune responses, particularly cytokine and chemokine-driven, are a significant contributor to the deleterious inflammation present in many types of injury and infection. Widely available applications to rapidly assess individual inflammatory capacity could permit identification of patients at risk for exacerbated immune responses and guide therapy. Here we evaluate neutrophil oxidative burst (NOX) capacity measured by plate reader to immuno-type Rhesus Macaques as an acute strategy to rapidly detect inflammatory capacity and predict maladaptive immune responses as assayed by cytokine array. Methods Whole blood was collected from anesthetized Rhesus Macaques (n = 25) and analyzed for plasma cytokine secretion (23-plex Luminex assay) and NOX capacity. For cytokine secretion, paired samples were either unstimulated or ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated (100μg/mL/24h). NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin treatment. Pearson’s test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0.05 considered significant. Results LPS stimulation induced secretion of the inflammatory molecules G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/23(p40), IL-18, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα. Although values were variable, several cytokines correlated with NOX capacity, p-values≤0.0001. Specifically, IL-1β (r = 0.66), IL-6 (r = 0.74), the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12/23(p40) (r = 0.78), and TNFα (r = 0.76) were strongly associated with NOX. Conclusion NOX capacity correlated with Th1-polarizing cytokine secretion, indicating its ability to rapidly predict inflammatory responses. These data suggest that NOX capacity may quickly identify patients at risk for maladaptive immune responses and who may benefit from immuno-modulatory therapies. Future studies will assess the in-vivo predictive value of NOX in animal models of immune-mediated pathologies. PMID

  15. A review of rapid response team activation parameters in New Zealand hospitals.

    PubMed

    Psirides, Alex; Hill, Jennifer; Hurford, Sally

    2013-08-01

    To review current systems for recognising and responding to clinically deteriorating patients in all New Zealand public hospitals. A cross-sectional study of recognition and response systems in all New Zealand public hospitals was conducted in October 2011. Copies of all current vital sign charts and/or relevant policies were requested. These were examined for vital sign based recognition and response systems. The charts or policies were also used to determine the type of system in use and the vital sign parameters and trigger thresholds that provoke a call to the rapid response team. All New Zealand District Health Boards (DHBs). Physiological parameters used to trigger rapid response, the weighting of any early warning score assigned to them, type of system used, values of physiological derangement that trigger maximal system response. All DHBs use aggregate scoring systems to assess deterioration and respond. A total of 9 different physiological parameters were scored with most charts (21%) scoring 6 different parameters. All scored respiratory rate, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and conscious level. 86% scored oliguria, 14% polyuria, 33% oxygen saturation and 24% oxygen administration. All systems used either aggregate scores or a single extreme parameter to elicit a maximal system response. The extremes of physiological derangement to which scores were assigned varied greatly with bradypnoea having the greatest range for what was considered grossly abnormal. A large variance exists in the criteria used to detect deteriorating patients within New Zealand hospitals. Standardising both the vital signs chart and escalation criteria is likely to be of significant benefit in the early detection of and response to patient deterioration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Evolutionary conditioning of response to changes in ionic composition of water in hydrobionts: an example of freshwater zooplankton].

    PubMed

    Kalinkina, N M; Kulikova, T P

    2009-01-01

    The situation in Karelian water bodies polluted with mining waste has been analyzed. As a result of technogenic wastewater discharge, the total ion content in lake waters has increased tens of times, and the concentration of potassium ions (the main component of wastewater), hundreds of times. Pollution tolerance of hydrobiont populations depends on the historically developed adaptation potential of species. The lowest tolerance to mineral pollution is characteristic of crustaceans representing mesolimnic families Polyphemidae, Sididae, Leptodoridae, Holopedidae, Diaptomidae, and Temoridae. Representatives of paleolimnic cristacean families Daphniidae, Bosminidae, and Cycopidae as well rotifer (Rotatoria) species of freshwater origin are highly tolerant of changes in the ionic composition of water.

  17. Rapid dendritic cell recruitment is a hallmark of the acute inflammatory response at mucosal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of challenge sites such as skin and the peritoneal cavity has identified neutrophils as virtually the sole cellular participants in acute bacterial inflammation, peak influx occurring 24-48 h in advance of mononuclear cell populations associated with adaptive immunity. This study challenges the general applicability of this paradigm. We demonstrate here that the earliest detectable cellular response after inhalation of Moraxella catarrhalis organisms is the recruitment of putative class II major histocompatibility complex-bearing dendritic cell (DC) precursors into the airway epithelium, the initial wave arriving in advance of the neutrophil influx. Unlike the neutrophils which rapidly transit into the airway lumen, the DC precursors remain within the epithelium during the acute inflammatory response where they differentiate, and develop the dendriform morphology typical of resident DC found in the normal epithelium. During the ensuing 48-h period, these cells then migrate to the regional lymph nodes. No comparable DC response was observed after epidermal or intraperitoneal challenge, and it may be that mucosal surfaces are unique in their requirement for rapid DC responses during acute inflammation. We hypothesize that the role of the DC influx during acute inflammation may be surveillance for opportunistic viruses, and that this covert protective mechanism is operative at a restricted number of mucosal tissue sites. PMID:8145044

  18. Genetic response to rapid climate change: it's seasonal timing that matters.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    2008-01-01

    The primary nonbiological result of recent rapid climate change is warming winter temperatures, particularly at northern latitudes, leading to longer growing seasons and new seasonal exigencies and opportunities. Biological responses reflect selection due to the earlier arrival of spring, the later arrival of fall, or the increasing length of the growing season. Animals from rotifers to rodents use the high reliability of day length to time the seasonal transitions in their life histories that are crucial to fitness in temperate and polar environments: when to begin developing in the spring, when to reproduce, when to enter dormancy or when to migrate, thereby exploiting favourable temperatures and avoiding unfavourable temperatures. In documented cases of evolutionary (genetic) response to recent, rapid climate change, the role of day length (photoperiodism) ranges from causal to inhibitory; in no case has there been demonstrated a genetic shift in thermal optima or thermal tolerance. More effort should be made to explore the role of photoperiodism in genetic responses to climate change and to rule out the role of photoperiod in the timing of seasonal life histories before thermal adaptation is assumed to be the major evolutionary response to climate change.

  19. MDCK cells are capable of water secretion and reabsorption in response to changes in the ionic environment.

    PubMed

    Capra, Janne P; Eskelinen, Sinikka M

    2017-01-01

    A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes. This transepithelial water flow could be regulated by inhibitors and agonists of chloride channels. Hence, the driving force for the transepithelial water flow is chloride secretion, stimulated by hyperpolarization. Chloride ion depletion of the basal fluid (using sodium gluconate buffer) induces a strong reduction in the lumen size, indicating reabsorption of water from the lumen to the basal side. Lumen size also decreased following depolarization of the cell interior by rendering the membrane permeable to potassium. Hence, MDCK cells are capable of both absorption and secretion of chloride ions and water; negative potential within the lumen supports secretion, while depolarizing conditions promote reabsorption.

  20. Ionic electroactive hybrid transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Bennett, Matthew D.; Leo, Donald J.

    2005-05-01

    Ionic electroactive actuators have received considerable attention in the past ten years. Ionic electroactive polymers, sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, have the ability to generate large bending strain and moderate stress at low applied voltages. Typical types of ionic electroactive polymer transducers include ionic polymers, conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Preliminary research combining multiple types of materials proved to enhance certain transduction properties such as speed of response, maximum strain, or quasi-static actuation. Recently it was demonstrated that ionomer-ionic liquid transducers can operate in air for long periods of time (>250,000 cycles) and showed potential to reduce or eliminate the back-relaxation issue associated with ionomeric polymers. In addition, ionic liquids have higher electrical stability window than those operated with water as the solvent thereby increasing the maximum strain that the actuator can produce. In this work, a new technique developed for plating metal particulates on the surface of ionomeric materials is applied to the development of hybrid transducers that incorporate carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers as electrode materials. The new plating technique, named the direct assembly process, consists of mixing a conducting powder with an ionomer solution. This technique has demonstrated improved response time and strain output as compared to previous methods. Furthermore, the direct assembly process is less costly to implement than traditional impregnation-reduction methods due to less dependence on reducing agents, it requires less time, and is easier to implement than other processes. Electrodes applied using this new technique of mixing RuO2 (surface area 45~65m2/g) particles and Nafion dispersion provided 5x the displacement and 10x the force compared to a transducer made with conventional methods. Furthermore, the study illustrated that the response speed of the transducer is optimized

  1. Characterization of the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Herdegen, Samantha; Holmes, Geraldine; Cyriac, Ashly; Calin-Jageman, Irina E.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We used a custom-designed microarray and quantitative PCR to characterize the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Aplysia were exposed to repeated noxious shocks to one side of the body, a procedure known to induce a longlasting, transcription-dependent increase in reflex responsiveness that is restricted to the side of training. One hour after training, pleural ganglia from the trained and untrained sides of the body were harvested; these ganglia contain the sensory nociceptors which help mediate the expression of longterm sensitization memory. Microarray analysis from 8 biological replicates suggests that long-term sensitization training rapidly regulates at least 81 transcripts. We used qPCR to test a subset of these transcripts and found that 83% were confirmed in the same samples, and 86% of these were again confirmed in an independent sample. Thus, our new microarray design shows strong convergent and predictive validity for analyzing the transcriptional correlates of memory in Aplysia. Fully validated transcripts include some previously identified as regulated in this paradigm (ApC/EBP and ApEgr) but also include novel findings. Specifically, we show that long-term sensitization training rapidly upregulates the expression of transcripts which may encode Aplysia homologs of a C/EBPγ transcription factor, a glycine transporter (GlyT2), and a vacuolar-protein-sorting-associated protein (VPS36). PMID:25117657

  2. Characterization of the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Herdegen, Samantha; Holmes, Geraldine; Cyriac, Ashly; Calin-Jageman, Irina E; Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    We used a custom-designed microarray and quantitative PCR to characterize the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Aplysia were exposed to repeated noxious shocks to one side of the body, a procedure known to induce a long-lasting, transcription-dependent increase in reflex responsiveness that is restricted to the side of training. One hour after training, pleural ganglia from the trained and untrained sides of the body were harvested; these ganglia contain the sensory nociceptors which help mediate the expression of long-term sensitization memory. Microarray analysis from 8 biological replicates suggests that long-term sensitization training rapidly regulates at least 81 transcripts. We used qPCR to test a subset of these transcripts and found that 83% were confirmed in the same samples, and 86% of these were again confirmed in an independent sample. Thus, our new microarray design shows strong convergent and predictive validity for analyzing the transcriptional correlates of memory in Aplysia. Fully validated transcripts include some previously identified as regulated in this paradigm (ApC/EBP and ApEgr) but also include novel findings. Specifically, we show that long-term sensitization training rapidly up-regulates the expression of transcripts which may encode Aplysia homologs of a C/EBPγ transcription factor, a glycine transporter (GlyT2), and a vacuolar-protein-sorting-associated protein (VPS36). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NIR responsive liposomal system for rapid release of drugs in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Mao; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Su, Guang-Hao; Song, Fei-Fei; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2017-01-01

    To design a rapid release liposomal system for cancer therapy, a NIR responsive bubble-generating thermosensitive liposome (BTSL) system combined with photothermal agent (Cypate), doxorubicin (DOX), and NH4HCO3 was developed. Cypate/DOX-BTSL exhibited a good aqueous stability, photostability, and photothermal effect. In vitro release suggested that the amounts of DOX released from BTSL were obviously higher than that of (NH4)2SO4 liposomes at 42°C. After NIR irradiation, the hyperthermic temperature induced by Cypate led to the decomposition of NH4HCO3 and the generation of a large number of CO2 bubbles, triggering a rapid release of drugs. Confocal laser scanning microscope and acridine orange staining indicated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL upon irradiation could facilitate to disrupt the lysosomal membranes and realize endolysosomal escape into cytosol, improving the intracellular uptake of DOX clearly. MTT and trypan blue staining implied that the cell damage of Cypate/DOX-BTSL with NIR irradiation was more severe than that in the groups without irradiation. In vivo results indicated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL with irradiation could dramatically increase the accumulation of DOX in tumor, inhibit tumor growth, and reduce systemic side effects of DOX. These data demonstrated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL has the potential to be used as a NIR responsive liposomal system for a rapid release of drugs in thermochemotherapy. PMID:28652729

  4. Nursing students' clinical judgment regarding rapid response: the influence of a clinical simulation education intervention.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Pamela L; Jenkins, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a novel educational intervention on student nurses' clinical judgment regarding the management of patients experiencing rapid clinical deterioration. A randomized sample of baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in the final semester of their program at a midwestern public university participated. All students (N = 79) were pretested; the control group (n = 39) was posttested after receiving traditional code blue and rapid response education. The intervention group (n = 40) was posttested after receiving a novel education intervention. An independent t-test revealed that nursing students who received the innovative education intervention had significantly higher posttest scores (M = 90.91, standard deviation [SD] = 8.73) than did the nursing students who had not received the intervention (M = 64.80, SD = 19.69), t(77) = 7.65, p <.001). The findings demonstrate that clinical simulation is effective in improving students' knowledge and clinical judgment, specifically concerning rapid response systems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Urgent Need to Orient Public Health Response to Rapid Nutrition Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Sachdev, Harsh Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations. PMID:23293431

  6. Rapid determination of phthalate esters in alcoholic beverages by conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingying; Liu, Shuhui; Xie, Qilong

    2014-02-01

    A very simple, fast and environmentally friendly sample extraction method was proposed for the analysis of phthalate esters (PAEs, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)) in alcoholic beverages by using conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The samples were extracted by 160 μL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the presence of appropriate amount of ethanol and 10% (w/v) sodium chloride solution; the enriched analytes in sedimented phases were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Under the optimum conditions, a satisfactory linearity (in the range of 0.02-1 μg mL(-1) for white spirits and 0.01-0.5 μg mL(-1) for red wines with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9983 to 1), acceptable recovery rates (88.5-103.5% for white spirits and 91.6-104.6% for red wines), good repeatability (RSD ≤ 8.0%) and low detection limits (3.1-4.2 ng mL(-1) for white spirits and 1.5-2.2 ng mL(-1) for red wines) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the four PAEs in 30 white spirits and 11 red wines collected locally, and the DBP content in 63% (19:30) white spirits exceeded the specific migration limit of 0.3 mg kg(-1) established by international regulation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of truncated therapy for hepatitis C based on rapid virologic response.

    PubMed

    Gellad, Ziad F; Muir, Andrew J; McHutchison, John G; Sievert, William; Sharara, Ala I; Brown, Kimberly A; Flisiak, Robert; Jacobson, Ira M; Kershenobich, David; Manns, Michael P; Schulman, Kevin A; Reed, Shelby D

    2012-01-01

    Shortened courses of treatment with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for patients with hepatitis C virus infection who experience rapid virologic response can be effective in appropriately selected patients. The cost-effectiveness of truncated therapy is not known. To assess the cost-effectiveness of response-guided therapy versus standard-duration therapy on the basis of best available evidence. We developed a decision model for chronic hepatitis C virus infection representing two treatment strategies: 1) standard-duration therapy with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for 48 weeks in patients with genotype 1 or 4 and for 24 weeks in patients with genotype 2 or 3 and 2) truncated therapy (i.e., 50% decrease in treatment duration) in patients with rapid virologic response. Patients for whom truncated therapy failed began standard-duration therapy guided by genotype. We used a Markov model to estimate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years. In the base-case analysis, mean lifetime costs were $46,623 ± $2,483 with standard-duration therapy and $42,354 ± $2,489 with truncated therapy. Mean lifetime quality-adjusted life-years were similar between the groups (17.1 ± 0.7 with standard therapy; 17.2 ± 0.7 with truncated therapy). Across model simulations, the probability of truncated therapy being economically dominant (i.e., both cost saving and more effective) was 78.6%. The results were consistent when we stratified the data by genotype. In one-way sensitivity analyses, the results were sensitive only to changes in treatment efficacy. Truncated therapy based on rapid virologic response is likely to be cost saving for treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Cost-effectiveness varied with small changes in relative treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contemporary glacier retreat triggers a rapid landslide response, Great Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, Andrew; Amann, Florian; Strozzi, Tazio; Delaloye, Reynald; Ruette, Jonas; Springman, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The destabilization and catastrophic failure of landslides triggered by retreating glaciers is an expected outcome of global climate change and poses a significant threat to inhabitants of glaciated mountain valleys around the globe. Of particular importance are the formation of landslide-dammed lakes, outburst floods, and related sediment entrainment. Based on field observations and remote sensing of a deep-seated landslide, located at the present-day terminus of the Great Aletsch Glacier, we show that the spatiotemporal response of the landslide to glacier retreat is rapid, occurring within a decade. Our observations uniquely capture the critical period of increase in slope deformations, onset of failure, and show that measured displacements at the crown and toe regions of the landslide demonstrate a feedback mechanism between glacier ice reduction and response of the entire landslide body. These observations shed new light on the geomorphological processes of landslide response in paraglacial environments, which were previously understood to occur over significantly longer time periods.

  9. Biochemical responses and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) induced by ionic liquid [omim]PF6.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shumin; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Shao, Yuting; Zhu, Lusheng

    2016-04-01

    Ionic liquids that are not that "green" to many organisms have recently been identified. This study examined the subchronic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([omim]PF6) to earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Earthworms were exposed for a 28-day period (sampled on days 7, 14, 21, and 28) at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD)), detoxifying enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)), lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage were measured. ROS significantly accumulated in all the treatment groups; the maximum ROS content was 51.9% higher than the control at 40 mg/kg [omim]PF6 on day 28. Increased SOD activities attenuated over the time of exposure, while the CAT activities of the treatment groups were similar to the controls, except on day 14. Furthermore, the activities of POD and GST were stimulated. Lipid peroxidation in earthworms was not apparent at 5 and 10 mg/kg [omim]PF6 but was quite obvious at 40 mg/kg [omim]PF6. In addition, DNA damage was dose- and time-dependent. In conclusion, [omim]PF6 caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in earthworms.

  10. Instantaneous response of elastic thin-walled structures with arbitrary open cross section to rapid heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized modeling and analysis approach of thermally-induced coupled vibrations of elastic thin-walled configurations with arbitrary open cross sections are presented in conjunction with a unified implicit transient methodology. Limited research appears in literature which takes into account the influence of rapid thermal heating effects on structures involving various forms of coupling. As a consequence, the dynamic response of such thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross section due to rapid heating are described here. Effects involving triple, double, and no coupling between bending and torsional vibrations caused by sudden heating on these structures are examined. Numerical test cases are presented which describe the influence of sudden heating on elastic thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross sections.

  11. A rapid transcriptome response is associated with desiccation resistance in aerially-exposed killifish embryos.

    PubMed

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5-1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical "stress" proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  12. A Rapid Transcriptome Response Is Associated with Desiccation Resistance in Aerially-Exposed Killifish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5–1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical “stress” proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  13. Rapid Response Team Calls and Unplanned Transfers to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a Pediatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Stacey; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2016-01-01

    Variability in disposition of children according to the time of rapid response calls is unknown. To evaluate times and disposition of rapid response alerts and outcomes for children transferred from acute care to intensive care. Deidentified data on demographics, time and disposition of the child after activation of a rapid response, time of transfer to intensive care, and patient outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Data for rapid-response patients on time of activation of the response and unplanned transfers to the intensive care unit were compared with data on other patients admitted to the unit. Of 542 rapid responses activated, 321 (59.2%) were called during the daytime. Out of all rapid response activations, 323 children (59.6%) were transferred to intensive care, 164 (30.3%) remained on the general unit, and 19 (3.5%) required resuscitation. More children were transferred to intensive care after rapid response alerts (P = .048) during the daytime (66%) than at night (59%). During the same period, 1313 patients were transferred to intensive care from acute care units. Age, sex, risk of mortality, length of stay, and mortality rate did not differ according to the time of transfer. Mortality among unplanned transfers (3.8%) was significantly higher (P < .001) than among other intensive care patients (1.4%). Only 25% of transfers from acute care units to the intensive care unit occurred after activation of a rapid response team. Most rapid responses were called during daytime hours. Mortality was significantly higher among unplanned transfers from acute care than among other intensive care admissions. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Modular, Reconfigurable, and Rapid Response Space Systems: The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology Microsatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime; Andary, Jim; Oberright, John; So, Maria; Wegner, Peter; Hauser, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Modular, Reconfigurable, and Rapid-response (MR(sup 2)) space systems represent a paradigm shift in the way space assets of all sizes are designed, manufactured, integrated, tested, and flown. This paper will describe the MR(sup 2) paradigm in detail, and will include guidelines for its implementation. The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology microsatellite (RSAT) is a proposed flight system test-bed used for developing and implementing principles and best practices for MR(sup 2) spacecraft, and their supporting infrastructure. The initial goal of this test-bed application is to produce a lightweight (approx. 100 kg), production-minded, cost-effective, and scalable remote sensing micro-satellite capable of high performance and broad applicability. Such applications range from future distributed space systems, to sensor-webs, and rapid-response satellite systems. Architectures will be explored that strike a balance between modularity and integration while preserving the MR(sup 2) paradigm. Modularity versus integration has always been a point of contention when approaching a design: whereas one-of-a-kind missions may require close integration resulting in performance optimization, multiple and flexible application spacecraft benefit &om modularity, resulting in maximum flexibility. The process of building spacecraft rapidly (< 7 days), requires a concerted and methodical look at system integration and test processes and pitfalls. Although the concept of modularity is not new and was first developed in the 1970s by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft), it was never modernized and was eventually abandoned. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years technology has advanced considerably, and the time is ripe to reconsider modularity in its own right, as enabler of R(sup 2), and as a key element of transformational systems. The

  15. A Stimuli-Responsive, Binary Reagent System for Rapid Isolation of Protein Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nehilla, Barrett J; Hill, John J; Srinivasan, Selvi; Chen, Yen-Chi; Schulte, Thomas H; Stayton, Patrick S; Lai, James J

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic microbeads exhibit rapid separation characteristics and are widely employed for biomolecule and cell isolations in research laboratories, clinical diagnostics assays, and cell therapy manufacturing. However, micrometer particle diameters compromise biomarker recognition, which leads to long incubation times and significant reagent demands. Here, a stimuli-responsive binary reagent system is presented that combines the nanoscale benefits of efficient biomarker recognition and the microscale benefits of rapid magnetic separation. This system comprises magnetic nanoparticles and polymer-antibody (Ab) conjugates that transition from hydrophilic nanoscale reagents to microscale aggregates in response to temperature stimuli. The binary reagent system was benchmarked against Ab-labeled Dynabeads in terms of biomarker isolation kinetics, assay speed, and reagent needs. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements showed that polymer conjugation did not significantly alter the Ab's binding affinity or kinetics. ELISA analysis showed that the unconjugated Ab, polymer-Ab conjugates, and Ab-labeled Dynabeads exhibited similar equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd), ∼2 nM. However, the binary reagent system isolated HIV p24 antigen from spiked serum specimens (150 pg/mL) much more quickly than Dynabeads, which resulted in shorter binding times by tens of minutes, or about 30-50% shorter overall assay times. The binary reagent system showed improved performance because the Ab molecules were not conjugated to large, solid microparticle surfaces. This stimuli-responsive binary reagent system illustrates the potential advantages of nanoscale reagents in molecule and cell isolations for both research and clinical applications.

  16. Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-11-01

    Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid access to speech gestures in perception: Evidence from choice and simple response time tasks☆

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Carol A.; Brown, Julie M.; Sabadini, Laura; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Participants took part in two speech tests. In both tests, a model speaker produced vowel–consonant–vowels (VCVs) in which the initial vowel varied unpredictably in duration. In the simple response task, participants shadowed the initial vowel; when the model shifted to production of any of three CVs (/pa/, /ta/ or /ka/), participants produced a CV that they were assigned to say (one of /pa/, /ta/ or /ka/). In the choice task, participants shadowed the initial vowel; when the model shifted to a CV, participants shadowed that too. We found that, measured from the model’s onset of closure for the consonant to the participant’s closure onset, response times in the choice task exceeded those in the simple task by just 26 ms. This is much shorter than the canonical difference between simple and choice latencies [100–150 ms according to Luce (1986)] and is near the fastest simple times that Luce reports. The findings imply rapid access to articulatory speech information in the choice task. A second experiment found much longer choice times when the perception–production link for speech could not be exploited. A third experiment and an acoustic analysis verified that our measurement from closure in Experiment 1 provided a valid marker of speakers’ onsets of consonant production. A final experiment showed that shadowing responses are imitations of the model’s speech. We interpret the findings as evidence that listeners rapidly extract information about speakers’ articulatory gestures. PMID:20622982

  18. Rapid three-dimensional functional magnetic resonance imaging of the initial negative BOLD response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Martin A.; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Glover, Gary; Shepp, Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Functional MRI is most commonly used to study the local changes in blood flow that accompanies neuronal activity. In this work we introduce a new approach towards acquiring and analyzing fMRI data that instead provides the potential to study the initial oxygen consumption in the brain that accompanies activation. As the oxygen consumption is closer in timing to the underlying neuronal activity than the subsequent blood flow, this approach promises to provide more precise information about the location and timing of activity. Our approach is based on using a new single shot 3D echo-volumar imaging sequence which samples a small central region of 3D k-space every 100 ms, thereby giving a low spatial resolution snapshot of the brain with extremely high temporal resolution. Explicit and simple rules for implementing the trajectory are provided, together with a straightforward reconstruction algorithm. Using our approach allows us to effectively study the behavior of the brain in the time immediately following activation through the initial negative BOLD response, and we discuss new techniques for detecting the presence of the negative response across the brain. The feasibility and efficiency of the approach is confirmed using data from a visual-motor task and an auditory-motor-visual task. The results of these experiments provide a proof of concept of our methodology, and indicate that rapid imaging of the initial negative BOLD response can serve an important role in studying cognition tasks involving rapid mental processing in more than one region.

  19. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 1. Novel rapid cell death response to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Christopher R; Moretti, Marcelo L; Robertson, Renae R; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Schulz, Burkhard; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Hall, J Christopher; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Sammons, R Douglas; Wang, Dafu; Westra, Philip; Gaines, Todd A

    2017-03-07

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Ambrosia trifida is now present in the midwestern United States and in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Two distinct GR phenotypes are known, including a rapid response (GR RR) phenotype, which exhibits cell death within hours after treatment, and a non-rapid response (GR NRR) phenotype. The mechanisms of resistance in both GR RR and GR NRR remain unknown. Here, we present a description of the RR phenotype and an investigation of target-site mechanisms on multiple A. trifida accessions. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in several accessions, and whole-plant levels of resistance ranged from 2.3- to 7.5-fold compared with glyphosate-susceptible (GS) accessions. The two GR phenotypes displayed similar levels of resistance, despite having dramatically different phenotypic responses to glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance was not associated with mutations in EPSPS sequence, increased EPSPS copy number, EPSPS quantity, or EPSPS activity. These encompassing results suggest that resistance to glyphosate in these GR RR A. trifida accessions is not conferred by a target-site resistance mechanism. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. 'Discovery learning': an account of rapid curriculum change in response to accreditation.

    PubMed

    White, J; Paslawski, T; Kearney, R

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of leaders responsible for making rapid changes to a medical school curriculum in response to an adverse accreditation report. The new curriculum was based on the principles of problem-based learning ('Discovery Learning'), with changes to the way that students were assessed. We conducted semi-structured interviews with leaders responsible for education at the school two and a half years after the adoption of the new curriculum. We coded the resulting transcripts to identify major and minor themes expressed by participants. Thirty-five senior leaders, administrators and course directors were invited for the interview; 14 (40%) were interviewed. Five main themes were noted in the data: (1) organization and control of the curriculum; (2) changes in the practices of teaching and learning; (3) effects on faculty members; (4) sources of resistance and (5) attitudes to curriculum change in general. This study demonstrates that major curriculum change can be achieved successfully in a short period of time. This study also illustrates some of the problems associated with making rapid changes to the medical school curriculum, and highlights the importance of attitudes to change amongst the leadership of a medical school.

  1. Rapid response to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas - Liberia, July-November 2014.

    PubMed

    Kateh, Francis; Nagbe, Thomas; Kieta, Abraham; Barskey, Albert; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Driscoll, Anne; Tucker, Anthony; Christie, Athalia; Karmo, Ben; Scott, Colleen; Bowah, Collin; Barradas, Danielle; Blackley, David; Dweh, Emmanuel; Warren, Felicia; Mahoney, Frank; Kassay, Gabriel; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Castro, Georgina; Logan, Gorbee; Appiah, Grace; Kirking, Hannah; Koon, Hawa; Papowitz, Heather; Walke, Henry; Cole, Isaac B; Montgomery, Joel; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; Hagan, Jose E; Forrester, Joseph; Woodring, Joseph; Mott, Joshua; Attfield, Kathleen; DeCock, Kevin; Lindblade, Kim A; Powell, Krista; Yeoman, Kristin; Adams, Laura; Broyles, Laura N; Slutsker, Laurence; Larway, Lawrence; Belcher, Lisa; Cooper, Lorraine; Santos, Marjorie; Westercamp, Matthew; Weinberg, Meghan Pearce; Massoudi, Mehran; Dea, Monica; Patel, Monita; Hennessey, Morgan; Fomba, Moses; Lubogo, Mutaawe; Maxwell, Nikki; Moonan, Patrick; Arzoaquoi, Sampson; Gee, Samuel; Zayzay, Samuel; Pillai, Satish; Williams, Seymour; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Yett, Sheldon; James, Stephen; Grube, Steven; Gupta, Sundeep; Nelson, Thelma; Malibiche, Theophil; Frank, Wilmont; Smith, Wilmot; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2015-02-27

    West Africa is experiencing its first epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). As of February 9, Liberia has reported 8,864 Ebola cases, of which 3,147 were laboratory-confirmed. Beginning in August 2014, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), supported by CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others, began systematically investigating and responding to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas. Because many of these areas lacked mobile telephone service, easy road access, and basic infrastructure, flexible and targeted interventions often were required. Development of a national strategy for the Rapid Isolation and Treatment of Ebola (RITE) began in early October. The strategy focuses on enhancing capacity of county health teams (CHT) to investigate outbreaks in remote areas and lead tailored responses through effective and efficient coordination of technical and operational assistance from the MOHSW central level and international partners. To measure improvements in response indicators and outcomes over time, data from investigations of 12 of 15 outbreaks in remote areas with illness onset dates of index cases during July 16-November 20, 2014, were analyzed. The times to initial outbreak alerts and durations of the outbreaks declined over that period while the proportions of patients who were isolated and treated increased. At the same time, the case-fatality rate in each outbreak declined. Implementation of strategies, such as RITE, to rapidly respond to rural outbreaks of Ebola through coordinated and tailored responses can successfully reduce transmission and improve outcomes.

  2. Rapid response predicts 12-month post-treatment outcomes in binge-eating disorder: theoretical and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Wilson, G. T.; Gueorguieva, R.; Masheb, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined rapid response in obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method Altogether, 90 participants were randomly assigned to CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout and post-treatment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by week four, was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to predict outcomes. Results Rapid response characterized 57% of participants (67% of CBT, 47% of BWL) and was unrelated to most baseline variables. Rapid response predicted greater improvements across outcomes but had different prognostic significance and distinct time courses for CBT versus BWL. Patients receiving CBT did comparably well regardless of rapid response in terms of reduced binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology but did not achieve weight loss. Among patients receiving BWL, those without rapid response failed to improve further. However, those with rapid response were significantly more likely to achieve binge-eating remission (62% v. 13%) and greater reductions in binge-eating frequency, eating disorder psychopathology and weight loss. Conclusions Rapid response to treatment in BED has prognostic significance through 12-month follow-up, provides evidence for treatment specificity and has clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Rapid responders who receive BWL benefit in terms of both binge eating and short-term weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that BWL might be a candidate for initial intervention in stepped-care models with an evaluation of progress after 1 month to identify non-rapid responders who could be advised to consider a switch to a specialized treatment. PMID:21923964

  3. Rapid post-earthquake modelling of coseismic landslide intensity and distribution for emergency response decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tom R.; Rosser, Nicholas J.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Williams, Jack G.; Kincey, Mark E.; Benjamin, Jessica; Bell, Heather J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Current methods to identify coseismic landslides immediately after an earthquake using optical imagery are too slow to effectively inform emergency response activities. Issues with cloud cover, data collection and processing, and manual landslide identification mean even the most rapid mapping exercises are often incomplete when the emergency response ends. In this study, we demonstrate how traditional empirical methods for modelling the total distribution and relative intensity (in terms of point density) of coseismic landsliding can be successfully undertaken in the hours and days immediately after an earthquake, allowing the results to effectively inform stakeholders during the response. The method uses fuzzy logic in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to quickly assess and identify the location-specific relationships between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence during the earthquake, based on small initial samples of identified landslides. We show that this approach can accurately model both the spatial pattern and the number density of landsliding from the event based on just several hundred mapped landslides, provided they have sufficiently wide spatial coverage, improving upon previous methods. This suggests that systematic high-fidelity mapping of landslides following an earthquake is not necessary for informing rapid modelling attempts. Instead, mapping should focus on rapid sampling from the entire affected area to generate results that can inform the modelling. This method is therefore suited to conditions in which imagery is affected by partial cloud cover or in which the total number of landslides is so large that mapping requires significant time to complete. The method therefore has the potential to provide a quick assessment of landslide hazard after an earthquake and may therefore inform emergency operations more effectively compared to current practice.

  4. [Rapid Response obstetrics Team at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social,enabling factors].

    PubMed

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José de Jesús; Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Del Rocío; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    There are barriers and enablers for the implementation of Rapid Response Teams in obstetric hospitals. The enabling factors were determined at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted by analysing the emergency obstetric reports sent by mobile technology and e-mail to the Medical Care Unit of the IMSS in 2013. Frequency and mean was obtained using the Excel 2010 program for descriptive statistics. A total of 164,250 emergency obstetric cases were reported, and there was a mean of 425 messages per day, of which 32.2% were true obstetric emergencies and required the Rapid Response team. By e-mail, there were 73,452 life threatening cases (a mean of 6 cases per day). A monthly simulation was performed in hospitals (480 in total). Enabling factors were messagés synchronisation among the participating personnel,the accurate record of the obstetrics, as well as the simulations performed by the operational staff. The most common emergency was pre-eclampsia-eclampsia with 3,351 reports, followed by obstetric haemorrhage with 2,982 cases. The enabling factors for the implementation of a rapid response team at IMSS were properly timed communication between the central delegation teams, as they allowed faster medical and administrative management and participation of hospital medical teams in the process. Mobile technology has increased the speed of medical and administrative management in emergency obstetric care. However, comparative studies are needed to determine the statistical significance. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  5. Pea lectin receptor-like kinase functions in salinity adaptation without yield penalty, by alleviating osmotic and ionic stresses and upregulating stress-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Neha; Pandey, Prashant; Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-05-01

    Lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) are members of RLK family composed of lectin-like extracellular recognition domain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic kinase domain. LecRLKs are plasma membrane proteins believed to be involved in signal transduction. However, most of the members of the protein family even in plants have not been functionally well characterized. Herein, we show that Pisum sativum LecRLK (PsLecRLK) localized in plasma membrane systems and/or other regions of the cell and its transcript upregulated under salinity stress. Overexpression of PsLecRLK in transgenic tobacco plants confers salinity stress tolerance by alleviating both the ionic as well the osmotic component of salinity stress. The transgenic plants show better tissue compartmentalization of Na(+) and higher ROS scavenging activity which probably results in lower membrane damage, improved growth and yield maintenance even under salinity stress. Also, expression of several genes involved in cellular homeostasis is perturbed by PsLecRLK overexpression. Alleviation of osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress along with reduced oxidative damage and upregulation of stress-responsive genes in transgenic plants under salinity stress conditions could be possible mechanism facilitating enhanced stress tolerance. This study presents PsLecRLK as a promising candidate for crop improvement and also opens up new avenue to investigate its signalling pathway.

  6. Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Paclitaxel from Taxus x media Using Ionic Liquids as Adjuvants: Optimization of the Process by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhijian; Li, Qiao; Wang, Chaoyun; Zhou, Wanlai; Yang, Yuanru; Wang, Hongying; Yi, Yongjian; Li, Fenfang

    2017-09-11

    (1) Background: Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered "green" solvents and have been widely used in the extraction and separation field in recent years; (2) Methods: In this study, some common ILs and functionalized magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were used as adjuvants for the solvent extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus x media (T. x media) using methanol solution. The extraction conditions of methanol concentration, IL type and amount, solid-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and ultrasonic irradiation time were investigated in single factor experiments. Then, three factors of IL amount, solid-liquid ratio, and ultrasonic irradiation time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM); (3) Results: The MIL [C₄MIM]FeCl₃Br was screened as the optimal adjuvant. Under the optimization conditions of 1.2% IL amount, 1:10.5 solid-liquid ratio, and 30 min ultrasonic irradiation time, the extraction yield reached 0.224 mg/g; and (4) Conclusions: Compared with the conventional solvent extraction, this ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) using methanol and MIL as adjuvants can significantly improve the extraction yield, reduce the use of methanol, and shorten the extraction time, which has the potentiality of being used in the extraction of some other important bioactive compounds from natural plant resources.

  7. Implementing a rapid response team to decrease emergencies outside the ICU: one hospital's experience.

    PubMed

    Hatler, Carol; Mast, Deanna; Bedker, Debbie; Johnson, Rachel; Corderella, Jeannie; Torres, Jorge; King, Diane; Plueger, Madona

    2009-01-01

    The literature describes use of a rapid response team (RRT) of critical care nurses and respiratory therapists who arrive at medical-surgical patients' bedsides within minutes of a crisis situation, yet, few articles detail the processes necessary for implementation. The rationale, planning, and evaluation of such an effort at a large, tertiary care hospital in the urban Southwest is described. By describing the development and phased deployment of the RRT, the authors provide key insights into the processes used as well as structures needed and lessons learned.

  8. Golden bullet-denosumab: early rapid response of metastatic giant cell tumor of the bone.

    PubMed

    Demirsoy, Ugur; Karadogan, Meriban; Selek, Özgür; Anik, Yonca; Aksu, Görkem; Müezzinoglu, Bahar; Corapcioglu, Funda

    2014-03-01

    Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is usually a benign, locally aggressive tumor with metastatic potential. Histogenesis of GCTB is unknown and a correlation has not been found between histologic and clinical course. For this reason, many authors consider its prognosis unpredictable. Lung metastasis after GCTB treatment is well known and generally has unfavorable outcome, despite varied chemotherapy regimens. Denosumab, which inhibits RANK-RANKL interaction, is a new, promising actor among targeted therapeutic agents for GCTB. In this report, we emphasize on early rapid response to denosumab in metastatic GCTB.

  9. Functional recognition imaging using artificial neural networks: applications to rapid cellular identification via broadband electromechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, M. P.; Reukov, V. V.; Thompson, G. L.; Vertegel, A. A.; Guo, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Jesse, S.

    2009-10-01

    Functional recognition imaging in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) using artificial neural network identification is demonstrated. This approach utilizes statistical analysis of complex SPM responses at a single spatial location to identify the target behavior, which is reminiscent of associative thinking in the human brain, obviating the need for analytical models. We demonstrate, as an example of recognition imaging, rapid identification of cellular organisms using the difference in electromechanical activity over a broad frequency range. Single-pixel identification of model Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria is achieved, demonstrating the viability of the method.

  10. A model framework for actuation and sensing of ionic polymer-metal composites: prospective on frequency and shear response through simulation tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalbaum, Tyler; Shen, Qi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2017-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) is a promising material for soft-robotic actuator and sensor applications. This material system offers large deformation response for low input voltage and has an aptitude for operation in hydrated environments. Researchers have been developing IPMC actuators and sensors for applications with examples of self-sensing actuators, artificial fish fins and biomimicry of other aquatic lifeforms, and in medical operations such as in guided catheter devices. IPMCs have been developed in a range of geometric configurations, with tube or cylindrical and flat-plate rectangular as the most common shapes. Several mathematical and physics-based models have been developed for describing the transduction effects of IPMCs. In this work, the underlying theories of electromechanical and mechanoelectrical transduction in IPMCs are discussed, and simulated results of frequency response and shear response are presented. A model backbone is utilized which is primarily based on ion-transport and charge dynamics within the polymer membrane. The electromechanical model, that is with an IPMC as an actuator, is caused when an electric field is applied across the membrane causing ionic migration and swelling in the polymer membrane, which is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations and solid mechanics models. The mechanoelectric model is similar in underlying physics; however, the primary mechanisms of transduction are of different significance, where anion concentrations are as important as cations. COMSOL Multiphysics is utilized for simulations. Example applications of the modeling framework are presented. The simulated results provide additional support for the underlying physics theories discussed.

  11. Rapid neuroinflammatory response localized to injured neurons after diffuse traumatic brain injury in swine.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Kathryn L; Harris, James P; Browne, Kevin D; Brown, Daniel P; Grovola, Michael R; Mietus, Constance J; Wolf, John A; Duda, John E; Putt, Mary E; Spiller, Kara L; Cullen, D Kacy

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing appreciation of the critical role that neuroinflammatory pathways play in brain injury and neurodegeneration, little is known about acute microglial reactivity following diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) - the most common clinical presentation that includes all concussions. Therefore, we investigated acute microglial reactivity using a porcine model of closed-head rotational velocity/acceleration-induced TBI that closely mimics the biomechanical etiology of inertial TBI in humans. We observed rapid microglial reactivity within 15min of both mild and severe TBI. Strikingly, microglial activation was restrained to regions proximal to individual injured neurons - as denoted by trauma-induced plasma membrane disruption - which served as epicenters of acute reactivity. Single-cell quantitative analysis showed that in areas free of traumatically permeabilized neurons, microglial density and morphology were similar between sham or following mild or severe TBI. However, microglia density increased and morphology shifted to become more reactive in proximity to injured neurons. Microglial reactivity around injured neurons was exacerbated following repetitive TBI, suggesting further amplification of acute neuroinflammatory responses. These results indicate that neuronal trauma rapidly activates microglia in a highly localized manner, and suggest that activated microglia may rapidly influence neuronal stability and/or pathophysiology after diffuse TBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Rapidly Deployable Operational Mesoscale Modeling System for Emergency-Response Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Bowers, James F.; Swerdlin, Scott P.; Beitler, Brian A.

    2004-05-01

    An operational mesoscale model based forecasting system has been developed for use by U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command meteorologists in their support of test-range operations. This paper reports on the adaptation of this system to permit its rapid deployment in support of a variety of civilian and military emergency-response applications. The innovation that allows for this rapid deployment is an intuitive graphical user interface that permits a non-expert to quickly configure the model for a new application, and launch the forecast system to produce operational products without further intervention. The graphical interface is Web based and can be run on a wireless laptop or a personal digital assistant in the field. The instructions for configuring the modeling system are transmitted to a compute engine [generally a personal computer (PC) cluster], and forecast products are placed on a Web site that can be accessed by emergency responders or other forecast users. This system has been used operationally for predicting the potential transport and dispersion of hazardous material during the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and during military operations in Afghanistan. It has also been used operationally to satisfy the rapidly evolving needs of wildfire managers. Continued use of the modeling system by nonexperts will allow developers to refine the graphical interface and make the model and the interface more fault tolerant with respect to the decisions of model users.(The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation

  13. Attenuating the alcohol allure: attentional broadening reduces rapid motivational response to alcohol pictures.

    PubMed

    Ryerson, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B; Gable, Philip A

    2017-04-01

    Past research has found that exposure to alcohol cues causes a narrowing of attentional scope and enhances the neural responses associated with approach motivation. The current research sought to determine if a manipulated broadened (global) attentional scope would reduce approach-motivated neural reactivity to alcohol pictures. In the current study, participants (n = 82) were exposed to alcohol and neutral pictures following either a global or local attentional scope manipulation. Early motivated attentional processing was assessed using the N1 event-related potential (ERP), a neurophysiological marker of rapid motivated attention. A global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures as compared to a local attentional scope. Self-reported binge drinking related to larger N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures, but not to neutral pictures. Individuals with greater binge drinking experience demonstrated increased rapid motivated attentional processing to alcohol pictures. These results suggest that enhancing a global (vs. local) attentional scope attenuates rapid motivated attentional processing of alcohol pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  14. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Rachel; Waldrop, Mark P; DeAngelis, Kristen M; David, Maude M; Chavarria, Krystle L; Blazewicz, Steven J; Rubin, Edward M; Jansson, Janet K

    2011-11-06

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672 Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 °C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost.

  15. Rapid Myeloid Cell Transcriptional and Proteomic Responses to Periodontopathogenic Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Nares, Salvador; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Angelov, Nikola; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Sinha, Neha; Wahl, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) are Toll-like receptor-expressing, antigen-presenting cells derived from a common myeloid lineage that play key roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. Based on immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of inflamed tissues from patients with chronic destructive periodontal disease, these cells, found in the inflammatory infiltrate, may drive the progressive periodontal pathogenesis. To investigate early transcriptional signatures and subsequent proteomic responses to the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, donor-matched human blood monocytes, differentiated DCs, and macrophages were exposed to P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gene expression levels were measured by oligonucleotide microarrays. In addition to striking differences in constitutive transcriptional profiles between these myeloid populations, we identify a P. gingivalis LPS-inducible convergent, transcriptional core response of more than 400 annotated genes/ESTs among these populations, reflected by a shared, but quantitatively distinct, proteomic response. Nonetheless, clear differences emerged between the monocytes, DCs, and macrophages. The finding that long-lived myeloid inflammatory cells, particularly DCs, rapidly and aggressively respond to P. gingivalis LPS by generating chemokines, proteases, and cytokines capable of driving T-helper cell lineage polarization without evidence of corresponding immunosuppressive pathways highlights their prominent role in host defense and progressive tissue pathogenesis. The shared, unique, and/or complementary transcriptional and proteomic profiles may frame the context of the host response to P. gingivalis, contributing to the destructive nature of periodontal inflammation. PMID:19264901

  16. Response Surface Method for the Rapid Design of Process Parameters in Tube Hydroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chebbah, M. S.; Hecini, M.; Naceur, H.; Belouettar, S.

    2007-05-17

    This paper deals with the optimization of tube hydroforming parameters in order reduce defects which may occur at the end of forming process such as necking and wrinkling. We propose a specific methodology based on the coupling between an inverse method for the rapid simulation of tube hydroforming process, and a Response Surface Method based on diffuse approximation. The response surfaces are built using Moving Least Squares approximations and constructed within a moving region of interest which moves across a predefined discrete grid of authorized experimental designs. An application of hydroforming of a bulge from aluminium alloy 6061-T6 tubing has been utilized to validate our methodology. The final design is validated with ABAQUS Explicit Dynamic commercial code.

  17. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Reed C.; Rudd, John W. M.; Amyot, Marc; Babiarz, Christopher L.; Beaty, Ken G.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Bodaly, R. A.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Graydon, Jennifer A.; Heyes, Andrew; Hintelmann, Holger; Hurley, James P.; Kelly, Carol A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Lindberg, Steve E.; Mason, Robert P.; Paterson, Michael J.; Podemski, Cheryl L.; Robinson, Art; Sandilands, Ken A.; Southworth, George R.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Tate, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wildlife worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. PMID:17901207

  18. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.C.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Amyot, M.; Babiarz, C.L.; Beaty, K.G.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Bodaly, R.A.; Branfireun, B.A.; Gilmour, C.C.; Graydon, J.A.; Heyes, A.; Hintelmann, H.; Hurley, J.P.; Kelly, C.A.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Lindberg, S.E.; Mason, R.P.; Paterson, M.J.; Podemski, C.L.; Robinson, A.; Sandilands, K.A.; Southworthn, G.R.; St. Louis, V.L.; Tate, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wild-life worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  19. Development of a rapid response plan for intraoperative emergencies: the Circulate, Scrub, and Technical Assistance Team.

    PubMed

    Earle, David; Betti, Diane; Scala, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Unplanned intraoperative events are inevitable and cause stress and inefficiency among staff. We believe that developing a technical rapid response team with explicitly defined, narrow roles would reduce the amount of chaos during such emergencies. This article provides a detailed description of the development and implementation of such a program. In-situ simulation of an intraoperative emergency was used for a formal assessment of the current practice. Debriefing sessions identified areas of improvement and solicited solutions. A multidisciplinary working group then developed and implemented the technical rapid response team based on the needs assessment. The program was designed to create a Circulating, Scrubbing, and Technical Assistance Team that helps with equipment, supplies, anesthesia, and communication. We anticipate the program will foster a culture of safety, and promote positive relationships and attitudes of the entire multidisciplinary team. In the future, research regarding patient outcomes and staff satisfaction and safety attitudes may help provide objective evidence of the benefits of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid advance of two mountain glaciers in response to mine-related debris loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Ewertowski, Marek W.; Evans, David J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Rapid glacier advance is known to occur by a range of mechanisms. However, although large-scale debris loading has been proposed as a process for causing rapid terminus advance, it has rarely been observed. We use satellite remote sensing data to observe accelerated glacier terminus advance in response to massive supraglacial loading on two glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. Over a 15 year period, mining activity has led to the dumping of spoil of up to 180 m thick on large parts of these valley glaciers. We find that the termini of these glaciers advance by 1.2 and 3.2 km, respectively, at a rate of up to 350 m yr-1. Our analysis suggests that although enhanced basal sliding could be an important process, massive supraglacial loads have also caused enhanced internal ice deformation that would account for most, or all, of the glacier terminus advance. In addition, narrowing of the glacier valley and mining and dumping of ice alter the mass balance and flow regime of the glaciers. Although the scale of supraglacial loading is massive, this full-scale experiment provides insight into glacier flow acceleration response where small valley glaciers are impacted by very large volumes of landslide debris.

  1. [Effectiveness of a Rapid Response Team (RRT) in a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Campechano-López, José Miguel; Carranza-Bernal, María Lourdes; Juanico-Morales, Guillermina; Reyes-Gil, María Rayo

    2016-01-01

    An ectopic pregnancy happens when a fertilized egg attaches somewhere outside the endometrial surface. This sort of pregnancy has an estimated incidence of 1.6 to 2 each 100 births. The main objective was to expose the effective answer of a Rapid Response Team in a case of ruptured cervical ectopic pregnancy. We also describe a clinical case of this sort of pregnancy. 37-year-old female with a two-month history of amenorrhea. The patient entered the Labor & Delivery department with hypovolemic shock secondary to vaginal bleeding. The Código Mater (Mater Code) was activated and the Rapid Response Team arrived to the L&D department. This team performed pelvic examination and detected tissue in cervix with mild bleeding. The pelvic ultrasound displayed the presence of gas and the endometrium status was normal (no gestational sac was detected). The immunologic test for pregnancy was positive. It was diagnosed cervical ectopic pregnancy and hypovolemic shock. Providing timely access to care with standardized criteria by interdisciplinary teams in all the cases of obstetric emergency avoids maternal deaths related to obstetric hemorrhage.

  2. The elongation factor Spt5 facilitates transcription initiation for rapid induction of inflammatory-response genes

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Gil; Bahat, Anat; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-01-01

    A subset of inflammatory-response NF-κB target genes is activated immediately following pro-inflammatory signal. Here we followed the kinetics of primary transcript accumulation after NF-κB activation when the elongation factor Spt5 is knocked down. While elongation rate is unchanged, the transcript synthesis at the 5′-end and at the earliest time points is delayed and reduced, suggesting an unexpected role in early transcription. Investigating the underlying mechanism reveals that the induced TFIID–promoter association is practically abolished by Spt5 depletion. This effect is associated with a decrease in promoter-proximal H3K4me3 and H4K5Ac histone modifications that are differentially required for rapid transcriptional induction. In contrast, the displacement of TFIIE and Mediator, which occurs during promoter escape, is attenuated in the absence of Spt5. Our findings are consistent with a central role of Spt5 in maintenance of TFIID–promoter association and promoter escape to support rapid transcriptional induction and re-initiation of inflammatory-response genes. PMID:27180651

  3. Findings of the first ANZICS conference on the role of intensive care in Rapid Response Teams.

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Hicks, P; Currey, J; Holmes, J; Fennessy, G J; Hillman, K; Psirides, A; Rai, S; Singh, M Y; Pilcher, D V; Bhonagiri, D; Hart, G K; Fugaccia, E

    2015-05-01

    Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) are specialised teams introduced into hospitals to improve the outcomes of deteriorating ward patients. Although Rapid Response Systems (RRSs) were developed by the intensive care unit (ICU) community, there is variability in their delivery, and consultant involvement, supervision and leadership appears to be relatively infrequent. In July 2014, the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) convened the first conference on the role of intensive care medicine in RRTs in Australia and New Zealand. The conference explored RRSs in the broader role of patient safety, resourcing and staffing of RRTs, effect on ICU workload, different RRT models, the outcomes of RRT patients and original research projects in the area of RRSs. Issues around education and training of both ICU registrars and nurses were examined, and the role of team training explored. Measures to assess the effectiveness of the RRS and RRT at the level of health system and hospital, team performance and team effectiveness were discussed, and the need to develop a bi-national ANZICS RRT patient database was presented. Strategies to prevent patient deterioration in the 'pre-RRT' period were discussed, including education of ward nurses and doctors, as well as an overarching governance structure. The role of the ICU in deteriorating ward patients was debated and an integrated model of acute care presented. This article summarises the findings of the conference and presents recommendations on the role of intensive care medicine in RRTs in Australia and New Zealand.

  4. The rapid degradation of bisphenol A induced by the response of indigenous bacterial communities in sediment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Cheng, Min; Deng, Linjing; Zhang, Chen; Wan, Jia; Liu, Linshan

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, sediment was spiked with bisphenol A (BPA) solution to explore the interaction between indigenous bacterial communities and BPA biodegradation in sediment. Results showed that BPA could be adsorbed to the sediment and then biodegraded rapidly. Biodegradation efficiency of BPA in treatments with 10 and 50 mg/L BPA reached 64.3 and 61.8% on the first day, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that BPA affected the densities, species, and diversities of bacteria significantly. The response of bacterial community to BPA favored BPA biodegradation by promoting the growth of BPA-reducing bacteria and inhibiting other competitors. According to the results of sequencing, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas played vital roles in the degradation of BPA. They presented over 73% of the original bacterial community, and both of them were promoted by BPA comparing with controls. Laccase and polyphenol oxidase contributed to the degradation of BPA and metabolic intermediates, respectively. This paper illustrates the rapid biodegradation of BPA induced by the response of indigenous bacterial communities to the BPA stress, which will improve the understandings of BPA degradation in sediment.

  5. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  6. Sialoadhesin Promotes Rapid Proinflammatory and Type I IFN Responses to a Sialylated Pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Klaas, Mariliis; Oetke, Cornelia; Lewis, Leanne E.; Erwig, Lars P.; Heikema, Astrid P.; Easton, Alistair; Willison, Hugh J.

    2012-01-01

    Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a macrophage (Mϕ)-restricted receptor that recognizes sialylated ligands on host cells and pathogens. Although Sn is thought to be important in cellular interactions of Mϕs with cells of the immune system, the functional consequences of pathogen engagement by Sn are unclear. As a model system, we have investigated the role of Sn in Mϕ interactions with heat-killed Campylobacter jejuni expressing a GD1a-like, sialylated glycan. Compared to Sn-expressing bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type mice, BMDM from mice either deficient in Sn or expressing a non-glycan–binding form of Sn showed greatly reduced phagocytosis of sialylated C. jejuni. This was accompanied by a strong reduction in MyD88-dependent secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10. In vivo studies demonstrated that functional Sn was required for rapid TNF-α and IFN-β responses to i.v.-injected sialylated C. jejuni. Bacteria were captured within minutes after i.v. injection and were associated with Mϕs in both liver and spleen. In the spleen, IFN-β–reactive cells were localized to Sn+ Mϕs and other cells in the red pulp and marginal zone. Together, these studies demonstrate that Sn plays a key role in capturing sialylated pathogens and promoting rapid proinflammatory cytokine and type I IFN responses. PMID:22851711

  7. Rapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is episodically shed throughout the human genital tract. While high viral load correlates with development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are not present, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of HSV-2 worldwide. Frequent viral reactivation occurs despite diverse and complementary host and viral mechanisms within ganglionic tissue that predispose towards latency, suggesting that viral replication may be constantly occurring in a small minority of neurons within the ganglia. Within genital mucosa, the in vivo expansion and clearance rates of HSV-2 are extremely rapid. Resident dendritic cells and memory HSV-specific T cells persist at prior sites of genital tract reactivation, and in conjunction with prompt innate recognition of infected cells, lead to rapid containment of infected cells. Shedding episodes vary greatly in duration and severity within a single person over time: this heterogeneity appears best explained by variation in the densities of host immunity across the genital tract. The fact that immune responses usually control viral replication in genital skin prior to development of lesions provides optimism that enhancing such responses could lead to effective vaccines and immunotherapies. PMID:23467247

  8. Rapid advance of two mountain glaciers in response to mine-related debris loading.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Stewart S R; Ewertowski, Marek W; Evans, David J A

    2015-07-01

    Rapid glacier advance is known to occur by a range of mechanisms. However, although large-scale debris loading has been proposed as a process for causing rapid terminus advance, it has rarely been observed. We use satellite remote sensing data to observe accelerated glacier terminus advance in response to massive supraglacial loading on two glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. Over a 15 year period, mining activity has led to the dumping of spoil of up to 180 m thick on large parts of these valley glaciers. We find that the termini of these glaciers advance by 1.2 and 3.2 km, respectively, at a rate of up to 350 m yr(-1). Our analysis suggests that although enhanced basal sliding could be an important process, massive supraglacial loads have also caused enhanced internal ice deformation that would account for most, or all, of the glacier terminus advance. In addition, narrowing of the glacier valley and mining and dumping of ice alter the mass balance and flow regime of the glaciers. Although the scale of supraglacial loading is massive, this full-scale experiment provides insight into glacier flow acceleration response where small valley glaciers are impacted by very large volumes of landslide debris.

  9. Caspase-11 stimulates rapid flagellin-independent pyroptosis in response to Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Case, Christopher L; Kohler, Lara J; Lima, Jonilson B; Strowig, Till; de Zoete, Marcel R; Flavell, Richard A; Zamboni, Dario S; Roy, Craig R

    2013-01-29

    A flagellin-independent caspase-1 activation pathway that does not require NAIP5 or NRLC4 is induced by the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Here we demonstrate that this pathway requires caspase-11. Treatment of macrophages with LPS up-regulated the host components required for this caspase-11 activation pathway. Activation by Legionella differed from caspase-11 activation using previously described agonists in that Legionella caspase-11 activation was rapid and required bacteria with a functional type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm. Legionella activation of caspase-11 induced pyroptosis by a mechanism independent of the NAIP/NLRC4 and caspase-1 axis. Legionella activation of caspase-11 stimulated activation of caspase-1 through NLRP3 and ASC. Induction of caspase-11-dependent responses occurred in macrophages deficient in the adapter proteins TRIF or MyD88 but not in macrophages deficient in both signaling factors. Although caspase-11 was produced in macrophages deficient in the type-I IFN receptor, there was a severe defect in caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis in these cells. These data indicate that macrophages respond to microbial signatures to produce proteins that mediate a capsase-11 response and that the caspase-11 system provides an alternative pathway for rapid detection of an intracellular pathogen capable of evading the canonical caspase-1 activation system that responds to bacterial flagellin.

  10. Induction of a rapidly responsive hepatic gene product by thyroid hormone requires ongoing protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, D B; Engle, J A; Towle, H C

    1987-01-01

    The regulation of a gene, designated spot 14, which is rapidly induced in rat liver in response to 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) was studied as a model for exploring the molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. The time course of induction of the nuclear precursor to spot 14 mRNA after intramuscular injection of T3 displayed a very short lag period of between 10 and 20 min. The rapidity of this effect suggests that the induction in gene expression occurs as a primary response to the hormone-receptor interaction. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide injected 15 min before T3 completely blocked the accumulation of nuclear precursor RNA 30 min after T3 treatment. Emetine, an inhibitor of protein synthesis which acts by a different mechanism than cycloheximide, also blocked the induction of the spot 14 nuclear precursor RNA. The increased rate of spot 14 gene transcription observed after T3 treatment, as measured by nuclear run-on assay, was similarly completely abolished in the presence of cycloheximide. In addition, ongoing protein synthesis was required for maintaining spot 14 nuclear precursor RNA at induced levels in animals previously treated with T3. On the other hand, cycloheximide had no effect on T3 uptake or binding to the nuclear receptor during the 45-min time frame studied. The paradox of the rapid kinetics of induction and the requirement of ongoing protein synthesis may be explained by a protein with an extremely short half-life which is necessary for T3 induction of the spot 14 gene. PMID:3648478

  11. a Uav Based Close-Range Rapid Aerial Monitoring System for Emergency Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2011-09-01

    As the occurrences and scales of disasters and accidents have been increased due to the global warming, the terrorists' attacks, and many other reasons, the demand for rapid responses for the emergent situations also has been thus ever-increasing. These emergency responses are required to be customized to each individual site for more effective management of the emergent situations. These requirements can be satisfied with the decisions based on the spatial changes on the target area, which should be detected immediately or in real-time. Aerial monitoring without human operators is an appropriate means because the emergency areas are usually inaccessible. Therefore, a UAV is a strong candidate as the platform for the aerial monitoring. In addition, the sensory data from the UAV system usually have higher resolution than other system because the system can operate at a lower altitude. If the transmission and processing of the data could be performed in real-time, the spatial changes of the target area can be detected with high spatial and temporal resolution by the UAV rapid mapping systems. As a result, we aim to develop a rapid aerial mapping system based on a UAV, whose key features are the effective acquisition of the sensory data, real-time transmission and processing of the data. In this paper, we will introduce the general concept of our system, including the main features, intermediate results, and explain our real-time sensory data georeferencing algorithm which is a core for prompt generation of the spatial information from the sensory data.

  12. Designing a critical care nurse-led rapid response team using only available resources: 6 years later.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anne; Schatz, Marilyn; Francis, Heather

    2014-06-01

    Rapid response teams have been introduced to intervene in the care of patients whose condition deteriorates unexpectedly by bringing clinical experts quickly to the patient's bedside. Evidence supporting the need to overcome failure to deliver optimal care in hospitals is robust; whether rapid response teams demonstrate benefit by improving patient safety and reducing the occurrence of adverse events remains controversial. Despite inconsistent evidence regarding the effectiveness of rapid response teams, concerns regarding care and costly consequences of unaddressed deterioration in patients' condition have prompted many hospitals to implement rapid response teams as a patient safety strategy. A cost-neutral structure for a rapid response team led by a nurse from the intensive care unit was implemented with the goal of reducing cardiopulmonary arrests occurring outside the intensive care unit. The results of 6 years' experience indicate that a sustainable and effective rapid response team response can be put into practice without increasing costs or adding positions and can decrease the percentage of cardiopulmonary arrests occurring outside the intensive care unit.

  13. Clinical Usefulness of Response Profiles to Rapidly Incremental Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Roberta P.; Alencar, Maria Clara N.; Treptow, Erika; Arbex, Flávio; Ferreira, Eloara M. V.; Neder, J. Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The advent of microprocessed “metabolic carts” and rapidly incremental protocols greatly expanded the clinical applications of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The response normalcy to CPET is more commonly appreciated at discrete time points, for example, at the estimated lactate threshold and at peak exercise. Analysis of the response profiles of cardiopulmonary responses at submaximal exercise and recovery, however, might show abnormal physiologic functioning which would not be otherwise unraveled. Although this approach has long been advocated as a key element of the investigational strategy, it remains largely neglected in practice. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to highlight the usefulness of selected submaximal metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiovascular variables in different clinical scenarios and patient populations. Special care is taken to physiologically justify their use to answer pertinent clinical questions and to the technical aspects that should be observed to improve responses' reproducibility and reliability. The most recent evidence in favor of (and against) these variables for diagnosis, impairment evaluation, and prognosis in systemic diseases is also critically discussed. PMID:23766901

  14. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  15. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed. PMID:28879986

  16. Rapid and Highly Accurate Prediction of Poor Loop Diuretic Natriuretic Response in Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Testani, Jeffrey M.; Hanberg, Jennifer S.; Cheng, Susan; Rao, Veena; Onyebeke, Chukwuma; Laur, Olga; Kula, Alexander; Chen, Michael; Wilson, F. Perry; Darlington, Andrew; Bellumkonda, Lavanya; Jacoby, Daniel; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Removal of excess sodium and fluid is a primary therapeutic objective in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and commonly monitored with fluid balance and weight loss. However, these parameters are frequently inaccurate or not collected and require a delay of several hours after diuretic administration before they are available. Accessible tools for rapid and accurate prediction of diuretic response are needed. Methods and Results Based on well-established renal physiologic principles an equation was derived to predict net sodium output using a spot urine sample obtained one or two hours following loop diuretic administration. This equation was then prospectively validated in 50 ADHF patients using meticulously obtained timed 6-hour urine collections to quantitate loop diuretic induced cumulative sodium output. Poor natriuretic response was defined as a cumulative sodium output of <50 mmol, a threshold that would result in a positive sodium balance with twice-daily diuretic dosing. Following a median dose of 3 mg (2–4 mg) of intravenous bumetanide, 40% of the population had a poor natriuretic response. The correlation between measured and predicted sodium output was excellent (r=0.91, p<0.0001). Poor natriuretic response could be accurately predicted with the sodium prediction equation (AUC=0.95, 95% CI 0.89–1.0, p<0.0001). Clinically recorded net fluid output had a weaker correlation (r=0.66, p<0.001) and lesser ability to predict poor natriuretic response (AUC=0.76, 95% CI 0.63–0.89, p=0.002). Conclusions In patients being treated for ADHF, poor natriuretic response can be predicted soon after diuretic administration with excellent accuracy using a spot urine sample. PMID:26721915

  17. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  18. Exploring interprofessional practices in rapid response systems: a case study protocol.

    PubMed

    Allen, Emily; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2015-01-01

    To describe the development of a proposed case study protocol investigating interprofessional relationships in a rapid response system (RRS) in a socioculturally complex clinical environment. Suboptimal care of deteriorating ward patients remains a concern for many acute healthcare organisations. Despite the advent of RRSs, emergency response teams are not always used to their full potential. How and why interprofessional relationships influence practices associated with the care and management of ward patients at risk of clinical deterioration requires investigation. Theoretical and empirical literature describing case study research and RRSs. Review methods An integrative review approach of the literature, focusing on key terms relating to 'case study research' and 'rapid response system', provided context and informed development of the study protocol. A single-site mixed-method instrumental case study protocol was developed using methodological triangulation and a multi-level model to examine interprofessional relationships between a broad range of stakeholders. Concurrent data collection and analysis will occur using document review of clinical scenarios, non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews. Case study research is an effective method for investigating socioculturally complex clinical environments. A strength of this approach is the flexibility in the choice of methods, which allows the researcher to build the design most suitable for the subjects or phenomena being investigated. Although this flexibility may be considered a potential weakness, rigour can be achieved by application of the strategies described. Findings from this research will provide rich descriptive insights into RRS relationships and healthcare professional practices during day-to-day management of acute ward patients at risk of or experiencing clinical deterioration. Description of this structured case study research approach will also inform other researchers.

  19. Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: variable responses among freshwater microalgae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Jae; Berges, John A; Young, Erica B

    2012-05-15

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence of microalgae is a compelling indicator of toxicity of dissolved water contaminants, because it is easily measured and responds rapidly. While different chl a fluorescence parameters have been examined, most studies have focused on single species and/or a narrow range of toxins. We assessed the utility of one chl a fluorescence parameter, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), for detecting effects of nine environmental pollutants from a range of toxin classes on 5 commonly found freshwater algal species, as well as the USEPA model species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. F(v)/F(m) declined rapidly over <20 min in response to low concentrations of photosynthesis-specific herbicides Diuron(®) and metribuzin (both <40 nM), atrazine (<460 nM) and terbuthylazine (<400 nM). However, F(v)/F(m) also responded rapidly and in a dose-dependent way to toxins glyphosate (<90 μM), and KCN (<1 mM) which have modes of action not specific to photosynthesis. F(v)/F(m) was insensitive to 30-40 μM insecticides methyl parathion, carbofuran and malathion. Algal species varied in their sensitivity to toxins. No single species was the most sensitive to all nine toxins, but for six toxins to which algal F(v)/F(m) responded significantly, the model species P. subcapitata was less sensitive than other taxa. In terms of suppression of F(v)/F(m) within 80 min, patterns of concentration-dependence differed among toxins; most showed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, with half-saturation constant (K(m)) values for the PSII inhibitors ranging from 0.14 μM for Diuron(®) to 6.6 μM for terbuthylazine, compared with a K(m) of 330 μM for KCN. Percent suppression of F(v)/F(m) by glyphosate increased exponentially with concentration. F(v)/F(m) provides a sensitive and easily-measured parameter for rapid and cost-effective detection of effects of many dissolved toxins. Field-portable fluorometers will facilitate field testing, however distinct responses

  20. Force Responses and Sarcomere Dynamics of Cardiac Myofibrils Induced by Rapid Changes in [Pi].

    PubMed

    Stehle, Robert

    2017-01-24

    The second phase of the biphasic force decay upon release of phosphate from caged phosphate was previously interpreted as a signature of kinetics of the force-generating step in the cross-bridge cycle. To test this hypothesis without using caged compounds, force responses and individual sarcomere dynamics upon rapid increases or decreases in concentration of inorganic phosphate [Pi] were investigated in calcium-activated cardiac myofibrils. Rapid increases in [Pi] induced a biphasic force decay with an initial slow decline (phase 1) and a subsequent 3-5-fold faster major decay (phase 2). Phase 2 started with the distinct elongation of a single sarcomere, the so-called sarcomere "give". "Give" then propagated from sarcomere to sarcomere along the myofibril. Propagation speed and rate constant of phase 2 (k+Pi(2)) had a similar [Pi]-dependence, indicating that the kinetics of the major force decay (phase 2) upon rapid increase in [Pi] is determined by sarcomere dynamics. In contrast, no "give" was observed during phase 1 after rapid [Pi]-increase (rate constant k+Pi(1)) and during the single-exponential force rise (rate constant k-Pi) after rapid [Pi]-decrease. The values of k+Pi(1) and k-Pi were similar to the rate constant of mechanically induced force redevelopment (kTR) and Ca(2+)-induced force development (kACT) measured at same [Pi]. These results indicate that the major phase 2 of force decay upon a Pi-jump does not reflect kinetics of the force-generating step but results from sarcomere "give". The other phases of Pi-induced force kinetics that occur in the absence of "give" yield the same information as mechanically and Ca(2+)-induced force kinetics (k+Pi(1) ∼ k-Pi ∼ kTR ∼ kACT). Model simulations indicate that Pi-induced force kinetics neither enable the separation of Pi-release from the rate-limiting transition f into force states nor differentiate whether the "force-generating step" occurs before, along, or after the Pi-release.

  1. Highly Swellable, Dual-Responsive Hydrogels Based on PNIPAM and Redox Active Poly(ferrocenylsilane) Poly(ionic liquid)s: Synthesis, Structure, and Properties.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xueling; Zhang, Kaihuan; Chen, Peng; Sui, Xiaofeng; Hempenius, Mark A; Liedberg, Bo; Vancso, G Julius

    2016-12-01

    Highly swellable, dual-responsive hydrogels, consisting of thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and redox-responsive poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS) based poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) are formed by photo-polymerization. PFS chains bearing cross-linkable vinylimidazolium (VIm) side groups are copolymerized with NIPAM in aqueous solutions under ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm) in the presence of a photoinitiator. The PFS-PILs serve as a macro-cross-linker and also provide redox responsiveness. The swelling ratio, morphology, and lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the hydrogels are studied as a function of the PNIPAM/PFS ratio. The value of the LCST is dependent on the choice of the counterion of the PIL and the PNIPAM/PFS ratio. The hydrogel is employed as a reducing environment for the in situ fabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), forming AuNP-hydrogel composites. The localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles inside the hydrogel could be tuned by altering the temperature.

  2. Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of 1,6-Ketoesters Mediated by Ionic Liquids: A Three-component Reaction Enabling Rapid Access to a New Class of Low Molecular Weight Gelators.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Henrik; Ta, Linda; Axelsson, Anton

    2015-11-27

    In organic chemistry ionic liquids (ILs) have emerged as safe and recyclable reaction solvents. In the presence of a base ILs can be deprotonated to form catalytically active N-Heterocyclic Carbenes (NHCs). Here we have used ILs as precatalysts in the addition of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to chalcones to form 1,6-ketoesters, incorporating an anti-diphenyl moiety in a highly stereoselective fashion. The reaction has a broad substrate scope and several functional groups and heteroaromatics can be integrated into the ketoester backbone in generally good yields with maintained stereoselectivity. The reaction protocol is robust and scalable. The starting materials are inexpensive and the products can be obtained after simple filtration, avoiding solvent-demanding chromatography. Furthermore, the IL can be recycled up to 5 times without any loss of reactivity. Moreover, the 1,6-ketoester end product is a potent gelator in several hydrocarbon based solvents. The method enables rapid access to and evaluation of a new class of low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) from recyclable and inexpensive starting materials.

  3. Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films.

    PubMed

    Heflin, James R; Guzy, Matthew T; Neyman, Patrick J; Gaskins, Kylie J; Brands, Charles; Wang, Zhiyong; Gibson, Harry W; Davis, Richey M; Van Cott, Kevin E

    2006-06-20

    A covalent/electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly method was used to achieve polar ordering of a water soluble, reactive dye in the fabrication of nonlinear optical (NLO) films. We observed a quadratic relationship between the second harmonic intensity I2(omega) and bilayer number for all films made with Procion Brown MX-GRN, demonstrating that the polar ordering of the chromophores is consistent in each successive bilayer. As the ionic strength of the dye deposition solution was increased to 0.5 M NaCl, the of the films increased by approximately 250% to 50 x 10(-9) esu, with a corresponding average chromophore tilt angle of 38 degrees . This was attributed to increased shielding of the dye charges which led to higher chromophore density in the bilayers. The electrooptic coefficient for films of 50 bilayers fabricated at 0.5 M NaCl was 14 +/- 2 pm/V. Importantly, these films exhibited excellent thermal stability, with only a 10% decrease in (I2(omega))(1/2) after 36 h at 85 degrees C and then 24 h at 150 degrees C. Furthermore, the (I2(omega))(1/2) recovered completely upon cooling to room temperature. These results with a commodity textile dye point to the potential value of this class of reactive chromophores and this self-assembly method for fabrication of electrooptic materials at ambient conditions from aqueous solutions.

  4. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)-with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season-and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)-with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  5. Rapid shelf‐wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead‐of‐eye‐center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation‐validated, high‐resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid‐Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid‐Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead‐of‐eye‐center depth‐averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead‐of‐eye‐center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3‐D coupled atmosphere‐ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels. PMID:28944132

  6. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  7. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKelprang, R.; Waldrop, M.P.; Deangelis, K.M.; David, M.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Blazewicz, S.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Jansson, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672????????Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 ??C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  9. Green microwave-assisted synthesis of cellulose/calcium silicate nanocomposites in ionic liquids and recycled ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ning; Li, Shu-Ming; Ma, Ming-Guo; Sun, Run-Cang; Zhu, Lei

    2011-12-27

    Fabrication of biomass materials by a microwave-assisted method in ionic liquids allows the high value-added applications of biomass by combining three major green chemistry principles: using environmentally preferable solvents, using an environmentally friendly method, and making use of renewable biomass materials. Herein, we report a rapid and green microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of the cellulose/calcium silicate nanocomposites in ionic liquids and recycled ionic liquids. These calcium silicate nanoparticles or nanosheets as prepared were homogeneously dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The experimental results confirm that the ionic liquids can be used repeatedly. Of course, the slight differences were also observed using ionic liquids and recycled ionic liquids. Compared with other conventional methods, the rapid, green, and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted method in ionic liquids opens a new window to the high value-added applications of biomass.

  10. Widespread rapid reductions in body size of adult salamanders in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Nicholas M; Sears, Michael W; Adams, Dean C; Lips, Karen R

    2014-06-01

    Reduction in body size is a major response to climate change, yet evidence in globally imperiled amphibians is lacking. Shifts in average population body size could indicate either plasticity in the growth response to changing climates through changes in allocation and energetics, or through selection for decreased size where energy is limiting. We compared historic and contemporary size measurements in 15 Plethodon species from 102 populations (9450 individuals) and found that six species exhibited significant reductions in body size over 55 years. Biophysical models, accounting for actual changes in moisture and air temperature over that period, showed a 7.1-7.9% increase in metabolic expenditure at three latitudes but showed no change in annual duration of activity. Reduced size was greatest at southern latitudes in regions experiencing the greatest drying and warming. Our results are consistent with a plastic response of body size to climate change through reductions in body size as mediated through increased metabolism. These rapid reductions in body size over the past few decades have significance for the susceptibility of amphibians to environmental change, and relevance for whether adaptation can keep pace with climate change in the future.

  11. Intact Rapid Facial Mimicry as well as Generally Reduced Mimic Responses in Stable Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chechko, Natalya; Pagel, Alena; Otte, Ellen; Koch, Iring; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous emotional expressions (rapid facial mimicry) perform both emotional and social functions. In the current study, we sought to test whether there were deficits in automatic mimic responses to emotional facial expressions in patients (15 of them) with stable schizophrenia compared to 15 controls. In a perception-action interference paradigm (the Simon task; first experiment), and in the context of a dual-task paradigm (second experiment), the task-relevant stimulus feature was the gender of a face, which, however, displayed a smiling or frowning expression (task-irrelevant stimulus feature). We measured the electromyographical activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions in response to either compatible or incompatible stimuli (i.e., when the required response did or did not correspond to the depicted facial expression). The compatibility effect based on interactions between the implicit processing of a task-irrelevant emotional facial expression and the conscious production of an emotional facial expression did not differ between the groups. In stable patients (in spite of a reduced mimic reaction), we observed an intact capacity to respond spontaneously to facial emotional stimuli. PMID:27303335

  12. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Jaakko O; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-08-05

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection-a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies-was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits.

  13. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D.; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R.; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS–EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive–negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection—a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies—was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  14. Optical molecular imaging approach for rapid assessment of response of individual cancer cells to chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhen; Tikekar, Rohan Vijay; Samadzadeh, Kiana Michelle; Nitin, Nitin

    2012-10-01

    Predicting the response of individual patients to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs is critical for developing individualized therapies. With this motivation, an optical molecular imaging approach was developed to detect cisplatin induced changes in the uptake and intracellular retention of choline. Intracellular uptake of choline was characterized using a click chemistry reaction between propargyl choline and Alexa-488 azide. Cisplatin induced changes in the uptake of propargyl choline in cells and tumor spheroids were compared with similar measurements using a fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and conventional cell viability assays. Uptake and intracellular retention of propargyl choline decreased with an increase in concentration of cisplatin. Intracellular uptake of propargyl choline was significantly reduced within 3 h of incubation with a sub-lethal dose of cisplatin. Results demonstrate that the imaging approach based on propargyl choline was more sensitive in detecting the early response of cancer cells to cisplatin as compared to the imaging based on fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and cell viability assays. Imaging measurements in tumor spheroids show a significant decrease in the uptake of propargyl choline following treatment with cisplatin. Overall, the results demonstrate a novel optical molecular imaging approach for rapid measurement of the response of individual cancer cells to cisplatin treatment.

  15. Rapid Evolution of Primate Type 2 Immune Response Factors Linked to Asthma Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Matthew F.; Lee, Elliott M.; Griffin, Hayden

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Host immunity pathways evolve rapidly in response to antagonism by pathogens. Microbial infections can also trigger excessive inflammation that contributes to diverse autoimmune disorders including asthma, lupus, diabetes, and arthritis. Definitive links between immune system evolution and human autoimmune disease remain unclear. Here we provide evidence that several components of the type 2 immune response pathway have been subject to recurrent positive selection in the primate lineage. Notably, substitutions in the central immune regulator IL13 correspond to a polymorphism linked to asthma susceptibility in humans. We also find evidence of accelerated amino acid substitutions as well as gene gain and loss events among eosinophil granule proteins, which act as toxic antimicrobial effectors that promote asthma pathology by damaging airway tissues. These results support the hypothesis that evolutionary conflicts with pathogens promote tradeoffs for increasingly robust immune responses during animal evolution. Our findings are also consistent with the view that natural selection has contributed to the spread of autoimmune disease alleles in humans. PMID:28854632

  16. Rapid, reliable geodetic data analysis for hazard response: Results from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S.; Cruz, J.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Polet, J.; Liu, Z.; Agram, P. S.; Lundgren, P.

    2013-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated project to automate InSAR and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allows us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with earthquakes in high spatial & temporal detail. In certain cases, it can be complementary to seismic data, providing constraints on location, geometry, or magnitude that is difficult to determine with seismic data alone. In addition, remote sensing with SAR provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. We have built an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that forms the foundation for a hazard response and science analysis capability that integrates InSAR, high-rate GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, science, and situational awareness products. This prototype incorporates state-of-the-art InSAR and GPS analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists. The products have been designed and a feasibility study conducted in collaboration with USGS scientists in the earthquake and volcano science programs. We will present results that show the capabilities of this data system in terms of latency, data processing capacity, quality of automated products, and feasibility of use for analysis of large SAR and GPS data sets and for earthquake response activities.

  17. A Rapid Induction Mechanism for Lin28a in Trophic Responses.

    PubMed

    Amen, Alexandra M; Ruiz-Garzon, Claudia R; Shi, Jay; Subramanian, Megha; Pham, Daniel L; Meffert, Mollie K

    2017-02-02

    Environmental cues provoke rapid transitions in gene expression to support growth and cellular plasticity through incompletely understood mechanisms. Lin28 RNA-binding proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in post-transcriptional coordination of pro-growth gene expression, but signaling pathways allowing trophic stimuli to induce Lin28 have remained uncharacterized. We find that Lin28a protein exhibits rapid basal turnover in neurons and that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of the RNA-silencing factor HIV TAR-RNA-binding protein (TRBP) promotes binding and stabilization of Lin28a, but not Lin28b, with an accompanying reduction in Lin28-regulated miRNAs, downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Binding of Lin28a to TRBP in vitro is also enhanced by phospho-mimic TRBP. Further, phospho-TRBP recapitulates BDNF-induced neuronal dendritic spine growth in a Lin28a-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate MAPK-dependent TRBP and Lin28a induction, with physiological function in growth and survival, downstream of diverse growth factors in multiple primary cell types, supporting a broad role for this pathway in trophic responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ATM is required for rapid degradation of cyclin D1 in response to {gamma}-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Dong Wan; Baek, Hye Jung; Motoyama, Noboru; Cho, Kwan Ho; Kim, Hye Sun; Kim, Sang Soo

    2009-01-23

    The cellular response to DNA damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation activates cell-cycle arrest to permit DNA repair and to prevent replication. Cyclin D1 is the key molecule for transition between the G1 and S phases of the cell-cycle, and amplification or overexpression of cyclin D1 plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers. To study the regulation of cyclin D1 in the DNA-damaged condition, we analyzed the proteolytic regulation of cyclin D1 expression upon {gamma}-irradiation. Upon {gamma}-irradiation, a rapid reduction in cyclin D1 levels was observed prior to p53 stabilization, indicating that the stability of cyclin D1 is controlled in a p53-independent manner. Further analysis revealed that irradiation facilitated ubiquitination of cyclin D1 and that a proteasome inhibitor blocked cyclin D1 degradation under the same conditions. Interestingly, after mutation of threonine residue 286 of cyclin D1, which is reported to be the GSK-3{beta} phosphorylation site, the mutant protein showed resistance to irradiation-induced proteolysis although inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} failed to prevent cyclin D1 degradation. Rather, ATM inhibition markedly prevented cyclin D1 degradation induced by {gamma}-irradiation. Our data indicate that communication between ATM and cyclin D1 may be required for maintenance of genomic integrity achieved by rapid arrest of the cell-cycle, and that disruption of this crosstalk may increase susceptibility to cancer.

  19. Response Time Distributions in Rapid Chess: A Large-Scale Decision Making Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sigman, Mariano; Etchemendy, Pablo; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Cecchi, Guillermo A.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times (RTs) and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: (1) RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, (2) RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state-function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation. PMID:21031032

  20. Rapid assessment of health needs and medical response after the tsunami in Thailand, 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Güereña-Burgueño, Fernando; Jongsakul, Krisada; Smith, Bryan L; Ittiverakul, Mali; Chiravaratanond, Orapan

    2006-10-01

    On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a massive tsunami in the Indian Ocean, causing an estimated 183,172 deaths and 40,320 missing in 12 countries. In Thailand, six provinces (Krabi, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, and Trang) were affected. U.S. government agencies delivered emergency medical assistance from December 30, 2004, to January 6, 2005. A team from the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences conducted a rapid health and needs assessment in southern Thailand. Twelve hospitals were referral centers for tsunami-related medical care. None of the hospitals had been damaged during the tsunami; all activated mass casualty plans. As of October 2005, 5,395 deaths were confirmed and 2,817 individuals were missing. The response of the Thai government to the tsunami was rapid and effective in mitigating the health consequences among survivors and helped prioritize public health interventions and the diversion of U.S. assistance to areas with greater need for international emergency humanitarian assistance.

  1. Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics.

    PubMed

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Gibson, Daniel G; Wentworth, David E; Stockwell, Timothy B; Algire, Mikkel A; Alperovich, Nina; Barro, Mario; Brown, David M; Craig, Stewart; Dattilo, Brian M; Denisova, Evgeniya A; De Souza, Ivna; Eickmann, Markus; Dugan, Vivien G; Ferrari, Annette; Gomila, Raul C; Han, Liqun; Judge, Casey; Mane, Sarthak; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Merryman, Chuck; Palladino, Giuseppe; Palmer, Gene A; Spencer, Terika; Strecker, Thomas; Trusheim, Heidi; Uhlendorff, Jennifer; Wen, Yingxia; Yee, Anthony C; Zaveri, Jayshree; Zhou, Bin; Becker, Stephan; Donabedian, Armen; Mason, Peter W; Glass, John I; Rappuoli, Rino; Venter, J Craig

    2013-05-15

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production.

  2. Three-year-olds' rapid facial electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions and body postures.

    PubMed

    Geangu, Elena; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Conte, Stefania; Croci, Emanuela; Turati, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Rapid facial reactions (RFRs) to observed emotional expressions are proposed to be involved in a wide array of socioemotional skills, from empathy to social communication. Two of the most persuasive theoretical accounts propose RFRs to rely either on motor resonance mechanisms or on more complex mechanisms involving affective processes. Previous studies demonstrated that presentation of facial and bodily expressions can generate rapid changes in adult and school-age children's muscle activity. However, to date there is little to no evidence to suggest the existence of emotional RFRs from infancy to preschool age. To investigate whether RFRs are driven by motor mimicry or could also be a result of emotional appraisal processes, we recorded facial electromyographic (EMG) activation from the zygomaticus major and frontalis medialis muscles to presentation of static facial and bodily expressions of emotions (i.e., happiness, anger, fear, and neutral) in 3-year-old children. Results showed no specific EMG activation in response to bodily emotion expressions. However, observing others' happy faces led to increased activation of the zygomaticus major and decreased activation of the frontalis medialis, whereas observing others' angry faces elicited the opposite pattern of activation. This study suggests that RFRs are the result of complex mechanisms in which both affective processes and motor resonance may play an important role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) Mission Using the HISat Conformal Satellite Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Nathanael

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) experiment, designed as a quick turnaround mission to make radiation measurements in LEO, will fly as a hosted payload in partnership with NovaWurks using their Hyper-integrated Satlet (HiSat) architecture. The need for the mission arises as the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionization Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model moves from a research effort into an operational radiation assessment tool. The data collected by R3S, in addition to the complementary data from a NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) atmospheric balloon mission entitled Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaDX), will validate exposure prediction capabilities of NAIRAS. This paper discusses the development of the R3S experiment as made possible by use of the HiSat architecture. The system design and operational modes of the experiment are described, as well as the experiment interfaces to the HiSat satellite via the user defined adapter (UDA) provided by NovaWurks. This paper outlines the steps taken by the project to execute the R3S mission in the 4 months of design, build, and test. Finally, description of the engineering process is provided, including the use of facilitated rapid/concurrent engineering sessions, the associated documentation, and the review process employed.

  4. Adult plasticity in African cichlids: Rapid changes in opsin expression in response to environmental light differences.

    PubMed

    Nandamuri, Sri Pratima; Yourick, Miranda R; Carleton, Karen L

    2017-09-19

    Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to adapt quickly to local environmental conditions and could facilitate adaptive radiations. Cichlids have recently undergone an adaptive radiation in Lake Malawi where they inhabit diverse light environments and tune their visual sensitivity through differences in cone opsin expression. While cichlid opsin expression is known to be plastic over development, whether adults remain plastic is unknown. Adult plasticity in visual tuning could play a role in cichlid radiations by enabling survival in changing environments and facilitating invasion into novel environments. Here we examine the existence of and temporal changes in adult visual plasticity of two closely related species. In complementary experiments, wild adult Metriaclima mbenji from Lake Malawi were moved to the lab under UV-deficient fluorescent lighting; while lab raised M. benetos were placed under UV-rich lighting designed to mimic light conditions in the wild. Surprisingly, adult cichlids in both experiments showed significant changes in the expression of the UV-sensitive single cone opsin, SWS1, in only 3 days. Modeling quantum catches in the light environments revealed a possible link between the light available to the SWS1 visual pigment and SWS1 expression. We conclude that adult cichlids can undergo rapid and significant changes in opsin expression in response to environmental light shifts that are relevant to their habitat and evolutionary history in Lake Malawi. This could have contributed to the rapid divergence characteristic of these fantastic fishes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of disaster response efforts undertaken by local health departments: a rapid realist review.

    PubMed

    Gossip, Kate; Gouda, Hebe; Lee, Yong Yi; Firth, Sonja; Bermejo, Raoul; Zeck, Willibald; Jimenez Soto, Eliana

    2017-06-29

    Local health departments are often at the forefront of a disaster response, attending to the immediate trauma inflicted by the disaster and also the long term health consequences. As the frequency and severity of disasters are projected to rise, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) efforts are critical to help local health departments consolidate past experiences and improve future response efforts. Local health departments often conduct M&E work post disaster, however, many of these efforts fail to improve response procedures. We undertook a rapid realist review (RRR) to examine why M&E efforts undertaken by local health departments do not always result in improved disaster response efforts. We aimed to complement existing frameworks by focusing on the most basic and pragmatic steps of a M&E cycle targeted towards continuous system improvements. For these purposes, we developed a theoretical framework that draws on the quality improvement literature to 'frame' the steps in the M&E cycle. This framework encompassed a M&E cycle involving three stages (i.e., document and assess, disseminate and implement) that must be sequentially completed to learn from past experiences and improve future disaster response efforts. We used this framework to guide our examination of the literature and to identify any context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations which describe how M&E may be constrained or enabled at each stage of the M&E cycle. This RRR found a number of explanatory CMO configurations that provide valuable insights into some of the considerations that should be made when using M&E to improve future disaster response efforts. Firstly, to support the accurate documentation and assessment of a disaster response, local health departments should consider how they can: establish a culture of learning within health departments; use embedded training methods; or facilitate external partnerships. Secondly, to enhance the widespread dissemination of lessons learned and facilitate

  6. A participatory action research pilot study of urban health disparities using rapid assessment response and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G; Celestin, Michel J; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention.

  7. A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study of Urban Health Disparities Using Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G.; Celestin, Michel J.; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D.; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J. Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention. PMID:18048802

  8. First results from the rapid-response spectrophotometric characterization of Near-Earth objects using RATIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Meza, Samuel; Mommert, Michael; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Trilling, David E.; Butler, Nathaniel; Pichardo, Barbara; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Jedicke, Robert

    2016-10-01

    We are carrying out a program to obtain rapid-response spectrophotometric characterization of newly discovered Near Earth Objects. Our first results, based on observations made with WFCAM on UKIRT, are presented in Mommert et al. (2016). Here we present a preliminary analysis of the r-i distribution of ~140 small (<500m) NEOs observed with the RATIR instrument on the 1.5-m telescope on San Pedro Martir. The observations are made in queue mode, and the data processing is carried out autonomously. Our goals are to derive coarse taxonomic and therefore compositional classifications for each of these objects, which will allow us to derive composition as a function of NEO size. This work is part of a collaboration in which we will characterize hundreds of NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques (down to V~21). This work is supported by funding from NASA's Solar System Observations program.

  9. Consumer participation in early detection of the deteriorating patient and call activation to rapid response systems: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Jane; King, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    This review investigated the impact of consumer participation in recognition of patient deterioration and response through call activation in rapid response systems. Nurses and doctors have taken the main role in recognition and response to patient deterioration through hospital rapid response systems. Yet patients and visitors (consumers) have appeared well placed to notice early signs of deterioration. In response, many hospitals have sought to partner health professionals with consumers in detection and response to early deterioration. However, to date, there have been no published research-based reviews to establish the impact of introducing consumer involvement into rapid response systems. A critical research-based review was undertaken. A comprehensive search of databases from 2006-2014 identified 11 studies. Critical appraisal of these studies was undertaken and thematic analysis of the findings revealed four major themes. Following implementation of the consumer activation programmes, the number of calls made by the consumers following detection of deterioration increased. Interestingly, the number of staff calls also increased. Importantly, mortality numbers were found to decrease in one major study following the introduction of consumer call activation. Consumer and staff knowledge and satisfaction with the new programmes indicated mixed results. Initial concerns of the staff over consumer involvement overwhelming the rapid response systems did not eventuate. Evaluation of successful consumer-activated programmes indicated the importance of: effective staff education and training; ongoing consumer education by nurses and clear educational materials. Findings indicated positive patient outcomes following introduction of consumer call activation programmes within rapid response systems. Effective consumer programmes included information that was readily accessible, easy-to-understand and available in a range of multimedia materials accompanied by the

  10. Effect of a 2-tier rapid response system on patient outcome and staff satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Leanne M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Vaux, Amanda; Crouch, Shannon; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Daly, Michael; Joyce, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Rapid response systems (RRS) have been recommended as a strategy to prevent and treat deterioration in acute care patients. Questions regarding the most effective characteristics of RRS and strategies for implementing these systems remain. The aims of this study were to (i) describe the structures and processes used to implement a 2-tier RRS, (ii) determine the comparative prevalence of deteriorating patients and incidence of unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission and cardiac arrest prior to and after implementation of the RRS, and (iii) determine clinician satisfaction with the RRS. A quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test design was used to assess patient related outcomes and clinician satisfaction prior to and after implementation of a 2-tier RRS in a tertiary metropolitan hospital. Primary components of the RRS included an ICU Outreach Nurse and a Rapid Response Team. Prevalence of deteriorating patients was assessed through a point prevalence assessment and chart audit. Incidence of unplanned admission to ICU and cardiac arrests were accessed from routine hospital databases. Clinician satisfaction was measured through surveys. Prevalence of patients who met medical emergency call criteria without current treatment reduced from 3% prior to RRS implementation to 1% after implementation; a similar reduction from 9% to 3% was identified on chart review. The number of unplanned admissions to ICU increased slightly from 17.4/month prior to RRS implementation to 18.1/month after implementation (p=0.45) while cardiac arrests reduced slightly from 7.5/month to 5.6/month (p=0.22) but neither of these changes were statistically significant. Staff satisfaction with the RRS was generally high. The 2-tier RRS was accessed by staff to assist with care of deteriorating patients in a large, tertiary hospital. High levels of satisfaction have been reported by clinical staff. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Evidence for rapid evolutionary change in an invasive plant in response to biological control.

    PubMed

    Stastny, M; Sargent, R D

    2017-05-01

    We present evidence that populations of an invasive plant species that have become re-associated with a specialist herbivore in the exotic range through biological control have rapidly evolved increased antiherbivore defences compared to populations not exposed to biocontrol. We grew half-sib families of the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria sourced from 17 populations near Ottawa, Canada, that differed in their history of exposure to a biocontrol agent, the specialist beetle Neogalerucella calmariensis. In a glasshouse experiment, we manipulated larval and adult herbivory to examine whether a population's history of biocontrol influenced plant defence and growth. Plants sourced from populations with a history of biocontrol suffered lower defoliation than naïve, previously unexposed populations, strongly suggesting they had evolved higher resistance. Plants from biocontrol-exposed populations were also larger and produced more branches in response to herbivory, regrew faster even in the absence of herbivory and were better at compensating for the impacts of herbivory on growth (i.e. they exhibited increased tolerance). Furthermore, resistance and tolerance were positively correlated among genotypes with a history of biocontrol but not among naïve genotypes. Our findings suggest that biocontrol can rapidly select for increased defences in an invasive plant and may favour a mixed defence strategy of resistance and tolerance without an obvious cost to plant vigour. Although rarely studied, such evolutionary responses in the target species have important implications for the long-term efficacy of biocontrol programmes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Reactive oxygen species regulatory mechanisms associated with rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling; Gan, Xueqi; Zhu, Zhuoli; Yang, Yang; He, Yuting; Yu, Haiyang

    2016-02-12

    Although many previous studies have shown that refractory period-dependent memory effect of vibration stress is anabolic for skeletal homeostasis, little is known about the rapid response of osteoblasts simply derived from vibration itself. In view of the potential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating differentiated activity of osteoblasts, whether and how ROS regulates the rapid effect of vibration deserve to be demonstrated. Our findings indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells underwent decreased gene expression of Runx2, Col-I and ALP and impaired ALP activity accompanied by increased mitochondrial fission immediately after vibration loading. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of ERK-Drp1 signal transduction in ROS regulatory mechanisms responsible for the rapid effect of vibration stress. - Highlights: • ROS contributed to the rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress. • Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics were linked to the LMHFV-derived rapid response. • The role of ERK-Drp1 signal pathway in the LMHFV-derived osteoblast rapid response.

  13. Effect of -OH functionalization, C2 methylation, and high radiation fields on the non-linear optical response of imidazolium ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namboodiri, Vinu V.; Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K.

    2017-04-01

    Considering the impending applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in various areas involving high optical and radiation fields, it is pertinent to probe the structure-property correlation of these solvents exposed to such conditions. Herein, femtosecond Z-scan technique (at high pulse repetition rate, 80 MHz) was employed to investigate the non-linear optical response of imidazolium RTILs in 3 scenarios: (1) -OH functionalization, (2) C2 methylation, and (3) influence of high radiation fields. Large negative non-linear refractive values ( n 2) were observed in all the RTIL samples and have been attributed predominantly due to the thermal effects. In order to isolate and determine the contribution of electronic Kerr effect, the Z-scan experiments were also carried out at low pulse repetition rate (i.e. 500 Hz) by means of a mechanical chopper. The closed aperture transmittance profile showed the valley-peak pattern, which signifies positive non-linearity. Nonetheless, the variation in the n2 values of the RTILs follows the same trend in low pulse repetition rate as was observed in case of high pulse repetition rate. The trend in the n 2 values clearly showed the decrease in the non-linearity in the first two cases and has been attributed to the weakening of the ion-pair formation, which adversely affects the charge transfer between the ionic moieties via C2 position. However, an increase in the n 2 values was observed in case of ILs irradiated to high radiation doses. This enhancement in the non-linearity has been assigned to the formation of double bond order radiolytic products. These results clearly indicate a strong correlation between the non-linearity and the strength of cation-anion interaction amongst them. Therefore, such information about these solvents may significantly contribute to the fundamental understanding of their structure-property relationships.

  14. Whole-cell recording from honeybee olfactory receptor neurons: ionic currents, membrane excitability and odourant response in developing workerbee and drone.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphanie; Masson, Claudine; Jakob, Ingrid

    2002-04-01

    Whole-cell recording techniques were used to characterize ionic membrane currents and odourant responses in honeybee olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in primary cell culture. ORNs of workerbee (female) and drone (male) were isolated at an early stage of development before sensory axons connect to their target in the antennal lobe. The results collectively indicate that honeybee ORNs have electrical properties similar, but not necessarily identical to, those currently envisaged for ORNs of other species. Under voltage clamp at least four ionic currents could be distinguished. Inward currents were made of a fast transient, tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current. In some ORNs a cadmium-sensitive calcium current was detected. ORNs showed heterogeneity in their outward currents: either outward currents were made of a delayed rectifier type potassium current, which was partially blocked by tetraethyl ammonium or quinidine, or were composed of a delayed rectifier type and a transient calcium-dependent potassium current, which was cadmium-sensitive and abolished by removal of external calcium. The proportion of each of the two outward currents, however, was different within the ORNs of the two sexes suggesting a gender-specific functional heterogeneity. ORNs showed heterogeneity in action potential firing properties: depolarizing current steps elicited either one action potential or, as in most of the cells, it led to repetitive spiking. Action potentials were tetrodotoxin-sensitive suggesting they are carried by sodium. Odourant stimulation with different mixtures and pure substances evoked depolarizing receptor potentials with superimposed action potentials when spike threshold was reached. In summary, honeybee ORNs are remarkably mature at early stages in their development.

  15. The Climate Science Rapid Response Team - A Model for Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandia, S. A.; Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there have been many independent initiatives which have commenced with the goal of improving communication between scientists and the larger public. These initiatives have often been motivated by the recognition that concerns amongst scientists related to the pending threats of climate change are not universally shared by the general public. Multiple studies have conclusively demonstrated that while the vast majority of climate scientists are in broad agreement that human-emitted greenhouse gases are causing increases in the Earth's temperature, the larger public is divided. Often, this divide mirrors divides on other political, societal, economic, or scientific issues. One unique approach to improve the conveyance of the state of climate-change science to the public is reflected by a self-organized effort of scientists themselves. This approach has lead to the formation of the Climate Science Rapid Response Team (CSRRT). The mission of this organization is to provide accurate and rapid information on any climate-science topic to general media and governmental inquirers. The CSRRT currently consists of approximately 135 world-class climate scientists whose members cover the sub-disciplines of climate change and include not only the natural sciences but also economics and policy. Since its formation, the CSRRT has fielded approximately four inquires each week from institutions that include The Associated Press, ABC, CBS, CNN, BBC, New York Times, Time of London, National Public Radio, The Guardian, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and the U.S. Congress, among others. Members of the CSRRT have been asked to provide quotations for news stories; they have also been asked to give radio, television, or print-media interviews. Some members of the CSRRT have undergone media training to help encourage the use of jargon-free language so that clear communication with the broader public can be more successful. The response from

  16. Time-Critical Studies: Rapid response to Transient Dynamic Mid-Ocean Ridge Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Cowen, J. P.; Baker, E. T.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Time-Critical Studies (TCS) Theme of Ridge 2000 focuses on observations of the immediate geochemical and geobiological consequences of magmatic and tectonic events along the global mid-ocean ridge system. NOAA's T-Phase Monitoring Program has accessed the U.S. Navy's NE SOSUS data in real-time since 1993, providing the TCS community with detection of seismicity associated with eruptive or tectonic activity along the Juan de Fuca (JFR) and Gorda Ridges. This remote detection of earthquake swarms, coupled to NSF and NOAA funding for pre-event staging of equipment and supplies, allows directed and increasingly well-organized field responses to event sites. On 27 February 2005, one of the largest submarine earthquake sequences recorded with SOSUS occurred at the Endeavour segment of the JFR. The swarm met all criteria for magmatic earthquake sequences (see Dziak et al. poster and upcoming EOS article). This swarm differed from other plume-producing swarms in that it migrated more slowly (< 0.1 m/s) and over less distance (< 30 km) and occurred entirely within an overlap zone rather than within the bathymetric minimum of a segment. Despite the ambiguous character of the earthquake swarm, the Event Response Community responded since: (1) Although the swarm appeared to be magmatic, there is no way to confirm seafloor or water-column effects without in situ observations; and (2) absent a seafloor eruption, the physical process of injecting magma into the crust should cause significant faulting and fissuring that could result in the release of hydrothermal fluids. The high intensity of the earthquake swarm greatly increased this possibility. This response effort marked the sixth time since 1993 that a research cruise was organized for rapid response to the site of earthquake activity. The response team was on station just 6 days after notification of the seismic swarm, the fastest response yet mounted. Although the team detected no evidence of a new lava flow, or event

  17. Flying experience and cardiovascular response to rapid head-up tilt in fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Newman, David G; Callister, Robin

    2009-08-01

    Fighter pilots report G tolerance increases with regular exposure. Our previous work has shown that the cardiovascular system of +Gz-adapted fighter pilots responds differently to orthostatic challenges than that of non-pilots. A +Gz training effect in pilots after repetitive +Gz exposure has also been shown. Individual pilot factors such as flying experience may have a role in +Gz adaptation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between flying hours (a marker of cumulative +Gz exposure) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) response to head-up tilt (HUT; a marker of enhanced cardiovascular performance). There were 14 male fighter pilots who participated: 9 had over 1000 h jet flying experience and 5 had less than 500 h. Subjects underwent rapid (approximately 4 s) +75 degrees HUT. Beat-to-beat MAP was measured noninvasively. For each subject, change in MAP from resting values was obtained for the first 30 heart beats of the HUT period. MAP responses to tilt were compared between the experienced and less experienced pilots, and the averages of the MAP deviation values were plotted against flying hours. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.87, P < 0.01) between the MAP response to tilt and jet flying hours. Comparison of the MAP responses to tilt indicates that the experienced pilots increased MAP more (+8 +/- 1.7 vs 5 +/- 1.5 mmHg) and maintained MAP at a higher level during the HUT than the less experienced pilots. The results suggest that flying experience in the high +Gz environment is strongly correlated with enhanced cardiovascular performance under conditions of accelerative stress.

  18. The ARIA project: Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Natural Hazard Monitoring and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Cruz, J.; Yun, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Hua, H.; Agram, P.; Lundgren, P.

    2012-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated effort to automate geodetic imaging capabilities for hazard response and societal benefit. Over the past decade, space-based geodetic measurements such as InSAR and GPS have provided new assessment capabilities and situational awareness on the size and location of earthquakes following seismic disasters and on volcanic eruptions following magmatic events. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allow us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with any given earthquake in correspondingly high spatial & temporal detail. In addition, remote sensing with radar provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. These data sets are still essentially hand-crafted, and thus are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for informing decision-making agencies and the public following an earthquake. We are building an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that would form the foundation for an envisioned operational hazard response center integrating InSAR, GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, actionable science, and situational awareness products. This prototype exploits state-of-the-art analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists, These algorithms enable the delivery of actionable products from larger data sets with enhanced modeling and interpretation, and the development of next generation techniques. We are collaborating with USGS scientists in both the earthquake and volcano science program for our initial data product infusion. We present our progress to date on development of prototype data system and demonstration data products, and example responses we have run such as generating products for the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki, M6.3 Christchurch earthquakes, the 2011 M7.1 Van earthquake, and several simulated

  19. Rapid transcriptome responses of maize (Zea mays) to UV-B in irradiated and shielded tissues

    PubMed Central

    Casati, Paula; Walbot, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Background Depletion of stratospheric ozone has raised terrestrial levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), an environmental change linked to an increased risk of skin cancer and with potentially deleterious consequences for plants. To better understand the processes of UV-B acclimation that result in altered plant morphology and physiology, we investigated gene expression in different organs of maize at several UV-B fluence rates and exposure times. Results Microarray hybridization was used to assess UV-B responses in directly exposed maize organs and organs shielded by a plastic that absorbs UV-B. After 8 hours of high UV-B, the abundance of 347 transcripts was altered: 285 were increased significantly in at least one organ and 80 were downregulated. More transcript changes occurred in directly exposed than in shielded organs, and the levels of more transcripts were changed in adult compared to seedling tissues. The time course of transcript abundance changes indicated that the response kinetics to UV-B is very rapid, as some transcript levels were altered within 1 hour of exposure. Conclusions Most of the UV-B regulated genes are organ-specific. Because shielded tissues, including roots, immature ears, and leaves, displayed altered transcriptome profiles after exposure of the plant to UV-B, some signal(s) must be transmitted from irradiated to shielded tissues. These results indicate that there are integrated responses to UV-B radiation above normal levels. As the same total UV-B irradiation dose applied at three intensities elicited different transcript profiles, the transcriptome changes exhibit threshold effects rather than a reciprocal dose-effect response. Transcriptome profiling highlights possible signaling pathways and molecules for future research. PMID:15003119

  20. Very rapid virologic response and early HCV response kinetics, as quick measures to compare efficacy and guide a personalized response-guided therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Abdo, Alaa M; Yousry, Ahmed; Helmy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Background This is the second and final report for our study designed to compare two generic sofosbuvir products for the degree and speed of virologic response to a dual anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment protocol. We aimed to test the applicability of the early virus response kinetics and the very rapid virologic response (vRVR) rate as quick outcome measures for accelerated comparative efficacy studies and as a foundation for a personalized response-guided therapy. Methods Fifty eligible chronic HCV patients were randomized to either one of two generic sofosbuvir products (Gratisovir or Grateziano) at a daily dose of one 400 mg tablet plus a weight-based ribavirin dose. Data were compared between the groups for early virus response kinetics and vRVR rates in relation to the rates of final sustained virologic response at week 12 posttreatment (SVR12). Results The Log10 transformed virus load (Log polymerase chain reaction) curves showed fairly similar rapid decline during the first 2 weeks, with no significant difference between the groups at four analysis points throughout the study by repeated-measures factorial analysis of variance test (P=0.48). The SVR12 rates were 96% (95% confidence interval, 79.6%–99.9%) in Gratisovir group (24/25) and 95.7% (95% confidence interval, 78%–99.9%) in Grateziano group (22/23). There was no statistically significant difference found by exact test (P>0.999). There was a significant association between the vRVR and the SVR12, with 100% positive predictive value (38/38 of those who had vRVR, achieved a final SVR12) and 82.6% sensitivity (among the total 46 with SVR12, 38 were having vRVR). Conclusion We can conclude from our study that the early HCV response kinetics and the vRVR rates could be used as sensitive quick markers for efficacy (with a very high positive predictive value for SVR12), based on our accelerated comparative efficacy research model. This might open the way for new models of accelerated equivalence

  1. Very rapid virologic response and early HCV response kinetics, as quick measures to compare efficacy and guide a personalized response-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Abdo, Alaa M; Yousry, Ahmed; Helmy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    This is the second and final report for our study designed to compare two generic sofosbuvir products for the degree and speed of virologic response to a dual anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment protocol. We aimed to test the applicability of the early virus response kinetics and the very rapid virologic response (vRVR) rate as quick outcome measures for accelerated comparative efficacy studies and as a foundation for a personalized response-guided therapy. Fifty eligible chronic HCV patients were randomized to either one of two generic sofosbuvir products (Gratisovir or Grateziano) at a daily dose of one 400 mg tablet plus a weight-based ribavirin dose. Data were compared between the groups for early virus response kinetics and vRVR rates in relation to the rates of final sustained virologic response at week 12 posttreatment (SVR12). The Log10 transformed virus load (Log polymerase chain reaction) curves showed fairly similar rapid decline during the first 2 weeks, with no significant difference between the groups at four analysis points throughout the study by repeated-measures factorial analysis of variance test (P=0.48). The SVR12 rates were 96% (95% confidence interval, 79.6%-99.9%) in Gratisovir group (24/25) and 95.7% (95% confidence interval, 78%-99.9%) in Grateziano group (22/23). There was no statistically significant difference found by exact test (P>0.999). There was a significant association between the vRVR and the SVR12, with 100% positive predictive value (38/38 of those who had vRVR, achieved a final SVR12) and 82.6% sensitivity (among the total 46 with SVR12, 38 were having vRVR). We can conclude from our study that the early HCV response kinetics and the vRVR rates could be used as sensitive quick markers for efficacy (with a very high positive predictive value for SVR12), based on our accelerated comparative efficacy research model. This might open the way for new models of accelerated equivalence efficacy studies along with the

  2. The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI): A Rapid Response Test Development Model for Assessing Reading Proficiency on the ILR Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Lauren; Stansfeld, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI) is a new reading proficiency test format that was created in response to the US government's need to rapidly produce a cost effective and credible reading proficiency assessment format for small-population languages. The RPI was developed in response to a requirement by the National Language Service Corps…

  3. Use of conditioned media is critical for studies of regulation in response to rapid heat shock.

    PubMed

    Mahat, Dig B; Lis, John T

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock response (HSR) maintains and restores protein homeostasis when cells are exposed to proteotoxic heat stress. Heat shock (HS) triggers a rapid and robust change in genome-wide transcription, protein synthesis, and chaperone activity; and therefore, the HSR has been widely used as a model system in these studies. The conventional method of performing instantaneous HS in the laboratory uses heated fresh media to induce HSR when added to cells. However, addition of fresh media to cells may evoke additional cellular responses and signaling pathways. Here, we compared the change in global transcription profile when HS is performed with either heated fresh media or heated conditioned media. We found that the use of heated fresh media induces transcription of hundreds of genes that HS alone does not induce, and masks or partially masks HS-mediated downregulation of thousands of genes. The fresh-media-dependent upregulated genes encode ribosomal subunit proteins involved in translation and RNA processing factors. More importantly, fresh media also induce transcription of several heat shock protein genes (Hsps) in a heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-independent manner. Thus, we conclude that a conventional method of HS with heated fresh media causes changes in transcription regulation that confound the actual change caused solely by elevated temperature of cells.

  4. Rapid brain responses independently predict gain maximization and loss minimization during economic decision making.

    PubMed

    San Martín, René; Appelbaum, Lawrence G; Pearson, John M; Huettel, Scott A; Woldorff, Marty G

    2013-04-17

    Success in many decision-making scenarios depends on the ability to maximize gains and minimize losses. Even if an agent knows which cues lead to gains and which lead to losses, that agent could still make choices yielding suboptimal rewards. Here, by analyzing event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in humans during a probabilistic gambling task, we show that individuals' behavioral tendencies to maximize gains and to minimize losses are associated with their ERP responses to the receipt of those gains and losses, respectively. We focused our analyses on ERP signals that predict behavioral adjustment: the frontocentral feedback-related negativity (FRN) and two P300 (P3) subcomponents, the frontocentral P3a and the parietal P3b. We found that, across participants, gain maximization was predicted by differences in amplitude of the P3b for suboptimal versus optimal gains (i.e., P3b amplitude difference between the least good and the best gains). Conversely, loss minimization was predicted by differences in the P3b amplitude to suboptimal versus optimal losses (i.e., difference between the worst and the least bad losses). Finally, we observed that the P3a and P3b, but not the FRN, predicted behavioral adjustment on subsequent trials, suggesting a specific adaptive mechanism by which prior experience may alter ensuing behavior. These findings indicate that individual differences in gain maximization and loss minimization are linked to individual differences in rapid neural responses to monetary outcomes.

  5. Rapid-response low infrared emission broadband ultrathin plasmonic light absorber.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Giulia; Eghlidi, Hadi; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-11-24

    Plasmonic nanostructures can significantly advance broadband visible-light absorption, with absorber thicknesses in the sub-wavelength regime, much thinner than conventional broadband coatings. Such absorbers have inherently very small heat capacity, hence a very rapid response time, and high light power-to-temperature sensitivity. Additionally, their surface emissivity can be spectrally tuned to suppress infrared thermal radiation. These capabilities make plasmonic absorbers promising candidates for fast light-to-heat applications, such as radiation sensors. Here we investigate the light-to-heat conversion properties of a metal-insulator-metal broadband plasmonic absorber, fabricated as a free-standing membrane. Using a fast IR camera, we show that the transient response of the absorber has a characteristic time below 13 ms, nearly one order of magnitude lower than a similar membrane coated with a commercial black spray. Concurrently, despite the small thickness, due to the large absorption capability, the achieved absorbed light power-to-temperature sensitivity is maintained at the level of a standard black spray. Finally, we show that while black spray has emissivity similar to a black body, the plasmonic absorber features a very low infra-red emissivity of almost 0.16, demonstrating its capability as selective coating for applications with operating temperatures up to 400°C, above which the nano-structure starts to deform.

  6. Rapid-Response Low Infrared Emission Broadband Ultrathin Plasmonic Light Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Tagliabue, Giulia; Eghlidi, Hadi; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures can significantly advance broadband visible-light absorption, with absorber thicknesses in the sub-wavelength regime, much thinner than conventional broadband coatings. Such absorbers have inherently very small heat capacity, hence a very rapid response time, and high light power-to-temperature sensitivity. Additionally, their surface emissivity can be spectrally tuned to suppress infrared thermal radiation. These capabilities make plasmonic absorbers promising candidates for fast light-to-heat applications, such as radiation sensors. Here we investigate the light-to-heat conversion properties of a metal-insulator-metal broadband plasmonic absorber, fabricated as a free-standing membrane. Using a fast IR camera, we show that the transient response of the absorber has a characteristic time below 13 ms, nearly one order of magnitude lower than a similar membrane coated with a commercial black spray. Concurrently, despite the small thickness, due to the large absorption capability, the achieved absorbed light power-to-temperature sensitivity is maintained at the level of a standard black spray. Finally, we show that while black spray has emissivity similar to a black body, the plasmonic absorber features a very low infra-red emissivity of almost 0.16, demonstrating its capability as selective coating for applications with operating temperatures up to 400°C, above which the nano-structure starts to deform. PMID:25418040

  7. Detector photon response and absorbed dose and their applications to rapid triage techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Shannon Prentice

    As radiation specialists, one of our primary objectives in the Navy is protecting people and the environment from the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Focusing on radiological dispersal devices (RDD) will provide increased personnel protection as well as optimize emergency response assets for the general public. An attack involving an RDD has been of particular concern because it is intended to spread contamination over a wide area and cause massive panic within the general population. A rapid method of triage will be necessary to segregate the unexposed and slightly exposed from those needing immediate medical treatment. Because of the aerosol dispersal of the radioactive material, inhalation of the radioactive material may be the primary exposure route. The primary radionuclides likely to be used in a RDD attack are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Sr-90 and Am-241. Through the use of a MAX phantom along with a few Simulink MATLAB programs, a good anthropomorphic phantom was created for use in MCNPX simulations that would provide organ doses from internally deposited radionuclides. Ludlum model 44-9 and 44-2 detectors were used to verify the simulated dose from the MCNPX code. Based on the results, acute dose rate limits were developed for emergency response personnel that would assist in patient triage.

  8. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  9. Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.

    PubMed

    Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation.

  10. Rapid-response Sensor Networks Leveraging Open Standards and the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Lieberman, J. E.; Lewis, L.; Botts, M.; Liang, S.

    2016-12-01

    New sensor technologies provide an unparalleled capability to collect large numbers of diverse observations about the world around us. Networks of such sensors are especially effective for capturing and analyzing unexpected, fast moving events if they can be deployed with a minimum of time, effort, and cost. A rapid-response sensing and processing capability is extremely important in quickly unfolding events not only to collect data for future research.but also to support response efforts that may be needed by providing up-to-date knowledge of the situation. A recent pilot activity coordinated by the Open Geospatial Consortium combined Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards with Internet of Things (IoT) practices to understand better how to set up rapid-response sensor networks in comparable event situations involving accidents or disasters. The networks included weather and environmental sensors, georeferenced UAV and PTZ imagery collectors, and observations from "citizen sensors", as well as virtual observations generated by predictive models. A key feature of each "SWE-IoT" network was one or more Sensor Hubs that connected local, often proprietary sensor device protocols to a common set of standard SWE data types and standard Web interfaces on an IP-based internetwork. This IoT approach provided direct, common, interoperable access to all sensor readings from anywhere on the internetwork of sensors, Hubs, and applications. Sensor Hubs also supported an automated discovery protocol in which activated Hubs registered themselves with a canonical catalog service. As each sensor (wireless or wired) was activated within range of an authorized Hub, it registered itself with that Hub, which in turn registered the sensor and its capabilities with the catalog. Sensor Hub functions were implemented in a range of component types, from personal devices such as smartphones and Raspberry Pi's to full cloud-based sensor services platforms. Connected into a network

  11. Strong Motion Networks - Rapid Response and Early Warning Applications in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, C.; Alcik, H.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years several strong motion networks have been established in Istanbul with a preparation purpose for future probable earthquake. This study addresses the introduction of current seismic networks and presentation of some recent results recorded in these networks. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System has ten strong motion stations which were installed as close as possible to Marmara Sea main fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The current algorithm compares the band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) with specified threshold levels. Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System has one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers which were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early damage assessment and rapid response information after a damaging earthquake. Early response information is achieved through fast acquisition and analysis of processed data obtained from the network. The stations are routinely interrogated on regular basis by the main data center. After triggered by an earthquake, each station processes the streaming strong motion data to yield the spectral accelerations at specific periods and sends these parameters in the form of SMS messages at every 20s directly to the main data center through a designated GSM network and through a microwave system. A shake map and damage distribution map (using aggregate building inventories and fragility curves

  12. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Lauciani, Valentino; Sensale, Gianpaolo; Bucci, Augusto; Criscuoli, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The benefits of portable real-time seismic networks are several and well known. During the management of a temporary experiment from the real-time data it is possible to detect and fix rapidly problems with power supply, time synchronization, disk failures and, most important, seismic signal quality degradation due to unexpected noise sources or sensor alignment/tampering. This usually minimizes field maintenance trips and maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the acquired data. When the area of the temporary experiment is not well monitored by the local permanent network, the real-time data from the temporary experiment can be fed to the permanent network monitoring system improving greatly both the real-time hypocentral locations and the final revised bulletin. All these benefits apply also in case of seismic crises when rapid deployment stations can significantly contribute to the aftershock analysis. Nowadays data transmission using meshed radio networks or satellite systems is not a big technological problem for a permanent seismic network where each site is optimized for the device power consumption and is usually installed by properly specialized technicians that can configure transmission devices and align antennas. This is not usually practical for temporary networks and especially for rapid response networks where the installation time is the main concern. These difficulties are substantially lowered using the now widespread UMTS technology for data transmission. A small (but sometimes power hungry) properly configured device with an omnidirectional antenna must be added to the station assembly. All setups are usually configured before deployment and this allows for an easy installation also by untrained personnel. We describe here the implementation of a UMTS based portable seismic network for both temporary experiments and rapid response applications developed at INGV. The first field experimentation of this approach dates back to the 2009 L

  13. Time Lapse Storey Building Early Monitoring Based on Rapid Seismic Response Analysis in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julius, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method. The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration decreases. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the increasing of shaking and strongly influenced by local site effect. The constant value of building natural frequency shows the building still in good performance. This

  14. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD): Response to ventilatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael S; Patwari, Pallavi P; Kenny, Anna S; Brogadir, Cindy D; Stewart, Tracey M; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2015-12-01

    Hypoventilation is a defining feature of Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD), a rare respiratory and autonomic disorder. This chronic hypoventilation has been explained as the result of dysfunctional chemosensory control circuits, possibly affecting peripheral afferent input, central integration, or efferent motor control. However, chemosensory function has never been quantified in a cohort of ROHHAD patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the response to awake ventilatory challenge testing in children and adolescents with ROHHAD. The ventilatory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses in 25 distinct comprehensive physiological recordings from seven unique ROHHAD patients to three different gas mixtures were analyzed at breath-to-breath and beat-to-beat resolution as absolute measures, as change from baseline, or with derived metrics. Physiologic measures were recorded during a 3-min baseline period of room air, a 3-min gas exposure (of 100% O2; 95% O2, 5% CO2; or 14% O2, 7% CO2 balanced with N2), and a 3-min recovery period. An additional hypoxic challenge was conducted which consisted of either five or seven tidal breaths of 100% N2. While ROHHAD cases showed a diminished VT and inspiratory drive response to hypoxic hypercapnia and absent behavioral awareness of the physiologic compromise, most ventilatory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular measures were similar to those of previously published controls using an identical protocol, suggesting a mild chemosensory deficit. Nonetheless, the high mortality rate, comorbidity and physiological fragility of patients with ROHHAD demand continued clinical vigilance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rapid assessment response (RAR) study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI) participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females) and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female). Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to be made available in

  16. Preparation of Thermo-Responsive Poly(ionic liquid)s-Based Nanogels via One-Step Cross-Linking Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jingjiang; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Rongmin; Xiong, Yubing

    2015-09-18

    In this study, thermo-responsive polymeric nanogels were facilely prepared via one-step cross-linking copolymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate/divinylbenzene and ionic liquid (IL)-based monomers, 1,n-dialkyl-3,3'-bis-1-vinyl imidazolium bromides ([CnVIm]Br; n = 6, 8, 12) in selective solvents. The results revealed that stable and blue opalescent biimidazolium (BIm)-based nanogel solutions could be obtained without any precipitation when the copolymerizations were conducted in methanol. Most importantly, these novel nanogels were thermo-response, and could reversibly transform to precipitation in methanol with temperature changes. Turbidity analysis and dynamic light scatting (DLS) measurement illustrated that PIL-based nanogel solutions presented the phase transform with upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in the range of 5-25 °C. The nanogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, BIm-based nanogels could also be used as highly active catalysts in the cycloaddition reaction of CO₂ and epoxides. As a result, our attributes build a robust platform suitable for the preparation of polymeric nanomaterials, as well as CO₂ conversion.

  17. Neuromechanical response of musculo-skeletal structures in cockroaches during rapid running on rough terrain.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, S; Full, R J

    2008-02-01

    A musculo-skeletal structure can stabilize rapid locomotion using neural and/or mechanical feedback. Neural feedback results in an altered feedforward activation pattern, whereas mechanical feedback using visco-elastic structures does not require a change in the neural motor code. We selected musculo-skeletal structures in the cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis) because their single motor neuron innervation allows the simplest possible characterization of activation. We ran cockroaches over a track with randomized blocks of heights up to three times the animal's ;hip' (1.5 cm), while recording muscle action potentials (MAPs) from a set of putative control musculo-skeletal structures (femoral extensors 178 and 179). Animals experienced significant perturbations in body pitch, roll and yaw, but reduced speed by less than 20%. Surprisingly, we discovered no significant difference in the distribution of the number of MAPs, the interspike interval, burst phase or interburst period between flat and rough terrain trials. During a few very large perturbations or when a single leg failed to make contact throughout stance, neural feedback was detectable as a phase shift of the central rhythm and alteration of MAP number. System level responses of appendages were consistent with a dominant role of mechanical feedback. Duty factors and gait phases did not change for cockroaches running on flat versus rough terrain. Cockroaches did not use a follow-the-leader gait requiring compensatory corrections on a step-by-step basis. Arthropods appear to simplify control on rough terrain by rapid running that uses kinetic energy to bridge gaps between footholds and distributed mechanical feedback to stabilize the body.

  18. Using Rapid-Response Scenario-Building Methodology for Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, K. A.; Stoepler, T. M.; Schuster, R.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid-response scenario-building methodology can be modified to develop scenarios for slow-onset disasters associated with climate change such as drought. Results of a collaboration between the Department of the Interior (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG) and the Southwest Colorado Social-Ecological Climate Resilience Project are presented in which SSG scenario-building methods were revised and applied to climate change adaptation planning in Colorado's Gunnison Basin, United States. The SSG provides the DOI with the capacity to rapidly assemble multidisciplinary teams of experts to develop scenarios of the potential environmental, social, and economic cascading consequences of environmental crises, and to analyze these chains to determine actionable intervention points. By design, the SSG responds to acute events of a relatively defined duration. As a capacity-building exercise, the SSG explored how its scenario-building methodology could be applied to outlining the cascading consequences of slow-onset events related to climate change. SSG staff facilitated two workshops to analyze the impacts of drought, wildfire, and insect outbreak in the sagebrush and spruce-fir ecosystems. Participants included local land managers, natural and social scientists, ranchers, and other stakeholders. Key findings were: 1) scenario framing must be adjusted to accommodate the multiple, synergistic components and longer time frames of slow-onset events; 2) the development of slow-onset event scenarios is likely influenced by participants having had more time to consider potential consequences, relative to acute events; 3) participants who are from the affected area may have a more vested interest in the outcome and/or may be able to directly implement interventions.

  19. Rapid IV versus oral rehydration: responses to subsequent exercise heat stress.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; O'Moore, Kathleen M; Mahood, Nicholas V; Castellani, John W

    2006-12-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of rapid intravenous (IV) versus oral (ORAL) rehydration immediately after dehydration, on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during subsequent exercise in the heat. Eight males (21.4 +/- 0.7 yr; 176.2 +/- 1.6 cm; 75.2 +/- 3.7 kg; 63.7 +/- 3.6 mL.kg.min VO2max, 9.0 +/- 1.7% fat) participated in three randomized trials. Each trial consisted of a 75-min dehydration phase (36 degrees C; 42.5% rh, 47 +/- 0.9% VO2max) where subjects lost 1.7 L (IV and no-fluid (NF) trials) to 1.8 L of fluid (ORAL trial). In the heat, fluid lost was matched with 0.45% saline in 20 min by either IV or ORAL rehydration; no fluid was given in the NF trial. Subjects then performed a heat-tolerance test (HTT; 37.0 degrees C, 45% rh, treadmill speed of 2.4 m.s, 2.3% grade) for 75 min or until exhaustion (Tre of 39.5 degrees C). During the HTT, thermal and thirst sensations, RPE, rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate (HR), and mean weighted skin temperature (Tsk) were measured. Plasma volume in the IV treatment was greater (P < 0.05) after rehydration compared with ORAL and NF. However, during the HTT there were no overall differences (P > 0.05) in HR, Tre, Tsk, RPE, thermal sensations, or HTT time (ORAL, 71 +/- 8 min; IV, 73 +/- 5 min; NF, 39 +/- 29 min) between the ORAL and IV treatments. Sensations of thirst were lower (P < 0.05) in ORAL compared with IV and NF, likely because of oropharyngeal stimuli. Despite a more rapid restoration of plasma volume, IV rehydration was not advantageous over ORAL rehydration in regards to physiological strain, heat tolerance, RPE, or thermal sensations.

  20. Early Development of Brain Responses to Rapidly Presented Auditory Stimulation: a Magnetoencephalographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Carolin; Draganova, Rossitza; Ware, Maureen; Murphy, Pamela; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Siegel, Eric R; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Background The processing of rapidly presented stimuli has been shown to be a precursor for the perception of speech in infants, long before they learn to speak. However, the onset and early development of rapid temporal processing (RTP) skills is not yet well understood. The main goal of this study was to assess the development of RTP skills during the prenatal and early postnatal stages of life. Methodology Tone pairs were presented in two difficulties (long and short) and event-related magnetic fields were recorded using MEG. 22 pregnant women (gestational ages between 29 and 38 weeks’) participated in the fetal study and 15 returned for a neonatal follow-up study between 2 and 38 days after delivery or 38 and 44 weeks gestational age (GA). Results In the postnatal follow-up study, a trend towards two peaks with increasing chronological and gestational age was observed in the longer tone pair. However, no such trend was evident in neonatal responses to the short tone pairs or in fetal recordings. Conclusions Neonates showed a gradual trend to successful processing of the longer tone pair with increasing age. By 22 days of chronological age, the infants processed this tone pair successfully, as indicated by two-peak waveforms. Therefore, the first three weeks of life could be critical for the development of RTP. Significance This study is a first approach towards the assessment of early RTP development. The results provide promising indications for future studies, which might lead to an early detection of deficits in speech perception and therefore prevent further language impairments. PMID:19900775

  1. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  2. Tissue mechanics govern the rapidly adapting and symmetrical response to touch

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Amy L.; Sanzeni, Alessandro; Petzold, Bryan C.; Park, Sung-Jin; Vergassola, Massimo; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions with the physical world are deeply rooted in our sense of touch and depend on ensembles of somatosensory neurons that invade and innervate the skin. Somatosensory neurons convert the mechanical energy delivered in each touch into excitatory membrane currents carried by mechanoelectrical transduction (MeT) channels. Pacinian corpuscles in mammals and touch receptor neurons (TRNs) in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are embedded in distinctive specialized accessory structures, have low thresholds for activation, and adapt rapidly to the application and removal of mechanical loads. Recently, many of the protein partners that form native MeT channels in these and other somatosensory neurons have been identified. However, the biophysical mechanism of symmetric responses to the onset and offset of mechanical stimulation has eluded understanding for decades. Moreover, it is not known whether applied force or the resulting indentation activate MeT channels. Here, we introduce a system for simultaneously recording membrane current, applied force, and the resulting indentation in living C. elegans (Feedback-controlled Application of mechanical Loads Combined with in vivo Neurophysiology, FALCON) and use it, together with modeling, to study these questions. We show that current amplitude increases with indentation, not force, and that fast stimuli evoke larger currents than slower stimuli producing the same or smaller indentation. A model linking body indentation to MeT channel activation through an embedded viscoelastic element reproduces the experimental findings, predicts that the TRNs function as a band-pass mechanical filter, and provides a general mechanism for symmetrical and rapidly adapting MeT channel activation relevant to somatosensory neurons across phyla and submodalities. PMID:26627717

  3. Seismogeodesy for Rapid Response: The 2014 Mw 6 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, D.; Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Haase, J. S.; Goldberg, D.; Saunders, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid assessment of medium to large events with finite source models at regional scales has traditionally been delayed by limitations in seismic-only monitoring systems. Broadband and short period sensors saturate and strong motion sensors are affected by baseline offsets. In practice, this means that strong motion data must be high pass filtered. This approximation breaks down as the earthquakes get larger since the long period band of the spectrum best characterizes these events. In contrast geodetic data record long period motions down to the coseismic offset. They are however less sensitive, with single-epoch noise levels of the order of 1cm. With data from 34 collocated GPS/strong motion stations around the South Napa earthquake, we demonstrate a seismogeodetic algorithm that produces broadband strong motion velocity and displacements. We further show that these data can be ingested into source modeling algorithms with minimal operator interaction. Through retrospective analysis off the South Napa data, we show that one can produce a full suite of models from rapid moment tensors to kinematic slip inversions. While displacement amplitudes are small, often below GPS noise levels, the seismogeodetic solution provides an objective constraint on the accelerometer integration. The rapid inversion to find shallow slip can provide an indication of surface rupture and indicate that enhanced response is likely for road repairs and such. We quantify the improvements and advantages to using 5Hz GPS over 1Hz data.There are over 600 real-time monitoring GPS stations in the western US maintained by several operators; the NASA-sponsored READI project aims to unify these into a network of networks for prototyping earthquake and tsunami warning systems. We argue that the results shown here demonstrate the need for full integration of geodetic networks into seismic monitoring systems and that with current deployed stations this is within reach. However, only a small number of

  4. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    PubMed

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  5. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary Ellen; MacDonald, Lee H.; Billmire, Michael; Elliot, William J.; Robichaud, Pete R.

    2016-04-01

    Rapid response is critical following natural disasters. Flooding, erosion, and debris flows are a major threat to life, property and municipal water supplies after moderate and high severity wildfires. The problem is that mitigation measures must be rapidly implemented if they are to be effective, but they are expensive and cannot be applied everywhere. Fires, runoff, and erosion risks also are highly heterogeneous in space, so there is an urgent need for a rapid, spatially-explicit assessment. Past post-fire modeling efforts have usually relied on lumped, conceptual models because of the lack of readily available, spatially-explicit data layers on the key controls of topography, vegetation type, climate, and soil characteristics. The purpose of this project is to develop a set of spatially-explicit data layers for use in process-based models such as WEPP, and to make these data layers freely available. The resulting interactive online modeling database (http://geodjango.mtri.org/geowepp/) is now operational and publically available for 17 western states in the USA. After a fire, users only need to upload a soil burn severity map, and this is combined with the pre-existing data layers to generate the model inputs needed for spatially explicit models such as GeoWEPP (Renschler, 2003). The development of this online database has allowed us to predict post-fire erosion and various remediation scenarios in just 1-7 days for six fires ranging in size from 4-540 km2. These initial successes have stimulated efforts to further improve the spatial extent and amount of data, and add functionality to support the USGS debris flow model, batch processing for Disturbed WEPP (Elliot et al., 2004) and ERMiT (Robichaud et al., 2007), and to support erosion modeling for other land uses, such as agriculture or mining. The design and techniques used to create the database and the modeling interface are readily repeatable for any area or country that has the necessary topography

  6. An improved non-contact thermometer and hygrometer with rapid response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, R.; Gardiner, T.; Finlayson, A.; Bell, S.; de Podesta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Previously (Underwood et al 2015 Meteorol. Appl. 22 830) we reported first tests of a device capable of simultaneous, non-contact, temperature and humidity (NCTAH) measurements in air. The device used an acoustic thermometer and a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS), a combination which should be capable of an extremely rapid response to changes in humidity as it does not require moisture in a solid-state matrix to equilibrate with the surrounding air. In this paper we report recent developments of the instrument focussed on reducing its response time so that it can be used as a reference instrument for assessing the response time of conventional humidity sensors. In addition, the interdependence of the temperature and humidity estimates is now accounted for in real-time using an iterative procedure, which eliminates the need for data post-processing. The TDLAS measures water molecule number density based on the transmission of an infrared beam (approximate wavelength 1360 nm) through a 0.6 m path length. The acoustic thermometer is based around a fixed-path acoustic interferometer. The improved NCTAH device now produces estimates of the water molecule number density every 20 ms and the temperature output displays an RC filter-like response, with a time constant of approximately 30 ms. The instrument has been tested in a climatic chamber through a temperature range of  ‑40 °C to  +40 °C and a dew point range of  ‑43 °C to  +38 °C, at atmospheric pressure, comparing the instrument readings with those from a calibrated hygrometer and four platinum resistance thermometers. In steady-state conditions, the instrument readings are in good agreement with the conventional sensors, with temperature differences less than 1 °C (repeatability 0.1 °C), and humidity differences mostly within 5% of mixing ratio. Under transient conditions, we demonstrate how the instrument can be used to evaluate the response times of conventional

  7. A volcano-seismic event spotting system for the use in rapid response systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The classification of seismic signals of volcanic origin is an important task in monitoring active volcanoes. The number and size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis and can be used to quantify the volcanic activity. Due to the advantage of providing consistent, objective and time-invariant results automatic classification systems are preferred. Most automatic classification systems are trained in a supervised fashion from a sufficiently large pre-classified data set. The setup of an automatic classification system thus requires the pre-existence of these training data. For a rapid volcano-response team, however, the situation is often different. In the worst case, no prior observations exist (e.g. re-awakening of a dormant volcano). More frequently, archive data exist for a particular observatory network, but no record of seismicity for a high volcanic activity level exists and new seismicity patterns occur. Usually, the networks are additionally sparse and new equipment will be installed for better surveillance during the actual crisis. For the new recording sites again no prior example data is available. Finally, due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For all these reasons a classification system which allows a "learning-while-recording" approach would be very advantageous for use in rapid response systems. Within this study, we show a novel seismic event spotting approach in order to reduce the dependency on the existence of previously acquired data bases and classification schemes. One main goal is therefore to provide the observatory staff with a robust event classification system based on a minimum number of reference waveforms and thus allowing for a fast build-up of a volcanic signal classification scheme as early as interesting events have been identified. For implementation issues we make use of the Hidden Markov

  8. Ionic and Polyampholyte N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Hydrogels Prepared in the Presence of Imprinting Ligands: Stimuli-Responsiveness and Adsorption/Release Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lago, Miguel A.; Grinberg, Valerij Ya.; Burova, Tatiana V.; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The conformation of the imprinted pockets in stimulus-responsive networks can be notably altered when the stimulus causes a volume phase transition. Such a tunable affinity for the template molecule finds interesting applications in the biomedical and drug delivery fields. Nevertheless, the effect that the binding of the template causes on the stimuli-responsiveness of the network has barely been evaluated. In this work, the effect of two ionic drugs used as templates, namely propranolol hydrochloride and ibuprofen sodium, on the responsiveness of N-isopropylacrylamide-based hydrogels copolymerized with acrylic acid (AAc) and N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide (APMA) and on their ability to rebind and to control the release of the template was evaluated. The degree of swelling and, in some cases, energetics (HS-DSC) of the transitions were monitored as a function of temperature, pH, and concentration of drug. Marked decrease in the transition temperature of the hydrogels, accompanied by notable changes in the transition width, was observed in physiological NaCl solutions and after the binding of the drug molecules, which reveals relevant changes in the domain structure of the hydrogels as the charged groups are shielded. The ability of the hydrogels to rebind propranolol or ibuprofen was quantified at both 4 and 37 °C and at two different drug concentrations, in the range of those that cause major changes in the network structure. Noticeable differences between hydrogels bearing AAc or APMA and between imprinted and non-imprinted networks were also observed during the release tests in NaCl solutions of various concentrations. Overall, the results obtained evidence the remarkable effect of the template molecules on the responsiveness of intelligent imprinted hydrogels. PMID:24956450

  9. Interactive terrain visualization enables virtual field work during rapid scientific response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowgill, Eric; Bernardin, Tony S.; Oskin, Michael E.; Bowles, Christopher; Yikilmaz, M. Burak; Kreylos, Oliver; Elliott, Austin J.; Bishop, Scott; Gold, Ryan D.; Morelan, Alexander; Bawden, Gerald W.; Hamann, Bernd; Kellogg, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake is the first major earthquake for which a large-footprint LiDAR (light detection and ranging) survey was acquired within several weeks of the event. Here, we describe the use of virtual reality data visualization to analyze massive amounts (67 GB on disk) of multiresolution terrain data during the rapid scientific response to a major natural disaster. In particular, we describe a method for conducting virtual field work using both desktop computers and a 4-sided, 22 m3 CAVE immersive virtual reality environment, along with KeckCAVES (Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences) software tools LiDAR Viewer, to analyze LiDAR point-cloud data, and Crusta, for 2.5 dimensional surficial geologic mapping on a bare-earth digital elevation model. This system enabled virtual field work that yielded remote observations of the topographic expression of active faulting within an ∼75-km-long section of the eastern Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault spanning the 2010 epicenter. Virtual field observations indicated that the geomorphic evidence of active faulting and ancient surface rupture varies along strike. Landform offsets of 6–50 m along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault east of the 2010 epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes there. In the west, the fault trace is well defined by displaced landforms, but it is not as clear as in the east. The 2010 epicenter is within a transition zone between these sections that extends from Grand Goâve in the west to Fayette in the east. Within this transition, between L'Acul (lat 72°40′W) and the Rouillone River (lat 72°35′W), the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault is undefined along an embayed low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. Based on the geometry of the eastern and western faults that show evidence of recent surface rupture, we propose that the 2010

  10. Rapid hydrological response to central Andean Plateau uplift, NW-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, Alexander; Sachse, Dirk; Strecker, Manfred R.; Mulch, Andreas; Pingel, Heiko; Alonso, Ricardo N.

    2015-04-01

    The response of the regional and global hydrological cycle, vegetation and erosion to tectonic surface uplift and topographic growth of the world's largest orogenic plateaus and their flanking ranges is subject to ongoing debate. During the last decade reconstructions of paleo-environmental conditions and the topographic evolution of mountain belts have increasingly relied on stable isotope proxies retaining the oxygen (δ18O) or hydrogen (δD) isotopic composition of ancient meteoric waters or carbon (δ13C) of vegetation. Intermontane basin sediments along the Puna of NW Argentina, the southern extension of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau and the world's second largest plateau, record the eastward-directed lateral growth of the central Andes and the spatiotemporal impact of tectonism on hydrologic, sedimentary, and ecological changes through time. Here we reconstructed paleo-hydrological changes during a phase of major Andean uplift and orographic barrier formation (10-2 Ma) along the eastern flank of the Puna Plateau from a sedimentary sequence within the intermontane Angastaco basin of NW Argentina (25°45 S, 66 W). We use a unique array of stable water-isotope proxies in leafwaxes, pedogenic carbonates and hydrated volcanic glass. In addition we use vegetation-cover proxies based on stable C isotopes obtained from leaf-waxes and pedogenic carbonates. Lipid biomarker leafwax δD values range between -95 and -160 ‰ (VSMOW), and δ13C values from -23 to -36 ‰ (PDB). Pedogenic carbonate δ18O values range from 18 to 31 ‰ (VSMOW) and δ13C values vary between -4 to -17 ‰ (PDB), whereas volcanic glass δD values range from -71 to -95 ‰ (VSMOW). In combination, these proxies provide a precipitation - evapotranspiration record, which reveals the onset of the South American Low Level-Jet in NW Argentina at ~ 9 Ma and the presence of seasonally humid foreland conditions until 7 Ma, followed by orographic barrier formation upwind of the basin and rapid creation of

  11. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  12. Rapid response of soil fungal communities to low and high intensity fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jane E.; Cowan, Ariel D.; Reazin, Chris; Jumpponen, Ari

    2016-04-01

    burned soils within one growing season. Community results from both burn treatments suggest an increase in patchy spatial distribution of EMF. The importance of incorporating mixed fire effects in fuel management practices will help to provide EMF refugia for dry forest regeneration. Our studies highlight the strong and rapid fungal community responses to fires and differences among fires of different severities. We theorize that quick initiation of EMF recolonization is possible depending on the size of high burn patches, proximity of low and unburned soil, and survival of nearby hosts.

  13. Rapid-behaviour responses as a reliable indicator of estrogenic chemical toxicity in zebrafish juveniles.

    PubMed

    Sárria, M P; Soares, J; Vieira, M N; Castro, L Filipe C; Santos, M M; Monteiro, N M

    2011-11-01

    Whereas biochemical and molecular parameters have been well recognised as important "signposts" of individual disturbance to endocrine disrupting chemical's (EDCs) exposure, behavioural endpoints are yet greatly overlooked as a routine tool in environmental risk assessment of EDCs. However, life histories are intimately associated with numerous inter- and intra-specific interactions, which invariably depend on the performance of effective behaviours. Within fish species, one of the most important factors influencing energy turnover earlier in the development is locomotor activity. This essential trait reflects the organism's ability to generate and coordinate the metabolic energy required for both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviours. Inappropriate movement responses due to toxic effects of contaminants may ultimately impact important ecological variables. Therefore, in the present study, the swimming bursts of zebrafish juveniles exposed for 40 d to the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE(2)), tested at environmentally relevant concentrations (nominal concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 2 ng L(-1)), were investigated in order to address the potential of rapid-behaviour patterns as an effective response indicator of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical's exposure. This synthetic estrogen was selected due to its high prevalence in aquatic ecosystems, ability to mimic natural estrogens and proven record of causing negative effects in fish reproduction. The behavioural responses were compared with established endpoints used in the screening of EE(2) effects at adulthood. Results indicate that zebrafish juveniles' swimming activity was significantly decreased upon EE(2) exposure. Since reduced locomotion of zebrafish may impact foraging, predator avoidance, drift and transport, and even interfere with social and reproductive behaviours, a fitness decline of wild fish populations can ultimately be hypothesized. Furthermore, behavioural endpoints were found to

  14. Rapid Responsiveness to Practice Predicts Longer-Term Retention of Upper Extremity Motor Skill in Non-Demented Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Duff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Skill acquisition is a form of motor learning that may provide key insights into the aging brain. Although previous work suggests that older adults learn novel motor tasks slower and to a lesser extent than younger adults, we have recently demonstrated no significant effect of chronological age on the rates and amounts of skill acquisition, nor on its long-term retention, in adults over the age of 65. To better understand predictors of skill acquisition in non-demented older adults, we now explore the relationship between early improvements in motor performance due to practice (i.e., rapid responsiveness) and longer-term retention of an upper extremity motor skill, and whether the extent of rapid responsiveness was associated with global cognitive status. Results showed significant improvements in motor performance within the first five (of 150) trials, and that this “rapid responsiveness” was predictive of skill retention 1 month later. Notably, the extent of rapid responsiveness was not dependent on global cognitive status, as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Thus, rapid responsiveness appears to be an important variable in longer-term neurorehabilitative efforts with older adults, regardless of their cognitive status. PMID:26635601

  15. Improving Pediatric Rapid Response Team Performance Through Crew Resource Management Training of Team Leaders.

    PubMed

    Siems, Ashley; Cartron, Alexander; Watson, Anne; McCarter, Robert; Levin, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) improve the detection of and response to deteriorating patients. Professional hierarchies and the multidisciplinary nature of RRTs hinder team performance. This study assessed whether an intervention involving crew resource management training of team leaders could improve team performance. In situ observations of RRT activations were performed pre- and post-training intervention. Team performance and dynamics were measured by observed adherence to an ideal task list and by the Team Emergency Assessment Measure tool, respectively. Multiple quartile (median) and logistic regression models were developed to evaluate change in performance scores or completion of specific tasks. Team leader and team introductions (40% to 90%, P = .004; 7% to 45%, P = .03), floor team presentations in Situation Background Assessment Recommendation format (20% to 65%, P = .01), and confirmation of the plan (7% to 70%, P = .002) improved after training in patients transferred to the ICU (n = 35). The Team Emergency Assessment Measure metric was improved in all 4 categories: leadership (2.5 to 3.5, P < .001), teamwork (2.7 to 3.7, P < .001), task management (2.9 to 3.8, P < .001), and global scores (6.0 to 9.0, P < .001) for teams caring for patients who required transfer to the ICU. Targeted crew resource management training of the team leader resulted in improved team performance and dynamics for patients requiring transfer to the ICU. The intervention demonstrated that training the team leader improved behavior in RRT members who were not trained. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Abscisic acid deficiency leads to rapid activation of tomato defence responses upon infection with Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    PubMed

    Asselbergh, Bob; Achuo, Andrew Enow; Höfte, Monica; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the important role of abscisic acid (ABA) in abiotic stress signalling, basal and high ABA levels appear to have a negative effect on disease resistance. Using the ABA-deficient sitiens tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant and different application methods of exogenous ABA, we demonstrated the influence of this plant hormone on disease progression of Erwinia chrysanthemi. This necrotrophic plant pathogenic bacterium is responsible for soft rot disease on many plant species, causing maceration symptoms mainly due to the production and secretion of pectinolytic enzymes. On wild-type (WT) tomato cv. Moneymaker E. chrysanthemi leaf inoculation resulted in maceration both within and beyond the infiltrated zone of the leaf, but sitiens showed a very low occurrence of tissue maceration, which never extended the infiltrated zone. A single ABA treatment prior to infection eliminated the effect of pathogen restriction in sitiens, while repeated ABA spraying during plant development rendered both WT and sitiens very susceptible. Quantification of E. chrysanthemi populations inside the leaf did not reveal differences in bacterial growth between sitiens and WT. Sitiens was not more resistant to pectinolytic cell-wall degradation, but upon infection it showed a faster and stronger activation of defence responses than WT, such as hydrogen peroxide accumulation, peroxidase activation and cell-wall fortifications. Moreover, the rapid activation of sitiens peroxidases was also observed after application of bacteria-free culture filtrate containing E. chrysanthemi cell-wall-degrading enzymes and was absent during infection with an out E. chrysanthemi mutant impaired in secretion of these extracellular enzymes.

  17. Rapid Shoreline Response to the Removal of the Aldwell Dam on the Elwha River, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, I. M.; Warrick, J. A.; Stevens, A. W.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Ritchie, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Profiles and grain-size measurements from the intertidal beach of the Elwha River delta suggest a rapid shoreline response to the removal of the Aldwell Dam. Deconstruction of the 99-year old Aldwell Dam, a large dam at river kilometer 7.9 on the Elwha River, started in September of 2011 and the reservoir behind the dam was completely drained by the last week of March 2012. The Aldwell Dam impounded at least 3.0 x 106 m3 of sediment and has been implicated as a contributing cause of chronic erosion of the shoreline adjacent to the river mouth. Measurements were collected at four cross-shore transects along the shoreline, one to the west of the river mouth and three to the east, from 2008 to 2012. Accretions of sand on the lower - and previously cobble - part of the beach profile (near or below Mean Lower Low Water) were first observed in April 2012 on the east of the river mouth, and areas of sand grew in volume and extent over subsequent months. Profile accretion and a reduction in the mean grain size of the beach immediately to the east of the river mouth suggests that, by July 2012, sediment associated with the dam removal was recruiting to the foreshore and nourishing what has been a coarse eroding beach. Despite evidence of sand nourishment, however, erosion at the site is on-going. At the sites further to the east of the river, only minor changes in grain size have been observed on the lower profile. No significant changes in profile shape, profile stability or grain size have been observed at the measurement site to the west of the river mouth. These preliminary observations suggest mechanisms by which changes in sediment delivery to the coastal zone from the previously dammed Elwha River may help to slow or reverse chronic erosion, but continued measurements are planned to determine the long term response of the shoreline.

  18. Asymmetric response properties of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptive fibers in the rat glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Devecıoğlu, Ismaıl; Güçlü, Burak

    2013-01-01

    Previous histological and neurophysiological studies have shown that the innervation density of rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptive fibers increases towards the fingertip. Since the psychophysical detection threshold depends on the contribution of several RA fibers, a high innervation density would imply lower thresholds. However, our previous human study showed that psychophysical detection thresholds for the Non-Pacinian I channel mediated by RA fibers do not improve towards the fingertip. By recording single-unit spike activity from rat RA fibers, here we tested the hypothesis that the responsiveness of RA fibers is asymmetric in the proximo-distal axis which may counterbalance the effects of innervation density. RA fibers (n = 32) innervating the digital glabrous skin of rat hind paw were stimulated with 40-Hz sinusoidal mechanical bursts at five different stimulus locations relative to the receptive field (RF) center (two distal, one RF center, two proximal). Different contactor sizes (area: 0.39, 1.63, 2.96 mm²) were used. Rate-intensity functions were constructed based on average firing rates, and the absolute spike threshold and the entrainment threshold were obtained for each RA fiber. Thresholds for proximal stimulus locations were found to be significantly higher than those for distal stimulus locations, which suggests that the mechanical stimulus is transmitted better towards the proximal direction. The effect of contactor size was not significant. Mechanical impedance of the rat digital glabrous skin was further measured and a lumped-parameter model was proposed to interpret the relationship between the asymmetric response properties of RA fibers and the mechanical properties of the skin.

  19. Rapid, Dynamic Activation of Müller Glial Stem Cell Responses in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sifuentes, Christopher J.; Kim, Jung-Woong; Swaroop, Anand; Raymond, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Zebrafish neurons regenerate from Müller glia following retinal lesions. Genes and signaling pathways important for retinal regeneration in zebrafish have been described, but our understanding of how Müller glial stem cell properties are regulated is incomplete. Mammalian Müller glia possess a latent neurogenic capacity that might be enhanced in regenerative therapies to treat degenerative retinal diseases. Methods To identify transcriptional changes associated with stem cell properties in zebrafish Müller glia, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis from isolated cells at 8 and 16 hours following an acute photic lesion, prior to the asymmetric division that produces retinal progenitors. Results We report a rapid, dynamic response of zebrafish Müller glia, characterized by activation of pathways related to stress, nuclear factor–κB (NF-κB) signaling, cytokine signaling, immunity, prostaglandin metabolism, circadian rhythm, and pluripotency, and an initial repression of Wnt signaling. When we compared publicly available transcriptomes of isolated mouse Müller glia from two retinal degeneration models, we found that mouse Müller glia showed evidence of oxidative stress, variable responses associated with immune regulation, and repression of pathways associated with pluripotency, development, and proliferation. Conclusions Categories of biological processes/pathways activated following photoreceptor loss in regeneration-competent zebrafish Müller glia, which distinguished them from mouse Müller glia in retinal degeneration models, included cytokine signaling (notably NF-κB), prostaglandin E2 synthesis, expression of core clock genes, and pathways/metabolic states associated with pluripotency. These regulatory mechanisms are relatively unexplored as potential mediators of stem cell properties likely to be important in Müller glial cells for successful retinal regeneration. PMID:27699411

  20. Rapid-Response or Repeat-Mode Topography from Aerial Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, E.; Johnson, K. L.; Fitzgerald, F. S.; Morgan, M.; White, J.

    2014-12-01

    This decade has seen a surge of interest in Structure-from-Motion (SfM) as a means of generating high-resolution topography and coregistered texture maps from stereo digital photographs. Using an unstructured set of overlapping photographs captured from multiple viewpoints and minimal GPS ground control, SfM solves simultaneously for scene topography and camera positions, orientations and lens parameters. The use of cheap unmanned aerial vehicles or tethered helium balloons as camera platforms expedites data collection and overcomes many of the cost, time and logistical limitations of LiDAR surveying, making it a potentially valuable tool for rapid response mapping and repeat monitoring applications. We begin this presentation by assessing what data resolutions and precisions are achievable using a simple aerial camera platform and commercial SfM software (we use the popular Agisoft Photoscan package). SfM point clouds generated at two small (~0.1 km2), sparsely-vegetated field sites in California compare favorably with overlapping airborne and terrestrial LiDAR surveys, with closest point distances of a few centimeters between the independent datasets. Next, we go on to explore the method in more challenging conditions, in response to a major landslide in Mesa County, Colorado, on 25th May 2014. Photographs collected from a small UAV were used to generate a high-resolution model of the 4.5 x 1 km landslide several days before an airborne LiDAR survey could be organized and flown. An initial estimate of the mass balance of the landslide could quickly be made by differencing this model against pre-event topography generated using stereo photographs collected in 2009 as part of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). This case study therefore demonstrates the rich potential offered by this technique, as well as some of the challenges, particularly with respect to the treatment of vegetation.

  1. Vapor containment tests of the rapid response system glovebox. Final report, December 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Arca, V.J.; Blewett, W.K.; Kinne, W.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rapid Response System (RRS) is a trailer-mounted facility for demilitarizing Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS), obsolete training kits containing ampules and/or bottles of chemical warfare agents (mustard and lewisite), or other industrial chemical compounds. The main component of the RRS is a glovebox divided into three areas - an airlock station, unpack station, and neutralization station, and the CAIS items are processed through each station by use of 11 glove ports. The glovebox is maintained at negative pressure differential by a gas-particulate filter-blower unit. To measure the performance of the glovebox in containing chemical vapors/gases, a series of tests was conducted on 811 April 1996 at Tooele Army Depot, UT, with methyl salicylate, a simulant for mustard. This testing addressed performance in steady state operation, airlock cycling, waste barrel changeout, and glove changeout. Two trials were also conducted in a simulated power-failure condition to determine the rate of leakage if system airflow is interrupted. The glovebox and its engineering controls provided a very high level of protection. Some procedural changes were recommended to increase the protection factor in glove and barrel changeout operations.

  2. Wing Leading Edge RCC Rapid Response Damage Prediction Tool (IMPACT2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Robert; Cottter, Paul; Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This rapid response computer program predicts Orbiter Wing Leading Edge (WLE) damage caused by ice or foam impact during a Space Shuttle launch (Program "IMPACT2"). The program was developed after the Columbia accident in order to assess quickly WLE damage due to ice, foam, or metal impact (if any) during a Shuttle launch. IMPACT2 simulates an impact event in a few minutes for foam impactors, and in seconds for ice and metal impactors. The damage criterion is derived from results obtained from one sophisticated commercial program, which requires hours to carry out simulations of the same impact events. The program was designed to run much faster than the commercial program with prediction of projectile threshold velocities within 10 to 15% of commercial-program values. The mathematical model involves coupling of Orbiter wing normal modes of vibration to nonlinear or linear springmass models. IMPACT2 solves nonlinear or linear impact problems using classical normal modes of vibration of a target, and nonlinear/ linear time-domain equations for the projectile. Impact loads and stresses developed in the target are computed as functions of time. This model is novel because of its speed of execution. A typical model of foam, or other projectile characterized by material nonlinearities, impacting an RCC panel is executed in minutes instead of hours needed by the commercial programs. Target damage due to impact can be assessed quickly, provided that target vibration modes and allowable stress are known.

  3. Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with wide range and rapid response

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Masahiro; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Kotera, Ippei; Okabe, Kohki; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Takeharu

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter that plays an important role in biological reactions and events. Although thermometers developed previously have been used to investigate several important phenomena, such as heterogeneous temperature distribution in a single living cell and heat generation in mitochondria, the development of a thermometer with a sensitivity over a wide temperature range and rapid response is still desired to quantify temperature change in not only homeotherms but also poikilotherms from the cellular level to in vivo. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional thermometers, such as a limitation of applicable species and a low temporal resolution, owing to the narrow temperature range of sensitivity and the thermometry method, respectively, we developed a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent temperature indicator, gTEMP, by using two fluorescent proteins with different temperature sensitivities. Our thermometric method enabled a fast tracking of the temperature change with a time resolution of 50 ms. We used this method to observe the spatiotemporal temperature change between the cytoplasm and nucleus in cells, and quantified thermogenesis from the mitochondria matrix in a single living cell after stimulation with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, which was an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, exploiting the wide temperature range of sensitivity from 5°C to 50°C of gTEMP, we monitored the temperature in a living medaka embryo for 15 hours and showed the feasibility of in vivo thermometry in various living species. PMID:28212432

  4. NOAA Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Using UASs (including Rapid Response)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. J.; Jacobs, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned systems have the potential to efficiently, effectively, economically, and safely bridge critical observation requirements in an environmentally friendly manner. As the United States' Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic areas of interest expand and include hard-to-reach regions of the Earth (such as the Arctic and remote oceanic areas) optimizing unmanned capabilities will be needed to advance the United States' science, technology and security efforts. Through increased multi-mission and multi-agency operations using improved inter-operable and autonomous unmanned systems, the research and operations communities will better collect environmental intelligence and better protect our Country against hazardous weather, environmental, marine and polar hazards. This presentation will examine NOAA's Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) strategies which includes developing a coordinated effort to maximize the efficiency and capabilities of unmanned systems across the federal government and research partners. Numerous intra- and inter-agency operational demonstrations and assessments have been made to verify and validated these strategies. This includes the introduction of the Targeted Autonomous Insitu Sensing and Rapid Response (TAISRR) with UAS concept of operations. The presentation will also discuss the requisite UAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  5. Effective and rapid technique for temporal response modeling of surface acoustic wave interdigital transducers.

    PubMed

    Fall, Dame; Duquennoy, Marc; Ouaftouh, Mohammadi; Piwakowski, Bogdan; Jenot, Frederic

    2017-09-27

    Surface Acoustic Wave Interdigital Transducers (SAW-IDT) has a considerable application potential for characterization of properties of thin layers, coatings and functional surfaces. For optimization of these SAW-IDTs, it is necessary to study various SAW-IDT configurations by varying the number of electrodes, dimensions of the electrodes, their shapes and spacings. The finite element method (FEM) is generally used to model such transducers but results are obtained in several hours (or days). Thus it is necessary to implement effective and rapid technique for SAW-IDT modeling. In this study, we develop simulation tool based on Spatial Impulse Response model. Therefore, we reduce considerably computing time and results are obtained in a few seconds. In order to validate this method, theoretical and experimental results are compared with finite element method. The results obtained show a good concordance and confirm effectiveness of suggested method. In additional, this method requires less computer memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Axelrod, Tim; Butler, Nat; Jedicke, Robert; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks later. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs. We will present results from our recently initiated program of rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. This technique is powerful and fast. We have written automated software that allows us to observe NEOs very soon after discovery. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques. We are on pace to characterize hundreds of NEOs per year.

  7. A High-performance Service-Oriented Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Disaster Response and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High population growth, urbanization and global climate change have resulted in more frequent occurrences of disasters, affecting people's life and property safety all over the world. Worse than the disaster it is the vulnerability of existing disaster management systems that are failed to realize timely collection of disaster-related data, estimation of damage, evacuation planning, resource scheduling and to make other decisions in the disastrous situation. The emerging geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) provides a promising solution to address these issues. This paper reports our efforts in establishing a high-performance cyberinfrastructure for rapid disaster response and decision-making. This GCI is built upon a service-oriented architecture, with improved performance supported by a distributed computing cluster for efficient data transmission and rendering. Different from most works in literature in improving the client-side performance of geospatial web services, this cluster solves the fundamental performance issue on the server side. A web portal is also developed to integrate the real-time geospatial web services reporting disaster related information for integral analysis and collaborative decision-making. We expect this work to contribute to effective disaster management and geospatial interoperability.