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Sample records for ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

  1. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of ammonium cationized polyethers.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers.

  2. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Ammonium Cationized Polyethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M. A.; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F.

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers.

  3. Analysis of phytochelatin-cadmium complexes from plant tissue culture using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and capillary liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yen, T Y; Villa, J A; DeWitt, J G

    1999-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs, also known as class III metallothioneins), a family of sulfhydryl-rich peptides with the formula (gamma-GluCys)(n)Gly(Pc(n), n = 2-11), are induced in plants, yeast and fungi exposed to heavy metals, and are thought to detoxify metals by forming PC- metal complexes. Although PCs have been detected, PC- metal complexes have not been well characterized. In this work, nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS/MS) and capillary liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS) methods were used to analyze PC - Cd complexes isolated from Datura innoxia, also known as Jimsonweed, cell culture exposed to Cd. With nano-ESI-MS/MS and capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS we could simultaneously detect the presence of PCs and PC - Cd complexes from plant cell extracts, unambiguously identify these species and elucidate the nature of individual PC - Cd complexes. Phytochelatins with n = 3-6 were detected, as were PC - Cd complexes with PC(3), PC(4) and PC(5). This is the first study to report the size and nature of native PC - Cd complexes from plant tissue samples. These results demonstrate that the direct analysis of plant extracts using nano-ESI-MS/MS and capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS methods is simple and sensitive to the range of PCs and PC - Cd complexes in plants. Hence these methods open up new opportunities for further quantitative analysis of PCs and PC - metal complexes in cell culture and plant systems to understand the relationship between the biosynthesis of these compounds and metal tolerance.

  4. Derivatization reagents in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santa, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) is one of the most prominent analytical techniques owing to its inherent selectivity and sensitivity. In LC/ESI-MS/MS, chemical derivatization is often used to enhance the detection sensitivity. Derivatization improves the chromatographic separation, and enhances the mass spectrometric ionization efficiency and MS/MS detectability. In this review, an overview of the derivatization reagents which have been applied to LC/ESI-MS/MS is presented, focusing on the applications to low molecular weight compounds.

  5. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS)-Based Shotgun Lipidomics

    SciTech Connect

    Mezengie, Giorgis I.

    2011-01-11

    In the past decade, many new strategies for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analyses of lipids have been developed. Lipidomics is one of the most promising research fields to emerge as a result of these advances in MS. Currently, mass spectrometric analysis of lipids involves two complementary approaches: direct infusion (shotgun lipidomics) and liquid chromatography coupled to MS. In this chapter, I will demonstrate the approach of shotgun lipidomics using electrospray ionization tandem MS for the analysis of lipid molecular species directly from crude biological extracts of tissue or fluids.

  6. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Fingerprinting the Macondo Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Maksimova, Ekaterina V; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2016-07-05

    We report the first application of a new mass spectrometry technique (gas chromatography combined to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry, GC/APCI-MS/MS) for fingerprinting a crude oil and environmental samples from the largest accidental marine oil spill in history (the Macondo oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico, 2010). The fingerprinting of the oil spill is based on a trace analysis of petroleum biomarkers (steranes, diasteranes, and pentacyclic triterpanes) naturally occurring in crude oil. GC/APCI enables soft ionization of petroleum compounds that form abundant molecular ions without (or little) fragmentation. The ability to operate the instrument simultaneously in several tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) modes (e.g., full scan, product ion scan, reaction monitoring) significantly improves structural information content and sensitivity of analysis. For fingerprinting the oil spill, we constructed diagrams and conducted correlation studies that measure the similarity between environmental samples and enable us to differentiate the Macondo oil spill from other sources.

  7. Fast quantitative detection of cocaine in beverages using nanoextractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Peng, Xuejiao; Yang, Shuiping; Gu, Haiwei; Chen, Huanwen; Huan, Yanfu; Zhang, Tingting; Qiao, Xiaolin

    2010-02-01

    Without any sample pretreatment, effervescent beverage fluids were manually sprayed into the primary ion plume created by using a nanoelectrospray ionization source for direct ionization, and the analyte ions of interest were guided into an ion trap mass spectrometer for tandem mass analysis. Functional ingredients (e.g., vitamins, taurine, and caffeine, etc.) and spiked impurity (e.g., cocaine) in various beverages, such as Red Bull energy drink, Coco-cola, and Pepsi samples were rapidly identified within 1.5 s. The limit of detection was found to be 7-15 fg (S/N = 3) for cocaine in different samples using the characteristic fragment (m/z 150) observed in the MS(3) experiments. Typical relative standard deviation and recovery of this method were 6.9%-8.6% and 104%-108% for direct analysis of three actual samples, showing that nanoextractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry is a useful technique for fast screening cocaine presence in beverages.

  8. Screening of dimethoate in food by isotope dilution and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Fabio; Di Donna, Leonardo; Macchione, Barbara; Maiuolo, Loredana; Perri, Enzo; Sindona, Giovanni

    2009-05-01

    Crop control is an important issue in both developed and developing countries. An environmentally friendly approach is represented by the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM), whereby synthetic pesticides are only applied as a last resort, under the strict control of suitable experts. European and US regulatory authorities, such as the US EPA, are constantly assessing the risks of exposure to the organophosphate (OP) class of pesticides and, among these, specifically dimethoate. The use of dimethoate is still allowed in many crops, including olives, which once was based in the Mediterranean area but now is expanding rapidly throughout the world. An important aspect of IPM protocols is represented by the availability of reliable and sensitive methods to detect pesticides residues. This paper describes an isotope dilution dimethoate assay based on the application of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) by means of a deuterium-labeled internal standard.

  9. Isothiocyanates as derivatization reagents for amines in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santa, Tomofumi

    2010-09-01

    The applicability of 3-pyridyl isothiocyanate, p-(dimethylamino)phenyl isothiocyanate and m-nitrophenyl isothiocyanate as the derivatization reagents for amines in high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) was examined. The generated derivatives of amines with these reagents were favorably separated on the reversed-phase column and detected by ESI-MS/MS. The C-N bond of the generated thiourea structure was efficiently cleaved by collision-induced dissociation and gave the single and intense product ion. Among the three reagents, 3-pyridyl isothiocyanate was the most suitable as the derivatization reagent with regard to the reactivity to amines and the detection sensitivity.

  10. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for differentiating chlorine substitution in disinfection byproduct formation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhuo; Yang, Xin; Shang, Chii; Zhang, Xiangru

    2014-05-06

    An electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-tqMS) method was developed to identify the location of chlorine substitution during the chlorination of model organic compounds. The chlorine substitution in the aliphatic part and that in the benzene ring of an organic molecule can be differentiated by their corresponding ranges of optimum collision energies, 5-7 eV and over 15 eV, respectively, in the precursor ion scan of m/z 35. The method was applied to predict the structures of intermediates and reveal the transformation pathways during the chlorination of 4-amino-2-chlorobenzoic acid and phenylalanine as a function of reaction time and the chlorine-to-precursor ratio. In the case of phenylalanine, chlorine was found to replace one hydrogen atom attached to the aliphatic nitrogen; in the case of 4-amino-2-chlorobenzoic acid, chlorine was found to replace the hydrogen atoms attached to the aromatic rings.

  11. Plasma lipid analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Kudoh, Shinobu; Sato, Taka-Aki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-06-01

    A novel method for the analysis of endogenous lipids and related compounds was developed employing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with carbamoyl stationary phase achieved clear separation of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and mono-hexsosyl ceramide groups with good peak area repeatability (RSD% < 10) and linearity (R(2) > 0.99). The established method was applied to human plasma assays and a total of 117 endogenous lipids were successfully detected and reproducibly identified. In addition, we investigated the simultaneous detection of small polar metabolites such as amino and organic acids co-existing in the same biological samples processed in a single analytical run with lipids. Our results show that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is a useful tool for human plasma lipidome analysis and offers more comprehensive metabolome coverage.

  12. Characterization of N,N-dimethyl amino acids by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naresh Chary, V; Sudarshana Reddy, B; Kumar, Ch Dinesh; Srinivas, R; Prabhakar, S

    2015-05-01

    Methylation is an essential metabolic process for a number of critical reactions in the body. Methyl groups are involved in the healthy function of the body life processes, by conducting methylation process involving specific enzymes. In these processes, various amino acids are methylated, and the occurrence of methylated amino acids in nature is diverse. Nowadays, mass-spectrometric-based identification of small molecules as biomarkers for diseases is a growing research. Although all dimethyl amino acids are metabolically important molecules, mass spectral data are available only for a few of them in the literature. In this study, we report synthesis and characterization of all dimethyl amino acids, by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments on protonated molecules. The MS/MS spectra of all the studied dimethyl amino acids showed preliminary loss of H2O + CO to form corresponding immonium ions. The other product ions in the spectra are highly characteristic of the methyl groups on the nitrogen and side chain of the amino acids. The amino acids, which are isomeric and isobaric with the studied dimethyl amino acids, gave distinctive MS/MS spectra. The study also included MS/MS analysis of immonium ions of dimethyl amino acids that provide information on side chain structure, and it is further tested to determine the N-terminal amino acid of the peptides.

  13. Determination of the active metabolite of sibutramine by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2003-03-05

    A sensitive and specific method for the determination of the active primary amine metabolite of sibutramine, N-di-desmethylsibutramine (BTS 54,505), in human plasma was developed, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). The samples were extracted from plasma with methyl tert.-butyl ether, followed by separation and evaporation after addition of the internal standard, propranolol, and basification with sodium hydroxide. The residue was reconstituted in mobile phase and injected into the HPLC-MS-MS system. Chromatography was performed on an ODS MS column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, v/v)-0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (55:45, v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.3 ml/min. Multiple reaction monitoring using precursor-->product ion combinations at m/z 252.00-->125.00 and 260.00-->115.70 was applied to determine BTS 54,505 and propranolol, respectively. Linearity was confirmed in the concentration range 0.328-32.8 ng/ml in human plasma and the imprecision of this assay was less than 19.90% over the entire concentration range. The method is sufficiently sensitive and repeatable to be used in pharmacokinetic studies.

  14. Fragmentation of 2-aroylbenzofuran derivatives by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dias, Herbert J; Vieira, Tatiana M; Crevelin, Eduardo J; Donate, Paulo M; Vessecchi, Ricardo; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the gas-phase fragmentation reactions of a series of 2-aroylbenzofuran derivatives by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The most intense fragment ions were the acylium ions m/z 105 and M+H-C6 H6 ](+) , which originated directly from the precursor ion as a result of two competitive hydrogen rearrangements. Eliminations of CO and CO2 from [M+H-C6 H6 ](+) were also common fragmentation processes to all the analyzed compounds. In addition, eliminations of the radicals •Br and •Cl were diagnostic for halogen atoms at aromatic ring A, whereas eliminations of •CH3 and CH2 O were useful to identify the methoxyl group attached to this same ring. We used thermochemical data, obtained at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory, to rationalize the fragmentation pathways and to elucidate the formation of E, which involved simultaneous elimination of two CO molecules from B. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycerophospholipid analysis of Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) hair by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-03-01

    Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is composed largely of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. Glycerophospholipid proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats.

  16. Rapid differentiation of nucleotide phosphoramidate diastereomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bao, Donghui; Reddy, P Ganapati; Ross, Bruce S; Sofia, Michael J

    2012-08-30

    Nucleotide phosphoramidates are prodrugs which effectively deliver the active nucleotide to target tissues. It was shown that the individual phosphoramidate diastereomers have different antiviral activity, although the active nucleotide is the same. Therefore, a fast and simple analytical method is needed to characterize the individual diastereomeric phosphoramidate prodrugs. Stock solutions of diastereomeric nucleotide phosphoramidate prodrugs, i.e., 5'-phosphate derivatives of the β-D-2'-deoxy-2'-α-fluoro-2'-β-C-methyluridine nucleotide, were made in 25% acetonitrile to achieve a final concentration of 10 µg/mL. The samples were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The MS/MS spectra of diastereomeric pairs showed substantial differences in the relative abundances of a characteristic ion in negative mode, which is proposed to be a cyclic phosphoramidate ion. Results were confirmed by the MS/MS spectrum of an analog without the NH proton and deuterium exchange experiment. Furthermore, the diastereomer-specific fragmentation behavior in negative ESI-MS was used to characterize a series of nucleotide phosphoramidates with different amino acid and aromatic substituents. An HPLC/MS/MS method was developed for the differentiation of the diastereomers of phosphoramidate prodrugs. In negative mode MS/MS spectra, the cyclic phosphoramidate ions yielded unambiguous distinction. This method presented a rapid and simple way for the characterization of nucleotide phosphoramidates. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Rapid extraction of melamine in powdered milk for direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Elisângela do Carmo; Tireli, Aline Auxiliadora; Nunes, Cleiton Antonio; Batista, Alexandre Vieira; Guerreiro, Mário César; Pinto, Sandra Maria

    2015-01-01

    A combination of a simple pretreatment for melamine extraction and direct analysis in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is proposed. Three pretreatments were evaluated. The first was based on suppressing interference using acetonitrile. The second used sulphuric acid and trichloroacetic acid to suppress interference and for melamine extraction, respectively. The third used sulphuric acid to suppress milk interference, trichloroacetic acid for melamine precipitation, and ethyl acetate for melamine extraction. However, only the last pretreatment suppressed milk interference in melamine detection and a good linearity (R(2)=0.99) was obtained. The presence of MS/MS 85 on melamine fragmentation spectrum showed the selectivity of this method. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.269 µg L(-1) and 0.897 µg L(-1), respectively. The recoveries and relative standard deviation (RDS) of method were lower than 114% and 7.86%, respectively. Further, the research was extended to elucidate the nature of the melamine in the extract through infrared spectroscopy and microscopy analyses. The precipitate was characterized as melaminium bis(trichloroacetate) dihydrate, which is generated through hydrogen bound formation in an interaction between melamine and trichloroacetic acid. Therefore, a simple, fast, and easy method for melamine extraction and direct ESI-MS/MS analysis was developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of Lysophosphatidic Acid and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate by Liquid Chromatography-Coupled Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Maria P; Halder, Suchismita; Smyth, Susan S; Morris, Andrew J

    2017-08-03

    Lysophosphatidic acids and sphingosine-1-phosphate are bioactive lipids that regulate diverse cellular and physiological processes through actions that are largely mediated by cell surface receptors. The roles played by these lipids in multiple disease processes make the enzymes and receptors involved in their synthesis, inactivation, and signaling attractive targets for pharmacological therapies. In this chapter we describe methods for sensitive accurate quantitation of LPA and S1P levels in biological fluids using liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

  19. High-throughput quantification of lysophosphatidylcholine by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Drobnik, Wolfgang; Lieser, Bernd; Schmitz, Gerd

    2002-12-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) has been suggested to play a functional role in various diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer mediated by LPC-specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Initial studies provided evidence for a potential use of LPC as diagnostic maker. However, existing methodologies are of limited value for a systematic evaluation of LPC species concentrations because of complicated, time-consuming procedures. We describe a methodology based on electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) applicable for high-throughput LPC quantification. Crude lipid extracts of EDTA-plasma samples were used for direct flow injection analysis. LPC 13:0 and LPC 19:0 were added as internal standards, and the ESI-MS/MS was operated in the parent-scan mode for m/z 184. Quantification was achieved by standard addition. Data processing was highly automated by use of the mass spectrometer software and self-programmed Excel macros. The calibrators LPC 16:0, LPC 18:0, and LPC 22:0 showed a linear response independent of sample dilution and plasma cholesterol concentration for both internal standards. The within-run imprecision (CV) was 3% for the major and 12% for the minor species, whereas the total imprecision was approximately 12% for the major and 25% for the minor species. The detection limit was <1 micromol/L. The developed ESI-MS/MS methodology with an analysis time of 2 min/sample, simple sample preparation, and automated data analysis allows high-throughput quantification of distinct LPC species from plasma samples, which could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of LPC as diagnostic marker.

  20. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis of isopimarane diterpenes from Velloziaceae.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; Vessecchi, Ricardo; da Silva, Carmelita Gomes; Amorim, Ana Carolina Lourenço; dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio Martins; Rezende, Michelle Jakeline Cunha; Gates, Paul J; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2016-01-15

    The study of natural products by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is an important strategy for the characterization of the major fragmentation reactions which can then help to determine the composition of complex mixtures. Application of ESI-MS/MS to a series of isopimarane diterpenes from Velloziaceae allowed the rationalization of their fragmentation mechanisms. Velloziaceae diterpenes were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and investigated by ESI-MS/MS analysis. The fragmentation studies were performed on a quadrupole-time-of-flight instrument using N2 as the collision gas. To help rationalize the fragmentation pathways observed, the geometry and sites of reactivity of the diterpenes were obtained by theoretical calculations using the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) model. Fragmentation mechanisms were proposed on the basis of the calculated protonation sites and product ions energies using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The presence of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups on the terpene core influences the protonation site observed. One compound showed a radical cation as the base peak. MS/MS spectra exhibit water elimination as the major fragmentation pathway (via two ways), either when protonation takes place on the oxygen atom, or through elimination after activation from hydrogen migration. After the elimination of water, the formation of an endocyclic double bond induces a sequential retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction as the major fragmentation step. A thorough rational analysis of the fragmentation mechanisms of protonated Velloziaceae diterpenes was used to propose the dissociation mechanisms in ESI-MS/MS. The presence of esters in the side chain also influenced the intensity or occurrence of the observed protonated or cationized molecules in ESI-MS. These results will aid the identification of analogues in sample extracts in future metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Simultaneous determination of cocaine and opiates in dried blood spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Antelo-Domínguez, Ángel; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    A sample pre-treatment method based on blood spot collection filter cards was optimized as a means of using small volume samples for the screening and confirmation of cocaine and opiates abuse. Dried blood spots (DBSs) were prepared by dispersing 20 µL of whole blood specimens previously mixed with the internal standards (deuterated analogs of each target), and subjecting the whole DBS to extraction with 5 mL of methanol under orbital-horizontal shaking (180 rpm) for 10 min. Determinations were based on direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) by injecting the re-dissolved methanol extract with the delivery solution (acetonitrile-water-formic acid, 80:19.875:0.125) at a flow rate of 60 µL min(-1), and using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the m/z (precursor ion)→m/z (product ion) transitions for acquisition. Matrix effect has been found to be statistically significant (Multiple Range Test) when assessing cocaine, BZE, codeine and morphine, and the use of the standard addition method (dispersion of whole blood previously mixed with standards onto the filter papers) was needed for accurate determinations. The developed DBS-ESI-MS/MS procedure offered good intra-day and inter-day precisions (lower than 10% and 12%, respectively), as well as good intra-day and inter-day accuracies (inter-day absolute recoveries, expressed as the mean analytical recovery over three target concentration levels, of 103%, 100%, 101%, 98% and 100% for cocaine, BZE, codeine, morphine and 6-MAM, respectively). The high sensitivity inherent to MS/MS determinations combined with the minimal dilution of sample allowed low limits of quantification for all targets, and the developed method results therefore adequate for cocaine and opiates screening and confirmation purposes. The procedure was finally applied to DBSs prepared from whole blood from polydrug abusers, and results were compared with those obtained after a conventional sample pretreatment

  2. Absolute method for the assay of oleuropein in olive oils by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    De Nino, Antonio; Di Donna, Leonardo; Mazzotti, Fabio; Muzzalupo, Enzo; Perri, Enzo; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2005-09-15

    Oleuropein (OLP, 1), the active ingredient present (i) in food integrators extracted from olive leaves, (ii) in table olives, and (iii) in extra virgin olive oils is a nutraceutical whose health benefits have been widely documented. A new analytical method for its assay, which is based on the utilization of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and on the use of a synthetic labeled analogue, the 4-trideuteriocarboxyoleuropein (2), as an internal standard, is presented. The results obtained with extra virgin olive oils from different cultivars and different Italian regions are discussed.

  3. Identification of glyceollin metabolites derived from conjugation with glutathione and glucuronic acid in rats by on-line liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glyceollin-related metabolites produced in rats following oral glyceollin administration were screened and identified by precursor and product ion scanning using liquid chromatography, coupled on-line with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), to identify all glyceollin me...

  4. Atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of the phenicol drug family.

    PubMed

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, M Teresa

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the mass spectrometry behaviour of the veterinary drug family of phenicols, including chloramphenicol (CAP) and its related compounds thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and FF amine (FFA), was studied. Several atmospheric pressure ionization sources, electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization were compared. In all atmospheric pressure ionization sources, CAP, TAP and FF were ionized in both positive and negative modes; while for the metabolite FFA, only positive ionization was possible. In general, in positive mode, [M + H](+) dominated the mass spectrum for FFA, while the other compounds, CAP, TAP and FF, with lower proton affinity showed intense adducts with species present in the mobile phase. In negative mode, ESI and atmospheric pressure photoionization showed the deprotonated molecule [M-H](-), while atmospheric pressure chemical ionization provided the radical molecular ion by electron capture. All these ions were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry using the combined information obtained by multistage mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry in a quadrupole-Orbitrap instrument. In general, the fragmentation occurred via cyclization and losses or fragmentation of the N-(alkyl)acetamide group, and common fragmentation pathways were established for this family of compounds. A new chemical structure for the product ion at m/z 257 for CAP, on the basis of the MS(3) and MS(4) spectra is proposed. Thermally assisted ESI and selected reaction monitoring are proposed for the determination of these compounds by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, achieving instrumental detection limits down to 0.1 pg.

  5. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  6. Quantitative Caffeine Analysis Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Deibel, Michael A.; Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  7. Rapid identification of acetophenones in two Cynanchum species using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Shan, Lei; Huang, Hao; Yang, Xianwen; Liang, Xu; Xing, Aiting; Huang, Haiqiang; Liu, Xinru; Su, Juan; Zhang, Weidong

    2009-04-05

    Acetophenones in Cynanchum species, especially cynandione A and its derivatives, whose utilization and toxicity in herbal drugs and folk medicines has caused great interest in the chemical investigation, have extensive biological activities. In this paper, a facile method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) was developed for the analysis of cynandione A derivatives in the roots of the Cynanchum wilfordii and C. auriculatum. ESI-MS/MS and ESI-MS(n) analysis of cynandiones A and B in negative ion mode were firstly performed employing two mass spectrometers each equipped with an ion-trap and a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass analyzer. The results drawn from both instruments were similar to each other. Characteristic fragmentation pathways were proposed by comparing the spectra of two standards acquired in the experiments. The fragment ions at m/z 283 and 268 were obtained, and then were used as diagnostic ions to screen and identify cynandione A derivatives from the roots of above two species, together with an HPLC-MS(n) method. Total of 28 cynandione A derivatives comprising 4 reported and 24 novel components were identified or tentatively identified. Furthermore, breakdown curves were constructed to distinguish two types of isomers among these compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of acetophenones by HPLC-ESI-MS(n), which allows a rapid and complete analysis of cynandione A derivatives in roots of Cynanchum species.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of indandione-type rodenticides in human serum by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mi-cong; Cai, Mei-qiang; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of indandione rodenticides is important in the diagnosis and treatment of accidental rodenticide ingestion. Current assays lack effective measurements for simultaneous analysis of the indandiones, especially the isomers. The intent of this study was to establish a novel and selective method for the simultaneous determination of indandione-type rodenticides (diphacinone, chlorophacinone, valone, and pindone) in human serum by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. After addition of internal standard, the sample was extracted with 10% methanol in acetonitrile and cleaned by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The analytes were separated on a C(18) rapid column and infused into an ion trap mass spectrometer in the negative electrospray ionization mode. The multiple-reaction monitoring ion pairs were m/z 339 --> 167, m/z 373 --> 201, m/z 229 --> 145, m/z 229 --> 172, and m/z 307 --> 161 for diphacinone, chlorophacinone, valone, pindone, and IS, respectively. Recoveries were between 81.5 and 94.6%, and the limits of quantification were 0.2 to 0.5 ng/mL. Intra- and interday RSDs were less than 7.9 and 11.5%, respectively. The assay was linear in the range of 0.5-100.0 ng/mL with coefficients of determination (r(2) > 0.99) for all analytes. The proposed method enables the unambiguous confirmation and quantification of the indandiones in both clinical and forensic specimens.

  9. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of a complex mixture of native and oxidized phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Losito, I; Facchini, L; Diomede, S; Conte, E; Megli, F M; Cataldi, T R I; Palmisano, F

    2015-11-27

    A mixture of native and oxidized phospholipids (PLs), generated by the soybean lipoxygenase type V-catalyzed partial oxidation of a lipid extract obtained from human platelets, was analyzed by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-MS/MS). The complexity of the resulting mixture was remarkable, considering that the starting lipid extract, containing (as demonstrated in a previous study) about 130 native PLs, was enriched with enzymatically generated hydroperoxylated derivatives and chemically generated hydroxylated forms of PLs bearing polyunsaturated side chains. Nonetheless, the described analytical approach proved to be very powerful; indeed, focusing on phosphatidylcolines (PCs), the most abundant PL class in human platelets, about fifty different native/oxidized species could be identified in a single HILIC-ESI-MS/MS run. Low-energy collision induced dissociation tandem MS (CID-MS/MS) experiments on chromatographically separated species showed single neutral losses of H2O2 and H2O to be typical fragmentation pathways of hydroperoxylated PCs, whereas a single H2O loss was observed for hydroxylated ones. Moreover, diagnostic losses of n-hexanal or n-pentanol were exploited to recognize PCs hydroperoxylated on the last but five carbon atom of a ɷ-6 polyunsaturated side chain. Despite the low resolution of the 3D ion trap mass analyzer used, the described HILIC-ESI-MS/MS approach appears very promising for the identification of oxidized lipids in oxidatively stressed complex biological systems.

  10. CREATININE DETERMINATION IN URINE BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD.

    PubMed

    Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Sawicki, Wojciech; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-01-01

    Creatinine determination in urine is used to estimate the completeness of the 24-h urine collection, compensation for variable diuresis and as a preliminary step in protein profiling in urine. Despite the fact that a wide range of methods of measuring creatinine level in biofluids has been developed, many of them are adversely affected by interfering substances. A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for creatinine determination in urine has been developed. Chromatographic separation was performed by applying C18 column and a gradient elution. Analyses were carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source. The developed method was fully validated according to the international guidelines. The quantification range of the method was 5-1500 ng/mL, which corresponds to 1-300 mg/dL in urine. Limit of detection and quantitation were 2 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. Additionally, the comparison of creatinine determination by newly developed method to the colorimetric method was performed. The method enables the determination of creatinine in urine samples with a minimal sample preparation, excellent sensitivity and prominent selectivity. Since mass spectrometry allows to measure a number of compounds simultaneously, a future perspective would be to incorporate the determination of other clinically important compounds excreted in urine.

  11. Diclofenac in municipal wastewater treatment plant: quantification using laser diode thermal desorption--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization--tandem mass spectrometry approach in comparison with an established liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Lonappan, Linson; Pulicharla, Rama; Rouissi, Tarek; Brar, Satinder K; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valero, José R

    2016-02-12

    Diclofenac (DCF), a prevalent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is often detected in wastewater and surface water. Analysis of the pharmaceuticals in complex matrices is often laden with challenges. In this study a reliable, rapid and sensitive method based on laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD/APCI) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been developed for the quantification of DCF in wastewater and wastewater sludge. An established conventional LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry) method was compared with LDTD-APCI-MS/MS approach. The newly developed LDTD-APCI-MS/MS method reduced the analysis time to 12s in lieu of 12 min for LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The method detection limits for LDTD-APCI-MS/MS method were found to be 270 ng L(-1) (LOD) and 1000 ng L(-1) (LOQ). Furthermore, two extraction procedures, ultrasonic assisted extraction (USE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the extraction of DCF from wastewater sludge were compared and ASE with 95.6 ± 7% recovery was effective over USE with 86 ± 4% recovery. The fate and partitioning of DCF in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) in wastewater treatment plant was also monitored at various stages of treatment in Quebec Urban community wastewater treatment plant. DCF exhibited affinity towards WW than WWS with a presence about 60% of DCF in WW in contrary with theoretical prediction (LogKow=4.51).

  12. Distribution study of cisplatin in rat kidney and liver cancer tissues by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination and distribution of cisplatin (CP) in kidney and liver tissues after intravenous administration of drug to adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Oxaliplatin (OXP) was used as an internal standard. The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using conventional liquid-liquid extraction method with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and then subjected to LC-MS analysis. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C-18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) using the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water (Solvent A) : methanol (Solvent B) (40 : 60; v/v) in an isocratic elution followed by detection with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using the transitions of m/z 301 > 265 for CP and m/z 398 > 310 for OXP in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5.0-7000 and 10.0-6000 ng/ml for kidney and liver tissue homogenates, respectively. The method revealed good performances in terms of within-batch, between-batch precision (1.31-5.70%) and accuracy (97.0-102.24%) for CP in both kidney and liver tissue homogenates including lower and upper limits of quantification. The recoveries from spiked control samples were >81.0% and >87.0 % for CP and OXP, respectively. Matrix effect was found to be negligible, and the stability data were within the acceptable limits. Further, the validated LC/ES-MS/MS method was successfully applied to investigate the distribution of CP in kidney and liver tissues after intravenous administration of CP to male Sprague Dawley rats. The results showed that the higher amount of CP was distributed in kidney followed by liver, which indicated that CP mainly accumulated in kidney tissues and renal excretion might be a primary and

  13. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of phospholipid molecular species from Antarctic and non-Antarctic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Tucker, David; Watson, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was applied to the comprehensive analysis of phospholipids from seven Antarctic and seven non-Antarctic yeasts. Identification of specific fatty acyl moieties to the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) were determined by relative abundance of fragment ions associated with formation of carboxylate anions and loss of fragment ions as free fatty carboxylic acid and ketene. Modulations with growth temperature in fatty acyl moieties in the sn-1 and sn-2 positions were characterized. Principal component analysis demonstrated that PE, PC and to a lesser extent PS, but not PI, were grouped into three distinct clusters consisting of seven Antarctic yeasts (Cryptococcus victoriae, Holtermanniella wattica, H. nyarrowii, Candida psychrophila, Leucosporidium fellii, Glaciozyma antarctica, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa), four non-Antarctic yeasts (C. albicans, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Cr. humicolus, R. mucilaginosa) and three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of primary aromatic amines in the mainstream waterpipe smoke using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Jens; Kappenstein, Oliver; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

    2011-08-19

    In recent years waterpipe smoking has spread worldwide and emerged as global health issue. Yet only little is known on the composition of waterpipe smoke. Here, we present a study on the identification and quantification of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in this complex environmental matrix. Smoking of the waterpipe was conducted with a smoking machine and particulate matter was collected on glass fiber pads. We developed a fast, simple and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach to simultaneously detect 31 different PAAs in this matrix. The detection limits comprised a range of 0.45-4.50 ng per smoking session, represented by 2-aminobiphenyl and 3,4,5-trichloroaniline, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were determined and proved excellent. We detected 31.3 ± 2.2 ng aniline and 28.0 ± 1.6 ng 4,4'-oxydianiline in the smoke of one waterpipe session. The water in the bowl exerted a small but considerable filter effect on PAAs. The method worked-out showed excellent sensitivity and specificity and is thus highly suited for the determination of PAAs in mainstream waterpipe smoke.

  15. Typing of blood-group antigens on neutral oligosaccharides by negative-ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Yibing; Mulloy, Barbara; Zhan, Xiaobei; Chai, Wengang

    2013-06-18

    Blood-group antigens, such as those containing fucose and bearing the ABO(H)- and Lewis-type determinants expressed on the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, and also on unconjugated free oligosaccharides in human milk and other secretions, are associated with various biological functions. We have previously shown the utility of negative-ion electrospay ionization tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) for typing of Lewis (Le) determinants, for example, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) on neutral and sialylated oligosaccharide chains. In the present report, we extended the strategy to characterization of blood-group A-, B-, and H-determinants on type 1 and type 2 and also on type 4 globoside chains to provide a high sensitivity method for typing of all the major blood-group antigens, including the A, B, H, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) determinants, present in oligosaccharides. Using the principles established, we identified two minor unknown oligosaccharide components present in the products of enzymatic synthesis by bacterial fermentation. We also demonstrated that the unique fragmentations derived from the D- and (0,2)A-type cleavages observed in ESI-CID-MS/MS, which are important for assigning blood-group and chain types, only occur under the negative-ion conditions for reducing sugars but not for reduced alditols or under positive-ion conditions.

  16. Synthesis of benzofurazan derivatization reagents for carboxylic acids in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santa, Tomofumi; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Ichibangase, Tomoko; Fukushima, Takeshi; Rashed, Mohamed S; Funatsu, Takashi; Imai, Kazuhiro

    2007-11-01

    The applicability of benzofurazan derivatization regents to carboxylic acids analysis in LC/ESI-MS/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry) was examined. The product ion spectra of DAABD-AE {4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-(2-aminoethylamino)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole}, DAABD-PZ {4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-N-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole}, DAABD-PiCZ {4-[4-carbazoylpiperidin-1-yl]-7-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole}, DAABD-ProCZ {4-[2-carbazoylpyrrolidin-1-yl]-7-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino) ethylaminosulfonyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole} and DAABD-Apy {4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-(3-aminopyrrolidin-1-yl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole}, and their acetylated compounds were obtained. An intense fragment ion at m/z 151 corresponding to (dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl moiety was observed in each spectra, suggesting that these reagents were suitable for ESI-MS/MS analysis. DAABD-AE, DAABD-APy and DAABD-PZ were applied to the analysis of octanoic acid and it was found that DAABD-AE and DAABD-APy gave high signal intensity suitable for LC/ESI-MS/MS.

  17. Fast top-down intact protein characterization with capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Knierman, Michael D.; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2013-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was applied for rapid top-down intact protein characterization. A mixture containing four model proteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and beta casein) was used as the sample. The CZE-ESI-MS system was first evaluated with the mixture. The four model proteins and five impurities were baseline separated within 12 min. The limits of detection (s/n = 3) of the four model proteins ranged from 20 amole (cytochrome c) to 800 amole (BSA). The relative standard deviations of migration time and intensity for the four model proteins were less than 3% and 30%, respectively, in quintuplicate runs. CZE-ESI-MS/MS was then applied for top-down characterization of the mixture. Three of the model proteins (all except BSA) and an impurity (bovine transthyretin) were confidently identified by database searching of the acquired tandem spectra from protein fragmentation. Modifications including phosphorylation, N-terminal acetylation, and heme group binding were identified. PMID:23692435

  18. Determination of benzotriazole corrosion inhibitors from aqueous environmental samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stefan; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2005-11-15

    The first method for the determination of commonly used corrosion inhibitors in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry is presented. Benzotriazole (BTri) and the two isomers of tolyltriazole (5- and 4-TTri) are separated in an isocratic run. By gradient elution, BTri, 4-TTri, 5-TTri, and xylyltriazole can be determined simultaneously with three benzothiazoles, but here TTri isomers coelute. The instrumental detection limit of 2 pg allows the determination of the three most important benzotriazoles from municipal wastewater and most surface waters by direct injection into the HPLC system without previous enrichment. When solid-phase extraction is employed with mean recovery rates of 95-113%, the limit of quantification for benzotriazoles range from 10 ng/L in groundwater to 25 ng/L in untreated wastewater. BTri and TTri were determined in municipal wastewater in microgram per liter concentrations. Elimination in wastewater treatment appears to be poor, and BTri and TTri can be followed through a water cycle from treated municipal wastewater through surface water to bank filtrate used for drinking water production. The TTri isomers show markedly different biodegradation behavior with 4-TTri being more stable.

  19. Determination of pesticides in apples by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and estimation of measurement uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wotherspoon, David

    2007-01-01

    A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine 90 pesticides in apple samples. MS/MS data acquisition was achieved by applying multiple-reaction monitoring of 2 fragment ion transitions to provide a high degree of sensitivity and selectivity for both quantitation and confirmation. Matrix-matched standard calibration curves with the use of isotopically labeled standards (or a chemical analog) as internal standards were used to achieve the best accuracy for the method. Both a conventional method validation procedure and a designed experiment were applied to study the accuracy and precision of the method. A compiled computer program that provided a semiautomated procedure for handling a large number of calculations was used to calculate the overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty (MU). In general, the overall recoveries from samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, and 80 microg/kg, ranged from 60.8 to 121.1%, intermediate precision was <10%, and MUs were <30%. Poor accuracy and/or repeatability was observed for pyridate and etofenprox. The method limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of >3 were usually <1 microg/kg (ppb), except those for aldicarb sulfoxide and pyridaphenthion, which were about 5 microg/kg.

  20. Sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of acrylamide in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yiping; Zhang, Yu; Jiao, Jingjing; Cai, Zengxuan; Zhang, Ying

    2006-03-01

    Isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was applied to the quantification of acrylamide in chocolate matrixes (dark chocolate, milk chocolate, chocolate with nuts, chocolate with almonds, and chocolate with wheat best element). The method included defatting with petroleum ether, extracting with aqueous solution of 2 mol l(-1) sodium chloride and clean-up by solid-phase (SPE) with OASIS HLB 6 cm3 cartridges. Acrylamide was detected with an Atlantis dC18 5 microm 210 x 1.5 mm column using 10% methanol/0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase. The analytical method was in-house validated and good results were obtained with respect to repeatability (RSD < 3.5%) and recovery (86-93%), which fulfilled the requirements defined by European Union legislation. The acrylamide levels in chocolate were 23-537 microg kg(-1). Therefore, the method was successfully used for the quantitative analysis of acrlyamide in various chocolate products.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of 17 preservatives and antioxidants in condiments using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Chu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Zhang, Chenguang

    2011-08-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives and 6 antioxidants in condiments. The condiment sample with low fat or middle fat was diluted with saturated NaCl solution (adjusting pH to 2 - 3 with phosphoric acid), then extracted with acetonitrile. The extract was purified using liquid-liquid extraction with hexane, and the sample with middle fat was further purified using solid phase extraction with a C8 column. The condiment sample with high fat was diluted with hexane, then dissolved with saturated NaCl solution (adjusting pH to 2 -3 with phosphoric acid), and extracted with acetonitrile. The extract was purified using solid phase extraction with a C8 column. The analysis was performed on a C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution with the mobile phases of 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile, and determined by tandem mass spectrometry in negtive ESI mode under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method had good linearity (r > or = 0.995 5). The limits of quantification (LOQs) (S/N = 10) of 17 analytes ranged from 0.05 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 79.7% to 118% at three spiked levels, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.57% to 13.1%. The method can be applied for the determination of preservatives and antioxidants in condiments.

  2. Precursor ion scan profiles of acylcarnitines by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Giuseppe; D'Apolito, Oceania; Corso, Gaetano

    2008-12-01

    The fatty acyl esters of L-carnitine (acylcarnitines) are useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of some inborn errors of metabolism analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In this study the acylcarnitines were analyzed by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization using a commercial tandem mass spectrometer (APTDCI-MS/MS). The method is based on the precursor ion scan mode determination of underivatized acylcarnitines desorbed from samples by a hot desolvation gas flow and ionized by a corona pin discharge. During desorption/ionization step the temperature induces the degradation of acylcarnitines; nevertheless, the common fragment to all acylcarnitines [MH-59](+) is useful for analyzing their profile. APTDCI parameters, including angle of collection and incidence, gas flows and temperatures, were optimized for acylcarnitines. The experiments were performed drying 2 microL of an equimolar mixture of acylcarnitine standards on a glass slide. The specificity was evaluated by comparing product ion spectra and the precursor ion spectra of 85 m/z of acylcarnitines obtained by the APTDCI method and by electrospray ionization flow injection analysis (ESI-FIA). The method was also employed to analyze acylcarnitines extracted from a pathological dried blood spot and a control. The method enables analysis of biological samples and recognition of some acylcarnitines that are diagnostic markers of inherited metabolic diseases. The intrinsic high-throughput analysis of the ambient desorption ionization methods offers a new opportunity either for its potential application in clinical chemistry and for the expanded screening of some inborn errors of metabolism.

  3. Structural characterization of gangliosides isolated from mullet milt using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, Y T; Li, S C; Cole, R B

    1999-10-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry has been used in conjunction with microwave-mediated saponification, periodate oxidation, and clostridial sialidase hydrolysis to enable detailed structural characterization of gangliosides and their derivatives present in mullet milt. The gangliosides extracted from mullet milt were determined to be GM3, GM3 lactone, GM3 methyl ester, and 9-O-acetyl GM3. For the major ganglioside GM3 and all GM3 derivatives, the ceramide composition was revealed to be C18:1/C16:0. GM3 with a C18:0/C16:0 ceramide was also found as a minor ganglioside. Both the ganglioside intramolecular ester and the ganglioside methyl ester (lacking carboxylic acid groups) showed dominant chloride attachment peaks (M + Cl)- in negative ion ESI-MS in addition to low intensity peaks corresponding to (M-H)-. GM3 and O-acetyl GM3 bearing carboxylic acid functions showed only (M-H)-. In positive ion ESI, GM3 and O-acetyl GM3 revealed (M + 2Na-H)+ peaks in addition to (M + Na)+, indicating free exchange of the carboxylic acid proton with a sodium cation, while the ganglioside intramolecular ester and ganglioside methyl ester with no acidic protons yielded only (M + Na)+. The strategy of employing ESI-MS to detect products of established wet chemical reactions represents a general approach for elucidation of ganglioside structural details.

  4. Detection of trace levels of lead in aqueous liquids using extractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xinglei; Xiao, Saijin; Jia, Bin; Cui, Shasha; Shi, Jianbo; Xu, Ning; Xie, Xi; Gu, Haiwei; Chen, Huanwen

    2012-08-30

    A sensitive approach, based on semi-quantitative measurement of the characteristic fragments in multi-stage extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS(n)), was developed for fast detection of trace levels of lead in aqueous liquids including mineral water, lake water, tap water, energy drinks, soft drinks, beer, orange juice, and tea. A disodium ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) aqueous solution was electrosprayed to produce negatively charged primary ions which then intersected the neutral sample plume to generate anions of EDTA-Pb(II) complexes. The charged EDTA-Pb(II) complexes were characterized with multistage collision induced dissociation (CID) experiments. The limit of detection (LOD) using EESI-MS(3) was estimated to be at the level of 10(-13)g/mL for directly detecting lead in many of these samples. The linear dynamic range was higher than 2 orders of magnitude. A single sample analysis could be completed within 2 min with reasonable semi-quantitative performance, e.g., relative standard deviations (RSDs) for deionized water were 4.6-7.6% during 5 experimental runs (each of them had 10 repeated measurements). Coca-cola and Huiyuan orange juice, representative beverage samples with complex matrices, generated recovery rates of 91.5% and 129%, respectively. Our experimental data demonstrated that EESI-MS is a useful tool for the fast detection of lead in various solutions, and EESI-MS showed promises for fast screening of lead-contaminated aqueous liquid samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alkali metal-cationized serine clusters studied by sonic spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Sokol, Ewa; Cooks, R Graham

    2007-05-01

    Serine solutions containing salts of alkali metals yield magic number clusters of the type (Ser(4)+C)(+), (Ser(8)+C)(+), (Ser(12)+C)(+), and (Ser(17)+2C)(+2) (where C = Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)), in relative abundances which are strongly dependent on the cation size. Strong selectivity for homochirality is involved in the formation of serine tetramers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). This is also the case for the octamers cationized by the smaller alkalis but there is a strong preference for heterochirality in the octamers cationized by the larger alkali cations. Tandem mass spectrometry shows that the octamers and dodecamers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) dissociate mainly by the loss of Ser(4) units, suggesting that the neutral tetramers are the stable building blocks of the observed larger aggregates, (Ser(8)+C)(+) and (Ser(12)+C)(+). Remarkably, although the Ser(4) units are formed with a strong preference for homochirality, they aggregate further regardless of their handedness and, therefore, with a preference for the nominally racemic 4D:4L structure and an overall strong heterochiral preference. The octamers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+) therefore represent a new type of cluster ion that is homochiral in its internal subunits, which then assemble in a random fashion to form octamers. We tentatively interpret the homochirality of these tetramers as a consequence of assembly of the serine molecules around a central metal ion. The data provide additional evidence that the neutral serine octamer is homochiral and is readily cationized by smaller ions.

  6. [Determination of melamine residue in raw milk and dairy products using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Wu, Min; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Liyi; Fang, Enhua; Xu, Dunming; Chen, Luping

    2008-11-01

    A method for the determination of melamine residue in raw milk and dairy products was developed using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-MS/MS). The melamine residue in the test sample was extracted with 1% trichloroacetic acid-acetonitrile (1 : 1, v/v) solution. The homogenate was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected. The extract was cleaned up using a mixed-mode cation exchange (MCX) solid-phase extraction cartridge and then concentrated, and analyzed by HILIC-ESI-MS/MS. The gradient chromatographic separation was performed using a hydrophilic silica column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as the mobile phases. Due to its hydrophilic property, melamine was well retained on the column and seperated from other compounds. It effectively reduced matrix effect. A triple quadruple mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source was employed for the qualitative and quantitative measurement of melamine. The melamine was quantified using the fragments produced from the protonated melamine ion through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Two MRM transitions from the protonated melamine ion (m/z 127 --> 85 and m/z 127 --> 68) were monitored. The average recoveries were between 76.3% and 98.7% in the spiked range of 0.5 to 10 mg/kg in raw milk and dairy products, and the relative standard deviations were less than 6.8%. The linear range was from 0.05 to 10.0 mg/L. The limit of quantification (S/N > 10) was 0.05 mg/kg. The method is highly selective and sensitive for the measurements of melamine and adequate for the analysis of melamine in raw milk and dairy products.

  7. Identification and quantification of sea lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormones by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyong; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Weiming

    2014-06-06

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) are neuropeptide hormones that regulate reproduction in vertebrates. Twenty-five unique chordate GnRH isoforms have been identified, all with very similar molecular architecture. Identification and quantification of endogenous GnRH in biological samples is extremely challenging due to the high levels of sequence similarity among these GnRH peptides and complexity of the biological matrices laden with large numbers of other peptides and protein degradation fragments, and due to low levels of GnRH abundance. In this study, three lamprey GnRH (lGnRH-I, -II, and -III) were extracted from sea lamprey brain tissue and plasma samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and identified by a high resolution Q-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). A rapid quantitation method was developed and validated to determine the concentrations of these three lGnRHs by using a UPLC coupled tandem MS in positive ESI multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Luteinizing hormone-release hormone (LHRH, one of the mammalian GnRHs) was used as the internal standard. The developed quantitation method was fully validated for its recovery, matrix effect, linearity, repeatability, precision and accuracy, and storage stability. This method exhibited excellent linearity in a broad concentration range for all three lGnRHs (R(2)>0.99) and limits of detection (LOD; as low as 0.007 ng/mL). Brain and plasma samples from a total of 280 sea lampreys were analyzed with the developed method to investigate the biological relevance of the lGnRH levels. The concentrations of these three lGnRHs were detected at levels of pictogram per microgram brain tissue and milliliter of plasma. The obtained analytical performance parameters and collected data from real biological samples have proven that this is a robust, sensitive, and fully validated LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously quantify three neuropeptide hormones in complex biological matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Analysis of patulin in pear- and apple-based foodstuffs by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurelien; Mujahid, Claudia; Racault, Lucie; Perring, Loic; Lancova, Katerina

    2011-07-27

    A liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of patulin in apple- and pear-based foodstuffs was developed. The sample preparation is based on the QuEChERS procedure involving an initial extraction step with water and acetonitrile, followed by a partitioning step after the addition of magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. The cleanup was performed by using dispersive solid-phase extraction with a mixture of magnesium sulfate, primary secondary amine sorbent, and n-octadecylsiloxane sorbent added together to the extract. The cleaned extract was finally evaporated and reconstituted in water prior to injection. Quantitation was performed by isotope dilution using ((13)C(7))-patulin as internal standard. The method was first fully validated in three different baby food products including apple-pear juice, apple-pear puree, and infant cereals. Then the scope of application of the method was extended to pear concentrate, raw apples, apple flakes (naturally contaminated), dried apples, and yogurt. The sensitivity achieved by the method in all matrices gave limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) of ≤0.5 and ≤10 μg/kg, respectively, which was compliant with maximum levels settled in Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006. Method performances for all matrices also fulfilled the criteria established in the CEN/TR 16059:2010 document. Indeed, recoveries were within the 94-104% range; relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSD(r)) and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(IR)) were ≤7.5 and ≤13.0%, respectively, and trueness in an infant apple drink (FAPAS 1642) was measured at 99%.

  9. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Vieira Neto, E.; Fonseca, A.A.; Almeida, R.F.; Figueiredo, M.P.; Porto, M.A.S.; Ribeiro, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS) of umbilical cord blood (CB) and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r ≤ 0.20) or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates. PMID:22488223

  10. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and metabolism of Notoginsenoside Fc in rats by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Chunyong; Li, Jia; Xu, Niusheng; Wang, Rufeng; Li, Zeyun; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-05-10

    Notoginsenoside Fc (NGFc) is a protopanaxadiol-type (PPD-type) saponin from Panax notoginseng, which has perfect anti-platelet aggregatory effect. However, its pharmacokinetics and metabolism in vivo remain unknown. In this study, a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was first developed for the determination of NGFc in rat plasma. After methanol-mediated protein precipitation, separation was achieved on a C18 column with MS detection operated in negative SRM mode at m/z 604.56→m/z 783.90 and m/z 799.93→m/z 637.64 for NGFc and IS, respectively. The assay was linear over the concentration range (r>0.995) with the LLOQ of 0.002μg/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions (R.S.D.) were 2.45-12.36% and 3.67-14.22%, respectively; whereas accuracy ranged from (R.R.) 93.90% to 99.41%. The extraction recovery, stability, and matrix effect were within the acceptable limits. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies of NGFc in rat. After oral and intravenous administration, NGFc showed dose-independent pharmacokinetic behaviors with a t1/2 of >22h and its oral bioavailability was 0.10-0.14%. In addition, a total of 10 metabolites were detected and structurally characterized by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS technique, which suggested that deglycosylation was the major metabolic pathway for NGFc in rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of 14 nerve agent compounds by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Housman, Kathleen J; Swift, Austin T; Oyler, Jonathan M

    2015-03-01

    Organophosphate nerve agents (OPNAs) are some of the most widely used and proliferated chemical warfare agents. As evidenced by recent events in Syria, these compounds remain a serious military and terrorist threat to human health because of their toxicity and the ease with which they can be used, produced and stored. There are over 2,000 known, scheduled compounds derived from common parent structures with many more possible. To address medical, forensic, attribution, remediation and other requirements, laboratory systems have been established to provide the capability to analyze 'unknown' samples for the presence of these compounds. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric methods have been validated and are routinely used in the analysis of samples for a very limited number of these compounds, but limited data exist characterizing the electrospray ionization (ESI) and mass spectrometric fragmentation pathways of the compound families. This report describes results from direct infusion ESI/MS, ESI/MS(2) and ESI/MS(3) analysis of 14 G and V agents, the major OPNA families, using an AB Sciex 4000 QTrap. Using a range of conditions, spectra were acquired and characteristic fragments identified. The results demonstrated that the reproducible and predictable fragmentation of these compounds by ESI/MS, ESI/MS(2) and ESI/MS(3) can be used to describe systematic fragmentation pathways specific to compound structural class. These fragmentation pathways, in turn, may be useful as a predictive tool in the analysis of samples by screening and confirmatory laboratories to identify related compounds for which authentic standards are not readily available.

  12. Simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Shuang; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Qing; Lv, Qing; Chen, Yun-Xia; Ma, Hui-Juan; Li, Jing-Rui; Ma, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method based on HPLC/MSIMS has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics. A diversity of cosmetic samples, including powder, lotion, shampoo, and cream were collected. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with aqueous methanol, and the extracts were then subjected to cleanup bySPE using an Oasis HLB cartridge followed by filtration with a 0.20 pm membrane filter. Afterwards, chromatographic separation was performed on an XSelect CSH C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm, 3.5 pm) maintained at 30°C within 15 min by a gradient of acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous formic acid solution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The mass spectrometric detection was carried, out using electrospray positive ionization under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linearity was observed over the concentration range from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The intraday and interday precisions, which were investigated by determining all target compounds in cosmetics seven times/day and on 7 consecutive days, were below 5.00%. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 80.42 to 100.83% with the RSDs from 0.45 to 9.02%. The LOQs were determined to be between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The method was sufficiently rapid, reliable, and sensitive for the determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics.

  13. Rapid and sensitive determination of diacetylpolyamines in human fingernail by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun Zhe; Morota, Yuka; Jiang, Ying-Zi; Li, Gao; Kang, Dongzhou; Yu, Hai-fu; Inoue, Koichi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for quantitatively determining diacetylpolyamines in the human fingernail. N(1),N(8)-diacetylspermidine (DiAct-Spd), N(1),N(12)- diacetylspermine (DiAct-Spm) and 1,6-diaminohexane (DAH) the [internal standard (IS)] were extracted from human fingernail samples by MeOH: 5 M HCl solution, followed by 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro- 2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-F) derivatization, and then separated on an ACQUITY BEH C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The derivatives of the diacetylpolyamines were fully separated within a short run time (3.0 min). The triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode by the UPLC-ESI- MS/MS system in the positive ionization mode. MRM using the fragmentation transitions of m/z 455.20→ 100.07, 737.25 → 100.07 and 567.10 → 479.07 in the positive ESI mode was performed to quantify DiAct-Spd, DiAct-Spm and IS, respectively. The calibration curve is between 0.04 ng mL(-1) for DiAct-Spd and DiAct-Spm. The detection limits (signal to noise ratio of five) were 5-10 pg mL(-1). A good linearity was achieved from the calibration curves (r(2) >0.9999), and the intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were less than 7.06%. Furthermore, the recoveries (%) of the diacetylpolyamines spiked in the human fingernails were 79.18-97.11. The present method proved that the high sensitivity is characterized by the specificity and feasibility of the sample analysis. Consequently, the proposed method was used to analyze human fingernail samples from 15 lung- cancer patients and 22 healthy volunteers. Diacetylpolyamines were detected from the fingernails of the lung- cancer patients for the first time. The concentration of DiAct-Spd in the lung-cancer patient group

  14. Identification and quantification of ricin in biomedical samples by magnetic immunocapture enrichment and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxi; Tang, Jijun; Li, Chunzheng; Liu, Qin; Chen, Jia; Li, Hua; Guo, Lei; Xie, Jianwei

    2014-08-01

    Ricin is a toxic protein derived from castor beans and composed of a cytotoxic A chain and a galactose-binding B chain linked by a disulfide bond, which can inhibit protein synthesis and cause cell death. Owing to its high toxicity, ease of preparation, and lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has been listed as both chemical and biological warfare agents. For homeland security or public safety, the unambiguous, sensitive, and rapid methods for identification and quantification of ricin in complicated matrices are of urgent need. Mass spectrometric analysis, which provides specific and sensitive characterization of protein, can be applied to confirm and quantify ricin. Here, we report a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method in which ricin was extracted and enriched from serum by immunocapture using anti-ricin monoclonal antibody 3D74 linked to magnetic beads, then digested by trypsin, and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Among 19 distinct peptides observed in LC-quadrupole/time of flight-MS (LC-QTOF-MS), two specific and sensitive peptides, T7A ((49)VGLPINQR(56)) and T14B ((188)DNCLTSDSNIR(198)), were chosen, and a highly sensitive determination of ricin was established in LC-triple quadrupole-MS (LC-QqQ-MS) operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These specific peptides can definitely distinguish ricin from the homologous protein Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), even though the amino acid sequence homology of the A-chain of ricin and RCA120 is up to ca. 93% and that of B-chain is ca. 85%. Furthermore, peptide T7A was preferred in the quantification of ricin because its sensitivity was at least one order of magnitude higher than that of the peptide T14B. Combined with immunocapture enrichment, this method provided a limit of detection of ca. 2.5 ng/mL and the limit of quantification was ca. 5 ng/mL of ricin in serum, respectively. Both precision and accuracy of this method were determined and the RSD

  15. Double bond localization in minor homoallylic fatty acid methyl esters using acetonitrile chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Anthony L; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Abril, Reuben; Brenna, J Thomas

    2002-08-15

    Double bond position in natural fatty acids is critical to biochemical properties, however, common instrument-based methods cannot locate double bonds in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), the predominant analysis form of fatty acids. A recently described mass spectrometry (MS) method for locating double bonds in FAME is reported here for the analysis of minor (<1%) components of real FAME mixtures derived from three natural sources; golden algae (Schizochytrium sp.), primate brain white matter, and transgenic mouse liver. Acetonitrile chemical ionization tandem MS was used to determine double bond positions in 39 FAME, most at concentrations well below 1% of all fatty acid methyl esters. FAME identified in golden algae are 14:1n-6, 14:3n-3, 16:1n-7, 16:2n-6, 16:3n-6, 16:3n-3, 16:4n-3, 18:2n-7, 18:3n-7, 18:3n-8, 18:4n-3, 18:4n-5, 20:3n-7, 20:4n-3, 20:4n-5, 20:4n-7, 20:5n-3, and 22:4n-9. Additional FAME identified in primate brain white matter are 20:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:2n-7, 20:2n-9, 22:1n-7, 22:1n-9, 22:1n-13, 22:2n-6, 22:2n-7, 22:2n-9, 22:3n-6, 22:3n-7, 22:3n-9, 22:4n-6, 24:1n-7, 24:1n-9, and 24:4n-6. Additional FAME identified in mouse liver are 26:5n-6, 26:6n-3, 28:5n-6, and 28:6n-3. The primate brain 22:3n-7 and algae 18:4n-5 are novel fatty acids. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the technique for analysis of real samples. Tables are presented to aid in interpretation of acetonitrile CIMS/MS spectra.

  16. Analysis of 13 fentanils, including sufentanil and carfentanil, in human urine by liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lanqing; Bernert, John T

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, semiautomated method for the analysis of several fentanils and fentanil metabolites in human urine is described. This method uses solid-phase extraction of urine samples followed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Isotopically labeled internal standards were included for 6 of the 13 analytes in this study. Estimated detection limits ranged from 3 to 27 pg/mL, and good accuracy and long-term precision were observed in most cases. This method should be useful for the rapid and sensitive screening of human urine samples for a number of fentanils and their metabolites as indicators of exposure.

  17. GenoMass software: a tool based on electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for characterization and sequencing of oligonucleotide adducts

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vaneet K; Glick, James; Liao, Qing; Shen, Chang; Vouros, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of DNA adducts is of importance in understanding DNA damage, and in the last few years mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as the most comprehensive and versatile tool for routine characterization of modified oligonucleotides. The structural analysis of modified oligonucleotides, although routinely analyzed using mass spectrometry, is followed by a large amount of data, and a significant challenge is to locate the exact position of the adduct by computational spectral interpretation, which still is a bottleneck. In this report, we present an additional feature of the in-house developed GenoMass software, which determines the exact location of an adduct in modified oligonucleotides by connecting tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to a combinatorial isomer library generated in silico for nucleic acids. The performance of this MS/MS approach using GenoMass software was evaluated by MS/MS data interpretation for an unadducted and its corresponding N-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducted 17-mer (5′OH-CCT ACC CCT TCC TTG TA-3′OH) oligonucleotide. Further computational screening of this AAF adducted 17-mer oligonucleotide (5′OH-CCT ACC CCT TCC TTG TA-3′OH) from a complex oligonucleotide mixture was performed using GenoMass. Finally, GenoMass was also used to identify the positional isomers of the AAF adducted 15-mer oligonucleotide (5′OH-ATGAACCGGAGGCCC-3′OH). GenoMass is a simple, fast, data interpretation software that uses an in silico constructed library to relate the MS/MS sequencing approach to identify the exact location of adduct on oligonucleotides. PMID:22689626

  18. Development and validation of sensitive method for determination of serum cotinine in smokers and nonsmokers by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; Turner, W E; Pirkle, J L; Sosnoff, C S; Akins, J R; Waldrep, M K; Ann, Q; Covey, T R; Whitfield, W E; Gunter, E W; Miller, B B; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L; Hannon, W H; Sampson, E J

    1997-12-01

    We describe a sensitive and specific method for measuring cotinine in serum by HPLC coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer. This method can analyze 100 samples/day on a routine basis, and its limit of detection of 50 ng/L makes it applicable to the analysis of samples from nonsmokers potentially exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Analytical accuracy has been demonstrated from the analysis of NIST cotinine standards and from comparative analyses by both the current method and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Precision has been examined through the repetitive analysis of a series of bench and blind QC materials. This method has been applied to the analysis of cotinine in serum samples collected as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

  19. Multianalyte quantification of five sesqui- and ethyl ether oxy-mustard metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ash, Doris H; Lemire, Sharon W; McGrath, Sara C; McWilliams, Lisa G; Barr, John R

    2008-01-01

    Sesqui- and oxy-mustards pose a significant threat to military forces and civilians because they are potent vesicants. We have developed an isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method utilizing negative ion multiple reaction monitoring for the analysis of sesqui-mustard metabolites bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)alkanes (n = 1-5) and oxy-mustard metabolite bis(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)ether in human urine. Relative standard deviations were < 10% and the reportable limits of detection were 1 ng/mL in 0.5 mL of urine. We applied this method to 100 samples collected from individuals with no known exposure to sesqui- or oxy-mustards, and no urines showed detectable levels of any of the analytes, suggesting that these metabolites may be used for monitoring exposure to sesqui- and oxy-mustards.

  20. Determination of selected natural hormones and endocrine disrupting compounds in domestic wastewater treatment plants by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Muz, Melis; Sönmez, M Selcen; Komesli, Okan Tarık; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Gökçay, Celal Ferdi

    2012-02-21

    A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of two natural hormones (progesterone and estrone) and two selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs) (diltiazem and carbamazepine (Cbz)) was developed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) after pre-concentration with solid phase extraction (SPE). Influent and effluent samples taken from five different wastewater treatment plants throughout Turkey namely Hurma/Antalya, Lara/Antalya, Kemer-1 and Kemer-2 and METU/Ankara were analyzed for their EDCs contents under the optimum conditions. All of the parameters in the pre-concentration step were optimized and the best recoveries for all compounds of interest were achieved at pH 7 (about 100%). Progesterone was not detected in any of the treatment plants while diltiazem was found in all samples with the exception of Lara effluent.

  1. Determination of metformin in mouse, rat, dog and human plasma samples by laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Gallagher, Richard; Peter, Raimund M

    2010-11-02

    A simple, rapid and robust high-throughput assay for the quantitative analysis of metformin in plasma from different species using laser diode thermal desorption interfaced with atmospheric chemical pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MSMS) was developed for use in a pharmaceutical discovery environment. In order to minimize sample preparation a generic protein precipitation method was used to extract metformin from the plasma. Laser diode thermal desorption is a relatively new sample introduction method, the optimization of the instrumental parameters are presented. The method was successfully applied to spiked mouse, rat, dog and human plasma samples and was subsequently used to determine the oral pharmacokinetics of metformin after dosing to male rats in order to support drug discovery projects. The deviations for intra-assay accuracy and precision across the four species were less than 30% at all calibration and quality control levels.

  2. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Baohong; Tian, Kang; Jones, Lindsey E; Liu, Jun; Anderson, Todd A; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Cobb, George P

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of the explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In negative ionization mode, HMX forms an acetate adduct ion [M + CH(3)COO](-), m/z 355, in the presence of a small amount of acetic acid in the mobile phase. The ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of m/z 355 was acquired and the transitions m/z 355 --> 147 and m/z 355 --> 174 were chosen for the determination of HMX in samples. Using this quantification technique, the method detection limit was 1.57 microg/L and good linearity was achieved in the range 5-500 microg/L. This method will help to unambiguously analyze environmentally relevant concentrations of HMX. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Characterization of glycerophospholipid molecular species in six species of edible clams by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhou, Da-Yong; Zhao, Qi; Yin, Fa-Wen; Hu, Xiao-Pei; Song, Liang; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Run; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-03-15

    The molecular species of glycerophosphocholine (GPCho), glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPEtn), glycerophosphoserine (GPSer), lysoglycerophosphocholine (LGPCho) and lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine (LGPEtn) from six species of edible clams were characterized by using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. At least 435, 453, 468, 443, 427 and 444 glycerophospholipid (GP) molecular species were characterized, respectively, from Cyclina sinensis, Mactra chinensis Philippi, Mactra veneriformis Reeve, Meretrix meretrix, Ruditapes philippinarum and Saxidomus purpurata. Most of the predominant GP molecular species in clam contained polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), indicating that clam is a potential resource of GP enriched PUFA. According to the amount of the major molecular species containing EPA and DHA, Cyclina sinensis was the best fit species for GPCho, Mactra veneriformis Reeve was the best fit species for GPEtn, Mactra chinensis Philippi was the best fit species for GPSer and LGPEtn, and Saxidomus purpurata was the best fit species for LGPCho.

  4. [Simultaneous determination of ephedrine and N-methylephedrine in urine by solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Fucheng; Wang, Zhaohong; Jiang, Ye; Xu, Meng; Li, Hong

    2013-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ephedrine and N-methylephedrine in urine samples by solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-ESI MS/MS). The samples were extracted with Oasis MCX solid phase extraction cartridges and measured in the modes of electrospray positive ionization (ESI +) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.025 0 - 2.50 microg/L with correlation coefficient over 0.999 0 for both analytes. The recoveries were above 80% with RSDs less than 5.0%. The limits of detection were 0.01 microg/L. The method proves to be rapid and sensitive for the trace determination of ephedrine and N-methylephedrine in urine samples.

  5. Profiling histidine-containing dipeptides in rat tissues by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Carini, Marina; Maffei Facino, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    The histidine-containing dipeptides carnosine (CAR) and structurally related anserine (ANS) and homocarnosine (HCAR), widely distributed in vertebrate organisms, have recently been proposed as endogenous quenchers for highly cytotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes generated by peroxidation. A sensitive, selective, specific and rapid liquid chromatographic/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of these peptides in biological matrices in order to establish their plasma/tissue distribution. Samples (plasma or tissue homogenates from male rats) were prepared by protein precipitation with HClO(4) (1 : 1, v/v) containing H-Tyr-His-OH as internal standard. The supernatant was separated on a Phenomenex Sinergy polar-RP column with a mobile phase of water-acetonitrile-heptafluorobutyric acid (9 : 1 : 0.01, v/v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.2 ml min(-1), with a run time of 10 min. Detection was effected on an ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization interface operating in positive ionization mode. The acquisitions were in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using the following precursor --> product ion combinations: H-Tyr-His-OH (internal standard) m/z 319 --> 301; CAR m/z 227 --> 210 + 209; ANS m/z 241 --> 224 + 197 + 170; HCAR m/z 241 --> 156. The method was validated over the concentration range 15-1000 nmol g(-1) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) were 12.5 and 4.2 pmol injected, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <10% (< or =17.47% at the LOQ) and the intra- and inter-assay accuracies were within +/-10% for all concentrations. The mapping profile in rat tissue gave the following results: the highest concentrations of CAR and ANS were found in skeletal muscles (soleus, gastrocnemius, tibialis), followed by the heart, cerebellum and brain (ANS below the LOQ). HCAR was found only in the brain and cerebellum. No

  6. Determination of phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species in various food matrices by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhao, Minjie; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2012-04-01

    A liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS(2)) method has been developed for determination of the molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in four food matrices (soy, egg yolk, ox liver, and krill oil). The extraction and purification method consisted of a pressurized liquid extraction procedure for total lipid (TL) extraction, purification of phospholipids (PLs) by adsorption on a silica gel column, and separation of PL classes by semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC. Separation and identification of PE molecular species were performed by reversed-phase HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(2)). Methanol containing 5 mmol L(-1) ammonium formate was used as the mobile phase. A variety of PE molecular species were detected in the four food matrices. (C16:0-C18:2)PE, (C18:2-C18:2)PE, and (C16:0-C18:1)PE were the major PE molecular species in soy. Egg yolk PE contained (C16:0-C18:1)PE, (C18:0-C18:1)PE, (C18:0-C18:2)PE, and (C16:0-C18:2)PE as the major molecular species. Ox liver PE was rich in the species (C18:0-C18:1)PE, (C18:0-C20:4)PE, and (C18:0-C18:2)PE. Finally, krill oil which was particularly rich in (C16:0(alkyl)-C22:6(acyl))plasmanylethanolamine (PakE), (C16:0-C22:6)PE, and (C16:0-C20:5)PE, seemed to be an interesting potential source for supplementation of food with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

  7. Determination of growth hormone secretagogue pralmorelin (GHRP-2) and its metabolite in human urine by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masato; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Ikekita, Ayako; Kageyama, Shinji

    2010-07-30

    GHRP-2 (pralmorelin, D-Ala-D-(beta-naphthyl)-Ala-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH(2)), which belongs to a class of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), is intravenously used to diagnose growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Because it may be misused in expectation of a growth-promoting effect by athletes, the illicit use of GHS by athletes has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Therefore, the mass spectrometric identification of urinary GHRP-2 and its metabolite D-Ala-D-(beta-naphthyl)-Ala-Ala-OH (AA-3) was studied using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for doping control purposes. The method consists of solid-phase extraction using stable-isotope-labeled GHRP-2 as an internal standard and subsequent ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the two target peptides were determined at urinary concentrations of 0.5-10 ng/mL. The recoveries ranged from 84 to 101%, and the assay precisions were calculated as 1.6-3.8% (intra-day) and 1.9-4.3% (inter-day). Intravenous administration of GHRP-2 in ten male volunteers was studied to demonstrate the applicability of the method. In all ten cases, unchanged GHRP-2 and its specific metabolite AA-3 were detected in urine. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Characterization of eight terpenoids from tissue cultures of the Chinese herbal plant, Tripterygium wilfordii, by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Cheng, Qiqing; Wang, Xiujuan; Cheng, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Meng; Tong, Yuru; Li, Fei; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a reliable method for analysis and identification of eight terpenoids in tissue cultures of Tripterygium wilfordii has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Our study indicated that sterile seedlings, callus cultures and cell-suspension cultures can rapidly increase the amount of biological materials. HPLC-ESI-MS was used to identify terpenoids from the extracts of these tissue cultures. Triptolide, triptophenolide, celastrol and wilforlide A were unambiguously determined by comparing the retention times, UV spectral data, and mass fragmentation behaviors with those of the reference compounds. Another four compounds were tentatively identified as triptonoterpenol, triptonoterpene, 22β-hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-29-oic acid and wilforlide B, based on their UV and mass spectrometry spectra. The quantitative analysis showed that all three materials contain triptolide, triptophenolide, celastrol, wilforlide A, and the contents of the four compounds in the cell-suspension cultures were 53.1, 240, 129 and 964 µg/g, respectively, which were at least 2.0-fold higher than these in the sterile seedlings and callus cultures. Considering the known pharmacological activity of triptolide and celastrol, we recommend the cell-suspension cultures as biological materials for future studies, such as clinical and toxicological studies. The developed method was validated by the evaluation of its precision, linearity, detection limits and recovery, and it was successfully used to identify and quantify the terpenoids in the tissue cultures.

  9. Fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention by electron ionization and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Esmaeil; Saeidian, Hamid; Amozadeh, Ali; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Babri, Mehran

    2016-12-30

    For unambiguous identification of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)-related chemicals in environmental samples, the availability of mass spectra, interpretation skills and rapid microsynthesis of suspected chemicals are essential requirements. For the first time, the electron ionization single quadrupole and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates (Scheme 1, cpd 4) were studied for CWC verification purposes. O-Alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates were prepared through a microsynthetic method and were analyzed using electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with gas and liquid chromatography, respectively, as MS-inlet systems. General EI and ESI fragmentation pathways were proposed and discussed, and collision-induced dissociation studies of the protonated derivatives of these compounds were performed to confirm proposed fragment ion structures by analyzing mass spectra of deuterated analogs. Mass spectrometric studies revealed some interesting fragmentation pathways during the ionization process, such as McLafferty rearrangement, hydrogen rearrangement and a previously unknown intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The EI and ESI fragmentation routes of the synthesized compounds 4 were investigated with the aim of detecting and identifying CWC-related chemicals during on-site inspection and/or off-site analysis and toxic chemical destruction monitoring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of 25 active constituents in the total flavonoids extract from Herba Desmodii Styracifolii by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Panpan; Yan, Wenying; Han, Qingjie; Wang, Chunying; Zhang, Zijian

    2015-04-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 25 active constituents, including 21 flavonoids and four phenolic acids in the total flavonoids extract from Herba Desmodii Styracifolii for the first time. Among the 25 compounds, seven compounds including caffeic acid, acacetin, genistein, genistin, diosmetin, diosmin and hesperidin were identified and quantified for the first time in Herba Desmodii Styracifolii. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a ZORBAX SB-C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5.0 μm) column using gradient elution of methanol and 0.1‰ acetic acid v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The identification and quantification of the analytes were achieved using negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was fully validated in terms of limits of detection and quantification, linearity, precision and accuracy. The results indicated that the developed method is simple, rapid, specific and reliable. Furthermore, the developed method was successfully applied to quantify the 25 active components in six batches of total flavonoids extract from Herba Desmodii Styracifolii.

  11. Development and validation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of selected flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Chandra, Preeti; Arya, Kamal Ram; Kumar, Brijesh

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 13 flavonoids in leaf, stem, and fruit extracts of male and female trees of Ginkgo biloba to investigate gender- and age-related variations of flavonoids content. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm id, 1.7 μm) in 5 min. Quantitation was performed using negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves of all analytes showed a good linear relationship (r(2) ≥ 0.9977) over the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/mL. The precision evaluated by an intra- and interday study showed RSD ≤ 1.98% and good accuracy with overall recovery in the range from 97.90 to 101.09% (RSD ≤ 1.67%) for all analytes. The method sensitivity expressed as the limit of quantitation was typically 0.25-3.57 ng/mL. The results showed that the total content of 13 flavonoids was higher in the leaf extract of an old male Ginkgo tree compared to young female Ginkgo trees.

  12. Determination of Phenolic Content in Different Barley Varieties and Corresponding Malts by Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Daniel O.; Curto, Andreia F.; Guido, Luís F.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of nine phenolic compounds in barley and malted barley was established, using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS). The phenolic compounds can be easily detected with both systems, despite significant differences in sensitivity. Concentrations approximately 180-fold lower could be achieved by mass spectrometry analysis compared to diode array detection, especially for the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin, which have poor absorptivity in the UV region. Malt samples were characterized by higher phenolic content comparing to corresponding barley varieties, revealing a significant increase of the levels of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin during the malting process. Moreover, the industrial malting is responsible for modification on the phenolic profile from barley to malt, namely on the synthesis or release of sinapinic acid and epicatechin. Accordingly, the selection of the malting parameters, as well as the barley variety plays an important role when considering the quality and antioxidant stability of beer. PMID:26783844

  13. Analysis of urinary methylated nucleosides of patients with coronary artery disease by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanru; Yu, Haiyi; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Xinye; Zhou, Jiang; Xu, Ming; Gao, Wei; Yuan, Gu

    2014-10-15

    In recent years, methylated nucleosides have been considered to be potential biomarkers to human diseases. The early diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an unsolved problem in clinical cardiology. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether urinary methylated nucleosides can serve as useful biomarkers for CAD. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) column was used for extraction and purification of methylated nucleosides in urine, and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) was employed for specific, sensitive and rapid determination of the urinary methylated nucleosides from patients with cardiac events. We have analyzed six methylated nucleosides (N(3)-methylcytidine, N(1)-methyladenosine, N(6)-methyladenosine, N(2)-methylguanosine, N(1)-methylguanosine and N(2),N(2)-dimethylguanosine) in urine from 51 patients with CAD and 25 non-CAD controls by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS using selective reaction monitoring (SRM). Our results have shown that there were significant differences in the N(6)-methyladenosine levels from the patients and the non-CAD controls in the urine analyzed. The results have indicated that HPLC/ESI-MS/MS is a highly specific and sensitive tool to measure urinary methylated nucleosides for analysis of CAD. Our result has revealed that the evaluation of urinary methylated nucleosides might be helpful in the analysis of CAD by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Therefore, this N(6)-methyladenosine is worthy of further studies in the near future. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Spatially resolved protein hydrogen exchange measured by subzero-cooled chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amon, Sabine; Trelle, Morten B; Jensen, Ole N; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2012-05-15

    Mass spectrometry has become a valuable method for studying structural dynamics of proteins in solution by measuring their backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) kinetics. In a typical exchange experiment one or more proteins are incubated in deuterated buffer at physiological conditions. After a given period of deuteration, the exchange reaction is quenched by acidification (pH 2.5) and cooling (0 °C) and the deuterated protein (or a digest thereof) is analyzed by mass spectrometry. The unavoidable loss of deuterium (back-exchange) that occurs under quench conditions is undesired as it leads to loss of information. Here we describe the successful application of a chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry top-down fragmentation approach based on cooling to subzero temperature (-15 °C) which reduces the back-exchange at quench conditions to very low levels. For example, only 4% and 6% deuterium loss for fully deuterated ubiquitin and β(2)-microglobulin were observed after 10 min of back-exchange. The practical value of our subzero-cooled setup for top-down fragmentation HDX analyses is demonstrated by electron-transfer dissociation of ubiquitin ions under carefully optimized mass spectrometric conditions where gas-phase hydrogen scrambling is negligible. Our results show that the known dynamic behavior of ubiquitin in solution is accurately reflected in the deuterium contents of the fragment ions.

  15. Antioxidant activity guided separation of major polyphenols of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) using flash chromatography and their identification by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Camphuis, Gabriel; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K

    2014-11-01

    Marjoram extracts have been separated into polar and nonpolar parts using liquid-liquid extraction. Both polar and nonpolar parts of the extracts were further fractionated by flash chromatography. The obtained fractions (90 polar and 45 nonpolar fractions) were investigated for their antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assays. A direct, positive, and linear relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the fractions was observed. Based on antioxidant and total phenolic content data, the three fractions with the high antioxidant activities from polar and nonpolar part of the extract were analyzed for their constituent polyphenols by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Compounds were identified by matching the mass spectral data and retention time with those of authentic standards. Identification of the compounds for which there were no "in-house" standards available was carried out by accurate mass measurement of the precursor ions and product ions generated from collision-induced dissociation. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the strongest antioxidant polyphenol conferring the highest antioxidant activity to fractions 47 and 17 of polar and nonpolar part of the extract, respectively. The identification of the rosmarinic acid was further confirmed by (1) H NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Fast profiling of chemical constituents in Yiqing Capsule by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Kai; Li, Yue-shan; Liu, E-Hu

    2012-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS(n)) has been developed for structural characterization and identification of multi-constituents in Yiqing Capsule, a well-known combined herbal remedy prepared from the extract mixtures of Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Radix Scutellariae. The UPLC analysis was performed on an Agilent ZorBax SB-C(18) column (4.6 mm×50 mm, 1.8 μm) and gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid solution and acetonitrile in 16 min. Based on their retention times and mass spectra in comparison with the data from standards or references, a total of 29 compounds including 3 phenolic acids and 4 anthraquinones from Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, 8 alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis and 14 flavonoids from Radix Scutellariae were unambiguously identified or tentatively characterized in the complex system. The MS data and fragmentation information of two isomers of feruloylquinic acid were first reported in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and in Yiqing Capsules. This study is expected to be accepted as an effective and reliable pattern for comprehensive and systematic characterization of this commonly used Chinese herbal preparation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Determination of bevantolol in human plasma using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Ren, Li; Wang, Zheng; Lou, Yiceng; Zheng, Lu; Zheng, Heng; Yin, Chunping

    2014-05-15

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was established and validated for the determination of bevantolol in human plasma using propranolol as the internal standard. The optimal chromatographic behavior of bevantolol and propranolol was achieved on a Welch Ultimate XB-C18 column (5 μm, 150 mm × 2.1mm, Maryland, USA) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (40:60, v/v) containing 10mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid. The mass spectrometer was operated in selected reaction monitoring mode using the transition m/z 346.1>165.1 for bevantolol and m/z 260.3>116.1 for propranolol. Sample preparation was carried out through protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 5.00-1,000 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 6.7% and 6.6%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study of two kinds of bevantolol hydrochloride tablets in 24 Chinese male volunteers in fasting and postprandial experiment.

  18. Characterization of isomeric 1,2,4-oxadiazolyl-N-methylpyridinium salts by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Avellone, Guiseppe; Bongiorno, David; Buscemi, Silvestre; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Indelicato, Serena; Pace, Andrea; Pibiri, Ivana; Vivona, Nicolò

    2007-01-01

    The mass spectrometry behavior of 1,2,4-oxadiazolyl-N-methylpyridinium salts has been investigated. These substances are of current interest as perspective ionic liquids, compounds used as green solvents for synthesis, and for their catalytic properties. The studies have been developed through ESI-MS/MS experiments. The obtained results demonstrate that a readily distinction between the two isomeric classes, 3- N-methylpyridinium- and 5-N-methylpyridinium-1,2,4-oxadiazoles, is possible through ESI-MS/MS experiments. A deeper investigation on the principal fragmentation pathways of characteristic ions has been also developed.

  19. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) using liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Jauregui, Olga; Sánchez-Rabaneda, Ferran; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2004-06-16

    Liquid chromatography (LC) diode array detection (DAD) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the rapid and sensitive identification of water-soluble phenolic compounds in fennel waste. The plant material was first extracted and then chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 to afford seven fractions, each of them being subjected to LC-MS analysis. Identification of the compounds was carried out by interpretation of UV, MS, and MS/MS spectra. Forty-two phenolic substances were identified, 27 of which had not previously been reported in fennel, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid glycosides, and flavonoid aglycons.

  20. Simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur species in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and shallot (Allium ascalonicum) by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma-(octopole reaction system)-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Iwashita, Yuji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2005-11-04

    The simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and a weakly odorous Allium plant, shallot (Allium ascalonicum), was performed by means of a hyphenated technique, a HPLC coupled with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) equipped with an octopole reaction system (ORS). The aqueous extracts of them contained the common seleno compound that was identified as gamma-glutamylmethylselenocysteine by an electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Normal garlic contains alliin as the major sulfur-containing compound, which is the biological precursor of the garlic odorant, allicin. Alliin, however, was not detected in the extracts of the selenized odorless garlic. At least, four unidentified sulfur-containing compounds were detected in odorless garlic and shallot. Moreover, these Allium plants showed chemopreventive effects against human leukemia cells.

  1. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

    2012-07-06

    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of five phytohormones in medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis under abscisic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Song, Xiaona; Qiao, Jing; Zang, Yimei; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-07-01

    An efficient simplified method was developed to determine multiple classes of phytohormones simultaneously in the medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative mode was used for quantification. The five studied phytohormones are gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid (SA). Only 100 mg of fresh leaves was needed, with one purification step based on C18 solid-phase extraction. Cinnamic acid was chosen as the internal standard instead of isotope-labeled internal standards. Under the optimized conditions, the five phytohormones with internal standard were separated within 4 min, with good linearities and high sensitivity. The validated method was applied to monitor the spatial and temporal changes of the five phytohormones in G. uralensis under ABA stress. The levels of GA3, ABA, JA, and SA in leaves of G. uralensis were increased at different times and with different tendencies in the reported stress mode. These changes in phytohormone levels are discussed in the context of a possible feedback regulation mechanism. Understanding this mechanism will provide a good chance of revealing the mutual interplay between different biosynthetic routes, which could further help elucidate the mechanisms of effective composition accumulation in medicinal plants.

  3. Analysis of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in senescent and water-stressed tobacco.

    PubMed

    Torras-Claveria, Laura; Jáuregui, Olga; Codina, Carles; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of a significant part of the phenylpropanoid pathway metabolites is facilitated by the fast high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method. The technology described was applied in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin) to identify 20 phenolic compounds and to detect differences in phenylpropanoid profiles in two types of experiments. In the first one, senescent and non-senescent parts of flowering plants were compared, while in the second, watered plants were compared with water-stressed young plants. The 20 identified phenolic compounds were: seven hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids, seven hydroxycinnamic acid glucosides, one salicylic acid glucoside, two conjugated flavonols with disaccharides, and three hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) of putrescine. In general, the levels of phenylpropanoid compounds increased under water stress or senescent conditions, with the exception of HCAA, which decreased in senescent samples, and 4-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid and trihydroxycinamic acid-O-glucoside, which did not change in both experiments. The main product in all the samples was 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (neochlorogenic acid). Another compound, kaempferol-7-O-neohesperidoside, was tentatively identified for the first time in tobacco plants. This method, which can be applied in other plant species, allows a simple and efficient comparative study of metabolite profile variations (qualitative and quantitative) in response to different physiological and/or environmental plant situations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An assay for identification and determination of toxic rodenticide valone in serum by ion chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with ion trap detector.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Dong, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2009-04-15

    Valone has a chronic and toxic anticoagulant rodenticide that has widely used in China and has resulted in some accidental and intentional intoxication in recent years. The literature reported so far lacks sensitive and selective method for the confirmation of valone. The purpose of this study was to establish a novel assay for the identification and quantification of valone in serum by ion chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS). After serum sample was extracted with methanol/acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) and cleaned by Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge, chromatographic separation was performed on an Ionpac AS11 column with an eluent of methanol/30 mmol/L KOH (10:90, v/v). The overall extraction efficiency was >81.0%, and the limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL for valone. Regression analysis of the calibration data revealed good correlation (r(2)>0.99) for valone. Intra- and inter-day precisions for quality-control samples were less than 8.0 and 13.7%, respectively. The proposed method enables the identification and quantification of valone in both clinical and forensic specimens.

  5. [Determination of N-carbamyl-L-glutamic acid in feedstuff by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Tang, Shengyun; Wang, Yuanxing; Wen, Pingwei; Xin, Zhen

    2014-02-01

    A method was developed for the determination of N-carbamyl-L-glutamic acid (NCG) in feedstuff by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The feedstuff samples were extracted with methanol, cleaned-up by a ProElut mixed-mode of strong anion exchange inverse column (PXA). Then the samples were separated with HPLC and detected with MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). The fragment ions of m/z 148.0 and m/z 84.0 were used for qualitative analysis, and m/z 130.0 was selected for quantitative analysis. The limit of detection for NCG was 24 microg/kg (S/N > 3), and the limit of quantification was 80 microg/kg (S/N > 10). The standard calibration curve was linear over the range of 20-1,000 microg/L, and the correlation coefficient was 0. 999 9. The recoveries of NCG in feedstuff were 104.0%, 103.5%, 95.3%, at the three spiked levels of 80, 200, 500 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.5%, 6.3% and 5.8%. The results showed that the method is simple, fast, highly sensitive, specific and with good purification effect. It can be applied to the analysis and determination of NCG in feedstuff.

  6. Fast determination of 3-ethenylpyridine as a marker of environmental tobacco smoke at trace level using direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng-Yong; Sun, Shi-Hao; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Zong, Yong-Li; Xie, Jian-Ping

    2013-03-01

    A method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) was developed and applied to direct analysis of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), using 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) as a vapour-phase marker. In this study, the ion source of APCI-MS/MS was modified and direct analysis of gas sample was achieved by the modified instrument. ETS samples were directly introduced, via an atmospheric pressure inlet, into the APCI source. Ionization was carried out in positive-ion APCI mode and 3-EP was identified by both full scan mode and daughter scan mode. Quantification of 3-EP was performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve was obtained in the range of 1-250 ng L-1 with a satisfactory regression coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 ng L-1 and 1.6 ng L-1, respectively. The precision of the method, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was characterized by repeatability (RSD 3.92%) and reproducibility (RSD 4.81%), respectively. In real-world ETS samples analysis, compared with the conventional GC-MS method, the direct APCI-MS/MS has shown better reliability and practicability in the determination of 3-EP at trace level. The developed method is simple, fast, sensitive and repeatable; furthermore, it could provide an alternative way for the determination of other volatile pollutants in ambient air at low levels.

  7. A highly specific and sensitive quantification analysis of the sterols in silkworm larvae by high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Fumihiko; Hikiba, Juri; Ogihara, Mari H; Nakaoka, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2011-12-15

    The biochemical quantification of sterols in insects has been difficult because only small amounts of tissues can be obtained from insect bodies and because sterol metabolites are structurally related. We have developed a highly specific and sensitive quantitative method for determining of the concentrations of seven sterols-7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, cholesterol, ergosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol-using a high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS/MS). The sterols were extracted from silkworm larval tissues using the Bligh and Dyer method and were analyzed using HPLC/APCI-MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring, using cholesterol-3,4-(13)C(2) as an internal standard. The detection limits of the method were between 12.1 and 259 fmol. The major sterol in most silkworm larval tissues was cholesterol, whereas only small quantities of the dietary sterols were detected. Thus, a simple, sensitive, and specific method was successfully developed for the quantification of the sterol concentrations in each tissue of an individual silkworm larva. This method will be a useful tool for investigating to molecular basis of sterol physiology in insects, facilitating the quantification of femtomole quantities of sterols in biological samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Profiling and quantification of isoflavonoids in kudzu dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Jones, Kenneth; Kirk, Marion; Wilson, Landon; Smith-Johnson, Michelle; Weaver, Connie; Barnes, Stephen

    2003-07-16

    The kudzu vine (Pueraria sp.) is a rich source of isoflavones. Dietary supplements based on kudzu have become commercially available. In the present study, liquid chromatography coupled with negative and positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and diode array detection (DAD) has been used for the detection and characterization of isoflavonoids in kudzu dietary supplements (KDS). The MS/MS spectrum of the protonated ion of puerarin showed characteristic product ions of the C-glycoside unit itself, whereas daidzin generated an abundant Y(0)(+) aglycon ion in its product ion spectrum. A base peak due to the loss of 120 Da [M + H - 120](+) is the diagnostic ion for C-glycosides. Neutral loss scans allowed for the detection of other C- and O-glycosides in the methanolic extract of KDS, and their structures have been proposed. The concentration of isoflavonoids in the methanolic extract of commercially available KDS was quantified by using DAD-HPLC. Puerarin, rather than daidzin, was the most abundant component (8.44-30.60 mg/capsule) in commercially available KDS.

  9. Direct identification of phenolic constituents in Boldo Folium (Peumus boldus Mol.) infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, M J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G

    2010-01-22

    A very simple and direct method was developed for the qualitative analysis of polyphenols in boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., Monimiaceae) leaves infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)). The phenolic constituents identified in infusions of the crude drug Boldo Folium were mainly proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides. In the infusions, 41 compounds were detected in male and 43 compounds in female leaf samples, respectively. Nine quercetin glycosides, eight kaempferol derivatives, nine isorhamnetin glycosides, three phenolic acids, one caffeoylquinic acid glycoside and twenty one proanthocyanidins were identified by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS for the first time in the crude drug. Isorhamnetin glucosyl-di-rhamnoside was the most abundant flavonol glycoside in the male boldo sample, whereas isorhamnetin di-glucosyl-di-rhamnoside was the main phenolic compound in female boldo leaves infusion. The results suggest that the medicinal properties reported for this popular infusion should be attributed not only to the presence of catechin and boldine but also to several phenolic compounds with known antioxidant activity. The HPLC fingerprint obtained can be useful in the authentication of the crude drug Boldo Folium as well as for qualitative analysis and differentiation of plant populations in the tree distribution range. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2) of molecular species.

    PubMed

    Le Grandois, Julie; Marchioni, Eric; Zhao, Minjie; Giuffrida, Francesca; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise

    2009-07-22

    This study is a contribution to the exploration of natural phospholipid (PL) sources rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) with nutritional interest. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were purified from total lipid extracts of different food matrices, and their molecular species were separated and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)). Fragmentation of lithiated adducts allowed for the identification of fatty acids linked to the glycerol backbone. Soy PC was particularly rich in species containing essential fatty acids, such as (18:2-18:2)PC (34.0%), (16:0-18:2)PC (20.8%), and (18:1-18:2)PC (16.3%). PC from animal sources (ox liver and egg yolk) contained major molecular species, such as (16:0-18:2)PC, (16:0-18:1)PC, (18:0-18:2)PC, or (18:0-18:1)PC. Finally, marine source (krill oil), which was particularly rich in (16:0-20:5)PC and (16:0-22:6)PC, appeared to be an interesting potential source for food supplementation with LC-PUFA-PLs, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  11. High throughput screening various abused drugs and metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Shen, Chien-Chun; Yang, Tzung-Jie; Chang, Yan-Zin; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2009-02-15

    An integrated method of liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry was evaluated for high throughput screening of various abused drugs in urine. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 reverse phase column using a linear gradient of 10mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid-methanol as mobile phase and the total separation time was 7 min. A simple and rapid sample preparation method used was by passing urine samples through a 0.22 microm PVDF syringe filter. The detection limits of the studied abused drugs in urine were from 0.6 ng mL(-1) (ketamine) to 9.0 ng mL(-1) (norcodeine). According to the results, the linear range was from 1 to 1200 ng mL(-1) with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.s) value below 14.8% (intra-day) and 24.6% (inter-day). The feasibility of applying the proposed method to determine various abused drugs in real samples was examined by analyzing urine samples from drug-abused suspects. The abused drugs including ketamines and amphetamines were detected in suspected urine samples. The results demonstrate the suitability of LC-HESI-MS/MS for high throughput screening of the various abused drugs in urine.

  12. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic analysis of justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaoyang; Hu, Yichen; Qin, Jia'an; Yang, Meihua

    2017-02-01

    Arylnaphthalene lignans have attracted considerable interest with the discovery of their antineoplastic activities. Two such compounds are justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C, both of which have been isolated from the herb Justicia procumbens. We sought to develop and validate a sensitive and accurate, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the structural determination and pharmacokinetics of justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent 300SB-C18 column using water (0.5% formic acid, 10 mM NH4 COOH) methanol as the mobile phase. The plasma samples obtained after oral administration of the active extract of Justicia procumbens were successfully analyzed with our novel method, thereby demonstrating its sound applicability and reliability. The lower limit of quantification for justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C was 0.50 and 1.00 ng/mL in 50 μL rat plasma, respectively. The elimination half-life and clearance of justicidin B was estimated to be 1.27 ± 0.61 h and 5.40 ± 0.22 L/h/kg while that of 6'-hydroxy justicidin C was 2.07 ± 0.70 h and 11.84 ± 1.06 L/h/kg. This newly developed and validated method was successfully applied to the quantification and pharmacokinetic study of justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C in rats.

  13. Measurement of serum estrogen and estrogen metabolites in pre- and postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, W L; Wu, L S; Zi, J H; Wu, B; Li, Y Z; Song, Y C; Cai, D Z

    2015-02-01

    Although 17β-estradiol (E2) deficiency has been linked to the development of osteoarthritis (OA) in middle-aged women, there are few studies relating other estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EMs) to this condition. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method to measure the levels of six EMs (i.e., estrone, E2, estriol, 2-hydroxyestrone, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and 16a-hydroxyestrone) in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women and women with OA. This method had a precision ranging from 1.1 to 3.1% and a detection limit ranging from 10 to 15 pg. Compared to healthy women, serum-free E2 was lower in the luteal and postmenopausal phases in women with OA, and total serum E2 was lower in postmenopausal women with OA. Moreover, compared to healthy women, total serum 2-hydroxyestradiol was higher in postmenopausal women with OA and total serum 2-hydroxyestrone was lower in both the luteal and follicular phases in women with OA. In conclusion, our HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method allowed the measurement of multiple biochemical targets in a single assay, and, given its increased cost-effectiveness, simplicity, and speed relative to previous methods, this method is suitable for clinical studies.

  14. [Simultaneous determination of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in animal feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Enhua; Guo, Yanni; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Liyi; Chu, Xiaogang

    2010-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of six macrolide antibiotics (oleandomycin, erythromycin, kitasamycin, josamycin, roxithromycin and tylosin) and two lincosamide antibiotics (lincomycin and clindamycin) in animal feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospary ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. The macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics were extracted from the feeds with methanol followed by enrichment and clean-up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. The UPLC separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column by a gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The identification of eight drugs was carried out by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and the quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L. The average recoveries of the eight drugs from the feeds spiked at 1, 10 and 100 microg/kg levels were between 68.6% and 95.2%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 4.9% and 11.8%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the drugs in the feeds were 1 microg/kg. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the simultaneous determination of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in animal feeds.

  15. Specific determination of 20 primary aromatic amines in aqueous food simulants by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Sarah Kelly; Trier, Xenia Thorsager; Foverskov, Annie; Petersen, Jens Hójslev

    2005-10-14

    A multi-analyte method without any pre-treatment steps using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and applied for the determination of 20 primary aromatic amines (PAA) associated with polyurethane (PUR) products or azo-colours. The method was validated in-house for water and 3% acetic acid food simulants using spiked migrates from plastic laminates. Detection limits ranged from 0.27 to 3 microg amine/L food simulants, and RSD values of within-laboratory reproducibility at the 2 microg PAA/L level ranged from 3.9 to 19%. PAA migration from plastic laminates and black nylon cooking utensils were determined with the method, and high levels of 4,4'-methylenedianiline and aniline were found in migrates from about half of the tested cooking utensils. The method fulfils present legislative demands in the EU for screening and verification of PAA migration from food contact materials.

  16. Simultaneous Quantification of Antioxidant Compounds in Phellinus igniarius Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nani; Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely used in the life sciences. Phellinus igniarius is a historically used natural antioxidant containing a variety of active compounds. Phenols, particularly Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B, are found in the high concentrations. Better quantitative methods are needed to perform quality control in order to support further research of this mushroom. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography method coupled to photodiode-array detection and an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-PAD-MS) was developed to simultaneously quantify Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B levels in the medicinal fungus Phellinus igniarius. The two compounds were quantified using UPLC-PAD and UPLC-MS. The methods were accurate (mean accuracy for spiked matrix ranged from 101.5% to 105.8%), sensitive (limit of detection ranged from 0.28 to 1.14 mg L-1) and precise (the relative standard deviations ranged from 0.13 to 2.8%). Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B were purified using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), structural evaluated to meet the request of standard substances. UPLC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid over 10 min. The developed method was successfully applied to determine Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B in twelve Phellinus igniarius samples of different origins and the results showed that it was suitable for the analysis of these active components in Phellinus igniarius samples. PMID:27689891

  17. Simultaneous determination of urinary parabens, bisphenol A, triclosan, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lu; Fang, Jianzhang; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Zhu, Zhou; Liu, Honghe; Lin, Kai; Zhang, Huimin; Lu, Shaoyou

    2016-04-01

    A simple and fast method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five parabens, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in human urine using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure, chromatographic conditions, and MS/MS parameters were optimized to achieve maximum sensitivity and accuracy for the analytes. The validation results showed that the correlation coefficients (R (2)) and recoveries ranged from 0.999 to 1 and 83.9 to 109.9 %, respectively, and the intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD) were within the range of 1.3-8.5 % and 1.3-9.0 %, respectively. The limits of detection for the analytes ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/L. The method was successfully employed to determine parabens, BPA, TCS, and 8-OHdG in urine samples from school students in Guangzhou, China. The results showed that methyl, ethyl, n-propyl parabens, BPA, TCS, and 8-OHdG were frequently detected in urine samples. n-Butyl and benzyl parabens were only detected in a part of the samples due to their low concentrations in urine.

  18. Determination of selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River, South China using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-hai; Zhang, Gan; Zou, Shi-chun; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Yu-chun

    2007-02-01

    Nine selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour of Hong Kong and the Pearl River at Guangzhou, South China, were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of antibiotics were mainly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the marine water of Victoria Harbour. However, except for amoxicillin, all of the antibiotics were detected in the Pearl River during high and low water seasons with the median concentrations ranging from 11 to 67 ng/L, and from 66 to 460 ng/L, respectively; and the concentrations in early spring were about 2-15 times higher than that in summer with clearer diurnal variations. It was suggested that the concentrations of antibiotics in the high water season were more affected by wastewater production cycles due to quick refreshing rate, while those in the low water season may be more sensitive to the water column dynamics controlled by tidal processes in the river.

  19. Direct analysis of psychoactive tryptamine and harmala alkaloids in the Amazonian botanical medicine ayahuasca by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Pipkin, Kelly E; Standish, Leanna J; Wechkin, Hope A; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2009-12-18

    A direct injection/liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry procedure has been developed for the simultaneous quantitation of 11 compounds potentially found in the increasingly popular Amazonian botanical medicine and religious sacrament ayahuasca. The method utilizes a deuterated internal standard for quantitation and affords rapid detection of the alkaloids by a simple dilution assay, requiring no extraction procedures. Further, the method demonstrates a high degree of specificity for the compounds in question, as well as low limits of detection and quantitation despite using samples for analysis that had been diluted up to 200:1. This approach also appears to eliminate potential matrix effects. Method bias for each compound, examined over a range of concentrations, was also determined as was inter- and intra-assay variation. Its application to the analysis of three different ayahuasca preparations is also described. This method should prove useful in the study of ayahuasca in clinical and ethnobotanical research as well as in forensic examinations of ayahuasca preparations.

  20. Simultaneous determination of 13 aminoglycoside residues in foods of animal origin by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with two consecutive solid-phase extraction steps.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-xia; Yang, Ji-zhou; Wei, Wei; Liu, Ya-feng; Zhang, Shu-sheng

    2008-10-17

    A confirmatory and quantitative method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneous determination of 13 aminoglycoside antibiotics in various samples. The aminoglycoside analytes were released and extracted from different matrices with 5% trichloroacetic acid. The influence of pH values on the solid-phase exaction (SPE) procedure has been studied. Due to different pK(a) values of the compounds, seven aminoglycosides (AGs) were quantitatively retained on Oasis HLB cartridges at pH<1 and then six aminoglycosides were retained at pH 8.5. Thus, the combination of two HLB SPE cartridges with different pH values was involved to simultaneously purify 13 aminoglycosides. The proposed two SPE steps produced high recovery yields for every aminoglycoside in five different matrices. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to the European Union Commission directive 2002/657/EC. Good performance characteristics were obtained for recovery, precision, calibration curve, stability, specificity, decision limits (CCalpha) and detection capabilities (CCbeta) in different matrices. The optimized procedure has been successfully applied to real samples in our laboratories (n> or =200) for 1 year. It demonstrated that the new method was robust and useful for identification and quantification of 13 aminoglycosides residues in foods of animal origin.

  1. Development of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of intact glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in Brassicaceae seeds and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Franco, P; Spinozzi, S; Pagnotta, E; Lazzeri, L; Ugolini, L; Camborata, C; Roda, A

    2016-01-08

    A new high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of glucosinolates, as glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, and the corresponding isothiocyanates, as sulforaphane and erucin, was developed and applied to quantify these compounds in Eruca sativa defatted seed meals and enriched functional foods. The method involved solvent extraction, separation was achieved in gradient mode using water with 0.5% formic acid and acetonitrile with 0.5% formic acid and using a reverse phase C18 column. The electrospray ion source operated in negative and positive mode for the detection of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, respectively, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was selected as acquisition mode. The method was validated following the ICH guidelines. Replicate experiments demonstrated a good accuracy (bias%<10%) and precision (CV%<10%). Detection limits and quantification limits are in the range of 1-400ng/mL for each analytes. Calibration curves were validated on concentration ranges from 0.05 to 50μg/mL. The method proved to be suitable for glucosinolates and isothiocyanates determination both in biomasses and in complex matrices such as food products enriched with glucosinolates, or nutraceutical bakery products. In addition, the developed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in bakery product enriched with glucosinolates, to evaluate their thermal stability after different industrial processes from cultivation phases to consumer processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simple and rapid determination of thiabendazole, imazalil, and o-phenylphenol in citrus fruit using flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuko; Goto, Tomomi; Oka, Hisao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Yutaka; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-02-12

    A simple and rapid analytical method for thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMA), and o-phenylphenol (OPP) in citrus fruit has been developed by using flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. The method involves the combined use of stable isotopically labeled internal standards (thiabendazole-(13)C(6), imazalil-d(5), and p-phenylphenol-d(9)) and a multiple reaction monitoring technique. The average recoveries for the fungicides at the tolerance levels (TBZ and OPP, 10 mg/kg; IMA, 5 mg/kg) ranged from 77 to 101%, with the coefficients of variation (CVs) ranging from 0.7 to 4.2% (n = 5). At half the tolerance levels (TBZ and OPP, 5 mg/kg; IMA, 2.5 mg/kg), the average recoveries ranged from 62 to 112%, with the CVs ranging from 0.7 to 8.4% (n = 5). The CVs of the average recoveries, obtained from lemon samples fortified with three fungicides at the tolerance levels, obtained on three different days over two weeks, ranged within 2%. The analysis time, including sample preparation and determination, is only 15 min.

  3. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method for determining multiple pesticide residues in tomato.

    PubMed

    Andrade, G C R M; Monteiro, S H; Francisco, J G; Figueiredo, L A; Botelho, R G; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-05-15

    A quick and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring and a 1.8-μm particle size analytical column, was developed to determine 57 pesticides in tomato in a 13-min run. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method for samples preparations and validations was carried out in compliance with EU SANCO guidelines. The method was applied to 58 tomato samples. More than 84% of the compounds investigated showed limits of detection equal to or lower than 5 mg kg(-1). A mild (<20%), medium (20-50%), and strong (>50%) matrix effect was observed for 72%, 25%, and 3% of the pesticides studied, respectively. Eighty-one percent of the pesticides showed recoveries ranging between 70% and 120%. Twelve pesticides were detected in 35 samples, all below the maximum residue levels permitted in the Brazilian legislation; 15 samples exceeded the maximum residue levels established by the EU legislation for methamidophos; and 10 exceeded limits for acephate and four for bromuconazole.

  4. N-alkylpyridinium quaternization combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: A highly sensitive method to quantify fatty alcohols in thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanjing; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuanqi; Wang, Hang; Leng, Jiapeng; Guo, Yinlong

    2014-11-07

    A highly sensitive method was developed for the identification and quantification of fatty alcohols in biological tissues. In the presence of pyridine-d0 and triflic anhydride (Tf2O), fatty alcohols were converted into permanently charged N-alkylpyridinium ions. Stable isotope-labeled derivatives were generated by pyridine-d5 and added as internal standard (IS). The mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This method was optimized and validated in terms of reaction time, derivatization efficiency, stability, desalting, and ion suppression effect. Besides, fatty alcohols exhibited good linear relationship (r(2)>0.993) over the concentration range of 10 ngmL(-1)-1 μgmL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) were lowered from previously reported 0.1 ngmL(-1) to 0.25 pgmL(-1). Precision (RSD%<15.6%), accuracy (93.0-107.2%), matrix effect, and recovery (in thyroid tissues) were validated as well. Finally, this method was applied for the analysis of ten even carbon-numbered fatty alcohols (C8-C24) in human thyroid carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissues, revealing a significant decrease of fatty alcohols (free and esterified) in thyroid carcinoma tissues (p<0.05).

  5. Simultaneous Quantification of Antioxidant Compounds in Phellinus igniarius Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shou, Dan; Dong, Yu; Wang, Nani; Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Yan

    Natural antioxidants are widely used in the life sciences. Phellinus igniarius is a historically used natural antioxidant containing a variety of active compounds. Phenols, particularly Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B, are found in the high concentrations. Better quantitative methods are needed to perform quality control in order to support further research of this mushroom. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography method coupled to photodiode-array detection and an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-PAD-MS) was developed to simultaneously quantify Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B levels in the medicinal fungus Phellinus igniarius. The two compounds were quantified using UPLC-PAD and UPLC-MS. The methods were accurate (mean accuracy for spiked matrix ranged from 101.5% to 105.8%), sensitive (limit of detection ranged from 0.28 to 1.14 mg L-1) and precise (the relative standard deviations ranged from 0.13 to 2.8%). Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B were purified using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), structural evaluated to meet the request of standard substances. UPLC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid over 10 min. The developed method was successfully applied to determine Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B in twelve Phellinus igniarius samples of different origins and the results showed that it was suitable for the analysis of these active components in Phellinus igniarius samples.

  6. Quantification of intracellular phosphorylated carbohydrates in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vizán, Pedro; Alcarraz-Vizán, Gema; Díaz-Moralli, Santiago; Rodríguez-Prados, Juan Carlos; Zanuy, Míriam; Centelles, Josep J; Jáuregui, Olga; Cascante, Marta

    2007-07-01

    The quantitative understanding of the role of sugar phosphates in regulating tumor energetic metabolism at the proteomic and genomic level is a prerequisite for an efficient rational design in combined drug chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the concentration of the main sugar phosphate pools at the lower concentrations present in the often-limited volume of tumor cell samples. Taking as an example the human adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, we here report a fast and reliable quantitative method based on the use of liquid nitrogen, a weak acid extraction, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to quantify simultaneously the intracellular concentration of sugar phosphate pools. The method was set up using standard addition curves. Thus, it is possible to identify and quantify hexose phosphate, pentose phosphate, and triose phosphate pools up to 0.02-0.10 ng x microL(-1), depending on the analyte. The method developed was here used for the quantitative study of changes in phosphorylated carbohydrates of central carbon metabolism when high or low glucose concentration conditions are induced in vitro in the HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line.

  7. Quantitative analysis of neutral and acidic sugars in whole bacterial cell hydrolysates using high-performance anion-exchange liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wunschel, D; Fox, K F; Fox, A; Nagpal, M L; Kim, K; Stewart, G C; Shahgholi, M

    1997-08-01

    A procedure for analysis of a mixture of neutral and acidic sugars in bacterial whole cell hydrolysates using high-performance anion-exchange liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPAEC-ESI-MS-MS) is described. Certain bacteria (including bacilli), grown under phosphate-limited conditions, switch from producing a teichoic acid (containing ribitol) to a teichuronic acid (characterized by glucuronic acid content). Bacterial cells were hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid to release sugar monomers. The solution was neutralized by extraction with an organic base. Hydrophobic and cationic contaminants (including amino acids) were removed using C18 and SCX columns, respectively. HPAEC is well established as a high-resolution chromatographic technique, in conjunction with a pulsed amperometric detector. Alternatively, for more selective detection, sugars (as M-H- ions) were monitored using ESI-MS. In HPAEC, the mobile phase contains sodium hydroxide and sodium acetate, which are necessary for chromatographic separation of mixtures of neutral and acidic sugars. Elimination of this high ionic content prior to entry into the ESI ion source is vital to avoid compromising sensitivity. This was accomplished using an on-line suppressor and decreasing post-column flow-rates from 1 ml to 50 microliters/min. In the selected ion monitoring mode, background (from the complex sample matrix as well as the mobile phase) was eliminated, simplifying chromatograms. Sugar identification was achieved by MS-MS using collision-induced dissociation.

  8. Rapid and simultaneous analysis of dichlorvos, malathion, carbaryl, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid in citrus fruit by flow-injection ion spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Koichi; Ito, Yuko; Goto, Tomomi; Kato, Kayoko; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Oka, Hisao

    2004-11-15

    A simple method for the rapid and simultaneous analysis of dichlorvos (DDVP), malathion, carbaryl, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) in citrus fruit, which uses flow-injection ion spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, has been developed for the first time. The method involves the combined use of stable isotopically labeled internal standards (DDVP-d(6), malathion-d(10), carbaryl-d(7), and 2,4-D-d(5)) and a multiple reaction monitoring technique. The average recoveries for the pesticides at the same concentrations as their tolerance levels (DDVP: 0.1-0.2mugg(-1); malathion: 0.5-4.0mugg(-1); carbaryl: 1.0mugg(-1); 2,4-D: 1.0-2.0mugg(-1)) ranged from 90 to 119% with the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) ranging from 1.0 to 13.1% (n = 5). Analysis time, including sample preparation and determination, was only 15min. The present method is effective for screening DDVP, malathion, carbaryl, and 2,4-D in citrus fruit.

  9. An online automatic sample cleanup system for the quantitative detection of the benzene exposure biomarker S-phenylmercapturic acid in human urine by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pao-Chi; Li, Chien-Ming; Lin, Lung-Cheng; Hung, Chien-Wen; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2002-01-01

    An online automatic sample cleanup system was developed for use with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) for the quantitative detection of the benzene exposure biomarker S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) in human urine. The sample clean-up system was constructed with an autosampling device, a reversed-phase C18 trap cartridge, a two-position switching valve, and controlling computer software and hardware. The sample cleanup system was interfaced directly with the ESI source of a triple-stage-quadrupole MS using multiple reaction monitoring of negative product ions derived from S-PMA and the internal standard as the detection mode. The calibration curve was linear using human urine spiked at concentrations from 0.23 to 100 mg/L S-PMA (R2 = 0.997). The detection limit of the analytical system for neat S-PMA standard solution was 0.04 microg/L, whereas the detection limit was estimated to be lower than 0.35 microg/L for a urine matrix containing trace amounts of S-PMA. Without tedious manual sample cleanup procedures, the analytical system is fully automatic and therefore useful for high-throughput urinary S-PMA determination. With the selectivity and the sensitivity provided by MS-MS detection, the analytical system can be used for high-throughput and accurate determination of S-PMA levels in human urinary samples as a biomarker for benzene exposure.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of 29 veterinary drugs in compound feeds by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Liu, Yu; Jin, Yan; Xu, Yihong; Zhong, Yu; Jiang, Shi; Li, Xiaodong; Zeng, Fan; Zhou, Jiannan

    2012-09-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 29 veterinary drugs of quinolones, sulfonamides, macrolides and nitrofurans in compound feeds. The sample was extracted with methanol-acetonitrile ( 1 : 1, v/v), and then cleaned up using solid phase extraction with an Oasis HLB column, detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/ MS. The UPLC separation was performed on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution with the mobile phases of methanol and 0. 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The ESI-MS/MS detection was achieved in positive mode under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The linear ranges were from 0.01 to 5.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients above 0. 99 for all the 29 veterinary drugs. The average recoveries of the 29 veterinary drugs spiked in three feed matrixes (the compound premix feed, the complete formula feed and the concentrated feed) at four spiked levels were 61.2% - 94.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.2% - 15.0%. The limits of detection were 0. 01 mg/kg or 0.05 mg/kg. The method is rapid, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and easy to apply, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of diverse veterinary drugs in compound feeds.

  11. Bottom-up proteomics of Escherichia coli using dynamic pH junction preconcentration and capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guijie; Sun, Liangliang; Yan, Xiaojing; Dovichi, Norman J

    2014-07-01

    We report the use of the dynamic pH junction based capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS/MS) for bottom-up proteomics with an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) interface and both LTQ-XL and LTQ-Orbitrap-Velos mass spectrometers. Conventional injection of 20 nL of a 1 mg/mL BSA digest identified 37 peptides and produced 66% sequence coverage. In contrast, pH junction injection of 130 nL (or larger) of a 0.05 mg/mL BSA digest identified 40 peptides and produced 70% coverage using a pH 6.5 sample buffer and the LTQ. A 20 nL conventional injection of a 1 mg/mL Escherichia coli digest identified 508 peptides and 199 proteins with the LTQ. A 400 nL pH junction injection of a 0.1 mg/mL E. coli digest identified 527 peptides and 179 proteins with the LTQ. Triplicate technical replicates of a 0.01 mg/mL sample with 400-nL injection volume using a pH junction identified 288 ± 9 peptides and 121 ± 5 proteins with the LTQ. There was outstanding concordance in migration time between the pH junction and normal injection. The pH junction produced narrower peaks and significant concentration for all but the most acidic components in the sample. Compared with the conventional stacking method, the pH junction method can generate comparable performance for small injection volume (20 nL) and significantly better concentration performance for a large injection volume (200 nL). We also applied the pH junction to three intact standard proteins and observed a >10× increase in peak intensity compared to conventional injection.

  12. Rapid characterization of urinary metabolites of pibutidine hydrochloride in humans by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Jingu, S; Ogawa, N; Higuchi, S

    1999-01-01

    The metabolic products of pibutidine hydrochloride, a new H(2)-receptor antagonist, in human urine after oral administration of 40 mg/man were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Two-stage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments, with in-source CID by increasing the octapole offset voltage and collision-cell CID, were performed in order to develop a very rapid screening procedure that enhanced selectivity toward pibutidine-related compounds. It was possible to detect metabolites of pibutidine directly from a crude biological matrix without prior extraction, enabling confirmation of the identity of eight metabolites in urine. In addition, the linear range in ESI for pibutidine-related compounds was studied to determine the urinary excretion of pibutidine and its metabolites in humans.

  13. High throughput quantification of cholesterol and cholesteryl ester by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Binder, Marion; Schifferer, Rainer; Langmann, Thomas; Schulz, Berta; Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of free cholesterol (FC) is not well suited for electrospray ionization (ESI); however, cholesteryl ester (CE) form ammonium adducts in positive ion mode and generate a fragment ion of m/z 369 upon collision-induced fragmentation. In order to allow parallel analysis of FC and CE using ESI tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), we developed an acetyl chloride derivatization method to convert FC to cholesteryl acetate (CE 2:0). Derivatization conditions were chosen to provide a quantitative conversion of FC to CE 2:0 without transesterification of naturally occurring CE species. FC and CE were analyzed by direct flow injection analysis using a fragment of m/z 369 in a combination of selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and precursor ion scan for FC and CE, respectively. Quantification was achieved using deuterated D(7)-FC and CE 17:0/CE 22:0 as internal standards as well as calibration lines generated by addition of FC and naturally occurring CE species to the respective sample matrix. The developed assay showed a precision and detection limit sufficient for routine analysis. A run time of 1.3 min and automated data analysis allow high throughput analysis. Loading of human skin fibroblast and monocyte derived macrophages with stable isotope labeled FC showed a potential application of this method in metabolism studies. Together with existing mass spectrometry methodologies for lipid analysis, the present methodology will provide a useful tool for clinical and biochemical studies and expands the lipid spectrum that can be analyzed from one lipid sample on a single instrumental platform.

  14. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR′) were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS3 (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: 1) [RCOOH2]+ for saturated wax esters, 2) [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and 3) [RCOOH2]+ and [RCO]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R′]+ and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2]+ ions for all types of wax esters and [R′ – 2H]+ ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions. PMID:26178197

  15. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-08-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR') were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS(3) (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: (1) [RCOOH2](+) for saturated wax esters, (2) [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and (3) [RCOOH2](+) and [RCO](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R'](+) and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2](+) ions for all types of wax esters and [R'-2H](+) ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions.

  16. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay for determination of nicotine and metabolites, caffeine and arecoline in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Marchei, Emilia; Rossi, Silvia; Vagnarelli, Federica; Durgbanshi, Abhilasha; García-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona

    2007-01-01

    A procedure based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is described for the determination of nicotine and its principal metabolites cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine and cotinine-N-oxide, caffeine and arecoline in breast milk, using N-ethylnorcotinine as internal standard. Liquid/liquid extraction with chloroform/isopropanol (95:5, v/v) was used for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N-oxide and caffeine under neutral conditions and for arecoline under basic conditions. Chromatography was performed on a C(8) reversed-phase column using a gradient of 50 mM ammonium formate, pH 5.0, and acetonitrile as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Separated analytes were determined by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring. Limits of quantification were 5 microg/L for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N-oxide and caffeine, and 50 microg/L for arecoline using 1 mL human milk per assay. Calibration curves were linear over the calibration ranges for all the substances under investigation, with a minimum r(2) > 0.998. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic range of the assay, mean recoveries from breast milk ranged between 71.8 and 77.4% for different analytes. This method was applied to the analysis of analytes in human milk to assess substance exposure in breast-fed infants in relation to eventual clinical outcomes. This LC/MS/MS assay provides adequate sensitivity and performance characteristics for the simultaneous quantification of biomarkers of three of the drugs most commonly used worldwide (tobacco, caffeine and areca nut).

  17. Analysis of trichloroethylene-induced global DNA hypomethylation in hepatic L-02 cells by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Hong, Wen-Xu; Ye, Jinbo; Yang, Xifei; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Aibo; Yang, Linqing; Zhou, Li; Huang, Haiyan; Wu, Desheng; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-04-04

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a major occupational and environmental pollutant, has been recently associated with aberrant epigenetic changes in experimental animals and cultured cells. TCE is known to cause severe hepatotoxicity; however, the association between epigenetic alterations and TCE-induced hepatotoxicity are not yet well explored. DNA methylation, catalyzed by enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), is a major epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in regulating many cellular processes. In this study, we analyzed the TCE-induced effect on global DNA methylation and DNMT enzymatic activity in human hepatic L-02 cells. A sensitive and quantitative method combined with liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was validated and utilized for assessing the altered DNA methylation in TCE-induced L-02 cells. Quantification was accomplished in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by monitoring a transition pair of m/z 242.1 (molecular ion)/126.3 (fragment ion) for 5-mdC and m/z 268.1/152.3 for dG. The correlation coefficient of calibration curves between 5-mdC and dG was higher than 0.9990. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard derivation values (RSD) were on the range of 0.53-7.09% and 0.40-2.83%, respectively. We found that TCE exposure was able to significantly decrease the DNA methylation and inhibit DNMT activity in L-02 cells. Our results not only reveal the association between TCE exposure and epigenetic alterations, but also provide an alternative mass spectrometry-based method for rapid and accurate assessment of chemical-induced altered DNA methylation in mammal cells.

  18. [Determination of 49 drugs and 5 metabolites in drinking water samples using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Xiangming; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing; Li, Shuming

    2015-07-01

    A method for the determination of 54 drugs in drinking water samples was developed by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI MS/MS). The target drugs in drinking water samples were enriched and cleaned-up by HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and then eluted with 5 mL methanol. The elute was collected, concentrated under a gentle stream of nitrogen gas, diluted with 0.4 mL 0.1% formic acid solution, and analyzed by UPLC-ESI MS/MS. The separation of the 54 drugs was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column using mobile phases of 0.1% formic acid and methanol by gradient elution. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed in mass spectrometry acquisition. The matrix-matched external standard calibration was used for quantitation. The results showed that the average recoveries of the drugs in ground water, tap water and surface water were 58.7%-104.4%, 53.1%-109.5%, and 50.7%-118.8%, respectively, and the corresponding relative standard deviations (RSD, n=6) were 0.3%-12.8%, 1.0%-15.5%, and 0.4%-19.3%, respectively. The method quantification limits (MQL) for target compounds were in the range of 0.002-5.000 ng/L. The developed method was applied to analyze the water samples from Beijing. The results showed that 26 drugs were detected in ground water samples.

  19. Spray-inlet microwave plasma torch ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the direct detection of drug samples in liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Miao, Meng; Zhao, Gaosheng; Wang, Yaliang; Xu, Li; Dong, Junguo; Cheng, Ping

    2017-09-14

    Drug abuse or dependence results in a series of social problems, including crime and traffic accidents. Spray inlet microwave plasma torch tandem mass spectrometry (MPT-MS/MS) was developed and used for the direct detection of such drugs in liquid solutions. Drug sample solutions were directly sprayed into the flame of MPT by a sampling pump and the ions produced by Penning ionization and ion-molecule reactions were guided into a QTOF tandem mass spectrometer for mass analysis. The MPT was operated at 40 W and 2.45 GHz in a 700 mL/min argon flow both for the inner and middle plasma. Intact quasi-molecular and molecular ions of various drugs were successfully characterized by spray-inlet MPT-MS/MS. The analysis of one sample was finished within 30 s. Furthermore, the method exhibited excellent efficiency, precision, and sensitivity, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification of the samples in methanol were in the range of 5.25-60.0 and 17.5-200 ng g(-1) , respectively. Excellent linearities with coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of 0.9627-0.9980 were verified in the range 0.05-50 μg g(-1) . Four different beverages purchased locally were also analyzed with spray-inlet MPT-MS/MS, and caffeine was directly determined in two of the beverages. By adding six standard drug samples in sport drinks (each drug was 1 μg g(-1) ) and Chinese spirit (each drug was 0.1 μg g(-1) ), all the drugs except for caffeine were detected successfully. This study indicates that spay-inlet MPT-MS/MS is an effective method for direct and rapid identification of drug solutions, and it has substantial potential for fast and sensitive drug residue detection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of cystatin-C in human serum by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huoyan; Wang, Jianxin; Ju, Shaoqin; Cong, Hui; Wang, Xudong; Su, Jianyou; Wang, Huimin

    2017-08-01

    Cystatin C (CysC)-based estimated glomerular filtration rate is an excellent marker for early diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA) and particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) are commonly used methods for CysC quantification in clinical testing. However, both of them lack of specificity which mass spectrometry offers. In this paper, an isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) method was established for quantification of CysC in human serum. After CysC denaturation, reduction and alkylation of cysteine residues, trypsin was added for proteolytic digestion of CysC. Specific peptide ALDFAVGEYNK was selected as surrogates for intact CysC protein, then quantified CysC by stable isotope-labelled internal standard peptide A[(13)C6(15)N]LDFAVGEYNK based on calibration curve method. The calibration curves were y=0.1565x-1.6715 (R(2)=0.988) and y=1.8785x-2.2497 (R(2)=0.991) for y(9) and y(6), respectively. The linear range was 0.1-10mg/L and 0.5-15mg/L for y(9) and y(6), respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.052mg/L. At different concentrations of CysC, the recoveries were in the range of 80.5%-93.7%, the intraday precisions were in the range of 0.3%-2.2%, and the inter-day precisions were in the range of 0.2%-2.8%. The results show that ID-LC-MS/MS and PETIA methods have higher consistency (y=0.8021x+0.6611, p=0.14), and the mean difference of the two methods was -0.29mg/L, and 95% of the individual difference values were in the range of -0.91mg/L-0.33mg/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-throughput quantitative analysis of domoic acid directly from mussel tissue using Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Walsh, Callee M; McCarron, Pearse

    2014-12-15

    Eliminating sample extraction or liquid chromatography steps from methods for analysis of the neurotoxin Domoic Acid (DA) in shellfish could greatly increase throughput in food safety testing laboratories worldwide. To this end, we have investigated the use of Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization (LAESI) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for DA analysis directly from mussel tissue homogenates without sample extraction, cleanup or separation. DA could be selectively detected directly from mussel tissue homogenates using MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring scan mode. The quantitative capabilities of LAESI-MS/MS for DA analysis from mussel tissue were evaluated by analysis of four mussel tissue reference materials using matrix-matched calibration. Linear response was observed from 1 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg and the method limit of detection was 1 mg/kg. Results for DA analysis in tissue within the linear range were in good agreement with two established methods, LC-UV and LC-MS/MS (recoveries from 103 to 125%). Beyond the linear range, extraction and clean-up were required to achieve good quantitation. Most notable is the extremely rapid analysis time of about 10 s per sample by LAESI-MS/MS, which corresponds to a significant increase in sample throughput compared with existing methodology for routine DA analysis. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of intracellular and extracellular digoxin and ouabain by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Miyamori, Kazuaki; Sato, Toshihiro; Ogura, Jiro; Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamada, Takehiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Iseki, Ken

    2014-12-01

    A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of intracellular accumulation in addition to transcellular transport of digoxin and ouabain in renal epithelial HK-2 cells was developed. The solid-phase extraction Bond Elut(®) C18 (100mg/1mL) cartridge was used for the extraction of digoxin and ouabain from extracellular (medium) and intracellular (cell lysate) matrices. Chromatographic separation was performed on a CAPCELL PAK C18 MGII column (2.0mm×150mm, 5μm). This method covered a linear range of 0.5-1000ng/mL of concentrations in medium and 0.5-1000ng of concentrations in cell lysate for digoxin and ouabain. The intra-day precision and inter-day precision of analysis were less than 11.9%, and the accuracy was within ±11.6%. The total run time was 16min. Our method was successfully applied to the transport experiments of digoxin and ouabain by HK-2 cell monolayers.

  3. Structural analysis of platycosides in Platycodi Radix by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Na, Yun-Cheol; Ha, Young Wan; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Kang-Jin

    2008-05-02

    Platycosides extracted from Platycodi Radix were analyzed by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS(n)). Predominant [M+Na](+) ions in positive mode and [M-H](-) ions in negative mode in the direct ESI-MS spectra of extract provided information on molecular weights, but minor components and isomers could not be discriminated. However, combining HPLC and ESI-MS(n), allowed eleven platycosides, including four acetylated platycodin isomers and two prosapogenines to be analyzed. During MS(2) analysis conducted to elucidate the structures of platycosides, fragment ions provided information on sugar moieties attached at C-28 of triterpene structure of the platycosides. Glycosidic bond cleavages at C-3 were revealed by fragment ions in MS(3) spectra. Some characteristic fragment ions not related to sugar bond cleavage revealed that an esterified triterpene is linked to sugars at C-28. The only sugar ring-cross cleavage corresponding to 90 Da in the negative MS(2) spectrum took place at an arabinosyl sugar moiety. By using HPLC/ESI-MS(n), three acetylated platycosides in Platycodi Radix extract were newly identified.

  4. Countering matrix effects in environmental liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry water analysis for endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Benijts, Tom; Dams, Riet; Lambert, Willy; De Leenheer, André

    2004-03-12

    In recent years, despite the increasing success of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS), reports on matrix susceptibility have shown the limitations of the this powerful analytical technique. Matrix effects (MEs) result from co-eluting residual matrix components affecting the ionization efficiency of target analytes and can lead to erroneous results. The present work evaluates the matrix effect of environmental water samples on 35 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in negative and positive LC-ESI-MS/MS. It was shown that mobile-phase additives could significantly influence matrix effects. Addition of acids resulted in a severe signal suppression (average ME%: <65%), and 1 mM ammonium formate increased the average ME% to 84%. The importance of an efficient sample clean-up and internal standardization also was demonstrated. Cleaner extracts resulted in reduced matrix effects (average ME%: 89%) and labeled internal standards proved to have a beneficial effect especially on signal reproducibility (average CV% 4.2% versus 2.6%). The results from the present work indicate that evaluation of matrix effects should become an integrated part of quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS method development and validation.

  5. High-throughput quantification of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isotope correction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Lieser, Bernd; Rathenberg, Jan; Drobnik, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Gerd

    2004-11-08

    The choline head group containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SPM) are major eukaryotic lipid components playing an important role in forming membrane microdomains and serve as precursor of signaling molecules. Both lipids can be monitored by positive ion mode electrospray tandem mass spectrometry using a parent ion scan of m/z 184. Although PC species appear at even m/z and SPM species at odd m/z, there may be a significant overlap of their isotopes. In order to separate PC and SPM species, an isotope correction algorithm was established, which utilizes calculated isotope percentages to correct the measured peak intensities for their isotopic overlap. We could demonstrate that this approach was applicable to correct the isotope overlap resulting from spiked PC and SPM species. Quantification was achieved by addition of different PC and SPM species prior to lipid extraction. The developed assay showed a precision, detection limit and robustness sufficient for routine analysis. Furthermore, an analysis time of only 1.3 min combined with automated data analysis using self-programmed Excel Macros allows high-throughput analysis. In summary, this assay may be a valuable tool for detailed lipid analysis of PC and SPM species in a variety of sample materials.

  6. Quantitative determination of the diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caiming

    2010-12-01

    A sensitive, simple and feasible method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The simple pretreatment generally involved protein precipitation with methanol (MeOH). The separation was performed with a C18 reverse phase column. The mobile phases were 5mM ammonium acetate (NH(4)AC) in water and acetonitrile (ACN). The mass spectrometer was operated using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the data acquisition was carried out with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The analyte quantifications were performed by external standard method with matrix-matched calibration curves. The method was partially validated with the evaluations of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD), recovery, matrix effect and carryover effect. With the present method, the intra-batch accuracies were 94.7-104.3%, 91.9-109.3% and 89.8-105.0% for α-, β- and γ-HBCD, respectively. And the inter-batch accuracies were ranged from 94.2% to 109.7%. Both intra-batch and inter-batch precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) of the analytes were no more than 11.2%. The recoveries were from 79.0% to 108.9% and the LOQ was 10pg/mL for each diastereoisomer. The linear range was 10-10,000pg/mL with the linear correlation coefficient R(2)>0.996. No significant matrix effect and carryover effect of the analytes were observed in this study. This method is in possession of sufficient resolution, high sensitivity as well as selectivity and convenient to be applied to the trace determination of HBCDs in human plasma.

  7. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for accurate analysis of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in drug resistance tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wang, Linlin; Shangguan, Dihua; Wei, Yanbo; Han, Juanjuan; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Zhao, Zhenwen

    2015-02-13

    Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are important signaling molecules which are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Here we reported an effective method for accurate analysis of these lipids by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The methanol method was adopted for extraction of lipids due to its simplicity and high efficiency. It was found that two subclasses of sphingolipids, sulfatide (ST) and cerebroside (CB), were heat labile, so a decreased temperature in the ion source of MS might be necessary for these compounds analysis. In addition, it was found that the isobaric interferences were commonly existent, for example, the m/z of 16:0/18:1 PC containing two (13)C isotope being identical to that of 16:0/18:0 PC determined by a unit mass resolution mass spectrometer; therefore, a baseline separation of interferential species was required to maintain selectivity and accuracy of analysis. In this work, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-based method was developed for separation of interferential species. Moreover, in order to deal with the characteristics of different polarity and wide dynamic range of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in biological systems, three detecting conditions were combined together for comprehensive and rational analysis of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. The method was utilized to profile glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in drug resistant tumor cells. Our results showed that many lipids were significantly changed in drug resistant tumor cells compared to paired drug sensitive tumor cells. This is a systematic report about the isobaric interferences and heat labile compounds interferences when analyzing glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids by ESI-MS/MS, which aids in ruling out one potential source of systematic error to ensure the accuracy of analysis.

  8. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Crinum by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Huang, Hao; Liang, Xu; Huang, Haiqiang; Dai, WeiXing; Shen, YunHeng; Yan, ShiKai; Zhang, WeiDong

    2009-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS(n)) method was developed to analyze two structurally related groups of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AmAs), crinane- and tazettine-type alkaloids, in the species Crinum latifolium and C. asiaticum, as well as different organs of C. latifolium. In ESI-MS(n) spectra of the two types of alkaloids, characteristic fragmentation reactions were observed that allowed us to determine and differentiate them. Based on the fragmentation rules of reference standards, crinane-type alkaloids displayed concurrent neutral loss of C(2)H(5)N (43 u) and C(2)H(6)N (44 u) as well as characteristic ions of m/z 213 and 211, whereas tazettine-type alkaloids exhibited neutral loss of C(3)H(7)N (57 u) [or C(2)H(5)N (43 u), C(3)H(7)NO (73 u)] from the [M+H](+) and [M+H-H(2)O](+) ions. These were supported by quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-Tof)-MS/MS analysis. The chemical complexity of the mixture was resolved by profiling. The compositions of the main crinane- and tazettine-type alkaloids in the above-mentioned species and organs were also compared. Overall, 28 AmAs comprising 14 crinane-type and 14 tazettine-type alkaloids were identified and studied by MS. Among them, 14 AmAs were tentatively characterized from the two species for the first time. This method allowed a rapid analysis of alkaloid distribution and composition of Crinum species, and may also be used for quality control and screening of extracts designated for pharmaceutical application.

  9. On-line derivatization gas chromatography with furan chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for screening of amphetamines in urine.

    PubMed

    Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ghule, Anil; Liu, Jen-Yu; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2006-12-22

    A simple alternative method with minimal sample pretreatment is investigated for screening of amphetamines in small volume (using only 20 microL) of urine sample. The method is sensitive and selective. The method uses gas chromatography (GC) direct sample introduction (DSI) for on-line derivatization (acylation) of amphetamines to improve sensitivity. Furan as chemical ionization (CI) reagent in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is used to improve selectivity. Low background with sharp protonated molecular ion peaks of analytes is the evidence of improvement in sensitivity and selectivity. Blank urine samples spiked with known amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine is analyzed. Selected ion monitoring of the characteristic product ions (m/z 119+136+150+163) using furan CI-MS/MS in positive ion mode is used for quantification. Limits of detection (LOD) between 0.4 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) between 1.0 and 2.0 ng mL(-1) are established. Linear response over the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (r(2)>0.997) is observed for all analytes, except for methamphetamine (2.0-1000 ng mL(-1)). Good accuracy between 86 and 113% and precision ranging from 4 to 18% is obtained. The method is also tested on real samples of urine from suspected drug abusers. This method could be used for screening and determination of amphetamines in urine samples, however needs additional work for full validation.

  10. Screening for new psychoactive substances in hair by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Odoardi, Sara; Fisichella, Marco; Anzillotti, Luca; Gottardo, Rossella; Tagliaro, Franco

    2014-11-06

    In the latest years, many new psychoactive substances (NPS) from several drug classes have appeared in the illicit drug market. Their rapid, sensitive and specific identification in biological fluids is hence of great concern for clinical and forensic toxicologists. Here is described a multi-analyte method for the determination of NPS, pertaining to different chemical classes (synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, ketamine, piperazines and amphetamine-type substances-ATS) in human hair using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in electrospray ionization mode. We focused on a sample preparation able to extract the different classes of NPS. About 30mg of hair was decontaminated and incubated overnight under sonication in different conditions depending on the type of analytes to be extracted: (a) with 300μL of HCOOH 0.1% for cathinones, piperazines and ATS; (b) with 300μL of MeOH for synthetic cannabinoids. Ten microliter of the extracts were then injected in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The LODs varied from 2pg/mg to 20pg/mg. The method was linear in the range from the LOQ to 500pg/mg and showed acceptable precision (%RSD<15) and accuracy (%E<15) for all the analytes. The method was finally applied on 50 samples from real forensic cases (driving license re-granting, postmortem toxicological analyses, workplace drug testing). In three samples we detected synthetic cannabinoids, in four samples cathinones or ephedrines, in two samples ketamine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an analytical method for detecting nitrofurans in bee pollen by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Sun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2017-03-01

    Bee pollen collected by honeybees, which is in powdered form, is a good nutritional supplement. Nitrofuran antibiotics are assumed not to be present in bee pollen, which is important as the level of antibiotics in bee pollen is strongly regulated in many countries. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to detect nitrofurans in honey has been developed, but this method is not suitable for bee pollen because of it being in powdered form. During preparation of bee pollen samples, the dispersal of powder particles in an aqueous solution often makes them susceptible to forming an emulsion with solvent components such as hexane and ethyl acetate. This may reduce the reproducibility and sensitivity of analyses of nitrofuran levels in bee pollen. Therefore, we attempted to optimize the sample preparation conditions to detect nitrofurans in bee pollen by determining three nitrofuran residues, namely, 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), 3-amino-5-methyl-morpholino-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), and 1-aminohydantoin (AHD), using LC-MS/MS. The optimized method prevented the formation of powder-induced emulsion. To verify the reproducibility and sensitivity of this method, it was validated using nitrofuran-free bee pollen spiked with analytes with different side chains at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0μgkg(-1). The accuracy levels were 94.1%-104.0% and the coefficients of variation were less than 12%. The limits of detection for AOZ, AMOZ, and AHD were 0.18, 0.25, and 0.30μgkg(-1), respectively, while their limits of quantitation were 0.59, 0.83, and 1.00μgkg(-1). The LC-MS/MS method developed to analyze nitrofuran in bee pollen should contribute to the quality control of bee pollen and food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gas-Phase Stability of G-quadruplex DNA Determined by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Mazzitelli, Carolyn L.; Wang, Junmei; Smith, Suncerae I.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    The relative gas-phase stabilities of seven quadruplex DNA structures, [d(TG4T)]4, [d(T2G3T)]4, [d(G4T4G4)]2, [d(T2AG3)2]2, d(T2AG3)4, d(T2G4)4, and d(G2T4)4, were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). MD simulations revealed that the G-quadruplexes maintained their structures in the gas phase although the G-quartets were distorted to some degree and ammonium ions, retained by [d(TG4T)]4 and [d(T2G3T)]4, played a key role in stabilizing the tetrad structure. Energy-variable collisional activated dissociation was used to assess the relative stabilities of each quadruplex based on E1/2 values, and the resulting order of relative stabilities was found to be [d(TG4T)]4 ≫ d(T2AG3)4 ∼ d(T2G4)4 > [d(T2G3T)]4 > [d(T2AG3)2]2 ∼ d(G2T4)4 ∼ [d(G4T4G4)]2. The stabilities from the E1/2 values generally paralleled the RMSD and relative free energies of the quadruplexes based on the MD energy analysis. One exception to the general agreement is [d(G4T4G4)]2 which had the lowest E1/2 value, but was determined to be the most stable quadruplex according to the free energy analysis and ranked fourth based on the RMSD comparison. This discrepancy is attributed to differences in the fragmentation pathway of the quadruplex. PMID:17719795

  13. Comparison of Drug Distribution Images from Thin Tissue Sections Obtained Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Whole-Body Autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J; Vavek, Marissa; Koeplinger, Kenneth A.; Schneider, Bradley B; Covey, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (DESI-MS/MS) and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) were used for chemical imaging of whole-body thin tissue sections of mice intravenously dosed with propranolol (7.5 mg/kg). DESI-MS/MS imaging utilized selected reaction monitoring detection performed on an AB/MDS SCIEX 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer equipped with a prototype extended length particle discriminator interface. Propranolol images of the tissue sections using DESI-MS/MS were obtained at surface scan rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 7 mm/s. Although signal decreased with increasing scan rate, useful whole-body images for propranolol were obtained from the tissues even at 7 mm/s, which required just 79 min of analysis time. Attempts to detect and image the distribution of the known propranolol metabolites were unsuccessful. Regions of the tissue sections showing the most radioactivity from WBA sections were excised and analyzed by HPLC with radiochemical detection to determine relative levels of propranolol and metabolites present. Comparison of the DESI-MS/MS signal for propranolol and the radioactivity attributed to propranolol from WBA sections indicated nominal agreement between the two techniques for the amount of propranolol in the brain, lung, and liver. Data from the kidney showed an unexplained disparity between the two techniques. The results of this study show the feasibility of using DESI-MS/MS to obtain useful chemical images of a drug in whole-body thin tissue sections following drug administration at a pharmacologically relevant level. Further optimization to improve sensitivity and enable detection of the drug metabolites will be among the requirements necessary to move DESI-MS/MS chemical imaging forward as a practical tool in drug discovery.

  14. Determination of dansylated monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters and their metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hua-Lin; Zhu, Rong-Hua; Li, Huan-De

    2010-01-01

    The determination of neurotransmitters (NTs) and their metabolites facilitates better understanding of complex neurobiology in the central nervous system disorders and has expanding uses in many other fields. We present a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) method for the quantification of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), norepinephrine (NE), vanillymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy phenylglycol (MHPG), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), glutamate (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The NTs and their metabolites were dansylated and analyzed by an LC gradient on a C18 column on-line with a tandem mass spectrometer. This method exhibited excellent linearity for all of the analytes with regression coefficients higher than 0.99. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) values for DA, DOPAC, HVA, NE, VMA, MHPG, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, Glu, and GABA were 0.57, 0.37, 0.35, 0.40, 0.35, 0.91, 0.27, 0.43, 0.65, and 1.62 pmol/ml, respectively. The precision results were expressed as coefficients of variation (CVs), ranging from 1.5% to 13.6% for intraassay and from 2.9% to 13.7% for the interassay. This novel LC-ESI/MS/MS approach is precise, highly sensitive, specific, and sufficiently simple. It can provide an alternative method for the quantification of the NTs and their metabolites in human plasma.

  15. Top-down lipidomic analysis of human lipoproteins by chip-type asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hun; Lee, Ju Yong; Lim, Sangsoo; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2013-03-08

    This study demonstrates the potential utility of on-line chip-type asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (cAF4) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) for the top-down lipidomic analysis of human lipoproteins. Utilizing a cAF4, which is a miniaturized AF4 channel operated with a micro flow rate regime, enabled high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) to be separated by hydrodynamic diameter in an aqueous solution with the simultaneous desalting of lipoproteins. On-line desalting was found to enhance the ionization of lipoproteinic lipid molecules during the feeding of cAF4 effluent to ESI-MS when compared to the direct infusion of lipoproteins to MS. An evaluation of top-down lipidomic analysis was performed to test the efficiency of in-source fragmentation during cAF4-ESI-MS in the dissociation of lipoprotein particles into individual lipid molecules. This study demonstrates the structural identification of the following lipid classes: phosphatidylcholines (PCs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and regioisomers of triacylglycerols (TAGs) having an identical mass but different acyl chains and dimeric forms of TAGs in the positive ion mode, and phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), phosphatidic acids (PAs), phosphatidyinositols (PIs), and their lyso species in the negative ion mode. The developed method was applied to plasma samples from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for the separation of HDL and LDL and for the simultaneous analysis of lipoproteinic lipids, resulting in the identification of 11 PCs, 9 PGs, 4 PAs, 2 PIs, 2 PEs, 18 TAGs, and 6 CEs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of 21-hydroxydeflazacort in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Application to bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Ifa, D R; Moraes, M E; Moraes, M O; Santagada, V; Caliendo, G; de Nucci, G

    2000-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method is described for the determination of 21-hydroxydeflazacort in human plasma using dexamethasone 21-acetate as an internal standard. The procedure requires a single diethyl ether extraction. After evaporation of the solvent under a nitrogen flow, the analytes are reconstituted in the mobile phase, chromatographed on a C18 reversed-phase column and analyzed by mass spectrometry via a heated nebulizer interface where they are detected by multiple reaction monitoring. The method has a chromatographic run time of less than 5 min and a linear calibration curve with a range of 1-400 ng ml(-1) (r>0.999). The between-run precision, based on the relative standard deviation for replicate quality controls, was < or =5.5% (10 ng ml(-1)), 1.0% (50 ng ml(-1)) and 2.7% (200 ng ml(-1)). The between-run accuracy was +/-7.1, 3.8 and 4.8% for the above concentrations, respectively. This method was employed in a bioequivalence study of two DFZ tablet formulations (Denacen from Marjan Industria e Comercio, Brazil, as a test formulation, and Calcort from Merrell Lepetit, Brazil, as a reference formulation) in 24 healthy volunteers of both sexes who received a single 30 mg dose of each formulation. The study was conducted using an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 7-day washout interval. The 90% confidence interval (CI) of the individual geometric mean ratio for Denacen/Calcort was 89.8-109.5% for area under the curve AUC(0-24 h) and 80.7-98.5% for Cmax. Since both the 90% CI for AUC(0-24 h) and Cmax were included in the 80-125% interval proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration, Denacen was considered bioequivalent to Calcort according to both the rate and extent of absorption.

  17. Quantification of acylglycines in human urine by HPLC electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and the establishment of pediatric reference interval in local Chinese.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bonnie Mei-Wah; Tam, Sidney; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2012-01-15

    Urinary organic acids, plasma amino acids and acylcarnitine profile analyses are the main tools used to diagnose inborn errors of metabolisms (IEMs). However, without metabolic decompensation, these parameters are often not helpful. On the other hand, in cases of IEM, acylglycines are consistently raised even when patients appear to be in remission. This study aims to set-up a simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of urine acylglycines, complementary to organic acid and acylcarnitine profiles, for the diagnosis of IEM. In addition, local reference intervals for various acylglycines are established by using this method. Acylglycines were isolated by solid-phase extraction, derivatized with n-butanol, separated by HPLC, and detected by ESI-MS/MS. Acylglycines were quantified with deuterated internal standards. Mean recoveries of acylglycines ranged from 90.2 to 109.3%. Within- and between-run imprecisions for all acylglycines have CVs less than 10%. Linear regression coefficients were greater than 0.99. Reference intervals were established according to CLSI guidelines by analyzing 204 samples from apparently healthy individuals less than 18 years of age. The distributions of AG in the "normal" urine were skewed towards the right. After log transformation, all the results were normally distributed. Partitioning into age group reference intervals was not indicated, according to the Harris and Boyd approach. In this context, a single reference interval for each acylglycine could be used. This method of urine acylglycines analysis is a powerful diagnostic tool, complementary to urine organic acids and plasma acylcarnitine profiling, for detecting certain inborn errors of metabolism.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of 28 urinary VOC metabolites using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS).

    PubMed

    Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Britt, April S; Patel, Dhrusti; Ashley, David L

    2012-10-31

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment, originating from many different natural and anthropogenic sources, including tobacco smoke. Long-term exposure to certain VOCs may increase the risk for cancer, birth defects, and neurocognitive impairment. Therefore, VOC exposure is an area of significant public health concern. Urinary VOC metabolites are useful biomarkers for assessing VOC exposure because of non-invasiveness of sampling and longer physiological half-lives of urinary metabolites compared with VOCs in blood and breath. We developed a method using reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MSMS) to simultaneously quantify 28 urinary VOC metabolites as biomarkers of exposure. We describe a method that monitors metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride and xylene. The method is accurate (mean accuracy for spiked matrix ranged from 84 to 104%), sensitive (limit of detection ranged from 0.5 to 20 ng mL(-1)) and precise (the relative standard deviations ranged from 2.5 to 11%). We applied this method to urine samples collected from 1203 non-smokers and 347 smokers and demonstrated that smokers have significantly elevated levels of tobacco-related biomarkers compared to non-smokers. We found significant (p<0.0001) correlations between serum cotinine and most of the tobacco-related biomarkers measured. These findings confirm that this method can effectively quantify urinary VOC metabolites in a population exposed to volatile organics.

  19. Multi-residue analysis of eight anticoagulant rodenticides in animal plasma and liver using liquid chromatography combined with heated electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Desmet, Noël; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2008-06-15

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of eight anticoagulant rodenticides (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, difethialone, flocoumafen and warfarin) in animal plasma and liver using liquid chromatography combined with heated electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HESI-MS/MS) is described. The sample preparation includes a liquid-liquid extraction with acetone. The compound 7-acetoxy-6-(2,3-dibromopropyl)-4,8-dimethylcoumarin is used as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Nucleodur C18 gravity column. Good linearity was observed up to 750 ng mL(-1) for chlorophacinone and up to 500 ng mL(-1) for the other compounds in plasma. In liver, good linearity was seen up to 500 ng g(-1) for brodifacoum, chlorophacinone, difenacoum and difethialone and up to 750 ng g(-1) for the other compounds. Depending on the compound, a level of 1 or 5 ng mL(-1) could be quantified fulfilling the criteria for accuracy and precision and was therefore set as limit of quantification of the method in plasma. In liver, the limit of quantification was set at 250 ng g(-1) for coumatetralyl and warfarin and at 100 ng g(-1) for the other compounds. In plasma, the limit of detection varied from 0.07 ng mL(-1) for flocoumafen to 3.21 ng mL(-1) for brodifacoum. In liver, the limit of detection varied from 0.37 ng g(-1) for warfarin to 4.64 ng g(-1) for chlorophacinone. The method was shown to be of use in a pharmacokinetic study after single oral administration to mice and in the confirmation of suspected poisoning cases in domestic animals.

  20. Probing anthocyanin profiles in purple sweet potato cell line (Ipomoea batatas L. Cv. Ayamurasaki) by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingguo; Konczak, Izabela; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-08-10

    A purple line cell line (PL) generated from the storage root of purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cv. Ayamurasaki produces a complex mixture of anthocyanins, and seven major anthocyanins have been isolated and identified to date. All these anthocyanins are exclusively cyanidin or peonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucosides and their acylated derivatives. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole instrument was employed to further investigate the anthocyanin composition of the PL extract. Precursor-ion analysis, product-ion analysis, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) MS/MS experiments were conducted sequentially to screen and characterize anthocyanins in the aqueous extract of the PL cell line. Precursor-ion analysis specifically detected the molecular cations of each category of anthocyanins by scanning the precursors of anthocyanidins (cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin). The detected molecular cation of each anthocyanin was fragmented using product-ion analysis by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). MS/MS using SRM detection was conducted to further confirm the fragmentation observed during product-ion analysis. In comparison to the commonly used product-ion analysis technique, the combined use of precursor-ion analysis, product-ion analysis, and SRM is particularly useful for positive identification of anthocyanins in complex matrixes and provides important information to confirm the proposed structures. Twenty-six anthocyanins were detected and characterized in the aqueous extract of the PL cell line. Several anthocyanins, including two pelargonidin derivatives, were tentatively identified for the first time in these cells.

  1. Determination of patterns of biologically relevant aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate of healthy subjects by liquid chromatography/atmospheric chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Roberta; Manini, Paola; Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of several classes of aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was developed using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS). EBC is a biological matrix obtained by a relatively new, simple and noninvasive technique and provides an indirect assessment of pulmonary status. The measurement of aldehydes in EBC represents a biomarker of the effect of oxidative stress caused by smoke, disease, or strong oxidants like ozone. Malondialdehyde (MDA), acrolein, α,β-unsaturated hydroxylated aldehydes [namely 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)], and saturated aldehydes (n-hexanal, n-heptanal and n-nonanal) were measured in EBC after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes was obtained in positiveion mode for MDA, and in negativeion mode for acrolein, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, and saturated aldehydes. DNPH derivatives were separated on a C18 column using variable proportions of 20 mM aqueous acetic acid and methanol. Linearity was established over 4–5 orders of magnitude and limits of detection were in the 0.3–1.0 nM range. Intra-day and inter-day precision were in the 1.3–9.9% range for all the compounds. MDA, acrolein and n-alkanals were detectable in all EBC samples, whereas the highly reactive 4-HHE and 4-HNE were found in only a few samples. Statistically significant higher concentrations of MDA, acrolein and n-hexanal were found in EBC from smokers. PMID:12661015

  2. Advanced glycation end products of DNA: quantification of N2-(1-Carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine in biological samples by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Synold, Timothy; Xi, Bixin; Wuenschell, Gerald E; Tamae, Daniel; Figarola, James L; Rahbar, Samuel; Termini, John

    2008-11-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) and related alpha-oxoaldehydes react with proteins, lipids, and DNA to give rise to covalent adducts known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Elevated levels of AGEs have been implicated in the pathological complications of diabetes, uremia, Alzheimer's disease, and possibly cancer. There is therefore widespread interest in developing sensitive methods for the in vivo measurement of AGEs as prognostic biomarkers and for treatment monitoring. The two diastereomeric MG-DNA adducts of N(2)-(1-carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (CEdG) are the primary glycation products formed in DNA; however, accurate assessment of their distribution in vivo has not been possible since there is no readily available quantitative method for CEdG determination in biological samples. To address these issues, we have developed a sensitive and quantitative liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay using the stable isotope dilution method with an (15)N(5)-CEdG standard. Methods for CEdG determination in urine or tissue extracted DNA are described. Changes in urinary CEdG in diabetic rats in response to oral administration of the AGE inhibitor LR-90 are used to demonstrate the potential utility of the method for treatment monitoring. Both stereoisomeric CEdG adducts were detected in a human breast tumor and normal adjacent tissue at levels of 3-12 adducts/10(7) dG, suggesting that this lesion may be widely distributed in vivo. Strategies for dealing with artifactual adduct formation due to oxoaldehyde generation during DNA isolation and enzymatic workup procedures are described.

  3. Simultaneous determination of hair cortisol, cortisone and DHEAS with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in negative mode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Li, Jifeng; Zhang, Jing; Xing, Xue; Gao, Wei; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2013-06-15

    The present study aimed to develop a novel method for simultaneous assay of cortisol, cortisone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in human hair. The method was based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative mode. Analytes were extracted from 20-mg hair incubated in 1ml of methanol for 5 days. 100μl non-SPE supernatant of the incubation solution was utilized in LC-MS/MS analysis. The liquid chromatography separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with a mobile phase of 80:20 (v:v) methanol and deionized water containing 0.1% formic acid. The use of ESI in negative mode and the use of a small volume of the incubation solution significantly improved assay sensitivity. The linear range was 5-250pg/mg for cortisol and cortisone, and 5-500pg/mg for DHEAS. The limit of detection was 2pg/mg for the three analytes in hair. The coefficients of variation for intra-day and inter-day assay were less than 10%. The method was applied to determine the three analytes mentioned above of hair samples from 103 participants. The results indicated that there was no significant effect of age and education level on the hair cortisol, cortisone and DHEAS levels. The simple treatment procedure developed in the present study may facilitate simultaneous measurement of more steroids in hair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) in blood plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Letcher, R J; Li, H X; Chu, S G

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are halogenated phenolic compounds, and they are increasingly common as environmental contaminants mainly in the blood of wildlife and humans. A methodology based on high-performance liquid chromatography (reversed-phase)-electrospray (negative) ionization-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI(-)-MS-MS) in the select ion monitoring or multiple reaction monitoring modes was developed for HO-PCB and PCP determination in blood plasma and serum. Among 11 environmentally relevant HO-PCB congeners and PCP spiked to fetal calf serum, quantitative assessments, including matrix effects on ESI(-) suppression/ enhancement, showed process (recovery) efficiencies of 73% to 89% without internal standard (IS) correction, and 88% to 103% with IS correction, and method limits of quantification ranging from 1 to 50 pg/g (wet weight). Using the developed LC-ESI(-)-MS methodology in comparison with GC-MS and GC-ECD based approaches, similar results were found for HO-PCB identification and quantification in the plasma of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian arctic. LC-ESI(-)-MS identified four HO-PCB congeners [4'-HO-2,2',4,6,6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (4'-HO-CB104), 4-HO-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-HO-CB107), 4-HO-2,3,3',5,5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (4-HO-CB165) and 3'-HO-2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (3'-HO-CB180)], and 14 additional tetra- to hepta-chlorinated HO-PCBs isomers in the polar bear plasma.

  5. Simultaneous determination of ten biogenic amines in a thymopolypeptides injection using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Yang, Huaxin; Liao, Haiming; Fan, Huihong; Liang, Chenggang; Deng, Lijuan; Jin, Shaohong

    2013-06-15

    A selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten biogenic amines (tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, adrenaline, dopamine and spermine) in a thymopolypeptides injection from the Chinese market for the first time. Biogenic amines (BAs) were pre-column derivatised by dansyl chloride after direct sample dilution. Dansylated amines were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column (2.1mm×150mm I.D., 1.7μm) using a gradient elution. Quantification was done by monitoring fragment ions of each derivative under the MS mode of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). A satisfactory result of method validation was obtained. The linearity ranged from 0.32 to 1182.9μg/L and the correlation coefficients (r) for all amines were above 0.99. The LOD ranged from 0.08μg/L for 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine to 8.00μg/L for adrenaline; the LOQ ranged from 0.32μg/L for 2-phenylethylamine to 12.12μg/L for dopamine. The recovery ranged from 75.8 to 110.3% after spiking standard solutions of BAs to a sample at three levels. The intra and inter-day precision RSD were 0.78-8.85% and 1.39-9.93% respectively. Eighty-four injections were analyzed by this method. Nine biogenic amines were found in them except adrenaline. Moreover, the relationship between the result of test for depressor substances and the content of BAs was statistically analyzed.

  6. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of chlorogenic acids and their metabolites in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yuji; Nakamura, Shun; Kondou, Naoki; Takasu, Yoshio; Ochiai, Ryuji; Masukawa, Yoshinori

    2007-10-15

    A method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine chlorogenic acids (CGAs), three isomers each of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (dCQAs), and their two metabolites, caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), in human plasma. In simultaneous multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) measurements using ESI-MS/MS with a negative ion mode, a deprotonated molecular ion derived from each of the 11 molecules was used as a precursor ion while three diagnostic product ions characteristic for each were selected for the qualitative analysis. To obtain maximal intensities for all diagnostic product ions, the collision energy was optimized for each one. LC separation was achieved under conditions of a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column combined with a gradient elution system using 50mM acetic acid with 3% acetonitrile aqueous solution and 50 mM acetic acid with 100% acetonitrile. In the quantitative analysis, one of the three diagnostic product ions for each of the 11 molecules was selected. Application of simultaneous LC-ESI-MS/MS MRM measurements to analyze the 11 standards spiked into blank human plasma indicated that all diagnostic product ions were detected without any interference, and that the sensitivity, linearity and recovery of this method were acceptable. When using this method to analyze those 11 molecules in the plasma after oral ingestion of 250 ml of a drink containing a green coffee bean extract (300 mg CGAs), all 11 molecules were identified and CQAs, FQAs and FA were quantified. CQAs, FQAs and dCQAs in human plasma were detected for the first time. This method should be useful to understand the biological and pharmacological effects of CGAs, such as improvement of human hypertension.

  7. Simultaneous quantitative determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk and milk-based infant formula by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Guillamon Cuadra, Miriam; Delatour, Thierry; Mottier, Pascal

    2009-08-26

    An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk (range of 0-0.3 mg/kg) and milk-based infant formulas (ranges of 0-0.3 and 0-2.0 mg/kg) is described. This quantitative method entails simple sample preparation, limited to a protein precipitation in acetonitrile/water followed by a centrifugation and direct injection of the supernatant. Selected reaction monitoring of two diagnostic transition reactions for each analyte and each corresponding ((13)C(3),(15)N(3))-labeled compound enables selective and confirmatory detection. Acquisition was performed sequentially in the negative ion mode for cyanuric acid, while in the positive mode for melamine within the same run. Validation of the method was conducted according to European Union criteria (CD 2002/657/EC). Internal standard-corrected recoveries were within the 99-116% range for both analytes in the two matrix types, along with repeatability and intermediate reproducibility values of

  8. Simultaneous determination of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and doxylamine in human plasma by HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Donato, J L; Koizumi, F; Pereira, A S; Mendes, G D; De Nucci, G

    2012-06-15

    In the present study, a fast, sensitive and robust method to quantify dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and doxylamine in human plasma using deuterated internal standards (IS) is described. The analytes and the IS were extracted from plasma by a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using diethyl-ether/hexane (80/20, v/v). Extracted samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed by pumping the mobile phase (acetonitrile/water/formic acid (90/9/1, v/v/v) during 4.0min at a flow-rate of 1.5 mL min⁻¹ into a Phenomenex Gemini® C18, 5 μm analytical column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.). The calibration curve was linear over the range from 0.2 to 200 ng mL⁻¹ for dextromethorphan and doxylamine and 0.05 to 10 ng mL⁻¹ for dextrorphan. The intra-batch precision and accuracy (%CV) of the method ranged from 2.5 to 9.5%, and 88.9 to 105.1%, respectively. Method inter-batch precision (%CV) and accuracy ranged from 6.7 to 10.3%, and 92.2 to 107.1%, respectively. The run-time was for 4 min. The analytical procedure herein described was used to assess the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and doxylamine in healthy volunteers after a single oral dose of a formulation containing 30 mg of dextromethorphan hydrobromide and 12.5mg of doxylamine succinate. The method has high sensitivity, specificity and allows high throughput analysis required for a pharmacokinetic study.

  9. Dietary-flavonoid-rich flowers of Rumex nervosus Vahl: Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry profiling and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Desta, Kebede Taye; Kim, Gon-Sup; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Kim, Yun-Hi; Lee, Won Sup; Lee, Soo Jung; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-10-01

    Rumex nervosus is a plant species found widely in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In addition to its uses in traditional medicinal, the plant shows various biological activities, such as antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity. In this study, nine flavonols, six flavones, three flavanones, and one flavanol were characterized from the flowers of R. nervosus using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and literature data. Validation data indicated that the determination coefficients (R(2) ) were ≥ 0.9914. The limits of detection and quantification were in the ranges of 0.15-1.24 and 0.50-4.13 mg/L, respectively. Recoveries at 10 and 50 mg/L were 71.1-110.2 and 65.4-115.1%, with relative standard deviations of 7.4-40.1 and 2.1-13.0%, respectively. Quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside (10) was the dominant component, contributing 30.8% of total flavonoids (1003.0 ± 26.2 mg/kg fresh flower sample), whereas luteolin 6-C-glucoside (3) was the lowest yielding compound (0.1%). The 19 flavonoids identified were characterized for the first time. In vitro anti-inflammatory studies showed that this mixture can suppress the production of inflammatory mediators, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, kappa B inhibitor, and interleukin-1β, by down-regulating the nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways. The results of this study may provide information for processing R. nervosus as a potential source of functional food.

  10. Analysis of 30 synthetic cannabinoids in serum by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kneisel, Stefan; Auwärter, Volker

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in human matrices is of particular importance in the fields of forensic and clinical toxicology since cannabis users partly shift to the consumption of 'herbal mixtures' as a legal alternative to cannabis products in order to circumvent drug testing. However, comprehensive methods covering the majority of synthetic cannabinoids already identified on the drug market are still lacking. In this article, we present a fully validated method for the analysis of 30 synthetic cannabinoids in human serum utilizing liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The method proved to be suitable for the quantification of 27 substances. The limits of detection ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 ng/mL, whereas the lower limits of quantification were in the range from 0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL. The presented method was successfully applied to 833 authentic serum samples during routine analysis between August 2011 and January 2012. A total of 227 (27%) samples was tested positive for at least one of the following synthetic cannabinoids: JWH-018, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-200, JWH-203, JWH-210, JWH-307, AM-2201 and RCS-4. The most prevalent compounds in positive samples were JWH-210 (80%), JWH-122 (63%) as well as AM-2201 (29%). Median serum concentrations were all below 1.0 ng/mL. These findings demonstrate a significant shift of the market of synthetic cannabinoids towards substances featuring a higher CB(1) binding affinity and clearly emphasize that the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in serum or blood samples requires highly sensitive analytical methods covering a wide spectrum of substances. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Screening and identification of glyceollins and their metabolites by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with precursor ion scanning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method has been developed for screening glyceollins and their metabolites based upon precursor ion scanning. Under higher-energy collision conditions, employing a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode, deprotonated glyceollin precursors yield a diagnostic radical product ion...

  12. Fully validated method for rapid and simultaneous measurement of six antiepileptic drugs in serum and plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Joachim; Knabbe, Cornelius

    2013-06-15

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be very useful in the clinical management of antiepileptic drug therapy for multiple reasons, such as individual variability, metabolism, genetic factors or drug-drug or drug-food interactions. In addition, TDM is helpful to study the variation in pharmacokinetics that occurs between individuals. Here, we describe a rapid assay using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to measure the antiepileptic drugs lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. After the addition of internal standards (ISs) and protein precipitation of serum or plasma, 1 μl of sample was separated on a 2.1×50 mm reverse phase column (Waters, Acquity UPLC BEH Phenyl, 1.7 μm). Analytes were then ionized and detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring. Runtime was 2.5 min per injection. Matrix effects were investigated by systematical ion suppression and in-source fragmentation experiments. The calibration curves of the 6 antiepileptic drugs were linear over the working range between 0.05 and 50 mg/L (r>0.99). The limit of detection (LOD) was <0.05 mg/L, whereas the limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.10 mg/L of all drugs measured in the assay. The intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation for all compounds were <15% for very low concentration (0.1 mg/L) and <8% in the clinically relevant concentration range (>1.0 mg/L). Mean recoveries were between 87.8 and 98.6% for all drugs. There were no significant ion suppressions detected at the elution times of the analytes. The mean differences between serum and heparinized plasma values were less than 6% for the 6 antiepileptic drugs. All drugs were stable in serum at -20°C, 4°C, and even at RT for at least 1 month. In summary, a specific and sensitive stable isotope dilution UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for routine clinical monitoring of lacosamide

  13. A capillary electrophoresis system with dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Kelliton José Mendonça; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2016-07-01

    A commercial system that is comprised of a CE coupled to an ESI triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was equipped with two capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detectors (C(4) Ds). The first C(4) D was positioned inside the original cartridge, and the second C(4) D was positioned as close as possible to the ESI probe entrance by using a 3D-printed support. The C(4) Ds electropherograms were matched to the ESI-MS electropherogram by correcting their timescales by the factor LT /LD , where LT and LD are the total capillary length and the length until the C(4) D, respectively. A general approach for method development supporting the simultaneous conductivity and MS detection is discussed, while application examples are introduced. These examples include the use of C(4) D as a simple device that dismiss the use of an EOF marker, a low-selectivity detector that continuously provide information about unexpected features of the sample, and even a detector that can be more sensitive than ESI-MS. The C(4) D used in this setup proved to have a smaller contribution to the peak broadening than ESI-MS, which allowed that a C(4) D, positioned at 12 cm from the inlet of an 80-cm-long capillary, could be used to foresee position and shape of the peaks being formed 6.8 times slower at the ESI-MS electropherogram.

  14. Potential of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for screening and quantification of hexabromocyclododecane.

    PubMed

    Sales, Carlos; Portolés, Tania; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Abad, Esteban; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Fiedler, Heidelore; Gómara, Belén; Beltrán, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    A fast method for the screening and quantification of hexabromocyclododecane (sum of all isomers) by gas chromatography using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (GC-APCI-QqQ) is proposed. This novel procedure makes use of the soft atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source, which results in less fragmentation of the analyte than by conventional electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) sources, favoring the formation of the [M - Br](+) ion and, thus, enhancing sensitivity and selectivity. Detection was based on the consecutive loses of HBr from the [M - Br](+) ion to form the specific [M - H5Br6](+) and [M - H4Br5](+) ions, which were selected as quantitation (Q) and qualification (q) transitions, respectively. Parameters affecting ionization and MS/MS detection were studied. Method performance was also evaluated; calibration curves were found linear from 1 pg/μL to 100 pg/μL for the total HBCD concentration; instrumental detection limit was estimated to be 0.10 pg/μL; repeatability and reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation, were better than 7% in both cases. The application to different real samples [polyurethane foam disks (PUFs), food, and marine samples] pointed out a rapid way to identify and allow quantification of this compound together with a number of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two other novel brominated flame retardants [i.e., decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE)] because of their presence in the same fraction when performing the usual sample treatment.

  15. Chlorpromazine quantification in human plasma by UPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ney Carter; Rezende, Vinicius Marcondes; Santana, Jose Marcos; Moreira, Ricardo Pereira; Moreira, Roberto Fernandes; Moreno, Patrícia; Borges, Diego Carter; Donato, José Luiz; Moreno, Ronilson Agnaldo

    2011-12-01

    In the present study a method to quantify chlorpromazine in human plasma using cyclobenzaprine as the internal standard (IS) is described. The analyte and the IS were extracted from human plasma by a liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether/dichloromethane (70/30, v/v) and analyzed by an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to an electrospray tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive mode (UPLC-ES(+)-MS/MS). Chromatography was performed isocratically on an Aquity UPLC BEH C18 1.7 μm (50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d.) operating at 40°C. The mobile phase was a mixture of 65% water+1% formic acid and 35% of acetonitrile at a flow-rate of 0.5 mL/min. The lowest concentration quantified was 0.5 ng/mL and a linear calibration curve over the range 0.5-200 ng/mL was obtained, showing intra-assay precisions from 2.4 to 5.8%, and inter-assay precisions from 3.6 to 9.9%. The intra-assay accuracies ranged from 96.9 to 102.5%, while the inter-assay accuracies ranged from 94.1 to 100.3%. This analytical method was applied in a relative bioavailability study in order to compare a test chlorpromazine 100 mg simple dose formulation versus a reference in 57 volunteers of both sexes. The study was conducted in an open randomized two-period crossover design and with a fourteen days washout period. Plasma samples were obtained over a 144-h interval. Since the 90% CI for both C(max), AUC(last) and AUC(0-inf) were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration and ANVISA, it was concluded that chlorpromazine 100 mg/dose was bioequivalent to the reference formulation, according to both the rate and extent of absorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative Thin-Layer Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Caffeine Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Deibel, Michael A.; Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  17. Quantitative thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of caffeine using a surface sampling probe electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system.

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Deibel, Michael A; Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-07-15

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 mum/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 muL) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by approximately 8% or more) than the literature values.

  18. Highly sensitive derivatization reagents possessing positively charged structures for the determination of oligosaccharides in glycoproteins by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun Zhe; Nagai, Keisuke; Shi, Qing; Zhou, Wenjun; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Lee, Yong-Ill; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-09-23

    We have developed three kinds of novel derivatization reagents (4-CEBTPP, 4-CBBTPP, 5-COTPP) with triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a basic structure carrying a permanent positive charge for resolution of the oligosaccharides in glycoprotein using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The synthesized reagents reacted with the sialylglycosylamine of the sialylglycopeptide after treatment by PNGase F. The final derivatives were analyzed by ESI-MS and sensitively detected in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Furthermore, the limits of detection (S/N=3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the fmol level (30fmol). Therefore, we used the limit of detection of the reagent products detected by the SRM and evaluated the utility of each reagent. Among the reagents, the positively charged 4-CEBTPP derivative's peak area was the highest; 4-CEBTPP with a positively charged structure showed about a 20 times greater sensitivity for the glycosylamine of the SGP product compared to the conventional fluorescence reagent, Fmoc-Cl. In addition, various fragment ions based on the carbohydrate units also appeared in the MS/MS spectra. Among the fragment ions, m/z 627.37 (CE=40eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP-GlcNAc and m/z 120.09 (CE=100eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP are the most important ones for identifying the oligosaccharide. 4-CEBTPP-SGA was easily identified by the selected-ion chromatogram in the product ion scan (m/z 120.09) and in the precursor ion scan (m/z 627.37) by MS/MS detection. The derivatized analytes have a high ionization efficiency and they are detected with a high sensitivity in the electrospray ionization. The novel derivatization reagent with a multi-function provided a higher sensitivity for the oligosaccharide analysis, as well as a better specificity and feasibility. Furthermore, several oligosaccharides in fetuin and ribonuclease B were successfully identified by the proposed procedure

  19. Can Riboflavin Penetrate Stroma Without Disrupting Integrity of Corneal Epithelium in Rabbits? Iontophoresis and Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography With Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Novruzlu, Şahin; Türkcü, Ümmühani Özel; Kvrak, İbrahim; Kvrak, Şeyda; Yüksel, Erdem; Deniz, Nuriye Gökçen; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2015-08-01

    To examine riboflavin concentrations in corneas and aqueous humor from rabbits with standard and transepithelial methods and iontophoresis without disrupting the integrity of the corneal epithelium before corneal collagen cross-linking. Twenty-four eyes of 12 adult New Zealand rabbits were used. They were assigned to 4 groups, each including 6 eyes. Group 1 was exposed to the standard method and given riboflavin 0.1% after epithelial debridement. Group 2 was exposed to the transepithelial method and given benzalkonium chloride (BAC), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), trometamol (TRIS), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), and riboflavin 0.2% 3 times at 1.5-minute intervals followed by riboflavin 0.2%. Group 3 was given riboflavin 0.1% by using 1-mA electric current for 10 minutes with the help of iontophoresis without using substances disrupting the integrity of the corneal epithelium. Group 4 received the same treatment as did group 3, except that it was given riboflavin 0.2%. Following these treatments, riboflavin concentrations in aqueous humor and corneas were measured with ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Riboflavin concentrations in the cornea and aqueous humor were higher in group 1 (42.4 ± 5.4 μg/g) than in the other groups. They were significantly higher in group 4 (34.2 ± 6.6 μg/g) than in group 2 (24.4 ± 1.2 μg/g) (P = 0.009) and group 3 (23.6 ± 6.1 μg/g) (P = 0.026). There was not a significant difference in corneal riboflavin concentrations between group 2 and group 3 (P = 0.937). Intrastromal and aqueous riboflavin concentrations after administration of riboflavin 0.2% through iontophoresis without disrupting the integrity of the corneal epithelium were lower than those after the standard method, but higher than those after the transepithelial method. In this study, in which riboflavin concentrations were measured with a very sensitive method

  20. Quantitation of Pyridyloxobutyl DNA Adducts of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Rat Tissue DNA by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Yanbin; Villalta, Peter W.; Sturla, Shana J.; Wang, Mingyao; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2008-01-01

    The tobacco-specific nitrosamines N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, 1) and 4- (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 2) are potent carcinogens in rodents. Bioactivation of NNN and NNK by cytochrome P450 enzymes generates a pyridyloxobutylating agent 6, which alkylates DNA to produce pyridyloxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts. POB-DNA adduct formation plays a critical role in NNN and NNK carcinogenicity in rodents. To further investigate the significance of this pathway, we developed a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of four POB-DNA adducts with known structures. The corresponding deuterated analogs were synthesized and used as internal standards. DNA samples, spiked with internal standards, were subjected to neutral thermal hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolysates were partially purified by solid phase extraction prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The method was accurate and precise. Excellent sensitivity was achieved, especially for O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O2-POB-dThd, 11) with a detection limit of 100 amol per mg DNA. DNA samples treated with different concentrations of 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc, 3) were subjected to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. 7-[4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine (7-POB-Gua, 12) was the most abundant adduct, followed by O6-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4- oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6-POB-dGuo, 8), O2-POB-dThd, and O2-[4-(3- pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]cytosine (O2-POB-Cyt, 13). Lung and liver DNA isolated from NNK-treated rats were analyzed. Consistent with the in vitro data, 7-POB-Gua was the major POB-DNA adduct formed in vivo. However, levels of O6-POB-dGuo were the lowest of the four adducts analyzed, suggesting efficient repair of this adduct in vivo. In contrast to the other three adducts, O6-POB-dGuo was more abundant in lung than in liver. O2-POB-dThd appeared to be poorly

  1. Detection and Quantitation of Acrolein-Derived 1,N2-Propanodeoxyguanosine Adducts in Human Lung by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siyi; Villalta, Peter W.; Wang, Mingyao; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2008-01-01

    Acrolein, a widely distributed environmental pollutant, reacts with dGuo in DNA to form two pairs of 1,N2-propano-dGuo adducts: (6R/S)-3-(2′-deoxyribos-1′-yl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-6-hydroxypyrimido[1,2-a]purine-10(3H)one (α-OH-Acr-dGuo) and (8R/S)-3-(2′-deoxyribos-1′-yl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-hydroxypyrimido[1,2-a]purine-10(3H)one (γ-OH-Acr-dGuo). α-OH-Acr-dGuo is the more mutagenic and induces mainly G→T transversions. A recent study demonstrated that acrolein DNA adducts are preferentially formed in p53 mutational hotspots in human lung cancer, but there are no reports on the presence of these adducts in human lung. To directly investigate this question, we have developed a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of Acr-dGuo adducts in DNA. Our method is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA isolated from human lung in the presence of [13C10,15N5]Acr-dGuo as internal standards. Acr-dGuo adducts are enriched from the hydrolysates by solid phase extraction and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS using selected reaction monitoring. The method is accurate and precise, and the identity of the adducts was confirmed by monitoring different transitions from the same parent ion, and by carrying out reactions with NaOH and NaBH4, which produced N2-(3-hydroxypropyl)dGuo or 1,N2-(1,3-propano)dGuo from γ-OH-Acr-dGuo and α-OH-Acr-dGuo, respectively. Thirty DNA samples from lung tissue were analyzed and Acr-dGuo adducts were detected in all samples. Both α-OH- and γ-OH-Acr-dGuo were observed in most of the samples; total adduct concentrations ranged from 16 – 209 adducts/109 nucleotides. These results demonstrate for the first time that both types of Acr-dGuo adducts are present in human lung DNA. There was no difference in adduct levels between current and ex-smokers. Collectively, the results support a plausible role for acrolein as one cause of p53 mutations in human

  2. Characterization of ageing products of ester-based synthetic lubricants by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and by electrospray ionization (tandem) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kohler, M; Heeb, N V

    2001-08-10

    Ageing products of a commercial jet engine oil based on pentaerythritol tetraesters which were formed upon operation in an aviation turbine were detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and characterized by LC-ESI-MS. The fatty acid composition of these ageing products was investigated by ESI-MS-MS analysis. The ammonium adducts of the newly formed pentaerythritol tetraester degradation products were found to be suitable parent ions for further structure elucidation work. ESI-MS, LC-ESI-MS and ESI-MS-MS proved to be versatile tools to study the chemical composition (distribution of homologues) as well as the mechanism of ageing of ester based lubricants on a molecular level. Due to its high sensitivity, ESI-MS can also be used to characterize and identify trace levels of ester-based lubricants.

  3. Atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APGC/MS/MS) an alternative to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the determination of dioxins.

    PubMed

    van Bavel, Bert; Geng, Dawei; Cherta, Laura; Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Portolés, Tania; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; Dunstan, Jody; Jones, Rhys; Kotz, Alexander; Winterhalter, Helmut; Malisch, Rainer; Traag, Wim; Hagberg, Jessika; Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid; Beltran, Joaquim; Hernández, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The use of a new atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization source for gas chromatography (APGC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) system, as an alternative to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), for the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs is described. The potential of using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a tandem quadrupole analyzer has been validated for the identification and quantification of dioxins and furans in different complex matrices. The main advantage of using the APCI source is the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure, which results in very limited fragmentation. APCI mass spectra are dominated by the molecular ion cluster, in contrast with the high energy ionization process under electron ionization (EI). The use of the molecular ion as the precursor ion in MS/MS enhances selectivity and, consequently, sensitivity by increasing the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For standard solutions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, injections of 10 fg in the splitless mode on 30- or 60-m-length, 0.25 mm inner diameter (id), and 25 μm film thickness low-polarity capillary columns (DB5MS type), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of >10:1 were routinely obtained. Linearity was achieved in the region (correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.998) for calibration curves ranging from 100 fg/μL to 1000 pg/μL. The results from a wide variety of complex samples, including certified and standard reference materials and samples from several QA/QC studies, which were previously analyzed by EI HRGC/HRMS, were compared with the results from the APGC/MS/MS system. Results between instruments showed good agreement both in individual congeners and toxic equivalence factors (TEQs). The data show that the use of APGC in combination with MS/MS for the analysis of dioxins has the same potential, in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, as the traditional HRMS instrumentation used for this analysis. However, the APCI/MS/MS system, as a benchtop system, is

  4. Identification and quantification of antitumor thioproline and methylthioproline in Korean traditional foods by a liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2014-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-APCI-MS/MS) has been developed for the sensitive determination of antitumor thioproline and methylthioproline from fermented foods. Thioproline and methylthioproline were derivatized in one step with ethyl chloroformate at room temperature. These compounds were identified and quantified in various traditional Korean fermented foods by LC-APCI-MS/MS. The concentration range of thioproline of each food was found for doenjang (0.011-0.032mg/kg), gochujang (0.010-0.038mg/kg), and ganjang (0.010-0.038mg/kg). Those of methylthioproline of each food was found for doenjang (0.098-0.632mg/kg), gochujang (0.015-0.112mg/kg), and ganjang (0.023-1.468mg/kg). A prolonged aging time leads to an increase in both the thioproline and methylthioproline contents, suggesting that the storage time plays a key role in the formation of thioproline and methylthioproline in Korean traditional foods. The results here suggest that thioproline and methylthioproline are related to the biological activities of traditional Korean fermented foods.

  5. Simultaneous determination of adenine nucleotides, creatine phosphate and creatine in rat liver by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Sun, Chengjun; Ding, Xueqin; Yuan, Ding; Chen, Kefei; Gao, Bo; Chen, Yi; Sun, Aimin

    2012-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), creatine phosphate (CP), and creatine in rat liver. After extraction with pre-cooled (4 °C) methanol/water (1:1, v/v), the analytes were separated on a porous graphitic carbon (Hypercarb) column (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) using a programmed gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate in acetonitrile (pH=10.0). The analytes were detected in a way of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) under negative scan mode by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI). An external calibration method with linear ranges from 10 to 5000 ng/mL for the five target compounds was used for quantification with a correlation coefficients≥0.9973. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for all analytes were in ranges from 0.50 to 1.5 ng/mL and 1.6 to 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. The average recoveries spiked in three levels were from 77.2% to 102% and precisions expressed in RSDs were from 0.2% to 4.8%. The established method was successfully applied to determination of ATP, ADP, AMP, CP and creatine in liver tissue.

  6. Method development for the analysis of N-nitrosodimethylamine and other N-nitrosamines in drinking water at low nanogram/liter concentrations using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Munch, Jean W; Bassett, Margarita V

    2006-01-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a probable human carcinogen of concern that has been identified as a drinking water contaminant. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 521 has been developed for the analysis of NDMA and 6 additional N-nitrosamines in drinking water at low ng/L concentrations. The method uses solid-phase extraction with coconut charcoal as the sorbent and dichloromethane as the eluent to concentrate 0.50 L water samples to 1 mL. The extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry using large-volume injection. Method performance was evaluated in 2 laboratories. Typical analyte recoveries of 87-104% were demonstrated for fortified reagent water samples, and recoveries of 77-106% were demonstrated for fortified drinking water samples. All relative standard deviations on replicate analyses were < 11%.

  7. Compounds having thiourea moiety as derivatization reagents in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS): synthesis of derivatization reagents for carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Inoda, Hirotaka; Nishiyama, Taihei; Yoshikado, Takashi; Suwanai, Yusuke; Santa, Tomofumi

    2011-06-01

    The derivatization reagents for carboxylic acids, N-(Pyridin-3-yl)hydrazinecarbothioamide, N-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]hydrazinecarbothioamide, 1-(2-aminoethyl)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)thiourea, 1-(2-aminoethyl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]thiourea and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-N-phenylpiperazine-1-carbothioamide were synthesized. These reagents reacted with carboxylic acids at 60°C for 45 min in the presence of the condensation reagents. The generated derivatives were favorably separated on the reversed-phase column and sensitively detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. These reagents enhanced the electrospray ionization response of the analyte and generated a particular product ion efficiently by collision-induced dissociation, and thus they were suitable for MS/MS detection.

  8. Detoxification of cytotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes by carnosine: characterization of conjugated adducts by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and detection by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Granata, Paola; Carini, Marina

    2002-12-01

    Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids containing phospholipids in tissue generates lipid hydroperoxides, which are further degraded to several products, among which unsaturated aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) play an important role in mediating the pathological effects of oxidative stress. While the reaction of HNE with glutathione (GSH) is a well recognized pathway of detoxification in biological systems, no data are available on HNE interactions with carnosine, a dipeptide (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) present in high concentration in skeletal muscle. The aim of this work was to study the quenching ability of carnosine towards HNE and to characterize the reaction products by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), using GSH as a model peptide. GSH incubation with HNE in 1 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) results in the complete disappearance of HNE within 1 h owing to the formation of a Michael adduct, S-(4-hydroxynonanal-3-yl)glutathione. The reaction of HNE with carnosine was studied in different molar ratios and monitored up to 24 h by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (HNE consumption), MS/MS (infusion) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) experiments. Carnosine, although less reactive than GSH, significantly quenched HNE (48.2 +/- 0.9% HNE consumption after 1 h; carnosine:HNE molar ratio 10 : 1). Two reaction products were identified: the Michael adduct, N-(4-hydroxynonanal-3-yl)carnosine involving the imidazolic nitrogen of histidine, and the imine adduct, involving the amino group of the beta-alanine residue. Definitive structure assignment was achieved by chemical reduction with NaBH(4) and multinuclear magnetic resonance experiments. To understand whether carnosine acts as a quencher of unsaturated aldehydes in biological matrices, rat skeletal muscle homogenate was incubated with HNE and the formation of conjugated adducts was determined by LC/MS analysis. Three main products were detected

  9. Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer for the in situ measurement of methyl hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    St Clair, Jason M.; McCabe, David C.; Crounse, John D.; Steiner, Urs; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2010-09-15

    A new approach for measuring gas-phase methyl hydrogen peroxide [(MHP) CH{sub 3}OOH] utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Tandem mass spectrometry is used to avoid mass interferences that hindered previous attempts to measure atmospheric CH{sub 3}OOH with CF{sub 3}O{sup -} clustering chemistry. CH{sub 3}OOH has been successfully measured in situ using this technique during both airborne and ground-based campaigns. The accuracy and precision for the MHP measurement are a function of water vapor mixing ratio. Typical precision at 500 pptv MHP and 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is {+-}80 pptv (2 sigma) for a 1 s integration period. The accuracy at 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is estimated to be better than {+-}40%. Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry shows considerable promise for the determination of in situ atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios where isobaric compounds or mass interferences impede accurate measurements.

  10. High performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/API/MS/MS) in drug metabolism and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Amin; Prakash, Chandra

    2006-12-01

    Studies of the metabolic fate of drugs and other xenobiotics in living systems may be divided into three broad areas: (1) elucidation of biotransformation pathways through identification of circulatory and excretory metabolites (qualitative studies); (2) determination of pharmacokinetics of the parent drug and/or its primary metabolites (quantitative studies); and (3) identification of chemically-reactive metabolites, which play a key role as mediators of drug-induced toxicities (mechanistic studies). Mass spectrometry has been regarded as one of the most important analytical tools in studies of drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics and biochemical toxicology. With the commercial introduction of new ionization methods such as those based on atmospheric pressure ionization (API) techniques and the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), it has now become a truly indispensable technique in pharmaceutical research. Triple stage quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometers are presently used for this purpose, because of their sensitivity and selectivity. API-TOF mass spectrometry has also been very attractive due to its enhanced full-scan sensitivity, scan speed, improved resolution and ability to measure the accurate masses for protonated molecules and fragment ions. This review aims to survey the utility of mass spectrometry in drug metabolism and toxicology and to highlight novel applications and future trends in this field.

  11. Structural characterization of novel chemotactic and mastoparan peptides from the venom of the social wasp Agelaiapallipes pallipes by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Maria Anita; Monson de Souza, Bibiana; Delazari dos Santos, Lucilene; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2004-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) techniques were applied for the detection, purification, monitoring, and sequencing of two novel and biologically active peptides occurring at very low levels in the venom of the wasp Agelaia pallipes pallipes. These peptides were sequenced under LC/ESI-MS/MS conditions and designated as Agelaia-CP (I/L-L-G-T-I-L-G-L-L-K-G-I/L-NH2, MW 1207.8 Da) and Agelaia-MP (I/L-N-W-L-K-L-G-K-A-I-I-D-A-I/L-NH2, MW 1565.0 Da). The peptide Agelaia-CP showed no hemolytic activity, but it behaved as a mast cell degranulator and induced a potent chemotaxis in polymorphonucleated leukocyte (PMNL) cells, typical of a wasp chemotactic peptide. The peptide Agelaia-MP showed both powerful mast cell degranulation and hemolysis of washed rat red blood cells, and is thus assigned as a new member of the mastoparan family of peptides. Both peptides seem to be directly involved in the strong inflammatory reactions associated with wasp stings. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue-specific metabolites, including free flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and saponins, were successfully detected and visualized in images, showing their distributions at the cellular level. The analytical power of the technique was tested in the imaging of two isobaric licorice saponins with a mass difference of only 0.02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent MS/MS imaging experiment, thereby confirming their identities and excluding possible analyte interference. The use of high spatial resolution, high mass resolution and tandem mass spectrometry in imaging experiments provides significant information about the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Use of liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to study the degradation pathways of terbuthylazine (TER) by Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands: identification of a new TER metabolite.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Evagelos; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Bazoti, Fotini N; Zalidis, Georgios; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony

    2012-01-30

    S-Triazines are used worldwide as herbicides for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Although terbuthylazine (TER) is the second most frequently used S-triazine, there is limited information on its metabolism. For this reason, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) has been developed aiming at the identification of TER and its five major metabolites (desisopropyl-hydroxy-atrazine, desethyl-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, desisopropyl-atrazine, hydroxy-terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine) in constructed wetland water samples. The separation of TER and its major metabolites was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C(8) column using a gradient elution of aqueous acetic acid 1% (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B), followed by MS/MS analysis on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The data-depended analysis (DDA) scan approach has been employed and the main degradation pathways of both hydroxyl and chloro (dealkylated and alkylated) metabolites are elucidated through the tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) interpretation of triazine fragments under CID conditions. In addition, another major metabolite of TER, namely N2-tert-butyl-N4-ethyl-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, has been identified. This methodology can be further employed in biodegradation studies of TER, thus assisting the assessment of its environmental impact. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Chemical Profiling of Re-Du-Ning Injection by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry through the Screening of Diagnostic Ions in MSE Mode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Geng, Jianliang; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Wei; Yao, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    The broad applications and mechanism explorations of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCMPs) require a clear understanding of TCMP chemical constituents. In the present study, we describe an efficient and universally applicable analytical approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) with the MSE (E denotes collision energy) data acquisition mode, which allowed the rapid separation and reliable determination of TCMP chemical constituents. By monitoring diagnostic ions in the high energy function of MSE, target peaks of analogous compounds in TCMPs could be rapidly screened and identified. “Re-Du-Ning” injection (RDN), a eutherapeutic traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) that has been widely used to reduce fever caused by viral infections in clinical practice, was studied as an example. In total, 90 compounds, including five new iridoids and one new sesquiterpene, were identified or tentatively characterized by accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error. This analysis was accompanied by MS fragmentation and reference standard comparison analyses. Furthermore, the herbal sources of these compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of RDN and ingredient herbal extracts. Our work provides a certain foundation for further studies of RDN. Moreover, the analytical approach developed herein has proven to be generally applicable for profiling the chemical constituents in TCMPs and other complicated mixtures. PMID:25875968

  15. Characterization of acylated flavonoid-O-glycosides and methoxylated flavonoids from Tagetes maxima by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Jáuregui, Olga; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2004-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) employing a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used in the structural determination of acylated flavonoid-O-glycosides and methoxylated flavonoids occurring in Tagetes maxima. The compounds were identified by experiments in full scan mode (MS), and tandem mass experiments (MS/MS) of precursor ion scan, product ion scan, and neutral loss scan modes. In order to characterize the aglycones of the flavonoid glycosides, in-source fragmentation of the deprotonated molecule [M-H]- followed by product ion scan of the resulting aglycone [A-H]- were performed. This combined approach allowed the identification of 51 phenolic compounds, including flavonoid-O-glycosides acylated with galloyl, protocatechuoyl, coumaroyl or caffeoyl groups, methoxylated flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid and phenolic acid derivatives, none of them previously reported in Tagetes maxima.

  16. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight) predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight). Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products. SUMMARY This research proposed a good example for the rapid identification of major constituents in complex systems such as herbs using sensitive, accurate and specific method coupling HPLC with DAD and MS, which facilitate the clarification of phytochemical composition of herbal medicine for better understanding of their nature and

  17. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MS(n) data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight) predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight). The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products. This research proposed a good example for the rapid identification of major constituents in complex systems such as herbs using sensitive, accurate and specific method coupling HPLC with DAD and MS, which facilitate the clarification of phytochemical composition of herbal medicine for better understanding of their nature and biological activities. Abbreviation used: HPLC: High performance liquid

  18. Cluster Composition Distributions of Pure Ethanol: Influence of Water and Ion–Molecule Reactions Revealed by Liquid-Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Masahiko; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Shida, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Studies of clusters in condensed phase at atmospheric pressure are very important for understanding the properties and structures of liquids. Liquid-ionization (LPI) mass spectrometry is useful to study hydrogen-bonded clusters at the liquid surface and in a gas phase. An improved ion source connected to a tandem mass spectrometer provides detailed information about clusters. Mass spectra of pure ethanol (99.5%) observed by the first mass analyzer (Q1) showed neat ethanol cluster ions (C2H5OH)mH+ with m up to 10 and hydrate ions (C2H5OH)m(H2O)nH+ with m larger than 7 and n=1, such as those with m-n=8-1 and 9-1. When the flow rate of ethanol (liquid) was increased, large ethanol cluster ions with m larger than 25 were observed by the second mass analyzer (Q3). It is interesting to note that neat ethanol cluster ions are more abundant than corresponding (with the same m) hydrate ions (n=1), and major hydrate ions contain only one molecule of water. Results indicate that ion–molecule reactions occur between Q1 and Q3, because such mass spectra have never been observed by Q1. Various results indicate that neat ethanol clusters exist at the liquid surface and are ionized to give cluster ions. PMID:24349916

  19. A simultaneous determination method for 5-fluorouracil and its metabolites in human plasma with linear range adjusted by in-source collision-induced dissociation using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hideaki; Shimada, Miki; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Mano, Nariyasu

    2016-11-01

    We applied a new technique for quantitative linear range shift using in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) to complex biological fluids to demonstrate its utility. The technique was used in a simultaneous quantitative determination method of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an anticancer drug for various solid tumors, and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). To control adverse effects after administration of 5-FU, it is important to monitor the plasma concentration of 5-FU and its metabolites; however, no simultaneous determination method has yet been reported because of vastly different physical and chemical properties of compounds. We developed a new analytical method for simultaneously determining 5-FU and its metabolites in human plasma by LC/ESI-MS/MS coupled with the technique for quantitative linear range shift using in-source CID. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using a stationary phase with zwitterionic functional groups, phosphorylcholine, was suitable for separation of 5-FU from its nucleoside and interfering endogenous materials. The addition of glycerin into acetonitrile-rich eluent after LC separation improved the ESI-MS response of high polar analytes. Based on the validation results, linear range shifts by in-source CID is the reliable technique even with complex biological samples such as plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Simultaneous determination of seven bufadienolides in rat plasma after oral administration of Shexiang Baoxin Pill by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Peng, Chengcheng; Jiang, Peng; Fu, Peng; Tao, Jianfei; Han, Lin; Huang, Huimei; Chang, Wanlin; Li, Le; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Runhui

    2014-09-15

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was described for the simultaneous determination of resibufogenin, bufalin, gamabufotalin, telibufagin, arenobufagin, cinobufagin and bufotalin in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an ACQUITY HSS T3 column with gradient elution using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. All analytes showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r>0.99). The lower limit of quantification was in the range of 0.5-10 ng/mL for seven bufadienolides. The mean recovery of the analytes ranged from 94.36 to 104.18%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 1.74-13.78% and the accuracies were between 89.37 and 101.38%. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK) study of the seven bufadienolides in rat plasma after oral administration of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP). The selected PK marker compounds with typical efficacy/toxicity may provide a practical solution for marker compound selection and dosage design for the therapeutic drug monitoring and PK study of SBP in its clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of physalins and fingerprint analysis for the quality evaluation of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunliang; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Yongjiang

    2012-12-01

    Physalins are important bioactive compounds from genus Physalis. They often occur as isomers, which makes the structural elucidation difficult. In the present study, the fragmentation behavior and UV characteristics of seven physalins from genus Physalis were firstly investigated using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and diode array detection (DAD). Combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and DAD, the established approach to the structural identification of physalins by ESI-MS/MS was then applied to the analysis of Physalis alkekengi L. According to the UPLC retention behavior, the diagnostic UV spectra and the molecular structural information provided by MS/MS spectra, about 19 fingerprint peaks were identified, including 14 physalins and 5 other compounds. Finally, the established fingerprint method was applied to the analysis of 31 P. alkekengi L. samples collected from different locations, which reflected their similar chemical constituent properties. The proposed method provides a scientific and technical platform to the herbal industry for quality control and safety assurance of herbal preparations that contain this class of physalins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of brand name and generic protein pharmaceuticals using isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hongping; Hill, John; Kauffman, John; Han, Xianlin

    2010-05-01

    The capability of iTRAQ (isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification) reagents coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) as a qualitative and quantitative technique for the analysis of complicated protein pharmaceutical mixtures was evaluated. Mixtures of Somavert and Miacalcin with a small amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an impurity were analyzed. Both Somavert and Miacalcin were qualitatively identified, and BSA was detected at levels as low as 0.8mol%. Genotropin and Somavert were compared in a single experiment, and all of the distinct amino acid residues from the two proteins were readily identified. Four somatropin drug products (Genotropin, Norditropin, Jintropin, and Omnitrope) were compared using the iTRAQ/MALDI-MS method to determine the similarity between their primary structures and quantify the amount of protein in each product. All four product samples were well labeled and successfully compared when a filtration cleanup step preceded iTRAQ labeling. The quantitative accuracy of the iTRAQ method was evaluated. In all cases, the accuracy of experimentally determined protein ratios was higher than 90%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 10%. The iTRAQ and global internal standard technology (GIST) methods were compared, and the iTRAQ method provided both higher sequence coverage and enhanced signal intensity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Simultaneous Determination of 16 Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Euryale ferox Salisb. by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electro Spray Ionization Tandem Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) Mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Qinan; Wu, Chengying; Jiang, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, efficient analytical method was established for the qualification and quantification of 16 nucleosides and nucleobases in Euryale ferox Salisb. by using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Ideal separation of 16 target compounds was achieved on Xbridge Amide HILIC column (4.6 × 150 mm, 3.5 μm) with gradient elution in 11 min by optimized conditions. Variations of nucleosides and nucleobase in samples from different cultivation regions ranging from 190.50 to 1594.30 μg/g were obvious. The total nucleoside contents were higher than total nucleobases, especially in the compositions of guanosine, cytidine and 2'-deoxyguanosine. Samples 1-18 with dense thorns were better characters than samples 19-26 without thorns in terms of nucleosides and nucleobases concentrations in general. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for 16 analytical substances were investigated to be 0.11-6.33 ng/mL and 0.35-21.1 ng/mL, respectively. And the method was first applied to large aquatic plants with good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. All present information provided a scientific and rational reference for quality assessment and control of Euryale ferox Salisb. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Purification and identification of corn peptides that facilitate alcohol metabolism by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and nano liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-Li; Hou, Tao; Shi, Wen; Liu, Wei-Wei; Ibrahim, Salam A; He, Hui

    2016-11-01

    In this study, peptides that facilitate alcohol metabolism were purified and identified from corn protein hydrolysates. The ultra-filtered fraction with a molecular weight < 3 kDa (F3) potential activity was separated into six fractions (F3-H1-F3-H6) by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the resultant six fractions, F3-H4 and F3-H5 exhibited the highest ability to eliminate alcohol in vivo. A total of 16 peptides with strong signal values were identified from F3-H4 and F3-H5 fractions by nano liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Several identified peptides were then selected and synthesized to determine their potential to facilitate alcohol metabolism. We found that Leu-Leu and Pro-Phe were the key structure units in Gln-Leu-Leu-Pro-Phe responsible for this peptide's ability to facilitate alcohol metabolism. However, the role of Leu-Leu and Pro-Phe may be affected by peptide chain length and hydrophobic properties. Our results have thus provided some insight into the study of the structure-activity relationships of corn peptides.

  5. Detection of 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts in genomic DNA by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Song, Yuanyuan; Wu, Danni; Xu, Tian; Lu, Meiling; Zhang, Weibing; Wang, Hailin

    2016-06-10

    Crotonaldehyde (Cro) is one of widespread and genotoxic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and can react with the exocyclic amino group of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) in genomic DNA to form 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (ProdG) adducts. In this study, two diastereomers of high purity were prepared, including non-isotope and stable isotope labeled ProdG adducts, and exploited stable isotope dilution-based calibration method. By taking advantage of synthesized ProdG standards, we developed a sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of two diastereomers of ProdG adducts. In addition to optimization of the UHPLC separation, ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) was used as additive in the mobile phase for enhancing the ionization efficiency to ProdG adducts and facilitating MS detection. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) are estimated about 50 amol and 150 amol, respectively. By the use of the developed method, both diastereomers of ProdG adducts can be detected in untreated human MRC5 cells with a frequency of 2.4-3.5 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides. Crotonaldehyde treatment dramatically increases the levels of ProdG adducts in human MRC5 in a concentration-dependent manner.

  6. Characterization of covalent addition products of chlorogenic acid quinone with amino acid derivatives in model systems and apple juice by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Susanne; Sigolotto, Constance-Isabelle; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to study the covalent interactions between chlorogenic acid (CQA) quinone and two amino acid derivatives, tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In a model system at pH 7.0, the formation of covalent addition products was demonstrated for both derivatives. The addition product of CQA dimer and tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine was characterized by LC/MS(n) as a benzacridine structure. For N-acetyl-L-cysteine, mono- and diaddition products at the thiol group with CQA quinone were found. In apple juice at pH 3.6, covalent interactions of CQA quinone were observed only with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taking together these results and those reported by other groups it can be concluded that covalent interactions of amino side chains with phenolic compounds could contribute to the reduction of the allergenic potential of certain food proteins.

  7. Quantitative analysis of selegiline and three metabolites (N-desmethylselegiline, methamphetamine, and amphetamine) in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Slawson, Matthew H; Taccogno, James L; Foltz, Rodger L; Moody, David E

    2002-10-01

    This report describes a sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of subnanogram concentrations of selegiline and its three principle metabolites, N-desmethylselegiline, methamphetamine, and amphetamine, in human plasma. The assay has a dynamic range of 0.1-20 ng/mL for selegiline and N-desmethylselegiline (norselegiline) and 0.2-20 ng/mL for methamphetamine and amphetamine. The inter- and intra-assay precision and accuracy varied by less than 11% for all analytes at 0.3, 2.5, and 15 ng/mL and less than 16% at the lower limit of quantitation (0.1 ng/mL for selegiline and norselegiline; and 0.2 ng/mL for methamphetamine and amphetamine). Selegiline and its metabolites showed no significant loss in quantitative accuracy after three freeze/thaw cycles or after up to 6 h at room temperature prior to extraction. Extracted plasma samples retained quantitative accuracy after storage for at least 7 days at -20 degrees C or up to 70 h at room temperature. Methanolic stock solutions were stable for at least 6 h when kept at room temperature or at least 90 days when kept at -20 degrees C.

  8. Simultaneous determination of gonadotropin-inhibitory and gonadotropin-releasing hormones using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Ugo; Wang, Huiyong; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormones (GnIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) are neuropeptides essential for the regulation of reproduction in all vertebrate animals examined. Determination of neuropeptides in the biological sample is highly challenging due to their complex matrix and weak stability. The wide variety of peptides or protein degradation products often interferes with the determination of the target peptide. This study aims to develop a specific ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of nine critical neuropeptides in biological samples. A separation method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) by tandem mass spectrometry allows the selective determination of the neuropeptides in brain and plasma matrices after solid-phase extraction. Specific MSMS transitions were optimized using MRM of multiple-charged peptides generated by electrospray ionization in positive mode. The resulting analytical method was fully validated with thorough evaluation of stability, recovery, matrix effect, and intra- and interday accuracy and precision in sea lamprey brain and plasma. The optimized method shows linearity in a wide range of concentrations with limit of quantification ranging from 0.1 to 0.75 ng/mL. With slight modification, this method can be applied to other biological samples.

  9. Quantification of levoglucosan and its isomers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry and its applications to atmospheric and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piot, C.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Pissot, N.; El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Besombes, J.-L.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of atmospheric concentrations of levoglucosan and its two isomers, unambiguous tracers of biomass burning emissions, became even more important with the development of wood as renewable energy for domestic heating. Many researches demonstrated the increase during recent years of atmospheric particulate matter load due to domestic biomass combustion in developed countries. Analysis of biomass burning tracers is traditionally performed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) technique after derivatization and requires an organic solvent extraction. A simpler and faster technique using Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionisation - tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was optimized for the analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan isomers after an aqueous extraction. This technique allows a good separation between the three compounds in a very reduced time (runtime ~5 min). LOD and LOQ of this method are 30 μg l-1 and 100 μg l-1 respectively, allowing the use of filters from low-volume sampler (as commonly used in routine campaigns). A comparison of simultaneous levoglucosan measurements by GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS for about 50 samples coming from different types of sampling sites and seasons was realized and shows very good agreement between the two methods. Therefore LC-ESI-MS/MS method can be used as an alternative to GC-MS particularly for measurement campaigns in routine where analysis time is important and detection limit is reduced. This paper shows that this method is also applicable to other environmental sample types like soil.

  10. Quantification of levoglucosan and its isomers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry and its applications to atmospheric and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piot, C.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Pissot, N.; El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Besombes, J.-L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of atmospheric concentrations of levoglucosan and its two isomers, unambiguous tracers of biomass burning emissions, became even more important with the development of wood as renewable energy for domestic heating. Many researches demonstrated the increase during recent years of atmospheric particulate matter load due to domestic biomass combustion in developed countries. Analysis of biomass burning tracers is traditionally performed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) technique after derivatization and requires an organic solvent extraction. A simpler and faster technique using Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionisation - tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was optimized for the analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan isomers after an aqueous extraction. This technique allows a good separation between the three compounds in a very reduced time (runtime ~5 min). LOD and LOQ of this method are 30 μg l-1 and 100 μg l-1 respectively, allowing the use of filters from low-volume sampler (as commonly used in routine campaigns). A comparison of simultaneous levoglucosan measurements by GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS for about 50 samples coming from different types of sampling sites and seasons was realized and shows very good agreement between the two methods. Therefore LC-ESI-MS/MS method can be used as an alternative to GC-MS particularly for measurement campaigns in routine where analysis time is important and detection limit is reduced. This paper shows that this method is also applicable to other environmental sample types like soil.

  11. Determination of the enantiomer fraction of PBB 149 by gas chromatography/electron capture negative ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode.

    PubMed

    von der Recke, Roland; Mariussen, Espen; Berger, Urs; Götsch, Arntraut; Herzke, Dorte; Vetter, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Enantioselective determination of the atropisomers of 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexabromobiphenyl (PBB 149) in a purified sample from a bird egg was attempted in this work. By application of the classic method for PBB determination, i.e. gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) using the bromide ions, the enantiomers interfered with another brominated compound. Subsequent measurements clarified that this interference did not occur in the mass chromatogram of the molecular ion of PBB 149. Therefore, a GC/ECNI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed, based on the fragmentation of [M]-. A suitable precursor-product ion transition was found for m/z 627.5 --> 80 +/- 1.5, representing the most abundant ion trace of the molecular ion and the bromide ions. Optimization of the ion source temperature, the methane gas pressure, and the collision voltages resulted in a robust method that could solve the problem. Subsequent injections of a technical PBB product (Firemaster BP-6) resulted in the anticipated racemic proportion (enantiomer fraction (EF) = 0.50 +/- 0.02 (n = 8)). By contrast, the EF in the purified extract of a bird egg was found to be 0.42 +/- 0.02 (n = 10), indicative of a significant enantioenrichment of the second eluting atropisomer. Additional measurements were performed on a non-chiral column. These measurements allowed for the detection of 16 hexabromobiphenyls (hexa-BBs) in Firemaster BP-6. These comparisons verified that PBB 149 enantiomers did not interfere with an isomer that could falsify the enantiomer fraction in the sample. The novel method using GC/ECNI-MS/MS in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was eight times more sensitive than application of conventional GC/ECNI-MS selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis of the molecular ion.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of four Alternaria toxins in apple juice concentrate by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Li, Jianhua; Kong, Xianghong; Yue, Aishan; Wu, Shuangmin

    2010-12-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the determination of altenuene (ALT), alternariol (AOH), tentoxin and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in apple juice concentrate (AJC). The sample was diluted with water, and then cleaned up with a PS DVB column. The quantification was carried out using an external standard method. The UPLC was performed on a BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water. The MS/MS was performed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of quantification of the four Alternaria toxins were between 1.0 and 5.0 microg/L. The recoveries were 77.8%-117.2% with the relative standard deviations less than 9.7%. The method is sensitive, stable and reliable. It's suitable for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the four Alternaria toxins in AJC.

  13. Lipid A structure of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125: use of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of fatty acid distribution.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Maria Michela; Piaz, Fabrizio Dal; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2002-05-01

    The use of electrospray Ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the structural determination of the lipid A components of the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125 is reported. The lipid A contains the classical bisphosphorylated beta-(1' --> 6)-linked D-glucosamine disaccharide with 3-hydroxydodecanoyl residues (12 : 0 (3-OH)) linked both as esters and amides to 2', 3' (distal glucosamine) and 2, 3 positions (proximal glucosamine) of the sugar backbone. The hydroxyl of 12 : 0 (3-OH) fatty acid linked at the 3' position is esterified by a dodecanoyl residue (12 : 0). In addition to the pentaacyl component, a minor tetraacyl lipid A, lacking the acyl residue at position 3, was also found in the lipid A fraction. The advantage of this MS technique for the investigation of the intra-ring fragmentation, which is useful for the determination of fatty acyl residue distribution on each glucosamine unit, is emphasized.

  14. Determination of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates in tire and clothing textile samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny; Westerholm, Roger

    2013-09-13

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method utilizing electrospray ionization in positive and negative mode has been developed for the separation and detection of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates. Ultra-sonication assisted solvent extraction of these compounds has also been developed and the overall method demonstrated on a selected clothing textile and an automobile tire sample. Matrix effects and extraction recoveries, as well as linearity and limits of detection have been evaluated. The calibration curves spanned over more than two orders of magnitude with coefficients of correlation R(2)>0.99 and the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range 1.7-58pg injected and 18-140pg/g, respectively. The extraction recoveries ranged between 69% and 102% and the matrix effects between 75% and 101%. Benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates were determined in the textile sample and benzothiazole derivatives determined in the tire sample with good analytical performance.

  15. Application of pentafluorophenyl hydrazine derivatives to the analysis of nabumetone and testosterone in human plasma by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sheen, J F; Her, G R

    2004-12-01

    Two carbonyl compounds, nabumetone and testosterone, were derivatized with pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH) and analyzed by atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. The PFPH derivatives underwent dissociative electron capture in negative-ion APCI (ECAPCI) and gave intense [M-20](-) ions in the mass spectra. In positive-ion APCI, the PFPH derivatives underwent efficient protonation and gave intense [M + H](+) ions in the mass spectra. In CID, the major product ions of the [M-20](-) ions in ECAPCI corresponded to the partial moiety of PFPH. In contrast, the major product ions of [M + H](+) corresponded to the partial moiety of the analyte. By using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection, low pg of nabumetone (1 pg) and testosterone (7 pg) could be detected in both ECAPCI and positive-ion APCI. In comparison with the detection limits (SRM) of the underivatized analytes, use of the PFPH derivatives resulted in 2500-fold and 35-fold sensitivity enhancements for nabumetone and testosterone, respectively. The PFPH derivatives were applied to the analysis of nabumetone and testosterone in human plasma by both ECAPCI and positive-ion APCI and were found to enable detection of 0.1 ng mL(-1) nabumetone in spiked plasma. For testosterone, endogenous testosterone in female plasma was detected in both ECAPCI and positive-ion APCI.

  16. Investigation of the formation of the [2(iohexol) + Mg](2+) complex and its fragmentation in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengzhe; Yin, Dengyang; Han, Jie; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Liyan; Du, Yan; Wang, Haibo; Guo, Cheng; Tang, Daoquan

    2017-01-15

    Mass spectrometry has been developed as one of the common tools for the analysis of the organometallic systems in the gas phase over decades. The study of the fragmentation of organics-metal complexes has attracted much attention since the interesting dissociation pathways exhibited by these compounds are usually different from the protonated analogues. In this work, iohexol complexed with different dications such as Mg(2)(+) , Cu(2)(+) and Zn(2)(+) have been investigated by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, deuterium-labeling experiments and an analogue of iohexol were utilized to confirm the reaction mechanisms. A computational chemistry method was used to identify the coordination conformation between iohexol and metal ions in the gas phase. UV detection was also used to identify the interaction between iohexol and metal ions in the liquid phase. A special gas-phase open-loop reaction of iohexol induced by Mg(2)(+) , leading to the formation of [iohexol + Mg - H - HI - C3 H4 O](+) , was observed in the collision-induced dissociation of [2(iohexol) + Mg](2+) complexes. Moreover, theoretical calculation shows the proposed coordination configuration of iohexol/Mg(2)(+) complexes. The Mg(2)(+) could have tetrahedral coordination with two iohexol molecules. The percent study is a case for better understanding the formation of a typical organic/metal complex and its gas-phase fragmentation reaction. In addition, it provides useful information for researchers working on analysis or structural elucidation of complicated compounds which contain the iohexol analogues. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Surrogate analyte approach for quantitation of endogenous NAD(+) in human acidified blood samples using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liling; Cui, Zhiyi; Deng, Yuzhong; Dean, Brian; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Liang, Xiaorong

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for the quantitative determination of NAD(+) in human whole blood using a surrogate analyte approach was developed and validated. Human whole blood was acidified using 0.5N perchloric acid at a ratio of 1:3 (v:v, blood:perchloric acid) during sample collection. 25μL of acidified blood was extracted using a protein precipitation method and the resulting extracts were analyzed using reverse-phase chromatography and positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (13)C5-NAD(+) was used as the surrogate analyte for authentic analyte, NAD(+). The standard curve ranging from 0.250 to 25.0μg/mL in acidified human blood for (13)C5-NAD(+) was fitted to a 1/x(2) weighted linear regression model. The LC-MS/MS response between surrogate analyte and authentic analyte at the same concentration was obtained before and after the batch run. This response factor was not applied when determining the NAD(+) concentration from the (13)C5-NAD(+) standard curve since the percent difference was less than 5%. The precision and accuracy of the LC-MS/MS assay based on the five analytical QC levels were well within the acceptance criteria from both FDA and EMA guidance for bioanalytical method validation. Average extraction recovery of (13)C5-NAD(+) was 94.6% across the curve range. Matrix factor was 0.99 for both high and low QC indicating minimal ion suppression or enhancement. The validated assay was used to measure the baseline level of NAD(+) in 29 male and 21 female human subjects. This assay was also used to study the circadian effect of endogenous level of NAD(+) in 10 human subjects.

  18. Multidimensional capillary array liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry for high-throughput proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunli; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2007-01-19

    A two-dimensional capillary array liquid chromatography system coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for high-throughput comprehensive proteomic analysis, in which one strong cation-exchange (SCX) capillary chromatographic column was used as the first separation dimension and 10 parallel reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) capillary columns were used as the second separation dimension. A novel multi-channel interface was designed and fabricated for on-line coupling of the SCX to RPLC column array system. Besides the high resolution based on the combination of SCX and RPLC separation, the developed new system provided the most rapid two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) separation. Ten three-way micro-splitter valves used as stop-and-flow switches in transferring SCX fractions onto RPLC columns. In addition, the three-way valves also acted as mixing chambers of RPLC effluent with matrix. The system enables on-line mixing of the LC array effluents with matrix solution during the elution and directly depositing the analyte/matrix mixtures on MALDI plates from the tenplexed channels in parallel through an array of capillary tips. With the novel system, thousands of peptides were well separated and deposited on MALDI plates only in 150min for a complex proteome sample. Compared with common 2D-LC system, the parallel 2D-LC system showed about 10-times faster analytical procedure. In combination with a high throughput tandem time of flight mass spectrometry, the system was proven to be very effective for proteome analysis by analyzing a complicated sample, soluble proteins extracted from a liver cancer tissue, in which over 1202 proteins were identified.

  19. Rapid screening assay of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by measuring 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry from dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Chen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lin, Wei-De; Lee, Cheng-Chun

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and specific method was developed for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) from dried blood spots on newborn screening cards based on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The usefulness of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 OH-P) determination on dried filter-paper blood samples from patients with CAH caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency was evaluated. The LC/MS/MS detection of 17 OH-P was rapid, <4 min. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision of the method were <7%. Our procedure maintained good linearities (R(2) > 0.992) and recovery rate (>83%). We used this new method to directly determine the 17 OH-P levels in dried blood specimens from abnormal children of various ages, with a detection limit of 20 ng/ml (approximately 240 pg), to avoid the time-consuming derivatization steps required by the gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Four dried filter-paper blood samples of CAH patients (three girls and one boy, 1-14 years old) were all quantified in an LC/MS/MS study and revealed high 17 OH-P levels (>90 ng/ml). After treatment, all of the elevated 17 OH-P levels either decreased or disappeared. Compared with CAH patients, 17 OH-P was nearly undetectable (<20 ng/ml) in the normal infants by LC/MS/MS. This LC/MS/MS assay is not only useful for both diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of CAH in all other age groups, it also can be used as a screening test for CAH infants. In this study, we provided the first data on 17 OH-P in dried blood specimens affected with CAH using HPLC/ESI-MS/MS.

  20. Quantitative analysis of a novel HIV fusion inhibitor (sifuvirtide) in HIV infected human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Che, Jinjing; Meng, Qingfang; Chen, Zhihang; Hou, Yunan; Shan, Chengqi; Cheng, Yuanguo

    2010-03-11

    A sensitive method for measuring sifuvirtide, a novel HIV fusion inhibitor peptide drug in HIV-1(+) human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The plasma samples were treated by solvent/detergent (S/D) method to inactivate viral activity before analysis. After protein precipitation sifuvirtide was determined by LC-MS/MS. A structure analog was used as internal standard (IS). The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring mode with transitions m/z 946.3-->159.0 for sifuvirtide and 951.7-->159.2 for IS. The intra-day precision ranged from 2.74% to 7.57% with accuracy from 91.63% to 102.53%. The inter-day precision ranged from 2.65% to 3.58% and the accuracy from 95.53% to 105.28%. Stability studies showed that sifuvirtide was stable both during the assay procedure and long-term storage. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 9.75ngml(-1). The method was used for analyzing samples from phase IIa clinical study of sifuvirtide in China.

  1. Determination of alprostadil in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry after intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Yue; Wang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Tang, Xing

    2009-05-01

    A rapid, highly selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of alprostadil in rat plasma. After a simple sample preparation procedure involving a one-step liquid-liquid extraction, alprostadil and the internal standard, diphenhydramine, were chromatographed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL min(-1). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The calibration curve was linear (r(2)=0.99) over the concentration range 0.4-250.0 ng mL(-1), with a lower limit of quantification of 0.4 ng mL(-1) for alprostadil. The inter- and intra-day precision (%R.S.D.) was less than 8.5% and 2.4%, respectively, and the accuracy (RE%) was between 9.3% and 1.0% (n=6). Alprostadil in rat plasma was stable when stored at room temperature for 0.5h and at -20 degrees C for two weeks. The method was very rapid, simple and reliable, and was employed for the first time for the pharmacokinetic studies of alprostadil in rats after a single intravenous administration of 50 microg kg(-1).

  2. Determination of banned 10 azo-dyes in hot chili products by gel permeation chromatography-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han-Wen; Wang, Feng-Chi; Ai, Lian-Feng

    2007-09-14

    An accurate method based on the use of gel permeation chromatography (GPC)-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry interfaced with electrospray ionization (GPC-LC-ESI-MS/MS) was devised for the simultaneous determination of Sudan (I-IV), Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red B, Sudan Red G, Sudan Red 7B, Butter Yellow and Para Red in hot chili products. A GPC clean-up procedure was developed for simultaneous quantification of 10 dyes in hot chili and hot chili products avoiding some interference and permitting multiple injections without damaging the column. A HPLC was performed on an Inertsil C18 column using a multistep gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase. Mass spectral acquisition was done in positive ion mode. Linearity of around three orders in the magnitude of concentration was generally obtained with the correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.9984-0.9997. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the investigated dyes were in the ranges of 0.1-1.8 and 0.4-5.0 microg/kg depending on matrices, respectively. The recoveries of the 10 synthetic dyes in five matrices ranged from 81.7 to 92.9%. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSDs) was between 2.9-7.8 and 3.9-8.1%, respectively. This method has been applied successfully for the determination of the studied 10 banned dyes in hot chili products.

  3. Systematic screening and characterization of glycosides in tobacco leaves by liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry using neutral loss scan and product ion scan.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Sheng; Yu, Jingjing; Qin, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Xie, Fuwei

    2015-12-01

    Glycosides in tobacco leaves are highly important aromatic precursors. It is necessary to reveal glycosides in tobacco leaves to improve tobacco planting and processing. This study describes a method for the systematic screening of glycosides in tobacco leaves by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Although glycosides contain numerous aglycones, the number of glycans is limited. Based on a screening table of glycans designed for neutral loss scan, glycosides with different aglycones were systematically screened out. Then, the MS(2) fragment spectra of scanned glycosides were further obtained using product ion scan. By comparison with the spectra in online tandem mass spectral databases, reported references, and verification by commercial standards, 64 glycosides were detected, including 39 glycosides linked with monosaccharides, 18 glycosides linked with disaccharides and 7 glycosides linked with trisaccharides. It is noteworthy that glycosides linked with trisaccharides have previously been rarely reported in tobacco. This method appears to be a useful tool for the systematic screening and characterization of glycosides in tobacco and can potentially be applied to other plants.

  4. [Determination of 27 industrial dyes in juice and wine using ultra performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yi; Shao, Bing

    2010-04-01

    A method for the determination of 27 industrial dyes in juice and wine has been developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS). Acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent, and sodium chloride was added to salt out the analytes from the samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with the gradient elution and the mass spectrometric acquisition was carried out under the mode of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Twenty-four of the 27 dyes were detected under positive ionization mode using the mobile phase of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The other 3 dyes were analyzed under negative ionization mode with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and water. As a result, the average recoveries of 27 dyes spiked in juice ranged from 57.0% to 117.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.4%-17.7%, and the average recoveries of 27 dyes spiked in wine ranged from 40.8% to 109.4% with the RSDs of 1.6%-17.9%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of 27 dyes spiked in juice were in the range of 0.1-50 microg/kg, and 0.2-50 microg/kg for those spiked in wine. This method can be applied to rapid detection of illegally added dyes in soft drinks due to its simplicity and high sensitivity.

  5. Simultaneous detection of low and high molecular weight carbonylated compounds derived from lipid peroxidation by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Milic, Ivana; Hoffmann, Ralf; Fedorova, Maria

    2013-01-02

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other oxidative agents such as free radicals can oxidize polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as well as PUFA in lipids. The oxidation products can undergo consecutive reactions including oxidative cleavages to yield a chemically diverse group of products, such as lipid peroxidation products (LPP). Among them are aldehydes and ketones ("reactive carbonyls") that are strong electrophiles and thus can readily react with nucleophilic side chains of proteins, which can alter the protein structure, function, cellular distribution, and antigenicity. Here, we report a novel technique to specifically derivatize both low molecular and high molecular weight carbonylated LPP with 7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carbohydrazide (CHH) and analyze all compounds by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in positive ion mode. CHH-derivatized compounds were identified by specific neutral losses or fragment ions. The fragment ion spectra displayed additional signals that allowed unambiguous identification of the lipid, fatty acids, cleavage sites, and oxidative modifications. Oxidation of docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6), arachidonic (AA, 20:4), linoleic (LA, 18:2), and oleic acids (OA, 18:1) yielded 69 aliphatic carbonyls, whose structures were all deduced from the tandem mass spectra. When four phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles containing the aforementioned unsaturated fatty acids were oxidized, we were able to deduce the structures of 122 carbonylated compounds from the tandem mass spectra of a single shotgun analysis acquired within 15 min. The high sensitivity (LOD ∼ 1 nmol/L for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, HNE) and a linear range of more than 3 orders of magnitude (10 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L for HNE) will allow further studies on complex biological samples including plasma.

  6. Laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry applied for the ultra-fast quantitative analysis of BKM120 in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lanshoeft, Christian; Heudi, Olivier; Leuthold, Luc Alexis; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Elbast, Walid; Picard, Franck; Kretz, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive and ultra-fast method utilizing the laser diode thermal desorption ion source using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of BKM120, an investigational anticancer drug in human plasma. Samples originating from protein precipitation (PP) followed by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) were spotted onto the LazWell™ plate prior to their thermal desorption and detection by tandem mass spectrometry in positive mode. The validated method described in this paper presents a high absolute extraction recovery (>90 %) for BKM120 and its internal standard (ISTD) [D8]BKM120, with precision and accuracy meeting the acceptance criteria. Standard curves were linear over the range of 5.00 to 2000 ng mL(-1) with a coefficient of determination (R (2)) >0.995. The method specificity was demonstrated in six different batches of human plasma. Intra- and inter-run precision as well as accuracy within ±20 % at the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and ±15 % (other levels) were achieved during a three-run validation for quality control (QC) samples. The post-preparative stability on the LazWell™ plate at room temperature was 72 h and a 200-fold dilution of spiked samples was demonstrated. The method was applied successfully to three clinical studies (n = 847) and cross-checked with the validated LC-ESI-MS/MS reference method. The sample analysis run time was 10 s as compared to 4.5 min for the current validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The resultant data were in agreement with the results obtained using the validated reference LC-ESI-MS/MS assay and the same pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated for both analytical assays. This work demonstrates that LDTD-APCI-MS/MS is a reliable method for the ultra-fast quantitative analysis of BKM120 which can be used to speed-up and support its bioanalysis in the frame of the clinical trials.

  7. Determination of naturally occurring progestogens in bovine milk as their oxime derivatives using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Regal, Patricia; Nebot, Carolina; Vázquez, Beatriz I; Cepeda, Alberto; Fente, Cristina

    2010-08-15

    Hormones and hormone-like substances which are present in the environment have been repeatedly accused of being the cause of most endocrine disruption. However, the possible role of endogenous hormones in food of animal origin deserves to be discussed as well. The relation between steroid hormones and several human health problems has been previously reported, such as prostate and breast cancer, perturbation of human reproduction and endocrine disruption on humans and wildlife. This research is particularly concerned with cow's milk, which contains a considerable amount of sex hormones. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous detection and quantification of four naturally occurring steroid hormones in commercial bovine milk (pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OHP5), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P4)). Oxime derivatives of steroids were analyzed in positive ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mode. Methodology has been validated according to Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. This method has been successfully used in real samples. It is fast and easy-handling and provides a useful tool for the assessment of progestogens in bovine milk. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Metabolism of FPP-3, an anti-inflammatory propenone compound, in rat by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Lee, Eung Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2007-05-01

    1-Furan-2-yl-3-pyridin-2-yl-propenone (FPP-3) is an anti-inflammatory agent with a propenone moiety. Following a single intravenous injection of male Sprague-Dawley rats with 4 mg/kg of FPP-3, three different metabolites of FPP-3 were identified as M1 (1-furan-2-yl-3-pyridin-2-yl-propan-1-one), M2 (1-furan-2-yl-3-pyridin-2-yl-propan-1-ol) and M3 (a glucuronide conjugate of M2) in rat urine by a liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The structures of M1 and M2 were the same as observed previously following the incubation of rat liver microsomes with FPP-3 in the presence of NADPH. Although all metabolites of FPP-3 were identified in rat urine, only M1 and M2 were observed in the bile and feces. In addition, FPP-3 and its metabolites were mostly excreted into the urine. The M3 was identified as a glucuronide conjugate of M2 because of the addition of 176 Da from the protonated molecular ion of M2 in MS(2) and because of the production of free M2 following an incubation of urine with beta-glucuronidase. From these studies, a possible metabolic fate of FPP-3 could be proposed in vivo.

  9. Determination of pramipexole (U-98,528) in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lau, Y Y; Selenka, J M; Hanson, G D; Talaat, R; Ichhpurani, N

    1996-08-30

    A highly sensitive and selective HPLC-MS-MS method was developed for the determination of pramipexole in human plasma. The analytes, pramipexole and BHT-920 (internal standard), were extracted from plasma at basic pH with methyl tert.-butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE was evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in 100 microliters of (95:5) methanol-water. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-CN column with a mobile phase of (15:5:80) water-0.1 M ammonium acetate-methanol. The analytes were detected utilizing HPLC in conjunction with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). The assay was linear in the concentration ranges of 50 to 5000 pg/ml. The analysis of pooled quality controls (150, 750, and 3000 pg/ml) demonstrated excellent precision with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) (n = 18) of 7.2%, 5.3% and 5.2%, respectively. The method is accurate with all intra-day (n = 6) and overall (n = 18) mean values being less than 11.7% from theoretical.

  10. Analysis of lidocaine and its major metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide, in elk velvet antler by liquid chromatography with UV detection and confirmation by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bagonluri, Mukasa T; Woodbury, Murray R; Reid, R Stephen; Boison, Joe O

    2005-04-06

    A sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method with UV detection was developed for the determination of residues of lidocaine (LID) and its major metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX), in elk velvet antler. The drugs were extracted from alkaline velvet antler homogenates, cleaned up on a C(18) solid-phase extraction cartridge, and separated on an Inertsil ODS-3 (3.0 x 250 mm, 5 microm) column using an isocratic mobile phase made up of 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 4.0)/acetonitrile (88:12, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The limits of quantification for LID and its major metabolite, MEGX, were 10 and 20 ng/g, respectively. The method was validated and used to measure the concentration of residues of LID and MEGX in elk velvet antlers harvested after either LID anesthesia or application of a drug-free control method (electro-anesthesia, EA). No LID or MEGX residues were detected in any of the antlers harvested after EA application. No MEGX residues were detected in any of the velvet antlers harvested after LID application, but residues of LID ranging in concentration from 68 to 4300 ng/g were detected in the three sections of the velvet antlers harvested after LID administration. LC-tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of lidocaine detected in the velvet antlers.

  11. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin, its major metabolites and ampicillin in eggs by liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lirui; Jia, Longfei; Xie, Xing; Xie, Kaizhou; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jianyu; Cui, Lulu; Zhang, Genxi; Dai, Guojun; Wang, Jinyu

    2016-02-01

    In this present study, we developed a simple, rapid and specific method for the quantitative analysis of the contents of amoxicillin (AMO), AMO metabolites and ampicillin (AMP) in eggs. This method uses a simple liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The optimized method has been validated according to requirements defined by the European Union and Food and Drug Administration. Extraction recoveries of the target compounds from the egg at 5, 10 and 25 μg/kg were all higher than 80%, with relative standard deviations not exceeding 10.00%. The limits of quantification in eggs were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The decision limits (CCα) ranged between 11.1 and 11.5 μg/kg, while detection capabilities (CCβ) from 12.1 to 13.0 μg/kg. These values were very close to the corresponding MRLs. Finally, the new approach was successfully verified for the quantitative determination of these analytes in 40 commercial eggs from local supermarkets.

  12. A simple and selective method for determination of phthalate biomarkers in vegetable samples by high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xi; Cui, Kunyan; Zeng, Feng; Li, Shoucong; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, solid-phase extraction cartridges including silica reversed-phase Isolute C18, polymeric reversed-phase Oasis HLB and mixed-mode anion-exchange Oasis MAX, and liquid-liquid extractions with ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dichloromethane and its mixtures were compared for clean-up of phthalate monoesters from vegetable samples. Best recoveries and minimised matrix effects were achieved using ethyl acetate/n-hexane liquid-liquid extraction for these target compounds. A simple and selective method, based on sample preparation by ultrasonic extraction and liquid-liquid extraction clean-up, for the determination of phthalate monoesters in vegetable samples by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The method detection limits for phthalate monoesters ranged from 0.013 to 0.120 ng g(-1). Good linearity (r(2)>0.991) between MQLs and 1000× MQLs was achieved. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation values were less than 11.8%. The method was successfully used to determine phthalate monoester metabolites in the vegetable samples.

  13. Differential estimation of isomeric 2- and 4-methoxylated estrogens in serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ju; Moon, Myeong Hee; Chung, Bong Chul; Choi, Man Ho

    2013-01-01

    As a simple and rapid method for small-molecule analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization coupled with linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-LTQ-MS/MS) was used to differentially quantify 2- and 4-methoxyestrogens in spiked serum samples. Both 2- and 4-methoxyestrogens were consistently identified using distinct analyte-matrix adduct [M+H+CHCA](+) precursor ions when a mixture of 10 mg mL(-1) α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) in 0.2% trifluoroacetic acid/70% acetonitrile was used as the MALDI matrix. Especially, unusual isomeric product ions from each precursor ion were characterized during MALDI-MS/MS analysis, which permitted differential estimations of isomeric 2- and 4-methoxylated estrone and 17β-estradiol. The calibration linearity was higher than 0.99 in the dynamic range, while the inter-day precision and accuracy ranged from 6.8 to 30.6%, and from 91.4 to 108.5%, respectively. The present technique could be used as a screening assay for 2- and 4-methoxyestrogens without the need for prior chromatographic separation, opening up possible applications in large-scale pharmacokinetic studies.

  14. Determination of disialoganglioside GD3 and monosialoganglioside GM3 in infant formulas and whey protein concentrates by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingshun; Ren, Yiping; Huang, Baifen; Tao, Baohua; Pedersen, Marlene Ransborg; Li, Duo

    2012-04-01

    A method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established for simultaneous determination of major disialoganglioside 3 (GD3) and monosialoganglioside 3 (GM3) in infant formulas and whey protein concentrates. Gangliosides were extracted by using the technique of Svennerholm and Fredman and then cleaned up with OASIS HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The various molecular species of gangliosides were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C8 column and analyzed under the negative ion mode. GD3 and GM3 were rapidly quantified using internal standard (IS) method. The developed method was further validated by determining the linearity, average recovery, sensitivity (limit of quantification), and precision. The results presented high correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.993) of the selected 16 gangliosides molecular species and provided the respective linear ranges. The limit of quantification was 0.325-0.734 mg/100 g for eight molecular species of GD3 and 0.008-0.312 mg/100 g for eight molecular species of GM3, respectively. The reasonable average recoveries (81-95%) and precision (relative standard deviation [RSD] ≤15%) were also demonstrated in three different spiked levels. This new method would be very useful in the quantitative determination of gangliosides in infant formulas and whey protein concentrates. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Simple and sensitive method for pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) analysis in various foods using liquid chromatography/electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Noji, Natsumi; Nakamura, Takemichi; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Taguchi, Katsuhiko; Kudo, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Shigeo; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Sugiyama, Tamizi; Asami, Tadao

    2007-09-05

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be an important factor for mammalian growth and development and has, therefore, been declared a vitamin by some researchers. However, this issue remains controversial, and from a nutritional viewpoint, accurate determination of PQQ levels in a variety of foods is very important. Here, we describe a simple, highly sensitive, and highly selective method for quantitative analysis of PQQ. Liquid foods or aqueous extracts of solid foods were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with electrospray-ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). (15)N-labeled PQQ was added to the samples as an internal standard. Quantitative analyses of PQQ were performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with LC/MS/MS. Free PQQ was detected in almost all food samples in the range 0.19-7.02 ng per g fresh weight (for solid foods) or per mL (liquid foods). This method will enable the rapid and simple determination of PQQ levels in many samples.

  16. Quantitative analysis of six heterocyclic aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqin; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2011-02-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) represent an important class of carcinogens in mainstream cigarette smoke. Accurate HAA quantification is challenging because of their relative low abundances and numerous chemical interferences that arise naturally from thousands of the constituents present in cigarette smoke. We have developed and validated a straightforward high-throughput method to quantify HAA levels in mainstream cigarette smoke and demonstrated the applicability by analyzing select research and domestic cigarette brands. Machine-smoked cigarette condensate collected under both standard and intensive smoking regimens was examined. Mainstream smoke particulate from individual cigarettes trapped on a glass fiber filter pad was spiked with an appropriate internal standard solution and subsequently solvent extracted. The extract was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation data showed excellent accuracy, reproducibility and high throughput; it is suitable for the routine analysis of HAAs in cigarette smoke condensate delivered under a wide of differing smoking conditions. The smoking machine deliveries of HAAs are strongly influenced by cigarettes' physical design, filler blend, and smoking regimen. A quick and accurate method has been developed for the analysis of 6 HAAs in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate. Results provided a good mean to access the ranges of HAAs in commercial products and evaluate the relative contribution of cigarette design, filler blend, and smoking regimen on delivery. Such data are vital in helping provide exposure ranges for potential human exposure estimates.

  17. Cuban and Brazilian red propolis: botanical origin and comparative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Lotti, Cinzia; Campone, Luca; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Rastrelli, Luca

    2011-06-22

    Chemical composition of propolis depends on the specificity of the local flora at the site of collection and thus on the geographic and climatic characteristics of this place. This paper describes a comparative analysis of Cuban red propolis (CRP), Brazilian red propolis (BRP), and Dalbergia ecastophyllum exudates (DEE) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and tandem mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to investigate the overall chemical profile and the botanical origin of red propolis and to suggest similarities and differences between samples collected in different tropical regions. Isoliquiritigenin (1), liquiritigenin and naringenin (2 and 17), isoflavones (3-4 and 16), isoflavans (5-7 and 18), and pterocarpans (8-13) were detected in CRP, BRP, and DEE, whereas polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PPBs) guttiferone E/xanthochymol (14a,b) and oblongifolin A (15) were detected only in BRP. Pigments responsible for the red color of DEE and red propolis were also identified as two C30 isoflavans, the new retusapurpurin B (19) and retusapurpurin A (20). PPBs and pigments were isolated and unambiguously characterized by 1D and 2D NMR analysis. These results show that red propolis samples from different tropical zones have a similar chemical composition. DEE is the main red propolis source, but the presence of PPBs in BRP suggests the contribution of different botanical sources for Brazilian samples. This chemical information is important for quality control of red propolis and its commercial products and for biological study.

  18. Trace analysis of selected hormones and sterols in river sediments by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matić, Ivana; Grujić, Svetlana; Jauković, Zorica; Laušević, Mila

    2014-10-17

    In this paper, development and optimization of new LC-MS method for determination of twenty selected hormones, human/animal and plant sterols in river sediments were described. Sediment samples were prepared using ultrasonic extraction and clean up with silica gel/anhydrous sodium sulphate cartridge. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The optimized extraction parameters were extraction solvent (methanol), weight of the sediment (2 g) and time of ultrasonic extraction (3× 10 min). Successful chromatographic separation of hormones (estriol and estrone, 17α- and 17β-estradiol) and four human/animal sterols (epicoprostanol, coprostanol, α-cholestanol and β-cholestanol) that have identical fragmentation reactions was achieved. The developed and optimized method provided high recoveries (73-118%), low limits of detection (0.8-18 ng g(-1)) and quantification (2.5-60 ng g(-1)) with the RSDs generally lower than 20%. Applicability of the developed method was confirmed by analysis of six river sediment samples. A widespread occurrence of human/animal and plant sterols was found. The only detected hormone was mestranol in just one sediment sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative determination of antidepressants and their select degradates by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in biosolids destined for land application.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Lydia M; Stencel, Katherine A; Murphy, Madigan J; Schultz, Melissa M

    2013-08-06

    Antidepressants are one of the most widely dispensed classes of pharmaceuticals in the United States. As wastewater treatment plants are a primary source of pharmaceuticals in the environment, the use of biosolids as fertilizer is a potential route for antidepressants to enter the terrestrial environment. A microsolvent extraction method, utilizing green chemistry, was developed for extraction of the target antidepressants and degradation products from biosolids, or more specifically lagoon biosolids. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantitative determination of antidepressants in the lagoon biosolid extracts. Recoveries from matrix spiking experiments for the individual antidepressants had an average of 96%. The limits of detection for antidepressant pharmaceuticals and degradates ranged from 0.36 to 8.0 ng/kg wet weight. The method was applied to biosolids destined for land application. A suite of antidepressants was consistently detected in the lagoon biosolid samples, and thus antidepressants are being introduced to terrestrial environments through the land application of these biosolids. Sertraline and norsertraline were the most abundant antidepressant and degradation product detected in the biosolid samples. Detected, individual antidepressant concentrations ranged from 8.5 ng/kg (norfluoxetine) to 420 ng/kg wet weight (norsertraline).

  20. Simultaneous determination of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, epirubicin and daunorubicin in human urine using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: bioanalytical method validation.

    PubMed

    Sottani, Cristina; Rinaldi, Paola; Leoni, Emanuela; Poggi, Guido; Teragni, Cristina; Delmonte, Angelo; Minoia, Claudio

    2008-09-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-HPLC) system interfaced with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF), daunorubicin (DNR), doxorubicin (DXR), and epirubicin (EPI) in human urine. The analysis of samples containing multiple analytes with a dissimilar range of polarities was carried out using a conventional reversed-phase chromatographic BDS Hypersil C8 column. The analytical run was 15 min. The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for drug quantification. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.2 to 4.0 microg.L(-1) for CP, IF, DXR, EPI and 0.15-2.0 microg.L(-1) for DNR in human urine. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.2 microg.L(-1) for CP, IF, EPI and was set at 0.3 and 0.15 microg.L(-1) for DXR and DNR, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) were <11.2% for inter- and intra-day precisions. The overall accuracy was also within 114.7% for all analytes at the concentrations of the quality control samples. The potential of ionization suppression resulting from the endogenous biological material on the rp-HPLC/MS/MS method was evaluated and measured. The feasibility of the proposed HPLC/ESI-MS/MS procedure was demonstrated by analyzing urine samples from pharmacy technicians and nurses working in hospitals or personnel employed in drug-manufacturing plants.

  1. Characterization of Nα-Fmoc-protected dipeptide isomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)): effect of protecting group on fragmentation of dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, M; Raju, B; Srinivas, R; Sureshbabu, V V; Vishwanatha, T M; Hemantha, H P

    2011-07-30

    A series of positional isomeric pairs of Fmoc-protected dipeptides, Fmoc-Gly-Xxx-OY/Fmoc-Xxx-Gly-OY (Xxx=Ala, Val, Leu, Phe) and Fmoc-Ala-Xxx-OY/Fmoc-Xxx-Ala-OY (Xxx=Leu, Phe) (Fmoc=[(9-fluorenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl) and Y=CH(3)/H), have been characterized and differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(n)). In contrast to the behavior of reported unprotected dipeptide isomers which mainly produce y(1)(+) and/or a(1)(+) ions, the protonated Fmoc-Xxx-Gly-OY, Fmoc-Ala-Xxx-OY and Fmoc-Xxx-Ala-OY yield significant b(1)(+) ions. These ions are formed, presumably with stable protonated aziridinone structures. However, the peptides with Gly- at the N-terminus do not form b(1)(+) ions. The [M+H](+) ions of all the peptides undergo a McLafferty-type rearrangement followed by loss of CO(2) to form [M+H-Fmoc+H](+). The MS(3) collision-induced dissociation (CID) of these ions helps distinguish the pairs of isomeric dipeptides studied in this work. Further, negative ion MS(3) CID has also been found to be useful for differentiating these isomeric peptide acids. The MS(3) of [M-H-Fmoc+H](-) of isomeric peptide acids produce c(1)(-), z(1)(-) and y(1)(-) ions. Thus the present study of Fmoc-protected peptides provides additional information on mass spectral characterization of the dipeptides and distinguishes the positional isomers. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of acylcarnitine isomers containing dicarboxylic acylcarnitines in human serum and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ito, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Atsuko; Kurono, Yukihisa; Ueta, Akihito; Yokoi, Kyoko; Sumi, Satoshi; Togari, Hajime; Sugiyama, Naruji

    2007-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a prominent method for screening newborns for diseases such as organic acidemia and fatty acid oxidation defects, although current methods cannot separate acylcarnitine isomers. Accurate determination of dicarboxylic acylcarnitines such as methylmalonylcarnitine and glutarylcarnitine has not been carried out, because obtaining standards of these acylcarnitines is difficult. We attempted the individual determinations of acylcarnitines with isomers and dicarboxylic acylcarnitines by applying high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chromatographic separation was performed by gradient elution using a mixture of 0.08% aqueous ion-pairing agent and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Mass transitions of m/z 161.8-->84.8 for carnitine and m/z 164.8-->84.8 for deuterated carnitine were monitored in positive ion electrospray ionization mode. One carnitine and 16 acylcarnitines were quantified. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.1 micromol/L for methylmalonylcarnitine and 0.05 micromol/L for the other acylcarnitines. Intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variance (CVs) were <8.3% and <8.8%, respectively, for all acylcarnitines in serum, and both were <9.2% in urine. Mean recoveries were >90% for all acylcarnitines. Human samples were quantified by this method. After addition of deuterated acylcarnitines as internal standards, acylcarnitines in serum or urine were extracted using a solid-phase extraction cartridge. In healthy adult individuals, isobutyryl-, 2-methylbutyryl- and isovalerylcarnitine were detected in serum and urine. Dicarboxylic acylcarnitines were detected in urine. High concentrations of methylmalonylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine were found in both the serum and the urine of a patient with methylmalonic acidemia. The described HPLC/MS/MS method could separate most acylcarnitine isomers and quantify them, potentially allowing detailed diagnoses and follow-up treatment for those diseases.

  3. Enantioselective determination of cetirizine in human plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung Woo; Jang, Hae Jong; Moore, Victor S; Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Youm, Jeong-Rok; Han, Sang Beom

    2010-12-15

    A highly sensitive and enantioselective method has been developed and validated for the determination of levocetirizine [(R)-cetirizine] in human plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive ion mode. Enantioselective separation was achieved on a CHIRALPAK AD-H column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of a mixture of n-hexane, ethyl alcohol, diethylamine, and acetic acid (60:40:0.1:0.1, v/v/v/v). Levocetirizine-D(8) was used as an internal standard (IS). Levocetirizine and the IS were detected by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Mass transitions of analyte and IS were m/z 389.2→201.1 and 397.2→201.1, respectively. Under optimized analytical conditions, a baseline separation of two enantiomers and IS was obtained in less than 11 min. Samples were prepared by a simple two-step extraction by protein precipitation using acetonitrile followed by liquid-liquid extraction with a n-hexane-dichloromethane mixture (50:50, v/v). The standard curve for levocetirizine was linear (r(2)>0.995) in the concentration range 0.5-300 ng/mL. Recovery was between 97.0 and 102.2% at low, medium, and high concentration. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 ng/mL. Other method validation parameters, such as precision, accuracy, and stability, were very satisfactory. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the study of enantioselective oral pharmacokinetics of levocetirizine in healthy Korean volunteers.

  4. Determination of eight nitrosamines in water at the ng L(-1) levels by liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ripollés, Cristina; Pitarch, Elena; Sancho, Juan V; López, Francisco J; Hernández, Félix

    2011-09-19

    In this work, we have developed a sensitive method for detection and quantification of eight N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopirrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitroso-n-dipropylamine (NDPA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) in drinking water. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode with a triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ). The simultaneous acquisition of two MS/MS transitions in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) for each compound, together with the evaluation of their relative intensity, allowed the simultaneous quantification and reliable identification in water at ppt levels. Empirical formula of the product ions selected was confirmed by UHPLC-(Q)TOF MS accurate mass measurements from reference standards. Prior to LC-MS/MS QqQ analysis, a preconcentration step by off-line SPE using coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges (by passing 500 mL of water sample) was necessary to improve the sensitivity and to meet regulation requirements. For accurate quantification, two isotope labelled nitrosamines (NDMA-d(6) and NDPA-d(14)) were added as surrogate internal standards to the samples. The optimized method was validated at two concentration levels (10 and 100 ng L(-1)) in drinking water samples, obtaining satisfactory recoveries (between 90 and 120%) and precision (RSD<20%). Limits of detection were found to be in the range of 1-8 ng L(-1). The described methodology has been applied to different types of water samples: chlorinated from drinking water and wastewater treatment plants (DWTP and WWTP, respectively), wastewaters subjected to ozonation and tap waters.

  5. Determination of lidocaine and its two N-desethylated metabolites in dog and horse plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maes, A; Weiland, L; Sandersen, C; Gasthuys, F; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2007-06-01

    A sensitive method for the quantification of lidocaine and its metabolites, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and glycinexylidide (GX), in animal plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is described. The sample preparation includes a liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butylmethyl ether after addition of 2M sodium hydroxide. Ethylmethylglycinexylidide (EMGX) is used as an internal standard. For chromatographic separation, an ODS Hypersil column was used. Isocratic elution was achieved with 0.01 M ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as mobile phases. Good linearity was observed in the range of 2.5-1000 ng ml(-1) for lidocaine in both dog and horse plasma. For MEGX, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 5-1000 ng ml(-1) and 20-1000 ng ml(-1) for dog and horse plasma, respectively. In dog and horse plasma good linearity was observed in the range of 200-1500 ng ml(-1) for GX. The limit of quantification (LOQ) in dog plasma for lidocaine, MEGX and GX was set at 2.5 ng ml(-1), 20 ng ml(-1) and 200 ng ml(-1), respectively. For horse plasma a limit of quantification of 2.5 ng ml(-1), 5 ng ml(-1) and 200 ng ml(-1) was achieved for lidocaine, MEGX and GX, respectively. In dog plasma, the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.8 ng ml(-1), 2.3 ng ml(-1) and 55 ng ml(-1) for lidocaine, MEGX and GX, respectively. In horse plasma the LOD's found for lidocaine, MEGX and GX, were 1.1 ng ml(-1), 0.5 ng ml(-1) and 13 ng ml(-1), respectively. The method was shown to be of use in pharmacokinetic studies after application of a transdermal patch in dogs and after an intravenous infusion in horses.

  6. Analysis of trimethoprim, lincomycin, sulfadoxin and tylosin in swine manure using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Solliec, Morgan; Massé, Daniel; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    A new extraction method coupled to a high throughput sample analysis technique was developed for the determination of four veterinary antibiotics. The analytes belong to different groups of antibiotics such as chemotherapeutics, sulfonamides, lincosamides and macrolides. Trimethoprim (TMP), sulfadoxin (SFX), lincomycin (LCM) and tylosin (TYL) were extracted from lyophilized manure using a sonication extraction. McIlvaine buffer and methanol (MeOH) were used as extraction buffers, followed by cation-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) for clean-up. Analysis was performed by laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical-ionization (LDTD-APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection. The LDTD is a high throughput sample introduction method that reduces total analysis time to less than 15s per sample, compared to minutes when using traditional liquid chromatography (LC). Various SPE parameters were optimized after sample extraction: the stationary phase, the extraction solvent composition, the quantity of sample extracted and sample pH. LDTD parameters were also optimized: solvent deposition, carrier gas, laser power and corona discharge. The method limit of detection (MLD) ranged from 2.5 to 8.3 µg kg(-1) while the method limit of quantification (MLQ) ranged from 8.3 to 28µgkg(-1). Calibration curves in the manure matrix showed good linearity (R(2)≥ 0.996) for all analytes and the interday and intraday coefficients of variation were below 14%. Recoveries of analytes from manure ranged from 53% to 69%. The method was successfully applied to real manure samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alkylation of DNA by melphalan: investigation of capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the study of the adducts at the nucleoside level.

    PubMed

    Van den Driessche, Bart; Lemière, Filip; Van Dongen, Walter; Esmans, Eddy L

    2003-02-25

    Nitrogen mustards are among the oldest cancer chemotherapeutic agents and remain the drugs of choice for treatment of many human cancers. A serious complication of treatment with nitrogen mustards is the increased risk of a secondary leukaemia in long-term survivors because not all alkylating agent interactions with DNA result in cell death. In an earlier study 2'-deoxy-5'-mononucleotide/melphalan adducts have been analysed by us by LC-ES MSMS. In this work we want to present the first results of the analysis of the corresponding 2'-deoxynucleoside/melphalan adducts from DNA hydrolysates by column switching/capillary LC-ES tandem mass spectrometry. Nucleosides, compared to nucleotides, give better chromatographic results and show a good sensitivity under electrospray (+) [ES(+)] ionisation. Several adducts were identified under ES(+) conditions. Mono-alkylated nucleoside adducts alkylated at the base moiety were identified for dGuo, dCyd and dAdo. Structures were identified by recording the low-energy CAD product ion scans. Also a mono-alkylated nucleotide pdA with alkylation position at the phosphate moiety could be detected. This proves that in the case of phosphate alkylation the enzymatic dephosphorylation reaction was inhibited. A Jurkat cell suspension was treated with melphalan (1 mM) and incubated at 37 degrees C (5% CO(2)). After 6 and 48 h, the DNA was isolated and enzymatically hydrolysed. The corresponding nucleoside pool was evaluated with the developed LC-MS method. In the 48-h experiment, one adduct could be identified as a N-7 alkylated dGuo. In the 6-h experiment, no adducts could be found. Additional experiments were done wherein Jurkat-DNA, isolated from a non-treated cell culture, was treated with melphalan. These results were analogous with the data found in melphalan-treated calf thymus DNA. Additionally, we tried to determine the exact alkylation position by interpreting high-resolution fragmentation spectra.

  8. Quantitative determination of perfluorooctanoic acid ammonium salt in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sottani, Cristina; Minoia, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible analytical method was developed and validated to quantify perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human serum. After initial extraction with an ion-paring reagent, the procedure for quantifying PFOA is based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced to negative ion tandem mass spectrometry, operating in selected ion monitoring mode. The retention times of PFOA and its internal standard (D,L-malic acid) were 5.85 and 1.70 min, respectively. The assay was linear over the range 0-500 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of 25 ng/mL, and with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 7.3%. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was assessed as 10 ng/mL. The overall precision and accuracy were assessed on three different days. The within- and between-day precision was < or =9.7 and 6.8%, respectively, and the accuracy was in the range 96-114%. The mean extracted recovery assessed at three different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 ng/mL) was always more than 85%. With this method no derivatization procedure was needed, thus avoiding possible thermal and chemical decomposition reactions of PFOA. The assay was applied to quantify perfluorooctanoic acid in serum from employees exposed to fluorochemicals commonly used in industrial applications for polymer production. The quantitative results for PFOA blood levels were found to vary between 100 and 982 ng/mL. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Collision-induced dissociation of the A + 2 isotope ion facilitates glucosinolates structure elucidation by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Lelario, Filomena; Orlando, Donatella; Bufo, Sabino A

    2010-07-01

    An approach is presented that can be of general applicability for structural elucidation of naturally occurring glucosinolates (GLSs) in crude plant extracts based on the fragmentation of isotopic A and A + 2 peaks. The most important fragmentation pathways were studied by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n), n = 2, 3) using a linear quadrupole ion trap (LTQ) upon GLSs separation by optimized reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode. As the LTQ MS analyzer ensures high sensitivity and linearity, the fragmentation behavior under collision induced dissociation (CID) of the isotopic peaks A and A + 2 as precursor ions was carefully examined. All GLSs (R-C(7)H(11)O(9)NS(2)(-)) share a common structure with at least two sulfur atoms and significant isotopic abundance of (34)S. Thus, dissociation of the +2 Da isotopomeric ions results in several fragment ion doublets containing a combination of (32)S and (34)S. Accordingly, their relative abundances allow one to speed up the structural recognition of GLSs with great confidence, as it produces more structurally informative ions than conventional tandem MS performed on A ions. This approach has been validated on known GLSs bearing two, three, four, and six sulfur atoms by comparing expected and measured isotopic peak abundance ratios (I(A)/I(A)(+2)). Both group- and compound-specific fragments were observed; the predominant pathway of fragmentation of GLSs gives rise to species having the following m/z values, [M - SO(3) - H](-), [M - 196 - H](-), [M - 178 - H](-), and [M - 162 - H](-) after H rearrangement from the R- side chain. The present strategy was successfully applied to extracts of rocket salad leaves (Eruca sativa L.), which was sufficient for the chemical identification of a not already known 6-methylsulfonyl-3-oxohexyl-GLS, a long-chain-length aliphatic glucosinolate, which contains three sulfurs and exhibits a deprotonated molecular ion at m/z 494.1.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of eight additives in polymer food packaging materials by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xulong; Liu, Yin; Gong, Zhiguo; Wang, Pengju; Wang, Jide; Feng, Shun

    2014-08-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of eight additives (Irgafos 168 (tri(2.4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite), Irganox 1076 (octadecyl-β-(4-hydroxy-3, 5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate), Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakys 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate), BHA (butyl hydroxy anisole), TBHQ (tertiary butylhydroquinone), PG (propyl gallate), DG (dodecyl gallate), UV-326 (2-( 2'-hydroxyl-3'-tert-butyl-5'-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole) in food packaging materials. After extracted by chloromethane through ultrasonic extraction, the samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic conditions were optimized, and the best separation was obtained on a Waters BEH-C18 column (50 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient elution of 0. 05% acetic acid solu- tion and methanol. The analysis was performed by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in switching between the positive and negative ion modes in one run for multiple reaction monitoring. The eight additives showed good linear relationships in the ranges with all the correlation coefficients (R2) more than 0. 993. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N= 3) and limits of quantitation (LOQs, S/N= 10) of this method were 0. 13-5.50 μg/L and 0.45-17.50 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 63. 9% - 127. 0% with all the RSDs < 15. 8% (n= 6). This method is simple, accurate and effective for the analysis of the eight additives in food packaging materials.

  11. Concentrations and dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil, determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Jia, Chunhong; Zhao, Ercheng; Chen, Li; Yu, Pingzhong; Jing, Junjie; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-03-01

    A new combined difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad fungicide formulation, as an 11.7 % suspension concentrate (SC), has been introduced as part of a resistance management strategy. The dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad applied to apples and the residues remaining in the apples were determined. The 11.7 % SC was sprayed onto apple trees and soil in Beijing, Shandong, and Anhui provinces, China, at an application rate of 118 g a.i. ha(-1), then the dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad was monitored. The residual difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad concentrations were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The difenoconazole half-lives in apples and soil were 6.2-9.5 and 21.0-27.7 days, respectively. The fluxapyroxad half-lives in apples and soil were 9.4-12.6 and 10.3-36.5 days, respectively. Difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil after the 11.7 % SC had been sprayed twice and three times, with 10 days between applications, at 78 and 118 g a.i. ha(-1) were measured. Representative apple and soil samples were collected after the last treatment, at preharvest intervals of 14, 21, and 28 days. The difenoconazole residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.052 and 0.002-0.298 mg kg(-1), respectively. The fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.093 and 0.008-1.219 mg kg(-1), respectively. The difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples were lower than the maximum residue limits (0.5 and 0.8 mg kg(-1), respectively). An application rate of 78 g a.i. ha(-1) is therefore recommended to ensure that treated apples can be considered safe for humans to consume.

  12. Quantitative determination of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol in rat plasma by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and its application to the pharmacokinetic study of isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ke; Jiang, Xuehua; He, Jianling

    2007-01-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rat plasma. After being treated with beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase, the analytes were extracted by liquid/liquid extraction with the internal standard (IS; baicalein). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Diamonsil C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of 2% formic acid/methanol (10:90, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.00 mL/min, with a split of 200 microL to the mass spectrometer. Validation results indicated that the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng . mL(-1). The assay exhibited a linear range of 1-200 ng . mL(-1) and gave a correlation coefficient of 0.9980 or better for each analyte. Quality control samples (1, 5, 20 and 100 ng . mL(-1)) in six replicates from each of three different runs demonstrated an intra-assay precision (RSD) of 1.1-8.9%, an inter-assay precision of 1.6-10.8%, and an overall accuracy (bias) of <13.4%. The extraction recovery of each analyte and internal standard was 70-80%. In the present study, we have investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of isorhamnetin after oral application in rats equipped with a jugular catheter. After oral dosing of isorhamnetin, the mean values (n = 10) of C(max) were 57.8, 64.8 and 75.2 ng . mL(-1) which were achieved at a T(max) of 8.0, 6.4 and 7.2 h for oral doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg . kg(-1) body weight, respectively. The corresponding mean values for isorhamnetin area under the curver (AUC) from 0 to 60 h were 838.2, 1262.8, 1623.4 ng . h . mL(-1). Our results further demonstrated that the samples analyzed showed isorhamnetin could not be transformed into quercetin or kaempferol in rats, indicating that the demethylation of the 3'-oxymethyl group of isorhamnetin does not occur in Wistar rats.

  13. Simultaneous determination of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, liquiritin and liquiritigenin in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of Ge-Gen Decoction by a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Chai, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Da-Wei; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Hong-He; Huo, Li-Xia; Zhu, Dan-Ni; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2014-07-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of seven constituents including puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, liquiritin and liquiritigenin in rat plasma using schisandrin as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a one-step direct protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid and 5mM ammonium acetate). All analytes and IS were quantitated through electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The mass transitions were as follows: m/z 417.5→297.2 for puerarin, m/z 417.1→255.2 for daidzin, m/z 255.2→152.4 for daidzein, m/z 498.1→179.3 for paeoniflorin, m/z 481.1→197.3 for albiflorin, m/z 436.2→257.3 for liquiritin, m/z 257.2→137.3 for liquiritigenin and m/z 415.0→384.2 for IS, respectively. All calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r>0.9979) over a wide concentration range for all components. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD) at three different levels were both less than 14.3% and the accuracies (RE) ranged from -13.2% to 14.8%. The extraction recoveries of the seven compounds ranged from 72.9% to 117.4%. The validated method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the seven components in female rat plasma after oral administration of Ge-Gen Decoction aqueous extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of four endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters in rat brain using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Lyu, Chunming; Zhang, Shen; Yan, Chao; Cheng, Yu; Wei, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters play an essential role in neural communication in mammalians. Many quantitative methods for endogenous monoamines have been developed during recent decades. Yet, matrix effect was usually a challenge in the quantification, in many cases asking for tedious sample preparation or sacrificing sensitivity. In this work, a simple, fast and sensitive method with no matrix effect was developed to simultaneously determine four endogenous monoamines including serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in rat brain tissues, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, ion source, MS/MS conditions, and brain tissue preparation methods, were optimized and validated. Pre-weighed 20mg brain sample could be effectively and reproducibly homogenized and protein-precipitated by 20 times value of 0.2% formic acid in cold organic solvents (methanol-acetonitrile, 10:90, v/v). This method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes (regression coefficients>0.998 or 0.999). The precision, expressed as coefficients of variation, was less than 3.43% for intra-day analyses and ranged from 4.17% to 15.5% for inter-day analyses. Good performance was showed in limit of detection (between 0.3nM and 3.0nM for all analytes), recovery (90.8-120%), matrix effect (84.4-107%), accuracy (89.8-100%) and stability (88.3-104%). The validated method was well applied to simultaneously determine the endogenous serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in four brain sections of 18 Wistar rats. The quantification of four endogenous monoamines in rat brain performed excellently in the sensitivity, high throughput, simple sample preparation and matrix effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Esi-Ms/Ms) Analysis of the Lipid Molecular Species Composition of Yeast Subcellular Membranes Reveals Acyl Chain-Based Sorting/Remodeling of Distinct Molecular Species En Route to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Schneiter, Roger; Brügger, Britta; Sandhoff, Roger; Zellnig, Günther; Leber, Andrea; Lampl, Manfred; Athenstaedt, Karin; Hrastnik, Claudia; Eder, Sandra; Daum, Günther; Paltauf, Fritz; Wieland, Felix T.; Kohlwein, Sepp D.

    1999-01-01

    Nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS/MS) was employed to determine qualitative differences in the lipid molecular species composition of a comprehensive set of organellar membranes, isolated from a single culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Remarkable differences in the acyl chain composition of biosynthetically related phospholipid classes were observed. Acyl chain saturation was lowest in phosphatidylcholine (15.4%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE; 16.2%), followed by phosphatidylserine (PS; 29.4%), and highest in phosphatidylinositol (53.1%). The lipid molecular species profiles of the various membranes were generally similar, with a deviation from a calculated average profile of ∼± 20%. Nevertheless, clear distinctions between the molecular species profiles of different membranes were observed, suggesting that lipid sorting mechanisms are operating at the level of individual molecular species to maintain the specific lipid composition of a given membrane. Most notably, the plasma membrane is enriched in saturated species of PS and PE. The nature of the sorting mechanism that determines the lipid composition of the plasma membrane was investigated further. The accumulation of monounsaturated species of PS at the expense of diunsaturated species in the plasma membrane of wild-type cells was reversed in elo3Δ mutant cells, which synthesize C24 fatty acid-substituted sphingolipids instead of the normal C26 fatty acid-substituted species. This observation suggests that acyl chain-based sorting and/or remodeling mechanisms are operating to maintain the specific lipid molecular species composition of the yeast plasma membrane. PMID:10459010

  16. Sensitive determination of thiols in wine samples by a stable isotope-coded derivatization reagent d0/d4-acridone-10-ethyl-N-maleimide coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhengxian; You, Jinmao; Lu, Shuaimin; Sun, Weidi; Ji, Zhongyin; Sun, Zhiwei; Song, Cuihua; Chen, Guang; Li, Guoliang; Hu, Na; Zhou, Wu; Suo, Yourui

    2017-03-31

    As the key aroma compounds, varietal thiols are the crucial odorants responsible for the flavor of wines. Quantitative analysis of thiols can provide crucial information for the aroma profiles of different wine styles. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of six thiols in wine using d0/d4-acridone-10-ethyl-N-maleimide (d0/d4-AENM) as stable isotope-coded derivatization reagent (SICD) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed. Quantification of thiols was performed by using d4-AENM labeled thiols as the internal standards (IS), followed by stable isotope dilution HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The AENM derivatization combined with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) not only allowed trace analysis of thiols due to the extremely high sensitivity, but also efficiently corrected the matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and the fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. The obtained internal standard calibration curves for six thiols were linear over the range of 25-10,000pmol/L (R(2)≥0.9961). Detection limits (LODs) for most of analytes were below 6.3pmol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of six kinds of thiols in wine samples with precisions ≤3.5% and recoveries ≥78.1%. In conclusion, the developed method is expected to be a promising tool for detection of trace thiols in wine and also in other complex matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An analytical strategy for identification of a somatotropin-like bioactive peptide by ion trap liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after immuno-affinity purification from buffalo serum.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Pasquale; Vinci, Floriana; Fusco, Giovanna; Serpe, Luigi

    2009-02-01

    The use of growth hormones, such as native and recombinant somatotropins, is forbidden in the European Union (EU), but is legal in the USA. The misuse of recombinant bovine somatotropin in Italy is suspected for enhancing milk production, thanks to its availability on the illegal market. A synthetic bioactive peptide of 27 amino acids derived from bovine somatotropin was successfully tested in France and in southern Italy for scientific purposes, to stimulate milk production, both in cows and buffaloes. This somatotropin-like peptide (PEP-ST), suspected for illegal use in southern Italy, was synthesized by linking the 104-113 sequence of bovine somatotropin to the 323-339 sequence of ovalbumin. Herein, a method for detection and identification of the PEP-ST in buffalo serum is described; our strategy was based on the production of IgG anti-PEP-ST, used to synthesize an immuno-affinity column for peptide purification from buffalo serum, prior to analysis by ion trap liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). The immuno-affinity column was successfully used to purify in a single step the bioactive PEP-ST from buffalo serum samples spiked at 20, 50 and 200 microg/mL for confirmatory analysis. Ion trap LC/ESI-MS/MS identification was based on detection of a multi-charged molecular ion and its characteristic fragmentation pattern. No significant matrix interference was observed, accounting for method specificity. We consider this strategy to be a basic approach that could be improved in the perspective of the official control of illegal use of somatotropin and somatotropin-like compounds in buffalo breeding. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhixiang; Yang, Xinghao; Wu, Jianbo; Su, Huai; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yin

    2011-04-08

    Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, has efficient effects on treatment of the diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS), a disease with high incidence worldwide. However, the active principles for this complex formula have not been fully explored so far. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) was applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major chemical constituents in TXYF. Two monoterpene glycosides, one chromone and five polymethoxylated flavones were tentatively characterized based on the retention times, UV spectra and MS data. Fifteen compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards. Constituents such as lactone and steroidal, which could not be found by single HPLC method due to the low content in the formula, were identified in this paper. Seven compounds (gallic acid, prim-O-β-D-glucosylcimifugin, paeoniflorin, cimifugin, naringin, hesperidin and 4'-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol) were quantified by HPLC-DAD using a C18 column and gradient elution with acetonitrile and water-0.1% formic acid. The method exhibited intra- and inter-day precision of less than 2.35% and 3.14%, respectively. The LODs and the LOQs for the analytes were less than 0.47 and 1.82 μg ml(-1), respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 96.82% to 102.47%, with the R.S.D. ranging from 1.17% to 3.94%. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of TXYF. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of salt matrices on the reversed-phase liquid chromatography behavior and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection of glyphosate, glufosinate, aminomethylphosphonic acid and 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in water.

    PubMed

    Skeff, Wael; Recknagel, Constantin; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2016-12-02

    The analysis of highly polar and amphoteric compounds in seawater is a continuing challenge in analytical chemistry due to the possible formation of complexes with the metal cations present in salt-based matrices. Here we provide information for the development of analytical methods for glyphosate, glufosinate, AMPA, and 2-AEP in salt water, based on studies of the effects of salt matrices on reversed-phase liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC-HESI-MS/MS) after derivatization of the target compounds with FMOC-Cl. The results showed that glyphosate was the only analyte with a strong tendency to form glyphosate-metal complexes (GMC), which clearly influenced the analysis. The retention times (RTs) of GMC and free glyphosate differed by approximately 7.00min, reflecting their distinct RP-LC behaviors. Divalent cations, but not monovalent (Na(+), K(+)) or trivalent (Al(3+), Fe(3+)) cations, contributed to this effect and their influence was concentration-dependent. In addition, Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) prevented glyphosate detection whereas Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Sr(2+) altered the retention time. At certain tested concentrations of Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) glyphosate yielded two peaks, which violated the fundamental rule of LC, that under the same analytical conditions a single substance yields only one LC-peak with a specific RT. Salt-matrix-induced ion suppression was observed for all analytes, especially under high salt concentrations. For glyphosate and AMPA, the use of isotopically labeled internal standards well-corrected the salt-matrix effects, with better results achieved for glufosinate and 2-AEP with the AMPA internal standard than with the glyphosate internal standard. Thus, our study demonstrated that Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Sr(2+) can be used together with FMOC-Cl to form GMC-FMOC which is suitable for RP-LC-HESI-MS/MS analysis.

  20. Simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen and five acetaminophen metabolites in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: Method validation and application to a neonatal pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah F; King, Amber D; van den Anker, John N; Wilkins, Diana G

    2015-12-15

    Drug metabolism plays a key role in acetaminophen (paracetamol)-induced hepatotoxicity, and quantification of acetaminophen metabolites provides critical information about factors influencing susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in clinical and experimental settings. The aims of this study were to develop, validate, and apply high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) methods for simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen, acetaminophen-glucuronide, acetaminophen-sulfate, acetaminophen-glutathione, acetaminophen-cysteine, and acetaminophen-N-acetylcysteine in small volumes of human plasma and urine. In the reported procedures, acetaminophen-d4 and acetaminophen-d3-sulfate were utilized as internal standards (IS). Analytes and IS were recovered from human plasma (10μL) by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Human urine (10μL) was prepared by fortification with IS followed only by sample dilution. Calibration concentration ranges were tailored to literature values for each analyte in each biological matrix. Prepared samples from plasma and urine were analyzed under the same HPLC-ESI-MS/MS conditions, and chromatographic separation was achieved through use of an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with a 20-min run time per injected sample. The analytes could be accurately and precisely quantified over 2.0-3.5 orders of magnitude. Across both matrices, mean intra- and inter-assay accuracies ranged from 85% to 112%, and intra- and inter-assay imprecision did not exceed 15%. Validation experiments included tests for specificity, recovery and ionization efficiency, inter-individual variability in matrix effects, stock solution stability, and sample stability under a variety of storage and handling conditions (room temperature, freezer, freeze-thaw, and post-preparative). The utility and suitability of the reported procedures were illustrated by analysis of pharmacokinetic samples

  1. Quantification of new antiepileptic drugs by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and its application to cellular uptake experiment using human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells.

    PubMed

    Furugen, Ayako; Kobayashi, Masaki; Nishimura, Ayako; Takamura, Shigeo; Narumi, Katsuya; Yamada, Takehiro; Iseki, Ken

    2015-10-01

    A method for quantification of new antiepileptic drugs, including lamotrigine (LTG), levetiracetam (LEV), gabapentin (GBP), and topiramate (TPM), in cellular samples, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed to better understand the membrane transport mechanisms of these drugs. Cell lysate was deproteinized by methanol containing LEV-d3 as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution with methanol-water-formic acid (10:90:0.1, v/v/v) and methanol-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v). Analytes were detected in positive ion electrospray mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). This method was applicable for a linear range of 5 to 500pmol for LTG; 5 to 1000pmol for LEV; 10 to 10,000pmol for GBP; and 5 to 5000pmol for TPM. The intra-day precision, inter-day precision, and accuracy data were assessed and found to be acceptable. This developed and validated method was then successfully applied to the investigation of uptake of the new antiepileptic drugs in placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. The intracellular concentration of these drugs in BeWo cells, accumulating over 30min at 37°C was in the order of GBP>LTG>LEV≈TPM. Furthermore, the uptake of GBP at 4°C was much lower than that at 37°C. The uptake of GBP was saturated at high concentrations. The kinetic parameters calculated for GBP uptake in BeWo cells were determined as Km of 105.4±6.4μM and Vmax at 8153±348pmol/mg protein/min. The novel method described here should enable investigators to elucidate the transport mechanisms of these antiepileptic drugs in BeWo cells.

  2. Biotransformation of the high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 and identification of new products of non-alternant PAH biodegradation by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Allyn H; Nishi, Shinro; Hatada, Yuji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    A pathway for the biotransformation of the environmental pollutant and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by a soil bacterium was constructed through analyses of results from liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(–)-MS/MS). Exposure of Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 to benzo[k]fluoranthene resulted in transformation to four-, three-and two-aromatic ring products. The structurally similar four-and three-ring non-alternant PAHs fluoranthene and acenaphthylene were also biotransformed by strain KK22, and LC/ESI(–)-MS/MS analyses of these products confirmed the lower biotransformation pathway proposed for benzo[k]fluoranthene. In all, seven products from benzo[k]fluoranthene and seven products from fluoranthene were revealed and included previously unreported products from both PAHs. Benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation proceeded through ortho-cleavage of 8,9-dihydroxy-benzo[k]fluoranthene to 8-carboxyfluoranthenyl-9-propenic acid and 9-hydroxy-fluoranthene-8-carboxylic acid, and was followed by meta-cleavage to produce 3-(2-formylacenaphthylen-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-prop-2-enoic acid. The fluoranthene pathway converged with the benzo[k]fluoranthene pathway through detection of the three-ring product, 2-formylacenaphthylene-1-carboxylic acid. Production of key downstream metabolites, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1-naphthoic acid from benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and acenaphthylene biotransformations provided evidence for a common pathway by strain KK22 for all three PAHs through acenaphthoquinone. Quantitative analysis of benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation by strain KK22 confirmed biodegradation. This is the first pathway proposed for the biotransformation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by a bacterium. PMID:24325265

  3. An Efficient High-performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Elaborate the Changes of Components Between the Raw and Processed Radix Aconitum kusnezoffii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Ji, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Shuang; Dong, Jie; Tan, Peng; Na, Shengsang; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crude radix Aconitum kusnezoffii (RAK) has great toxicity. Traditional Chinese medicine practice proved that processing may decrease its toxicity. In our previous study, we had established a new method of RAK processing (Paozhi). However, the mechanism is yet not perfect. Objective: To explore the related mechanism of processing through comparing the chemical contents. Materials and Methods: A new processing method of RAK named stoving (Hong Zhi) was used. In particular, RAK was stored at 110°C for 8 h, and then high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) was developed for the detection of the alkaloids of the crude and processed RAK decoction pieces. Results: Thirty components of the crude RAK were discovered, among which, 23 alkaloids were identified. Meanwhile, 23 ingredients were detected in the processed RAK decoction pieces, among which, 20 alkaloids were determined yet. By comparison, eight alkaloids were found in both crude and processed RAK decoction pieces, 15 alkaloids were not found in the crude RAK, however, 10 new constituents yield after processing, which are 10-OH-hypaconine, 10-OH-mesaconine, isomer of bullatine A, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-mesaconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-aconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-hypaconine, dehydrated aconitine, 14-benzoylaconine, chuanfumine, dehydrated mesaconitine. Conclusion: The present study showed that significant change of alkaloids was detected in RAK before and after processing. Among them, the highly toxic diester alkaloids decreased and the less toxic monoester alkaloids increased. Moreover, the concentration changes significantly. HPLC-ESI-MSn are Efficient to elaborate the mechanism of reduction of toxicity and enhancement efficacy after processing. SUMMARY Stoving is a simple and effective method for the processing of radix Aconitum kusnezoffii.In the positive mode, the characteristic fragmentations of Aconitum alkaloids were obtained

  4. Biotransformation of the high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 and identification of new products of non-alternant PAH biodegradation by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Allyn H; Nishi, Shinro; Hatada, Yuji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    A pathway for the biotransformation of the environmental pollutant and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by a soil bacterium was constructed through analyses of results from liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS). Exposure of Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 to benzo[k]fluoranthene resulted in transformation to four-, three- and two-aromatic ring products. The structurally similar four- and three-ring non-alternant PAHs fluoranthene and acenaphthylene were also biotransformed by strain KK22, and LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS analyses of these products confirmed the lower biotransformation pathway proposed for benzo[k]fluoranthene. In all, seven products from benzo[k]fluoranthene and seven products from fluoranthene were revealed and included previously unreported products from both PAHs. Benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation proceeded through ortho-cleavage of 8,9-dihydroxy-benzo[k]fluoranthene to 8-carboxyfluoranthenyl-9-propenic acid and 9-hydroxy-fluoranthene-8-carboxylic acid, and was followed by meta-cleavage to produce 3-(2-formylacenaphthylen-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-prop-2-enoic acid. The fluoranthene pathway converged with the benzo[k]fluoranthene pathway through detection of the three-ring product, 2-formylacenaphthylene-1-carboxylic acid. Production of key downstream metabolites, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1-naphthoic acid from benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and acenaphthylene biotransformations provided evidence for a common pathway by strain KK22 for all three PAHs through acenaphthoquinone. Quantitative analysis of benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation by strain KK22 confirmed biodegradation. This is the first pathway proposed for the biotransformation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by a bacterium.

  5. Determination of stavudine in human serum by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Raices, Renata S L; Salvadori, Myriam C; de Cassia E Estrela, Rita; de Aquino Neto, Francisco R; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2003-01-01

    A method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination of stavudine in human serum, using didanosine as internal standard. The acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear over the studied range (10-2000 ng/mL), with r(2) > 0.99, and the run time was 4 min. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (%) were in the ranges 0.1-13.6 and 2.6-9.9, respectively, and the intra- and inter-assay accuracies were >92%. The absolute recoveries were approximately 100% (10 ng/mL), 98% (30 ng/mL), 105% (750 ng/mL) and 105% (1500 ng/mL). The limits of detection and quantitation were 4 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. The analytical method was applied to a bioequivalence study, in which 24 healthy adult volunteers (12 men) received single oral doses (40 mg) of reference and two test stavudine formulations, in an open, three-period, randomized, crossover protocol. The 90% confidence interval of the individual ratios (test formulation/reference formulation) for C(max) (peak serum concentration), AUC(0-10) and AUC(0-inf) (areas under the serum concentration vs. time curve from time zero to 10 h and to infinity, respectively), were in the range 80-125%, which supports the conclusion that the two test formulations are bioequivalent to the reference formulation with respect to the rate and extent of stavudine absorption.

  6. [Determination of melamine residue in plant origin protein powders using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Xu, Jinzhong; Li, Jianzhong; Shen, Chongyu; Wu, Bin; Chen, Huilan; Li, Shujuan

    2008-01-01

    A method for the determination of melamine residue in plant origin protein powders was developed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). HPL-DAD was used in preliminary screening of the samples for melamine, and HPLC-MS/MS was used in the confirmatory of melamine. Trichloroacetic acid solution was used to precipitate proteins and to dissociate the target analyte from the sample matrix. The supernatant was cleaned up with strong cation exchange column for HPLC-MS/MS. The HPLC-DAD separation was carried out on a C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 0.01 mol/L sodium n-heptanesulfate (pH adjusted to 4.5 with citric acid)-acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and detected at 240 nm. HPLC-MS/MS was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with trichloroacetic acid solution as ion pair reagent. The limits of detection were 10 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg for HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. The mean recoveries were 76%-88% for HPLC-DAD and 72%-82% (matrix match calibration curve) for HPLC-MS/MS and the relative standard deviations were 3.4%-6.4% for both HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS.

  7. A novel automated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method using diode-array detector/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of sodium risedronate and related degradation products in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Tiziana; Vicentini, Lorenza; Boschetti, Silvia; Andreatta, Paolo; Gatti, Rita

    2014-10-24

    A simple, sensitive and fast hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method using ultraviolet diode-array detector (UV-DAD)/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of sodium risedronate (SR) and its degradation products in new pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separations were performed on Ascentis Express HILIC 2.7μm (150mm×2.1mm, i.d.) stainless steel column (fused core). The mobile phase consisted of formate buffer solution (pH 3.4; 0.03M)/acetonitrile 42:58 and 45:55 (v/v) for granules for oral solution and effervescent tablet analysis, respectively, at a flow-rate of 0.2mL/min, setting the wavelength at 262nm. Stability characteristics of SR were evaluated by performing stress test studies. The main degradation product formed under oxidation conditions corresponding to sodium hydrogen (1-hydroxy-2-(1-oxidopyridin-3-yl)-1-phosphonoethyl)phosphonate was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The validation parameters such as linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and selectivity were found to be highly satisfactory. Linear responses were observed in standard and in fortified placebo solutions. Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was ≤1.1% for peak area and ≤0.2% for retention times (tR) without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. Recovery studies showed good results for all the examined compounds (from 98.7 to 101.0%) with RSD ranging from 0.6 to 0.7%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1 and 3ng/mL, respectively. The high stability of standard and sample solutions at room temperature means an undoubted advantage of the method allowing the simultaneous preparation of many samples and consecutive chromatographic analyses by using an autosampler. The developed stability indicating

  8. Bacteriophage cell lysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli for top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxins 1 & 2 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fagerquist, Clifton K; Zaragoza, William J

    2016-03-30

    Analysis of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) often relies upon sample preparation methods that result in cell lysis, e.g. bead-beating. However, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can undergo bacteriophage-induced cell lysis triggered by antibiotic exposure that may allow greater selectivity of the proteins extracted. We have developed a sample preparation method for selective extraction of bacteriophage-encoded proteins and specifically Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 & 2) expressed from STEC strains induced by DNA-damaging antibiotics. STEC strains were cultured overnight on agar supplemented with ciprofloxacin, mitomycin-C or an iron chelator to induce the bacteriophage lytic cycle with concomitant expression and release of Stx1 and/or Stx2. Sample preparation relied exclusively on bacteriophage lysis for release Stx into the extraction solution. Three clinical STEC strains were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomics analysis: E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933, E. coli O91:H21 strain B2F1 and E. coli O26:H11 strain ECRC #05.2217. The B-subunit of Stx1a of EDL933 was detected and identified even though it was ~100-fold less abundant than the B-subunit of Stx2a that had been identified previously for this strain. Two bacteriophage-encoded proteins were also identified: L0117 and L0136. The B-subunits of Stx2d of strain B2F1 and Stx1a of strain ECRC #05.2217 were also detected and identified. Bacteriophage lysis appeared to enhance the detection sensitivity of Stx for these STEC strains compared to previous work using mechanical lysis. Detection/identification of other bacteriophage-encoded proteins (beyond Stx) tends to support the hypothesis of Stx release by bacteriophage cell lysis. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Highly sensitive and rapid normal-phase chiral screen using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS).

    PubMed

    de la Puente, María Luz

    2004-11-05

    In the last years, there has been an increasing demand on the development of quantitative assays for determination of enantiopurity. Herein, we present a methodology based on a direct linking of an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (MS-APCI) with a high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC (DAD) system, operated under normal-phase mode and without post-column addition of MS-compatible solvents, which provides the high specificity/selectivity (identification of isomers in complex mixtures) and accuracy (1-2% area level) required for daily chiral studies. As result of the success of our screen, the preparation of individual enantiomers or the racemic mixture in our Drug Discovery Research Laboratories at Lilly, Spain is usually not required. Therefore, additional non-valuable synthetic work is eliminated.

  10. Determination of soyasaponins Ba and Bb in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Micong; Yang, Yiwen; Su, Baogen; Ren, Qilong

    2007-02-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of soyasaponins Ba and Bb in human serum using glycyrrhizin as internal standard (I.S.). Soyasaponins Ba and Bb were extracted from human serum by liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up by C(18) solid-phase extraction (SPE), followed by separation on a C(18) reversed-phase column using acetonitrile/water containing 0.025% acetic acid as a mobile phase for gradient elution. Soyasaponins Ba and Bb, and I.S. were ionized by negative ion pneumatically assisted electrospray and detected by HPLC-MS-MS in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using precursor-->product ion combinations at m/z 958-->940, 942-->924 and 822-->351, respectively. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.991) in the concentration range of 0.5-100.0 ng/mL, with lower limits of quantification of 0.5 and 0.3 ng/mL for soyasaponins Ba and Bb, respectively, in human serum. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) were less than 7.9 and 11.3%, respectively. The mean recoveries of soyasaponins Ba and Bb ranged from 92 to 101% and from 85 to 94%, respectively.

  11. Anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins profiling in wine lees by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with data-dependent methods.

    PubMed

    Delgado de la Torre, M P; Ferreiro-Vera, C; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2013-12-26

    A method has been developed to study the content of anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidicins, and anthocyanins in wine lees, an abundant byproduct from wineries. Detection/quantitation of the target compounds was carried out by a hyphenated system consisting of a solid-phase extraction workstation (Prospekt-2 unit) online coupled to a liquid chromatograph-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS), where standards were used for identification/quantitation of both anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins. Owing to the lack of anthocyanins standards, advantages from the use of data-dependent methods were taken for their identification and confirmatory analysis. Combination of the scanning methods (viz. product-ion, precursor-ion, and neutral-loss scanning) allowed identifying five different anthocyanins present in wine residues. The results thus obtained have been validated by complementary analysis of the extracts using LC-TOF/MS in high-resolution mode. Quantitation of the monitored compounds was supported on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and calibration curves run with standards of anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins.

  12. A strategy for quantitative bioanalysis of non-polar neutral compounds by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: determination of TS-962, a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, in rabbit aorta and liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, J; Matsuno, Y; Hachiuma, K; Ogawa, N; Higuchi, S

    2001-01-01

    A strategy for the sensitive and reliable quantitative determination of non-polar neutral compounds in biological matrices by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry is described in the context of assay development for TS-962, a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, in rabbit aorta and liver tissues. The electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrum of this compound with a mobile phase of water/acetonitrile did not give abundant [M + H]+ ions, but did give alkali metal cation adducts such as [M + Na]+, [M + CH3CN + Na]+ and [M + K]+ ions. The cationized species are acknowledged as unsuitable precursor ions for selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for various reasons, such as difficulty in obtaining characteristic product ions in low-energy collision-induced dissociation, and irreproducibility of the adduct-ion intensities. To overcome this problem, a solution of 3.4 mM trifluoroacetic acid in 2-propanol was added to the mobile phase as a postcolumn additive, resulting in a decrease of the undesirable adduct formation and significant enhancement of [M + H]+ ion intensity. An attempt was then made to prevent the matrix effect by employing a column-switching system, which allowed direct injection of a large volume of 2-propanolic tissue homogenate (950 microL) followed by sufficient clean-up, separation, and ESI-SRM on-line. This enabled development of a sensitive and reliable assay method for TS-962 in rabbit aorta and liver tissues in the concentration range of 5-500 ng/g wet tissue using a 25-mg aliquot of tissue sample. Application of this method to the determination of aortic TS-962 levels at 24 h after repeated oral administration of this compound (3 mg/kg) once a day for 12 weeks to 1% cholesterol-fed rabbits is also presented. Results showed that TS-962 is well distributed to both the thoracic and abdominal aorta tissues, at levels higher than the 50% inhibitory concentration value of this compound for

  13. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of urolithin C in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bayle, Morgane; Roques, Céline; Marion, Bénédicte; Audran, Michel; Oiry, Catherine; Bressolle-Gomeni, Françoise M M; Cros, Gérard

    2016-11-30

    Urolithins are microflora human metabolites of dietary ellagic acid derivatives. There is now a growing interest in the biological activities of these compounds. Several studies suggest that urolithins have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-glycative activities. Recently, our group investigated the role of urolithins as potential anti-diabetic treatments; among the four urolithins, urolithin C was the most promising compound. The purpose of this paper was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of urolithin C in rat plasma. To date, no method is reported for the quantification of urolithin C in any of the matrices. Plasma samples were extracted with ethyl acetate. Urolithin D was selected as the internal standard. The separation was carried out on a C18 Kinetex EVO column (2.1mm×150mm, 2.6μm) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1% aqueous formic acid solution (30:70, v/v). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode was used for the determination of the target analyte. The monitored ion transitions were m/z 243→187 for urolithin C and m/z 259→213 for the internal standard. The calibration curve range was 4.95-1085μg/L (r(2)>0.994). The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 10%; accuracies ranged from 96.6 to 109%. The mean extraction recovery of urolithins C and D was greater than 91%. No significant matrix effects and no carryover effects were observed. Small changes in LC-ESI-MS/MS conditions did not have significant effect on the determination of urolithin C. Stability tests under various conditions were also investigated. This highly specific and sensitive method was used to analyze samples collected during preclinical pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Glucuronyl and sulfate conjugates of urolithin C were the main metabolites detected in plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Simultaneous determination of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, N,N-dimethylamphetamine, and their metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Cheong, Jae Chul; Ko, Beom Jun; Lee, Sang Kyu; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Jin, Changbae; In, Moon Kyo

    2008-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and quantification of seven amphetamine derivatives (amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), N,N-dimethylamphetamine (DMA), and N,N-dimethylamphetamine-N-oxide (DMANO)) in human urine. Seven deuterium-labeled compounds were prepared for use as internal standards to quantify the analytes. One milliliter of urine was combined with 1 mL of 0.2 M sodium carbonate buffer solution (pH 9.0) before solid phase extraction (SPE). An Oasis HLB SPE column followed by chromatographic separation on a Capcell Pak C18 MG-II column (150 x 2.0 mm I.D., 5 microm) and electrospray mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring were used for selective and sensitive detection. The use of ammonium formate (5 mM, pH adjusted to 4.0 with formic acid, Solvent A) and acetonitrile (Solvent B) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 230 microL/min was found to be the most effective for the separation. The linear ranges were 5.0-1000 ng/mL for AP, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, DMA, and DMANO and 10.0-1000 ng/mL for MA, with good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.996). The intra-day, inter-day, and interperson precisions were within 14.6%, 12.1% and 15.5%, respectively. The intra-day, inter-day, and interperson accuracies were between -11.6 and 9.0%, -7.9 and 2.3%, and -13.2 and 4.3%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for each analytical compound were lower than 1.95 ng/mL. The recovery ranged from 72.3 to 103.3%. The applicability of the developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from confirmed drug abusers.

  15. Quantification of a biomarker of acetaminophen protein adducts in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: clinical and animal model applications.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah F; King, Amber D; Chang, Yan; Murray, Gordon J; Norris, Hye-Ryun K; Dart, Richard C; Green, Jody L; Curry, Steven C; Rollins, Douglas E; Wilkins, Diana G

    2015-03-15

    The aims of this study were to develop, validate, and apply a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for quantification of protein-derived 3-(cystein-S-yl)-acetaminophen (APAP-Cys) in human serum. Formation of acetaminophen (APAP) protein adducts is thought to be a critical, early event in the development of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and quantification of these protein adducts in human serum represents a valuable tool for assessment of APAP exposure, metabolism, and toxicity. In the reported procedure, serum samples were first dialyzed or passed through gel filtration columns to remove APAP-Cys not covalently bound to proteins. Serum eluates were then subjected to enzymatic protease digestion to liberate protein-bound APAP-Cys. Norbuprenorphine-D3 was utilized as an internal standard (IS). APAP-Cys and IS were recovered from digested serum by protein precipitation with acetonitrile, and sample extracts were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The method was validated by assessment of intra- and inter-assay accuracy and imprecision on two different analytical instrument platforms. APAP-Cys could be accurately quantified from 0.010 to 10μM, and intra- and inter-assay imprecision were <15% on both analytical instruments. APAP-Cys was stable in human serum for three freeze-thaw cycles and for 24h at ambient temperature. Extracted samples were stable when stored in refrigerated autosamplers for the typical duration of analysis or when stored at -20°C for six days. Results from process efficiency and matrix effect experiments indicated adequate recovery from human serum and insignificant ion suppression or enhancement. The utility and sensitivity of the reported procedure were illustrated by analysis of clinical samples collected from subjects taking chronic, therapeutic doses of APAP. Applicability to other biological matrices was also demonstrated by measurement of protein-derived APAP-Cys in plasma

  16. Determination of bile acids in pig liver, pig kidney and bovine liver by gas chromatography-chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry with total ion chromatograms and extraction ion chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Zhong, Yao-Shen; Weng, Jen-Feng; Huang, Hsiu-Hua; Hsieh, Pei-Yin

    2011-01-21

    An effective method has been developed for quantitative determination of six bile acids including lithocholic acid (LCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), hydodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), cholic acid (CA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in biological tissues including pig liver, pig kidney and bovine liver by gas chromatography-chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (GC-CI/MS/MS). Camphor-10-sulphonic acid (CSA) was proposed as effective catalyst for bile acid derivatization. Reactions were accelerated ultrasonically. The effects of different catalysts and reaction times on derivatization efficiency were evaluated and optimized. Bile acids were determined as methyl ester-trimethylsilyl ether and methyl ester-acetate derivatives. The efficiency of trimethylsilylation and acetylation was evaluated. Trimethylsilylation was done with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) as the trimethylsilyl donating reagent in a ultrasonic bath for 20 min. Acetylation was done in pyridine with acetic anhydride at 40-45°C for 4 h. The former reaction was faster than the latter. Thus, trimethylsilylation was employed for the quantitative analysis. Negligible interferences from sterols in biological matrices were observed when the biological samples were treated with solid phase extraction before GC-CI/MS/MS. The linearity, reproducibility, detection limit and recovery were evaluated under the optimized conditions. Satisfactory results were obtained when bile acid derivatives of LCA, CDCA, HDCA, and UDCA were determined with total ion chromatograms (TIC) while DCA and CA were determined with extracted ion chromatograms (EIC), respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) for six bile acids in biological tissues were ranging from 0.40 to 1.6 ng/mL and the recoveries indicated that the proposed method was feasible for the determination of trace bile acids in the biological samples studied. The experimental results for the animal tissues purchased from five

  17. Simultaneous quantification of 1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts derived from acrolein and crotonaldehyde in human placenta and leukocytes by isotope dilution nanoflow LC nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hauh-Jyun Candy; Lin, Wen-Peng

    2009-12-01

    Humans are exposed to acrolein and crotonaldehyde due to environmental pollution and endogenous lipid peroxidation. These aldehydes react with the 2'-deoxyguanosine moiety of DNA, forming the exocyclic 1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts AdG and CdG. These adducts are mutagenic lesions, and they play an important role in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, a highly sensitive and quantitative assay was developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of AdG and CdG isomers in human placenta and leukocyte DNA by isotope dilution nanoflow LC with nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS). The on-column detection limits (S/N > or = 3) of AdG and CdG were 15 and 8.9 amol, respectively. The quantification limits of AdG and CdG for the entire assay were 619 and 297 amol, respectively, corresponding to 9.8 and 4.7 adducts in 10(9) normal nucleotides, respectively, starting with 20 microg of DNA. Different enzyme hydrolysis methods were compared, and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were employed for the assay. Levels of AdG and CdG in human placental DNA (20 microg) were 108 and 26 in 10(8) normal nucleotides, respectively, with the respective relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.6% and 3.1% (n = 3). Levels of AdG and CdG in 9 human leukocyte DNA samples were 78 +/- 23 (mean +/- SD) and 6.2 +/- 3.8 (mean +/- SD) in 10(8) normal nucleotides, respectively, starting from 30 microg of DNA. Using this assay, only 4-6 microg of DNA sample was subjected to this nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS system for analysis. Only 1-1.5 mL of blood is needed for measuring AdG and CdG levels in leukocyte DNA. Thus, it is clinically feasible using this highly sensitive assay to investigate the potential of using these adducts as noninvasive biomarkers for DNA damage resulting from acrolein and crotonaldehyde and to study their roles in cancer development and prevention.

  18. GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPID ANALYSIS OF EASTERN RED BAT (Lasiurus borealis) HAIR BY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMET

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; McGuire, Liam P.; Gilmore, David F.; Savary, Brett J.; Risch, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is largely composed of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. GP proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

  19. Subunit analysis of bovine heart complex I by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lemma-Gray, Patrizia; Valusová, Eva; Carroll, Christopher A; Weintraub, Susan T; Musatov, Andrej; Robinson, Neal C

    2008-11-15

    An effective method was developed for isolation and analysis of bovine heart complex I subunits. The method uses C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a water/acetonitrile gradient containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. Employing this system, 36 of the 45 complex I subunits elute in 28 distinct chromatographic peaks. The 9 subunits that do not elute are B14.7, MLRQ, and the 7 mitochondrial-encoded subunits. The method, with ultraviolet (UV) detection, is suitable for either analytical (<50 microg protein) or preparative (>250 microg protein) applications. Subunits eluting in each chromatographic peak were initially determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) with subsequent positive identification by reversed-phase HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of tryptic digests. In the latter case, subunits were identified with a 99% probability using Mascot for database searching and Scaffold for assessment of protein identification probabilities. The reversed-phase HPLC subunit analysis method represents a major improvement over previous separation methods with respect to resolution, simplicity, and ease of application.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of dipeptides in alcoholic beverages by tag-based separation and determination using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Tokuoka, Masafumi; Kohno, Hiromi; Sawamura, Nobuko; Myoken, Yuka; Mizuno, Akihiro

    2012-06-15

    Fermented foods and beverages contain several different types of dipeptides, which are believed to be important components for taste. To date, however, a method for the comprehensive analysis of dipeptides in these products has not yet been established. In this study, comprehensive analysis of dipeptides in alcoholic beverages was performed by a high-resolution separation method based on the structural characteristics of 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC)-derivatized dipeptides as well as dipeptide quantification and structural estimation using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and UHPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOFMS), respectively. Dipeptide content was found to differ considerably among Japanese sake, beer, and wine; UHPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that many types of dipeptides are present in sake. Dipeptide quantification analysis identified 32 types of dipeptides within the concentration range of 1.1-97.2 μM in sake. The analysis was validated by dipeptide recovery of 64.0-107.2% (2.5 μM of standard) with a relative standard deviation of ≤33.2% from an actual alcoholic sample. Furthermore, UHPLC-Q-TOFMS analysis suggested the existence of more than 35 types of dipeptides in sake. Thus, by the combined analysis methods, we discovered that more than 60 dipeptides are present in sake. This research is the first report of dipeptide profiling of fermented alcoholic beverages by comprehensive analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid and simultaneous analysis of ten aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry under ISO and "Health Canada intensive" machine smoking regimens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fuwei; Yu, Jingjing; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Ge; Xia, Qiaoling; Zhang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Shusheng

    2013-10-15

    Ten primary aromatic amines (AAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke under both ISO and "Health Canada intensive" machine smoking regimens were determined in this work, which were suspected to be carcinogenic compounds. The measured AAs included aniline, ortho-toluidine, meta-toluidine, para-toluidine, 1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine, 3-aminobiphenyl, 4-aminobiphenyl, meta-phenylenediamine and meta-anisidine. For rapidly and sensitively analyzing these AAs, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method coupled with solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed. The particulate phase of mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a Cambridge filter pads, while the gas phase was trapped by 25 mL 5% HCl solution. Then, the pad was extracted in an ultrasonic bath with the impinger HCl solution. After being neutralized with NaOH, the extract was purified with a HLB solid phase extraction column, and then was analyzed with LC-MS/MS using isotope-labeled internal standard. The overall sample pretreatment and analysis time was less than 1.5h. The limits of detection for all targets ranged from 0.05 ng cig(-1) to 0.96 ng cig(-1) with the recoveries in the range of 75.0-131.8%. And the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 10% and 16%, respectively. Under HCI machine smoking regimen, the AAs yields in mainstream cigarette smoke were much higher and the average increases were greater than 100% compared with those under ISO smoking condition.

  2. Top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 2 subtypes from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Tandem Time of Flight mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have analyzed 26 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains for Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) production using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomic analysis. STEC strains were induced to ...

  3. Bacteriophage cell lysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli for top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 1 & 2 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-light mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RATIONALE: Analysis of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) often relies upon sample preparation methods that result in cell lysis, e.g. bead-beating. However, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can undergo bacteriophage...

  4. Characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of amino acids and (S)-N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide using ion trap and QqTOF electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jirásko, Robert; Holcapek, Michal; Kolárová, Lenka; Nádvorník, Milan; Popkov, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    This work demonstrates the application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using two different mass analyzers, ion trap and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass analyzer, for the structural characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of (S)-N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide with different amino acids. ESI enables the determination of molecular weight on the basis of rather simple positive-ion ESI mass spectra containing only protonated molecules and adducts with sodium or potassium ions. Fragmentation patterns are characterized by tandem mass spectrometric experiments, where both tandem mass analyzers provide complementary information. QqTOF data are used for the determination of elemental composition of individual ions due to mass accuracies always better than 3 ppm with the external calibration, while multistage tandem mass spectra obtained by the ion trap are suitable for studying the fragmentation paths. The novel aspect of our approach is the combination of mass accuracies and relative abundances of all isotopic peaks in isotopic clusters providing more powerful data for the structural characterization of organometallic compounds containing polyisotopic elements. The benefit of relative and absolute mean mass accuracies is demonstrated on the example of studied Ni(II) complexes.

  5. Neutral losses of sodium benzoate and benzoic acid in the fragmentation of the [M + Na](+) ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide via intramolecular rearrangement in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunfeng; Gao, Guanwei; Shen, Shanshan; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-02-15

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry can be applied to determine structural information about organic compounds. The [M + Na](+) ion is one of the major precursor ions in ESI mass spectrometry, but its fragmentation mechanism study is still insufficient. This study reveals the interesting fragmentation reactions of the [M + Na](+) ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide. The fragmentations of the [M + Na](+) , [M + Li](+) , and [M + H](+) ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were studied using a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer and an ion trap mass spectrometer. A hydrogen/deuterium (H/D)-exchange experiment in the amide group of methoxyfenozide allowed for the confirmation of the fragmentation mechanism. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for a further understanding of the fragmentation mechanism of the [M + Na](+) ion of methoxyfenozide. Neutral losses of sodium benzoate and benzoic acid in the fragmentation of the [M + Na](+) ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were observed as the major fragmentation pathways. In contrast, similar fragmentations were not observed or minor pathways in the fragmentation of the [M + Li](+) and [M + H](+) ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide. In addition, a minor product ion resulting from loss of NaOH was identified, which was the first reported example in the fragmentation of sodiated compounds in mass spectrometry. Losses of sodium benzoate and benzoic acid in the fragmentation of the [M + Na](+) ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide are proposed to be formed through an intramolecular rearrangement reaction, which is supported by DFT calculations. An H/D-exchange experiment confirms that the carboxyl hydrogen of benzoic acid and the hydrogen of NaOH exclusively derive from the amide hydrogen of the precursor ion. This study enriches our knowledge on the Na(+) -induced fragmentation reactions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  6. Bioactivity-based liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem ion trap/time of flight mass spectrometry for β₂AR agonist identification in alkaloidal extract of Alstonia scholaris.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xuelin; Dong, Linyi; Wang, Liqiang; Cheng, Binfeng; Shi, Qian; Luo, Xiaodong; Bai, Gang

    2012-03-02

    Although chromatographic fingerprinting combined with chemometrics, is a rational method for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), chemometrics cannot fully explore the relationship between chemical information and the efficacy of the potential activity. In the present work, a cell-based β₂ adrenergic receptor (β₂AR) agonist functional evaluation model coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed to screen the potential β₂AR agonist components in the alkaloidal extract of Alstonia scholaris leaves. Using a liquid chromatography with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF) system, the potential bioactive compounds in the prescription were identified and deduced based on the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data, and relevant literature. Several new β₂AR agonists of indole alkaloids were successfully found, and their activities were confirmed through an in vivo relaxant test on guinea pig tracheal muscles. The developed method is rapid and reliable compared with conventional fingerprinting and showed high sensitivity and resolution for the identification of β₂AR agonists in TCM prescriptions. This strategy clearly demonstrates that bioactivity-integrated fingerprinting is a powerful tool not only in screening and identifying potential lead compounds and in determining the therapeutic material basis of Chinese herbal prescriptions, but also in supplying suitable chemical markers for their quality control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acidolysis-based component mapping of glycosaminoglycans by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with off-line electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: evidence and tags to distinguish different glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Chen, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Lili; Cong, Dapeng; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli

    2014-11-15

    Diverse monosaccharide analysis methods have been established for a long time, but few methods are available for a complete monosaccharide analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and certain acidolysis-resistant components derived from GAGs. In this report, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with pre-column 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization was established for a complete monosaccharide analysis of GAGs. Good separation of glucosamine/mannosamine (GlcN/ManN) and glucuronic acid/iduronic acid (GlcA/IdoA) was achieved. This method can also be applied to analyze the acidolysis-resistant disaccharides derived from GAGs, and the sequences of these disaccharides were confirmed by electrospray ionization-collision-induced dissociation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS). These unique disaccharides could be used as markers to distinguish heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS), chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS), and hyaluronic acid (HA).

  8. Development of a new multi-residue laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection and quantification of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Michel; Fayad, Paul B; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2012-11-19

    A new solid phase extraction (SPE) method coupled to a high throughput sample analysis technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine selected emerging contaminants in wastewater (atrazine, desethylatrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethynylestradiol, norethindrone, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole). We specifically included pharmaceutical compounds from multiple therapeutic classes, as well as pesticides. Sample pre-concentration and clean-up was performed using a mixed-mode SPE cartridge (Strata ABW) having both cation and anion exchange properties, followed by analysis by laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS/MS). The LDTD interface is a new high-throughput sample introduction method, which reduces total analysis time to less than 15s per sample as compared to minutes with traditional liquid-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Several SPE parameters were evaluated in order to optimize recovery efficiencies when extracting analytes from wastewater, such as the nature of the stationary phase, the loading flow rate, the extraction pH, the volume and composition of the washing solution and the initial sample volume. The method was successfully applied to real wastewater samples from the primary sedimentation tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Recoveries of target compounds from wastewater ranged from 78% to 106%, the limit of detection ranged from 30 to 122ng L(-1) while the limit of quantification ranged from 90 to 370ng L(-1). Calibration curves in the wastewater matrix showed good linearity (R(2)≥0.991) for all target analytes and the intraday and interday coefficient of variation was below 15%, reflecting a good precision.

  9. Validated method for determination of ultra-trace closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanwen; Wang, Fengchi; Ai, Lianfeng

    2007-12-21

    A liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with solid extraction was developed and validated for the detection and determination of closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk. An acetonitrile-acetone mixture (80:20, v/v) was used for one-stage extraction of closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk samples, and the extract was cleaned by solid phase extraction with Oasis MAX cartridges. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reactions monitoring mode with negative electrospray interface. The limits of detection in different matrices were in the range of 0.008-0.009 microg/kg. The overall recoveries for bovine muscle, liver, kidney and milk samples spiked at four levels including MRL were in the range of 76.0-94.3%. The overall relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.57-8.61%. The linearity is satisfactory with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9913-0.9987 at both concentration ranges of 0.02-100 microg/kg and 200-5000 microg/kg. The method is capable of identifying closantel residues at > or =0.02 microg/kg levels and was applied in the determination of closantel residues in animal origin foods.

  10. The in situ gas-phase formation of a C-glycoside ion obtained during electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A unique intramolecular mechanism involving an ion-molecule reaction.

    PubMed

    Banoub, Joseph H; Demian, Wael L L; Piazzetta, Paolo; Sarkis, George; Kanawati, Basem; Lafont, Dominique; Laurent, Nicolas; Vaillant, Celine; Randell, Edward; Giorgi, Gianluca; Fridgen, Travis D

    2015-10-15

    This study examines the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation and low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) of a synthetic pair of β- and α-anomers of the amphiphilic cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing the 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-galactosyl-D-GalN3 moiety. We describe the novel and unique in situ gas-phase formation of a C-glycoside ion formed during all these gas-phase processes and propose a reasonable mechanism for its formation. The synthetic amphiphilic glycolipids were composed of the 2-deoxy-2-azido-D-galactosyl moiety (GalN3, the hydrophilic part) covalently attached to a polyethoxy spacer which is covalently linked to the cholesteryl moiety (hydrophobic part). The 2-azido-2-deoxy-α- and β-D-galactosyl-containing glycolipids were studied by in-time and in-space ESI-MS and CID-MS/MS in positive ion mode, with quadrupole ion trap (QIT), quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) instruments. Conventional single-stage ESI-MS analysis showed the formation of the protonated molecule. During the single-stage ESI-MS analysis and the CID-MS/MS of the [M+H](+) and [M+NH4](+) adducts obtained from both glycolipid anomers, the presence of a series of specific product ions with different intensities was observed, consistent with the [C-glycoside+H-N2](+), [cholestadiene+H](+), 2-deoxy-2-D-azido-galactosyl [GalN3](+), [GalNH](+) and [sugar-Spacer+H](+) ions. The gas-phase formation of the [C-glycoside+H-N2](+) ion isolated from the glycolipid anomers was observed during both the ESI-MS of the glycolipids and the CID-MS/MS analyses of the [M+H](+) ions and it was found to occur by an intramolecular rearrangement involving an ion-molecule complex. CID-QqTOF-MS/MS and CID-FTICR-MS(2) analysis allowed the differentiation of the two glycolipid anomers and showed noticeable variation in the

  11. Development of an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid in rose leaves.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Renato; Daeseleire, Els; Van Pamel, Els; Scariot, Valentina; Leus, Leen

    2014-07-09

    This paper describes a method to detect and quantitate the endogenous plant hormones (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, (-)-jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid by means of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in hybrid rose leaf matrices. Deuterium-labeled [(2)H6] (+)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, [(2)H6] (±)-jasmonic acid, and [(2)H4]-salicylic acid were used as internal standards. Rose samples (10 mg) were extracted with methanol/water/acetic acid (10:89:1) and subsequently purified on an Oasis MCX 1 cm(3) Vac SPE cartridge. Performance characteristics were validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Recovery, repeatability, and within-laboratory reproducibility were acceptable for all phytohormones tested at three different concentrations. The decision limit and detection capability for (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, (-)-jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were 0.0075 and 0.015 μg/g, 0.00015 and 0.00030 μg/g, and 0.0089 and 0.018 μg/g, respectively. Matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) appeared to be high for all substances considered, implying the need for quantitation based on matrix-matched calibration curves.

  12. Mechanistic Study of the Gas-Phase In-Source Hofmann Elimination of Doubly Quaternized Cinchona-Alkaloid Based Phase-Transfer Catalysts by (+)-Electrospray Ionization/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rong-Sheng; Sheng, Huaming; Lexa, Katrina W.; Sherer, Edward C.; Zhang, Li-Kang; Xiang, Bangping; Helmy, Roy; Mao, Bing

    2017-03-01

    An unusual in-source fragmentation pattern observed for 14 doubly quaternized cinchona alkaloid-based phase-transfer catalysts (PTC) was studied using (+)-ESI high resolution mass spectrometry. Loss of the substituted benzyl cation (R1 or R2) was found to be the major product ion [M2+ - R1 + or R2 +]+ in MS spectra of all PTC compounds. A Hofmann elimination product ion [M - H]+ was also observed. Only a small amount of the doubly charged M2+ ions were observed in the MS spectra, likely due to strong Columbic repulsion between the two quaternary ammonium cations in the gas phase. The positive voltage in the MS inlet but not the ESI probe was found to induce this extensive fragmentation for all PTC diboromo-salts. Compound 1 was used as an example to illustrate the proposed in-source fragmentation mechanism. The mechanism of formation of the Hofmann elimination product ion [M - H]+ was further investigated using HRMS/MS, H/D exchange, and DFT calculations. The proposed formation of 2b as the major Hofmann elimination product ion was supported both by HRMS/MS and DFT calculations. Formation of product ion 2b through a concerted unimolecular Ei elimination pathway is proposed rather than a bimolecular E2 elimination pathway for common solution Hofmann eliminations.

  13. Quantitative determination of juvenile hormone III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in queen larvae and drone pupae of Apis mellifera by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Zhang, Jinzhen; Chen, Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in queen larvae and drone pupae samples was presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a significant shortening of the leaching time for the extraction of JH III and 20E and satisfactory sensitivity as compared to the conventional shake extraction procedure. After extraction, determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in electrospray ionization positive ion mode via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) without any clean-up step prior to analysis. A linear gradient consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, and a ZORBAX SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effects, precision and stability. Drone pupae samples were found to contain 20E at concentrations of 18.0 ± 0.1 ng/g (mean ± SD) and JH III was detected at concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/g (mean ± SD) in queen larvae samples. This validated method provided some practical information for the actual content of JH III and 20E in queen larvae and drone pupae samples.

  14. Mechanistic Study of the Gas-Phase In-Source Hofmann Elimination of Doubly Quaternized Cinchona-Alkaloid Based Phase-Transfer Catalysts by (+)-Electrospray Ionization/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rong-Sheng; Sheng, Huaming; Lexa, Katrina W.; Sherer, Edward C.; Zhang, Li-Kang; Xiang, Bangping; Helmy, Roy; Mao, Bing

    2017-01-01

    An unusual in-source fragmentation pattern observed for 14 doubly quaternized cinchona alkaloid-based phase-transfer catalysts (PTC) was studied using (+)-ESI high resolution mass spectrometry. Loss of the substituted benzyl cation (R1 or R2) was found to be the major product ion [M2+ - R1 + or R2 +]+ in MS spectra of all PTC compounds. A Hofmann elimination product ion [M - H]+ was also observed. Only a small amount of the doubly charged M2+ ions were observed in the MS spectra, likely due to strong Columbic repulsion between the two quaternary ammonium cations in the gas phase. The positive voltage in the MS inlet but not the ESI probe was found to induce this extensive fragmentation for all PTC diboromo-salts. Compound 1 was used as an example to illustrate the proposed in-source fragmentation mechanism. The mechanism of formation of the Hofmann elimination product ion [M - H]+ was further investigated using HRMS/MS, H/D exchange, and DFT calculations. The proposed formation of 2b as the major Hofmann elimination product ion was supported both by HRMS/MS and DFT calculations. Formation of product ion 2b through a concerted unimolecular Ei elimination pathway is proposed rather than a bimolecular E2 elimination pathway for common solution Hofmann eliminations.

  15. Phosphoric acid enhances the performance of Fe(III) affinity chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry for recovery, detection and sequencing of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Stensballe, Allan; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2004-01-01

    An integrated analytical strategy for enrichment, detection and sequencing of phosphorylated peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is reported. o-Phosphoric acid was found to enhance phosphopeptide ion signals in MALDI-MS when used as the acid dopant in 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) matrix. The effect was largest for multiply phosphorylated peptides, which exhibited an up to ten-fold increase in ion intensity as compared with standard sample preparation methods. The enhanced phosphopeptide response was observed during MALDI-MS analysis of several peptide mixtures derived by proteolytic digestion of phosphoproteins. Furthermore, the mixture of 2,5-DHB and o-phosphoric acid was an excellent eluant for immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Singly and multiply phosphorylated peptide species were efficiently recovered from Fe(III)-IMAC columns, reducing sample handling for phosphopeptide mapping by MALDI-MS and subsequent phosphopeptide sequencing by MALDI-MS/MS. The enhanced response of phosphopeptide ions in MALDI facilitates MS/MS of large (>3 kDa) multiply phosphorylated peptide species and reduces the amount of analyte needed for complete characterization of phosphoproteins.

  16. Capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative parallel reaction monitoring of peptide abundance and single-shot proteomic analysis of a human cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Mou, Si; Zhao, Yimeng; Champion, Matthew M.; Dovichi, Norman J .

    2014-01-01

    We coupled capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with an ultrasensitive electrokinetically pumped nanospray ionization source for tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of complex proteomes. We first used the system for the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analysis of angiotensin II spiked in 0.45 mg/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest. A calibration curve was generated between the loading amount of angiotensin II and intensity of angiotensin II fragment ions. CZE-PRM generated a linear calibration curve across over 4.5 orders of magnitude dynamic range corresponding to angiotensin II loading amount from 2 amole to 150 fmole. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of migration time were <4% and the RSDs of fragment ion intensity were ~20% or less except 150 fmole angiotensin II loading amount data (~36% RSD). We further applied the system for the first bottom up proteomic analysis of a human cell line using CZE-MS/MS. We generated 283 protein identifications from a 1 hour long, single-shot CZE MS/MS analysis of the MCF7 breast cancer cell line digest, corresponding to ~80 ng loading amount. The MCF7 digest was fractionated using a C18 solid phase extraction column; single-shot analysis of a single fraction resulted in 468 protein identifications, which is by far the largest number of protein identifications reported for a mammalian proteomic sample using CZE. PMID:25082526

  17. Determination of newly synthesized lipoic acid-niacin dimer in rat plasma by UPLC/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: assay development, validation and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Gao, Jingwen; Jiang, Yiming; Huang, Ping; Xie, Yuhui; Pi, Rongbiao; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yao, Meicun

    2014-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the newly synthesized compound lipoic acid-niacin dimer (N2L) in plasma. Plasma samples were precipitated by methanol using tetrahydropalmatine as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm i.d., 1.7 µm) column; the mobile phase contains methanol and buffer solution (water with 0.5% formic acid and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate). Multiple reaction monitoring (m/z 353.9 → 148.6 for N2L and m/z 356.0 → 192.0 for internal standard) was performed for detection and quantification. The method was validated to be rapid, specific, accurate and precise over the concentration range of 1-750 ng/mL; N2L was not stable on the bench-top or during freeze-freeze-thaw cycles in plasma, but was stable in the stock solution and after preparation in the autosampler for 24 h. The utility of the assay was confirmed by pharmacokinetic study of N2L in rats. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Novel analytical approach for brominated flame retardants based on the use of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with emphasis in highly brominated congeners.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Sales, Carlos; Gómara, Belén; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Beltrán, Joaquim; Herrero, Laura; González, María José; Hernández, Félix

    2015-10-06

    The analysis of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly relies on the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using quadrupole, triple quadrupole, ion trap, and magnetic sector analyzers. However, these brominated contaminants are examples of compounds for which a soft and robust ionization technique might be favorable since they show high fragmentation in EI and low specificity in ECNI. In addition, the low limits of quantification (0.01 ng/g) required by European Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on the monitoring of traces of BFRs in food put stress on the use of highly sensitive techniques/methods. In this work, a new approach for the extremely sensitive determination of BFRs taking profit of the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) combined with GC and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer is proposed. The objective was to explore the potential of this approach for the BFRs determination in samples at pg/g levels, taking marine samples and a cream sample as a model. Ionization and fragmentation behavior of 14 PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two novel BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), in the GC-APCI-MS system has been investigated. The formation of highly abundant (quasi) molecular ion was the main advantage observed in relation to EI. Thus, a notable improvement in sensitivity and specificity was observed when using it as precursor ion in tandem MS. The improved detectability (LODs < 10 fg) achieved when using APCI compared to EI has been demonstrated, which is especially relevant for highly brominated congeners. Analysis of samples from an intercomparison exercise and samples from the marine field showed the potential of this approach for the reliable identification and quantification at very low

  19. Simultaneous multiple mycotoxin quantification in feed samples using three isotopically labeled internal standards applied for isotopic dilution and data normalization through ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lewis C; Kudupoje, Manoj B; Yiannikouris, Alexandros

    2012-12-15

    Mycotoxins are typically present in grain and are also concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), common feed ingredients for food animals. The diversity of mycotoxins and feed matrices has made the routine detection and quantification of mycotoxins in feed both complex and prohibitively expensive. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole detection (UPLC/ESI-TQD) (tandem mass spectrometry, MS/MS) with (13) C-labeled isotopic dilution was used to analyze internal standard isotopologues of three mycotoxin molecules, as well as 29 other structurally differing mycotoxin molecules from four common feed matrices: corn, wheat, barley, or DDGS. Mycotoxins were extracted via a single-step procedure using a mixture of acetonitrile/water/formic acid. Labeled isotopologues were used as a surrogate to account for extraction quality and as internal standards for the evaluation of the feed matrix signal suppression/enhancement (SSE) contributed by each mycotoxin and by each matrix. The SSE was corrected by matrix-matched calibration with blank certified reference feed material. The limits of detection for individual mycotoxins in buffer ranged from 0.01 to 206.7 µg/mL but could increase by up to four times depending on the matrix effect. The accuracy and precision were enhanced by the use of isotopically labeled standards. The recoveries were somewhat negatively affected by the SSE contributed by each matrix. Each mycotoxin was successfully detected and assigned to one of four SSE categories: high (-66%), intermediate (-48%), low (-19%) signal suppression and signal enhancement (> +300%). An improved LC/MS method was validated, which offers a practical and economical means for large-scale detection and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in common animal-feed matrices, including DDGS. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Simultaneous extraction of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid from human plasma and simultaneous estimation by liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry detection. Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Ajjala, Devender; Suraneni, Ramakrishna; Thoddi, Parthasarathi

    2011-01-01

    A simple analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in atmospheric chemical ionization mode (APCI) for the simultaneous estimation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, CAS 50-78-2) and its active metabolite salicylic acid (SA, CAS 69-72-7) in human plasma has been developed and validated. ASA and SA were analyzed simultaneously despite differences in plasma concentration ranges of ASA and SA after oral administration of ASA. In spite of having different chemical, ionization and chromatographic properties, ASA and SA were extracted simultaneously from the plasma sample using acetonitrile protein precipitation followed by liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes were separated on a reversed phase column with rapid gradient program using mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer and methanol. The structural analogue diclofenac was used as an internal standard. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions m/z 179 --> 137 for ASA, m/z 137 --> 65 for SA and m/z 294 --> 250 for IS were used. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.02-10 microg/mL for ASA and 0.1-50 microg/mL for SA. The between-batch precision (%CV) ranged from 2.1 to 7.9% for ASA and from 0.2 to 5.2% for SA. The between-batch accuracy ranged from 95.4 to 96.7% for ASA and from 94.6 to 111.3% for SA. The validated method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA after single oral administration of 650 mg test formulation versus two 325 mg reference formulations of ASA in human subjects.

  1. Simultaneous determination of six alkaloid components in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study of Danmu preparations by an ultra fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rong; Chen, Jiaquan; Zhao, Yonggang; Jia, Xiaobin; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Feng, Liang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jingjing; Zhu, Fenxia

    2015-03-01

    Danmu injection and Danmu tablet are two widely used traditional Chinese medicine made of Nauclea officinalis (commonly known as Danmu), in which the alkaloids are the major active substances. In this paper, an ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination and the pharmacokinetic characteristics study of six main active alkaloids (naucleamide A-10-O-β-d-glucopyranosid, naucleamide G, pumiloside, 3-epi-pumiloside, strictosamide and vincosamide) of the two above-mentioned Danmu preparations in rat plasma. In the course of the experiment, following sample preparation by protein precipitation with methanol-ethyl acetate (2:1, v/v), the nitrogen-dried extraction was reconstituted in methanol and assayed on a C18 column using a gradient elution program with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The MS detection was performed in positive ionization mode with selected ion transitions. The established method was fully validated and proved to be sensitive and specific with lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) all less than 0.32ng/mL in rat plasma and matrix effects ranged from 88.87 to 108.27%. Good linearities of six alkaloids were obtained in respective concentration ranges (r(2)>0.995). The average extract recoveries for each compound at three quality control concentration levels were no less than 79.70%, and the precision and accuracy were within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of six alkaloid components of Danmu injection and tablet in rat plasma. The obtained results may be helpful to reveal the action mechanism and guide the clinical application of Danmu preparations.

  2. Distinction and quantitation of leucine-isoleucine isomers and lysine-glutamine isobars by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n), n = 2, 3) of copper(II)-diimine complexes.

    PubMed

    Seymour, J L; Turecek, F

    2000-04-01

    Electrospray ionization of mixtures of isomeric and isobaric amino acids was investigated with the goal of distinguishing and quantifying the components. Isomeric amino acids leucine and isoleucine were readily distinguished and quantified in 90 : 10 to 10 : 90 binary mixtures using two-stage (MS(2)) and three-stage (MS(3)) tandem mass spectrometric dissociations of ternary Cu(2+)-2, 2'-bipyridyl (bpy) complexes, [Cu(AA - H)bpy](+). The complexes self-assembled in solution upon mixing the components and provided a convenient means of efficient derivatization that increased the efficiency of amino acid ionization by electrospray and shifted the mass of the analytes to a region which was free of solvent interferences. Low-energy dissociations of [Cu(AA - H)bpy](+) complexes in a quadrupole ion trap were achieved at >90% conversions and >80% trapping efficiencies for the MS(2) and MS(3) precursor and fragment ions. Isobaric amino acids glutamine and lysine were also distinguished through MS(2) and MS(3) of their ternary complexes with Cu(2+) and bpy. ESI of [Cu(Gln - H)bpy](+) was enhanced in the presence of [Cu(Lys - H)bpy](+), which resulted in non-linear response at low Lys concentrations.

  3. Improved collision-induced dissociation analysis of peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry through 3-sulfobenzoic acid succinimidyl ester labeling.

    PubMed

    Alley, William R; Mechref, Yehia; Klouckova, Iveta; Novotny, Milos V

    2007-01-01

    The sulfonation reagent, a succinimidyl ester of 3-sulfobenzoic acid, has been synthesized for effective peptide sequencing. It is capable of incorporating an additional mobile proton into the peptide backbone, thus, facilitating efficient collision-induced dissociation. This reagent is easily and inexpensively prepared in short time. Tandem mass spectra of the guanidinated and reagent-sulfonated peptides consist mainly of the y-ion series with higher intensities than those observed for solely guanidinated peptides. These enhanced tandem MS attributes significantly improved MASCOT total-ion scores, thus, allowing more confident peptide sequencing. This derivatization was also very effective for the analysis of tryptic digest of human blood serum proteins separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. When used in LC-MALDI/MS/MS format, this type of derivatization does not adversely affect chromatographic efficiencies.

  4. Quantitation of repaglinide and metabolites in mouse whole-body thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Weiqi; Wang, Lifei; Van Berkel, Gary J.; ...

    2015-11-03

    Herein, quantitation aspects of a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-MS/MS system applied for unattended droplet-based surface sampling of repaglinide dosed thin tissue sections with subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analysis of parent drug and various drug metabolites was studied. Major organs (brain, lung, liver, kidney, muscle) from whole-body thin tissue sections and corresponding organ homogenates prepared from repaglinide dosed mice were sampled by surface sampling and by bulk extraction, respectively, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A semi-quantitative agreement between data obtained by surface sampling and that by employing organ homogenate extraction was observed. Drug concentrations obtained by the two methods followed themore » same patterns for post-dose time points (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Drug amounts determined in the specific tissues was typically higher when analyzing extracts from the organ homogenates. Furthermore, relative comparison of the levels of individual metabolites between the two analytical methods also revealed good semi-quantitative agreement.« less

  5. Quantitation of repaglinide and metabolites in mouse whole-body thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Weiqi; Wang, Lifei; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Gan, Jinping; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2015-11-03

    Herein, quantitation aspects of a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-MS/MS system applied for unattended droplet-based surface sampling of repaglinide dosed thin tissue sections with subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analysis of parent drug and various drug metabolites was studied. Major organs (brain, lung, liver, kidney, muscle) from whole-body thin tissue sections and corresponding organ homogenates prepared from repaglinide dosed mice were sampled by surface sampling and by bulk extraction, respectively, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A semi-quantitative agreement between data obtained by surface sampling and that by employing organ homogenate extraction was observed. Drug concentrations obtained by the two methods followed the same patterns for post-dose time points (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Drug amounts determined in the specific tissues was typically higher when analyzing extracts from the organ homogenates. Furthermore, relative comparison of the levels of individual metabolites between the two analytical methods also revealed good semi-quantitative agreement.

  6. Quantitation of repaglinide and metabolites in mouse whole-body thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqi; Wang, Lifei; Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Gan, Jinping

    2016-03-25

    Herein, quantitation aspects of a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-MS/MS system applied for unattended droplet-based surface sampling of repaglinide dosed thin tissue sections with subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analysis of parent drug and various drug metabolites were studied. Major organs (brain, lung, liver, kidney and muscle) from whole-body thin tissue sections and corresponding organ homogenates prepared from repaglinide dosed mice were sampled by surface sampling and by bulk extraction, respectively, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A semi-quantitative agreement between data obtained by surface sampling and that by employing organ homogenate extraction was observed. Drug concentrations obtained by the two methods followed the same patterns for post-dose time points (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Drug amounts determined in the specific tissues was typically higher when analyzing extracts from the organ homogenates. In addition, relative comparison of the levels of individual metabolites between the two analytical methods also revealed good semi-quantitative agreement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of all-trans retinoic acid in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing-Bo; Luo, Chen-Hui; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Tan, Zhi-Rong

    2014-01-17

    A sensitive, reliable and specific LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the identification and quantitation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in human plasma. Acitretin was used as the internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction of 500 μL plasma with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ATRA and the IS were chromatographed on a HyPURITY C18 column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm) with the column temperature set at 40 °C. The mobile phase was consisted of 40% phase A (MTBE-methanol-acetic acid, 50:50:0.5, v/v) and 60% phase B (water-methanol-acetic acid, 50:50:0.5, v/v) with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via the positive electrospray ionization interface using the transition m/z 301.4→123.1 for ATRA and m/z 326.9→177.1 for IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.45-217.00 ng/mL (r≥0.999) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.45 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions values were below 8% relative standard deviation and the accuracy was from 98.98% to 106.19% in terms of relative error. The validated method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of ATRA in Chinese healthy volunteers.

  8. Investigations on the effect of O(6)-benzylguanine on the formation of dG-dC interstrand cross-links induced by chloroethylnitrosoureas in human glioma cells using stable isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guohui; Zhao, Lijiao; Fan, Tengjiao; Li, Sisi; Zhong, Rugang

    2014-07-21

    Chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs) are bifunctional alkylating agents widely used for the clinical treatment of cancer. They exert anticancer activity by inducing DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) within GC base pairs to form dG-dC cross-links. This lesion inhibits DNA double strand separation during replication and transcription and results in the apoptosis of cancer cells. However, O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs the DNA ICLs by removing the alkyl group at the O(6) position of either O(6)-(2-chloroethyl)deoxyguanosine (O(6)-ClEtdGuo) or N1,O(6)-ethanodeoxyguanosine (N1,O(6)-EtdGuo), which are intermediates in the formation of dG-dC cross-links. The action of AGT leads to drug resistance against CENUs. O(6)-Benzylguanine (O(6)-BG) was identified as an effective AGT inhibitor that enhances the antitumor effects of CENUs. In this study, the effect of O(6)-BG on the formation of dG-dC cross-links was investigated by treating human brain glioma SF767 cells with 1-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU). The levels of dG-dC cross-link were determined using stable isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The results indicated that ACNU induced higher levels of dG-dC cross-link in SF767 cells pretreated with O(6)-BG compared to cells without O(6)-BG pretreatment. The highest dG-dC cross-linking levels were generally observed at 12 h for all drug concentration groups, a result which was consistent with cytotoxicity assay. These results provided direct evidence for the enhancement of dG-dC cross-linking levels caused by the inhibition of AGT by O(6)-BG. These data indicate that dG-dC cross-links may be developed as a biomarker for evaluating the activity of novel O(6)-BG analogues as AGT inhibitors for combination therapy with CENUs.

  9. The nebramycin aminoglycoside profiles of Streptomyces tenebrarius and their characterization using an integrated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Won; Park, Sung Ryeol; Han, Ah Reum; Ban, Yeon Hee; Yoo, Young Ji; Kim, Eun Ji; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2010-02-19

    The development of an efficient analytical protocol for the reliable identification of the biosynthetic intermediates found in microbial cultures, which usually produce complex intermediates of the metabolites of interest, is both challenging and essential for further studies into gene-to-metabolite networks. A simple and highly selective method for detecting the biosynthetic intermediates involved in the aminoglycosidic nebramycin pathway of Streptomyces tenebrarius was developed and validated. Cleanup utilizing a solid-phase extraction (OASIS MCX SPE) technique provides a simple and reproducible method for extracting the nebramycin factors from a fermentation broth. The separation of each factor through a reversed-phase C(18) column using an ion-pairing reagent allowed the simultaneous profiling of the aminoglycosides. By employing the authentic tobramycin spiked into a blank fermentation medium, the combined use of acid extraction, OASIS MCX SPE cleanup, and HFBA (heptafluorobutyric acid)-mediated chromatographic separation coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) detection was proven to be sufficiently accurate and reliable to analyze the nebramycin factors produced in a culture broth. The detection limit of tobramycin spiked in the culture broth was approximately 1.8 ng mL(-1). The mean recovery ranged from 89 to 92%, the intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) was <6% and their accuracy ranged from 88 to 93%. A total of nine nebramycin factors including apramycin, 6''-O-carbamoylkanamycin B, 6''-O-carbamoyltobramycin, 3'-hydoxyapramycin, tobramycin, kanamycin B, NK-1012-1, nebramine, and neamine were identified. This is the first report on the integrated LC-ESI-MS/MS characterization of a wide range of nebramycin factors from a bacterial fermentation broth. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric and electron impact mass spectrometric characterization of mycosporine-like amino acids.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Kenia; Hedges, John I

    2003-01-01

    Positive-ion mass spectral fragmentations of seven mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are reported and discussed. The MAAs studied are small compounds composed of a cycloheximine ring substituted with amino acid or amino alcohol units. Techniques used include electron impact (EI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). ESI-MS/MS showed unusual small radical losses, generally resulting from the loss of a methyl group with the exception of shinorine and porphyra for which the initial losses were 30 and 44 Da, respectively. As expected from structural similarities, porphyra, shinorine and palythinol displayed similar fragmentation patterns, while palythenic acid and palythene fragmented in a similar manner. Overall, the ESI-MS/MS fragmentations at m/z <200 exhibited a distinctive pattern for all seven MAAs with characteristic ions at m/z 137, 168, 186, and 197 or 199. Several ions were observed for each of the MAAs analyzed, and together provide a useful and potentially diagnostic pattern for identification of MAAs and as an aid in structure elucidation of novel MAAs. For GC/EI-MS analysis, trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were made. The EI-MS fragmentation patterns of TMS-MAAs showed many features typical of TMS-derivatized alpha-amines. The precursor TMS-MAA ion was not detected, but a [M-90](+ radical) ion was the highest-mass intense peak observed for palythine, palythinol and shinorine, while palythene gave a [M-116](+ radical) ion. Besides determining the number of acidic hydrogens, EI-MS of TMS-derivatized MAAs will aid in structure elucidation of novel MAAs. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Determination of gardenia yellow colorants in soft drink, pastry, instant noodles with ultrasound-assisted extraction by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-E; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Ling, Yun; Li, Hong-Na; Li, Shao-Hui; Jiang, Shou-Jun; Ren, Zhi-Qin; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Feng

    2016-05-13

    A novel, rapid and simple analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of crocin, crocetin and geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The solid samples were relatively homogenized into powders and fragments. The gardenia yellow colorants were successively extracted with methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The analytes were quantitatively measured in the extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. High correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.995) of crocin, crocetin and geniposide were obtained within their linear ranges respectively (50-1000ng/mL, 50-1000ng/mL, 15-240ng/mL) by external standard method. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.02μg/g for crocin, 0.01μg/g for crocetin and 0.002μg/g for geniposide. And the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were in the ranges of 0.05-0.45μg/g for crocin, and in the ranges of 0.042-0.32μg/g for crocetin, and in the ranges of 0.02-0.15μg/g for geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles samples. The average recoveries of crocin, crocetin and geniposide ranged from 81.3% to 117.6% in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The intra- and inter-day precisions were respectively in the range of 1.3-4.8% and 1.7-11.8% in soft drink, pastry and instant noodle. The developed methods were successfully validated and applied to the soft drink, pastry, and instant noodles collected from the located market in Beijing from China. Crocin, crocetin and geniposide were detected in the collected samples. The average concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 4.20mg/g for crocin, and from 0.62 to 3.11mg/g for crocetin, and from 0.18 to 0.79mg/g for gardenia in various food samples. The method can provide evidences for government to determine gardenia yellow pigments and geniposide in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric study of salt cluster ions: part 2--salts of polyatomic acid groups and of multivalent metals.

    PubMed

    Hao, C; March, R E

    2001-05-01

    Salt cluster ions formed from 0.05 M solutions of CaCl(2), CuCl(2) and Na(A)B (where A = 1 or 2 and B = CO(3)(2-), HCO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-)) were studied by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The effects on salt cluster ions of droplet pH and of redox reactions induced by electrospray provide information on the electrospray process. CaCl(2) solution yielded salt cluster ions of the form (CaCl(2))(n)(CaCl)(x)(x+) and (CaCl(2))(n)(Cl)(y)(y-), where x, y = 1-3, in positive- and negative-ion modes, respectively. Upon collision induced dissociation (CID), singly charged CaCl(2) cluster ions fragmented, doubly charged cluster ions generated either singly or both singly and doubly charged fragment ions, depending on the cluster mass, and triply charged clusters fragmented predominantly by the loss of charged species. CuCl(2) solution yielded nine series of cluster ions of the form (CuCl(2))(n)(CuCl)(m) plus Cu(+), CuCl(+), or Cl(-). CuCl, the reductive product of CuCl(2), was observed as a neutral component of positively and negatively charged cluster ions. Free electrons were formed in a visible discharge that bridged the gap between the electrospray capillary and the sampling cone brought about the reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(+). Upon CID, these cluster ions fragmented to lose CuCl(2), CuCl, Cl, and Cl(2). Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3) solutions yielded cluster ions of the form (Na(2)CO(3))(n) plus Na(+) or NaCO(3)(-). Small numbers of NaHCO(3) molecules were found in some cluster ions obtained with the NaHCO(3) solution. For both Na(2)HPO(4) and NaH(2)PO(4) solutions, ions of the form (Na(2)HPO(4))(h), (NaH(2)PO(4))(i), (Na(3)PO(4))(j), (NaPO(3))(k) plus Na(+), PO(3)(-) or H(2)PO(4)(-) were observed. In addition, ions having one or two phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) molecules were observed from the NaH(2)PO(4) solution while ions containing one sodium hydroxide (NaOH) molecule were observed from the Na(2)HPO(4) solution. The cluster ions observed from

  13. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  14. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  15. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated chicken by precolumn derivatization with hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuran; Liu, Hanxia; Horvatovich, Peter; Chan, Wan

    2013-06-19

    Food irradiation is a common preservation method that is used in many countries. The ability to identify irradiated food is important for assuring compliance with regulatory policies, such as food labeling requirements, and for informed consumer choice. There is thus a significant demand for analytical methods of high sensitivity and selectivity to identify irradiated food, especially for foods subjected to low-dose irradiation and for processed or composite foods that contain small quantities of irradiated ingredients. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are uniquely formed during food irradiation and have been adopted by the European Committee for Standardization as signature biomarkers for the identification of irradiated foods. We now report the development of a novel assay for quantification of 2-ACBs in γ-irradiated food by liquid extraction of fat content followed by precolumn derivatization and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection. Precolumn derivatization with hydroxylamine introduced a polar functional group into the otherwise nonpolar 2-ACBs, which greatly enhanced ESI-MS response. The method was validated for extraction efficiency, precision, accuracy, and detection limit. In comparison with the current GC-MS based European official method (EN1785:2003) for 2-ACBs determination, our new LC-MS/MS method offers a more efficient sample processing protocol with reduced solvent consumption. More importantly, the combination of chemical derivatization and LC-MS/MS detection significantly enhanced the analytical sensitivity of the method, which allows confident identification of food irradiated with as little as 10 Gy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of 2-ACB determination by LC-MS/MS and the first analytical method allowing confident identification of irradiated food at dosage of down to 10 Gy.

  16. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Hofvander, Per; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua; Feussner, Ivo

    2013-07-06

    Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to gain an overview on the molecular species composition. We confirm previous results from APCI-MS and GC-MS analysis, which showed that fragmentation patterns are highly dependent on the double bond distribution between the fatty alcohol and the fatty acid part of the wax ester.

  17. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of the star-shaped propoxylated diethylenetriamine polyols.

    PubMed

    Shemirani, Ghazaleh; Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2015-07-01

    The collision-induced dissociation of the protonated five-arm star propoxylated diethylenetriamine polyols was studied under electrospray conditions. Two product ion series were detected because of the cleavage of the C-N bonds in the initiator moiety. No backbone fragmentation of the polyether chains was observed, which allowed to explore the initiation and side-chain propagation process of the oligomers. On the basis of MS/MS spectra, it is probable that the rate of the initiation is larger than that of the chain propagation. The propylene oxide repeat units attach to the five arms with approximately the same probability. Furthermore, it was found that the collision energy necessary to obtain 50% fragmentation (CE50) was linearly dependent on the molecular weight of the polyols.

  18. Structural analysis of sulfated fucan from Saccharina japonica by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-03-22

    Desulfation of a fucoidan from Saccharina japonica by treatment with DMSO-MeOH resulted in partial degradation of polymeric molecules by methanolysis giving rise to a mixture of neutral, monosulfated, and disulfated fucooligosaccharides in the form of methyl glycosides. These oligomeric fragments were characterized by ESI-MS and ESI-CID-MS/MS. It was found that oligosaccharide structures coincided with the polysaccharide backbone built up mainly of (1→3)-linked fucose residues sulfated at positions 4 and 2.

  19. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to gain an overview on the molecular species composition. We confirm previous results from APCI-MS and GC-MS analysis, which showed that fragmentation patterns are highly dependent on the double bond distribution between the fatty alcohol and the fatty acid part of the wax ester. PMID:23829499

  20. Chiral differentiation of the noscapine and hydrastine stereoisomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tibor; Kuki, Ákos; Antal, Borbála; Nagy, Lajos; Purgel, Mihály; Sipos, Attila; Nagy, Miklós; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dimers [2 M + Cat](+) of the noscapine and hydrastine stereoisomers was studied where Cat stands for Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and Cs(+) ions. These dimers were generated 'in situ' from the electrosprayed solution. The survival yield (SY) method was used for distinguishing the noscapine and hydrastine dimers. Significant differences were found between the characteristic collision energies (CE50, i.e. the collision energy necessary to obtain 50% fragmentation) of the homo- (R,R; S,S) and heterochiral (R,S; S,R) stereoisomers. To distinguish the enantiomer pairs L-, D-tyrosine ([M + Tyr + Cat](+)) and L-, D-lysine ([M + Lys + Cat](+)) were used as chiral selectors. Furthermore, these heterodimers [M + amino acid + Cat](+) were also applied to determine the stereoisomeric composition. It was found that the characteristic collision energy (CE50) of the noscapine and hydrastine homodimers ([2 M + Cat](+)) was inversely proportional to the ionic radius of the cations. Furthermore, the structures of the dimers [2 M + Cat](+) were studied by high level quantum chemical calculations.

  1. Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) Study for the Identification and Characterization of In Vivo Metabolites of Cisplatin in Rat Kidney Cancer Tissues: Online Hydrogen/Deuterium (H/D) Exchange Study.

    PubMed

    Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2015-01-01

    In vivo rat kidney tissue metabolites of an anticancer drug, cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [II]) (CP) which is used for the treatment of testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, esophageal, small cell lung, head and neck cancers, have been identified and characterized by using liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) in combination with on line hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. To identify in vivo metabolites, kidney tissues were collected after intravenous administration of CP to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group). The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using newly optimized metabolite extraction procedure which involves liquid extraction with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and protein precipitation with mixed solvents of methanol-water-chloroform followed by solid-phase clean-up procedure on Oasis HLB 3cc cartridges and then subjected to LC/ESI-HRMS analysis. A total of thirty one unknown in vivo metabolites have been identified and the structures of metabolites were elucidated using LC-MS/MS experiments combined with accurate mass measurements. Online HDX experiments have been used to further support the structural characterization of metabolites. The results showed that CP undergoes a series of ligand exchange biotransformation reactions with water and other nucleophiles like thio groups of methionine, cysteine, acetylcysteine, glutathione and thioether. This is the first research approach focused on the structure elucidation of biotransformation products of CP in rats, and the identification of metabolites provides essential information for further pharmacological and clinical studies of CP, and may also be useful to develop various effective new anticancer agents.

  2. Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of citrus limonoids.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven J

    2003-10-15

    Methods for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) of citrus limonoid aglycones and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of limonoid glucosides are reported. The fragmentation patterns of four citrus limonoid aglycones (limonin, nomilin, obacunone, and deacetylnomilin) and six limonoid glucosides, that is, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NG), nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DNAG), obacunone 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG), and obacunoic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OAG) were investigated using a quadruple mass spectrometer in low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). The four limonoid aglycones and four limonoid glucosides (LG, OG, NAG, and DNAG) were purified from citrus seeds; the other two limonoid glucosides (NG and OAG) were tentatively identified in the crude extract of grapefruit seeds by ESI mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion analysis. Ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid was added to the mobile phase to facilitate ionization. During positive ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, protonated molecular ion, [M + H]+, or adduct ion, [M + NH3 + H]-, was formed as base peaks when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. Molecular anions or adduct ions with acetic acid ([M + HOAc - H] and [M + HOAc]-) or a deprotonated molecular ion were produced during negative ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, depending on the mobile-phase modifier used. Positive ion ESI-MS of limonoid glucosides produced adduct ions of [M + H + NH3]+, [M + Na]+, and [M + K]+ when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. After collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the limonoid aglycone molecular ions in negative ion APCI analysis, fragment ions indicated structural information of the precursor ions, showing the presence of methyl, carboxyl, and oxygenated ring

  3. Determination of bromazepam in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Andraus, Maristela H; Wong, Anthony; Silva, Ovandir A; Wada, Cicília Y; Toffleto, Odaly; Azevedo, Cristina P; Salvadori, Myriam C

    2004-11-01

    A simple method using a one-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (ESI-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination of bromazepam in human plasma, using lorazepam as internal standard. The acquisition was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, monitoring the transitions: m/z 316 > 182 for bromazepam and m/z 321 > 275 for lorazepam. The method was linear over the studied range (1-100 ng ml(-1)), with r(2) > 0.98, and the run time was 2.5 min. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were 2.7-14.6 and 4.1-17.3%, respectively and the intra- and inter-assay accuracies were 87-111 and 75.8-109.5%, respectively. The mean recovery was 73.7%, ranging from 64.5 to 79.7%. The limit of quantification was 1 ng ml(-1). At this concentration the mean intra- and inter-assay precisions were 14.6 and 7.1%, respectively, and the mean intra- and inter-assay accuracies were 102.5 and 104%, respectively. Bromazepam stability was evaluated and the results showed that the drug is stable in standard solution and in plasma samples under typical storage and processing conditions. The method was applied to a bioequivalence study in which 27 healthy adult volunteers (14 men) received single oral doses (6 mg) of reference and test bromazepam formulations, in an open, two-period, randomized, crossover protocol. The 90% confidence interval of the individual ratios (test formulation/reference formulation) for C(max) (peak plasma concentration), AUC(0-96) and AUC(0-inf) (area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time zero to 96 h and to infinity, respectively) were within the range 80-125%, which supports the conclusion that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference formulation regarding the rate and extent of bromazepam absorption. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  4. Ultra-Trace Analysis of Nine Macrolides, including Tulathromycin A (Draxxin), in Edible Animal Tissues with Mini-Column Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analysis of 9 macrolides is presented, including tulathromycin A (Draxxin), in beef, poultry and pork muscle with a simple multi-residue extraction and analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The extraction method inv...

  5. Protocol for an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectral product ion library: development and application for identification of 240 pesticides in foods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Yang, Paul; Hayward, Douglas G; Sakuma, Takeo; Zou, Yunyun; Schreiber, André; Borton, Christopher; Nguyen, Tung-Vi; Kaushik, Banerjee; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2012-07-03

    Modern determination techniques for pesticides must yield identification quickly with high confidence for timely enforcement of tolerances. A protocol for the collection of liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray ionization (ESI)-quadruple linear ion trap (Q-LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) library spectra was developed. Following the protocol, an enhanced product ion (EPI) library of 240 pesticides was developed by use of spectra collected from two laboratories. A LC-Q-LIT-MS workflow using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) survey scan, information-dependent acquisition (IDA) triggered collection of EPI spectra, and library search was developed and tested to identify the 240 target pesticides in one single LC-Q-LIT MS analysis. By use of LC retention time, one sMRM survey scan transition, and a library search, 75-87% of the 240 pesticides were identified in a single LC/MS analysis at fortified concentrations of 10 ng/g in 18 different foods. A conventional approach with LC-MS/MS using two MRM transitions produced the same identifications and comparable quantitative results with the same incurred foods as the LC-Q-LIT using EPI library search, finding 1.2-49 ng/g of either carbaryl, carbendazim, fenbuconazole, propiconazole, or pyridaben in peaches; carbendazim, imazalil, terbutryn, and thiabendazole in oranges; terbutryn in salmon; and azoxystrobin in ginseng. Incurred broccoli, cabbage, and kale were screened with the same EPI library using three LC-Q-LIT and a LC-quadruple time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. The library search identified azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxinil, imidacloprid, metalaxyl, spinosyn A, D, and J, amd spirotetramat with each instrument. The approach has a broad application in LC-MS/MS type targeted screening in food analysis.

  6. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric study of protonated and alkali- cationized α/ε-hybrid peptides: differentiation of a pair of dipeptide positional isomers.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, A; Raju, G; Purna Chander, C; Shoban Babu, B; Srinivas, R; Sharma, G V M

    2016-01-01

    A new class of Boc-N-protected hybrid peptides derived from L- Ala and ε(6)-Caa (L-Ala = L-Alanine, Caa = C-linked carboamino acid derived from D-xylose) have been studied by positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS(n) spectra of protonated and alkali-cationized hybrid peptides produce characteristic fragmentation involving the peptide backbone, the tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group, and the side chain. The dipeptide positional isomers are differentiated by the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the protonated and alkali-cationized peptides. The CID of [M + H](+) ion of Boc-NH-L-Ala-ε-Caa- OCH3 (1) shows a prominent [M + H - C4H8](+) ion, which is totally absent for its positional isomer Boc-NH-ε-Caa-L-Ala-OCH3 (6), which instead shows significant loss of t-butanol. The formation of the [M + Cat - C4H8](+) ion is totally absent and [M + Cat - Boc + H](+) is prominent in the CID of the [M + Cat](+) ion of Boc-NH-L-Ala-ε-Caa- OCH3 (1), whereas the former is highly abundant and the latter is of low abundance for its positional isomer Boc-NH-ε-Caa-L-Ala-OCH3 (6). It is observed that 'b' ions are abundant when oxazolone structures are formed through a five-membered cyclic transition state in tetra-, penta-, and hexapeptides and the cyclization process for larger 'b' ions led to an insignificant abundance. However, the significant 'b' ion is formed in ε,α-dipeptide, which may have a seven-membered substituted 2-oxoazepanium ion structure. The MS(n) spectra of [M + Cat - Boc + H](+) ions of these peptides are found to be significantly different to those of [M + H - Boc + H](+) ions. The CID spectra of [M + Cat - Boc + H](+) ions of peptide acids containing L-Ala at the C-terminus show an abundant N-terminal rearrangement ion, [b(n) + 17 + Cat](+), which is absent for the peptide acids containing ε-Caa at the C-terminus. Thus, the results of these hybrid peptides

  7. Determination of 30 synthetic food additives in soft drinks by HPLC/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Minli; Wang, Minglin; Zhao, Yansheng; Cao, Ya; Chu, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    A method combining SPE with HPLC/electrospray ionization-MS/MS was developed for simultaneous determination of 30 synthetic food additives, including synthetic colorants, preservatives, and sweeteners in soft drinks. All targets were efficiently separated using the optimized chromatographic and MS conditions and parameters in a single run within 18 min. The LOD of the analytes ranged from 0.01 to 20 microg/kg, and the method was validated with recoveries in the 80.8 to 106.4% range. This multisynthetic additive method was found to be accurate and reliable and will be useful to ensure the safety of food products, such as the labeling and proper use of synthetic food additives in soft drinks.

  8. Identification and determination of glycosides in tobacco leaves by liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pang, Tao; Yuan, Zhongyi; Dai, Yongsheng; Wang, Chang; Yang, Jun; Peng, Liming; Xu, Guowang

    2007-02-01

    HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS (HPLC-APCI-MS) was used to screen and identify glycosides in tobacco leaf. MS/MS and MS3 and photodiode array (PDA) detection were also used in the characterization. A total of 12 glycosides were found and four of them were identified based on their abundant [M + H]+ ions, UV spectra, and MS/MS analysis and they are scopolin, rutin, quercetin-3-glycoside, and kaempferol-3-rutinoside. Analytical characteristics of the method were investigated. The contents of these glycosides were obtained and compared based on the relative peak area to the internal standard in seven kinds of tobacco leaf.

  9. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons

    PubMed Central

    Cenzano, Ana M.; Cantoro, Renata; Teresa Hernandez-Sotomayor, S. M.; Abdala, Guillermina I.; Racagni, Graciela E.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  10. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography couple...

  11. Determination of total choline by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shishan; Tao, Baohua; Lai, Shiyun; Zhang, Jingshun; Yiping, Ren

    2012-01-01

    Choline is a water-soluble nutrient important for infants' brain and neural development. In infant formulas, choline is one of the important fortified nutrients. A single-laboratory validation study conducted an LC-electrospray ionization-MS/MS to determine total choline in infant formulas. Sample preparation was adopted from AOAC Official Method 999.14, and instrumental running conditions were optimized. The LOQ was 0.2 microg/100 g, which is significant for measuring total choline in infant formulas. Average recoveries for milk-, rice-, soybean-, and hydrolyzed protein-based samples ranged from 86.45 +/- 6.04% to 108.98 +/- 3.68%, with RSD less than 7%. The repeatability RSD (RSD(r)) range was 0.24-3.59% in within-day evaluation and 1.16-3.24% in day-to-day evaluation. Matrix effect was also investigated, and can be effectively eliminated by using an internal standard. Therefore, this method has high credibility, and could be used as a routine method of quality control, or for clinical studies and other research areas.

  12. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  13. Improved gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair using mechanical pulverization and bead-assisted liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Cheong, Jae Chul; Lee, Jae Il; In, Moon Kyo

    2011-03-20

    A gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric (GC-NCI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in human hair. After decontamination, hair samples were weighed (25mg), mechanically pulverized with a bead mill, and incubated in 0.7 mL of 1.0M sodium hydroxide at 95 °C for 30 min. Bead-assisted liquid-liquid extraction was performed with n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v), a method developed in our laboratory. The extract was evaporated to dryness, derivatized with pentafluoropropanol and pentafluoropropionic anhydride, and analyzed by GC-MS/MS in the negative ion chemical ionization mode using methane as the reagent gas. The linear ranges were 0.05-10.0 pg/mg for THC-COOH with the coefficient of determination (r(2) = 0.9976). The intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 1.7 and 13.8%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracies were -4.8 to 10.0% and -3.9 to 3.8%, respectively. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.015 and 0.05 pg/mg, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 79.4-87.1%. The results indicate that the proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate, and precise for determination of THC-COOH in hair. The method identified THC-COOH in hair specimens from suspected marijuana abusers.

  14. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  15. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  16. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  17. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  18. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  19. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  20. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  1. A strategy for identification and structural characterization of compounds from Gardenia jasminoides by integrating macroporous resin column chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with ion-mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Xueju; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, an analysis strategy integrating macroporous resin (AB-8) column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) combined with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was proposed and applied for identification and structural characterization of compounds from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. The extracts of G. jasminoides were separated by AB-8 resin column chromatography combined with reversed phase liquid chromatography (C18 column) and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was employed as a supplementary separation technique to discover previously undetected isomers from the fruits of G. jasminoides. A total of 71 compounds, including iridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, monoterpenoids, carotenoids and phenolic acids were identified by the characteristic high resolution mass spectrometry and the ESI-MS/MS fragmentations. In conclusion, the IMS-MS technique achieved the separation of isomers in crocin-3 and crocin-4 according to their acquired mobility drift times differing from classical analysis by mass spectrometry. The proposed strategy can be used as a highly sensitive and efficient procedure for identification and separation isomeric components in extracts of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  3. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  4. Quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and norcotinine in human meconium by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gray, Teresa R; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2008-02-15

    There are no analytical methods that simultaneously quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and norcotinine in human meconium. Such a method could improve identification of in utero tobacco exposure, determine if maternal dose-meconium concentration relationships exist, and whether nicotine meconium concentrations predict neonatal outcomes. The first liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of these analytes in meconium was developed and validated. Specimen preparation included homogenization, enzyme hydrolysis and solid phase extraction. The linear range was 1.25 or 5-500ng/g. Method applicability was evaluated with meconium collected from an in utero tobacco exposed infant.

  5. Quantitation of DNA adducts by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tretyakova, Natalia; Goggin, Melissa; Janis, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Due to their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples – including immunoassay, HPLC, and 32P-postlabeling – isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adducts concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01 – 10 adducts per 108 normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry – especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS – have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. PMID:22827593

  6. Gas-phase fragmentation of protonated piplartine and its fungal metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry and computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Junior, E A; Paludo, C R; Gouvea, D R; Kato, M J; Furtado, N A J C; Lopes, N P; Vessecchi, R; Pupo, M T

    2017-08-01

    Piplartine, an alkaloid produced by plants in the genus Piper, displays promising anticancer activity. Understanding the gas-phase fragmentation of piplartine by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry can be a useful tool to characterize biotransformed compounds produced by in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies. As part of our efforts to understand natural product fragmentation in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, the gas-phase fragmentation of piplartine and its two metabolites 3,4-dihydropiplartine and 8,9-dihydropiplartine, produced by the endophytic fungus Penicillium crustosum VR4 biotransformation, were systematically investigated. Proposed fragmentation reactions were supported by ESI-MS/MS data and computational thermochemistry. Cleavage of the C-7 and N-amide bond, followed by the formation of an acylium ion, were characteristic fragmentation reactions of piplartine and its analogs. The production of the acylium ion was followed by three consecutive and competitive reactions that involved methyl and methoxyl radical eliminations and neutral CO elimination, followed by the formation of a four-member ring with a stabilized tertiary carbocation. The absence of a double bond between carbons C-8 and C-9 in 8,9-dihydropiplartine destabilized the acylium ion and resulted in a fragmentation pathway not observed for piplartine and 3,4-dihydropiplartine. These results contribute to the further understanding of alkaloid gas-phase fragmentation and the future identification of piplartine metabolites and analogs using tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  8. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed.

  9. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed. PMID:28337398

  10. Biological Cluster Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Winograd, Nicholas; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the new physics and new applications of secondary ion mass spectrometry using cluster ion probes. These probes, particularly C60, exhibit enhanced molecular desorption with improved sensitivity owing to the unique nature of the energy-deposition process. In addition, these projectiles are capable of eroding molecular solids while retaining the molecular specificity of mass spectrometry. When the beams are microfocused to a spot on the sample, bioimaging experiments in two and three dimensions are feasible. We describe emerging theoretical models that allow the energy-deposition process to be understood on an atomic and molecular basis. Moreover, experiments on model systems are described that allow protocols for imaging on biological materials to be implemented. Finally, we present recent applications of imaging to biological tissue and single cells to illustrate the future directions of this methodology. PMID:20055679

  11. MASS SPECTROMETRY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers applications of mass spectrometry to the environmental sciences. From the early applications of mass spectrometry to environmental research in the 1960s and 1970s, mass spectrometry has played an important role in aiding our understanding of environmental poll...

  12. MASS SPECTROMETRY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers applications of mass spectrometry to the environmental sciences. From the early applications of mass spectrometry to environmental research in the 1960s and 1970s, mass spectrometry has played an important role in aiding our understanding of environmental poll...

  13. Hybrid instruments for mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Glish, G.L.; McLuckey, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to refine further the technique of mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry efforts are being made to combine the desirable features of sector based tandem instruments with those of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. This has resulted in the construction of tandem mass spectrometers which incorporate both sector type analyzers and quadrupole mass filters. These so-called hybrid instruments, designed specifically for mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry applications, are appearing in a variety of geometries each with unique features. This review describes the hybrid instruments reported to data and discusses general considerations for evaluating hybrid instruments with regard to application. 100 references.

  14. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The “magic” that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  15. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  16. Structural characterization of poly(amino)ester dendrimers and related impurities by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tintaru, Aura; Monnier, Valérie; Bouillon, Camille; Giordanengo, Rémi; Quéléver, Gilles; Peng, Ling; Charles, Laurence

    2010-08-15

    An acid-terminated poly(amino)ester dendrimer was studied by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to establish its fragmentation pathways, with the aim of using them to investigate the structure of any defective molecules generated during the dendrimer synthesis. This poly(amino)ester dendrimer could be ionized in both polarities but the most structurally relevant dissociation pathways were found from the deprotonated molecule in negative ion mode. The dissociation pattern of this dendrimer is fully described and supported by accurate mass measurements. The main dissociation reactions of the negatively charged polyacidic dendrimer were shown to consist of (i) the release of carbon dioxide and ethene within a branch, which proceeds as many times as intact neutral branches are available; and (ii) the elimination of an entire dendrimer arm. Monitoring the occurrence of these reactions together with any deviation from these two main routes allowed six major dendritic impurities to be structurally characterized.

  17. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  18. Highly sensitive and accurate screening of 40 dyes in soft drinks by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Zhao, Yansheng; Yong, Wei; Sun, Li; Jiang, Guibin; Chu, Xiaogang

    2011-06-15

    A method combining solid phase extraction with high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the highly sensitive and accurate screening of 40 dyes, most of which are banned in foods. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify a large number of dyes for the first time, and demonstrated greater accuracy and sensitivity than the conventional liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible methods. The limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for the dyes are 0.0001-0.01 mg/L except for Tartrazine, Amaranth, New Red and Ponceau 4R, with detection limits of 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.125 mg/L, respectively. When this method was applied to screening of dyes in soft drinks, the recoveries ranged from 91.1 to 105%. This method has been successfully applied to screening of illegal dyes in commercial soft drink samples, and it is valuable to ensure the safety of food.

  19. [Simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Cuiping; Zhou, Yongfang; Xia, Biqi; Zhu, Zhenou; Liu, Aili

    2011-02-01

    A method for the analysis of 4 alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted in methanol by ultrasonic, filtered and diluted with methanol for further analysis. The analysis was performed on a C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) using a gradient elution program with the mobile phase of 0.2% acetic acid solution and acetonitrile. The analyte was determined by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were based on the retention times and characteristic ion pairs consisting of one parent ion and two fragment ions of the analyte. The limits of detection (LODs) for 4 alkaloids were in the range of 0.02 - 0.2 microg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.07 - 0.66 microg/L. The average recoveries were in the range of 93.6% - 103.5% for 4 alkaloids with the relative standard deviations below 3.8%. This method is reliable, sensitive and reproducible, and it can be used for the quality control of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. sample.

  20. Finasteride Quantification in Human Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Application to a Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, R A; Moreno, P; Borges, N C; Donato, J L; Oliveira, S E; Borges, N C

    2015-09-01

    A specific, fast and sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was developed for the determination of finasteride in human plasma using betamethsone dipropionate as the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/ml and the method was linear in the range of 1.0-25.0 ng/ml. The retention times were 0.75 min for finasteride and 0.85 min for IS. Method intra-batch precision and accuracy ranged from 3.6 to 7.1%, and 96.6 to 103.9%, respectively. Inter-batch precision ranged from 2.5 to 3.4%, while Inter-batch accuracy ranged from 100.3 to 103.5%. The analytical method was applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and relative bioavailability of 2 different pharmaceutical formulations containing 1.0 mg of finasteride. This study evaluated 38 volunteers in a randomized, 2-period crossover study with 7 days washout period between doses. The geometric mean and respective 90% CI of finasteride test/reference percent ratios were 95.68% (91.2 - 104.6%) for Cmax, 97.5% (92.1-103.3%) for AUC0-t and 98.1 (92.67-103.8) for AUC0-inf. Based on the 90% confidence interval of the individual ratios (test formulation/reference formulation) for Cmax and AUC0-inf, it was concluded that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference one with respect to the rate and extent of absorption of finasteride. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Liquid chromatography-electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry with the Direct-EI interface in the fast determination of diazepam and flunitrazepam in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Famiglini, Giorgio; Termopoli, Veronica; Palma, Pierangela; Cappiello, Achille

    2016-04-01

    This is the first application based on electron ionization (EI) using a Direct-EI LC interface and MS/MS to detect unequivocally target compounds in a very small real sample. The determination and quantification of benzodiazepines in very small residues of beverages, collected at the scene of drug-facilitated crimes are mandatory in legal procedures. A specific and sensitive analytical instrumentation is needed, involving little or no sample preparation. Here, a direct flow injection analysis of alcoholic beverages spiked with commercially available drugs containing diazepam and flunitrazepam is presented. The method proposed is very fast and requires neither sample preparation nor chromatographic separation. Linearity (R(2) ) was between 0.9977 and 0.9992; LOD and LOQ spanned from 0.01 to 0.02 ng/μL and from 0.1 to 0.5 ng/μL, respectively; intra- and interday repeatabilities were between 1 and 8%. No matrix effects were observed from the comparison of the linear regression curves obtained in real fortified samples and in pure ethanol. Vodka, whisky, and white wine specimens were fortified with commercial drugs, Valium(®) and Rohypnol(®) , at two different concentrations (20 and 50 ng/μL) to simulate the typical amounts found in adulterated real samples and analyzed to demonstrate the method applicability to forensic analyses. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Quantification of endogenous metabolites by the postcolumn infused-internal standard method combined with matrix normalization factor in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Liao, Wei-Chih; Tsai, I-Lin; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-02

    Quantification of endogenous metabolites has enabled the discovery of biomarkers for diagnosis and provided for an understanding of disease etiology. The standard addition and stable isotope labeled-internal standard (SIL-IS) methods are currently the most widely used approaches to quantifying endogenous metabolites, but both have some limitations for clinical measurement. In this study, we developed a new approach for endogenous metabolite quantification by the postcolumn infused-internal standard (PCI-IS) method combined with the matrix normalization factor (MNF) method. MNF was used to correct the difference in MEs between standard solution and biofluids, and PCI-IS additionally tailored the correction of the MEs for individual samples. Androstenedione and testosterone were selected as test articles to verify this new approach to quantifying metabolites in plasma. The repeatability (n=4 runs) and intermediate precision (n=3 days) in terms of the peak area of androstenedione and testosterone at all tested concentrations were all less than 11% relative standard deviation (RSD). The accuracy test revealed that the recoveries were between 95.72% and 113.46%. The concentrations of androstenedione and testosterone in fifty plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers were quantified by the PCI-IS combined with the MNF method, and the quantification results were compared with the results of the SIL-IS method. The Pearson correlation test showed that the correlation coefficient was 0.98 for both androstenedione and testosterone. We demonstrated that the PCI-IS combined with the MNF method is an effective and accurate method for quantifying endogenous metabolites.

  3. Two-step cleanup procedure for the identification of carotenoid esters by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniele Bobrowski; Mariutti, Lilian Regina Barros; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2016-07-29

    Carotenoids are naturally found in both free form and esterified with fatty acids in most fruits; however, up to now the great majority of studies only evaluated their composition after saponification. This fact is easily explained by the difficult to analyze carotenoid esters. Preliminary studies showed that cleanup procedures in the extract are necessary for further analysis by LC-MS/MS since triacylglycerols (TAGs) impair the MS detection. Considering these facts, we developed a new cleanup procedure to remove TAGs and other lipids from carotenoid fruit extracts. This procedure is based on physical removal of solid lipids at low temperature followed by open column chromatography on MgO and diatomaceous earth. Before cleanup, four carotenoid diesters and two free xanthophylls were identified in murici (Byrsonyma crassifolia), corresponding to about 65% of the total chromatogram area. After carrying out the two-step cleanup procedure, 35 carotenoids were identified, being 14 monoesters, six free carotenoids and 15 carotenoid diesters. We can conclude that this two-step procedure was successfully applied to murici, an Amazonian fruit, which contains high amounts of lipids.

  4. A Highly Specific, Fully Validated Urinary Ethyl Glucuronide Analysis Using Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Acikkol, Munevver; Ozdemir, Ali Acar; Anilanmert, Beril; Mirsal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    A highly specific and selective analytical method using LC/MS/MS for the quantitative determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine was developed and fully validated. Since the determination of EtG in urine may be possible days after the elimination of alcohol, it is an indication of alcohol use in alcohol treatment programs and antemortem and postmortem toxicological investigations. Propyl glucuronide (PrG), which increased the selectivity of the method, was used as an internal standard. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, intraday and interday precision, and recovery. The analyte and PrG in the SPE cleaned up extract were separated on a 150 mm C18 column in 3.3 min with high resolution. The rest of the peaks from the matrix were eluted in 9.0 min. The LOD was 90.8 ng/mL and the LOQ was calculated using the EURACHEM method as 185.0 ng/mL. The intraday and the intermediate precision of the method was calculated using analysis of variance and confirmed with calculation of HorRat values, which were found within acceptable limits. The method provided a reliable solution for monitoring patients under alcohol addiction treatment and was successfully applied to real samples.

  5. Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry enantiomeric separation of dl-threo-methylphenidate, (Ritalin) using a macrocyclic antibiotic as the chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L; Bakhtiar, R; Majumdar, T; Hayes, M; Tse, F

    1999-01-01

    Vancomycin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, is an amphoteric glycopeptide produced by Streptomyces orientalis which has proven to be a viable chiral selector for high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) (D. W. Armstrong, Y. Tang, S. Chen, Y. Zhou, C. Bagwill and J-R. Chen, Anal. Chem. (1994; 66: 1473). While it is related to other glycopeptide antibiotics, vancomycin has a number of unique structural features, including 18 stereogenic centers, five aromatic rings, and two side chains one of which is a carbohydrate dimer. Therefore, a vancomycin-based stationary phase appears to be multimodal in that it can be utilized in both normal-phase and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Consequently, the enantiomeric separation may be operative via several mechanisms, including pi-pi complexation, dipole stacking, inclusion, hydrogen bonding, or combinations of these interactions. LC/MS/MS is a powerful tool for quantitative analysis when evaluated on the basis of speed, specificity, reliability and sensitivity. For these reasons, the present paper explored the feasibility of bonded macrocyclic glycopeptide phases for chiral LC/MS/MS quantitative analysis. Methylphenidate was used as a model compound. A rapid chiral bioanalytical method (<7.5 min) for the determination of the enantiomers of methylphenidate was developed. A lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 87 pg/mL was attained for the human plasma assay. This is to our knowledge the first example of enantioselective reversed-phase LC/MS/MS for methylphenidate. The chiral column was relatively cost effective and exhibited excellent performance with no separation deterioration observed after approximately 2500 injections. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Determination of Vandetanib in Human Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid by Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Feng; Johnson, Jennifer; Wang, Fan; Yang, Lei; Broniscer, Alberto; Stewart, Clinton F.

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and precise LC-ESI-MS/MS method for determination of vandetanib (ZD6474) in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using d4-ZD6474 as an internal standard (ISTD) was developed and validated. Sample preparation consisted of a simple liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether containing 0.1% or 0.5% ammonium hydroxide. ZD6474 and ISTD were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (2.6 μ, 50 mm × 2.1 mm) at ambient temperature with an isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/10mM ammonium formate = 50/50, v/v, at pH 5.0) delivered at 0.11 mL/min. The retention time of both compounds was at 1.60 min in a runtime of three min. Detection was achieved by an API-3200 LC-MS/MS system, monitoring m/z 475.1/112.1 and m/z 479.1/116.2 for vandetanib and ISTD, respectively. The method was linear in the range of 0.25 to 50 ng/mL (R2 ≥ 0.990) for the CSF curve and from 1.0 to 3,000 ng/mL (R2 ≥ 0.992) for the plasma curve. The mean recovery for vandetanib was 80%. Within-day and between-day precisions were ≤ 8.8% and ≤ 5.9% for CSF and plasma, respectively. Within-day and between-day accuracies ranged from 95.0 to 98.5% for CSF, and from 104.0 to 108.5% for plasma. Analysis of plasma from six different sources showed no matrix effect for vandetanib (MF = 0.98, %CV ≤ 4.97, n = 6). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmacokinetic samples from children with brain tumors treated with oral vandetanib. PMID:21803003

  7. Quantitative determination of salidroside in rat plasma by on-line solid-phase extraction integrated with high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsieh, Su-Huei; Lu, Ting-Jang; Yeh, Teng-Kuang

    2007-09-15

    A method for the quantification of salidroside, a major biologically active compound in Rhodiola, in rat plasma by on-line SPE LC/MS/MS in negative electrospray mode was developed and validated. A column-switching instrument and two HPLC pumping systems were employed, and salicin was used as the internal standard. A Waters Oasis HLB extraction column and an Agilent TC-C(18) analytical column in a column-switching set-up with gradient elution were utilized. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were m/z 299.0/119.0 and 285.1/122.9 for salidroside and salicin, respectively. The standard curves were linear within a range of 50-5000 ng/mL using weighted linear regression analysis (1/x). The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variance ranged from 1% to 9%. The recovery was above 90%. The freeze/thaw and long-term stability were validated. This method was subsequently applied to a pharmacokinetic study of salidroside in rats.

  8. Quantitative analysis of 15N labeled positional isomers of glutamine and citrulline via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of their dansyl derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enteral metabolism of glutamine and citrulline are intertwined because, while glutamine is one of the main fuel sources for the enterocyte, citrulline is one of its products. It has been shown that the administration of 15N labeled glutamine results in the incorporation of the 15N label into cit...

  9. Rapid identification of two species of Peucedanum by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yanyan; Luo, Jianguang; Lu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Deran; Hou, Zhiguo; Kong, Lingyi

    2009-08-01

    The fragmentation behaviors of the angular- and linear-type coumarins from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn and P. decursivum (Miq.) Maxim were simultaneously investigated by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). For more structural identification, the fragment ions were analyzed and some possible fragmentation pathways were proposed. Different positions and numbers of the substituent also led to different fragment behaviors. Two types of coumarins from P. praeruptorum and P. decursivum were structurally elucidated by these techniques. In addition, UV spectra were applied to support the MS analysis. This is the first time that the two types of coumarins from herbal extracts have been differentiated by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). The method further illustrated the importance of the ESI-MS(n) technique in the identification of different types of coumarins and was applied for the rapid differentiation of the two herbs.

  10. Analysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in incurred raw milk by rapid test methods and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Riediker, S; Diserens, J M; Stadler, R H

    2001-09-01

    A recently developed confirmatory LC-MS method has been applied to the quantification of five major beta-lactam antibiotics in suspect raw bovine milk samples that gave a positive response with receptor-based (BetaStar) and rapid microbial inhibitory screen tests (Delvotest SP). In total, 18 presumptive positive raw milk samples were reanalyzed; 16 samples showed traces of antibiotic residues that could be identified and quantified by the LC-MS method, ranging from the limits of confirmation up to 38 microg/kg. Of the positive samples, only five (approximately 30%) were found to be violative of EU maximum residue limits. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues were cloxacillin and penicillin G, the former often in combination with amoxicillin or ampicillin. This study compares the results obtained by the three methods on identical samples and addresses how these relate to certain criteria such as sensitivity and selectivity. Furthermore, the limitations of the LC-MS method and the potential impact of the presence of frequently more than one residue in the same milk sample on the response of the rapid test methods are discussed.

  11. Application of capillary isotachophoresis-based multidimensional separations coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for characterization of mouse brain mitochondrial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xueping; Wang, Weijie; Yang, Li; Chandrasekaran, Krish; Kristian, Tibor; Balgley, Brian M.; Lee, Cheng S.

    2017-01-01

    By employing a capillary ITP (CITP)/CZE-based proteomic technology, a total of 1795 distinct mouse Swiss-Prot protein entries (or 1705 nonredundant proteins) are identified from synaptic mitochondria isolated from mouse brain. The ultrahigh resolving power of CITP/CZE is evidenced by the large number of distinct peptide identifications measured from each CITP fraction together with the low peptide fraction overlapping among identified peptides. The degree of peptide overlapping among CITP fractions is even lower than that achieved using combined CIEF/nano-RP LC separations for the analysis of the same mitochondrial sample. When evaluating the protein sequence coverage by the number of distinct peptides mapping to each mitochondrial protein identification, CITP/CZE similarly achieves superior performance with 1041 proteins (58%) having 3 or more distinct peptides, 233 (13%) having 2 distinct peptides, and 521 (29%) having a single distinct peptide. The reproducibility of protein identifications is found to be around 86% by comparing proteins identified from repeated runs of the same mitochondrial sample. The analysis of the mouse mitochondrial proteome by two CITP/CZE runs results in the detection of 2095 distinct mouse Swiss-Prot protein entries (or 1992 nonredundant proteins), corresponding to 59% coverage of the updated Maestro mitochondrial reference set. The collective analysis from combined CITP/CZE and CIEF-based proteomic studies yields the identification of 2191 distinct mitochondrial protein entries (or 2082 nonredundant proteins), corresponding to 76% coverage of the MitoP2-database reference set. PMID:18425750

  12. Quantitative Determination of Fluorinated Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Derivative From Rat Blood Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-06

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a plant-derived polyphenolic compound (Fig. 1), is a component of bee propolis . Propolis has been used as a folk...analytical methods have been documented. These include an HPLC-UV determination of CAPE from a propolis -containing gel [13], HPLC-ESI-MS measurement...of CAPE from crude propolis [14], and HPLC- ESI-MS/MS analysis of CAPE in biological samples [15]. In this paper, we developed a method using ultra

  13. Determination of vandetanib in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng; Johnson, Jennifer; Wang, Fan; Yang, Lei; Broniscer, Alberto; Stewart, Clinton F

    2011-09-01

    A sensitive and precise LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the determination of vandetanib (ZD6474) in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using [(13)C,d(3)]-ZD6474 as an internal standard (ISTD) was developed and validated. Sample preparation consisted of a simple liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether containing 0.1% or 0.5% ammonium hydroxide. ZD6474 and ISTD were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (2.6 μm, 50 mm × 2.1 mm) at ambient temperature with an isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/10mM ammonium formate=50/50, v/v, at pH 5.0) delivered at 0.11 mL/min. The retention time of both compounds was at 1.60 min in a runtime of three min. Detection was achieved by an API-3200 LC-MS/MS system, monitoring m/z 475.1/112.1 and m/z 479.1/116.2 for vandetanib and ISTD, respectively. The method was linear in the range of 0.25-50 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.990) for the CSF curve and from 1.0 to 3000 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.992) for the plasma curve. The mean recovery for vandetanib was 80%. Within-day and between-day precisions were ≤ 8.8% and ≤ 5.9% for CSF and plasma, respectively. Within-day and between-day accuracies ranged from 95.0 to 98.5% for CSF, and from 104.0 to 108.5% for plasma. Analysis of plasma from six different sources showed no matrix effect for vandetanib (MF=0.98, %CV ≤ 4.97, n=6). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmacokinetic samples from children with brain tumors treated with oral vandetanib.

  14. Quantitation of Acrolein-Derived 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic Acid in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Effects of Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Siyi; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently published data suggest that acrolein (1), a toxic but weakly carcinogenic constituent of cigarette smoke, may be involved as a causative factor for the mutations frequently observed in the p53 tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer in smokers. Biomarkers are needed to further assess the possible relationship between acrolein uptake and cancer. In this study, we analyzed 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA, 2) in human urine. 3-HPMA is a major metabolite of acrolein in laboratory animals. The method employs [13C3]3-HPMA as internal standard, with analysis and quantitation by LC-APCI-MS/MS-SRM. Clean, readily quantifiable chromatograms were obtained. The method was accurate and precise and required only 0.1 mL of urine. Median levels of 3-HPMA were significantly higher (2900 pmol/mg creatinine, N = 35) in smokers than in non-smokers (683 pmol/mg creatinine, N = 21) (P = 0.0002). The effect of smoking was further assessed by determining levels of 3-HPMA before and after a 4 week smoking cessation period. There was a significant 78% decrease in median levels of urinary 3-HPMA after cessation (P < 0.0001). The relationship between levels of urinary 3-HPMA and those of acrolein-derived 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine (PdG) adducts in lung was investigated in 14 smokers. There was a significant inverse relationship between urinary 3-HPMA and α-hydroxy-PdG (3) but not γ-hydroxy-PdG (4) or total adduct levels. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that acrolein uptake in smokers is significantly higher than in non-smokers, and underline the need for further investigation of the possible relationship of acrolein uptake to lung cancer. PMID:17559234

  15. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumann, Klaus G.

    1992-09-01

    In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g. of heavy metals in Antarctic ice and in aerosols in remote areas down to the sub-pg g-1 and sub-pg m-3 levels respectively, in the analysis of uranium and thorium at concentrations of a few pg g-1 in sputter targets for the production of micro- electronic devices or in the determination of sub-picogram amounts of230Th in corals for geochemical age determinations and of226Ra in rock samples. During the last few years negative thermal ionization IDMS has become a frequently used method. The determination of very small amounts of selenium and technetium as well as of other transition metals such as vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten are important examples in this field. Also the measurement of silicon in connection with a re-determination of Avogadro's number and osmium analyses for geological age determinations by the Re/Os method are of special interest. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being used for multi-element analyses by the isotope dilution technique. Determinations of heavy metals in samples of marine origin are representative examples for this type of multi-element analysis by IDMS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems have also been successfully applied after chelation of metals (for example Pt determination in clinical samples) or for the determination of volatile element species in the environment, e.g. dimethyl sulfide. However, IDMS--specially at low concentration levels in the environment--seems likely to be one of the most powerful analytical methods for speciation in the future. This has been shown, up to now, for species of

  16. Differentiation of flavonoid glycoside isomers by using metal complexation and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pikulski, Michael; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2003-12-01

    The elucidation of flavonoid isomers is accomplished by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) via formation and collisional activated dissociation (CAD) of metal/flavonoid complexes containing an auxiliary ligand. Addition of a metal salt and a suitable neutral auxiliary ligand to flavonoids in solution results in the formation of [M(II) (flavonoid-H) ligand]+ complexes by ESI which, upon collisional activated dissociation, often result in more distinctive fragmentation patterns than observed for conventional protonated or deprotonated flavonoids. Previously, 2,2'-bipyridine was used as an auxiliary ligand, and now we compare and explore the use of alternative pyridyl ligands, including 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline. Using this technique, three groups of flavonoid glycoside isomers are differentiated, including glycosides of apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin.

  17. Elucidating collision induced dissociation products and reaction mechanisms of protonated uracil by coupling chemical dynamics simulations with tandem mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Molina, Estefanía Rossich; Ortiz, Daniel; Salpin, Jean-Yves; Spezia, Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    In this study we have coupled mixed quantum-classical (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) direct chemical dynamics simulations with electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry experiments in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the fragmentation mechanisms occurring during the collision induced dissociation of gaseous protonated uracil. Using this approach, we were able to successfully characterize the fragmentation pathways corresponding to ammonia loss (m/z 96), water loss (m/z 95) and cyanic or isocyanic acid loss (m/z 70). Furthermore, we also performed experiments with isotopic labeling completing the fragmentation picture. Remarkably, fragmentation mechanisms obtained from chemical dynamics simulations are consistent with those deduced from isotopic labeling.

  18. International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS).

    PubMed

    Cooks, R G; Gelpi, E; Nibbering, N M

    2001-02-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the recently formalized International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS). It is presented here in order to increase awareness of the opportunities for collaboration in mass spectrometry in an international context. It also describes the recent 15th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, held August/September 2000, in Barcelona. Each of the authors is associated with the IMSS. The 15th Conference, which covers all of mass spectrometry on a triennial basis, was chaired by Professor Emilio Gelpi of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Barcelona. The outgoing and founding President of the IMSS is Professor Graham Cooks, Purdue University, and the incoming President is Professor Nico Nibbering, University of Amsterdam. Similar material has been provided to the Editors of other journals that cover mass spectrometry.

  19. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mass spectrometry in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Groh, Ksenia J; Suter, Marc J-F

    2014-01-01

    In environmental toxicology, mass spectrometry can be applied to evaluate both exposure to chemicals as well as their effects in organisms. Various ultra-trace techniques are employed today to measure pollutants in different environmental compartments. Increasingly, effect-directed analysis is being applied to focus chemical monitoring on sites of ecotoxicological concern. Mass spectrometry is also very instrumental for studying the interactions of chemicals with organisms on the molecular and cellular level, providing new insights into mechanisms of toxicity. In the future, diverse mass spectrometry-based techniques are expected to become even more widely used in this field, contributing to the refinement of currently used environmental risk assessment strategies.

  1. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kanu, Abu B; Dwivedi, Prabha; Tam, Maggie; Matz, Laura; Hill, Herbert H

    2008-01-01

    This review article compares and contrasts various types of ion mobility-mass spectrometers available today and describes their advantages for application to a wide range of analytes. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), when coupled with mass spectrometry, offers value-added data not possible from mass spectra alone. Separation of isomers, isobars, and conformers; reduction of chemical noise; and measurement of ion size are possible with the addition of ion mobility cells to mass spectrometers. In addition, structurally similar ions and ions of the same charge state can be separated into families of ions which appear along a unique mass-mobility correlation line. This review describes the four methods of ion mobility separation currently used with mass spectrometry. They are (1) drift-time ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS), (2) aspiration ion mobility spectrometry (AIMS), (3) differential-mobility spectrometry (DMS) which is also called field-asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and (4) traveling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). DTIMS provides the highest IMS resolving power and is the only IMS method which can directly measure collision cross-sections. AIMS is a low resolution mobility separation method but can monitor ions in a continuous manner. DMS and FAIMS offer continuous-ion monitoring capability as well as orthogonal ion mobility separation in which high-separation selectivity can be achieved. TWIMS is a novel method of IMS with a low resolving power but has good sensitivity and is well intergrated into a commercial mass spectrometer. One hundred and sixty references on ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) are provided.

  2. Review: mass spectrometry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Vladimir G; Sysoev, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    The present review covers the main research in the area of mass spectrometry from the 1990s which was about the same time as the Russian Federation emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union (USSR). It consists of two main parts-application of mass spectrometry to chemistry and related fields and creation and development of mass spectrometric technique. Both traditional and comparatively new mass spectrometric methods were used to solve various problems in organic chemistry (reactivity of gas-phase ions, structure elucidation and problems of identification, quantitative and trace analysis, differentiation of stereoisomers, derivatization approaches etc.), biochemistry (proteomics and peptidomics, lipidomics), medical chemistry (mainly the search of biomarkers, pharmacology, doping control), environmental, petrochemistry, polymer chemistry, inorganic and physical chemistry, determination of natural isotope ratio etc. Although a lot of talented mass spectrometrists left Russia and moved abroad after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the vitality of the mass spectral community proved to be rather high, which allowed the continuation of new developments in the field of mass spectrometric instrumentation. They are devoted to improvements in traditional magnetic sector mass spectrometers and the development of new ion source types, to analysis and modification of quadrupole, time-of-flight (ToF) and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) analyzers. The most important achievements are due to the creation of multi-reflecting ToF mass analyzers. Special attention was paid to the construction of compact mass spectrometers, particularly for space exploration, of combined instruments, such as ion mobility spectrometer/mass spectrometer and accelerating mass spectrometers. The comparatively young Russian Mass Spectrometry Society is working hard to consolidate the mass spectrometrists from Russia and foreign countries, to train young professionals on new appliances and regularly

  3. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, David J.; Nordholt, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  4. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  5. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Kiss, András; Smith, Donald F; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-30

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source was combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The system's mass spectral and imaging performance is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. The high secondary ion yield (with respect to 'traditional' monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion source and the increased sensitivity of the high voltage detector setup improve microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The analysis time and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved compared with other microscope mode imaging systems, all at high spatial resolution. We have demonstrated the unique capabilities of a C60 ion microscope with a Timepix detector for high spatial resolution microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Determination of didanosine in human serum by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Rita de Cassia E; Salvadori, Myriam C; Raices, Renata S L; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2003-04-01

    A method based on solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometric detection was developed for the determination of didanosine in human serum, using lamivudine as internal standard. The acquisition was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, monitoring the transitions m/z 237 --> 136.7 for didanosine and m/z 230 --> 111.7 for lamivudine. The method was linear over the range studied (10-1500 ng ml(-1)), with r(2) > 0.98, and the run time was 5 min. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were < or =10% and the intra- and inter-assay accuracies were >95%. The absolute recoveries were 99.8% (10 ng ml(-1)), 98.4% (30 ng ml(-1)), 91.5% (700 ng ml(-1)) and 94.7% (1200 ng ml(-1)). The limits of detection and quantitation were 5 and 10 ng ml(-1), respectively. The method was applied to a bioequivalence study, in which 24 healthy adult volunteers (12 men) received single oral doses (200 mg) of reference and test didanosine formulations (buffered powder for oral solutions), in an open, two-way, randomized, crossover protocol. The 90% confidence interval of the individual ratios (test formulation/reference formulation) for C(max) (peak serum concentration) and AUC(0-inf) (area under the serum concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity) were within the range 80-125%, which supports the conclusion that the two formulations are bioequivalent regarding the rate and extent of didanosine absorption.

  7. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  8. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  9. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  10. Mass spectrometry guided structural biology.

    PubMed

    Liko, Idlir; Allison, Timothy M; Hopper, Jonathan Ts; Robinson, Carol V

    2016-10-01

    With the convergence of breakthroughs in structural biology, specifically breaking the resolution barriers in cryo-electron microscopy and with continuing developments in crystallography, novel interfaces with other biophysical methods are emerging. Here we consider how mass spectrometry can inform these techniques by providing unambiguous definition of subunit stoichiometry. Moreover recent developments that increase mass spectral resolution enable molecular details to be ascribed to unassigned density within high-resolution maps of membrane and soluble protein complexes. Importantly we also show how developments in mass spectrometry can define optimal solution conditions to guide downstream structure determination, particularly of challenging biomolecules that refuse to crystallise.

  11. Imaging mass spectrometry in microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry tools which allow for the 2-D visualization of the distribution of trace metals, metabolites, surface lipids, peptides and proteins directly from biological samples without the need for chemical tagging or antibodies are becoming increasingly useful for microbiology applications. These tools, comprised of different imaging mass spectrometry techniques, are ushering in an exciting new era of discovery by allowing for the generation of chemical hypotheses based on of the spatial mapping of atoms and molecules that can correlate to or transcend observed phenotypes. In this review, we explore the wide range of imaging mass spectrometry techniques available to microbiologists and describe their unique applications to microbiology with respect to the types of microbiology samples to be investigated. PMID:21822293

  12. Mass spectrometry for malaria diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Demirev, Plamen A

    2004-11-01

    A physical method currently being developed for malaria parasite detection and diagnosis in blood is reviewed in this article. The method - direct laser desorption mass spectrometry - is based on the detection of heme (iron protoporphyrin) as a unique qualitative and quantitative molecular biomarker for malaria. In infected erythrocytes, the parasite sequesters heme in a molecular crystal (hemozoin) - a volume of highly concentrated and purified biomarker molecules. Laser desorption mass spectrometry detects only heme from hemozoin in parasite-infected blood, and not heme that is bound to hemoglobin or other proteins in uninfected blood samples. The method requires only a drop of blood with minimal sample preparation. Laser desorption mass spectrometry may become a rapid and high-throughput tool for specific and sensitive pan-malaria detection at levels below 10 parasites/mul of blood.

  13. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  14. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  15. Quantitative analysis of phytosterols in edible oils using APCI liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mo, Shunyan; Dong, Linlin; Hurst, W Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes. To address the need for an assay that utilizes mass selectivity while avoiding derivatization, a quantitative method based on LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of six abundant dietary phytosterols and structurally related triterpene alcohols including brassicasterol, campesterol, cycloartenol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol in edible oils. Samples were saponified, extracted with hexane and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring. The utility of the LC-MS-MS method was demonstrated by analyzing 14 edible oils. All six compounds were present in at least some of the edible oils. The most abundant phytosterol in all samples was β-sitosterol, which was highest in corn oil at 4.35 ± 0.03 mg/g, followed by campesterol in canola oil at 1.84 ± 0.01 mg/g. The new LC-MS-MS method for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols provides a combination of speed, selectivity and sensitivity that exceed those of previous assays.

  16. Quantitative analysis of phytosterols in edible oils using APCI liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Shunyan; Dong, Linlin; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes. To address the need for an assay that utilizes mass selectivity while avoiding derivatization, a quantitative method based on LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of six abundant dietary phytosterols and structurally related triterpene alcohols including brassicasterol, campesterol, cycloartenol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol in edible oils. Samples were saponified, extracted with hexane and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring. The utility of the LC-MS-MS method was demonstrated by analyzing 14 edible oils. All six compounds were present in at least some of the edible oils. The most abundant phytosterol in all samples was β-sitosterol, which was highest in corn oil at 4.35 ± 0.03 mg/g, followed by campesterol in canola oil at 1.84 ± 0.01 mg/g. The new LC-MS-MS method for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols provides a combination of speed, selectivity and sensitivity that exceed those of previous assays. PMID:23884629

  17. Simultaneous targeted analysis of trimethylamine-N-oxide, choline, betaine, and carnitine by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhao, Mingming; Zhou, Juntuo; Liu, Changjie; Zheng, Lemin; Yin, Yuxin

    2016-11-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite generated from choline, betaine and carnitine in a gut microbiota-dependent way. This molecule is associated with development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. A sensitive liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMAO related molecules including TMAO, betaine, choline, and carnitine in mouse plasma. Analytes are extracted after protein precipitation by methanol and subjected to LC-ESI-MS/MS without preliminary derivatization. Separation of analytes was achieved on an amide column with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. This method has been fully validated in this study in terms of selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and carryover effect, and the stability of the analyte under various conditions has been confirmed. This developed method has successfully been applied to plasma samples of our mouse model.

  18. Analysis of triclosan and triclocarban in human nails using isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Liu, Xiangjun; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we were able to develop a simple analytical procedure to assay the presence of two antimicrobial agents, triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), in human nails. Samples were digested using sodium hydroxide (NaOH), extracted using dichloromethane, and analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operating in the negative ion mode. Mean recoveries were performed at three fortification levels ranging from 98.1% to 106.3% with relative standard deviations between 1.8% and 18.1% (n=6). The limits of quantification (LOQ) for the method were 2.0 and 0.2μg/kg for TCS and TCC, respectively. Both compounds were ubiquitously found in all real samples (n=20) with concentrations ranging from μg/kg to several mg/kg.

  19. Improved identification of wheat gluten proteins through alkylation of cysteine residues and peptide-based mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Brunnbauer, Markus; Delcour, Jan A.; Koehler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and composition of wheat gluten proteins and the presence, concentration and location of cysteine residues therein are important for wheat flour quality. However, it is difficult to identify gluten proteins, as they are an extremely polymorphic mixture of prolamins. We here present methods for cysteine labeling of wheat prolamins with 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and iodoacetamide (IDAM) which, as compared to label-free analysis, substantially improve identification of cysteine-containing peptides in enzymic prolamin digests by electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry. Both chymotrypsin and thermolysin yielded cysteine-containing peptides from different gluten proteins, but more proteins could be identified after chymotryptic digestion. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, we were the first to label prolamins with isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT), which are commonly used for quantitative proteomics. However, more peptides were detected after labeling gluten proteins with 4-VP and IDAM than with ICAT. PMID:23880742

  20. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling new applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.

  1. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  2. "EMERGING" POLLUTANTS, MASS SPECTROMETRY, AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A foundation for Environmental Science - Mass Spectrometry: Historically fundamental to amassing our understanding of environmental processes and chemical pollution is the realm of mass spectrometry - the mainstay of analytical chemistry - the workhorse that supplies much of the definitive data that environmental scientists rely upon for identifying the molecular compositions (and ultimately the structures) of chemicals. This is not to ignore the complementary, critical roles played by the adjunct practices of sample enrichment (via any of various means of selective extraction) and analyte separation (via the myriad forms of chromatography and electrophoresis).While the power of mass spectrometry has long been highly visible to the practicing environmental chemist, it borders on continued obscurity to the lay public and most non-chemists. Even though mass spectrometry has played a long, historic (and largely invisible) role in establishing or undergirdidng our existing knowledge about environmental processes and pollution, what recognition it does enjoy is usually relegated to that of a tool. It is ususally the relevance of ssignificance of the knowledge acquired from the application of the tool that has ultimate meaning to the public and science at large - not how the knowledge was acquired. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in

  3. Non-target analysis of phospholipid and sphingolipid species in egg yolk using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buszewski, Bogusław; Walczak, Justyna; Žuvela, Petar; Liu, J Jay

    2017-03-03

    In this work, phospholipids extracted from egg yolk (control group, experimental group) were identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Combinations of fatty acyls occurring in 11 classes of phospholipids from egg yolk were investigated. Differences between the profile of fatty acyls from hens fed traditionally and the ones that received special diet supplementation were observed. Experimental findings were complemented with multivariate chemometric analysis. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry mode was utilized and 123 distinct combinations of fatty acyls occurring in phospholipids were identified. From these, large portions are polyunsaturated fatty acyls from the omega-3 and omega-6 family. HPLC MS/MS analysis allows for quick, accurate and precise determination of biologically active compounds, found in low concentrations within the tested material. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by two-dimensional HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Laurence M.; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Wu, Shuangding; Wolf, Dieter A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a detailed and widely applicable method for comprehensive proteomic profiling of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by 2-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry that demonstrates high sensitivity and robust operation. Steps ranging from the preparation of total proteins, digestion of proteins to peptides, and separation of peptides by two-dimensional (1. strong cation exchange and 2. reversed-phase) high performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry and data processing have been optimized for our instrumentation platform. Using this technology, we identify ca. 3400 proteins per sample and have identified an estimated 4600 proteins in vegetative cells (equal to ca. 90 % of the predicted S. pombe proteome) at a false discovery rate of ≤ 0.02. Considering the fact that ~500 genes are strongly induced during sexual differentiation, and sexual differentiation was not included in our experiments, the proteomic profiling technique affords what should be virtually complete coverage of the vegetative S. pombe proteome. In addition, these methods are widely applicable, having been used for proteomic profiling of several other organisms. PMID:19272449

  5. Stable isotope labeling tandem mass spectrometry (SILT) to quantify protein production and clearance rates.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Randall J; Munsell, Ling Y; Chen, Xianghong; Holtzman, David M; Yarasheski, Kevin E

    2007-06-01

    In all biological systems, protein amount is a function of the rate of production and clearance. The speed of a response to a disturbance in protein homeostasis is determined by turnover rate. Quantifying alterations in protein synthesis and clearance rates is vital to understanding disease pathogenesis (e.g., aging, inflammation). No methods currently exist for quantifying production and clearance rates of low-abundance (femtomole) proteins in vivo. We describe a novel, mass spectrometry-based method for quantitating low-abundance protein synthesis and clearance rates in vitro and in vivo in animals and humans. The utility of this method is demonstrated with amyloid-beta (Abeta), an important low-abundance protein involved in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. We used in vivo stable isotope labeling, immunoprecipitation of Abeta from cerebrospinal fluid, and quantitative liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-tandem MS) to quantify human Abeta protein production and clearance rates. The method is sensitive and specific for stable isotope-labeled amino acid incorporation into CNS Abeta (+/-1% accuracy). This in vivo method can be used to identify pathophysiologic changes in protein metabolism and may serve as a biomarker for monitoring disease risk, progression, or response to novel therapeutic agents. The technique is adaptable to other macromolecules, such as carbohydrates or lipids.

  6. Comprehensive chemical profiling of Pinellia species tuber and processed Pinellia tuber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Ye; Park, Na Hyun; Lee, Wonwoong; Kim, Eun Hye; Jin, Young Ho; Seo, Eun Kyung; Hong, Jongki

    2016-11-04

    A comprehensive profiling method was established for the determination of various chemicals in Pinellia (P.) ternata and pedatisecta species. The profiling method comprises a fast ultrasonic extraction with various solvents, followed by GC-MS and LC-APCI-MS analysis. A total of 73 polar components as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were detected in methanol extract by GC-MS. The main components of the P. species were profiled as several kinds of fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds. The hexane extract was analyzed by LC-APCI-MS for the lipid profiling. A total of 35 lipid constituents [fatty acids and their esters, mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols] and four phytosterols were observed and tentatively characterized by LC-APCI-MS/MS. Among the phytochemicals detected in the hexane extract, triacylglycerols (TAGs) as the major component were identified by LC-APCI-MS and MS/MS. Based on the identified components, a significant difference in the chemical compositions of P. species tuber and processed P. ternata was found that the complete disappearance of TAGs and a considerable decrement of sucrose were observed in processed P. ternata. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism for TAGs in the presence of alum solution is suggested to occur during the processing P. ternata. Malic acid was found to be a characteristic compound for the classification of P. ternata and pedatisecta with different geographic origins. Based on the validated GC/MS method, twenty-four P. ternata, processed P. ternata and P. pedatisecta samples were profiled to measure the overall abundance of specific groups of compound and to identify diagnostic compounds. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) on the GC/MS profiling data revealed a clear classification of P. species samples. In this study, the full chemical complement was for the first time reported for quality evaluation of P. species. The method can be usefully applied for phytochemical analysis of related herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Finkel, R.; Nelson, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) can be used for efficient detection of long-lived isotopes at part-per-quadrillion sensitivities with good precision. In this article we present an overview of AMS and its recent use in archaeology, geochemistry and biomolecular tracing. All AMS systems use cesium sputter ion sources to produce negative ions from a small button of a solid sample containing the element of interest, such as graphite, metal halide, or metal oxide, often mixed with a metal powder as binder and thermal conductor. Experience shows that both natural and biomedical samples are compatible in a single AMS system, but few other AMS sites make routine {sup 14}C measurements for both dating and tracing. AMS is, in one sense, just `a very sensitive decay counter`, but if AMS sensitivity is creatively coupled to analytical chemistry of certain isotopes, whole new areas of geosciences, archaeology, and life sciences can be explored. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. MASS SPECTROMETRY-BASED METABOLOMICS

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Katja; Aronov, Pavel A.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the dynamically developing field of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolomics aims at the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of wide arrays of metabolites in biological samples. These numerous analytes have very diverse physico-chemical properties and occur at different abundance levels. Consequently, comprehensive metabolomics investigations are primarily a challenge for analytical chemistry and specifically mass spectrometry has vast potential as a tool for this type of investigation. Metabolomics require special approaches for sample preparation, separation, and mass spectrometric analysis. Current examples of those approaches are described in this review. It primarily focuses on metabolic fingerprinting, a technique that analyzes all detectable analytes in a given sample with subsequent classification of samples and identification of differentially expressed metabolites, which define the sample classes. To perform this complex task, data analysis tools, metabolite libraries, and databases are required. Therefore, recent advances in metabolomics bioinformatics are also discussed. PMID:16921475

  9. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  10. Mass spectrometry and renal calculi

    PubMed Central

    Purcarea, VL; Sisu, I; Sisu, E

    2010-01-01

    The present review represents a concise and complete survey of the literature covering 2004–2009, concerning the mass spectrometric techniques involved in the structural investigation of renal calculi. After a short presentation of the fundamental mass spectrometric techniques (MALDI–TOF, QTOF, MS–MS) as well as hyphenated methods (GC–MS, LC–MS, CE–MS), an extensive study of the urinary proteome analysis as well as the detection and quantification by mass spectrometry of toxins, drugs and metabolites from renal calculi is presented. PMID:20968197

  11. High throughput protein characterization by automated reverse-phase chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Ducret, A.; Van Oostveen, I.; Eng, J. K.; Yates, J. R.; Aebersold, R.

    1998-01-01

    We describe an integrated workstation for the automated, high-throughput, and conclusive identification of proteins by reverse-phase chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The instrumentation consists of a refrigerated autosampler, a submicrobore reverse-phase liquid chromatograph, and an electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. For protein identification, enzymatic digests of either homogeneous polypeptides or simple protein mixtures were generated and loaded into the autosampler. Samples were sequentially injected every 32 min. Ions of eluting peptides were automatically selected by the mass spectrometer and subjected to collision-induced dissociation. Following each run, the resulting tandem mass spectra were automatically analyzed by SEQUEST, a program that correlates uninterpreted peptide fragmentation patterns with amino acid sequences contained in databases. Protein identification was established by SEQUEST_SUMMARY a program that combines the SEQUEST scores of peptides originating from the same protein and ranks the cumulative results in a short summary. The workstation's performance was demonstrated by the unattended identification of 90 proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional PAGE. The system was found to be very robust and identification was reliably and conclusively established for proteins if quantities exceeding 1-5 pmol were applied to the gel. The level of automation, the throughput, and the reliability of the results suggest that this system will be useful for the many projects that require the characterization of large numbers of proteins. PMID:9541403

  12. EMERGING POLLUTANTS, MASS SPECTROMETRY, AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Historically fundamental to amassing our understanding of environmental processes and chemical pollution is the realm of mass spectrometry (MS) - the mainstay of analytical chemistry - the workhorse that supplies definitive data that environmental scientists and engineers reply upon for identifying molecular compositions (and ultimately structures) of chemicals. While the power of MS has long been visible to the practicing environmental chemist, it borders on obscurity to the lay public and many scientists. While MS has played a long, historic (and largely invisible) role in establishing our knowledge of environmental processes and pollution, what recognition it does enjoy is usually relegated to that of a tool. It is usually the relevance or significance of the knowledge acquired from the application of the tool that has ultimate meaning to the public and science at large - not how the data were acquired. Methods (736/800): Mass Spectrometry and the

  13. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  14. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  15. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  16. Glycosaminoglycan Glycomics Using Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The fact that sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are necessary for the functioning of all animal physiological systems drives the need to understand their biology. This understanding is limited, however, by the heterogeneous nature of GAG chains and their dynamic spatial and temporal expression patterns. GAGs have a regulated structure overlaid by heterogeneity but lack the detail necessary to build structure/function relationships. In order to provide this information, we need glycomics platforms that are sensitive, robust, high throughput, and information rich. This review summarizes progress on mass-spectrometry-based GAG glycomics methods. The areas covered include disaccharide analysis, oligosaccharide profiling, and tandem mass spectrometric sequencing. PMID:23325770

  17. Hydroponic isotope labeling of entire plants and high-performance mass spectrometry for quantitative plant proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Mills, Davinia J S; Cramer, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic isotope labeling of entire plants (HILEP) combines hydroponic plant cultivation and metabolic labeling with stable isotopes using (15)N-containing inorganic salts to label whole and mature plants. Employing (15)N salts as the sole nitrogen source for HILEP leads to the production of healthy-looking plants which contain (15)N proteins labeled to nearly 100%. Therefore, HILEP is suitable for quantitative plant proteomic analysis, where plants are grown in either (14)N- or (15)N-hydroponic media and pooled when the biological samples are collected for relative proteome quantitation. The pooled (14)N-/(15)N-protein extracts can be fractionated in any suitable way and digested with a protease for shotgun proteomics, using typically reverse phase liquid chromatography nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-nESI-MS/MS). Best results were obtained with a hybrid ion trap/FT-MS mass spectrometer, combining high mass accuracy and sensitivity for the MS data acquisition with speed and high-throughput MS/MS data acquisition, increasing the number of proteins identified and quantified and improving protein quantitation. Peak processing and picking from raw MS data files, protein identification, and quantitation were performed in a highly automated way using integrated MS data analysis software with minimum manual intervention, thus easing the analytical workflow. In this methodology paper, we describe how to grow Arabidopsis plants hydroponically for isotope labeling using (15)N salts and how to quantitate the resulting proteomes using a convenient workflow that does not require extensive bioinformatics skills.

  18. A mass spectrometry primer for mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), a rapidly growing subfield of chemical imaging, employs mass spectrometry (MS) technologies to create single- and multi-dimensional localization maps for a variety of atoms and molecules. Complimentary to other imaging approaches, MSI provides high chemical specificity and broad analyte coverage. This powerful analytical toolset is capable of measuring the distribution of many classes of inorganics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceuticals in chemically and structurally complex biological specimens in vivo, in vitro, and in situ. The MSI approaches highlighted in this Methods in Molecular Biology volume provide flexibility of detection, characterization, and identification of multiple known and unknown analytes. The goal of this chapter is to introduce investigators who may be unfamiliar with MS to the basic principles of the mass spectrometric approaches as used in MSI. In addition to guidelines for choosing the most suitable MSI method for specific investigations, cross-references are provided to the chapters in this volume that describe the appropriate experimental protocols. PMID:20680583

  19. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry-especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  20. Selenosugar determination in porcine liver using multidimensional HPLC with atomic and molecular mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Pergantis, Spiros A

    2009-01-01

    A methodology based on liquid chromatography coupled online with atomic and molecular mass spectrometry was developed for identifying trace amounts of the selenosugar methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-D-galactopyranoside (SeGalNAc) in porcine liver, obtained from an animal that had not received selenium supplementation. Sample preparation was especially critical for the identification of SeGalNAc by molecular mass spectrometry. This involved liver extraction using a Tris buffer, followed by sequential centrifugations. The resulting cytosolic fraction was pre-concentrated and the low molecular weight selenium (LMWSe) fraction obtained from a size exclusion column was collected, concentrated, and subsequently analyzed using a tandem dual-column HPLC-ICP-MS system which consisted of strong cation exchange (SCX) and reversed phase (RP) columns coupled in tandem. Hepatocytosolic SeGalNAc was tentatively identified by retention time matching and spiking. Its identity was further confirmed by using the same type of chromatography on-line with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry operated in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Four SRM transitions, characteristic of SeGalNAc, were monitored and their intensity ratios determined in order to confirm SeGalNAc identification. Instrument limits of detection for SeGalNAc by SCX-RP HPLC-ICP-MS and SCX-RP HPLC-APCI-MS/MS were 3.4 and 2.9 μg Se L(-1), respectively. Selenium mass balance analysis revealed that trace amounts of SeGalNAc, 2.16±0.94 μg Se kg(-1) liver (wet weight) were present in the liver cytosol, corresponding to 0.4% of the total Se content in the porcine liver.

  1. Coded Apertures in Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amsden, Jason J; Gehm, Michael E; Russell, Zachary E; Chen, Evan X; Di Dona, Shane T; Wolter, Scott D; Danell, Ryan M; Kibelka, Gottfried; Parker, Charles B; Stoner, Brian R; Brady, David J; Glass, Jeffrey T

    2017-06-12

    The use of coded apertures in mass spectrometry can break the trade-off between throughput and resolution that has historically plagued conventional instruments. Despite their very early stage of development, coded apertures have been shown to increase throughput by more than one order of magnitude, with no loss in resolution in a simple 90-degree magnetic sector. This enhanced throughput can increase the signal level with respect to the underlying noise, thereby significantly improving sensitivity to low concentrations of analyte. Simultaneous resolution can be maintained, preventing any decrease in selectivity. Both one- and two-dimensional (2D) codes have been demonstrated. A 2D code can provide increased measurement diversity and therefore improved numerical conditioning of the mass spectrum that is reconstructed from the coded signal. This review discusses the state of development, the applications where coding is expected to provide added value, and the various instrument modifications necessary to implement coded apertures in mass spectrometers.

  2. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  3. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1987-11-10

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

  4. Affinity membrane introduction mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, C.; Patrick, J.S.; Cooks, R.G. )

    1995-02-15

    A new technique, affinity membrane introduction mass spectrometry, is described. In this method, a chemically modified membrane is used to selectively adsorb analytes bearing a particular functional group and concentrate them from solution. Release of the bound analyte results in its transfer across the membrane and allows it to be monitored mass spectrometrically, using, in the present case, a benchtop ion trap instrument. Alkylamine-modified cellulose membranes are used to bind substituted benzaldehydes through imine formation at high pH. Release of the bound aldehyde is achieved by acid hydrolysis of the surface-bound imine. Benzaldehyde is detected with excellent specificity at 10 ppm in a complex mixture using this method. Using the enrichment capability of the membrane, a full mass spectrum of benzaldehyde can be measured at a concentration of 10 ppb. The behavior of a variety of other aldehydes is also discussed to illustrate the capabilities of the method. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Distribution Analysis via Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Ephedrine in the Lungs of Rats Orally Administered the Japanese Kampo Medicine Maoto.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsushita, Shoko; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Suda, Takafumi; Watanabe, Junko; Kase, Yoshio; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2017-03-08

    Maoto, a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has been used to treat various respiratory diseases, including respiratory infections and influenza. Ephedrine (EPD), the main ingredient in maoto, is also clinically used to treat respiratory diseases. However, the pharmacokinetics and distribution of EPD in the lungs after the administration of maoto have not been demonstrated. This study aimed to determine the concentrations, distribution, and pharmacokinetics of EPD and its precursor methylephedrine (MEPD) in the lungs of rats orally administered maoto (1 and 4 g/kg). We used liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to measure the ingredient concentrations. Both ingredients were detected in maoto-treated lung homogenates. Next, we examined the distribution of both ingredients in lung sections by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging, a powerful tool for the visualization of the distribution of biological molecules. The mass spectrometry imaging analysis detected only EPD and provided the first visual demonstration that EPD is distributed in the alveoli, bronchi, and bronchioles in the lungs of rats orally administered maoto (4 g/kg, three times at 2-h intervals). These results suggest that the pharmacological efficacy of maoto for the amelioration of respiratory symptoms is related to the distribution of EPD in the lung.

  6. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of alkylphenols in soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Hefang; Liu, Zhengzheng; Ge, Fei

    2009-03-20

    A novel method has been developed for the determination of alkylphenols in soil by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography employing small particle sizes, combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Soil samples were extracted with pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and then cleaned with solid-phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were separated on C18 column (1.7 microm, 50 mm x 2.1mm) with a gradient elution and a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile, and then detected by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Compared with traditional liquid chromatography, it took ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography much less time to analyze alkylphenols. Additionally, the ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method produces satisfactory reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy. The average recoveries of the three target analytes were 74.0-103.4%, with the RSD<15%. The calibration curves for alkylphenols were linear within the range of 0.01-0.4 microg/ml, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. When 10 g soil sample was used for analysis, the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the three alkylphenols were all 1.0 microg/kg.

  7. Distribution Analysis via Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Ephedrine in the Lungs of Rats Orally Administered the Japanese Kampo Medicine Maoto

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsushita, Shoko; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Suda, Takafumi; Watanabe, Junko; Kase, Yoshio; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Maoto, a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has been used to treat various respiratory diseases, including respiratory infections and influenza. Ephedrine (EPD), the main ingredient in maoto, is also clinically used to treat respiratory diseases. However, the pharmacokinetics and distribution of EPD in the lungs after the administration of maoto have not been demonstrated. This study aimed to determine the concentrations, distribution, and pharmacokinetics of EPD and its precursor methylephedrine (MEPD) in the lungs of rats orally administered maoto (1 and 4 g/kg). We used liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to measure the ingredient concentrations. Both ingredients were detected in maoto-treated lung homogenates. Next, we examined the distribution of both ingredients in lung sections by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging, a powerful tool for the visualization of the distribution of biological molecules. The mass spectrometry imaging analysis detected only EPD and provided the first visual demonstration that EPD is distributed in the alveoli, bronchi, and bronchioles in the lungs of rats orally administered maoto (4 g/kg, three times at 2-h intervals). These results suggest that the pharmacological efficacy of maoto for the amelioration of respiratory symptoms is related to the distribution of EPD in the lung. PMID:28272490

  8. Triacylglycerol profile in cocoa liquors using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bono, Luca; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    Triacylglycerols are responsible for chocolate's peculiar melting behavior: the type and position of fatty acids on the glycerol molecule strongly affect the melting range of cocoa butter. For this reason, the characterization of triglyceride composition in cocoa products is particularly important. In this work, triacylglycerols extracted from cocoa liquor samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Extracted samples were initially analyzed by direct injection in MS to obtain information on triglyceride molecular weights; relevant MS parameters were optimized, and the possible formation of the adducts [M + Na](+) and [M + NH(4)](+) was studied. Tandem mass experiments (both with triple quadrupole and TOF/TOF) were performed to study the fragmentation pathways (in particular, the loss of palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and identify the triacylglycerols in cocoa liquors. Some signals of the spectra obtained with both MS techniques could indicate the presence of diacylglycerols in the cocoa extract, but different experimental evidences demonstrated that they were generated by the in-source fragmentation of triglycerides. A nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation was also developed and used to support the identification of the analytes; nine triacylglycerols were recognized in the cocoa liquor extracts. The three different batches of Ecuador cocoa liquor did not show significant differences in the triacylglycerol profile.

  9. Liquid chromatography-electrospray quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry of nine pesticides in fruits.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Mañes, Jordi; Picó, Yolanda

    2004-09-03

    A liquid chromatographic method, with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS), has been developed for determining acrinathrin, carbosulfan, cyproconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, kresoxim methyl, pyrifenox, pyriproxyfen, propanil, and tebufenpyrad in fruits. The ions prominent in ESI spectra were [M + H]+ and [M + Na]+. In the mass analyzer, collision-induced dissociation fragmentation involved common pathways, for example, product ions of [M + H]+ resulted from the cleavage of the carbamic group or an oxygen bound. The utility of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of crude extracts obtained by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) using C18 as dispersant and dichloromethane-methanol as eluent, and by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) with ethyl acetate and anhydrous sodium sulfate. Mean recoveries ranged from 51.5 to 108%, with relative standard deviations <16%, were obtained for MSPD and from 59 to 101% with relative standard deviation <17% for SLE. However, for most compounds, limits of quantification are better by SLE (0.01-4.4 mg kg(-1)) than by MSPD (0.05-2 mg kg(-1)). During the validation process, the procedure was tested for matrix effects, blanks and stability of the system. Considerably matrix effects in the ESI ionization process were detected by comparing standard calibration, and matrix calibration. Because of this, detected residues were quantified from interpolation against calibration data obtained using matrix matched standards.

  10. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  11. Neuroscience and accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Palmblad, Magnus; Buchholz, Bruce A; Hillegonds, Darren J; Vogel, John S

    2005-02-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had a great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as 3H, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl and 41Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, allowing safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 microg kg(-1)). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the time-scale of decades. We review here how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  12. Reaction of arylium ions with the collision gas N2 in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuxue; Neta, Pedatsur; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Stein, Stephen E

    2015-04-15

    The tandem mass spectra of many compounds contained peaks which could not have arisen from the precursor ion. Such peaks were found to be due to reaction of arylium ions with N2 in the collision cell. Therefore, this reaction was studied in detail with representative compounds. Various classes of compounds were dissolved in acetonitrile/water/formic acid and studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to record their MS(2) and pseudo-MS(3) spectra in a QqQ mass spectrometer and their accurate m/z values in an Orbitrap Elite instrument. Arylium ions were found to react with N2 in the collision cell. The reaction was confirmed by pseudo-MS(3) studies, by comparison with authentic diazonium ions, and by the pressure dependence of the product ion survival yield. Reactions of arylium ions with N2 were observed with p-toluenesulfonic acid, o-toluenesulfonamide, phenylphosphonic acid, phenol, aniline, aminonaphthalenes, benzoic acid, benzophenone, and other compounds. By using a QqQ mass spectrometer, we observed that the protonated compounds produce arylium ions, which then react with N2 to form diazonium ions. The diazonium ion was produced with N2 but not with Ar in the collision cell, and its abundance increased with increasing N2 pressure. Arylium ions generated from a wide variety of compounds in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry may react with N2 to form diazonium ions. The abundance of the diazonium ions is affected by collision energy and N2 pressure. This reaction should be considered when annotating peaks in MS/MS libraries. Published in 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(n)) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  14. Mass spectrometry in combinatorial chemistry.

    PubMed

    Enjalbal, C; Martinez, J; Aubagnac, J L

    2000-01-01

    In the fast expanding field of combinatorial chemistry, profiling libraries has always been a matter of concern--as illustrated by the buoyant literature over the past seven years. Spectroscopic methods, including especially mass spectrometry and to a lesser extent IR and NMR, have been applied at different levels of combinatorial library synthesis: in the rehearsal phase to optimize the chemistry prior to library generation, to confirm library composition, and to characterize after screening each structure that exhibits positive response. Most of the efforts have been concentrated on library composition assessment. The difficulties of such analyses have evolved from the infancy of the combinatorial concept, where large mixtures were prepared, to the recent parallel syntheses of collections of discrete compounds. Whereas the complexity of the analyses has diminished, an increased degree of automation was simultaneously required to achieve efficient library component identification and quantification. In this respect, mass spectrometry has been found to be the method of choice, providing rapid, sensitive, and informative analyses, especially when coupled to chromatographic separation. Fully automated workstations able to cope with several hundreds of compounds per day have been designed. After a brief introduction to describe the combinatorial approach, library characterization will be discussed in detail, considering first the solution-based methodologies and secondly the support-bound material analyses.

  15. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology. PMID:28149262

  16. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry—especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644965

  17. Clinical Application of Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hua; Hsieh, Hua-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Ambient ionization allows mass spectrometry analysis directly on the sample surface under atmospheric pressure with almost zero sample pretreatment. Since the development of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) in 2004, many other ambient ionization techniques were developed. Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, rapid and on-site clinical mass spectrometry analysis becomes real. In this review, we will highlight some of the most widely used ambient ionization mass spectrometry approaches and their applications in clinical study. PMID:28337399

  18. Stable Isotope Peptide Mass Spectrometry To Decipher Amino Acid Metabolism in Dehalococcoides Strain CBDB1

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Dehalococcoides species are key players in the anaerobic transformation of halogenated solvents at contaminated sites. Here, we analyze isotopologue distributions in amino acid pools from peptides of Dehalococcoides strain CBDB1 after incubation with 13C-labeled acetate or bicarbonate as a carbon source. The resulting data were interpreted with regard to genome annotations to identify amino acid biosynthesis pathways. In addition to using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for analyzing derivatized amino acids after protein hydrolysis, we introduce a second, much milder method, in which we directly analyze peptide masses after tryptic digest and peptide fragments by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). With this method, we identify isotope incorporation patterns for 17 proteinaceous amino acids, including proline, cysteine, lysine, and arginine, which escaped previous analyses in Dehalococcoides. Our results confirmed lysine biosynthesis via the α-aminoadipate pathway, precluding lysine formation from aspartate. Similarly, the isotopologue pattern obtained for arginine provided biochemical evidence of its synthesis from glutamate. Direct peptide MS/MS analysis of the labeling patterns of glutamine and asparagine, which were converted to glutamate and aspartate during protein hydrolysis, gave biochemical evidence of their precursors and confirmed glutamate biosynthesis via a Re-specific citrate synthase. By addition of unlabeled free amino acids to labeled cells, we show that in strain CBDB1 none of the 17 tested amino acids was incorporated into cell mass, indicating that they are all synthesized de novo. Our approach is widely applicable and provides a means to analyze amino acid metabolism by studying specific proteins even in mixed consortia. PMID:22661690

  19. Residual Agar Determination in Bacterial Spores by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Karen L.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Valentine, Nancy B.

    2010-02-15

    Presented here is an analytical method to detect residual agar from a bacterial spore sample as an indication of culturing on an agar plate. This method is based on the resolubilization of agar polysaccharide from a bacterial spore sample, enzymatic digestion, followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) analysis for detection of a specific agar fragment ion. A range of Bacillus species and strains were selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The characteristic agar fragment ion was detected in the spores grown on agar that were washed from 1 to 5 times, irradiated or non-irradiated and not in the spores grown in broth. A sample containing approximately 108 spores is currently needed for confident detection of residual agar from culture on agar plates in the presence of bacterial spores with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ppm agar spiked into a broth-grown spore sample. The results of a proficiency test with 42 blinded samples are presented demonstrating the utility of this method with no false positives and only 3 false negatives for samples that were below the detection level of the method as documented.

  20. Analysis of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in mouse tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yan; Xie, Fang; Xu, Li; Zagorevski, Dmitri; Spink, David C.; Ding, Xinxin

    2010-01-01

    A novel method was established for simultaneous quantitation of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in murine tissue and serum samples. Endogenous T and DHT, together with the internal standards, 17α-methyl-T and 17α-methyl-DHT, were extracted from tissues, and then derivatized by reaction with 2-hydrazino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-pyrimidine (HTP). Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) resulted in production spectra of HTP derivatives of both T and DHT that showed analyte-specific fragmentations; the latter fragmentations were characterized by use of high-resolution Orbitrap MS/MS. These specific fragmentations enabled quantitation of T and DHT in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was validated with charcoal-stripped serum as the matrix; the LLOQ was 0.10 ng/ml for T and 0.50 ng/ml for DHT. The method was then used for determination of serum and tissue levels of T and DHT in transgenic mice carrying a hypomorphic NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene (Cpr-low mice). Remarkably, ovarian T levels in Cpr-low mice were found to be 25-fold higher than those in wild-type mice, a finding that at least partly explains the female infertility seen in the Cpr-low mice. In conclusion, our method provides excellent sensitivity and selectivity for determination of endogenous levels of T and DHT in mouse tissues. PMID:20361922

  1. [Determination of five synthetic sweeteners in wines using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ji, Chao; Feng, Feng; Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Li; Chu, Xiaogang

    2010-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS) method for the determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame) in wines has been developed. The HPLC separation was carried out on an Ultimate C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm). Several parameters, including the composition and pH of the mobile phase, column temperature and the monitor ions, were optimized for improving the chromatographic performance and the sensitivity of determination. The results demonstrated that the separation can be completed in less than 5 min by gradient elution with 20 mmol/L ammonium formate and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (pH 3.8) and methanol as the mobile phase. The column temperature was kept at 45 degrees C. When the analytes were detected by ESI -MS/MS under multiple reaction monitoring mode, the detection limits were 0.6, 5, 1, 0.8 and 0.2 microg/L for acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 87.2% to 103%. The relative standard deviations were not more than 1.2%. This method is rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and suitable for the quality control of low concentration of the synthetic sweeteners, which are illegally added to wines and other foods with complex matrices.

  2. Determination of Fusarium mycotoxins by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry coupled with immunoaffinity extraction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Takino, Masahiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Leeman, David; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2010-08-30

    A method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and zearalenone (ZEN) in wheat and biscuit by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) coupled with immunoaffinity extraction is described. A clean-up was carried out using a DZT MS-PREP immunoaffinity column (IAC), and the effect of the sample dilution rate and sample loading was investigated. Furthermore, the effects of ion suppression of a multifunctional column (MFC) and the IAC in the clean-up were compared. The results with the DZT MS-PREP IAC showed that it is possible to make the sample dilution rate low, and indicated a higher solvent-tolerance than usual with an IAC. Sample loading was optimized at 0.25 g. Ion suppression was lowered by purification of the toxins using the DZT MS-PREP IAC. Recoveries of each mycotoxin from wheat and biscuit samples spiked at two levels ranged from 78 to 109%. The limits of detection in wheat and biscuit was in the range of 0.03-0.33 ng x g(-1). From these studies, it is suggested that use of an IAC is effective in the clean-up of each mycotoxin, and, when combined with LC/ESI-MS/MS, it is good for the determination of mycotoxins in foodstuffs due to its rapidity and high sensitivity. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [Determination of seven toxaphene congeners in ginseng and milkvetch root by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaoqiong; Mao, Xiuhong; Miao, Shui; Jia, Zhengwei; Wang, Ke; Ji, Shen

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of representative toxaphene congeners in traditional Chinese herbal medicines was developed. Ginseng and Milkvetch Root were selected as the samples and seven toxaphene congeners were selected as the monitoring objects. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with cyclohexane-acetone (9:1, v/v), then cleaned-up by Florisil solid phase extraction with hexane as the eluent and the residues were detected by gas chromatography-electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The performance was demonstrated by the analysis of Ginseng and Milkvetch Root samples spiked with toxaphene congeners at three concentration levels of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 72.4% to 105% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.96%-10.4%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2-1.7 microg/kg. This method is sensitive and efficient in the aspect of extraction, and can be applied to monitor the residue of toxaphene congeners in Ginseng and Milkvetch Root.

  4. [Determination of 25 quinolones in cosmetics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Xiaoke; Xie, Liqi; Yue, Zhenfeng; Kang, Haining; Wu, Weidong; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 25 quinolones, including danofloxacin mesylate, enrofloxacin, flumequine, oxloinic acid, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin etc in cosmetics using direct extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Cosmetic sample was extracted by acidified acetonitrile, defatted by n-hexane and separated on Poroshell EC-C18 column with gradient elution program using acetonitrile and water (both containing 0. 1% formic acid) as the mobile phases and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS under the positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The interference of matrix was reduced by the matrix-matched calibration standard curve. The method showed good linearities over the range of 1-200 mg/kg for the 25 quinolones with good linear correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.999). The method detection limit of the 25 quinolones was 1.0 mg/kg, and the recoveries of all analytes in lotion, milky and cream cosmetics matrices ranged from 87.4% to 105% at the spiked levels of 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 4.54%-19.7% (n = 6). The results indicated that this method is simple, fast and credible, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the quinolones in the above three types of cosmetics.

  5. Determination of Phytochelatins in Rice by Stable Isotope Labeling Coupled with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Cai, Wen-Jing; Yu, Lei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-07-01

    A highly sensitive method was developed for the detection of phytochelatins (PCs) in rice by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (IL-LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. A pair of isotope-labeling reagents [ω-bromoacetonylquinolinium bromide (BQB) and BQB-d(7)] were used to label PCs in plant sample and standard PCs, respectively, and then combined prior to LC/MS analysis. The heavy labeled standards were used as the internal standards for quantitation to minimize the matrix and ion suppression effects in MS analysis. In addition, the ionization efficiency of PCs was greatly enhanced through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium of BQB into PCs. The detection sensitivities of PCs upon BQB labeling improved by 14-750-fold, and therefore, PCs can be quantitated using only 5 mg of plant tissue. Furthermore, under cadmium (Cd) stress, we found that the contents of PCs in rice dramatically increased with the increased concentrations and treatment time of Cd. It was worth noting that PC5 was first identified and quantitated in rice tissues under Cd stress in the current study. Taken together, this IL-LC-ESI-MS/MS method demonstrated to be a promising strategy in detection of PCs in plants with high sensitivity and reliability.

  6. New identification of proanthocyanidins in cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Fuguet, Elisabet; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The positive health effects associated with the consumption of cinnamon could in part be due to its phenolic composition; proanthocyanidins (PA) are the major polyphenolic component in commercial cinnamon. We present a thorough study of the PA profile of cinnamon obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition to the advantages of MALDI-TOF as a sensitive technique for the analysis of high-molecular-weight compounds, the tandem arrangement allows the identification of the compounds through their fragmentation patterns from MS/MS experiments. This is the first time that this technique has been used to analyze polymeric PA. The results show that cinnamon PA are more complex than was previously thought. We show here for the first time that they contain (epi)gallocatechin and (epi)catechingallate units. As gallates (galloyl moieties) and the pyrogallol group in gallocatechins have been related to the biological activity of grape and tea polyphenols, the presence of these substructures may explain some of the properties of cinnamon extracts. MALDI-TOF/TOF reveals that cinnamon bark PA include combinations of (epi)catechin, (epi)catechingallate, (epi)gallocatechin, and (epi)afzelechin, which results in a highly heterogeneous mixture of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, and propelargonidins.

  7. Multiclass determination of sunscreen chemicals in water samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2008-02-15

    A novel analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of UV sunscreen agents in the water environment is presented. After a thorough investigation of SPE and LC-MS/MS conditions, it permits the enrichment and determination of nine of these compounds in a single methodology, including three very polar sulfonates (e.g., 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid, PBSA) and six other less polar compounds (e.g., benzophenone-3, BP-3; octocrylene, OC,...). Other important matters of concern in the determination of UV filters at trace levels in water, i.e., adsorption on glassware and blank contamination problems, have also been discussed and minimized. This methodology affords detection limits between 7 and 46 ng L-1 and SPE recoveries in the range 63-102% from different real water matrixes, except for butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), which was not determinable in wastewater samples due to adsorption problems. The application of the method allowed reporting the levels of benzophenone-4 (BP-4) in environmental water samples for the first time, where it was identified as one of the most important in concentration among the UV filters studied, particularly in wastewater (237-1481 ng L-1).

  8. [Determination of ten aminoglycoside residues in milk and dairy products using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Gong, Qiang; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Jiao, Yanna; Cheng, Jing; Fu, Shanliang; Wang, Libing

    2012-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten aminoglycoside residues (streptomycin, dihydrostrepmycin, neomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamycin, apramycin, hygromycin B, paromomycin, and amkacin) in milk and dairy products. The sample was extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid aqueous solution, then the extract was purified by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridge. The ten aminoglycoside residues were separated by ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Heptafluorobutyric acid was used as ion pair agent due to its volatility. Then the analytes were detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The pretreatment condition of the sample, the HPLC condition and the MS operation parameters were optimized. The results showed that the linearities of the ten aminoglycoside residues in 20-1000 microg/L had the correlation coefficient between 0.9946-0.9997. The recoveries ranged from 71.2% and 101.7% with the relative standard deviations of 3.4%-13.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the mass concentrations of the analytes in related samples, which provides a simple, and convenient method for the quality control of milk and dairy products. Furthermore, this method is effective for the safety monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk and dairy products.

  9. Evaluation of a method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for analyzing eight triazolic and pyrimidine fungicides in extracts of processed fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) for determining 8 fungicides (triadimenol, penconazole, propiconazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, myclobutanil, fenarimol, and bitertanol) in extracts of tomato puree and lemon juice concentrate has been evaluated. A miniaturized extraction-partition procedure requiring small amounts of nonchlorinated solvents has been used. The extracts (5 microL) were analyzed by LC/ESI-MS/MS without any previous cleanup step. Chromatographic determination has been performed using a C18 column and isocratic elution. Seventeen MS/MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored simultaneously (2 or 3 for each pesticide). The excellent selectivity and good linearity of the LC/MS/MS method allowed quantitation and identification at low levels (limits of quantitation <0.010 mg/kg), even in difficult matrixes, with a run time of only 1.5 min.

  10. Tandem mass spectrometry approach for the investigation of the steroidal metabolism: structure-fragmentation relationship (SFR) in anabolic steroids and their metabolites by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ali, Arslan; Khan, Naik Tameem; Yousuf, Maria; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to investigate the effect of different substitutions introduced during metabolism on fragmentation patterns of four anabolic steroids including methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, cis-androsterone and adrenosterone, along with their metabolites. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis was performed to correlate the major product ions of 19 steroids with structural features. The analysis is done to portray metabolic alteration, such as incorporation or reduction of double bonds, hydroxylations, and/or oxidation of hydroxyl moieties to keto functional group on steroidal skeleton which leads to drastically changed product ion spectra from the respective classes of steroids, therefore, making them difficult to identify. The comparative ESI-MS/MS study also revealed some characteristic peaks to differentiate different steroidal metabolites and can be useful for the unambiguous identification of anabolic steroids in biological fluid. Moreover, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fermented extract of methyltestosterone, obtained by Macrophomina phaseolina was also investigated.

  11. The use of stable isotope labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques to simultaneously determine the oral and ophthalmic bioavailability of timolol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J D; Olah, T V; Morris, M J; Bortnick, A; Brunner, J

    1998-04-01

    Assays have been established for the quantitation of timolol and its 13C3- and 2H9-stable-isotope-labeled analogs in plasma and urine using liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. For the analysis of urine, underivatized timolol and its labeled analogs are monitored while timolol in plasma is assayed down to concentrations of 0.2 ng/mL after derivatization with phosgene. The great power of this technique is illustrated by simultaneously assaying three different species of timolol in plasma and urine obtained from dogs receiving simultaneous ophthalmic, oral, and intravenous doses of unlabeled and [2H9]- and [13C3]-labeled timolol. Thus, the ophthalmic and oral bioavailabilities of timolol are measured in a single experiment rather than as a three-phase crossover experiment. This approach yields accurate and precise analytical data, obviates intrasubject variability, and saves both analytical and animal resources.

  12. Analysis of hop acids and their oxidized derivatives and iso-alpha-acids in beer by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Cortacero-Ramírez, Sonia; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Martín-Lagos Contreras, José Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2006-07-26

    This study investigates the applicability of on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS) for the separation and characterization of alpha- and beta-acids and oxidized hop acids from crude extracts of different hop varieties. CZE-ESI-MS with negative-ion electrospray ionization proved to be a suitable technique for the determination of these types of natural compounds and their oxidized derivatives. The CZE parameters (pH, concentration, and buffer type) and ESI-MS parameters (nature and flow rate of the sheath liquid, nebulizer pressure, drying gas flow rate, temperature, and compound stability) were optimized. The optimized method provides the potential for a fast qualitative determination of hop acids and their oxidation compounds. The method was also applied to the determination of iso-alpha-acids in beer.

  13. Use of gel permeation chromatography for clean-up in the analysis of coccidiostats in eggs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2013-05-01

    An analytical method for determination and confirmation of nine coccidiostatics in eggs is reported. Ethyl acetate is used as extraction solvent, with satisfactory results, and simple automated clean-up is based on gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) . The target compounds are then analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated in-house in accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Trueness and precision were determined at four concentrations, and the mean errors obtained were <10 %, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3 to 18 %. For three non-authorized coccidiostatics (clopidol, ethopabate, and ronizadole), decision limit and detection capability were in the ranges 0.12-0.16 and 0.18-0.23 μg kg(-1), respectively. The results obtained prove the suitability of this new analytical method for routine monitoring of these substances in eggs.

  14. Determination of testosterone concentrations in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry combined with ethyl oxime and acetyl ester derivatization.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Makoto; Watanabe, Noriko; Ochiai, Hisashi; Yamashita, Kouwa

    2005-09-25

    A quantitative method for measuring testosterone (T) concentrations in rat plasma was developed using ethyl oxime and acetyl ester derivatization and liquid chromatography-atmosphere pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS). The method utilizes a solid phase extraction with Varian Bond Elut C18, a derivatization process to form testosterone ethoxime acetate and LC-APCI-MS/MS with a reversed phase LC and a C8 column. This method is capable of detecting testosterone concentrations as low as 0.2 ng/ml in a 0.05 ml sample of rat plasma. This method can be used as a sensitive chromatography-based assay for small sample volumes of rat blood.

  15. Determination of muscimol and ibotenic acid in Amanita mushrooms by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Kishi, Tohru

    2007-06-01

    A reliable analytical method was developed for the quantification and identification of muscimol (MUS) and ibotenic acid (IBO), the toxic constituents of Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. MUS and IBO were extracted from mushrooms by aqueous methanol and derivatized with dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl). After extraction with ethyl acetate and evaporation of the solvent, the residue was ethylated with 1.25 M hydrogen chloride in ethanol. The resulting derivatives were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 25-2500 ppm for MUS and 40-2500 ppm for IBO, respectively. This method was successfully applied to identify and quantify MUS and IBO in Amanita mushrooms naturally grown and circulated in the drug market.

  16. Identification of a new metabolite of macrolide immunosuppressant, like rapamycin and SDZ RAD, using high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hallensleben, K; Raida, M; Habermehl, G

    2000-06-01

    Previously unknown metabolites from the two macrolide immunosuppressants rapamycin (sirolimus) and SDZ RAD [40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)rapamycin] obtained after in vitro incubation with human liver microsomes have been purified. Structure elucidation was performed by nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry applying low energy collision activated dissociation. This ionization method is, as shown here, a powerful tool to determine metabolic pathways by analysis of even low abundance products. Product ion spectra of the isolated metabolites indicate a new kind of biotransformation reaction for rapamycin and SDZ RAD. The proposed metabolic pathway starts with an ester hydrolysis which leads to a ring-opened structure. A dehydration on C33-C34 and a supplementary hydrogenation at C33-C34 result in a structure similar to the ring-opened isomer with an single bond at C33-C34.

  17. Determination of acrylamide in foods by pressurized fluid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry used for a survey of Spanish cereal-based foods.

    PubMed

    Yusà, V; Quintás, G; Pardo, O; Martí, P; Pastor, A

    2006-03-01

    An automated and rapid method for the determination of acrylamide in different food products is presented. The method involves pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) of foods with acetonitrile and precipitation with Carrez reagents. The final extract is analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). The main parameters affecting the performance of ESI-MS-MS and PFE were optimized using a design of experiments approach. The limit of quantification of the method was 5 microg kg(-1), and recoveries from incurred samples ranged between 93 and 101%. The accuracy was evaluated using the reference test materials FAPAS T3002, T3005 and T3011. Using the optimized method, 62 food samples of potato chips, snacks, biscuits, breakfast cereals and crisp bread sampled from Valencia, Spain, supermarkets were surveyed for acrylamide levels. The levels were similar to those reported in the European Union and USA.

  18. Counting Molecules by Desorption Ionization and Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, R. G.; Busch, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses two newer methods in mass spectrometry and shows how they can increase signal and signal-to-noise ratios, respectively. The first method, desorption ionization (DI), increases sensitivity while the second method, mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), increases specificity. Together, the two methods offer improved analytical…

  19. Comparison of Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry to Traditional High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the Identification and Quantification of Halogenated Dioxins and Furans.

    PubMed

    Organtini, Kari L; Haimovici, Liad; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Ladak, Adam; Stevens, Douglas; Cochran, Jack W; Dorman, Frank L

    2015-08-04

    The goal of this study was to qualify gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) as a reliable and valid technique for analysis of halogenated dioxins and furans that could be used in place of more traditional gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analysis. A direct comparison of the two instrumental techniques was performed. APGC-MS/MS system sensitivity was demonstrated to be on the single femtogram level. The APGC-MS/MS analysis also demonstrated method detection limits (MDLs) in both sediment and fish that were 2-18 times lower than those determined for the GC-HRMS. Inlet conditions were established to prevent issues with sample carry-over, due largely to the enhanced sensitivity of this technique. Additionally, this work utilized direct injection for sample introduction through the split/splittless inlet. Finally, quantification of both sediment and fish certified reference materials were directly compared between the APGC-MS/MS and GC-HRMS. The APGC-MS/MS performed similarly to, if not better than, the GC-HRMS instrument in the analysis of these samples. This data is intended to substantiate APGC-MS/MS as a comparable technique to GC-HRMS for the analysis of dioxins and furans.

  20. Rapid simultaneous determination of paracetamol, amantadine hydrochloride, caffeine and chlorpheniramine maleate in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shudan; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Meihua; Chen, Yun

    2009-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was first developed and validated to simultaneously determine paracetamol (PAR, CAS 103-90-2), amantadine hydrochloride (ATH, CAS 665-66-7), caffeine (CAF, CAS 58-08-2) and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM, CAS 113-92-8) in human plasma using tramadol hydrochloride (TMH, CAS 22204-88-2) as internal standard (IS). Following methanol-induced protein precipitation, the analytes were separated using a mobile phase comprised of methanol:water (0.5% formic acid) = 20:80 (v/v) on a commercially available column (150 mm x 2.1 mm I.D., 5 microm) and analyzed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with the precursor to product ion transitions m/z 152.3-->110.2 for PAR, 152.3-->135.3 for ATH, 195.1-->138.3 for CAF, 275.2-->230.3 for CPM and 264.2-->58.2 for TMH. The standard curves were linear (r2 > 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.2-20 microg/mL for PAR, 20-2000 ng/mL for ATH and CAF, 0.1-10 ng/mL for CPM and had good accuracy and precision, respectively. The within- and between-batch precisions were less than 15% in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD). The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) were 0.2 microg/mL, 20 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL for PAR, ATH, CAF and CPM, respectively. The described method has been successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol-amantadine hydrochloride tablets in Chinese healthy male volunteers with great precision and sensitivity.

  1. Identification of staphylococcal species based on variations in protein sequences (mass spectrometry) and DNA sequence (sodA microarray).

    PubMed

    Kooken, Jennifer; Fox, Karen; Fox, Alvin; Altomare, Diego; Creek, Kim; Wunschel, David; Pajares-Merino, Sara; Martínez-Ballesteros, Ilargi; Garaizar, Javier; Oyarzabal, Omar; Samadpour, Mansour

    2014-02-01

    This report is among the first using sequence variation in newly discovered protein markers for staphylococcal (or indeed any other bacterial) speciation. Variation, at the DNA sequence level, in the sodA gene (commonly used for staphylococcal speciation) provided excellent correlation. Relatedness among strains was also assessed using protein profiling using microcapillary electrophoresis and pulsed field electrophoresis. A total of 64 strains were analyzed including reference strains representing the 11 staphylococcal species most commonly isolated from man (Staphylococcus aureus and 10 coagulase negative species [CoNS]). Matrix assisted time of flight ionization/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS) were used for peptide analysis of proteins isolated from gel bands. Comparison of experimental spectra of unknowns versus spectra of peptides derived from reference strains allowed bacterial identification after MALDI TOF MS analysis. After LC-MS/MS analysis of gel bands bacterial speciation was performed by comparing experimental spectra versus virtual spectra using the software X!Tandem. Finally LC-MS/MS was performed on whole proteomes and data analysis also employing X!tandem. Aconitate hydratase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase served as marker proteins on focused analysis after gel separation. Alternatively on full proteomics analysis elongation factor Tu generally provided the highest confidence in staphylococcal speciation.

  2. Quantification of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate and precise measurement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a clinical diagnostic test. Determination of GABA in CSF (50 μL) was performed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analysis of free and total GABA requires two individual sample preparations and mass spectrometry analyses. Free GABA in CSF is determined by a 1:2 dilution with internal standard (GABA-D2) and injected directly onto the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Determination of total GABA in CSF requires additional sample preparation in order to hydrolyze all the bound GABA in the sample to the free form. This requires hydrolyzing the sample by boiling in acidic conditions (hydrochloric acid) for 4 h. The sample is then further diluted 1:10 with a 90 % acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid solution and injected into the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Each assay is quantified using a five-point standard curve and is linear from 6 nM to 1000 nM and 0.63 μM to 80 μM for free and total GABA, respectively.

  3. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of unusual phenols from Yucca schidigera bark: comparison with other analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pizza, Cosimo

    2004-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds are of interest for both medicinal and food plants. In the present work, the phenolic fraction from Yucca schidigera, a plant bearing the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) label approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, was studied. Crude extracts of Y. schidigera bark were investigated by liquid chromatography/UV spectrophotometry with diode-array detection, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), in order to develop and optimize simple and rapid techniques to determine both stilbenes and yuccaols for the purposes of quality control of collected material. With optimal LC and MS conditions, stilbenes and yuccaols were quantified with all the proposed methods and the results were compared. Sensitivity was evaluated and the results indicated that MS/MS detection in the multiple reaction monitoring mode is easily applicable to this plant and allows the rapid and direct identification and quantification of these peculiar compounds in crude plant extracts.

  4. Paired-ion electrospray ionization--triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for quantification of anionic surfactants in waters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Guo, Hongyue; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-10-01

    A new paired ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of anionic surfactants in water samples was developed. In this method, dicationic ion-pairing reagents were complexed with monoanionic analytes to facilitate analyte detection in positive mode electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry. Single ion monitoring and selected reaction monitoring on a triple quadrupole instrument were performed and compared. Four dicationic reagents were tested for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBS), and stearic acid (SA), among other common anions. The obtained limits of detection were compared with those from previous literature. Solid phase extraction using a C18 cartridge was performed in order to eliminate matrix interferences. A literature review was compiled for the methods published between 2010 and 2015 for determination of anionic surfactants. The optimized method was more sensitive than previously developed methods with LOD values of 2.35, 35.4, 37.0, 1.68, and 0.675 pg for SDS, SA, DBS, PFOS, and PFOA, respectively. The developed method was effectively applied for the determination of anionic surfactants in different water samples such as bottled drinking water, cooking water, tap water, and wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Free radical oxidation of plasmalogen glycerophosphocholine containing esterified docosahexaenoic acid: structure determination by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zemski Berry, Karin A; Murphy, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Plasmalogen phospholipids have a vinyl ether substituent at the sn-1 position that is susceptible to oxidative reactions that occur at cell membranes. However, the mechanism by which this oxidation occurs and the effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid at the sn-2 position have not been established. To gain insight into these mechanisms, the oxidized phospholipid products resulting from the exposure of 1-O-hexadec-1'-enyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (16:0p/22:6-GPCho) to the free radical initiator 2, 2'-azobis (2- amidinopropane) hydrochloride were examined. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, and electron ionization-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to structurally characterize the oxidized glycerophosphocholine (GPCho) products. The radical-induced peroxidation of 16:0p/22:6-GPCho revealed two major classes of oxidized phospholipids. The first class of products was formed by oxidation at the sn-1 position and included 1-lyso-2-docosahexaenoyl-GPCho and 1-formyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-GPCho. Additionally, the second class of oxidized products where oxidation occurred at the sn-2 position was classified into three categories that included chain-shortened omega-aldehydes, terminal gamma-hydroxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, and the addition of one or two oxygen atoms onto the sn-2 position of 16:0p/22:6-GPCho. These results clearly indicate that free radical-induced oxidation of plasmalogen phospholipids with esterified docosahexaenoic acid at the sn-2 position underwent oxidation at both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions.

  6. Inorganic trace analysis by mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine; Dietze, Hans-Joachim

    1998-10-01

    Mass spectrometric methods for the trace analysis of inorganic materials with their ability to provide a very sensitive multielemental analysis have been established for the determination of trace and ultratrace elements in high-purity materials (metals, semiconductors and insulators), in different technical samples (e.g. alloys, pure chemicals, ceramics, thin films, ion-implanted semiconductors), in environmental samples (waters, soils, biological and medical materials) and geological samples. Whereas such techniques as spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS), laser ionization mass spectrometry (LIMS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have multielemental capability, other methods such as thermal ionization mass