Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
Shock wave dispersion in weakly ionized gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kessaratikoon, Prasong
2003-10-01
Electrodeless microwave (MW) discharge in two straight, circular cylindrical resonant cavities in TE1,1,1 and TM0,1,2 modes were introduced to perform additional experimental studies on shock wave modification in non-equilibrium weakly ionized gases and to clarify the physical mechanisms of the shock wave modification process. The discharge was generated in 99.99% Ar at a gas pressure between 20 and 100 Torr and at a discharge power density less than 10.0 Watts/cm3. Power density used for operating the discharge was rather low in the present work, which was determined by evaluating the power loss inside the resonant cavity. It was found that the shock wave deflection signal amplitude was decreased while the shock wave local velocity was increased in the presence of the discharge. However, there was no apparent evidence of the multiple shock structure or the widening of the shock wave deflection signal, as observed in the d.c. glow discharge [3,5]. The shock wave always retained a more compact structure even in the case of strong dispersion in both the TE and the TM mode. The shock wave propagated faster through the discharge in the TE mode than in the TM mode. Discharge characteristics and local parameters such as gas temperature T g, electron density Ne, local electric field E, and average power density, were determined by using the MW discharge generated from an Argon gas mixture that contains 95% Ar, 5% H2, and traces of N2. The gas temperature was evaluated by using the amplitude reduction technique and the emission spectroscopy of Nitrogen. The gas temperature distribution was flat in the central region of the cavity. By comparing the gas temperature calculated from the shock wave local velocity and from the amplitude reduction technique, the present work was sufficiently accurate to indicate that the thermal effect is dominant. The electron density was obtained from measured line shapes of hydrogen Balmer lines by using the gas temperature and the well
Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1998-01-01
We have begun a comprehensive series of analyses and experiments to study the basic problem of shock wave dynamics in ionized media. Our objective is to isolate the mechanisms that are responsible for the decrease in the shock amplitude and also to determine the relevant plasma parameters that will be required for a drag reduction scheme in an actual high altitude hypersonic flight. Specifically, we have initiated a program of analyses and measurements with the objective of (i) fully characterizing the propagation dynamics in plasmas formed in gases of aerodynamic interest, (ii) isolating the mechanisms responsible for the decreased shock strength and increased shock velocity, (iii) extrapolating the laboratory observations to the technology of supersonic flight.
Nonequilibrium ionization phenomena behind shock waves
Panesi, Marco; Magin, Thierry; Huo, Winifred
2011-05-20
An accurate investigation of the behavior of electronically excited states of atoms and molecules in the post shock relaxation zone of a trajectory point of the FIRE II flight experiment is carried out by means of a one-dimensional flow solver coupled to a collisional-radiative model. In the rapidly ionizing regime behind a strong shock wave, the high lying bound electronic states of atoms are depleted. This leads the electronic energy level populations of atoms to depart from Boltzmann distributions which strongly affects the non-equilibrium ionization process as well as the radiative signature. The importance of correct modeling of the interaction of radiation and matter is discussed showing a strong influence on the physico-chemical properties of the gas. The paper clearly puts forward the shortcomings of the simplified approach often used in literature which strongly relies on the escape factors to characterize the optical thickness of the gas.
A numerical scheme for ionizing shock waves
Aslan, Necdet . E-mail: naslan@yeditepe.edu.tr; Mond, Michael
2005-12-10
A two-dimensional (2D) visual computer code to solve the steady state (SS) or transient shock problems including partially ionizing plasma is presented. Since the flows considered are hypersonic and the resulting temperatures are high, the plasma is partially ionized. Hence the plasma constituents are electrons, ions and neutral atoms. It is assumed that all the above species are in thermal equilibrium, namely, that they all have the same temperature. The ionization degree is calculated from Saha equation as a function of electron density and pressure by means of a nonlinear Newton type root finding algorithms. The code utilizes a wave model and numerical fluctuation distribution (FD) scheme that runs on structured or unstructured triangular meshes. This scheme is based on evaluating the mesh averaged fluctuations arising from a number of waves and distributing them to the nodes of these meshes in an upwind manner. The physical properties (directions, strengths, etc.) of these wave patterns are obtained by a new wave model: ION-A developed from the eigen-system of the flux Jacobian matrices. Since the equation of state (EOS) which is used to close up the conservation laws includes electronic effects, it is a nonlinear function and it must be inverted by iterations to determine the ionization degree as a function of density and temperature. For the time advancement, the scheme utilizes a multi-stage Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm with time steps carefully evaluated from the maximum possible propagation speed in the solution domain. The code runs interactively with the user and allows to create different meshes to use different initial and boundary conditions and to see changes of desired physical quantities in the form of color and vector graphics. The details of the visual properties of the code has been published before (see [N. Aslan, A visual fluctuation splitting scheme for magneto-hydrodynamics with a new sonic fix and Euler limit, J. Comput. Phys. 197 (2004) 1
Turbulent magnetized plasmas from ionizing shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Zuohua
Turbulent argon plasmas produced behind hypersonic shock waves (10 less than M less than 60) are studied in the presence of weak magnetic fields at various strengths between 0 and 600 gauss, parallel and antiparallel to the shock tube's axis. The experiment is performed in a cylindrical arc discharge shock tube of 5 cm diameter and 210 cm overall length. Laser induced fluorescence and an electric probe are used as diagnostics of the ion density. Turbulent fluctuations behind the shock front are observed which persist for a time in the order of 10 msec. Using standard turbulent and chaotic analytical procedures, the influence of the magnetic field on the characterizing parameters is determined under circumstances of changing Mach number and pressure. These parameters include spectral index, correlation time scales, turbulent intensity and chaotic dimensionality. The parameters of turbulence obtained from the two diagnostics are quite consistent. Fluctuation power spectra follow a P approx. f(sup -n) behavior with 1.3 less than n less than 2.8; this agrees with theoretical predictions as well as the results of other investigators. An increasing magnetic field increases the characterizing correlation time, the turbulent intensity, and the chaotic dimension but decreases the small correlation time. Therefore the magnetic field decreases the order (increases the dimensionality) in the turbulent plasma, independent of the direction of the field parallel or antiparallel to the direction of the shock wave. A turbulent velocity-field-coupling model is proposed. A dispersion relation shows that, in the presence of an external magnetic field, varieties of new modes in a turbulent plasma are generated. The model predicts an increasing complexity of the turbulent system with increasing strength of the field and is in very good qualitative agreement with our experiment results.
Turbulent magnetized plasmas from ionizing shock waves
Liang, Zuohua.
1992-01-01
Turbulent argon plasmas produced behind hypersonic shock waves (10 less than M less than 60) are studied in the presence of weak magnetic fields at various strengths between 0 and 600 gauss, parallel and antiparallel to the shock tube's axis. The experiment is performed in a cylindrical arc discharge shock tube of 5 cm diameter and 210 cm overall length. Laser induced fluorescence and an electric probe are used as diagnostics of the ion density. Turbulent fluctuations behind the shock front are observed which persist for a time in the order of 10 msec. Using standard turbulent and chaotic analytical procedures, the influence of the magnetic field on the characterizing parameters is determined under circumstances of changing Mach number and pressure. These parameters include spectral index, correlation time scales, turbulent intensity and chaotic dimensionality. The parameters of turbulence obtained from the two diagnostics are quite consistent. Fluctuation power spectra follow a P approx. f(sup -n) behavior with 1.3 less than n less than 2.8; this agrees with theoretical predictions as well as the results of other investigators. An increasing magnetic field increases the characterizing correlation time, the turbulent intensity, and the chaotic dimension but decreases the small correlation time. Therefore the magnetic field decreases the order (increases the dimensionality) in the turbulent plasma, independent of the direction of the field parallel or antiparallel to the direction of the shock wave. A turbulent velocity-field-coupling model is proposed. A dispersion relation shows that, in the presence of an external magnetic field, varieties of new modes in a turbulent plasma are generated. The model predicts an increasing complexity of the turbulent system with increasing strength of the field and is in very good qualitative agreement with our experiment results.
Revisiting the thermal effect on shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei; Yang, Wei
2016-07-01
Many researchers have investigated shock propagation in weakly ionized plasmas and observed the following anomalous effects: shock acceleration, shock recovery, shock weakening, shock spreading, and splitting. It was generally accepted that the thermal effect can explain most of the experimental results. However, little attention was paid to the shock recovery. In this paper, the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas is studied by fluid simulation. It is found that the shock acceleration, weakening, and splitting appear after it enters the plasma (thermal) region. The shock splits into two parts right after it leaves the thermal region. The distance between the splitted shocks keeps decreasing until they recover to one. This paper can explain a whole set of features of the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas. It is also found that both the shock curvature and the splitting present the same photoacoustic deflection (PAD) signals, so they cannot be distinguished by the PAD experiments.
Prediction of Shock Wave Structure in Weakly Ionized Gas Flow by Solving MGD Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deng, Z. T.; Oviedo-Rojas, Ruben; Chow, Alan; Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper reports the recent research results of shockwave structure predictions using a new developed code. The modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations across a standing normal shock wave are discussed and adopted to obtain jump conditions. Coupling a electrostatic body force to the Burnett equations, the weakly ionized flow field across the shock wave was solved. Results indicated that the Modified Rankine-Hugoniot equations for shock wave are valid for a wide range of ionization fraction. However, this model breaks down with small free stream Mach number and with large ionization fraction. The jump conditions also depend on the value of free stream pressure, temperature and density. The computed shock wave structure with ionization provides results, which indicated that shock wave strength may be reduced by existence of weakly ionized gas.
Shock-wave structure in a partially ionized gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, C. S.; Huang, A. B.
1974-01-01
The structure of a steady plane shock in a partially ionized gas has been investigated using the Boltzmann equation with a kinetic model as the governing equation and the discrete ordinate method as a tool. The effects of the electric field induced by the charge separation on the shock structure have also been studied. Although the three species of an ionized gas travel with approximately the same macroscopic velocity, the individual distribution functions are found to be very different. In a strong shock the atom distribution function may have double peaks, while the ion distribution function has only one peak. Electrons are heated up much earlier than ions and atoms in a partially ionized gas. Because the interactions of electrons with atoms and with ions are different, the ion temperature can be different from the atom temperature.
Melting and shock wave creation in uranium oxide due to Coulomb explosion after a pulsed ionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhongyu; Chen, Di; Shao, Lin
2015-09-01
By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the effects of pulsed ionization in uranium oxide (UO2), which occurs when UO2 is bombarded with swift ions or fission fragments. A general formula is developed to predict melting radius under various conditions due to electron stripping and Coulomb explosion (CE). A critical density model is suggested in which the melting volume is proportional to ionization period, if the period is above a critical value. The maximum melting radius depends on the time period of structural relaxation above the melting temperature, which increases with increasing initial substrate temperatures due to a lower heat dissipation rate. Furthermore, shock waves are observed to emit from CE core but the kinetic energy wave peak exists only in U sublattices. The absence of kinetic energy waves in O sublattices is explained by their relatively higher thermal vibration which cancels the work done from the compression waves.
Measurements of the structure of an ionizing shock wave in a hydrogen-helium mixture.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leibowitz, L. P.
1973-01-01
Shock structure during ionization of a hydrogen-helium mixture has been followed using hydrogen line and continuum emission measurements. A reaction scheme is proposed which includes hydrogen dissociation and a two-step excitation-ionization mechanism for hydrogen ionization by atom-atom and atom-electron collisions. Agreement has been achieved between numerical calculations and measurements of emission intensity as a function of time for shock velocities from 13 to 20 km/sec in a 0.208 H2-0.792 He mixture. The electron temperature was found to be significantly different from the heavy particle temperature during much of the ionization process. Similar time histories for H beta and continuum emission indicate upper level populations of hydrogen in equilibrium with the electron concentration during the relaxation process.
Measurements of the structure of an ionizing shock wave in a hydrogen-helium mixture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leibowitz, L. P.
1972-01-01
Shock structure during ionization of a hydrogen-helium mixture was studied using hydrogen line and continuum emission measurements. A reaction scheme is proposed which includes hydrogen dissociation and a two-step excitation-ionization mechanism for hydrogen ionization by atom-atom and atom-electron collisions. Agreement was achieved between numerical calculations and measurements of emission intensity as a function of time for shock velocities from 13 to 20 km/sec in a 0.208 H2 - 0.792 He mixture. The electron temperature was found to be significantly different from the heavy particle temperature during much of the ionization process. Similar time histories for H beta and continuum emission indicate upper level populations of hydrogen in equilibrium with the electron concentration during the relaxation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joussot, Romain; Lago, Viviana; Parisse, Jean-Denis
2014-12-01
This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations focused on the shock wave modification, induced by a dc glow discharge, of a Mach 2 flow under rarefied regime. The model under investigation is a flat plate equipped with a plasma actuator composed of two electrodes. The glow discharge is generated by applying a negative potential to the upstream electrode, enabling the creation of a weakly ionized plasma. The natural flow (i.e. without the plasma) exhibits a thick laminar boundary layer and a shock wave with a hyperbolic shape. Images of the flow obtained with an ICCD camera revealed that the plasma discharge induces an increase in the shock wave angle. Thermal effects (volumetric, and at the surface) and plasma effects (ionization, and thermal non-equilibrium) are the most relevant processes explaining the observed modifications. The effect induced by the heating of the flat plate surface is studied experimentally by replacing the upstream electrode by a heating element, and numerically by modifying the thermal boundary condition of the model surface. The results show that for a similar temperature distribution over the plate surface, modifications induced by the heating element are lower than those produced by the plasma. This difference shows that other effects than purely thermal effects are involved with the plasma actuator. Measurements of the electron density with a Langmuir probe highlight the fact that the ionization degree plays an important role into the modification of the flow. The gas properties, especially the isentropic exponent, are indeed modified by the plasma above the actuator and upstream the flat plate. This leads to a local modification of the flow conditions, inducing an increase in the shock wave angle.
Joussot, Romain; Lago, Viviana; Parisse, Jean-Denis
2014-12-09
This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations focused on the shock wave modification, induced by a dc glow discharge, of a Mach 2 flow under rarefied regime. The model under investigation is a flat plate equipped with a plasma actuator composed of two electrodes. The glow discharge is generated by applying a negative potential to the upstream electrode, enabling the creation of a weakly ionized plasma. The natural flow (i.e. without the plasma) exhibits a thick laminar boundary layer and a shock wave with a hyperbolic shape. Images of the flow obtained with an ICCD camera revealed that the plasma discharge induces an increase in the shock wave angle. Thermal effects (volumetric, and at the surface) and plasma effects (ionization, and thermal non-equilibrium) are the most relevant processes explaining the observed modifications. The effect induced by the heating of the flat plate surface is studied experimentally by replacing the upstream electrode by a heating element, and numerically by modifying the thermal boundary condition of the model surface. The results show that for a similar temperature distribution over the plate surface, modifications induced by the heating element are lower than those produced by the plasma. This difference shows that other effects than purely thermal effects are involved with the plasma actuator. Measurements of the electron density with a Langmuir probe highlight the fact that the ionization degree plays an important role into the modification of the flow. The gas properties, especially the isentropic exponent, are indeed modified by the plasma above the actuator and upstream the flat plate. This leads to a local modification of the flow conditions, inducing an increase in the shock wave angle.
Tuck, J.L.
1955-03-01
This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with a voltage applied there-across which is insufficient to cause discharge. When it is desired to initiate operation of a device at the time the explosive shock wave reaches a particular point on the explosive line, the device having an inherent time delay, the electrodes are located ahead of the point such that the ionization of the area between the electrodes caused by the traveling explosive shock wave sends a signal to initiate operation of the device to cause it to operate at the proper time. The operated device may be photographic equipment consisting of an x-ray illuminating tube.
Li, Zhongyu; Shao, Lin; Chen, Di; Wang, Jing
2014-04-14
Strong electronic stopping power of swift ions in a semiconducting or insulating substrate can lead to localized electron stripping. The subsequent repulsive interactions among charged target atoms can cause Coulomb explosion. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we simulate Coulomb explosion in silicon by introducing an ionization pulse lasting for different periods, and at different substrate temperatures. We find that the longer the pulse period, the larger the melting radius. The observation can be explained by a critical energy density model assuming that melting required thermal energy density is a constant value and the total thermal energy gained from Coulomb explosion is linearly proportional to the ionization period. Our studies also show that melting radius is larger at higher substrate temperatures. The temperature effect is explained due to a longer structural relaxation above the melting temperature at original ionization boundary due to lower heat dissipation rates. Furthermore, simulations show the formation of shock waves, created due to the compression from the melting core.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckee, C. F.; Hollenbach, D. J.
1980-01-01
The structure of interstellar shocks driven by supernova remnants and by expanding H II regions around early-type stars is discussed. Jump conditions are examined, along with shock fronts, post-shock relaxation layers, collisional shocks, collisionless shocks, nonradiative shocks, radiative atomic shocks, and shock models of observed nebulae. Effects of shock waves on interstellar molecules are examined, with reference to the chemistry behind shock fronts, infrared and vibrational-rotational cooling by molecules, and observations of shocked molecules. Some current problems and applications of the study of interstellar shocks are summarized, including the initiation of star formation by radiative shock waves, interstellar masers, the stability of shocks, particle acceleration in shocks, and shocks in galactic nuclei.
Zhokhov, P A; Zheltikov, A M
2013-05-01
Shock-wave formation is a generic scenario of wave dynamics known in nonlinear acoustics, fluid dynamics, astrophysics, seismology, and detonation physics. Here, we show that, in nonlinear optics, remarkably short, attosecond shock transients can be generated through a strongly coupled spatial and temporal dynamics of ultrashort light pulses, suggesting a pulse self-compression scenario whereby multigigawatt attosecond optical waveforms can be synthesized. PMID:23683197
Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; et al
2016-06-01
Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed tomore » quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartigan, P.; Foster, J.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Martinez, D.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.
2016-06-01
Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. The experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.
Magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in molecular clouds
Draine, B.T.; Roberge, W.G.; Dalgarno, A.
1983-01-15
The structure of shock waves in molecular clouds is calculated, including the effects of ion-neutral streaming driven by the magnetic field. It is found that shock waves in molecular clouds will usually be C-type shock waves, mediated entirely by the dissipation accompanying ion-neutral streaming, and in which all of the hydrodynamic variables are continuous. Detailed results are presented for magnetohydrodynamic shock waves propagating at speeds in the range of 5--50 km s/sup -1/ in molecular clouds with preshock densities n/sub H/ = 10/sup 2/, 10/sup 4/, and 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -3/. Graphs are constructed of the effective ''excitation temperatures'' of the rotational and vibrational levels of H/sub 2/ in the shocked gas. The effects of chemical changes in the composition of oxygen-bearing molecules are investigated, and the contributions to the cooling of the shocked gas by emission from H/sub 2/, CO, OH, and H/sub 2/O are evaluated. Predictions are made of the intensities of the rotation-vibration lines of H/sub 2/ and of the fine-structure lines of O I and C I. Magnetic fields may lead to a substantial increase in the limiting shock velocity above which dissociation of H/sub 2/ takes place: for a cloud of density eta/sub H/ = 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -3/, the limiting shock speed is approx.45 km s/sup -1/. The fractional ionization is a critical parameter affecting the shock structure, and the processes acting to change the ionization in the shock are examined. Magnetic field effects enhance the sputtering of grain mantles in dense gas: H/sub 2/O ice mantles can be substantially eroded in v/sub s/> or =25 km s/sup -1/ shock waves. Grain erosion may contribute to the enhancement of some molecular species in the shocked gas.
Kim, Y.W.
1990-01-01
Various papers on shock waves are presented. The general topics addressed include: shock formation, focusing, and implosion; shock reflection and diffraction; turbulence; laser-produced plasmas and waves; ionization and shock-plasma interaction; chemical kinetics, pyrolysis, and soot formation; experimental facilities, techniques, and applications; ignition of detonation and combustion; particle entrainment and shock propagation through particle suspension; boundary layers and blast simulation; computational methods and numerical simulation.
Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.
2011-05-01
In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.
1994-01-01
Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.
Plasma Shock Wave Modification Experiments in a Temperature Compensated Shock Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vine, Frances J.; Mankowski, John J.; Saeks, Richard E.; Chow, Alan S.
2003-01-01
A number of researchers have observed that the intensity of a shock wave is reduced when it passes through a weakly ionized plasma. While there is little doubt that the intensity of a shock is reduced when it propagates through a weakly ionized plasma, the major question associated with the research is whether the reduction in shock wave intensity is due to the plasma or the concomitant heating of the flow by the plasma generator. The goal of this paper is to describe a temperature compensated experiment in a "large" diameter shock tube with an external heating source, used to control the temperature in the shock tube independently of the plasma density.
Non-equilibrium ionized blast wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. T.
1974-01-01
The structure of a cylindrical blast wave with ionization at non-LTE conditions was calculated using equations previously developed by Wu and Fu (1970). The degree of ionization was predicted by a modified Saha equation. Temperature profiles show that the temperature at non-LTE conditions is lower than at LTE near the shock front. This corresponds to a higher degree of ionization for the non-LTE limit, which indicates that the neutral gas absorption is much more efficient at non-LTE than at the LTE limit. The decaying velocity under non-LTE is approximately 15% less than under LTE.
Laurence, Stuart J; Deiterding, Ralf
2011-01-01
A phenomenon referred to as shock-wave surfing , in which a body moves in such a way as to follow the shock wave generated by another upstream body, is investigated numerically and theoretically. This process can lead to the downstream body accumulating a significantly higher lateral velocity than would otherwise be possible, and thus is of importance in situations such as meteoroid fragmentation, in which the fragment separation behaviour following disruption is determined to a large extent by aerodynamic effects. The surfing effect is first investigated in the context of interactions between a sphere and a planar oblique shock. Numerical simulations are performed and a simple theoretical model is developed to determine the forces acting on the sphere. A phase-plane description is employed to elucidate features of the system dynamics. The theoretical model is then generalised to the more complex situation of aerodynamic interactions between two spheres, and, through comparisons with further computations, is shown to adequately predict, in particular, the final separation velocity of the surfing sphere in initially touching configurations. Both numerical simulations and theory indicate a strong influence of the body radius ratio on the separation process and predict a critical radius ratio for initially touching fragments that delineates entrainment of the smaller fragment within the larger fragment s shock from expulsion; this critical ratio also results in the most extended surfing. Further, these results show that an earlier prediction for the separation velocity to scale with the square root of the radius ratio does not accurately describe the separation behaviour. The theoretical model is then employed to investigate initial configurations with varying relative sphere positions and initial velocities. A phase-space description is also shown to be useful in elucidating the dynamics of the sphere-sphere system. With regard to meteoroid fragmentation, it is shown
Turbulence in argon shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, J. A., III; Santiago, J. P.; I, L.
1981-01-01
Irregular density fluctuations with turbulent-like behaviors are found in ionizing shock fronts produced by an arc-driven shock tube. Electric probes are used as the primary diagnostic. Spectral analyses show statistical patterns which seem frozen-in and characterizable by a dominant mode and its harmonics.
Shock wave propagation in glow discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, B. N.
1998-10-01
The modification of acoustic shock wave propagation characteristics in a 25 cm long positive column low pressure (10 to 50 Torr), low current density (2 to 10 mA/cm^2) argon and N2 dc discharges have been measured by laser beam deflection technique. The simultaneous multi point shock velocity, dispersion and damping have been measured both inside and outside the glow discharge region. The local shock velocity is found to increase with the increased propagation path length through the discharge; for Mach number greater than 1.7 the upstream velocity exceeded the downstream velocity in contrast to the opposite behavior in neutral gas. The damping and dispersion are also dependent on the propagation distance. The recovery of the shock dispersion and damping in the post discharge region, for a given discharge condition, are functions of the initial Mach number. The optical measurement of the wall and the gas (rotational) temperatures suggest the observed shock features can not be solely explained by the gas heating in a self sustained discharge. The results are similar for both Ar and N2 discharges showing that vibrational excitation and relaxation are not essential^1. The explanation of the observed weak shock propagation properties in a glow discharge appears to require long range cooperative interactions that enhance heavy particle collisional energy transfer rates for the measured discharge conditions. Unlike collisional shock wave propagation in highly ionized plasmas^2,3, the exact energy coupling mechanism between the nonequilibrium weakly ionized plasma and shock is not understood. 1. A.I. Osipov and A.V. Uvarov, Sov. Phys. Usp. 35, 903 (1992) and other references there in. 2. M. Casanova, O. Larroche and J-P Matte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2143 (1991). 3. M.C.M. van de Sanden, R. van den Bercken and D.C. Schram, Plasma Sources Sci.Technol. 3, 511 (1994).
Shock Structure Analysis and Aerodynamics in a Weakly Ionized Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saeks, R.; Popovic, S.; Chow, A. S.
2006-01-01
The structure of a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is analyzed using an electrofluid dynamics model composed of classical conservation laws and Gauss Law. A viscosity model is included to correctly model the spatial scale of the shock structure, and quasi-neutrality is not assumed. A detailed analysis of the structure of a shock wave propagating in a weakly ionized gas is presented, together with a discussion of the physics underlying the key features of the shock structure. A model for the flow behind a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is developed and used to analyze the effect of the ionization on the aerodynamics and performance of a two-dimensional hypersonic lifting body.
Interaction of turbulent plasma flow with a hypersonic shock wave
Belay, K.; Valentine, J.M.; Williams, R.L.; Johnson, J.A. III
1997-02-01
A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of prompt relaminarization or of any systematic influence of end-wall material thermal conductivities on the turbulence parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations
Buckingham, A.C.
1986-12-30
Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs.
Olson, B J; Cook, A W
2007-08-30
Beginning from a state of hydrostatic equilibrium, in which a heavy gas rests atop a light gas in a constant gravitational field, Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface will launch a shock wave into the upper fluid. The rising bubbles of lighter fluid act like pistons, compressing the heavier fluid ahead of the fronts and generating shocklets. These shocklets coalesce in multidimensional fashion into a strong normal shock, which increases in strength as it propagates upwards. Large-eddy simulations demonstrate that the shock Mach number increases faster in three dimensions than it does in two dimensions. The generation of shocks via Rayleigh-Taylor instability could have profound implications for astrophysical flows.
Kasimov, Aslan R; Faria, Luiz M; Rosales, Rodolfo R
2013-03-01
We propose the following model equation, u(t) + 1/2(u(2)-uu(s))x = f(x,u(s)) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x = 0 for any t ≥ 0. Here, u(s)(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations. PMID:23521260
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Gosling, J. T.; Isenberg, P. A.
1995-01-01
During average solar wind flow conditions at 1 AU, ionization rates of interstellar neutrals that penetrate into the inner heliosphere are dominated by charge exchange with solar wind protons for H atoms, and by photoionization for He atoms. During occurrences of strong, coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven interplanetary shock waves near 1 AU, electron impact ionization can make substantial, if not dominating, contributions to interstellar neutral ionization rates in the regions downstream of the shocks. However, electron impact ionization is expected to be relatively less important with increasing heliocentric distance because of the decrease in electron temperature. Ulysses encountered many CME-driven shocks during its journey to and beyond Jupiter, and in addition, encountered a number of strong corotating interaction region (CIR) shocks. These shocks generally occur only beyond approximately 2 AU. Many of the CIR shocks were very strong rivalling the Earth's bow shock in electron heating. We have compared electron impact ionization rates calculated from electron velocity distributions measured downstream from CIR shocks using the Ulysses SWOOPS experiment to charge-exchange rates calculated from measured proton number fluxes and the photoionization rate estimated from an assumed solar photon spectrum typical of solar maximum conditions. We find that, although normally the ratio of electron-impact ionization rates to charge-exchange (for H) and to photoionization (for He) rates amounts to only about one and a few tens of percent, respectively, downstream of some of the stronger CIR shocks they amount to more than 10% and greater than 100%, respectively.
Patnaude, Daniel J.; Slane, Patrick; Raymond, John C.; Ellison, Donald C.
2010-12-20
We present a grid of nonequilibrium ionization models for the X-ray spectra from supernova remnants undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration. The calculation follows the hydrodynamics of the blast wave as well as the time-dependent ionization of the plasma behind the shock. The ionization state is passed to a plasma emissivity code to compute the thermal X-ray emission, which is combined with the emission from nonthermal synchrotron emission to produce a self-consistent model for the thermal and nonthermal emission from cosmic-ray dominated shocks. We show how plasma diagnostics such as the G'-ratio of He-like ions, defined as the ratio of the sum of the intercombination, forbidden, and satellite lines to the resonance line, can vary with acceleration efficiency, and discuss how the thermal X-ray emission, when the time-dependent ionization is not calculated self-consistently with the hydrodynamics, can differ from the thermal X-ray emission from models which do account for the hydrodynamics. Finally, we compare the thermal X-ray emission from models which show moderate acceleration ({approx}35%) to the thermal X-ray emission from test-particle models.
Corrugation of Relativistic Magnetized Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, Martin; Ramos, Oscar; Gremillet, Laurent
2016-08-01
As a shock front interacts with turbulence it develops corrugation, which induces outgoing wave modes in the downstream plasma. For a fast shock wave, the incoming wave modes can either be fast magnetosonic waves originating downstream, outrunning the shock, or eigenmodes of the upstream plasma drifting through the shock. Using linear perturbation theory in relativistic MHD, this paper provides a general analysis of the corrugation of relativistic magnetized fast shock waves resulting from their interaction with small amplitude disturbances. Transfer functions characterizing the linear response for each of the outgoing modes are calculated as a function of the magnetization of the upstream medium and as a function of the nature of the incoming wave. Interestingly, if the latter is an eigenmode of the upstream plasma, we find that there exists a resonance at which the (linear) response of the shock becomes large or even diverges. This result may have profound consequences on the phenomenology of astrophysical relativistic magnetized shock waves.
Bow shock and magnetosheath waves at Mercury
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fairfield, D. H.; Behannon, K. W.
1975-01-01
Mariner 10 measurements at the Mercury bow shock provide examples where the magnetic field is approximately parallel or perpendicular to the bow shock normal. Upstream of a broad irregular parallel shock, left hand circularly polarized waves are observed which cut off very sharply at approximately 4 Hz. Upstream of a perpendicular shock, right hand circularly polarized waves are observed which persist up to the Nyquist frequency of 12 Ha. Determination of the wave propagation vector as a function of frequency helps conclusively identify the waves as whistler mode waves propagating from the shock. The magnetosheath downstream of the parallel shock is disturbed more than that downstream of the perpendicular shock particularly below 1 Hz. In the latter case regular left hand polarized waves observed slightly above the proton gyrofrequency are identified as ion cyclotron waves with wavelength approximately 300 km which are Doppler shifted up to their observed frequency.
A new class of solutions for interstellar magnetohydrodynamic shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberge, W. G.; Draine, B. T.
1990-01-01
An analysis is presented of the equations of motion for steady MHD shock waves proopagating in interstellar clouds, for boundary conditions that preclude C shocks. In addition to J shocks, in which the neutral fluid component becomes subsonic at an adiabatic jump front, the equations admit a new class of solutions, called C-asterisk shocks, in which the transition to subsonic flow occurs continuously at a sonic point. Numerical methods are developed for computing the structure of J and C-asterisk shocks propagating in diffuse interstellar clouds. The effects of chemical, ionization, and recombination processes are included in this treatment. An alternative numerical method, which uses artificial viscosity to facilitate integration through sonic points, is analyzed and shown to be invalid. A set of exemplary solutions, computed for realistic shock parameters, shows that C-asterisk shocks occur for a broad range of conditions relevant to diffuse interstellar clouds.
A new class of solutions for interstellar magnetohydrodynamic shock waves
Roberge, W.G.; Draine, B.T. Princeton Univ. Observatory, NJ )
1990-02-01
An analysis is presented of the equations of motion for steady MHD shock waves propagating in interstellar clouds, for boundary conditions that preclude C shocks. In addition to J shocks, in which the neutral fluid component becomes subsonic at an adiabatic jump front, the equations admit a new class of solutions, called C-asterisk shocks, in which the transition to subsonic flow occurs continuously at a sonic point. Numerical methods are developed for computing the structure of J and C-asterisk shocks propagating in diffuse interstellar clouds. The effects of chemical, ionization, and recombination processes are included in this treatment. An alternative numerical method, which uses artificial viscosity to facilitate integration through sonic points, is analyzed and shown to be invalid. A set of exemplary solutions, computed for realistic shock parameters, shows that C-asterisk shocks occur for a broad range of conditions relevant to diffuse interstellar clouds. 27 refs.
Evidence of Branching Phenomena in Current-Driven Ionization Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loebner, Keith T. K.; Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.
2015-10-01
This Letter reports the first fully consistent experimental observations of current-driven ionization waves conforming to the magnetohydrodynamic Rankine-Hugoniot model for hydromagnetic shocks. Detailed measurements of the thermodynamic and electrodynamic plasma state variables across the ionization region confirm the existence of two types of waves, corresponding to the upper and lower solution branches of the Hugoniot curve. These waves are generated by pulsed currents in a coaxial gas-fed plasma accelerator. The coupling between the state variables of this complex, transient, three-dimensional system shows a remarkable quantitative agreement of less than 8% deviation from the quasisteady, one-dimensional theoretical model.
Propagation of shock waves through petroleum suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukuk, K. V.; Makhkamov, S. M.; Azizov, K. K.
1986-01-01
Anomalous shock wave propagation through petroleum with a high paraffin content was studied in an attempt to confirm the theoretically predicted breakdown of a forward shock wave into oscillating waves and wave packets as well as individual solitons. Tests were performed in a shock tube at 10, 20, and 50 to 60 C, with pure kerosene as reference and with kerosene + 5, 10, 15, and 20% paraffin. The addition of paraffin was found to radically alter the rheodynamic characteristics of the medium and, along with it, the pattern of shock wave propagation. The integro-differential equation describing a one dimensional hydraulic shock process in viscoelastic fluids is reduced to the Burgers-Korteweg-deVries equation, which is solved numerically for given values of the system parameters. The results indicate that the theory of shock wave propagation through such an anomalous suspension must be modified.
Electron physics in shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilian, Patrick
2014-05-01
The non-relativistic shocks that we find in the solar wind (no matter if driven by CMEs or encounters with planets) are dominated by ion dynamics. Therefore a detailed treatment of electrons is often neglegted to gain significant reductions in computational effort. With recent super computers and massively parallel codes it is possible to perform self-consistent kinetic simulations using particle in cell code. This allows to study the heating of the electrons as well as the acceleration to superthermal energies. These energetic electrons are interesting for couple of reasons. e.g. as an influence on plasma instabilities or for the generation of plasma waves.
Interplanetary shock waves associated with solar flares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, J. K.; Sakurai, K.
1974-01-01
The interaction of the earth's magnetic field with the solar wind is discussed with emphasis on the influence of solar flares. The geomagnetic storms are considerered to be the result of the arrival of shock wave generated by solar flares in interplanetary space. Basic processes in the solar atmosphere and interplanetary space, and hydromagnetic disturbances associated with the solar flares are discussed along with observational and theoretical problems of interplanetary shock waves. The origin of interplanetary shock waves is also discussed.
Oblique interaction of waves with shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morro, A.
The oblique interaction between plane waves and shocks in materials described by a system of conservation equations is investigated. Two results are found. First, a straightforward geometric-kinematic analysis of the interaction yields a relation for each emergent mode (i.e., the outgoing wave) which determines the relation of propagation once the incident wave is given. Second, the shock may undergo an angular velocity which is ultimately related to the shock acceleration
Developments in strong shock wave position tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rae, Philip; Glover, Brain; Perry, Lee; WX-6; WX-7 Team
2011-06-01
This poster will highlight several modified techniques to allow the position vs. time to be tracked in strong shock situations (such as detonation). Each is a modification or improvement of existing ideas either making use of advances in specialist materials availability or recent advances in electronics.) Shorting embedded mini-coaxial cable with a standing microwave pattern. This technique is a modified version of an old LANL method of shock position tracking making use of a traveling short imposed in an embedded coaxial cable. A high frequency standing wave (3-8GHz) is present in the cable and the moving short position can be tracked by monitoring the output voltage envelope as a function of time. A diode detector is used to allow the envelope voltage to be monitored on a regular low frequency digitizer significantly reducing the cost. The small and cheap high frequency voltage generators now available allow much greater spatial resolution than possible previously. 2) Very thin shorting resistance track gauges. Parallel tracks of constantan resistance material are etched on a thin dielectric substrate. The gauges are less than 0.2 mm thick. The ionized gas present in a detonation front sweeps up the tracks lowering the measured resistance. A potential divider circuit allows the shock position vs. time to be monitored on a regular digitizer after easy calibration. The novel feature is the thin section of the gauge producing minimal perturbation in the detonation front.
The role of divergences for shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, Francisco
2013-11-01
Several continuum theories for shock waves give rise to a set of differential equations in which the analysis of the underlying vector field can be done using the tools of the theory of dynamical systems. We illustrate the importance of the divergences associated with the vector field by considering the ideas by Maxwell and Cattaneo and applied them to study shock waves in dilute gases. Different theoretical descriptions for shock waves are mentioned and some of them are compared with experimental data and computer simulations. Our goal is to derive conditions under which the shock wave problem has a solution by analyzing the singularities of the vector field.
Implications of pressure diffusion for shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ram, Ram Bachan
1989-01-01
The report deals with the possible implications of pressure diffusion for shocks in one dimensional traveling waves in an ideal gas. From this new hypothesis all aspects of such shocks can be calculated except shock thickness. Unlike conventional shock theory, the concept of entropy is not needed or used. Our analysis shows that temperature rises near a shock, which is of course an experimental fact; however, it also predicts that very close to a shock, density increases faster than pressure. In other words, a shock itself is cold.
Shock Wave Technology and Application: An Update☆
Rassweiler, Jens J.; Knoll, Thomas; Köhrmann, Kai-Uwe; McAteer, James A.; Lingeman, James E.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Bailey, Michael R.; Chaussy, Christian
2012-01-01
Context The introduction of new lithotripters has increased problems associated with shock wave application. Recent studies concerning mechanisms of stone disintegration, shock wave focusing, coupling, and application have appeared that may address some of these problems. Objective To present a consensus with respect to the physics and techniques used by urologists, physicists, and representatives of European lithotripter companies. Evidence acquisition We reviewed recent literature (PubMed, Embase, Medline) that focused on the physics of shock waves, theories of stone disintegration, and studies on optimising shock wave application. In addition, we used relevant information from a consensus meeting of the German Society of Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Evidence synthesis Besides established mechanisms describing initial fragmentation (tear and shear forces, spallation, cavitation, quasi-static squeezing), the model of dynamic squeezing offers new insight in stone comminution. Manufacturers have modified sources to either enlarge the focal zone or offer different focal sizes. The efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) can be increased by lowering the pulse rate to 60–80 shock waves/min and by ramping the shock wave energy. With the water cushion, the quality of coupling has become a critical factor that depends on the amount, viscosity, and temperature of the gel. Fluoroscopy time can be reduced by automated localisation or the use of optical and acoustic tracking systems. There is a trend towards larger focal zones and lower shock wave pressures. Conclusions New theories for stone disintegration favour the use of shock wave sources with larger focal zones. Use of slower pulse rates, ramping strategies, and adequate coupling of the shock wave head can significantly increase the efficacy and safety of ESWL. PMID:21354696
Gigabar shock wave in a laboratory experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gus'kov, S. Yu.
2016-03-01
The current status of research on generating a powerful shock wave with a pressure of up to several gigabars in a laboratory experiment is reviewed. The focus is on results which give a possibility of shock-wave experiments to study an equation of state of matter (EOS) at the level of gigabar pressure. The proposals are discussed to achieve a plane record-pressure shock wave driven by laser-accelerated fast electrons with respect to EOS-experiment as well as to prospective method of inertial fusion target (ICF) ignition as shock ignition.
Noise transmission along shock-waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amur Varadarajan, Prasanna
Shocks at the inlet of scramjet engines are subject to perturbations from their interaction with turbulent boundary layer. DNS results for this interaction indicate the presence of discrete vortices that interact with the shock at its foot. These studies reveal that the vortices cause oscillations of the shock. In this work we examine the propagation of disturbances along a stationary oblique shock following interaction with a two-dimensional vortex. We study the decay of disturbances along a normal shock as measured from Euler computations and compare these with the predictions of Geometrical Shock Dynamics (GSD) for long range propagation. We have incorporated two improvements into the GSD model to tackle the shock-vortex interaction problem. The wave structure of the disturbance resembles N waves, the decay of which follows a power law profile. An extension of the GSD model to predict shock surface propagation in 3-D flows is presented along with the numerical implementation.
Biological Effects of Shock Waves on Infection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Janardhanraj, S.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Gopalan, Jagadeesh
Shock waves have been successfully used for disintegrating kidney stones[1], noninvasive angiogenic approach[2] and for the treatment of osteoporosis[3]. Recently shock waves have been used to treat different medical conditions including intestinal anastomosis[4], wound healing[5], Kienböck's disease[6] and articular cartilage defects[7].
Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Kearney, Cathal; Spector, Myron
2012-10-01
For the past decade extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been applied to a wide range of musculoskeletal disorders. The many promising results and the introduction of shock wave generators that are less expensive and easier to handle has added to the growing interest. Based on their nature of propagation, shock waves can be divided into two types: focused and unfocused. Although several physical differences between these different types of shock waves have been described, very little is known about the clinical outcome using these different modalities. The aim of the present review is to investigate differences in outcome in select orthopaedic applications using focused and unfocused shock waves. PMID:22920552
A midsummer-night's shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hargather, Michael; Liebner, Thomas; Settles, Gary
2007-11-01
The aerial pyrotechnic shells used in professional display fireworks explode a bursting charge at altitude in order to disperse the ``stars'' of the display. The shock wave from the bursting charge is heard on the ground as a loud report, though it has by then typically decayed to a mere sound wave. However, viewers seated near the standard safety borders can still be subjected to weak shock waves. These have been visualized using a large, portable, retro-reflective ``Edgerton'' shadowgraph technique and a high-speed digital video camera. Images recorded at 10,000 frames per second show essentially-planar shock waves from 10- and 15-cm firework shells impinging on viewers during the 2007 Central Pennsylvania July 4th Festival. The shock speed is not measurably above Mach 1, but we nonetheless conclude that, if one can sense a shock-like overpressure, then the wave motion is strong enough to be observed by density-sensitive optics.
Spherical shock waves in general relativity
Nutku, Y. )
1991-11-15
We present the metric appropriate to a spherical shock wave in the framework of general relativity. This is a Petrov type-{ital N} vacuum solution of the Einstein field equations where the metric is continuous across the shock and the Riemann tensor suffers a step-function discontinuity. Spherical gravitational waves are described by type-{ital N} Robinson-Trautman metrics. However, for shock waves the Robinson-Trautman solutions are unacceptable because the metric becomes discontinuous in the Robinson-Trautman coordinate system. Other coordinate systems that have so far been introduced for describing Robinson-Trautman solutions also suffer from the same defect. We shall present the {ital C}{sup 0}-form of the metric appropriate to spherical shock waves using Penrose's approach of identification with warp. Further extensions of Penrose's method yield accelerating, as well as coupled electromagnetic-gravitational shock-wave solutions.
Computing unsteady shock waves for aeroacoustic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meadows, Kristine R.; Caughey, David A.; Casper, Jay
1994-01-01
The computation of unsteady shock waves, which contribute significantly to noise generation in supersonic jet flows, is investigated. The paper focuses on the difficulties of computing slowly moving shock waves. Numerical error is found to manifest itself principally as a spurious entropy wave. Calculations presented are performed using a third-order essentially nonoscillatory scheme. The effect of stencil biasing parameters and of two versions of numerical flux formulas on the magnitude of spurious entropy are investigated. The level of numerical error introduced in the calculation is quantified as a function of shock pressure ratio, shock speed, Courant number, and mesh density. The spurious entropy relative to the entropy jump across a static shock decreases with increasing shock strength and shock velocity relative to the grid, but is insensitive to Courant number. The structure of the spurious entropy wave is affected by the choice of flux formulas and algorithm biasing parameters. The effect of the spurious numerical waves on the calculation of sound amplification by a shock wave is investigated. For this class of problem, the acoustic pressure waves are relatively unaffected by the spurious numerical phenomena.
Computing unsteady shock waves for aeroacoustic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meadows,, Kristine r.; Caughey, David A.; Casper, Jay
1994-01-01
The computation of unsteady shock waves, which contribute significantly to noise generation in supersonic jet flows, is investigated. This paper focuses on the difficulties of computing slowly moving shock waves. Numerical error is found to manifest itself principally as a spurious entropy wave. Calculations presented are performed using a third order essentially nonoscillatory scheme. The effect of stencil biasing parameters and of two versions of numerical flux formulas on the magnitude of spurious entropy are investigated. The level of numerical error introduced in the calculation in quantified as a function of shock pressure ratio, shock speed, Courant number, and mesh density. The spurious entropy relative to the entropy jump across a static shock decreases with increasing shock strength and shock velocity relative to the grid, but is insensitive to Courant number. The structure of the spurious entropy wave is affected by the choice of flux formulas and algorithm biasing parameters. The effect of the spurious numerical waves on the calculation of sound amplification by a shock wave is investigated. For this class of problem, the acoustic pressure waves are relatively unaffected by the spurious numerical phenomena.
Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.
2012-01-01
We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary shocks measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these shocks, which on average are high beta shocks (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the shocks. In the upstream region the waves are mainly circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the shock normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the shock. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP shocks than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the shock interface, and they decrease as the distance to the shock increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the shock increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the shock. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the shock interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the shock-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to
PIC-DSMC analysis on interaction of a laser induced discharge and shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamura, Kohei
2015-09-01
Laser induced discharge and the shock wave have attracted great interest for use in the electrical engineering. When the high intensity laser (10 GW >) is focused in the atmosphere, the breakdown occurs and the discharge wave propagates toward to the laser irradiation. The shock wave is generated around the discharge wave, which is called as the laser supported detonation wave. After breakdown occurred, the initial electron of the avalanche ionization is produced by the photoionization due to the plasma radiation. It is well recognized that the radiation of the laser plasma affects the propagation mechanism of the laser induced discharge wave after the initiation of the breakdown. However, it is difficult to observe the interaction between the plasma radiation and the electron avalanche in the ionization-wave front in experimentally except in the high intensity laser. In the numerical calculation of the laser-induced discharge, the fluid dynamics based on the Navier-Stokes equation have been widely used. However, it is difficult to investigate the avalanche ionization at the wave front using the fluid dynamics simulation. To investigate the interaction of the ionization-wave front and the shock wave, it is appropriate to utilize the PIC-DSMC method. The present study showed the propagation of the ionization front of the discharge wave and the shock wave using the particle simulation. This work was supported by Kato Foundation for Promotion of Science and Japan Power Academy.
Instability of spherically imploding shock waves
Chen, H.; Hilko, B.; Zhang, L.; Panarella, E.
1995-12-31
The importance of spherically imploding shock waves has increased recently due to their particular applications in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the Spherical Pinch (SP). In particular, the stability of spherically imploding shock waves plays a critical role in the ultimate success of ICF and SP. The instability of spherically imploding shock waves is now systematically investigated. The basic state is Guderley and Landau`s unsteady self-similar solution of the implosion of a spherical shock wave. The stability analysis is conducted by combining Chandresakhar`s approach to the stability of spherical flames together. The governing equations for disturbances are derived and they use the condition that perturbed gas flow is potential. The three dimensional perturbation velocity profile and a shock front perturbation are solved by using the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions in the shock front. The time-dependent amplitudes of the perturbations are obtained by solving the system of ordinary differential equations. This enables them to study the time history of the spherically imploding shock wave subject to perturbations. The relative amplification and decay of the amplitudes of perturbations decides the stability/instability of the spherical imploding shock waves. Preliminary results are presented.
Stability of imploding spherical shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, H. B.; Zhang, L.; Panarella, E.
1995-12-01
The stability of spherically imploding shock waves is systematically investigated in this letter. The basic state is Guderley and Landau's unsteady self-similar solution of the implosion of a spherical shock wave. The stability analysis is conducted by combining Chandrasekhar's approach to the stability of a viscous liquid drop with Zel'dovich's approach to the stability of spherical flames. The time-dependent amplitudes of the perturbations are obtained analytically by using perturbation method. The relative amplification and decay of the amplitudes of perturbations decides the stability/instability of the spherical imploding shock waves. It is found that the growth rate of perturbations is not in exponential form and near the collapse phase of the shocks, the spherically imploding shock waves are relatively stable.
Stability of imploding spherical shock waves
Chen, H.B.; Zhang, L.; Panarella, E.
1995-12-01
The stability of spherically imploding shock waves is systematically investigated in this letter. The basic state is Guderley and Landau`s unsteady self-similar solution of the implosion of a spherical shock wave. The stability analysis is conducted by combining Chandrasekhar`s approach to the stability of a viscous liquid drop with Zel`dovich`s approach to the stability of spherical flames. The time-dependent amplitudes of the perturbations are obtained analytically by using perturbation method. The relative amplification and decay of the amplitudes of perturbations are obtained analytically by using perturbation method. The relative amplification and decay of the amplitudes of perturbations decides the stability/instability of the spherical imploding shock waves. It is found that the growth rate of perturbations is not in exponential form and near the collapse phase of the shocks, the spherically imploding shock waves are relatively stable. 14 refs., 1 fig.
Overview of shock waves in medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleveland, Robin O.
2003-10-01
A brief overview of three applications of shock waves is presented. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has been in clinical use for more than 20 years. In the United States it is used to treat more than 80% of kidney stone cases and has wide acceptance with patients because it is a noninvasive procedure. Despite SWLs enormous success there is no agreement on how shock waves comminute stones. There is also a general acceptance that shock waves lead to trauma to the soft tissue of the kidney. Yet there has been little forward progress in developing lithotripters which provide comminution with less side-effects, indeed the original machine is still considered the gold standard. The last decade has seen the advent of new shock wave devices for treating principally musculoskeletal indications, such as plantar fasciitis, tennis elbow, and bone fractures that do not heal. This is referred to as shock wave therapy (SWT). The mechanisms by which SWT works are even less well understood than SWL and the consequences of bioeffects have also not been studied in detail. Shock waves have also been shown to be effective at enhancing drug delivery into cells and assisting with gene transfection. [Work partially supported by NIH.
Shock tube study of ionization rates of NaCl-contaminated argon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scheneider, C.-P.; Park, C.
1975-01-01
Spectrally resolved radiometry and a microwave technique were used to measure the electron density, electron temperature, and concentration, and the concentration of sodium atoms in the weakly ionized region behind a shock wave in an argon shock tube. It is shown that the observed increase in the ionization rate is due to electron detachment of negative chlorine ions produced from sodium chloride vapor contained as an impurity in the argon gas. The observed behavior of the electron temperature in time and the reactions controlled by the electron temperature are analyzed in the light of the impurity reaction scheme.
Ion acoustic shock waves in degenerate plasmas
Akhtar, N.; Hussain, S.
2011-07-15
Korteweg de Vries Burgers equation for negative ion degenerate dissipative plasma has been derived using reductive perturbation technique. The quantum hydrodynamic model is used to study the quantum ion acoustic shock waves. The effects of different parameters on quantum ion acoustic shock waves are studied. It is found that quantum parameter, electrons Fermi temperature, temperature of positive and negative ions, mass ratio of positive to negative ions, viscosity, and density ratio have significant impact on the shock wave structure in negative ion degenerate plasma.
Rarefaction shock waves in shock-compressed diamond <110> crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perriot, Romain; Lin, You; Zhakhovsky, Vasily; White, Carter; Oleynik, Ivan
2013-03-01
Piston-driven shock compression of diamond <110> crystal was simulated by molecular dynamics using the REBO potential. At piston velocities between 2 and 5 km/s and corresponding pressures 117 GPA < P < 278 GPa, diamond sample undergoes a polymorphic phase transition, characterized by the coexistence of two elastically compressed phases, low-pressure phase A and high-pressure phase B. This phase transition results in the splitting of the shock wave into two elastic shock waves, composed of pure phase A and a mixture of phases A and B. Upon removal of the piston, a release wave is observed at the rear of the sample, turning into a rarefaction shock wave where the material undergoes the reverse phase transition from coexisting phases to the original low-pressure phase. For strong plastic waves induced by larger piston velocities the release wave propagates as a rarefaction wave without any phase transition corresponding to the adiabatic expansion along the plastic branch of the Hugoniot.
Shock wave control using liquid curtains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colvert, Brendan; Tao, Xingtian; Eliasson, Veronica
2014-11-01
The effectiveness of a planar wall of liquid as a blast mitigation device is examined using a shock tube and a custom-designed and -built shock test chamber. Experimental data collection methods being used include high-speed schlieren photography and high-frequency pressure sensors. During the relevant shock interaction time periods, the liquid-gas interface is examined to determine its effect on shock waves. The characteristic quantities that reflect these effects include reflected-to-incident shock strength ratio, transmitted-to-incident shock strength ratio, transmitted and reflected impulse, and peak pressure reduction. These parameters are examined for correlations to incident wave speed, liquid mass, liquid density, and liquid viscosity. Initial results have been obtained that show a correlation between fluid mass and peak pressure reduction. More experiments are being performed to further explore this relationship as well as examine the effects of altering the other parameters such as liquid-gas interface geometry and using dilatant fluids.
The microphysics of collisionless shock waves.
Marcowith, A; Bret, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O'C; Lembège, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem
2016-04-01
Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics. PMID:27007555
The microphysics of collisionless shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcowith, A.; Bret, A.; Bykov, A.; Dieckman, M. E.; O'C Drury, L.; Lembège, B.; Lemoine, M.; Morlino, G.; Murphy, G.; Pelletier, G.; Plotnikov, I.; Reville, B.; Riquelme, M.; Sironi, L.; Stockem Novo, A.
2016-04-01
Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics.
Shock waves on complex networks
Mones, Enys; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Vicsek, Tamás; Herrmann, Hans J.
2014-01-01
Power grids, road maps, and river streams are examples of infrastructural networks which are highly vulnerable to external perturbations. An abrupt local change of load (voltage, traffic density, or water level) might propagate in a cascading way and affect a significant fraction of the network. Almost discontinuous perturbations can be modeled by shock waves which can eventually interfere constructively and endanger the normal functionality of the infrastructure. We study their dynamics by solving the Burgers equation under random perturbations on several real and artificial directed graphs. Even for graphs with a narrow distribution of node properties (e.g., degree or betweenness), a steady state is reached exhibiting a heterogeneous load distribution, having a difference of one order of magnitude between the highest and average loads. Unexpectedly we find for the European power grid and for finite Watts-Strogatz networks a broad pronounced bimodal distribution for the loads. To identify the most vulnerable nodes, we introduce the concept of node-basin size, a purely topological property which we show to be strongly correlated to the average load of a node. PMID:24821422
Shock waves on complex networks.
Mones, Enys; Araújo, Nuno A M; Vicsek, Tamás; Herrmann, Hans J
2014-01-01
Power grids, road maps, and river streams are examples of infrastructural networks which are highly vulnerable to external perturbations. An abrupt local change of load (voltage, traffic density, or water level) might propagate in a cascading way and affect a significant fraction of the network. Almost discontinuous perturbations can be modeled by shock waves which can eventually interfere constructively and endanger the normal functionality of the infrastructure. We study their dynamics by solving the Burgers equation under random perturbations on several real and artificial directed graphs. Even for graphs with a narrow distribution of node properties (e.g., degree or betweenness), a steady state is reached exhibiting a heterogeneous load distribution, having a difference of one order of magnitude between the highest and average loads. Unexpectedly we find for the European power grid and for finite Watts-Strogatz networks a broad pronounced bimodal distribution for the loads. To identify the most vulnerable nodes, we introduce the concept of node-basin size, a purely topological property which we show to be strongly correlated to the average load of a node. PMID:24821422
The physics of interstellar shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shull, J. Michael; Draine, Bruce T.
1987-01-01
This review discusses the observations and theoretical models of interstellar shock waves, in both diffuse cloud and molecular cloud environments. It summarizes the relevant gas dynamics, atomic, molecular and grain processes, radiative transfer, and physics of radiative and magnetic precursors in shock models. It then describes the importance of shocks for observations, diagnostics, and global interstellar dynamics. It concludes with current research problems and data needs for atomic, molecular and grain physics.
Shock compaction of magnet powder using underwater shock wave
Kubota, Shiro; Fujita, Masahiro; Itoh, Shigeru
1996-12-31
In order to get a high plug density (over 90%), the authors tried a direct consolidation of the magnet powder using the converging underwater shock wave created by the underwater explosion of explosives. The processes of the consolidation of the magnet powder were investigated by numerical calculation. They obtained the parameters of the EOS (Petrie-Page model) for Magnet powder using quasi-static loading experiments. Moreover, the characteristics of the shock compaction assembly were also verified.
Shock waves: The Maxwell-Cattaneo case.
Uribe, F J
2016-03-01
Several continuum theories for shock waves give rise to a set of differential equations in which the analysis of the underlying vector field can be done using the tools of the theory of dynamical systems. We illustrate the importance of the divergences associated with the vector field by considering the ideas by Maxwell and Cattaneo and apply them to study shock waves in dilute gases. By comparing the predictions of the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations with shock wave experiments we are lead to the following conclusions: (a) For low compressions (low Mach numbers: M) the results from the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations provide profiles that are in fair agreement with the experiments, (b) as the Mach number is increased we find a range of Mach numbers (1.27≈M_{1}
Beamwidth measurement of individual lithotripter shock waves
Kreider, Wayne; Bailey, Michael R.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.
2009-01-01
New lithotripters with narrower foci and higher peak pressures than the original Dornier HM3 electrohydraulic lithotripter have proven to be less effective and less safe. Hence, accurate measurements of the focal characteristics of lithotripter shock waves are important. The current technique for measuring beamwidth requires a collection of single-point measurements over multiple shock waves, thereby introducing error as a result of any shock-to-shock variability. This work reports on the construction of a hydrophone array sensor and on array measurements of individual lithotripter shock waves. Beamwidths for an electrohydraulic lithotripter with a broad-focus HM3-style reflector and a narrow-focus modified reflector were measured using both new and worn electrodes as well as two different electrical charging potentials. The array measured the waveform, beamwidth, and focal location of individual shock waves. The HM3-style reflector produced repeatable focal waveforms and beam profiles at an 18 kV charging potential with new and worn electrodes. Corresponding measurements suggest a narrower beamwidth than reported previously from averaged point measurements acquired under the same conditions. In addition, a lack of consistency in the measured beam profiles at 23 kV underscores the value of measuring individual shock waves. PMID:19206897
Shock wave sensors: I. Requirements and design.
Lewin, P A; Schafer, M E
1991-01-01
In the last 9 years, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has become one of the preferred procedures for the treatment of urinary and gallbladder calculi. While there is still uncertainty as to the mechanisms of stone fragmentation, current hypotheses suggest that acoustical shock wave parameters such as rise time, peak compressional and rarefactional pressure, and frequency content may all influence the treatment's efficiency. Thus, optimization of lithotripsy treatment needs pressure sensors that can adequately characterize the shock wave field. This article presents and discusses the design of reliable, wideband, quantitative shock wave sensors made of piezoelectric material. The development, design, and performance characteristics of the sensors are presented. Sensor construction details are described, as are the methods used to characterize the sensor's acoustical performance. The key acoustical parameters of the sensor, its frequency response, and directivity pattern are presented; theory indicates that the probes feature uniform sensitivity over the frequency range up to 100 MHz. Preliminary experimental results indicate that piezoelectric polymer sensors made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a low acoustical impedance backing are suitable for lithotripter field measurements. The applicability of sensors based on fiber optics to shock wave measurements is also briefly discussed. In a companion article, shock wave measurement techniques are outlined and selected lithotripter test data are presented. PMID:10149140
Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition
Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2013-08-15
A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number M{sub s0} is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter M{sub s}{sup −2}. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock Λ(t)∝dU{sub s}/dR{sub s} now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.
Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2013-08-01
A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number Ms0 is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter Ms-2. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock Λ(t)∝dUs/dRs now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.
Possible Implications of Anomalous Shock Wave Behavior for Laser Fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bates, Jason W.; Montgomery, David C.
1997-11-01
In ``normal'' materials, shocks are compressive because of the inequality (partial^2p / partial V^2)_s> 0, which is, however, not dictated by thermodynamics.(e.g.), Ya. B. Zel'dovich and Yu. P. Raizer, ``Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena,'' (N.Y., Academic Press, 1967), Vol I, pp. 67-69; Vol II, pp. 750-762. In ``anomalous'' materials, the inequality may go the other way, and exotic phenomena result: rarefactive shocks, spreading compressive pulses, and shock wave ``splitting'' or instability.^2,(N. M. Kuznetsov, Sov. Phys. JETP 61), 275 (1985). Materials tend to behave ``anomalously'' in the vicinities of phase transitions. Shock-imploded DT fusion fuels will experience a variety of phase transitions, including melting, vaporization, molecular dissociation, and ionization. Imperfectly explored gas-dynamic problems may require attention to each case. For example, in the shock Hugoniot measurements of Da Silva et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 483 (1997)], the high-pressure part of Fig. 4b suggests the possibility of ``anomalous'' behavior.
Millimeter-wave Driven Shock Wave for a Pulsed Detonation Microwave Rocket
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komatsu, Reiji; Fukunari, Masafumi; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Sakamoto, Keishi
2011-11-01
A shock wave driven by millimeter wave ionization can be applied into a pulsed detonation engine as a Microwave Rocket. A high pressure induced inside the thruster generates the thrust, thus the shock wave propagation driven by the plasma is important. In this study, to obtain a different propagating structure, the beam profile was transformed from a Gaussian into a Ring and a Flat-top profile by using a pair of phase correcting mirrors. As a result, the shape of the propagating plasma was changed into a no-center shape in case of the Ring beam, and it was changed to a wider shape in case of the Flat-top beam. The propagating velocity of the ionization front of the Flat-top beam was much lower than that of the Gaussian due to the lower peak power density, and a higher plateau pressure and higher thrust impulse were generated by the Flat-top beam.
Whistler waves observed upstream from collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fairfield, D. H.
1973-01-01
Waves in the frequency range 0.5 - 4 Hz were studied in the region upstream of the earth's bow shock using data from the fluxgate magnetic field experiment on IMP-6. Analysis of 150 examples of these waves during a three month interval indicates that amplitudes are generally less than 1 or 2 gammas and propagation directions generally make angles of between 20 and 40 degrees with the field direction. The waves as measured in the spacecraft frame of reference are either left or right hand polarized with respect to the average field direction. It is concluded that the observed waves are right handed waves in the plasma frame of reference with wavelengths of approximately 100 km propagating upstream in the whistler mode. Doppler shifting reduces the observed frequencies in the spacecraft frame and reverses the observed polarization for those waves propagating more directly upstream. Similar waves are seen ahead of most interplanetary shocks.
Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan
2013-01-01
Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.
Stishovite: Synthesis by shock wave
De Carli, P. S.; Milton, D.J.
1965-01-01
Small amounts of stishovite were separated from specimens of explosively shocked sandstones, novaculite, and single-crystal quartz. Estimated peak pressures for the syntheses ranged from 150 to 280 kilobars, and shock temperatures were from 150?? to 900??C. No coesite was detected in any sample. It is suggested that quartz can invert during shock to a short-range-order phase, with sixfold coordination. A small portion of this phase may develop the long-range order of stishovite, and, during the more protracted decrease of the pressure pulse through the stability field of coesite accompanying meteorite crater formation, a portion may invert to coesite.
Turbulent Water Coupling in Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Lautz, Jaclyn; Sankin, Georgy; Zhong, Pei
2013-01-01
Previous studies have demonstrated that stone comminution decreases with increased pulse repetition frequency as a result of bubble proliferation in the cavitation field of a shock wave lithotripter (Pishchalnikov et al., 2011). If cavitation nuclei remain in the propagation path of successive lithotripter pulses, especially in the acoustic coupling cushion of the shock wave source, they will consume part of the incident wave energy, leading to reduced tensile pressure in the focal region and thus lower stone comminution efficiency. We introduce a method to remove cavitation nuclei from the coupling cushion between successive shock exposures using a jet of degassed water. As a result, pre-focal bubble nuclei lifetime quantified by B-mode ultrasound imaging was reduced from 7 s to 0.3 s by a jet with an exit velocity of 62 cm/s. Stone fragmentation (percent mass < 2 mm) after 250 shocks delivered at 1 Hz was enhanced from 22 ± 6% to 33 ± 5% (p = 0.007) in water without interposing tissue mimicking materials. Stone fragmentation after 500 shocks delivered at 2 Hz was increased from 18 ± 6% to 28 ± 8% (p = 0.04) with an interposing tissue phantom of 8 cm thick. These results demonstrate the critical influence of cavitation bubbles in the coupling cushion on stone comminution and suggest a potential strategy to improve the efficacy of contemporary shock wave lithotripters. PMID:23322027
Feldman, W.C.; Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.; Isenberg, P.A.
1996-07-01
Solar wind plasma data measured during the near-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission between October, 1990 and January, 1993 were studied to determine the relative importance of electron-impact ionization to the total ionization rates of interstellar hydrogen and helium atoms. During times of quiet flow conditions electron-impact ionization rates were found to be generally low, of the order of 1{percent} of the total ionization rates. However, just downstream of the strongest CME- and CIR-driven shock waves encountered by Ulysses, the electron impact-ionization rate at times was more than 10{percent} that of the charge-exchange rate for hydrogen and more than 100{percent} that of the photoionization rate for helium. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Damage mechanisms in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lokhandwalla, Murtuza
Shock wave lithotripsy is a 'non-invasive' therapy for treating kidney stones. Focused shock waves fragment stones to a size that can be passed naturally. There is, however, considerable tissue injury, and the mechanisms of stone fragmentation and tissue injury are not well understood. This work investigates potential tissue damage mechanisms, with an aim towards enhancing stone fragmentation and minimizing tissue damage. Lysis of red blood cells (RBC's) due to in vitro exposure to shock waves was investigated. Fluid flow-fields induced by a non-uniform shock wave, as well as radial expansion/implosion of a bubble was hypothesized to cause cell lysis. Both the above flow-fields constitute an unsteady extensional flow, exerting inertial as well as viscous forces on the RBC membrane. The resultant membrane tension and the membrane areal strain due to the above flow-fields were estimated. Both were found to exert a significantly higher inertial force (50--100 mN/m) than the critical membrane tension (10 mN/m). Bubble-induced flow-field was estimated to last for a longer duration (˜1 microsec) compared to the shock-induced flow (˜1 ns) and hence, was predicted to be lytically more effective, in typical in vitro experimental conditions. However, in vivo conditions severely constrain bubble growth, and cell lysis due to shock-induced shear could be dominant. Hemolysis due to shock-induced shear, in absence of cavitation, was experimentally investigated. The lithotripter-generated shock wave was refocused by a parabolic reflector. This refocused wave-field had a tighter focus (smaller beam-width and a higher amplitude) than the lithotripter wave-field. Cavitation was eliminated by applying overpressure to the fluid. Acoustic emissions due to bubble activity were monitored by a novel passive cavitation detector (HP-PCD). Aluminum foils were also used to differentiate cavitational from non-cavitational mode of damage. RBC's were exposed to the reflected wave-field from
Shock waves: The Maxwell-Cattaneo case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, F. J.
2016-03-01
Several continuum theories for shock waves give rise to a set of differential equations in which the analysis of the underlying vector field can be done using the tools of the theory of dynamical systems. We illustrate the importance of the divergences associated with the vector field by considering the ideas by Maxwell and Cattaneo and apply them to study shock waves in dilute gases. By comparing the predictions of the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations with shock wave experiments we are lead to the following conclusions: (a) For low compressions (low Mach numbers: M ) the results from the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations provide profiles that are in fair agreement with the experiments, (b) as the Mach number is increased we find a range of Mach numbers (1.27 ≈M1
Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2011-11-29
Nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) electro-acoustic [dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dust charge fluctuation (strong correlation among highly charged dust) is the source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DIA (DA) shock structures. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries on the time evolution of DIA and DA shock structures are examined and identified. The combined effects of vortex-like electron distribution and dust charge fluctuation (dust-correlation and effective dust-temperature) on the basic features of nonplanar DIA (DA) shock waves are pinpointed. The implications of our results in laboratory dusty plasma experiments are briefly discussed.
Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2011-11-01
Nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) electro-acoustic [dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dust charge fluctuation (strong correlation among highly charged dust) is the source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DIA (DA) shock structures. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries on the time evolution of DIA and DA shock structures are examined and identified. The combined effects of vortex-like electron distribution and dust charge fluctuation (dust-correlation and effective dust-temperature) on the basic features of nonplanar DIA (DA) shock waves are pinpointed. The implications of our results in laboratory dusty plasma experiments are briefly discussed.
Shock tube study of ionization rates of NaCl-contaminated argon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, K.-P.; Park, C.
1975-01-01
Electron density, electron temperature, and concentration of excited sodium atoms are measured in the weakly ionized regime behind a shock wave in impure argon in a shock tube using microwave techniques and spectrally resolved radiometry. Evidence is presented to show that an apparent increase in the rate of ionization is due to electron detachment of negative chlorine ions produced from sodium chloride vapor contained as an impurity. To be consistent with this chemical model, rate coefficients are found in the temperature range between 5500 and 8600 K for the dissociation of NaCl into an ion pair, dissociation of NaCl into a neutral pair, and electron detachment of a negative chlorine ion. Electron temperature is lower than heavy-particle temperature by roughly 1000 K. The electron-argon impact-ionization rate coefficient is a weak function of electron temperature in contradiction to expectation.
Kim, I.; Quevedo, H. J.; Feldman, S.; Bang, W.; Serratto, K.; McCormick, M.; Aymond, F.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T.
2013-12-15
Radiative blast waves were created by irradiating a krypton cluster source from a supersonic jet with a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. It was found that the radiation from the shock surface is absorbed in the optically thick upstream medium creating a radiative heat wave that travels supersonically ahead of the main shock. As the blast wave propagates into the heated medium, it slows and loses energy, and the radiative heat wave also slows down. When the radiative heat wave slows down to the transonic regime, a secondary shock in the ionization precursor is produced. This paper presents experimental data characterizing both the initial and secondary shocks and numerical simulations to analyze the double-shock dynamics.
Modification of the edge wave in shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yufeng
2012-10-01
To reduce the bubble cavitation and the consequent vascular injury of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), a new method was devised to modify the diffraction wave generated at the aperture of a Dornier HM-3 lithotripter. Subsequently, the duration of the tensile wave was shortened significantly (3.2±0.54 μs vs. 5.83±0.56 μs). However, the amplitude and duration of the compressive wave of LSW between these two groups as well as the -6 dB beam width and the amplitude of the tensile wave are almost unchanged. The suppression on bubble cavitation was confirmed using the passive cavitation technique. At the lithotripter focus, while 30 shocks can cause rupture of blood vessel phantom using the HM-3 lithotripter at 20 kV; no rupture could be found after 300 shocks with the edge extender. On the other hand, after 200 shocks the HM-3 lithotripter at 20 kV can achieve a stone fragmentation of 50.4±2.0% on plaster-of-Paris stone phantom, which is comparable to that of using the edge extender (46.8±4.1%, p=0.005). Altogether, the modification on the diffraction wave at the lithotripter aperture can significantly reduce the bubble cavitation activities. As a result, potential for vessel rupture in shock wave lithotripsy is expected.
Magnetoacoustic shock waves in dissipative degenerate plasmas
Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.
2011-11-15
Quantum magnetoacoustic shock waves are studied in homogenous, magnetized, dissipative dense electron-ion plasma by using two fluid quantum magneto-hydrodynamic (QMHD) model. The weak dissipation effects in the system are taken into account through kinematic viscosity of the ions. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) equation for magnetoacoustic wave propagating in the perpendicular direction to the external magnetic field in dense plasmas. The strength of magnetoacoustic shock is investigated with the variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, and ion kinematic viscosity of dense plasma system. The necessary condition for the existence of monotonic and oscillatory shock waves is also discussed. The numerical results are presented for illustration by using the data of astrophysical dense plasma situations such as neutron stars exist in the literature.
Laser Light Scattering by Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Adamovsky, G.
1995-01-01
Scattering of coherent light as it propagates parallel to a shock wave, formed in front of a bluff cylindrical body placed in a supersonic stream, is studied experimentally and numerically. Two incident optical fields are considered. First, a large diameter collimated beam is allowed to pass through the shock containing flow. The light intensity distribution in the resultant shadowgraph image, measured by a low light CCD camera, shows well-defined fringes upstream and downstream of the shadow cast by the shock. In the second situation, a narrow laser beam is brought to a grazing incidence on the shock and the scattered light, which appears as a diverging sheet from the point of interaction, is visualized and measured on a screen placed normal to the laser path. Experiments are conducted on shocks formed at various free-stream Mach numbers, M, and total pressures, P(sub 0). It is found that the widths of the shock shadows in a shadowgraph image become independent of M and P(sub 0) when plotted against the jump in the refractive index, (Delta)n, created across the shock. The total scattered light measured from the narrow laser beam and shock interaction also follows the same trend. In the numerical part of the study, the shock is assumed to be a 'phase object', which introduces phase difference between the upstream and downstream propagating parts of the light disturbances. For a given shape and (Delta)n of the bow shock the phase and amplitude modulations are first calculated by ray tracing. The wave front is then propagated to the screen using the Fresnet diffraction equation. The calculated intensity distribution, for both of the incident optical fields, shows good agreement with the experimental data.
Ionization effects of shock breakout in SN 1987A
Dopita, M.A.; Meatheringham, S.J.; Nulsen, P.; Wood, P.R.
1987-11-01
The epoch of shock breakout in SN 1987A was almost certainly associated with the production of a pulse of UV photons with a characteristic temperature of order 100,000 K and a duration of 2-4 hr. It is proposed that this pulse has the characteristics required to ionize the precursor stellar wind, temporarily ionize any nearby remnants of the red giant wind, and can ionize the surrounding interstellar medium out to distances of several parsecs for several thousand years. These effects could provide transitory free-free absorption of the synchrotron radio source and may offer an explanation of the ionized knot seen in speckle interferometry. A similar but more powerful outburst could also be responsible for the highly ionized halo seen around the SMC supernova remnant 1E 0102.2-7219. 28 references.
Unsteady interaction of shock and detonation waves in gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korobeinikov, Viktor P.
Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of unsteady shock-wave interactions (SWIs) in gases are discussed in chapters contributed by leading Soviet experts. Topics addressed include the thermodynamic and electrophysical parameters of gas flow behind shock waves, the effect of nonequilibrium physicochemical processes on the flow parameters behind a shock wave, shock-tube investigations of unsteady SWI, SWI with a porous compressible medium, and the reflection of shock waves by a plane surface. Consideration is given to the diffraction of a shock wave at a convex corner, unsteady SWIs with curvilinear surfaces, numerical simulations of SWIs with bodies of various shapes, and the unsteady interaction of detonation waves. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs.
Ionizing shocks in argon. Part II: Transient and multi-dimensional effects
Kapper, M. G.; Cambier, J.-L.
2011-06-01
We extend the computations of ionizing shocks in argon to the unsteady and multi-dimensional, using a collisional-radiative model and a single-fluid, two-temperature formulation of the conservation equations. It is shown that the fluctuations of the shock structure observed in shock-tube experiments can be reproduced by the numerical simulations and explained on the basis of the coupling of the nonlinear kinetics of the collisional-radiative model with wave propagation within the induction zone. The mechanism is analogous to instabilities of detonation waves and also produces a cellular structure commonly observed in gaseous detonations. We suggest that detailed simulations of such unsteady phenomena can yield further information for the validation of nonequilibrium kinetics.
Shock-wave properties of brittle solids
Grady, D.E.
1995-10-01
Extensive experimental investigation in the form of large-amplitude, nonlinear wave-profile measurements which manifest the shock strength and equation-of-state properties of brittle solids has been performed. Brittle materials for which a base of dynamic property data is available include Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, B{sub 4}C, CaCO{sub 3}, SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2} (quartz and glass), TiB{sub 2}, WC and ZrO{sub 2}. Planar impact methods and velocity interferometry diagnostics have been used exclusively to provide the high-resolution shock-profile data. These wave-profile data are providing engineering dynamic strength and equation-of-state properties as well as controlled, shock-induced motion histories for the validation of theoretical and Computational models. Of equal importance, such data are providing a window into the physics of a newly emerging understanding of the compression and deformation behavior of high-strength brittle solids. When considered along with a rich assortment of strength and deformation data in the literature, a systematic assessment of this shock-wave data lends strong support for failure waves and concomitant high-confinement dilatancy as a general mechanism of inelastic deformation in the shock compression of ceramics. Phase transformation in selected brittle solids appears to be a critical state phenomenon strongly controlled by kinetics. The risetime and structure of deformation shock waves in brittle solids are controlled by viscous effects which at present are still poorly understood. The shockwave data also suggest that both crystalline plasticity and brittle fracture may play important and interconnected roles in the dynamic failure process.
Collisionless Shocks in a Partially Ionized Medium. II. Balmer Emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morlino, G.; Bandiera, R.; Blasi, P.; Amato, E.
2012-12-01
Strong shocks propagating into a partially ionized medium are often associated with optical Balmer lines. This emission is due to impact excitation of neutral hydrogen by hot protons and electrons in the shocked gas. The structure of such Balmer-dominated shocks has been computed in a previous paper, where the distribution function of neutral particles was derived from the appropriate Boltzmann equation including coupling with ions and electrons through charge exchange and ionization. This calculation showed how the presence of neutrals can significantly modify the shock structure through the formation of a neutral-induced precursor ahead of the shock. Here we follow up on our previous work and investigate the properties of the resulting Balmer emission, with the aim of using the observed radiation as a diagnostic tool for shock parameters. Our main focus is on supernova remnant shocks, and we find that, for typical parameters, the Hα emission typically has a three-component spectral profile, where (1) a narrow component originates from upstream cold hydrogen atoms, (2) a broad component comes from hydrogen atoms that have undergone charge exchange with shocked protons downstream of the shock, and (3) an intermediate component is due to hydrogen atoms that have undergone charge exchange with warm protons in the neutral-induced precursor. The relative importance of these three components depends on the shock velocity, on the original degree of ionization, and on the electron-ion temperature equilibration level. The intermediate component, which is the main signature of the presence of a neutral-induced precursor, becomes negligible for shock velocities <~ 1500 km s-1. The width of the intermediate line reflects the temperature in the precursor, while the width of the narrow one is left unaltered by the precursor. In addition, we show that the profiles of both the intermediate and broad components generally depart from a thermal distribution, as a consequence of the
Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1993-01-01
In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.
Some aspects of shock-wave research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glass, I. I.
1986-01-01
The major portion of the paper is devoted to a specific shock-wave research problem, namely, pseudostationary oblique shock-wave reflections in perfect and imperfect gases. Consideration is given to what has been achieved to date by using two- and three-shock theory to predict what type of reflection results when a planar shock wave M(S), in a shock tube, collides with a sharp compressive wedge of angle, theta(W). Expermental (interferometric and other optical) data are presented in (M(S), theta(W))-plots for argon, nitrogen, oxygen, air, carbon-dioxide, Freon-12 and sulfurhexafluoride, in order to check the validity of the analytically predicted regions and transition lines of the four types of reflection. Some disagreements are noted and discussed. The present interferometric isopycnic data are also compared with state-of-the-art computational results from a solution of the inviscid Euler equations using a CRAY I computer. Good agreement was obtained; it would be important, however, to obtain new data by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as the rate equations for imperfect-gas excitations, in order to judge the improvement obtained with real-flow interferograms.
Magnetically accelerated foils for shock wave experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neff, Stephan; Ford, Jessica; Martinez, David; Plechaty, Christopher; Wright, Sandra; Presura, Radu
2008-04-01
The interaction of shock waves with inhomogeneous media is important in many astrophysical problems, e.g. the role of shock compression in star formation. Using scaled experiments with inhomogeneous foam targets makes it possible to study relevant physics in the laboratory, to better understand the mechanisms of shock compression and to benchmark astrophysical simulation codes. Experiments with flyer-generated shock waves have been performed on the Z machine in Sandia. The Zebra accelerator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) allows for complementary experiments with high repetition rate. First experiments on Zebra demonstrated flyer acceleration to sufficiently high velocities (around 2 km/s) and that laser shadowgraphy can image sound fronts in transparent targets. Based on this, we designed an optimized setup to improve the flyer parameters (higher speed and mass) to create shock waves in transparent media. Once x-ray backlighting with the Leopard laser at NTF is operational, we will switch to foam targets with parameters relevant for laboratory astrophysics.
Optical shock waves in silica aerogel.
Gentilini, S; Ghajeri, F; Ghofraniha, N; Di Falco, A; Conti, C
2014-01-27
Silica aerogels are materials well suited for high power nonlinear optical applications. In such regime, the non-trivial thermal properties may give rise to the generation of optical shock waves, which are also affected by the structural disorder due to the porous solid-state gel. Here we report on an experimental investigation in terms of beam waist and input power, and identify various regimes of the generation of wave-breaking phenomena in silica aerogels. PMID:24515173
Chromospheric heating by acoustic shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, Stuart D.
1993-01-01
Work by Anderson & Athay (1989) suggests that the mechanical energy required to heat the quiet solar chromosphere might be due to the dissipation of weak acoustic shocks. The calculations reported here demonstrate that a simple picture of chromospheric shock heating by acoustic waves propagating upward through a model solar atmosphere, free of both magnetic fields and local inhomogeneities, cannot reproduce their chromospheric model. The primary reason is the tendency for vertically propagating acoustic waves in the range of allowed periods to dissipate too low in the atmosphere, providing insufficient residual energy for the middle chromosphere. The effect of diverging magnetic fields and the corresponding expanding acoustic wavefronts on the mechanical dissipation length is then discussed as a means of preserving a quasi-acoustic heating hypothesis. It is argued that this effect, in a canopy that overlies the low chromosphere, might preserve the acoustic shock hypothesis consistent with the chromospheric radiation losses computed by Anderson & Athay.
Magnetically accelerated foils for shock wave experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neff, S.; Ford, J.; Wright, S.; Martinez, D.; Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.
2009-08-01
Many astrophysical phenomena involve the interaction of a shock wave with an inhomogeneous background medium. Using scaled experiments with inhomogeneous foam targets makes it possible to study relevant physics in the laboratory to better understand the mechanisms of shock compression and to benchmark astrophysical simulation codes. First experiments on Zebra at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) have demonstrated flyer acceleration to sufficiently high velocities (up to 5 km/s) and that laser shadowgraphy can image sound fronts in transparent targets. Based on this, we designed an optimized setup to improve the flyer parameters (higher speed and mass) to create shock waves in transparent media. Once x-ray backlighting with the Leopard laser at NTF is operational, we will switch to foam targets with parameters relevant for laboratory astrophysics.
International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levashov, Pavel
2013-06-01
Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound
Colliding electromagnetic shock waves in general relativity
Halilsoy, M.
1988-04-15
We derive a new, exact solution for the Einstein-Maxwell equations that describes the collision (interaction) of two arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic shock waves. In the limit that the polarization angle vanishes, our solution reduces to the Bell-Szekeres solution.
Uncovering the Secret of Shock Wave Lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, P.
Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is an engineering innovation that has revolutionized the treatment of kidney stone disease since the early 1980s [1] - [3]. Today, SWL is the first-line therapy for millions of patients worldwide with renal and upper urinary stones [3, 4].
Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner
Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.
1983-08-26
This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.
Density Shock Waves in Confined Microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva
2016-01-01
Motile and driven particles confined in microfluidic channels exhibit interesting emergent behavior, from propagating density bands to density shock waves. A deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for these emergent structures is relevant to a number of physical and biomedical applications. Here, we study the formation of density shock waves in the context of an idealized model of microswimmers confined in a narrow channel and subject to a uniform external flow. Interestingly, these density shock waves exhibit a transition from "subsonic" with compression at the back to "supersonic" with compression at the front of the population as the intensity of the external flow increases. This behavior is the result of a nontrivial interplay between hydrodynamic interactions and geometric confinement, and it is confirmed by a novel quasilinear wave model that properly captures the dependence of the shock formation on the external flow. These findings can be used to guide the development of novel mechanisms for controlling the emergent density distribution and the average population speed, with potentially profound implications on various processes in industry and biotechnology, such as the transport and sorting of cells in flow channels.
Density Shock Waves in Confined Microswimmers.
Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva
2016-01-29
Motile and driven particles confined in microfluidic channels exhibit interesting emergent behavior, from propagating density bands to density shock waves. A deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for these emergent structures is relevant to a number of physical and biomedical applications. Here, we study the formation of density shock waves in the context of an idealized model of microswimmers confined in a narrow channel and subject to a uniform external flow. Interestingly, these density shock waves exhibit a transition from "subsonic" with compression at the back to "supersonic" with compression at the front of the population as the intensity of the external flow increases. This behavior is the result of a nontrivial interplay between hydrodynamic interactions and geometric confinement, and it is confirmed by a novel quasilinear wave model that properly captures the dependence of the shock formation on the external flow. These findings can be used to guide the development of novel mechanisms for controlling the emergent density distribution and the average population speed, with potentially profound implications on various processes in industry and biotechnology, such as the transport and sorting of cells in flow channels. PMID:26871357
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney... Notifications (510(k)'s) for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripters Indicated for the Fragmentation of...
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney... Notifications (510(k)'s) for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripters Indicated for the Fragmentation of...
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney... Notifications (510(k)'s) for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripters Indicated for the Fragmentation of...
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney... Notifications (510(k)'s) for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripters Indicated for the Fragmentation of...
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney... Notifications (510(k)'s) for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripters Indicated for the Fragmentation of...
Shock wave generated by high-energy electric spark discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qingming; Zhang, Yunming
2014-10-01
Shock wave generated by electric spark discharge was studied experimentally and the shock wave energy was evaluated in this paper. A pressure measurement system was established to study the pressure field of the electric spark discharge process. A series of electric spark discharge experiments were carried out and the energy of the electric spark used in present study was in the range of 10 J, 100 J, and 1000 J, respectively. The shock wave energy released from the electric spark discharge process was calculated by using the overpressure values at different measurement points near the electric spark discharge center. The good consistency of shock wave energies calculated by pressure histories at different measuring points in the same electric spark discharge experiment illustrates the applicability of the weak shock wave theory in calculating the energy of shock wave induced by electric spark discharge process. The result showed that shock wave formed at the initial stage of electric spark discharge process, and the shock wave energy is only a little part of electric spark energy. From the analysis of the shock wave energy and electric spark energy, a good linear relationship between shock wave energy and electric spark energy was established, which make it possible to calculate shock wave energy by measuring characteristic parameters of electric spark discharge process instead of shock wave. So, the initiation energy of direct initiation of detonation can be determined easily by measuring the parameters of electric spark discharge process.
Shock wave structure in heterogeneous reactive media
Baer, M.R.
1997-06-01
Continuum mixture theory and mesoscale modeling are applied to describe the behavior of shock-loaded heterogeneous media. One-dimensional simulations of gas-gun experiments demonstrate that the wave features are well described by mixture theory, including reflected wave behavior and conditions where significant reaction is initiated. Detailed wave fields are resolved in numerical simulations of impact on a lattice of discrete explosive {open_quotes}crystals{close_quotes}. It is shown that rapid distortion first occurs at material contact points; the nature of the dispersive fields includes large amplitude fluctuations of stress over several particle pathlengths. Localization of energy causes {open_quotes}hot-spots{close_quotes} due to shock focusing and plastic work as material flows into interstitial regions.
A note on weak shock wave reflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viero, D. P.; Susin, F. M.; Defina, A.
2013-09-01
This work discusses the possibility of reconstructing, both numerically and experimentally, the steady state flow field and shock reflection pattern close to the triple point of von Neumann, Guderley and Vasilev reflections. First, a criterion for the orientation of shock wave fronts, even in the case of subcritical/subsonic flow downstream the front, is introduced and formalized. Then, a technique for obtaining a close view of the above reflection patterns centered about the triple point is described and a numerical example, within the framework of shallow water flow, is presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooseria, S. J.; Skews, B. W.
2016-04-01
A complex interference flowfield consisting of multiple shocks and expansion waves is produced when high-speed slender bodies are placed in close proximity. The disturbances originating from a generator body impinge onto the adjacent receiver body, modifying the local flow conditions over the receiver. This paper aims to uncover the basic gas dynamics produced by two closely spaced slender bodies in a supersonic freestream. Experiments and numerical simulations were used to interpret the flowfield, where good agreement between the predictions and measurements was observed. The numerical data were then used to characterise the attenuation associated with shock wave diffraction, which was found to be interdependent with the bow shock contact perimeter over the receiver bodies. Shock-induced boundary layer separation was observed over the conical and hemispherical receiver bodies. These strong viscous-shock interactions result in double-reflected, as well as double-diffracted shock wave geometries in the interference region, and the diffracting waves progress over the conical and hemispherical receivers' surfaces in "lambda" type configurations. This gives evidence that viscous effects can have a substantial influence on the local bow shock structure surrounding high-speed slender bodies in close proximity.
Lynch, Patrick T; Troy, Tyler P; Ahmed, Musahid; Tranter, Robert S
2015-02-17
Tunable synchrotron-sourced photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOF-MS) is an important technique in combustion chemistry, complementing lab-scale electron impact and laser photoionization studies for a wide variety of reactors, typically at low pressure. For high-temperature and high-pressure chemical kinetics studies, the shock tube is the reactor of choice. Extending the benefits of shock tube/TOF-MS research to include synchrotron sourced PI-TOF-MS required a radical reconception of the shock tube. An automated, miniature, high-repetition-rate shock tube was developed and can be used to study high-pressure reactive systems (T > 600 K, P < 100 bar) behind reflected shock waves. In this paper, we present results of a PI-TOF-MS study at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dimethyl ether pyrolysis (2% CH3OCH3/Ar) was observed behind the reflected shock (1400 < T5 < 1700 K, 3 < P5 < 16 bar) with ionization energies between 10 and 13 eV. Individual experiments have extremely low signal levels. However, product species and radical intermediates are well-resolved when averaging over hundreds of shots, which is ordinarily impractical in conventional shock tube studies. The signal levels attained and data throughput rates with this technique are comparable to those with other synchrotron-based PI-TOF-MS reactors, and it is anticipated that this high pressure technique will greatly complement those lower pressure techniques. PMID:25594229
Polymerization, shock cooling and ionization of liquid nitrogen
Ross, M; Rogers, F
2005-07-21
The trajectory of thermodynamic states passed through by the nitrogen Hugoniot starting from the liquid and up to 10{sup 6} GPa has been studied. An earlier report of cooling in the doubly shocked liquid, near 50 to 100 GPa and 7500 K, is revisited in light of the recent discovery of solid polymeric nitrogen. It is found that cooling occurs when the doubly shocked liquid is driven into a volume near the molecular to polymer transition and raising the possibility of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT). By increasing the shock pressure and temperature by an order of magnitude, theoretical calculations predict thermal ionization of the L shell drives the compression maxima to 5-6 fold compression at 10 Mbar (T {approx} 3.5 10{sup 5} K) and at 400 Mbar (T {approx} 2.3 10{sup 6} K) from K shell ionization. Near a pressure of 10{sup 6} GPa the K shell ionizes completely and the Hugoniot approaches the classical ideal gas compression fourfold limit.
Whistler waves observed upstream from collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fairfield, D. H.
1974-01-01
Waves in the frequency range 0.5-4. Hz have been studied in the region upstream of the earth's bow shock with data from the flux-gate magnetic field experiment on Imp 6. Such waves are invariably detected adjacent to the shock, persisting upstream for intervals often less than a minute but occasionally of the order of many hours. Analysis of 150 examples of these waves during a 3-month interval indicates that propagation directions generally make angles of between 20 and 40 deg with the field direction. The waves as measured in the spacecraft frame of reference are either left- or right-hand-polarized with respect to the average field direction. The left-handed waves generally have lower frequencies than the right-handed waves, and the left-handed frequencies never exceed 2.5 Hz. The measured sense of polarization is found to depend on the propagation direction (or alternatively, the field direction) relative to the solar wind direction.
Injection to Rapid Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Perpendicular Shocks in Partially Ionized Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohira, Yutaka
2016-08-01
We present a three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a collisionless perpendicular shock in a partially ionized plasma for the first time. In this simulation, the shock velocity and upstream ionization fraction are v sh ≈ 1333 km s‑1 and f i ˜ 0.5, which are typical values for isolated young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium. We confirm previous two-dimensional simulation results showing that downstream hydrogen atoms leak into the upstream region and are accelerated by the pickup process in the upstream region, and large magnetic field fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the magnetic field fluctuations have three-dimensional structures and the leaking hydrogen atoms are injected into the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at the perpendicular shock after the pickup process. The observed DSA can be interpreted as shock drift acceleration with scattering. In this simulation, particles are accelerated to v ˜ 100 v sh ˜ 0.3 c within ˜100 gyroperiods. The acceleration timescale is faster than that of DSA in parallel shocks. Our simulation results suggest that SNRs can accelerate cosmic rays to 1015.5 eV (the knee) during the Sedov phase.
Injection to Rapid Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Perpendicular Shocks in Partially Ionized Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohira, Yutaka
2016-08-01
We present a three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a collisionless perpendicular shock in a partially ionized plasma for the first time. In this simulation, the shock velocity and upstream ionization fraction are v sh ≈ 1333 km s‑1 and f i ∼ 0.5, which are typical values for isolated young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium. We confirm previous two-dimensional simulation results showing that downstream hydrogen atoms leak into the upstream region and are accelerated by the pickup process in the upstream region, and large magnetic field fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the magnetic field fluctuations have three-dimensional structures and the leaking hydrogen atoms are injected into the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at the perpendicular shock after the pickup process. The observed DSA can be interpreted as shock drift acceleration with scattering. In this simulation, particles are accelerated to v ∼ 100 v sh ∼ 0.3 c within ∼100 gyroperiods. The acceleration timescale is faster than that of DSA in parallel shocks. Our simulation results suggest that SNRs can accelerate cosmic rays to 1015.5 eV (the knee) during the Sedov phase.
Stability of spherical converging shock wave
Murakami, M.; Sanz, J.; Iwamoto, Y.
2015-07-15
Based on Guderley's self-similar solution, stability of spherical converging shock wave is studied. A rigorous linear perturbation theory is developed, in which the growth rate of perturbation is given as a function of the spherical harmonic number ℓ and the specific heats ratio γ. Numerical calculation reveals the existence of a γ-dependent cut-off mode number ℓ{sub c}, such that all the eigenmode perturbations for ℓ > ℓ{sub c} are smeared out as the shock wave converges at the center. The analysis is applied to partially spherical geometries to give significant implication for different ignition schemes of inertial confinement fusion. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to verify the theory.
Stability of spherical converging shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, M.; Sanz, J.; Iwamoto, Y.
2015-07-01
Based on Guderley's self-similar solution, stability of spherical converging shock wave is studied. A rigorous linear perturbation theory is developed, in which the growth rate of perturbation is given as a function of the spherical harmonic number ℓ and the specific heats ratio γ. Numerical calculation reveals the existence of a γ-dependent cut-off mode number ℓc, such that all the eigenmode perturbations for ℓ > ℓc are smeared out as the shock wave converges at the center. The analysis is applied to partially spherical geometries to give significant implication for different ignition schemes of inertial confinement fusion. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to verify the theory.
Davie, C J; Evans, R G
2013-05-01
We examine the properties of perturbed spherically imploding shock waves in an ideal fluid through the collapse, bounce, and development into an outgoing shock wave. We find broad conservation of the size and shape of ingoing and outgoing perturbations when viewed at the same radius. The outgoing shock recovers the velocity of the unperturbed shock outside the strongly distorted core. The results are presented in the context of the robustness of the shock ignition approach to inertial fusion energy. PMID:23683207
Optimizing Shock Wave Lithotripsy: A Comprehensive Review
McClain, Paul D; Lange, Jessica N; Assimos, Dean G
2013-01-01
Shock wave lithotripsy is a commonly used procedure for eradicating upper urinary tract stones in patients who require treatment. A number of methods have been proposed to improve the results of this procedure, including proper patient selection, modifications in technique, adjunctive therapy to facilitate elimination of fragments, and changes in lithotripter design. This article assesses the utility of these measures through an analysis of contemporary literature. PMID:24082843
Scattering of shock waves in QCD
Ian Balitsky
2004-09-01
The cross section of heavy-ion collisions is represented as a double functional integral with the saddle point being the classical solution of the Yang-Mills equations with boundary conditions/sources in the form of two shock waves corresponding to the two colliding ions. I develop the expansion of this classical solution in powers of the commutator of the Wilson lines describing the colliding particles and calculate the first two terms of the expansion.
Quartz structure transformation under a shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vettegren', V. I.; Kuksenko, V. S.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Mamalimov, R. I.
2015-12-01
The structure of a fragment formed after quartz single-crystal fracture under a shock wave has been studied using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method. The wave is initiated by electrical breakdown of air in a hole within the single crystal. It has been found that a layer ~0.15 μm thick consisting of "diaplectic glass," i.e., quartz with a strongly distorted lattice, is formed on the fragment surface. A layer 2 μm thick with a compressed quartz lattice is located under it.
Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, C. H.; Lin, J. T.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Sun, Y. Y.; Kakinami, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Chen, W. H.; Liu, H.; Rau, R. J.
2014-09-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC) derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK) Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK) Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II) rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100-600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800-1200 m s-1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800-1200 m s-1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.
Shock Waves and Commutation Speed of Memristors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Shao; Tesler, Federico; Marlasca, Fernando Gomez; Levy, Pablo; Dobrosavljević, V.; Rozenberg, Marcelo
2016-01-01
Progress of silicon-based technology is nearing its physical limit, as the minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 10 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next-generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade, and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, this progress has mainly been the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of the essence. In the present work, we report the striking result of a connection between the resistive switching and shock-wave formation, a classic topic of nonlinear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen vacancies that migrate during the commutation forms a shock wave that propagates through a highly resistive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations and experiments in a manganese-oxide-based memristor device, and we extend our theory to the case of binary oxides. The shock-wave scenario brings unprecedented physical insight and enables us to rationalize the process of oxygen-vacancy-driven resistive change with direct implications for a key technological aspect—the commutation speed.
On Reflection of Shock Waves from Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liepmann, H W; Roshko, A; Dhawan, S
1952-01-01
Measurements are presented at Mach numbers from about 1.3 to 1.5 of reflection characteristics and the relative upstream influence of shock waves impinging on a flat surface with both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The difference between impulse and step waves is discussed and their interaction with the boundary layer is compared. General considerations on the experimental production of shock waves from wedges and cones and examples of reflection of shock waves from supersonic shear layers are also presented.
Mechanochemistry for Shock Wave Energy Dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, William; Ren, Yi; Su, Zhi; Moore, Jeffrey; Suslick, Kenneth; Dlott, Dana
2015-06-01
Using our laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus we have developed a technique for detecting mechanically driven chemical reactions that attenuate shock waves. In these experiments 75 μm laser-driven flyer-plates travel at speeds of up to 2.8 km/s. Photonic Doppler velocimetry is used to monitor both the flight speed and the motions of an embedded mirror behind the sample on the supporting substrate. Since the Hugoniot of the substrate is known, mirror motions can be converted into the transmitted shock wave flux and fluence through a sample. Flux shows the shock profile whereas fluence represents the total energy transferred per unit area, and both are measured as a function of sample thickness. Targets materials are micrograms of carefully engineered organic and inorganic compounds selected for their potential to undergo negative volume, endothermic reactions. In situ fluorescence measurements and a suite of post mortem analytical methods are used to detect molecular chemical reactions that occur due to impact.
Modeling Propagation of Shock Waves in Metals
Howard, W M; Molitoris, J D
2005-08-19
We present modeling results for the propagation of strong shock waves in metals. In particular, we use an arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE3D) code to model the propagation of strong pressure waves (P {approx} 300 to 400 kbars) generated with high explosives in contact with aluminum cylinders. The aluminum cylinders are assumed to be both flat-topped and have large-amplitude curved surfaces. We use 3D Lagrange mechanics. For the aluminum we use a rate-independent Steinberg-Guinan model, where the yield strength and shear modulus depend on pressure, density and temperature. The calculation of the melt temperature is based on the Lindermann law. At melt the yield strength and shear modulus is set to zero. The pressure is represented as a seven-term polynomial as a function of density. For the HMX-based high explosive, we use a JWL, with a program burn model that give the correct detonation velocity and C-J pressure (P {approx} 390 kbars). For the case of the large-amplitude curved surface, we discuss the evolving shock structure in terms of the early shock propagation experiments by Sakharov.
Direct Visualization of Shock Waves in Supersonic Space Shuttle Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
OFarrell, J. M.; Rieckhoff, T. J.
2011-01-01
Direct observation of shock boundaries is rare. This Technical Memorandum describes direct observation of shock waves produced by the space shuttle vehicle during STS-114 and STS-110 in imagery provided by NASA s tracking cameras.
Shock assisted ionization injection in laser-plasma accelerators
Thaury, C.; Guillaume, E.; Lifschitz, A.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Hansson, M.; Grittani, G.; Gautier, J.; Goddet, J.-P.; Tafzi, A.; Lundh, O.; Malka, V.
2015-01-01
Ionization injection is a simple and efficient method to trap an electron beam in a laser plasma accelerator. Yet, because of a long injection length, this injection technique leads generally to the production of large energy spread electron beams. Here, we propose to use a shock front transition to localize the injection. Experimental results show that the energy spread can be reduced down to 10 MeV and that the beam energy can be tuned by varying the position of the shock. This simple technique leads to very stable and reliable injection even for modest laser energy. It should therefore become a unique tool for the development of laser-plasma accelerators. PMID:26549584
Shock assisted ionization injection in laser-plasma accelerators.
Thaury, C; Guillaume, E; Lifschitz, A; Ta Phuoc, K; Hansson, M; Grittani, G; Gautier, J; Goddet, J-P; Tafzi, A; Lundh, O; Malka, V
2015-01-01
Ionization injection is a simple and efficient method to trap an electron beam in a laser plasma accelerator. Yet, because of a long injection length, this injection technique leads generally to the production of large energy spread electron beams. Here, we propose to use a shock front transition to localize the injection. Experimental results show that the energy spread can be reduced down to 10 MeV and that the beam energy can be tuned by varying the position of the shock. This simple technique leads to very stable and reliable injection even for modest laser energy. It should therefore become a unique tool for the development of laser-plasma accelerators. PMID:26549584
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS
Nirmol K. Podder
2009-03-17
In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1–20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas.
Shock wave absorber having apertured plate
Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.
1985-01-01
The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.
Shock wave absorber having apertured plate
Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.
1983-08-26
The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.
Particle Acceleration in SN1006 Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
This grant is for the analysis of FUSE observations of particle acceleration in supernova remnant SN1006 shock waves. We have performed quick look analysis of the data, but because the source is faint and because the O VI emission lines on SN1006 are extremely broad, extreme care is needed for background subtraction and profile fitting. Moreover, the bulk of the analysis in will consist of model calculations. The Ly beta and O VI lines are clearly detected at the position in the NW filament of SN1006, but not in the NE position where non-thermal X-rays are strong. The lack of O VI emission in the NE places an upper limit on the pre-shock density there.
Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in dense plasmas
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.
2010-02-15
Two-dimensional quantum ion acoustic shock waves (QIASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons and ions. In this regard, a nonplanar quantum Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (QKPB) equation is derived using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. Using the tangent hyperbolic method, an analytical solution of the planar QKPB equation is obtained and subsequently used as the initial profile to numerically solve the nonplanar QKPB equation. It is observed that the increasing number density (and correspondingly the quantum Bohm potential) and kinematic viscosity affect the propagation characteristics of the QIASW. The temporal evolution of the nonplanar QIASW is investigated both in Cartesian and polar planes and the results are discussed from the numerical stand point. The results of the present study may be applicable in the study of propagation of small amplitude localized electrostatic shock structures in dense astrophysical environments.
Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.
2013-07-01
The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.
Wave and particle evolution downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckean, M. E.; Omidi, N.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Karimabadi, H.
1995-01-01
Distributions of ions heated in quasi-perpendicular bow shocks have large perpendicular temperature anisotropies that provide free energy for the growth of Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) and mirror waves. These modes are often obsreved in the Earth's magnetosheath. Using two-dimensional hybrid simulations, we show that these waves are produced near the shock front and convected downstream rather than being produced locally downstream. The wave activity reduces the proton anisotropy to magnetosheath levels within a few tens of gyroradii of the shock but takes significantly longer to reduce the anisotropy of He(++) ions. The waves are primarily driven by proton anisotropy and the dynamics of the helium ions is controlled by the proton waves. Downstream of high Mach number shocks, mirror waves compete effectively with AIC waves. Downstream of low Mach number shocks, AIC waves dominate.
Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.
1993-01-01
Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of
Electrostatic waves in the bow shock at Uranus
Moses, S.L.; Coroniti, F.V.; Kennel, C.F.; Scarf, F.L. ); Bagenal, F. ); Lepping, R.P. ); Quest, K.B. ); Kurth, W.S. )
1989-10-01
Electrostatic emissions measured by the Voyager 2 plasma wave detector (PWS) during the inbound crossing of the Uranian bow shock are shown to differ in some aspects from the waves measured during bow shock crossings at Jupiter and Saturn. The wave amplitudes in the foot of the bow shock at Uranus are in general much lower than those detected at the other out planets due to the unusually enhanced solar wind ion temperature during the crossing. This reduces the effectiveness of wave-particle interactions in heating the incoming electrons. Strong wave emissions are observed in the shock ramp that possibly arise from currents producing a Buneman mode instability. Plasma instrument (PLS) and magnetometer (MAG) measurements reveal a complicated shock structure reminiscent of computer simulations of high-Mach number shocks when the effects of anomalous resistivity are reduced, and are consistent with high ion temperatures restricting the growth of electrostatic waves.
Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure
Josyula, Eswar Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash
2013-12-15
The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream.
Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.
1991-01-01
In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.
Shock wave processes in collisional gas particle mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khmel, T. A.; Fedorov, A. V.
2016-06-01
Structures and propagation of shock waves in high density particle suspensions in gas are investigated theoretically and numerically. A physical and mathematical model which takes into account integral collisions between the particles on the basis of molecular-kinetic approaches of theory of granular materials is applied. The possibility of different types of shock waves, including double front structures is revealed. The role of particle collisions in the dynamics of particle dense layer expansion under an influence of divergent shock wave and in processes of shock wave diffraction past a backward-facing step is analyzed.
Biodamage via shock waves initiated by irradiation with ions.
Surdutovich, Eugene; Yakubovich, Alexander V; Solov'yov, Andrey V
2013-01-01
Radiation damage following the ionising radiation of tissue has different scenarios and mechanisms depending on the projectiles or radiation modality. We investigate the radiation damage effects due to shock waves produced by ions. We analyse the strength of the shock wave capable of directly producing DNA strand breaks and, depending on the ion's linear energy transfer, estimate the radius from the ion's path, within which DNA damage by the shock wave mechanism is dominant. At much smaller values of linear energy transfer, the shock waves turn out to be instrumental in propagating reactive species formed close to the ion's path to large distances, successfully competing with diffusion. PMID:23411473
Magnetosonic shock wave in collisional pair-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adak, Ashish; Sikdar, Arnab; Ghosh, Samiran; Khan, Manoranjan
2016-06-01
Nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic shock wave has been studied in collisional magnetized pair-ion plasma. The masses of both ions are same but the temperatures are slightly different. Two fluid model has been taken to describe the model. Two different modes of the magnetosonic wave have been obtained. The dynamics of the nonlinear magnetosonic wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers' equation. It has been shown that the ion-ion collision is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The numerical investigations reveal that the magnetosonic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the strength of the dissipation. The nonlinear wave exhibited the oscillatory shock wave for strong magnetic field (weak dissipation) and monotonic shock wave for weak magnetic field (strong dissipation). The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.
Augmented Shock Wave Severance of Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.
1995-01-01
This paper describes a new approach for severing or weakening a variety of materials. The technique employs embedding explosive cords into parallel grooves that are cut into a surface of a material. The cords are initiated simultaneously to produce shock waves that progress toward the centerline between the cords and the lower surface of the material. Intersecting incident and reflected waves augment at the centerline to fail or weaken the material in tension. No harmful debris is produced on the opposite side of the material from the explosive cords. The primary focus of the effort described in this paper was to fracture the F-16 aircraft trilaminate canopy. Also, complete severance was achieved in 2024-T4 aluminum plate stock. Possible applications are through canopy egress and crew module severance from military aircraft and separation of rocket vehicle stages and payloads. This approach offers important advantages over explosive methods currently in use.
Particle Acceleration in SN1006 Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Raymond, John C.
2004-01-01
The FUSE data have been reduced, and a paper on the results is in progress. The main results have been presented in a poster at the January 2004 AAS meeting and an ApJ paper in press. The primary result is that the widths of the 0 VI lines in the NW filament are a bit less than the width expected if the oxygen kinetic temperature is 16 times the proton temperature (mass proportional heating). This is at variance with measurements of shocks in the heliosphere, where preferential heating of oxygen and other heavy species is observed. The paper discusses the theoretical implications for collisionless shock wave physics. A secondary result is that no O VI emission was observed from the NE filament. While the very different particle distribution in that region can partially account for the weakness of the O VI lines, the simplest interpretation is that the pre-shock density in the NE is less than 0.22 times the density in the NW.
Radial Shock Wave Devices Generate Cavitation
Császár, Nikolaus B. M.; Angstman, Nicholas B.; Milz, Stefan; Sprecher, Christoph M.; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed; Furia, John P.; Schmitz, Christoph
2015-01-01
Background Conflicting reports in the literature have raised the question whether radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) devices and vibrating massage devices have similar energy signatures and, hence, cause similar bioeffects in treated tissues. Methods and Findings We used laser fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) measurements, high-speed imaging and x-ray film analysis to compare fundamental elements of the energy signatures of two rESWT devices (Swiss DolorClast; Electro Medical Systems, Nyon, Switzerland; D-Actor 200; Storz Medical, Tägerwillen, Switzerland) and a vibrating massage device (Vibracare; G5/General Physiotherapy, Inc., Earth City, MO, USA). To assert potential bioeffects of these treatment modalities we investigated the influence of rESWT and vibrating massage devices on locomotion ability of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) worms. Results FOPH measurements demonstrated that both rESWT devices generated acoustic waves with comparable pressure and energy flux density. Furthermore, both rESWT devices generated cavitation as evidenced by high-speed imaging and caused mechanical damage on the surface of x-ray film. The vibrating massage device did not show any of these characteristics. Moreover, locomotion ability of C. elegans was statistically significantly impaired after exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves but was unaffected after exposure of worms to the vibrating massage device. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that both energy signature and bioeffects of rESWT devices are fundamentally different from those of vibrating massage devices. Clinical Relevance Prior ESWT studies have shown that tissues treated with sufficient quantities of acoustic sound waves undergo cavitation build-up, mechanotransduction, and ultimately, a biological alteration that “kick-starts” the healing response. Due to their different treatment indications and contra-indications rESWT devices cannot be equated to vibrating
Mercury's bow shock and foreshock waves observed by Messenger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanco-Cano, X.; Le, G.; Boardsen, S.; Chi, P.; Slavin, J. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.
2013-09-01
The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth's is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. Mercury's bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by moderate Mach number and low plasma beta solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. We use Messenger high resolution (20 samples per second) magnetic field data to study Mercury's bow shock structure, and the characteristics of ultra low frequency waves observed at the foreshock. Bow shock profiles depend on the upstream Mach number, on shock geometry with respect to the upstream magnetic field, and on the plasma beta. Mercury's bow shock is weaker than Earth's with a Mach number MA ˜ 3, and is 10 times smaller. Thus, a more laminar shock is expected and a less complex foreshock may develop. A preliminary study has shown the existence of at least three types of waves: 1) whistler waves at frequencies near 2 Hz; 2) waves with frequencies ~ 0.1 Hz; 3) fluctuations with broad spectral peaks centered at ~ 0.6 Hz. Whistler waves propagate at angles up to 30 degrees, and lower frequency waves are more parallel propagating. We investigate wave properties such as polarization, ellipticity and compressibility. We also discuss wave origin and evolution. While whistler waves may be generated at the bow shock, the origin of lower frequency waves can be attributed to local generation by kinetic ion-ion instabilities. Due to the small scale size of Mercury's foreshock it is possible that waves suffer less steepening than at Earth.
Shock-wave boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delery, J.; Marvin, J. G.; Reshotko, E.
1986-01-01
Presented is a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the shock-wave boundary-layer interaction problem. A detailed physical description of the phenomena for transonic and supersonic speed regimes is given based on experimental observations, correlations, and theoretical concepts. Approaches for solving the problem are then reviewed in depth. Specifically, these include: global methods developed to predict sudden changes in boundary-layer properties; integral or finite-difference methods developed to predict the continuous evolution of a boundary-layer encountering a pressure field induced by a shock wave; coupling methods to predict entire flow fields; analytical methods such as multi-deck techniques; and finite-difference methods for solving the time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations used to predict the development of entire flow fields. Examples are presented to illustrate the status of the various methods and some discussion is devoted to delineating their advantages and shortcomings. Reference citations for the wide variety of subject material are provided for readers interested in further study.
A review of shock waves around aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, C.
1985-01-01
Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs) are a proposed type of reusable spacecraft that would be used to transport cargoes from one Earth-bound orbit to another. Such vehicles could be based on the proposed space station and used to transport commercial satellites from the space station to geostationary orbits or to polar orbits and return. During a mission, AOTVs would fly through Earth's atmosphere, thus generating aerodynamic forces that could be used for decelerating the vehicles or changing their direction. AOTV research findings were concerned with the shock-wave-induced, high-temperature airflows that would be produced around these vehicles during atmospheric flight. Special emphasis was placed on the problems of: (1) the chemical physics of multitemperature, ionizing, nonequilibrium air flows, and (2) the dynamics of the flows in the base region of a blunt body with complex afterbody geometry.
A review of shock waves around aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, C.
1986-01-01
Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs) are a proposed type of reusable spacecraft that would be used to transport cargoes from one earth-bound orbit to another. Such vehicles could be based on the proposed space station and used to transport commercial satellites from the space station to geostationary orbits or to polar orbits and return. During a mission, AOTVs would fly through earth's atmosphere, thus generating aerodynamic forces that could be used for decelerating the vehicles or changing their direction. AOTV research findings were concerned with the shock-wave-induced, high-temperature airflows that would be produced around these vehicles during atmospheric flight. Special emphasis was placed on the problems of: (1) the chemical physics of multitemperature, ionizing, nonequilibrium air flows, and (2) the dynamics of the flows in the base region of a blunt body with complex afterbody geometry.
Planar shock wave sliding over a water layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, V.; Jourdan, G.; Marty, A.; Allou, A.; Parisse, J.-D.
2016-08-01
In this work, we conduct experiments to study the interaction between a horizontal free water layer and a planar shock wave that is sliding over it. Experiments are performed at atmospheric pressure in a shock tube with a square cross section (200× 200 mm^2) for depths of 10, 20, and 30 mm; a 1500-mm-long water layer; and two incident planar shock waves having Mach numbers of 1.11 and 1.43. We record the pressure histories and high-speed visualizations to study the flow patterns, surface waves, and spray layers behind the shock wave. We observe two different flow patterns with ripples formed at the air-water interface for the weaker shock wave and the dispersion of a droplet mist for the stronger shock wave. From the pressure signals, we extract the delay time between the arrival of the compression wave into water and the shock wave in air at the same location. We show that the delay time evolves with the distance traveled over the water layer, the depth of the water layer, and the Mach number of the shock wave.
Waves in low-beta plasmas - Slow shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinolfson, R. S.; Hundhausen, A. J.
1989-01-01
Results from wave theory and numerical simulation of the nonlinear MHD equations are used to study the response of a conducting fluid containing an embedded magnetic field with beta less than 1 to the sudden injection of material along the field lines. It is shown that the injection produces slow shocks with configurations which are concave toward the ejecta driver. Fast-mode waves which have not steepened into the shock precede the slow shock and alter the ambient medium. When beta equals 0.1, the fast mode becomes a transverse wave for parallel propagation, while the slow wave approaches a longitudinal, or sound, wave.
Interplanetary shock waves and the structure of solar wind disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hundhausen, A. J.
1972-01-01
Observations and theoretical models of interplanetary shock waves are reviewed, with emphasis on the large-scale characteristics of the associated solar wind disturbances and on the relationship of these disturbances to solar activity. The sum of observational knowledge indicates that shock waves propagate through the solar wind along a broad, roughly spherical front, ahead of plasma and magnetic field ejected from solar flares. Typically, the shock front reaches 1 AU about two days after its flare origin, and is of intermediate strength. Not all large flares produce observable interplanetary shock waves; the best indicator of shock production appears to be the generation of both type 2 and type 4 radio bursts by a flare. Theoretical models of shock propagation in the solar wind can account for the typically observed shock strength, transit time, and shape.
Steady state risetimes of shock waves in the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raspet, Richard; Bass, Henry; Yao, Lixin; Wu, Wenliang
1992-01-01
A square wave shape is used in the Pestorius algorithm to calculate the risetime of a step shock in the atmosphere. These results agree closely with steady shock calculations. The healing distance of perturbed shocks due to finite wave effects is then investigated for quasi-steady shocks. Perturbed 100 Pa shocks require on the order of 1.0 km travel distance to return to within 10 percent of their steady shock risetime. For 30 Pa shocks, the minimum recovery distance increases to 3.0 km. It is unlikely that finite wave effects can remove the longer risetimes and irregular features introduced into the sonic boom by turbulent scattering in the planetary boundary layer.
IPShocks: Database of Interplanetary Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isavnin, Alexey; Lumme, Erkka; Kilpua, Emilia; Lotti, Mikko; Andreeova, Katerina; Koskinen, Hannu; Nikbakhsh, Shabnam
2016-04-01
Fast collisionless shocks are one of the key interplanetary structures, which have also paramount role for solar-terrestrial physics. In particular, coronal mass ejection driven shocks accelerate particles to high energies and turbulent post-shock flows may drive intense geomagnetic storms. We present comprehensive Heliospheric Shock Database (ipshocks.fi) developed and hosted at University of Helsinki. The database contains currently over 2000 fast forward and fast reverse shocks observed by Wind, ACE, STEREO, Helios, Ulysses and Cluster spacecraft. In addition, the database has search and sort tools based on the spacecraft, time range, and several key shock parameters (e.g., shock type, shock strength, shock angle), data plots for each shock and data download options. These features allow easy access to shocks and quick statistical analyses. All current shocks are identified visually and analysed using the same procedure.
Compression of High Porosity Aluminum by Strong Shock Waves
Vildanov, V. G.; Gorshkov, M. M.; Slobodenjukov, V. M.; Borshchevsky, A. O.; Petrovtsev, A. V.
2006-08-03
Measuring results on shock compression of porous aluminum with initial density of {rho}00 = 0.6 g/cm3 up to pressures of 170 GPa are presented under shock wave velocity measurement scale of 40 mm. High underground explosion was used as a shock wave source. Obtained results were described in shock wave velocity (D) -- particle velocity (u) coordinates by linear dependence of D = 0.647 + 1.26 u at 4.6 {<=} u {<=} 14.8 km/s.
Shock Waves for Possible Application in Regenerative Medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S. H. R.; Nejad, S. Moosavi; Akiyama, H.
The paper reports experimental study of underwater shock waves effects in modification and possible control of embryonic stem cell differentiation and proliferation. The study is motivated by its application in regenerativemedicine. Underwater shock waves have been of interest for various scientific, industrial, and medical applications.
Optical distortion in the field of a lithotripter shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnell, M. T.; Emmony, D. C.
1995-10-01
The schlieren observation of cavitation phenomena produced in the tail of a lithotripter shock wave has indicated the presence of some interesting features. The images produced appear to indicate that cavitation transients in the field of a shock wave propagate nonsymmetrically; this is not the case. The apparent lack of symmetry exhibited by the primary cavitation transients is due to a complex optical lensing effect, which is brought about by the change in refractive index associated with the pressure profile of the shock wave. Objects seen through or immersed in the shock-wave field of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer, such as cavitation, appear highly distorted because of the strong positive and negative lensing effects of the compression and rarefaction cycles of the shock wave. A modification of the schlieren technique called the scale method has been used to model the distortion introduced by the shock wave and consequently explain the cavitation distortion. The technique has also been used to quantitatively analyze and partially reconstruct the lithotripter shock wave. The combination of schlieren and scale imaging gives more information about the refractive index field and therefore the shock-wave structure itself.
Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy.
Loske, Achim M; Prieto, Fernando E; Fernandez, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier
2002-11-21
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary shock waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second shock wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated shock waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 micros is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a shock wave delay of about 400 and 250 micros using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second shock wave generator. PMID:12476975
Marti-Lopez, L.; Ocana, R.; Porro, J. A.; Morales, M.; Ocana, J. L.
2009-07-01
We report an experimental study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of shock waves, cavitation bubbles, and sound waves generated in water during laser shock processing by single Nd:YAG laser pulses of nanosecond duration. A fast ICCD camera (2 ns gate time) was employed to record false schlieren photographs, schlieren photographs, and Mach-Zehnder interferograms of the zone surrounding the laser spot site on the target, an aluminum alloy sample. We recorded hemispherical shock fronts, cylindrical shock fronts, plane shock fronts, cavitation bubbles, and phase disturbance tracks.
Precursor ionization ahead of laser-supported detonation wave in air and argon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamura, Kohei; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Yoshihiro
2012-10-01
Laser-produced plasma in a gaseous form is considered, which has attracted great interest for use in many devices. After breakdown one of possible mechanisms of occurrence of this process is noted as laser-supported detonation wave. This wave consisting of the shock wave and the beam absorbing plasma travels at several kilometers per second along the laser beam channel in the direction opposite to the beam incidence. A Nd: Glass laser and a TEA CO2 laser were utilized. According to shadowgraph and spectroscopic studies, the wave has a velocity of 1-10 km/s, an electron temperature of 2-5 eV and an electron density of 10^24 m-3 after breakdown. For simplicity, the discussion is restricted to one-dimensional flows that considers the radiation from plasma and the collisional ionization by laser irradiation. Assuming that UV photons radiating from laser plasma induce photoionization ahead of ionization front, this ionization frequency fp at the distance lp (mean free path of photon) from the wave front corresponds to 10^10 s-1. This is higher than the collisional ionization frequency (10^5-6 s-1). Analytical velocities (fplp) describing the avalanche ionization in the pre-ionization layer agree with the experimentally observed velocities. These results does not depend on background gas and laser-wavelength.
On cylindrically converging shock waves shaped by obstacles
Eliasson, V; Henshaw, W D; Appelo, D
2007-07-16
Motivated by recent experiments, numerical simulations were performed of cylindrically converging shock waves. The converging shocks impinged upon a set of zero to sixteen regularly space obstacles. For more than two obstacles the resulting diffracted shock fronts formed polygonal shaped patterns near the point of focus. The maximum pressure and temperature as a function of number of obstacles were studied. The self-similar behavior of cylindrical, triangular and square-shaped shocks were also investigated.
Laser control of filament-induced shock wave in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potemkin, F. V.; Mareev, E. I.; Podshivalov, A. A.; Gordienko, V. M.
2014-09-01
We discovered that tight focusing of Cr:forsterite femtosecond laser radiation in water provides the unique opportunity of long filament generation. The filament becomes a source of numerous spherical shock waves whose radius tends to saturate with the increase of energy. These overlapping waves create a contrast cylindrical shock wave. The laser-induced shock wave parameters such as shape, amplitude and speed can be effectively controlled by varying energy and focusing geometry of the femtosecond pulse. Aberrations added to the optical scheme lead to multiple dotted plasma sources for shock wave formation, spaced along the optical axis. Increasing the laser energy launches filaments at each dot that enhance the length of the entire filament and as a result, the shock impact on the material.
Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries
Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.
2015-04-28
The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ∼45 kA and rise time of ∼80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.
Dispersive shock wave interactions and asymptotics.
Ablowitz, Mark J; Baldwin, Douglas E
2013-02-01
Dispersive shock waves (DSWs) are physically important phenomena that occur in systems dominated by weak dispersion and weak nonlinearity. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is the universal model for systems with weak dispersion and weak, quadratic nonlinearity. Here we show that the long-time-asymptotic solution of the KdV equation for general, steplike data is a single-phase DSW; this DSW is the "largest" possible DSW based on the boundary data. We find this asymptotic solution using the inverse scattering transform and matched-asymptotic expansions. So while multistep data evolve to have multiphase dynamics at intermediate times, these interacting DSWs eventually merge to form a single-phase DSW at large time. PMID:23496590
Spectroscopy During Laser Induced Shock Wave Lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelhardt, R.; Meyer, W.; Hering, P.
1988-06-01
In the course of laser induced shock wave lithotripsy (LISL) by means of a flashlamp pumped dye laser a plasma is formed on the stone's surface. Spectral analysis of the plasma flash leads to chemical stone analysis during the procedure. A time resolved integral analysis of scattered and laser induced fluorescence light makes stone detection possible and avoids tissue damage. We used a 200 μm fiber to transmit a 2 μs, 50 mJ pulse to the stone's surface and a second 200 μ fiber for analysis. This transmission system is small and flexible enough for controlled endoscopic use in the treatment of human ureter or common bile duct stones. Under these conditions the stone selective effect of lasertripsy leads only to minor tissue injury.
Modelling Shock Waves in Composite Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vignjevic, Rade; Campbell, J. C.; Bourne, N.; Matic, Ognjen; Djordjevic, Nenad
2007-12-01
Composite materials have been of significant interest due to widespread application of anisotropic materials in aerospace and civil engineering problems. For example, composite materials are one of the important types of materials in the construction of modern aircraft due to their mechanical properties. The strain rate dependent mechanical behaviour of composite materials is important for applications involving impact and dynamic loading. Therefore, we are interested in understanding the composite material mechanical properties and behaviour for loading rates between quasistatic and 1×108 s-1. This paper investigates modelling of shock wave propagation in orthotropic materials in general and a specific type of CFC composite material. The determination of the equation of state and its coupling with the rest of the constitutive model for these materials is presented and discussed along with validation from three dimensional impact tests.
Shock-wave properties of soda-lime glass
Grady, D.E.; Chhabildas, L.C.
1996-11-01
Planar impact experiments and wave profile measurements provided single and double shock equation of state data to 30 GPa. Both compression wave wave profile structure and release wave data were used to infer time-dependent strength and equation of state properties for soda-lime glass.
Electron-impact ionization of interstellar hydrogen and helium at interplanetary shocks
Isenberg, P.A.; Feldman, W.C.
1995-04-15
The authors investigate the ionization of interstellar hydrogen and helium due to electron impact by shock-heated electrons. Taking the electron distributions measured at four interplanetary shocks at 1 AU, they show that the electrons in the downstream region of strong shocks can ionize interstellar atoms at rates matching or exceeding the nominal photoionization or charge-exchange rates. They suggest that this process may explain some puzzling observations of interstellar pickup ions made by the Ulysses spacecraft. 17 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Susumu; Adachi, Takashi
According to standard textbooks on compressible fluid dynamics, a shock wave is formed by an accumulation of compression waves. However, the process by which an accumulated compression wave grows into a shock wave has never been visualized. In the present paper, the authors tried to visualize this process using a model wedge with multiple steps. This model is useful for generating a series of compression waves and can simulate a compression process that occurs in a shock tube. By estimating the triple-point trajectory angle, we demonstrated visually that an accumulated compression wave grows into a shock wave. Further reflection experiments over a rough-surface wedge confirmed the tendency for the triple point trajectory angle χ to reach the asymptotic value χs in the end.
A new shock wave assisted sandalwood oil extraction technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arunkumar, A. N.; Srinivasa, Y. B.; Ravikumar, G.; Shankaranarayana, K. H.; Rao, K. S.; Jagadeesh, G.
A new shock wave assisted oil extraction technique from sandalwood has been developed in the Shock Waves Lab, IISc, Bangalore. The fragrant oil extracted from sandalwood finds variety of applications in medicine and perfumery industries. In the present method sandal wood specimens (2.5mm diameter and 25mm in length)are subjected to shock wave loading (over pressure 15 bar)in a constant area shock tube, before extracting the sandal oil using non-destructive oil extraction technique. The results from the study indicates that both the rate of extraction as well as the quantity of oil obtained from sandal wood samples exposed to shock waves are higher (15-40 percent) compared to non-destructive oil extraction technique. The compressive squeezing of the interior oil pockets in the sandalwood specimen due to shock wave loading appears to be the main reason for enhancement in the oil extraction rate. This is confirmed by the presence of warty structures in the cross-section and micro-fissures in the radial direction of the wood samples exposed to shock waves in the scanning electron microscopic investigation. In addition the gas chromatographic studies do not show any change in the q uality of sandal oil extracted from samples exposed to shock waves.
Augmented shock wave fracture/severance of materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
The present invention related generally to severing materials, and more particularly to severing or weakening materials through explosively induced, augmented shock waves. Explosive cords are placed in grooves on the upper surface of the material to be severed or weakened. The explosive cords are initiated simultaneously to introduce explosive shock waves into the material. These shock waves progress toward the centerline between the explosive cords and the lower surface of the material. Intersecting and reflected waves produce a rarefaction zone on the centerline to fail the material in tension. A groove may also be cut in the lower surface of the material to aid in severing or weakening the material.
The influence of incident shock Mach number on radial incident shock wave focusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin; Tan, Sheng; He, Liming; Rong, Kang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaobin
2016-04-01
Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate radial incident shock focusing on a test section where the planar incident shock wave was divided into two identical ones. A conventional shock tube was used to generate the planar shock. Incident shock Mach number of 1.51, 1.84 and 2.18 were tested. CCD camera was used to obtain the schlieren photos of the flow field. Third-order, three step strong-stability-preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta method, third-order weighed essential non-oscillation (WENO) scheme and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm were adopted to simulate the complicated flow fields characterized by shock wave interaction. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Complex shock wave configurations and interactions (such as shock reflection, shock-vortex interaction and shock focusing) were observed in both the experiments and numerical results. Some new features were observed and discussed. The differences of structure of flow field and the variation trends of pressure were compared and analyzed under the condition of different Mach numbers while shock wave focusing.
August Toepler — The first who visualized shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krehl, P.; Engemann, S.
1995-06-01
The scientific investigation of the nature of shock waves started 130 years ago with the advent of the schlieren method which was developed in the period 1859 1864 by August Toepler. At the very beginning applied to the visualization of heat and flow phenomena, he immediately turned to air shock waves generated by electric sparks, and subjectively studied the propagation, reflection and refraction of shock waves. His new delay circuit in the microsecond time regime for the first time made it possible to vary electrically the delay time between a spark generating a shock wave and a second spark acting as a flash light source in his chlieren setup. In 1870 Toepler, together with Boltzmann, applied Jamin's interferometric refractometer and extended the visualization to very weak sound waves at the threshold of hearing. Toepler's pioneering schlieren method stimulated Ernst Mach and his team to objectively investigate the nature of shock waves: they improved Toepler's time delay circuit; continued the study on the reflection of shock waves; introduced shadowgraphy as a modification of the schlieren method; photographed the propagation of shock waves generated by an electric spark and by supersonic projectiles, and improved interferometry. Based on a large number of original documents the paper illuminates the concomitant circumstances of the invention of the schlieren method and its first applications by others.
Review of methods to attenuate shock/blast waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igra, O.; Falcovitz, J.; Houas, L.; Jourdan, G.
2013-04-01
Quick and reliable shock wave attenuation is the goal of every protection facility and therefore it is not surprising that achieving this has drawn much attention during the past hundred years. Different options have been suggested; their usefulness varying from a reasonable protection to the opposite, a shock enhancement. An example for a suggestion for shock mitigation that turned out to be an enhancement of the impinging shock wave was the idea to cover a protected object with a foam layer. While the pressure behind the reflected shock wave from the foam frontal surface was smaller than that recorded in a similar reflection from a rigid wall [25], the pressure on the “protected” surface, attached to the foam's rear-surface, was significantly higher than that recorded in a similar reflection from a bare, rigid wall [11]. In protecting humans and installations from destructive shock and/or blast waves the prime goal is to reduce the wave amplitude and the rate of pressure increase across the wave front. Both measures result in reducing the wave harmful effects. During the past six decades several approaches for achieving the desired protection have been offered in the open literature. We point out in this review that while some of the suggestions offered are practical, others are impractical. In our discussion we focus on recent schemes for shock/blast wave attenuation, characterized by the availability of reliable measurements (notably pressure and optical diagnostics) as well as high-resolution numerical simulations.
Weak-wave analysis of shock interaction with a slipstream
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, Raymond L.
1988-01-01
A weak wave analysis of shock interaction with a slipstream is presented. The theory is compared to that for the acoustic case and to the exact nonlinear analysis. Sample calculations indicate that the weak wave theory yields a good approximation to the exact solution when the shock waves are sufficiently weak that the associated entropy increase is negligible. A qualitative discussion of the case of counterflowing streams is also included.
Shock wave loading of a magnetic guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kindt, L.
2011-10-01
velocities and a shock wave is created between the two velocity regions. In order to conserve number of particle, momentum and enthalpy the density of the atomic beam passing through the shock wave must increase. We have build such a shock wave in an atomic beam and observed the density increase due to this. As an extra feature having a subsonic beam on a downward slope adds an extra density increase due to gravitational compression. Loading ultra cold atoms into a 3D trap from the dense subsonic beam overcomes the problem with 2D cooling and thermal conductivity. This was done and evaporative cooling was applied creating an unprecedented large number rubidium BEC.
Medical applications and bioeffects of extracorporeal shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delius, M.
1994-09-01
Lithotripter shock waves are pressure pulses of microsecond duration with peak pressures of 35 120 MPa followed by a tensile wave. They are an established treatment modality for kidney and gallstone disease. Further applications are pancreatic and salivary stones, as well as delayed fracture healing. The latter are either on their way to become established treatments or are currently under investigation. Shock waves generate tissue damage as a side effect which has been extensively investigated in the kidney, the liver, and the gallbladder. The primary adverse effects are local destruction of blood vessels, bleedings, and formation of blood clots in vessels. Investigations on the mechanism of shock wave action revealed that lithotripters generate cavitation both in vitro and in vivo. An increase in tissue damage at higher pulse administration rates, and also at shock wave application with concomitant gas bubble injection suggested that cavitation is a major mechanism of tissue damage. Disturbances of the heart rhythm and excitation of nerves are further biological effects of shock waves; both are probably also mediated by cavitation. On the cellular level, shock waves induce damage to cell organelles; its extent is related to their energy density. They also cause a transient increase in membrane permeability which does not lead to cell death. Administered either alone or in combination with drugs, shock waves have been shown to delay the growth of small animal tumors and even induce tumor remissions. While the role of cavitation in biological effects is widely accepted, the mechanism of stone fragmentation by shock waves is still controversial. Cavitation is detected around the stone and hyperbaric pressure suppresses fragmentation; yet major cracks are formed early before cavitation bubble collapse is observed. The latter has been regarded as evidence for a direct shock wave effect.
Dynamics of concerted bubble cluster collapse in shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Colonius, Tim; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.
2003-10-01
Cavitation bubble cluster collapse at the surface of artificial kidney stones during shock wave lithotripsy was investigated in vitro by means of multiframe high-speed photography, passive cavitation detection (PCD), and pressure waveform measurements using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone (FOPH). It was observed that after the passage of the lithotripter shock pulse the stone was covered by numerous individual bubbles. During their growth phase the bubbles coalesced into bubble clusters, with the biggest cluster at the proximal face of the stone. High-speed camera images suggested that cluster collapse started at the periphery and ended with a violent collapse in a small region in the center of the surface of the stone. Shadowgraphy resolved numerous secondary shock waves emitted during this focused collapse. Shock wave emission during cluster collapse was confirmed by PCD. Measurement with the FOPH showed that these shock waves were typically of short duration (0.2 μs). The majority of the shock waves emanating from cluster collapse were low amplitude but some shock waves registered amplitudes on the order of the incident shock pulse (tens of MPa). [Work supported by NIH DK43881, DK55674.
The Observational Consequences of Proton-Generated Waves at Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reames, Donald V.
2000-01-01
In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration takes place at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections. Protons streaming away from strong shocks generate Alfven waves that trap particles in the acceleration region, limiting outflowing intensities but increasing the efficiency of acceleration to higher energies. Early in the events, with the shock still near the Sun, intensities at 1 AU are bounded and spectra are flattened at low energies. Elements with different charge-to-mass ratios, Q/A, differentially probe the wave spectra near shocks, producing abundance ratios that vary in space and time. An initial rise in He/H, while Fe/O declines, is a typical symptom of the non-Kolmogorov wave spectra in the largest events. Strong wave generation can cause cross-field scattering near the shock and unusually rapid reduction in anisotropies even far from the shock. At the highest energies, shock spectra steepen to form a "knee." For protons, this spectral knee can vary from approx. 10 MeV to approx. 1 GeV depending on shock conditions for wave growth. In one case, the location of the knee scales approximately as Q/A in the energy/nucleon spectra of other species.
The physical nature of weak shock wave reflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skews, Beric W.; Ashworth, Jason T.
2005-10-01
For weak shock waves and small wedge angles the application of three-shock (von Neumann) theory gives no physically realistic solutions and yet experiments clearly show a pattern of reflection of three shocks meeting at a triple point. This disagreement is referred to as the von Neumann paradox, and the reflection pattern as von Neumann reflection (vNR). Some recent numerical computations have indicated the existence of an expansion wave immediately behind the reflected wave as originally suggested by Guderley over fifty years ago. Furthermore, a recent solution of the inviscid transonic equations has indicated the possible existence of a very small, multi-wave structure immediately behind the three-shock confluence. A special shock tube has been constructed which allows Mach stem lengths to be obtained which are more than an order of magnitude larger than those obtainable in conventional shock tubes. Schlieren photographs do indeed show a structure consisting of an expansion wave followed by a small shock situated behind the confluence point, with some indication of smaller scale structures in some tests. This indicates that some of the earlier models of vNR, in the parameter space tested, are incorrect. The size of the region influenced by this small wave system is about 2% of the Mach stem length and it is therefore not surprising that it has not been detected before in conventional shock tube facilities.
Schlieren imaging of shock waves from a trumpet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandya, Brian H.; Settles, Gary S.; Miller, James D.
2003-12-01
A sensitive, large-aperture schlieren optical instrument is applied to observe gas-dynamic phenomena at the exit of a trumpet. Shock waves are seen, especially for loud, high-pitched trumpet notes, and several illustrations are given. Microphone waveforms are given for representative examples. These shock waves arise from the shock-tube-like effect of the performer's intermittent breath pressure driving the cylindrical duct of the trumpet, and are the result of cumulative nonlinear acoustic propagation inside the trumpet bore. They are, however, very weak, traveling only marginally above the acoustic speed. In the 118-124 peak dB(A) range, they are near the weak limit of shock wave visibility by schlieren optics. The schlieren evidence confirms that the frequency of the emitted shock waves corresponds to the frequency of the note being played. Ancillary laminar and turbulent jet phenomena associated with the performer's breath are also visible in the images.
Kinematical Compatibility Conditions for Vorticity Across Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baty, Roy
2015-11-01
This work develops the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity across arbitrary shock waves in compressible, inviscid fluids. The vorticity compatibility conditions are derived from the curl of the momentum equation using singular distributions defined on two-dimensional shock wave surfaces embedded in three-dimensional flow fields. The singular distributions are represented as generalized differential operators concentrated on moving shock wave surfaces. The derivation of the compatibility conditions for vorticity requires the application of second-order generalized derivatives and elementary tensor algebra. The well-known vorticity jump conditions across a shock wave are then shown to follow from the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity by expressing the flow field velocity in vectorial components normal and tangential to a shock surface.
Schlieren imaging of shock waves from a trumpet.
Pandya, Brian H; Settles, Gary S; Miller, James D
2003-12-01
A sensitive, large-aperture schlieren optical instrument is applied to observe gas-dynamic phenomena at the exit of a trumpet. Shock waves are seen, especially for loud, high-pitched trumpet notes, and several illustrations are given. Microphone waveforms are given for representative examples. These shock waves arise from the shock-tube-like effect of the performer's intermittent breath pressure driving the cylindrical duct of the trumpet, and are the result of cumulative nonlinear acoustic propagation inside the trumpet bore. They are, however, very weak, traveling only marginally above the acoustic speed. In the 118-124 peak dB(A) range, they are near the weak limit of shock wave visibility by schlieren optics. The schlieren evidence confirms that the frequency of the emitted shock waves corresponds to the frequency of the note being played. Ancillary laminar and turbulent jet phenomena associated with the performer's breath are also visible in the images. PMID:14714816
Particles and waves Upstream of ICME Driven Interplanetary Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kajdic, P.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L.; Opitz, A.; Luhmann, J. G.; Galvin, A. B.
2011-12-01
We use STEREO data to study interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections. We have found ultra-low frequency (ULF, f ~ 0.01 - 0.2 Hz) waves and high-frequency (HF, f ~ 1 Hz) fluctuations in regions upstream and downstream of these shocks. Some of the upstream HF fluctuations were classified as whistler waves. In the past whistler origin has been explained in terms of shock generation. The variety of waves found in the studied regions suggests that some of them may be generated by particle populations (electrons, ions) that can be unstable to different types of instabilities. In this work we study ions and electrons in regions immediately upstream of ten IP shocks of our sample. We use the STEREO SWEA data for electrons and STEREO PLASTIC data for ions. We study particle distributions in different points upstream of the shocks (anisotropies, temperatures, etc.) and investigate which of the observed waves can be generated by backstreaming particles.
Fundamental structure of steady plastic shock waves in metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molinari, A.; Ravichandran, G.
2004-02-01
The propagation of steady plane shock waves in metallic materials is considered. Following the constitutive framework adopted by R. J. Clifton [Shock Waves and the Mechanical Properties of Solids, edited by J. J. Burke and V. Weiss (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y., 1971), p. 73] for analyzing elastic-plastic transient waves, an analytical solution of the steady state propagation of plastic shocks is proposed. The problem is formulated in a Lagrangian setting appropriate for large deformations. The material response is characterized by a quasistatic tensile (compression) test (providing the isothermal strain hardening law). In addition the elastic response is determined up to second order elastic constants by ultrasonic measurements. Based on this simple information, it is shown that the shock kinetics can be quite well described for moderate shocks in aluminum with stress amplitude up to 10 GPa. Under the later assumption, the elastic response is assumed to be isentropic, and thermomechanical coupling is neglected. The model material considered here is aluminum, but the analysis is general and can be applied to any viscoplastic material subjected to moderate amplitude shocks. Comparisons with experimental data are made for the shock velocity, the particle velocity and the shock structure. The shock structure is obtained by quadrature of a first order differential equation, which provides analytical results under certain simplifying assumptions. The effects of material parameters and loading conditions on the shock kinetics and shock structure are discussed. The shock width is characterized by assuming an overstress formulation for the viscoplastic response. The effects on the shock structure of strain rate sensitivity are analyzed and the rationale for the J. W. Swegle and D. E. Grady [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 692 (1985)] universal scaling law for homogeneous materials is explored. Finally, the ability to deduce information on the viscoplastic response of
Interaction of a converging spherical shock wave with isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhagatwala, Ankit; Lele, Sanjiva K.
2012-08-01
Simulations of converging spherical shock waves propagating through a region of compressible isotropic turbulence are carried out. Both converging and reflected phases of the shock are studied. Effect of the reflected phase of the shock is found to be quite different from the expanding shock in the Taylor blast wave-turbulence interaction problem. Vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy are amplified due to passage of the shock. Similar to the latter problem, the vorticity-dilatation term is primarily responsible for the observed behavior. This is confirmed through Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics. Transverse vorticity amplification is compared with linear planar shock-turbulence theory. The smallest eddies, represented by the Kolmogorov scale, decrease in size after passing through the converging shock and this is shown to be related to a decrease in kinematic viscosity and increase in dissipation behind the converging shock. Distortion of the shock due to turbulence is also investigated and quantified. Turbulence also affects maximum compression achieved at the point of shock reflection, when the shock radius is at a minimum. This decrease in compression is quantified by comparing with pure shock simulations.
Analysis of shock-wave propagation in aqueous foams using shock tube experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourdan, G.; Mariani, C.; Houas, L.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Del Prete, E.; Haas, J.-F.; Rambert, N.; Counilh, D.; Faure, S.
2015-05-01
This paper reports experimental results of planar shock waves interacting with aqueous foams in a horizontal conventional shock tube. Four incident shock wave Mach numbers are considered, ranging from 1.07 to 1.8, with two different foam columns of one meter thickness and expansion ratios of 30 and 80. High-speed flow visualizations are used along with pressure measurements to analyse the main physical mechanisms that govern shock wave mitigation in foams. During the shock/foam interaction, a precursor leading pressure jump was identified as the trace of the liquid film destruction stage in the foam fragmentation process. The corresponding pressure threshold is found to be invariant for a given foam. Regarding the mitigation effect, the results show that the speed of the shock is drastically reduced and that wetter is the foam, slower are the transmitted waves. The presence of the foam barrier attenuates the induced pressure impulse behind the transmitted shock, while the driest foam appears to be more effective, as it limits the pressure induced by the reflected shock off the foam front. Finally, it was found that the pressure histories in the two-phase gas-liquid mixture are different from those previously obtained within a cloud of droplets. The observed behavior is attributed to the process of foam fragmentation and to the modification of the flow topology past the shock. These physical phenomena occurring during the shock/foam interaction should be properly accounted for when elaborating new physical models.
Fiber Bragg Grating sensor for shock wave diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravid, Avi; Shafir, Ehud; Zilberman, Shlomi; Berkovic, Garry; Glam, Benny; Appelbaum, Gabriel
2013-06-01
Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor response was studied in gas-gun shock wave experiments. The sensors were embedded in PMMA target subjected to planar shock waves under 1 GPa. Two orientations of the FBG sensor with respect to the shock plane were examined: parallel and perpendicular. The shift of the reflected wavelength was measured with a system based on commonly available communication grade add-drop filters that covered the maximal expected wavelength swing. The FBG sensors survived the shock and their strain-to-wavelength response was determined by comparison to the calculated strain based on the known PMMA EOS and VISAR measurements.
In vitro interaction of lithotripter shock waves and cytotoxic drugs.
Gambihler, S.; Delius, M.
1992-01-01
The effect of a combination of lithotripter shock waves and cytotoxic drugs was examined in vitro. L1210 cells in suspension were exposed to shock waves during incubation with cislatin, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, THP-doxorubicin, or aclacinomycin. Proliferation was determined using the 3-4,5 dimethylthiazol-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Dose enhancement ratios were calculated for each drug in order to determine the effect of the additional exposure to shock waves. In addition, partition coefficients and IC50s of the drugs were determined. It was found, that the dose enhancement ratios increased for the drugs with decreasing cytotoxicity. The effect of all five drugs was enhanced by shock waves to a higher degree at 7 min incubation as compared to 50 min incubation. The effect of cisplatin was most significantly enhanced, with a dose enhancement ratio of 6.7 at 7 min incubation. The enhancement increased with the operating voltage used for generating the shock waves, and was only present when cells were exposed to shock waves during the incubation with the drug. An increase in cellular membrane permeability is proposed as the mechanism of interaction between shock waves and drugs. PMID:1637679
What is a Shock Wave to an Explosive Molecule?
Tarver, C M
2001-06-12
An explosive molecule is a metastable chemical species that reacts exothermically given the correct stimulus. Impacting an explosive with a shock wave is a ''wake-up call'' or ''trigger'' which compresses and heats the molecule. The energy deposited by the shock wave must be distributed to the vibrational modes of the explosive molecule before chemical reaction can occur. If the shock pressure and temperature are high enough and last long enough, exothermic chemical decomposition can lead to the formation of a detonation wave. For gaseous, liquid, and perfect single crystal solid explosives, after an induction time, chemical reaction begins at or near the rear boundary of the charge. This induction time can be calculated by high pressure, high temperature transition state theory. A ''superdetonation'' wave travels through the preshocked explosive until it overtakes the initial shock wave and then slows to the steady state Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) velocity. In heterogeneous solid explosives, initiation of reaction occurs at ''hot spots'' created by shock compression. If there is a sufficient number of large and hot enough ''hot spots,'' these ignition sites grow creating a pressure pulse that overtakes the leading shock front causing detonation. Since the chemical energy is released well behind the leading shock front of a detonation wave, a mechanism is required for this energy to reinforce the leading shock front and maintain its overall constant velocity. This mechanism is the amplification of pressure wavelets in the reaction zone by the process of de-excitation of the initially highly vibrationally excited reaction product molecules. This process leads to the development of the three-dimensional structure of detonation waves observed for all explosives. In a detonation wave, the leading shock wave front becomes a ''burden'' for the explosive molecule to sustain by its chemical energy release.
Shock wave formation in the collapse of a vapor nanobubble.
Magaletti, F; Marino, L; Casciola, C M
2015-02-13
In this Letter, the dynamics of a collapsing vapor bubble is addressed by means of a diffuse-interface formulation. The model cleanly captures, through a unified approach, all the critical features of the process, such as phase change, transition to supercritical conditions, thermal conduction, compressibility effects, and shock wave formation and propagation. Rather unexpectedly for pure vapor bubbles, the numerical experiments show that the process consists in the oscillation of the bubble associated with the emission of shock waves in the liquid, and with the periodic disappearance and reappearance of the liquid-vapor interface due to transition to super- or subcritical conditions. The results identify the mechanism of shock wave formation as strongly related to the transition of the vapor to the supercritical state, with a progressive steepening of a focused compression wave evolving into a shock which is eventually reflected as an outward propagating wave in the liquid. PMID:25723223
Shock Wave Formation in the Collapse of a Vapor Nanobubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magaletti, F.; Marino, L.; Casciola, C. M.
2015-02-01
In this Letter, the dynamics of a collapsing vapor bubble is addressed by means of a diffuse-interface formulation. The model cleanly captures, through a unified approach, all the critical features of the process, such as phase change, transition to supercritical conditions, thermal conduction, compressibility effects, and shock wave formation and propagation. Rather unexpectedly for pure vapor bubbles, the numerical experiments show that the process consists in the oscillation of the bubble associated with the emission of shock waves in the liquid, and with the periodic disappearance and reappearance of the liquid-vapor interface due to transition to super- or subcritical conditions. The results identify the mechanism of shock wave formation as strongly related to the transition of the vapor to the supercritical state, with a progressive steepening of a focused compression wave evolving into a shock which is eventually reflected as an outward propagating wave in the liquid.
Shock Formation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuntz, Manfred; Suess, Steve; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We investigate the height of shock formation in coronal plumes for slow magnetosonic waves. The models take into account plume geometric spreading, heat conduction, and radiative damping. The wave parameters as well as the spreading functions of the plumes and the base magnetic field strengths are given by empirical constraints mostly from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), and Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). Our models show that shock formation occurs at relatively low coronal heights, typically within 1.2 RsuN, depending on the model parameters. The shock formation is calculated using the well-established wave breaking criterion given by the intersection of C+ characteristics in the space-time plane. Our models show that shock heating by slow magnetosonic waves is expected to be relevant at most heights in solar coronal plumes, although such waves are probably not the main energy supply mechanism.
Shock Formation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuntz, Manfred; Suess, Steven T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We investigate the height of shock formation in coroner plumes for slow magnetosonic waves. The models take into account plume geometric spreading, heat conduction and radiative damping. The wave parameters as well as the spreading functions of the plumes and the base magnetic field strengths are given by empirical constraints mostly from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (SOHO/UVCS). Our models show that shock formation occurs at low coronal heights, i.e., within 1.3 solar radius, depending on the model parameters. The shock formation is calculated using the well-established wave breaking condition given by the intersection of C+ characteristics in the space-time plane. Our models show that shock heating by slow magnetosonic waves is expected to be relevant at most heights in solar coronal plumes, although slow magnetosonic waves are most likely not a solely operating energy supply mechanism.
ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M. E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es
2013-04-20
Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
Convection of a pattern of vorticity through a shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ribner, H S
1954-01-01
An arbitrary weak spatial distribution of vorticity can be represented in terms of plane sinusoidal shear waves of all orientations and wave lengths (Fourier integral). The analysis treats the passage of a single representative weak shear wave through a plane shock and shows refraction and modification of the shear wave with simultaneous generation of an acoustically intense sound wave. Applications to turbulence and to noise in supersonic wind tunnels are indicated.
Ultra low frequency waves at the Earth's bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, C. T.; Farris, M. H.
1995-01-01
The Earth's bow shock is a bountiful generator of waves. Some of these waves have group velocities that exceed the solar wind velocity directed into the shock and can propagate upstream against the flow. Upstream whistlers observed close to one Hertz in the spacecraft frame have been seen many Earth radii upstream. A second whistler mode wave, called the precursor, propagates upstream along the shock normal but is phase standing in the solar wind flow. The damping of both whistler mode waves is consistent with Landau damping. At low Mach numbers the precursor is connected to the non-coplanarity component in the shock ramp. At higher Mach numbers the upstream waves cannot propagate upstream and ion reflection becomes more important in providing free energy for wave particle interactions. The non-coplanarity component is still present but it now initiates a downstream wave train. Generally the waves just downstream from the bow shock are left hand circularly polarized ion cyclotron waves propagating along the magnetic field at the Alfven velocity. When the upstream Mach number is high and the helium content of the plasma is high, mirror mode waves are observed.
Shock Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail
2005-01-01
A paper presents a theoretical study of shock waves in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The mathematical model of the BEC in this study is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) in which (1) the role of the wave function of a single particle in the traditional Schroedinger equation is played by a space- and time-dependent complex order parameter (x,t) proportional to the square root of the density of atoms and (2) the atoms engage in a repulsive interaction characterized by a potential proportional to | (x,t)|2. Equations that describe macroscopic perturbations of the BEC at zero temperature are derived from the NLSE and simplifying assumptions are made, leading to equations for the propagation of sound waves and the transformation of sound waves into shock waves. Equations for the speeds of shock waves and the relationships between jumps of velocity and density across shock fronts are derived. Similarities and differences between this theory and the classical theory of sound waves and shocks in ordinary gases are noted. The present theory is illustrated by solving the equations for the example of a shock wave propagating in a cigar-shaped BEC.
High-frequency electrostatic waves near earth's bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Onsager, T. G.; Holzworth, R. H.; Koons, H. C.; Bauer, O. H.; Gurnett, D. A.
1989-01-01
Electrostatic wave measurements from the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer Ion Release Module have been used to investigate the wave modes and their possible generation mechanisms in the earth's bow shock and magnetosheath. It is demonstrated that electrostatic waves are present in the bow shock and magnetosheath with frequencies above the maximum frequency for Doppler-shifted ion acoustic waves, yet below the plasma frequency. Waves in this frequency range are tentatively identified as electron beam mode waves. Data from 45 bow shock crossings are then used to investigate possible correlations between the electrostatic wave properties and the near-shock plasma parameters. The most significant relationships found are anticorrelations with Alfven Mach number and electron beta. Mechanisms which might produce electron beams in the shock and magnetosheath are discussed in terms of the correlation study results. These mechanisms include acceleration by the cross-shock electric field and by lower hybrid frequency waves. A magnetosheath 'time of flight' mechanism, in analogy to the electron foreshock region, is introduced as another possible beam generation mechanism.
Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo
1995-01-01
The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.
Mechanism of fragmentation of urinary stones by underwater shock wave.
Kambe, K; Kuwahara, M; Orikasa, S; Takayama, K
1988-01-01
The focusing of an underwater shock wave, generated by an underwater microexplosion, has been studied by several methods, such as holography, pressure measurement and pressure print. It has been shown that the shock wave could be focused within the range of a few millimeters and with an amplitude of 1 kbar. The acoustic impedances of various kinds of urinary stones were measured by the original graphical method using holographic interferrometry. The process of breaking a stone by a focused underwater shock wave was observed with high-speed cinematography. It was supposed that the main mechanism of breaking the stone is the tensile stress at the solid-water acoustic interface. PMID:3201639
Constant Density Approximations for the Flow Behind Axisymmetric Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munson, Albert G.
1961-01-01
The incompressible rotational flow equations are used to obtain solutions for the flow behind axisymmetric shock waves with conic longitudinal sections. The nonlinear part of the term due to rotation is retained in the analysis. Numerical results for standoff distance and stagnation point velocity gradient are presented for the case in which the shock wave is a paraboloid, a sphere, or an oblate or prolate ellipsoid. A similarity parameter is proposed which correlates approximately the flow behind geometrically similar shock waves at different free-stream conditions.
Redirection of the spherical expanding shock wave on the interface with plasma
Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.
2014-02-15
We study a strong spherical expanding shock wave interacting with the finite-gradient interface between neutral cold gas and weakly ionized plasma. We want to see how the interaction with the interface can alter the shock structure compared to the case of its free propagation through the media with the exponentially varying density. From our comparative calculations based on the 2D model, we found substantial difference in the shock structure including strong deformation of the shock front followed with its gradual flattening and the redirection in its propagation. There are a number of factors that can be used to control this phenomenon in order to strengthen or lessen the effect. The calculations can be made on any scale, limited with the requirement for the shock wave to be strong. The study points at the possibility in certain applications to avoid the shock wave with its redirection rather than attenuation. The results can be applicable to optimization of the energy deposition into the supersonic flux, the drag reduction in hypersonic flight, in the detonation theory, and combustion through the control of the ignition conditions, and for environmental improvements through sonic boom reduction. Cartesian coordinates were used in order to visualize the phenomenon.
Redirection of the spherical expanding shock wave on the interface with plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.
2014-02-01
We study a strong spherical expanding shock wave interacting with the finite-gradient interface between neutral cold gas and weakly ionized plasma. We want to see how the interaction with the interface can alter the shock structure compared to the case of its free propagation through the media with the exponentially varying density. From our comparative calculations based on the 2D model, we found substantial difference in the shock structure including strong deformation of the shock front followed with its gradual flattening and the redirection in its propagation. There are a number of factors that can be used to control this phenomenon in order to strengthen or lessen the effect. The calculations can be made on any scale, limited with the requirement for the shock wave to be strong. The study points at the possibility in certain applications to avoid the shock wave with its redirection rather than attenuation. The results can be applicable to optimization of the energy deposition into the supersonic flux, the drag reduction in hypersonic flight, in the detonation theory, and combustion through the control of the ignition conditions, and for environmental improvements through sonic boom reduction. Cartesian coordinates were used in order to visualize the phenomenon.
Isentropic "Shock Waves" in Numerical Simulations of Astrophysical Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Moiseenko, S. G.
2016-03-01
Strong discontinuities in solutions of the gas dynamic equations under isentropic conditions, i.e., with continuity of entropy at the discontinuity, are examined. Solutions for a standard shock wave with continuity of energy at the discontinuity are compared with those for an isentropic "shock wave." It is shown that numerical simulation of astrophysical problems in which high-amplitude shock waves are encountered (supernova explosions, modelling of jets) with conservation of entropy, rather than of energy, leads to large errors in the shock calculations. The isentropic equations of gas dynamics can be used only when there are no strong discontinuities in the solution or when the intensity of the shocks is not high and they do not significantly affect the flow.
Numerical simulation of the April 24, 1981 interplanetary shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odstrcil, Dusan
1991-06-01
The paper deals with the application of the 1D HD computer code to the simulation of the interplanetary shock wave generated on April 24, 1981. This event is simulated, in terms of density, velocity and temperature, by a pulse introduced at 18 Rs into a steady-state solar wind. The observed data were used to specify all significant parameters of the steady-state solar wind and the introduced shock wave. The short duration of the input pulse caused the shock wave to be initially highly decelerated. Special attention is given to the type II radio emission associated with this shock and measured by the Czechoslovak-Soviet experiment aboard the Prognoz-8 satellite. From the given analysis it follows that the emission is generated in front of the shock front at the blended fundamental and harmonic plasma frequency.
Low Frequency Waves at and Upstream of Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, L. B.
2016-02-01
This chapter focuses on the range of low frequency electromagnetic modes observed at and upstream of collisionless shocks in the heliosphere. It discusses a specific class of whistler mode wave observed immediately upstream of collisionless shock ramps, called a whistler precursor. Though these modes have been (and are often) observed upstream of quasi-parallel shocks, the authors limit their discussion to those observed upstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. The chapter discusses the various ion velocity distributions observed at and upstream of collisionless shocks. It also introduces some terminology and relevant instabilities for ion foreshock waves. The chapter discusses the most common ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave types, their properties, and their free energy sources. It discusses modes that are mostly Alfvénic (i.e., mostly transverse but can be compressive) in nature.
Theory of the corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave.
Bates, J W
2015-01-01
We analyze the two-dimensional stability of a shock wave driven by a steadily moving corrugated piston in an inviscid fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. For h≤-1 or h>h(c), where h is the D'yakov parameter and h(c) is the Kontorovich limit, we find that small perturbations on the shock front are unstable and grow--at first quadratically and later linearly--with time. Such instabilities are associated with nonequilibrium fluid states and imply a nonunique solution to the hydrodynamic equations. The above criteria are consistent with instability limits observed in shock-tube experiments involving ionizing and dissociating gases and may have important implications for driven shocks in laser-fusion, astrophysical, and/or detonation studies. PMID:25679715
Shock wave perturbation decay in granular materials
Vogler, Tracy J.
2015-11-05
A technique in which the evolution of a perturbation in a shock wave front is monitored as it travels through a sample is applied to granular materials. Although the approach was originally conceived as a way to measure the viscosity of the sample, here it is utilized as a means to probe the deviatoric strength of the material. Initial results for a tungsten carbide powder are presented that demonstrate the approach is viable. Simulations of the experiments using continuum and mesoscale modeling approaches are used to better understand the experiments. The best agreement with the limited experimental data is obtained for the mesoscale model, which has previously been shown to give good agreement with planar impact results. The continuum simulations indicate that the decay of the perturbation is controlled by material strength but is insensitive to the compaction response. Other sensitivities are assessed using the two modeling approaches. The simulations indicate that the configuration used in the preliminary experiments suffers from certain artifacts and should be modified to remove them. As a result, the limitations of the current instrumentation are discussed, and possible approaches to improve it are suggested.
Shock wave perturbation decay in granular materials
Vogler, Tracy J.
2015-11-05
A technique in which the evolution of a perturbation in a shock wave front is monitored as it travels through a sample is applied to granular materials. Although the approach was originally conceived as a way to measure the viscosity of the sample, here it is utilized as a means to probe the deviatoric strength of the material. Initial results for a tungsten carbide powder are presented that demonstrate the approach is viable. Simulations of the experiments using continuum and mesoscale modeling approaches are used to better understand the experiments. The best agreement with the limited experimental data is obtainedmore » for the mesoscale model, which has previously been shown to give good agreement with planar impact results. The continuum simulations indicate that the decay of the perturbation is controlled by material strength but is insensitive to the compaction response. Other sensitivities are assessed using the two modeling approaches. The simulations indicate that the configuration used in the preliminary experiments suffers from certain artifacts and should be modified to remove them. As a result, the limitations of the current instrumentation are discussed, and possible approaches to improve it are suggested.« less
Observation of cavitation during shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Cleveland, Robin O.
2005-04-01
A system was built to detect cavitation in pig kidney during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) with a Dornier HM3 lithotripter. Active detection, using echo on B-mode ultrasound, and passive cavitation detection (PCD), using coincident signals on confocal, orthogonal receivers, were equally sensitive and were used to interrogate the renal collecting system (urine) and the kidney parenchyma (tissue). Cavitation was detected in urine immediately upon SW administration in urine or urine plus X-ray contrast agent, but in tissue, cavitation required hundreds of SWs to initiate. Localization of cavitation was confirmed by fluoroscopy, sonography, and by thermally marking the kidney using the PCD receivers as high intensity focused ultrasound sources. Cavitation collapse times in tissue and native urine were about the same but less than in urine after injection of X-ray contrast agent. Cavitation, especially in the urine space, was observed to evolve from a sparse field to a dense field with strong acoustic collapse emissions to a very dense field that no longer produced detectable collapse. The finding that cavitation occurs in kidney tissue is a critical step toward determining the mechanisms of tissue injury in SWL. [Work sup ported by NIH (DK43881, DK55674, FIRCA), ONRIFO, CRDF and NSBRI SMS00203.
Shock wave amplification by fabric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thom, C. G.; Cronin, D. S.
2009-04-01
It has been shown that, when exposed to air shock waves, soft materials such as fabrics can lead to amplification of the peak pressure measured on a reflecting surface behind the fabric. This occurs for a wide range of fabric configurations, including those used in soft-ballistic protection. The goal of this study was to validate a numerical model to develop an improved understanding of this phenomenon and investigate different fabric parameters, including density, permeability and standoff, and their influence on blast amplification. The investigation of fabric parameters was carried out using numerical simulations in an explicit finite element code with coupled fluid-structure interaction. The benefit of this method was the ability to isolate individual parameters. The model predicted similar trends to existing experimental data, though the numerically predicted peak pressures were consistently higher than the experimental values. The parametric study showed that low permeability fabrics result in the highest pressure amplifications. At areal densities on the order 100 g/m2, typical of single layer fabrics, amplification also increased with areal density for low permeability materials.
Whistler wave bursts upstream of the Uranian bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Wong, Hung K.
1989-01-01
Observations of magnetic field wave bursts upstream of the Uranian bow shock are reported which were recorded prior to the inbound shock crossing. Three wave types are identified. One exhibits a broad spectral enhancement from a few millihertz to about 50 mHz and is seen from 17 to 10 hr prior to the inbound shock crossing. It is argued that these waves are whistler waves that have propagated upstream from the shock. A second wave type has a spacecraft frame frequency between 20 and 40 mHz, is seen only within or immediately upstream of the shock pedestal, is right-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame, and has a typical burst duration of 90 s. The third wave type has a spacecraft frame frequency of about 0.15 Hz, is seen exclusively within the shock pedestal, is left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame, and has a burst duration lasting up to 4 min. It is argued that the low-frequency bursts are whistler waves with phase speed comparable to, but in excess of, the solar wind speed.
Density inhomogeneity driven electrostatic shock waves in planetary rings
Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Rizvi, H.; Haque, Q.; Hasnain, H.
2011-05-15
Dust inertia and background density driven dust drift shock waves are theoretically studied in a rotating planetary environment and are subsequently applied to the planetary rings where the collisional effects are pronounced. It has been found that the system under consideration admits significant shock formation if the collision frequency is of the order of or less than the rotational frequency of the Saturn's rings.
Electrical instrument measures position and velocity of shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dannenberg, R. E.; Humphry, D. E.
1971-01-01
Instrument employs a sensor consisting of twin-electrode probe mounted in shock tube wall, with small dc voltage impressed across electrodes. Power supply, amplifier, and gate pulse generator complete the system. Instrument provides data for construction of wave diagrams, as well as measurement of shock velocity.
Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves
Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan
2008-10-01
Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function
Nonstandard jump functions for radically symmetric shock waves
Baty, Roy S; Tucker, Don H; Stanescu, Dan
2008-01-01
Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function.
Grain destruction in a supernova remnant shock wave
Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Sankrit, Ravi
2013-12-01
Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants (SNRs), gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV λ1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 μm and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus, these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the C IV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared with the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction, and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.
Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi
2014-01-01
Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV (lambda)1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre- shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.
Shock waves in luminous early-type stars
Castor, J.I.
1986-07-01
Shock waves that occur in stellar atmospheres have their origin in some hydrodynamic instability of the atmosphere itself or of the stellar interior. In luminous early-type stars these two possibilities are represented by shocks due to an unstable radiatively-accelerated wind, and to shocks generated by the non-radial pulsations known to be present in many or most OB stars. This review is concerned with the structure and development of the shocks in these two cases, and especially with the mass loss that may be due specifically to the shocks. Pulsation-produced shocks are found to be very unfavorable for causing mass loss, owing to the great radiation efficiency that allows them to remain isothermal. The situation regarding radiatively-driven shocks remains unclear, awaiting detailed hydrodynamics calculations. 20 refs., 2 figs.
More efficient focusing for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.
2001-10-01
The purpose of this study was to generate alternative pressure waveforms in order to increase efficiency during non-invasive treatments of nephrolithiasis. Two new systems for electrohydraulic shock wave generators were tested. These devices generate two pressure pulses, instead of only one positive peak, followed by a trough, as in conventional systems. Pressure measurements and stone fragmentation efficiency were compared to that of conventional shock wave generators, using needle hydrophones and kidney-stone models.
In vivo transfection of melanoma cells by lithotripter shock waves.
Bao, S; Thrall, B D; Gies, R A; Miller, D L
1998-01-15
The potential for gene transfection during shock wave tumor therapy was evaluated by searching for shock wave-induced DNA transfer in mouse tumor cells. B16 mouse melanoma cells were cultured by standard methods and implanted s.c. in female C57BL/6 mice 10-14 days before treatment. A luciferase reporter vector was used as the DNA plasmid for intratumoral injection at 0.2 mg/ml tumor. Air at 10% of tumor volume was injected after the DNA in some tumors to enhance acoustic cavitation activity. The shock wave generation system was similar to a Dornier HM-3 lithotripter with pressure amplitudes of 24.4 MPa peak positive and 5.2 MPa peak negative. Luciferase production in isolated tumor cells was measured with a luminometer 1 day after treatment to assess gene transfer and expression. Exposure to 800 shock waves, followed by immediate isolation and culture of tumor cells for 1 day, yielded 1.1 (0.43 SE) pg/10(6) cells for plasmid injection only and 7.5 (2.5 SE) pg/10(6) cells for plasmid plus air injection. Significantly increased luciferase production, relative to shams, occurred for 200-, 400-, 800-, and 1200-shock wave treatments with plasmid and air injection. Exposure with the isolation of tumor cells delayed for a day to allow gene expression within the growing tumors gave increased luciferase production for 100- and 400-shock wave exposures without and with air injection. Gene transfer therefore can be induced during lithotripter shock wave treatment in vivo, particularly with enhanced acoustic cavitation, which supports the concept that gene and shock wave therapy might be advantageously merged. PMID:9443395
Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves
Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.
1997-07-01
We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy{close_quote}s pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith{close_quote}s model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
The role of extracorporeal shock wave on plantar fasciitis.
Roehrig, Gregory J; Baumhauer, Judith; DiGiovanni, Benedict F; Flemister, Adolph S
2005-12-01
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic plantar fasciitis has been under investigation since its advent in the early 1990s. Its use has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; however, much controversy exists surrounding its mechanism of action, treatment protocols, and clinical efficacy. This article reviews some of the existing theories, opinions, and data in an attempt to summarize the current role that shock wave therapy plays in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. PMID:16297828
Efficiency of shock wave attenuation in ducts by various methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, S. M.
1993-02-01
Different methods of shock wave attenuation in ducts are compared in terms of efficiency. The methods investigated include expansion of the duct cross section, the use of perforated side walls, and the use of porous screens and screen cascades. The attentuation of air shock waves is estimated by using a unified approach which provides satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Based on the results of the study, a nomogram is plotted which can be used for practical calculations.
Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kracht, Jonathan M.
The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.
Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains
El-Shewy, E. K.; Abdelwahed, H. G.; Elmessary, M. A.
2011-11-15
The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.
Shock wave interaction with an abrupt area change
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, Manuel D.
1991-01-01
The wave patterns that occur when a shock wave interacts with an abrupt area changed are analyzed in terms of the incident shock wave Mach number and area-jump ratio. The solutions predicted by a semi-similar models are in good agreement with those obtained numerically from the quasi-one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations. The entropy production for the wave system is defined and the principle of minimum entropy production is used to resolve a nonuniqueness problem of the self-similar model.
Particle Acceleration by Cme-driven Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reames, Donald V.
1999-01-01
In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Peak particle intensities are a strong function of CME speed, although the intensities, spectra, and angular distributions of particles escaping the shock are highly modified by scattering on Alfven waves produced by the streaming particles themselves. Element abundances vary in complex ways because ions with different values of Q/A resonate with different parts of the wave spectrum, which varies with space and time. Just recently, we have begun to model these systematic variations theoretically and to explore other consequences of proton-generated waves.
Energetic Particle Abundances as Probes of an Interplanetary Shock Wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reames, D. V.; Tylka, A. J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We examine the unique abundance variations of Fe/O and He/H in solar energetic particles from a W09 event of 2001 April 10, that have leaked through the flank of an interplanetary shock launched from W04 on April 9. Shock waves from both events reach the Wind spacecraft on April 11. During the second event, both Fe/O and He/H begin at low values and rise to maxima near the time of passage of the shock waves, indicating greater scattering for the species with the highest rigidity at a given velocity. Strong modulation of Fe/O suggests preferential scattering and trapping of Fe by the wave spectrum near and behind the intermediate shock. A significant factor may be the residual proton-generated waves from the very hard proton spectrum accelerated by the early shock wave prior to the onset of the second event. Thus, ion abundances from the later event probe the residual wave spectrum at the earlier shock.
Belt-snap and towel-snap shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Settles, Gary; Hargather, Michael; Lawson, Michael; Bigger, Rory
2007-11-01
Traditional simple means of generating shock waves are examined by high-speed imaging. A leather belt is folded upon itself at mid-length and the ends are grasped firmly in each hand. When pushed together a loop forms, and when quickly pulled apart the loop closes rapidly, producing a sharp ``crack'' similar to the cracking of a whip (Shock Waves 8(1), 1998). The towel-snap mimics whip cracking by causing the towel end to rotate supersonically. We investigated these phenomena using a high-speed digital camera (10k and 30k frames/sec, 4 microsec exposure) and a sensitive schlieren optical system of 1m aperture. Results show that compression of the air between the two rapidly-approaching leather belt bands first causes a spherical shock wave to form near one hand. The compression then runs along the belt length toward the other hand at supersonic speed, producing an oblique shock wave that is responsible for the audible crack. In the towel-snap, shock waves are visible from tip motion in open air as well as from the compression due to snapping the towel against a surface. There are no known useful applications of these simple phenomena, but they do address how weak shock waves can be generated by muscle power alone. Several other related examples are also mentioned.
Computation of Thermally Perfect Oblique Shock Wave Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatum, Kenneth E.
1997-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon the specific heat expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).
Computation of Thermally Perfect Properties of Oblique Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatum, Kenneth E.
1996-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon a value of cp expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135, and with a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics code. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use, and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).
Shock wave lithotripsy: advances in technology and technique
Lingeman, James E.; McAteer, James A.; Gnessin, Ehud; Evan, Andrew P.
2010-01-01
Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the only noninvasive method for stone removal. Once considered as a primary option for the treatment of virtually all stones, SWL is now recognized to have important limitations that restrict its use. In particular, the effectiveness of SWL is severely limited by stone burden, and treatment with shock waves carries the risk of acute injury with the potential for long-term adverse effects. Research aiming to characterize the renal response to shock waves and to determine the mechanisms of shock wave action in stone breakage and renal injury has begun to suggest new treatment strategies to improve success rates and safety. Urologists can achieve better outcomes by treating at slower shock wave rate using a step-wise protocol. The aim is to achieve stone comminution using as few shock waves and at as low a power level as possible. Important challenges remain, including the need to improve acoustic coupling, enhance stone targeting, better determine when stone breakage is complete, and minimize the occurrence of residual stone fragments. New technologies have begun to address many of these issues, and hold considerable promise for the future. PMID:19956196
Shock Waves in Outflows from Young Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartigan, Patrick
This review focuses on physics of the cooling zones behind radiative shocks and the emission line diagnostics that can be used to infer physical conditions and mass loss rates in jets from young stars. Spatial separations of the cooling zones from the shock fronts, now resolvable with HST, and recent evidence for C-shocks have greatly increased our understanding of how shocks in outflows interact with the surrounding medium and with other material within the flow. By combining multiple epoch HST images, one can create `movies' of flows like those produced from numerical codes, and learn what kinds of instabilities develop within these systems.
Turbulent Magnetic Field Amplification behind Strong Shock Waves in GRB and SNR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Tsuyoshi
2012-09-01
Using three-dimensional (special relativistic) magnetohydrodynamics simulations, the amplification of magnetic field behind strong shock wave is studied. In supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts, strong shock waves propagate through an inhomogeneous density field. When the shock wave hit a density bump or density dent, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is induced that cause a deformation of the shock front. The deformed shock leaves vorticity behind the shock wave that amplifies the magnetic field due to the stretching of field lines.
ULF waves upstream of the Venus bow shock - Properties of one-hertz waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orlowski, D. S.; Russell, C. T.
1991-01-01
Pioneer Venus Orbiter data are used here to study the properties of a class of ULF upstream waves with relatively high observed frequencies. These waves show significant similarity to 'one-Hz' waves identified at earth in the ISEE 1 and 2 observations and the whistler waves identified earlier by IMP 6 observations. The waves appear almost immediately after the spacecraft crosses the magnetic field tangent line to the bow shock surface into the region of connected field lines. The wave amplitude decreases with distance from the shock measured along the magnetic field line. Group velocities calculated using the cold plasma dispersion relation indicate that the waves have sufficient upstream velocities to propagate form the shock into the solar wind. The totality of observations seem best explained by a source of right-handed whistler mode waves at the bow shock.
MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es
2013-11-01
Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.
Fractionated Repetitive Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy: A New Standard in Shock Wave Therapy?
Kisch, Tobias; Sorg, Heiko; Forstmeier, Vinzent; Mailaender, Peter; Kraemer, Robert
2015-01-01
Background. ESWT has proven clinical benefit in dermatology and plastic surgery. It promotes wound healing and improves tissue regeneration, connective tissue disorders, and inflammatory skin diseases. However, a single treatment session or long intervals between sessions may reduce the therapeutic effect. The present study investigated the effects of fractionated repetitive treatment in skin microcirculation. Methods. 32 rats were randomly assigned to two groups and received either fractionated repetitive high-energy ESWT every ten minutes or placebo shock wave treatment, applied to the dorsal lower leg. Microcirculatory effects were continuously assessed by combined laser Doppler imaging and photospectrometry. Results. In experimental group, cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation was increased 1 minute after the first application and until the end of the measuring period at 80 minutes after the second treatment (P < 0.05). The third ESWT application boosted the effect to its highest extent. Cutaneous capillary blood flow showed a significant increase after the second application which was sustained for 20 minutes after the third application (P < 0.05). Placebo group showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusions. Fractionated repetitive extracorporeal shock wave therapy (frESWT) boosts and prolongs the effects on cutaneous hemodynamics. The results indicate that frESWT may provide greater benefits in the treatment of distinct soft tissue disorders compared with single-session ESWT. PMID:26273619
Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.
1972-01-01
The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.
Waves associated with interplanetary shocks: Types and properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncharov, Oleksandr; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Prech, Lubomir; Koval, Andriy; Wilson, Lynn B., III; Zastenker, Georgy N.
2016-04-01
Interplanetary (IP) shocks are often associated with high-frequency (several Hz) wave packets in both upstream and downstream regions. These waves could be resolved in Wind fast magnetic field data but the time resolution of plasma instruments is insufficient for their detection. The BMSW instrument onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft measures solar wind parameters with a resolution of 32 ms and it allows a detailed analysis of these waves. Our previous analysis of subcritical low-Mach-number fast forward shocks has shown that the both upstream and downstream waves conserve over the spacecraft separation of the order of 200 Re and their wavelengths are directly proportional to the shock ramp thickness that is controlled by the ion thermal gyroradius. Comparing observations of both Wind and Spektr-R spacecraft, we discuss a nature of these waves in both regions and their properties and their dependence on upstream solar wind and magnetic field parameters.
Numerical Simulation of Low-Density Shock-Wave Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, Christopher E.
1999-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations of low-density shock-wave interactions for an incident shock impinging on a cylinder have been performed. Flow-field density gradient and surface pressure and heating define the type of interference pattern and corresponding perturbations. The maximum pressure and heat transfer level and location for various interaction types (i.e., shock-wave incidence with respect to the cylinder) are presented. A time-accurate solution of the Type IV interference is employed to demonstrate the establishment and the steadiness of the low-density flow interaction.
Nonstandard Analysis and Jump Conditions for Converging Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baty, Roy S.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Tucker, Don H.
2008-01-01
Nonstandard analysis is an area of modern mathematics which studies abstract number systems containing both infinitesimal and infinite numbers. This article applies nonstandard analysis to derive jump conditions for one-dimensional, converging shock waves in a compressible, inviscid, perfect gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. Predistributions of the Heaviside function and the Dirac delta measure are introduced to model the flow parameters across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters.
A new configuration of irregular reflection of shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gvozdeva, L. G.; Gavrenkov, S. A.
2015-06-01
A new configuration of shock waves has been found in the reflection of shock waves in a stationary supersonic gas flow in addition to the wellknown regular and Mach reflections. This new three-shock configuration occurs with a negative angle of reflection and Mach numbers greater than 3 and an adiabatic index smaller than 1.4. It has been shown that this new configuration is unstable and leads to a radical change of the total flow pattern. The emergence of this new kind of instability can negatively affect operation of aircraft and rocket engines due to the failure of the flow to be as conventionally predicted.
Development of an Explosively Driven Sustained Shock Generator for Shock Wave Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, P.; Cook, I. T.; Salisbury, D. A.
2004-07-01
Investigation of explosive initiation phenomena close to the initiation threshold with explosively driven shock waves is difficult due to the attenuative nature of the pressure input. The design and experimental testing of a sustained shock wave generator based on an explosive plane wave lens and impedance mismatched low density foam and high impedance layers is described. Calibration experiments to develop a 1-D calculational model for the plane wave lens and booster charge were performed. A calculational study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the output pulse to plate and foam thicknesses and foam density. A geometry which generates a 24kb almost flat topped shock wave with a duration of over 4μs into the HMX based plastic explosive EDC37 was defined and tested. Experimental shock profile data is compared with pre-shot predictions from the PETRA Eulerian hydrocode incorporating a "snowplough" or simple locking model for the foam. A reasonable match to the observed magnitude and profile of the initial shock is achieved, although the timing of subsequent shock waves is less well matched.
Generation of Focused Shock Waves in Water for Biomedical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukeš, Petr; Šunka, Pavel; Hoffer, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Beneš, Jiří; Poučková, Pavla; Zadinová, Marie; Zeman, Jan
The physical characteristics of focused two-successive (tandem) shock waves (FTSW) in water and their biological effects are presented. FTSW were generated by underwater multichannel electrical discharges in a highly conductive saline solution using two porous ceramic-coated cylindrical electrodes of different diameter and surface area. The primary cylindrical pressure wave generated at each composite electrode was focused by a metallic parabolic reflector to a common focal point to form two strong shock waves with a variable time delay between the waves. The pressure field and interaction between the first and the second shock waves at the focus were investigated using schlieren photography and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shock gauge sensors. The largest interaction was obtained for a time delay of 8-15 μs between the waves, producing an amplitude of the negative pressure phase of the second shock wave down to -80 MPa and a large number of cavitations at the focus. The biological effects of FTSW were demonstrated in vitro on damage to B16 melanoma cells, in vivo on targeted lesions in the thigh muscles of rabbits and on the growth delay of sarcoma tumors in Lewis rats treated in vivo by FTSW, compared to untreated controls.
Shock Waves Impacting Composite Material Plates: The Mutual Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreopoulos, Yiannis
2013-02-01
High-performance, fiber-reinforced polymer composites have been extensively used in structural applications in the last 30 years because of their light weight combined with high specific stiffness and strength at a rather low cost. The automotive industry has adopted these materials in new designs of lightweight vehicles. The mechanical response and characterization of such materials under transient dynamic loading caused with shock impact induced by blast is not well understood. Air blast is associated with a fast traveling shock front with high pressure across followed by a decrease in pressure behind due to expansion waves. The time scales associated with the shock front are typically 103 faster than those involved in the expansion waves. Impingement of blast waves on structures can cause a reflection of the wave off the surface of the structure followed by a substantial transient aerodynamic load, which can cause significant deformation and damage of the structure. These can alter the overpressure, which is built behind the reflected shock. In addition, a complex aeroelastic interaction between the blast wave and the structure develops that can induce reverberation within an enclosure, which can cause substantial overpressure through multiple reflections of the wave. Numerical simulations of such interactions are quite challenging. They usually require coupled solvers for the flow and the structure. The present contribution provides a physics-based analysis of the phenomena involved, a critical review of existing computational techniques together with some recent results involving face-on impact of shock waves on thin composite plates.
Shock wave diagnostics using fluorescent dye probes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banishev, Alexandr; Christensen, James; Dlott, Dana
2015-06-01
Fluorescent probes are highly developed, and have found increasing use in a wide variety of applications. We have studied shock compression of various materials with embedded dye probes used as high speed probes of pressure and temperature. Under the right conditions, dye emission can be used to make a map of the pressure distribution in shocked microstructured materials with high time (1 ns) and space (1 micrometer) resolution. In order to accomplish this goal, we started by studying shock compression of PMMA polymer with rhodamine 6G dye (R6G), as a function of shock pressure and shock duration. We observed the shock-induced spectral redshift and the shock-induced intensity loss. We investigated the fundamental mechanisms of R6G response to pressure. We showed that the time response of a dye probe is limited by its photophysical behavior under shock. We developed superemissive ultrafast dye probes by embedding R6G in a silica nanoparticle. More recently, we have searched for dye probes that have better responses. For instance, we have found that the dye Nile Red embedded in the right polymer matrix has 1.7 times larger pressure-induced redshift than R6G.
Growth and decay of weak shock waves in magnetogasdynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, L. P.; Singh, D. B.; Ram, S. D.
2015-12-01
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the problem of the propagation of weak shock waves in an inviscid, electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. The analysis assumes the following two cases: (1) a planar flow with a uniform transverse magnetic field and (2) cylindrically symmetric flow with a uniform axial or varying azimuthal magnetic field. A system of two coupled nonlinear transport equations, governing the strength of a shock wave and the first-order discontinuity induced behind it, are derived that admit a solution that agrees with the classical decay laws for a weak shock. An analytic expression for the determination of the shock formation distance is obtained. How the magnetic field strength, whether axial or azimuthal, influences the shock formation is also assessed.
Radiative transfer effects on reflected shock waves. II - Absorbing gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, F. Y.; Olfe, D. B.
1972-01-01
Radiative cooling effects behind a reflected shock wave are calculated for an absorbing-emitting gas by means of an expansion procedure in the small density ratio across the shock front. For a gray gas shock layer with an optical thickness of order unity or less the absorption integral is simplified by use of the local temperature approximation, whereas for larger optical thicknesses a Rosseland diffusion type of solution is matched with the local temperature approximation solution. The calculations show that the shock wave will attenuate at first and then accelerate to a constant velocity. Under appropriate conditions the gas enthalpy near the wall may increase at intermediate times before ultimately decreasing to zero. A two-band absorption model yields end-wall radiant-heat fluxes which agree well with available shock-tube measurements.
Hydrodynamic growth and decay of planar shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piriz, A. R.; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.
2016-03-01
A model for the hydrodynamic attenuation (growth and decay) of planar shocks is presented. The model is based on the approximate integration of the fluid conservation equations, and it does not require the heuristic assumptions used in some previous works. A key issue of the model is that the boundary condition on the piston surface is given by the retarded pressure, which takes into account the transit time of the sound waves between the piston and any position at the bulk of the shocked fluid. The model yields the shock pressure evolution for any given pressure pulse on the piston, as well as the evolution of the trajectories, velocities, and accelerations on the shock and piston surfaces. An asymptotic analytical solution is also found for the decay of the shock wave.
The Role of Diffusive Shock Acceleration on Non-Equilibrium Ionization in Supernova Remnants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patnaude, Daniel; Ellison, D.; Slane, P.
2009-01-01
We present new model simulations which show clear evidence for changes in the non-equilibrium ionization behind a supernova remnant forward shock undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration. The efficient acceleration of particles (i.e., cosmic rays) lowers the shock temperature and raises the density of the shocked gas, thus altering the ionization state of the plasma in comparison to the test-particle approximation where cosmic rays gain an insignificant fraction of the shock energy. The differences between the test-particle and efficient acceleration cases are substantial: in cases of higher efficiency, particular ion states are more populated at lower electron temperatures. We also present results which show that in the efficient shock acceleration case, higher ionization fractions are reached immediately behind the shock front, relative to those in the test particle case. We attribute this to the higher postshock densities which lead to higher ionization rates. We show that these spatial differences are resolvable with current and future X-ray missions, and can be used as diagnostics in estimating the acceleration efficiency in cosmic--ray modified shocks in Galactic supernova remnants such as Tycho and Cassiopeia A.
The Role of Diffusive Shock Acceleration on Nonequilibrium Ionization in Supernova Remnants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patnaude, Daniel J.; Ellison, Donald C.; Slane, Patrick
2009-05-01
We present results of semianalytic calculations which show clear evidence for changes in the nonequilibrium ionization behind a supernova remnant forward shock undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). The efficient acceleration of particles (i.e., cosmic rays (CRs)) lowers the shock temperature and raises the density of the shocked gas, thus altering the ionization state of the plasma in comparison to the test-particle (TP) approximation where CRs gain an insignificant fraction of the shock energy. The differences between the TP and efficient acceleration cases are substantial and occur for both slow and fast temperature equilibration rates: in cases of higher acceleration efficiency, particular ion states are more populated at lower electron temperatures. We also present results which show that, in the efficient shock acceleration case, higher ionization fractions are reached noticeably closer to the shock front than in the TP case, clearly indicating that DSA may enhance thermal X-ray production. We attribute this to the higher postshock densities which lead to faster electron temperature equilibration and higher ionization rates. These spatial differences should be resolvable with current and future X-ray missions, and can be used as diagnostics in estimating the acceleration efficiency in CR-modified shocks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gurnett, D. A.; Neubauer, F. M.; Schwenn, R.
1979-01-01
The present paper deals with interplanetary shocks, detected and analyzed to date, from the Helios 1 and 2 spacecraft in eccentric solar orbits. The plasma wave turbulence associated with the shock observed on March 30, 1976 is studied in detail. This event is of particular interest because it represents a clearly defined burst of turbulence against a quiet solar wind background both upstream and downstream of the shock. The shock itself is an oblique shock with upstream parameters characterized by a low Mach number, a low beta, and an abnormally large electron to ion temperature ratio. The types of plasma wave detected are discussed.
Development of a Novel Shock Wave Catheter Ablation System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, H.; Hasebe, Yuhi; Kondo, Masateru; Fukuda, Koji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki
Although radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is quite effective for the treatment tachyarrhythmias, it possesses two fundamental limitations, including limited efficacy for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias of epicardial origin and the risk of thromboembolism. Consequently, new method is required, which can eradicate arrhythmia source in deep part of cardiac muscle without heating. On the other hand, for a medical application of shock waves, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL) has been established [1]. It was demonstrated that the underwater shock focusing is one of most efficient method to generate a controlled high pressure in a small region [2]. In order to overcome limitations of existing methods, we aimed to develop a new catheter ablation system with underwater shock waves that can treat myocardium at arbitrary depth without causing heat.
Schlieren imaging of shock waves radiated by a trumpet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rendon, Pablo L.; Velasco-Segura, Roberto; Echeverria, Carlos; Porta, David; Vazquez, Teo; Perez-Lopez, Antonio; Stern, Catalina
2014-11-01
The flaring bell section of modern trumpets is known to be critical in determining a wide variety of properties associated with the sound radiated by these instruments. We are particularly interested in the shape of the radiated wavefront, which clearly depends on the bell profile. A horn loudspeaker is used to drive high-intensity sound at different frequencies through a B-flat concert trumpet. The sound intensity is high enough to produce shock waves inside the instrument resonator, and the radiated shocks are then visualised using Schlieren imaging. Through these images we are able to study the geometry of the shock waves radiated by the instrument bell, and also to calculate their propagation speed. The results show that propagation outside the bell is very nearly spherical, and that, as expected, the frequency of the driving signal affects the point at which the shock waves separate from the instrument. We acknowledge financial support from PAPIIT IN109214 and PAPIIT IN117712.
Initiating solar system formation through stellar shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boss, A. P.; Myhill, E. A.
1993-01-01
Isotopic anomalies in presolar grains and other meteoritical components require nucleosynthesis in stellar interiors, condensation into dust grains in stellar envelopes, transport of the grains through the interstellar medium by stellar outflows, and finally injection of the grains into the presolar nebula. The proximity of the presolar cloud to these energetic stellar events suggests that a shock wave from a stellar outflow might have initiated the collapse of an otherwise stable presolar cloud. We have begun to study the interactions of stellar shock waves with thermally supported, dense molecular cloud cores, using a three spatial dimension (3D) radiative hydrodynamics code. Supernova shock waves have been shown by others to destroy quiescent clouds, so we are trying to determine if the much smaller shock speeds found in, e.g., asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star winds, are strong enough to initiate collapse in an otherwise stable, rotating, solar-mass cloud core, without leading to destruction of the cloud.
Explosive-driven shock wave and vortex ring interaction with a propane flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannuzzi, P. M.; Hargather, M. J.; Doig, G. C.
2016-02-01
Experiments were performed to analyze the interaction of an explosively driven shock wave and a propane flame. A 30 g explosive charge was detonated at one end of a 3-m-long, 0.6-m-diameter shock tube to produce a shock wave which propagated into the atmosphere. A propane flame source was positioned at various locations outside of the shock tube to investigate the effect of different strength shock waves. High-speed retroreflective shadowgraph imaging visualized the shock wave motion and flame response, while a synchronized color camera imaged the flame directly. The explosively driven shock tube was shown to produce a repeatable shock wave and vortex ring. Digital streak images show the shock wave and vortex ring propagation and expansion. The shadowgrams show that the shock wave extinguishes the propane flame by pushing it off of the fuel source. Even a weak shock wave was found to be capable of extinguishing the flame.
The anatomy of floating shock fitting. [shock waves computation for flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, M. D.
1975-01-01
The floating shock fitting technique is examined. Second-order difference formulas are developed for the computation of discontinuities. A procedure is developed to compute mesh points that are crossed by discontinuities. The technique is applied to the calculation of internal two-dimensional flows with arbitrary number of shock waves and contact surfaces. A new procedure, based on the coalescence of characteristics, is developed to detect the formation of shock waves. Results are presented to validate and demonstrate the versatility of the technique.
Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel
Harvey, W.B.
1986-06-01
By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Auslender, Aaron H.
1999-01-01
The decay of anomalous effects on shock waves in weakly ionized gases following plasma generator extinction has been measured in the anticipation that the decay time must correlate well with the relaxation time of the mechanism responsible for the anomalous effects. When the relaxation times cannot be measured directly, they are inferred theoretically, usually assuming that the initial state is nearly in thermal equilibrium. In this paper, it is demonstrated that relaxation from any steady state far from equilibrium, including the state of a weakly ionized gas, can proceed much more slowly than arguments based on relaxation from near equilibrium states might suggest. This result justifies a more careful analysis of the relaxation times in weakly ionized gases and suggests that although the experimental measurements of relaxation times did not lead to an unambiguous conclusion, this approach to understanding the anomalous effects may warrant further investigation.
Pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Predicting successful outcomes.
McAdams, Sean; Shukla, Aseem R
2010-10-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently a first-line procedure of most upper urinary tract stones <2 cm of size because of established success rates, its minimal invasiveness and long-term safety with minimal complications. Given that alternative surgical and endourological options exist for the management of stone disease and that ESWL failure often results in the need for repeat ESWL or secondary procedures, it is highly desirable to identify variables predicting successful outcomes of ESWL in the pediatric population. Despite numerous reports and growing experience, few prospective studies and guidelines for pediatric ESWL have been completed. Variation in the methods by which study parameters are measured and reported can make it difficult to compare individual studies or make definitive recommendations. There is ongoing work and a need for continuing improvement of imaging protocols in children with renal colic, with a current focus on minimizing exposure to ionizing radiation, perhaps utilizing advancements in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This report provides a review of the current literature evaluating the patient attributes and stone factors that may be predictive of successful ESWL outcomes along with reviewing the role of pre-operative imaging and considerations for patient safety. PMID:21369388
Dynamics of shock waves in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wen; Shui, Tiankun; Shan, Yafei; Zhu, Changping
2015-09-01
We study the formation and dynamics of shock waves initiated by a repulsive potential in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas by using the order-parameter equation. In the theoretical framework, the regularization process of shock waves mediated by the quantum pressure term is purely dispersive. Our results show good agreement with the experiment of Joseph et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 150401). We reveal that the boxlike-shaped density peak observed in the experiment consists of many vortex rings due to the transverse instability of the dispersive shock wave. In addition, we study the transition from a sound wave to subsonic shock waves as the strength of the repulsive potential increases and show a strong qualitative change in the propagation speed of the wavefronts. For a relatively small strength of the repulsive potential, the propagation speed decreases below the sound speed with the increase of the strength as a scaling behavior. For a large strength where the shock waves are formed by colliding two spatially separated clouds, the speed is still smaller than the sound speed, but remains almost unchanged as the strength increases, which can be interpreted as the same expansion speed of the proliferation of the vortex rings originated from the transverse instability.
Converging shock wave focusing and interaction with a target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitishinskiy, M.; Efimov, S.; Antonov, O.; Yanuka, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Bernshtam, V.; Fisher, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.
2016-04-01
Converging shock waves in liquids can be used efficiently in the research of the extreme state of matter and in various applications. In this paper, the recent results related to the interaction of a shock wave with plasma preliminarily formed in the vicinity of the shock wave convergence are presented. The shock wave is produced by the underwater electrical explosion of a spherical wire array. The plasma is generated prior to the shock wave's arrival by a low-pressure gas discharge inside a quartz capillary placed at the equatorial plane of the array. Analysis of the Stark broadening of Hα and Hβ spectral lines and line-to-continuum ratio, combined with the ratio of the relative intensities of carbon C III/C II and silicon Si III/Si II lines, were used to determine the plasma density and temperature evolution. It was found that during the first ˜200 ns with respect to the beginning of the plasma compression by the shock wave and when the spectral lines are resolved, the plasma density increases from 2 × 1017 cm-3 to 5 × 1017 cm-3, while the temperature remains at the same value of 3-4 eV. Further, following the model of an adiabatically imploding capillary, the plasma density increases >1019 cm-3, leading to the continuum spectra obtained experimentally, and the plasma temperature >30 eV at radii of compression of ≤20 μm. The data obtained indicate that the shock wave generated by the underwater electrical explosion of a spherical wire array retains its uniformity during the main part of its convergence.
Application of shock wave data to earth and planetary science
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahrens, T. J.
1985-01-01
It is pointed out that shock wave data for: (1) low temperature condensable gases H2 and He, (2) H2O, CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, and N2 ices, and (3) silicates, metals, oxides and sulfides have many applications in geophysics and planetary science. The present paper is concerned with such applications. The composition of planetary interiors is discussed, taking into account the division of the major constituent of the planets in three groups on the basis of 'cosmic abundance' arguments, the H-He mixtures in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, shock wave data for hydrogen, and constraints on the internal structure of Uranus and Neptune. Attention is also given to the earth's mantle, shock wave data for mantle materials, the earth's core, impacts on planetary surfaces, elastic wave velocities as a function of pressure along the Hugoniot of iron, and reactions which yield the CO2 bearing atmospheres for Venus, earth, and Mars.
Unsteadiness of Shock Wave / Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clemens, Noel
2009-11-01
Shock wave / boundary layer interactions are an important feature of high-speed flows that occur in a wide range of practical configurations including aircraft control surfaces, inlets, missile base flows, nozzles, and rotating machinery. These interactions are often associated with severe boundary layer separation, which is highly unsteady, and exhibits high fluctuating pressure and heat loads. The unsteady motions are characterized by a wide range of frequencies, including low-frequency motions that are about two orders of magnitude lower than those that characterize the upstream boundary layer. It is these low-frequency motions that are of most interest because they have been the most difficult to explain and model. Despite significant work over the past few decades, the source of the low-frequency motions remains a topic of intense debate. Owing to a flurry of activity over the past decade on this single topic we are close to developing a comprehensive understanding of the low-frequency unsteadiness. For example, recent work in our laboratory and others suggests that the driving mechanism is related to low-frequency fluctuations in the upstream boundary layer. However, several recent studies suggest the dominant mechanism is an intrinsic instability of the separated flow. Here we attempt to reconcile these views by arguing that the low-frequency unsteadiness is driven by both upstream and downstream processes, but the relative importance of each mechanism depends on the strength (or length-scale) of separation. In cases where the separation bubble is relatively small, then the flow is intermittently separated, and there exists a strong correlation between upstream velocity fluctuations and the separation bubble dynamics. It appears that superstructures in the upstream boundary layer can play an important role in driving the unsteadiness for this case. It is not clear, however, if the upstream fluctuations directly move the separation point or indirectly couple
Hybrid Simulation of the Shock Wave Trailing the Moon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Israelevich, P.; Ofman, Leon
2012-01-01
A standing shock wave behind the Moon was predicted by Michel (1967) but never observed nor simulated. We use 1D hybrid code in order to simulate the collapse of the plasma-free cavity behind the Moon and for the first time to model the formation of this shock. Starting immediately downstream of the obstacle we consider the evolution of plasma expansion into the cavity in the frame of reference moving along with the solar wind. Well-known effects as electric charging of the cavity affecting the plasma flow and counterstreaming ion beams in the wake are reproduced. Near the apex of the inner Mach cone where the plasma flows from the opposite sides of the obstacle meet, a shock wave arises. We expect the shock to be produced at periods of high electron temperature solar wind streams (T(sub i) much less than T(sub e) approximately 100 eV). The shock is produced by the interaction of oppositely directed proton beams in the plane containing solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field vectors. In the direction across the magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, the shock results from the interaction of the plasma flow with the region of the enhanced magnetic field inside the cavity that plays the role of the magnetic barrier. The appearance of the standing shock wave is expected at the distance of approximately 7R(sub M) downstream of the Moon.
Plane shock wave interaction with a cylindrical water column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sembian, S.; Liverts, M.; Tillmark, N.; Apazidis, N.
2016-05-01
A complex system of waves propagating inside a water column due to the impact of plane shock wave is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Flow features, such as, focusing of expansion waves generating large negative pressure, nucleation of cavitation bubbles, and a re-circulation zone are observed and discussed qualitatively and quantitatively. Experiments are conducted on a 22 mm diametrical water column hit by shock waves with Mach numbers 1.75 and 2.4 in a newly constructed exploding wire facility. A new technique to create a properly shaped, repeatable, large diameter water column with straight walls is presented. Qualitative features of the flow are captured using the shadowgraph technique. With the aid of numerical simulations the wave motions inside the column are analyzed; the spatial location of the expansion wave focusing point and the corresponding negative peak pressures is estimated.
Visualization of Shock Wave Driven by Millimeter Wave Plasma in a Parabolic Thruster
Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shimada, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Yuya; Shibata, Teppei; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Arakawa, Yoshihiro
2010-05-06
By focusing a high-power millimeter wave beam generated by a 170 GHz gyrotron, a breakdown occurred and a shock wave was driven by plasma heated by following microwave energy. The shock wave and the plasma around a focal point of a parabolic thruster were visualized by a shadowgraph method, and a transition of structures between the shock wave and the plasma was observed. There was a threshold local power density to make the transition, and the propagation velocity at the transition was around 800 m/s.
International Shock-Wave Database: Systematization of Experimental Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levashov, Pavel R.; Khishchenko, Konstantin V.; Lomonosov, Igor V.; Minakov, Dmitry V.; Zakharenkov, Alexey S.
2011-06-01
In this work, we announce the creation of the International Shock-Wave Database (ISWDB). Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Our objectives are (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models, and (ii) to make this database available internationally thru the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWDB will be guided by input from a steering committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA. The database will provide access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound speed in the Hugoniot state, and time-dependent free-surface or window-interface velocity profiles. We believe that the ISWDB will be a useful tool for the shock-wave community.
A study of slipstreams in triple shock wave configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gvozdeva, L.; Gavrenkov, S.; Nesterov, A.
2015-05-01
A shock wave appearing in supersonic gas flow reflects in different ways depending on flow conditions. It can take the form of regular or irregular reflection. For the irregular reflection configuration of three shock waves and a slipstream arises. Mathematical investigations of the development of parameters across slipstream in triple shock configuration have been made with variation of the angle of incidence of the shock wave, the shock wave Mach number and the adiabatic index of the gas. It has been shown that the characteristic mixing parameters of the slipstream increase with the increase of Mach number of the flow and the decrease of the heat capacity ratio. This leads to an increase of vortex formation and an increase of the angular spread of the slipstream. It also has been shown that the angle between the reflected wave and the slipstream diminishes with the decrease in heat capacity ratio so that the value may become of the same order as the spread angle. This may lead to quantitative changes in the whole reflection pattern near the triple point. The evident dependence of slipstream instability magnitude on the physical and chemical transformation intensity in the fluid was previously experimentally observed. The results of an analytical investigation appeared to be in good agreement with the experimental data.
Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos
Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph
2015-01-01
Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309
Cylindrical sound wave generated by shock-vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ribner, H. S.
1985-01-01
The passage of a columnar vortex broadside through a shock is investigated. This has been suggested as a crude, but deterministic, model of the generation of 'shock noise' by the turbulence in supersonic jets. The vortex is decomposed by Fourier transform into plane sinusoidal shear waves disposed with radial symmetry. The plane sound waves produced by each shear wave/shock interaction are recombined in the Fourier integral. The waves possess an envelope that is essentially a growing cylindrical sound wave centered at the transmitted vortex. The pressure jump across the nominal radius R = ct attenuates with time as 1/(square root of R) and varies around the arc in an antisymmetric fashion resembling a quadrupole field. Very good agreement, except near the shock, is found with the antisymmetric component of reported interferometric measurements in a shock tube. Beyond the front r approximately equals R is a precursor of opposite sign, that decays like 1/R, generated by the 1/r potential flow around the vortex core. The present work is essentially an extension and update of an early approximate study at M = 1.25. It covers the range (R/core radius) = 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 for M = 1.25 and (in part) for M = 1.29 and, for fixed (R/core radius) = 1000, the range M = 1.01 to infinity.
Effects of low-dose extracorporeal shock waves on microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaled, Walaa; Goertz, Ole; Lauer, Henrik; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Hauser, Jörg
2012-11-01
The extended wounds of burn patients remain a challenge due to wound infection and following septicemia. The aim of this study was to analyze microcirculation, angiogenesis and leukocyte endothelium interaction after burn injury with and without extracorporeal shock wave application (ESWA). A novel shockwave system was developed based on a commercially available device for orthopedics (Dornier Aries®) that was equipped with a newly developed applicator. This system is based on the electromagnetic shock wave emitter (EMSE) technology and was introduced to accomplish a localized treatment for wound healing. The system includes a novel field of focus for new applications, with high precision and ease of use. In the animal study, full-thickness burns were inflicted on to the ears of hairless mice (n=51). Intravital fluorescent microscopy was used to assess microcirculatory parameters, angiogenesis and leukocyte behavior. ESWA was performed on day 1, 3 and 7. Values were obtained immediately after burn, as well as at days 1, 3, 7, and 12 post burn. All shockwave treated groups showed an accelerated angiogenesis with a less non-perfused area and an improved blood flow after burn injury compared to the placebo control group. After three treatments, the shock waves increased the number of rolling leukocytes significantly compared to the non-treated animals. Shock waves seem to have a positive effect on several parameters of wound healing after burn injury. However, further investigations are necessary to detect positive influence of shock waves on microcirculation after burn injuries.
Treatment of nonunions of long bone fractures with shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ching-Jen
2003-10-01
A prospective clinical study investigated the effectiveness of shock waves in the treatment of 72 patients with 72 nonunions of long bone fractures (41 femurs, 19 tibias, 7 humeri, 1 radius, 3 ulnas and 1 metatarsal). The doses of shock waves were 6000 impulses at 28 kV for the femur and tibia, 3000 impulses at 28 kV for the humerus, 2000 impulses at 24 kV for the radius and ulna, and 1000 impulses at 20 kV for the metatarsal. The results of treatment were assessed clinically, and fracture healing was assessed with plain x-rays and tomography. The rate of bony union was 40% at 3 months, 60.9% at 6 months and 80% at 12 months followup. Shock wave treatment was most successful in hypertrophic nonunions and nonunions with a defect and was least effective in atrophic nonunions. There were no systemic complications or device-related problems. Local complications included petechiae and hematoma formation that resolved spontaneously. In the author's experience, the results of the shock wave treatment were similar to the results of surgical treatment for chronic nonunions with no surgical risks. Shock wave treatment is a safe and effective alternative method in the treatment of chronic nonunions of long bones.
Numerical investigations of shock wave propagation in polymethylmethacrylate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popova, T. V.; Mayer, A. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.
2015-11-01
Using the Maxwell model of viscoelastic medium, we numerically investigate the influence of the viscoelastic properties of polymethylmethacrylate on the variation of the shock wave amplitude with depth. Parameters of the Maxwell model are chosen by comparison with experimental data on the high-speed impact of plates in order to fit the modeling results with the experimentally measured profiles of the free-surface velocity. A caloric equation of state is used to calculate the pressure from density and internal energy. It is shown that at the limit of weak shock waves, the accounting of the viscoelastic properties allows one to achieve a better agreement between calculated and experimental data for the magnitude of the shock wave velocity in comparison with the case of hydrodynamic calculations. Using the viscoelastic and hydrodynamic approaches, we investigated the dynamics of shock waves in polymethylmethacrylate initiated by micro-, nano- and picosecond pulses of pressure on the sample surface. The calculation results show that the changes in the shock wave amplitude with depth are approximately identical in the hydrodynamic and viscoelastic cases.
Plane shock wave studies of Westerly granite and Nugget sandstone
Larson, D.B.; Anderson, G.D.
1980-12-01
Plane shock wave experiments were performed by using a light-gas gun on dry and water-saturated Westerly granite and dry Nugget sandstone. Changes in the slopes of the shock velocity versus particle velocity curves at 2 to 3 GPa and 1 to 2 GPa for dry granite and for dry sandstone, respectively, are attributed to the onset of pore collapse. However, there is little apparent loss of shear strength in either dry rock over the stress range of the experiments (i.e., 9.3 GPa in Westerly granite and 9.2 GPa in Nugget sandstone). Agreement between the shock wave data and quasistatic, uniaxial strain data for the dry rock implies the absence of rate-dependence in uniaxial strain. The shock data on saturated granite agree well with those for dry granite, thus suggesting there was no loss in shear strength as a result of pore pressure buildup.
Hypersonic flows generated by parabolic and paraboloidal shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwartz, L. W.
1974-01-01
A computer algorithm has been developed to determine the blunt-body flowfields supporting symmetric parabolic and paraboloidal shock waves at infinite free-stream Mach number. Solutions are expressed in an analytic form as high-order power series, in the coordinate normal to the shock, whose coefficients can be determined exactly. Analytic continuation is provided by the use of Pade approximations. Test cases provide solutions of very high accuracy. In the axisymmetric case for gamma equals 715 the solution has been found far downstream, where it agrees with the modified blast-wave results. For plane flow, on the other hand, a limit line appears within the shock layer, a short distance past the sonic line, suggesting the presence of an imbedded shock. Local solutions in the downstream limit are discussed.
Shock waves, rarefaction waves, and nonequilibrium steady states in quantum critical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad; Doyon, Benjamin; Bhaseen, M. J.
2016-07-01
We reexamine the emergence of a universal nonequilibrium steady state following a local quench between quantum critical heat baths in spatial dimensions greater than one. We show that energy transport proceeds by the formation of an instantaneous shock wave and a broadening rarefaction wave on either side of the interface, and not by two shock waves as previously proposed. For small temperature differences the universal steady state energy currents of the two-shock and rarefaction-shock solutions coincide. Over a broad range of parameters, the difference in the energy flow across the interface between these two solutions is at the level of 2%. The properties of the energy flow remain fully universal and independent of the microscopic theory. We briefly discuss the width of the shock wave in a viscous fluid, the effects of momentum relaxation, and the generalization to charged fluids.
Emission lines and shock waves in RR Lyrae stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillet, D.; Fokin, A. B.
2014-05-01
Context. Emission lines observed in radially pulsating stars are thought to be produced by atoms de-exciting after being excited by a shock wave that is traveling into and then compressing, heating, and accelerating the atmospheric gas. Aims: With the help of recent observations, we examine the origin of all the different types of emission lines of hydrogen and helium that appear during a pulsation cycle. Methods: To analyze the physical origin of emission lines, we used the different models of atmospheric dynamics of RR Lyrae stars that have been calculated so far. Results: In contrast to a recent explanation, we propose that the redshifted emission component of Hα, which occurs near the pulsation phase 0.3, is produced by the main shock. In this case, the emission is the natural consequence of the large extension of the expanding atmosphere. Therefore, this (weak) emission should only be observed in RR Lyrae stars for which the main shock will propagate far enough from the photosphere. It appears as a P-Cygni type profile. We estimate the shock front velocity during the shock propagation in the atmosphere and show that it decreases by 40% when the Hα emitting-shock passes from the photospheric level to the upper atmosphere. The Hα P-Cygni profile observed in long-period Cepheids also seems to be caused by the main shock wave. Although to date He II has only been detected in some Blazhko stars, a comprehensive survey of RR Lyrae stars is necessary to confirm this trend, so we can say that the most intense shocks will only be observed in Blazhko stars. Conclusions: The development of a model of atmospheric pulsation that takes the effects of 2D and 3D convection into account, seems to be a necessary step to fully quantify the effects of shock waves on the atmospheric dynamics of radially pulsating stars.
A shock wave approach to the noise of supersonic propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dittmar, J. H.; Rice, E. J.
1981-01-01
To model propeller noise expected for a turboprop aircraft, the pressure ratio across the shock at the propeller tip was calculated and compared with noise data from three propellers. At helical tip Mach numbers over 1.0, using only the tip shock wave, the model gave a fairly good prediction of the noise for a bladed propeller and for a propeller swept for aerodynamic purposes. However for another propeller, which was highly swept and designed to have noise cancellations from the inboard propeller sections, the shock strength from the tip over predicted the noise. In general the good agreement indicates that shock theory is a viable method for predicting the noise from these supersonic propellers but that the shock strengths from all of the blade sections need to be properly included.
Shock drift acceleration in the presence of waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.
1985-01-01
Attention is given to the initial results of a model designed to study the modification of the scatter-free, shock drift acceleration of energetic test particles by wave activity in the vicinity of a quasi-perpendicular, fast-mode MHD shock. It is emphasized that the concept of magnetic moment conservation is a valid approximation only in the perpendicular and nearly perpendicular regimes, when the angle theta-Bn between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field vector is in the range from 70 deg to 90 deg. The present investigation is concerned with one step in a program which is being developed to combine the shock drift and diffusive processes at a shock of arbitrary theta-Bn.
Ion streaming instabilities with application to collisionless shock wave structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, K. I.; Linson, L. M.; Mani, S. A.
1973-01-01
The electromagnetic dispersion relation for two counterstreaming ion beams of arbitrary relative strength flowing parallel to a dc magnetic field is derived. The beams flow through a stationary electron background and the dispersion relation in the fluid approximation is unaffected by the electron thermal pressure. The dispersion relation is solved with a zero net current condition applied and the regions of instability in the k-U space (U is the relative velocity between the two ion beams) are presented. The parameters are then chosen to be applicable for parallel shocks. It was found that unstable waves with zero group velocity in the shock frame can exist near the leading edge of the shock for upstream Alfven Mach numbers greater than 5.5. It is suggested that this mechanism could generate sufficient turbulence within the shock layer to scatter the incoming ions and create the required dissipation for intermediate strength shocks.
Examination of the shock wave regular reflexion phenomenon in a rarefied supersonic plasma flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazouffre, S.; Caubet-Hilloutou, V.; Lengrand, J. C.; Pawelec, E.
2005-01-01
The flow properties of a low-pressure weakly ionized supersonic argon plasma jet are examined using Fabry-Pérot interferometry and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The flow velocity and equilibrium temperature measured at the torch nozzle exit are in close agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations. The model also predicts the plasma flow to be in a rarefied regime. Departure from thermal equilibrium is indeed observed behind the nozzle where the parallel temperature differs significantly from the perpendicular temperature. The development of the axial velocity component along the jet center stream line reveals the occurrence of the shock wave regular reflexion phenomenon: No Mach disk is formed and the flow experiences successive supersonic-to-supersonic transitions before reaching a subsonic regime. Shock wave regular reflexion is in fact favored under our experimental conditions since the speed ratio is high and the rarefaction degree is pronounced at the nozzle exit.
Effect of Surface Roughness on Characteristics of Spherical Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huber, Paul W.; McFarland, Donald R.
1959-01-01
Measurements of peak overpressure and Mach stem height were made at four burst heights. Data were obtained with instrumentation capable of directly observing the variation of shock wave movement with time. Good similarity of free air shock peak overpressure with larger scale data was found to exist. The net effect of surface roughness on shock peak overpressures slightly. Surface roughness delayed the Mach stem formation at the greatest charge height and lowered the growth at all burst heights. A similarity parameter was found which approximately correlates the triple point path at different burst heights.
Fibre Bragg Grating sensor for shock wave diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravid, A.; Shafir, E.; Zilberman, S.; Berkovic, G.; Glam, B.; Appelbaum, G.; Fedotov Gefen, A.
2014-05-01
We measured the response of short FBGs to a weak planar shock wave. The combined effect of the Photo-Elastic effect and the FBG strain was estimated theoretically depending on its orientation with respect to shock front (for 1550 nm FBG, parallel: 0.9 nm/kbar, perpendicular: -1.4 nm/kbar). The experimental results imply that the FBG/fibre survives for more than 1 μs at 5 kbar shock stress, and that our assumptions about the FBG behaviour under dynamic loading are valid, though more work is needed to fully quantify the effect.
Hybrid simulation codes with application to shocks and upstream waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winske, D.
1985-01-01
Hybrid codes in which part of the plasma is represented as particles and the rest as a fluid are discussed. In the past few years such codes with particle ions and massless, fluid electrons have been applied to space plasmas, especially to collisionless shocks. All of these simulation codes are one-dimensional and similar in structure, except for how the field equations are solved. The various approaches that are used (resistive Ohm's law, predictor-corrector, Hamiltonian) are described in detail and results from the various codes are compared with examples taken from collisionless shocks and low frequency wave phenomena upstream of shocks.
Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.
1990-07-01
The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.
Numerical simulation of shock wave diffraction by TVD schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Victor Y. C.; Yee, H. C.
1987-01-01
An upwind total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme and a predictor-corrector symmetric TVD scheme were used to numerically simulate the blast wave diffraction on a stationary object. The objective is to help design an optimum configuration so that lateral motion is minimized and at the same time vortex shedding and flow separation are reduced during a blast wave encounter. Results are presented for a generic configuration for both a coarse grid and a fine grid to illustrate the global and local diffraction flow fields. Numerical experiments for the shock wave reflection on a wedge are also included to validate the current approach. Numerical study indicated that these TVD schemes are more stable and produced higher shock resolution than classical shock capturing methods such as the explicit MacCormack scheme.
Unsteady Phenomena in Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolling, D. S.
1993-01-01
A brief review is given of the unsteadiness of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction. The focus is on interactions generated by swept and unswept compression ramps, by flares, steps and incident shock waves, by cylinders and blunt fins, and by glancing shock waves. The effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and separated flow scale are discussed as are the physical causes of the unsteadiness. The implications that the unsteadiness has for interpreting time-average surface and flowfield data, and for comparisons of such experimental data with computation, is also briefly discussed. Finally, some suggestions for future work are given. It is clear that there are large gaps in the data base and that many aspects of such phenomena are poorly understood. Much work remains to be done.
Oscillation of circular shock waves with upstream nonuniformity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Myeong-Kwan; Oshima, Shuzo; Yamane, Ryuichiro
1992-01-01
Up to previous reports by Park et al. on the oscillation of the circular shock waves, the investigations have been concerned with situations where the upstream flow is uniform, and oscillation and deformation were induced by only downstream conditions. But in the centrifugal diffuser of a centrifugal compressor, the flow into the diffuser becomes nonuniform due to the impeller wake and the stall in the upstream impeller, which causes deformation and oscillation of the shock wave. Here, the above effects are considered, and the upstream disturbance is generated by cylindrical bars. The imperfect circular shock wave was induced by the effect of the wake, and the oscillation state, along with the oscillation modes caused by forced oscillation, is investigated experimentally. It was found that the basic mode of the oscillation is predominant and that the oscillation is weaker than in the case of uniform upstream.
Chemical kinetic modeling of propane oxidation behind shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclain, A. G.; Jachimowski, C. J.
1977-01-01
The stoichiometric combustion of propane behind incident shock waves was studied experimentally and analytically over a temperature range from 1700 K to 2600 K and a pressure range from 1.2 to 1.9 atm. Measurements of the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and the product of the oxygen atom and carbon dioxide concentrations (O)(CO) were made after passage of the incident shock wave. A kinetic mechanism was developed which, when used in a computer program for a flowing, reacting gas behind an incident shock wave predicted experimentally measured results quite well. Ignition delay times from the literature were also predicted quite well. The kinetic mechanism consisted of 59 individual kinetic steps.
Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.
Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A
2014-08-01
Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 μs, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. PMID:24680880
Far-Infrared Water Emissions from Magnetohydrodynamic Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, Michael J.; Neufeld, David A.
1996-01-01
Nondissociative, magnetohydrodynamic, C-type shock waves are expected to be a prodigious source of far-infrared water emissions in dense interstellar regions. We have constructed a model to calculate the farinfrared H20 line spectra that emerge from such shocks. Using the best estimates currently available for the radiative cooling rate and the degree of ion-neutral coupling within the shocked gas, we modeled the temperature structure of MHD shocks using standard methods in which the charged and neutral particles are treated separately as two weakly coupled, interpenetrating fluids. Then we solved the equations of statistical equilibrium to find the populations of the lowest 179 and 170 rotational states of ortho- and para-H2O We have completed an extensive parameter study to determine the emergent H2O line luminosities as a function of preshock density in the range n(H2) equals 10(exp 4) - 10(sup 6.5)/cc and shock velocity in the range upsilon(sub s) = 5 - 40 km/ s. We find that numerous rotational transitions of water are potentially observable using the Infrared Space Observatory and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite and may be used as diagnostics of the shocked gas. We have also computed the rotational and ro-vibrational emissions expected from H2, CO, and OH, and we discuss how complementary observations of such emissions may be used to further constrain the shock conditions. In common with previous studies, we come close to matching the observed H2, and high-J CO emissions from the Orion-KL star-forming region on the basis of a single shock model. We present our predictions for the strengths of H2O line emission from the Orion shock, and we show how our results may be scaled to other regions where molecular shocks are likely to be present.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoshino, Masahiro; Arons, Jonathan; Gallant, Yves A.; Langdon, A. B.
1992-01-01
The theoretical properties of relativistic, transverse, magnetosonic collisionless shock waves in electron-positron-heavy ion plasmas of relevance to astrophysical sources of synchrotron radiation are investigated. Both 1D electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations and quasi-linear theory are used to examine the spatial and kinetic structure of these nonlinear flows. A new process of shock acceleration of nonthermal positrons, in which the gyrating reflected heavy ions dissipate their energy in the form of collectively emitted, left-handed magnetosonic waves which are resonantly absorbed by the positrons immediately behind the ion reflection region, is described. Applications of the results to the termination shocks of pulsar winds and to the termination shocks of jets emanating from the AGN are outlined.
Shock wave mitigation using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Xingtian; Colvert, Brendan; Eliasson, Veronica
2014-11-01
The effectiveness of a wall of liquid as a blast mitigation device is examined using a shock tube and a custom-designed and -built shock test chamber. High-speed schlieren photography and high-frequency pressure sensors allow measurement during the relevant shock interaction time periods of the liquid-gas interface. The characteristic quantities that reflect these effects include reflected-to-incident shock strength ratio, transmitted-to-incident shock strength ratio, transmitted and reflected impulse, and peak pressure reduction. In particular, the effects of viscous properties of the fluid are considered when using non-Newtonian dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids. Experiments have been performed with both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The impact of a shock waves on Non-newtonian fluids is compared to that of Newtonian fluids. Experiments show that non-Newtonian fluids have very strong reflection properties, acting like solid walls under the impact of a shock wave. Further work is to be performed to compare quantitatively the properties of Newtonian vs. non-Newtonian fluids.
Potential of shock waves to remove calculus and biofilm.
Müller, Philipp; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Attin, Thomas; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Schmidlin, Patrick R
2011-12-01
Effective calculus and biofilm removal is essential to treat periodontitis. Sonic and ultrasonic technologies are used in several scaler applications. This was the first feasibility study to assess the potential of a shock wave device to remove calculus and biofilms and to kill bacteria. Ten extracted teeth with visible subgingival calculus were treated with either shock waves for 1 min at an energy output of 0.4 mJ/mm(2) at 3 Hz or a magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler at medium power setting for 1 min, which served as a control. Calculus was determined before and after treatment planimetrically using a custom-made software using a grey scale threshold. In a second experiment, multispecies biofilms were formed on saliva-preconditioned bovine enamel discs during 64.5 h. They were subsequently treated with shock waves or the ultrasonic scaler (N = 6/group) using identical settings. Biofilm detachment and bactericidal effects were then assessed. Limited efficiency of the shock wave therapy in terms of calculus removal was observed: only 5% of the calculus was removed as compared to 100% when ultrasound was used (P ≤ 0.0001). However, shock waves were able to significantly reduce adherent bacteria by three orders of magnitude (P ≤ 0.0001). The extent of biofilm removal by the ultrasonic device was statistically similar. Only limited bactericidal effects were observed using both methods. Within the limitations of this preliminary study, the shock wave device was not able to reliably remove calculus but had the potential to remove biofilms by three log steps. To increase the efficacy, technical improvements are still required. This novel noninvasive intervention, however, merits further investigation. PMID:20821262
Dynamics of Laser-Driven Shock Waves in Solid Targets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Grun, J.; Metzler, N.; Zalesak, S. T.; Gardner, J. H.; Oh, J.; Harding, E. C.
2009-11-01
Accurate shock timing is a key issue of both indirect- and direct-drive laser fusions. The experiments on the Nike laser at NRL presented here were made possible by improvements in the imaging capability of our monochromatic x-ray diagnostics based on Bragg reflection from spherically curved crystals. Side-on imaging implemented on Nike makes it possible to observe dynamics of the shock wave and ablation front in laser-driven solid targets. We can choose to observe a sequence of 2D images or a continuous time evolution of an image resolved in one spatial dimension. A sequence of 300 ps snapshots taken using vanadium backlighter at 5.2 keV reveals propagation of a shock wave in a solid plastic target. The shape of the shock wave reflects the intensity distribution in the Nike beam. The streak records with continuous time resolution show the x-t trajectory of a laser-driven shock wave in a 10% solid density DVB foam.
Lower hybrid waves at the shock front: a reassessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, S. N.; Balikhin, M. A.; Alleyne, H. St. C. K.; Hobara, Y.; André, M.; Dunlop, M. W.
2008-03-01
The primary process occurring at a collisionless shock is the redistribution of the bulk upstream energy into other degrees of freedom. One part of this process results in the acceleration of electrons at the shock front. Accelerated electrons are observed at the terrestrial and other planetary shocks, comets, and their effects are observed in astrophysical phenomena such as supernova remnants and jets in the form of X-ray bremsstrahlung radiation. One of the physical models for electron acceleration at supercritical shocks is based on low-hybrid turbulence due to the presence of reflected ions in the foot region. Since lower hybrid waves propagate almost perpendicular to the magnetic field they can be simultaneously in resonance with both the unmagnetised ions (ω=Vik⊥) and magnetised electrons (ω=Vek||). In this paper, Cluster observations of the electric field are used to study the occurrence of lower hybrid waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock. It is shown that the lower hybrid waves exist as isolated wave packets. However, the very low level of the observed lower hybrid turbulence is too small to impart significant energisation to the electron population.
A Study of Uranus' Bow Shock Motions Using Langmuir Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xue, S.; Cairns, I. H.; Smith, C. W.; Gurnett, D. A.
1996-01-01
During the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, strong electron plasma oscillations (Langmuir waves) were detected by the plasma wave instrument in the 1.78-kHz channel on January 23-24, 1986, prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. Langmuir waves are excited by energetic electrons streaming away from the bow shock. The goal of this work is to estimate the location and motion of Uranus' bow shock using Langmuir wave data, together with the spacecraft positions and the measured interplanetary magnetic field. The following three remote sensing analyses were performed: the basic remote sensing method, the lag time method, and the trace-back method. Because the interplanetary magnetic field was highly variable, the first analysis encountered difficulties in obtaining a realistic estimation of Uranus' bow shock motion. In the lag time method developed here, time lags due to the solar wind's finite convection speed are taken into account when calculating the shock's standoff distance. In the new trace-back method, limits on the standoff distance are obtained as a function of time by reconstructing electron paths. Most of the results produced by the latter two analyses are consistent with predictions based on the standard theoretical model and the measured solar wind plasma parameters. Differences between our calculations and the theoretical model are discussed.
Heterogeneous Shock Energy Deposition in Shock Wave Consolidation of Metal Powders.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutz, Andrew Howard
Shock wave consolidation of powder is a high deformation rate process in which a shock wave generated by an explosive or a colliding projectile rapidly densifies and bonds together the powder particles into a solid compact. The deposition of the shock energy during this process is highly inhomogeneous on the powder particle scale. Evidence of the extent and pattern of the energy deposition was provided by recovery experiments performed using a crystalline metallic glass forming alloy, and analyzed using a heat flow model. The energy deposited during the shock wave passage was best modeled as deposited partly into the particle bulk and partly onto particle surfaces. To investigate this inhomogeneity, and the powder parameters which influence it, a propellant driven gas gun was designed, built and utilized. The planarity of the shock waves produced using the targets designed for the gun was established. Powder - powder thermocouples were impacted with powders of varying sizes to establish the effect of particle size on energy deposition. Small particles in contact with large ones were inferred to absorb the greater fraction of shock energy. Hardened and unhardened steel powder was shocked to investigate the effect of particle hardness on energy distribution. The recovered compacts were not measurably affected by the initial hardness. Compaction experiments were performed on a Ni based super-alloy and on a SiC reinforced Ti matrix composite to test some of the practical applications of the process and the target designs developed. Superior tensile properties were observed in the shock consolidated and heat treated Ni based 718 alloy. The SiC reinforced composite was recovered in the intended net shape with no macro-cracks in the compact body, but with fractured SiC particles.
An analysis of whistler waves at interplanetary shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lengyel-Frey, D.; Farrell, W. M.; Stone, R. G.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.
1994-01-01
We present an analysis of whistler wave magnetic and electric field amplitude ratios from which we compute wave propagation angles and energies of electrons in resonance with the waves. To do this analysis, we compute the theoretical dependence of ratios of wave components on the whistler wave propagation angle Theta for various combinations of orthogonal wave components. Ratios of wave components that would be observed by a spinning spacecraft are determined, and the effects of arbitrary inclinations of the spacecraft to the ambient magnetic field and to the whistler wave vector are studied. This analysis clearly demonstrates that B/E, the ratio of magnetic to electric field amplitudes, cannot be assumed to be the wave index of refraction, contrary to assumptions of some earlier studies. Therefore previous interpretations of whistler wave observations based on this assumption must be reinvestigated. B/E ratios derived using three orthogonal wave components can be used to unambiguously determine Theta. Using spin plane observations alone, a significant uncertainty occurs in the determination of Theta. Nevertheless, for whistler waves observed downstream of several interplanetary shocks by the Ulysses plasma wave experiment we find that Theta is highly oblique. We suggest that the analysis of wave amplitude ratios used in conjunction with traditional stability analyses provide a promising tool for determining which particle distributions and resonances are likely to be dominant contributors to wave growth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bershader, D. (Editor); Hanson, R. (Editor)
1986-01-01
A detailed survey is presented of shock tube experiments, theoretical developments, and applications being carried out worldwide. The discussions explore shock tube physics and the related chemical, physical and biological science and technology. Extensive attention is devoted to shock wave phenomena in dusty gases and other multiphase and heterogeneous systems, including chemically reactive mixtures. Consideration is given to techniques for measuring, visualizing and theoretically modeling flowfield, shock wave and rarefaction wave characteristics. Numerical modeling is explored in terms of the application of computational fluid dynamics techniques to describing flowfields in shock tubes. Shock interactions and propagation, in both solids, fluids, gases and mixed media are investigated, along with the behavior of shocks in condensed matter. Finally, chemical reactions that are initiated as the result of passage of a shock wave are discussed, together with methods of controlling the evolution of laminar separated flows at concave corners on advanced reentry vehicles.
Shock wave emission during the collapse of cavitation bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garen, W.; Hegedűs, F.; Kai, Y.; Koch, S.; Meyerer, B.; Neu, W.; Teubner, U.
2016-02-01
Shock wave emission induced by intense laser pulses is investigated experimentally. The present work focuses on the conditions of shock wave emission in glycerine and distilled water during the first bubble collapse. Experimental investigations are carried out in liquids as a function of temperature and viscosity. Comparison is made with the theoretical work of Poritsky (Proc 1st US Natl Congress Appl Mech 813-821, 1952) and Brennen (Cavitation and bubble dynamics, Oxford University Press 1995). To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first experimental verification of those theories.
Deformation of metal pipe due to underwater shock wave
Itoh, Shigeru; Kira, Akio; Fujita, Masahiro
1996-12-31
Deformation processes of the metal pipes accelerated by underwater shock wave, are investigated by both optical measurement and numerical calculation. It is confirmed that the deformation of the metal pipe obtained by the streak photograph quite agrees with that obtained by the numerical calculations. The radial velocity component of the deformation of Al pipe is faster than that of the Cu pipe. The metal pipes which are accelerated up to the maximum velocity by the underwater shock wave, are deforming with nearly constant velocity.
Shock wave interaction with laser-generated single bubbles.
Sankin, G N; Simmons, W N; Zhu, S L; Zhong, P
2005-07-15
The interaction of a lithotripter shock wave (LSW) with laser-generated single vapor bubbles in water is investigated using high-speed photography and pressure measurement via a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. The interaction leads to nonspherical collapse of the bubble with secondary shock wave emission and microjet formation along the LSW propagation direction. The maximum pressure amplification is produced during the collapse phase of the bubble oscillation when the compressive pulse duration of the LSW matches with the forced collapse time of the bubble. PMID:16090745
Shock Wave Interaction with Laser-Generated Single Bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankin, G. N.; Simmons, W. N.; Zhu, S. L.; Zhong, P.
2005-07-01
The interaction of a lithotripter shock wave (LSW) with laser-generated single vapor bubbles in water is investigated using high-speed photography and pressure measurement via a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. The interaction leads to nonspherical collapse of the bubble with secondary shock wave emission and microjet formation along the LSW propagation direction. The maximum pressure amplification is produced during the collapse phase of the bubble oscillation when the compressive pulse duration of the LSW matches with the forced collapse time of the bubble.
Generation of ultrafast optical fiducials for shock-wave experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodson, B. W.
Recent advances in high time resolution optical diagnostic instrumentation for shock wave experiments in condensed media (especially timing resolved spectroscopy) have resulted in new challenges concerning the timing of such experiments. A technique for detecting the presence of a shock wave through the generation of an optical fiducial signal, which is detected and recorded directly by the optical recording device (typically a streak camera) is presented. This technique, which is based on Stress Induced Defeat of Total Internal Reflection (SIDTIR), requires only simple apparatus and set up, and offers fiducial transition times as short as 50 psec in a reasonable experimental configuration.
Shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Messiter, A. F.
1976-01-01
The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used in analyzing the structure of the interaction region formed when a shock wave impinges on a turbulent flat plate boundary layer in transonic flow. Solutions in outer regions, governed by inviscid flow equations, lead to relations for the wall pressure distribution. Solutions in the inner regions, governed by equations in which Reynolds and/or viscous stresses are included, lead to a relation for the wall shear stress. Solutions for the wall pressure distribution are reviewed for both oblique and normal incoming shock waves. Solutions for the wall shear stress are discussed.
Nuclear reactions in shock wave front during supernova events
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lavrukhina, A. K.
1985-01-01
The new unique isotopic anomalous coponent of Xe(XeX) was found in the carbonaceous chondrites. It is enriched in light shielded isotopes (124Xe and 126Xe) and in heavy nonshielded isotopes (134Xe and 136Xe. All characteristics of Xe-X can be explained by a model of nucleosynthesis of the Xe isotopes in shock wave front passed through the He envelope during supernova events. The light isotopes are created by p process and the heavy isotopes are created by n process (slow r process). They were captured with high temperature carbon grains condensing by supernova shock waves.
Generation of Cylindrical Converging Shock Waves in a Conventional Shock Tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biamino, L.; Jourdan, G.; Mariani, C.; Houas, L.; Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Souffland, D.
For ever two decades, the IUSTI laboratory has been known for its investigations [1] dealing with the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). Experiments concerning the RMI have been performed in conventional shock tubes [2, 3, 4, 5]. All these experiments use a planar shock wave to generate the instability as perfectly as possible. However, the RMI also occurs in the spherical case where the convergence effects must be taken into account. As far as we know, no conventional (straight section) shock tube facility has been used to experimentally study the RMI in a spherical geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, Raymond L.; Ciolek, G. E.; Suarez, P.; Roberge, W. G.
2014-01-01
Young stellar objects generate energetic bipolar molecular outflows that collide with the surrounding gas and dust within a molecular cloud core and subsequently form shock waves in star-forming regions. Although much theoretical work has been done on steady shocks, observations of bipolar outflows have revealed their ages to be as young as 102 -104 years (e.g., Hartigan et al. 2001), which are much less than the typical time it takes for a multifluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave to reach a steady state 105 yr). Thus time-dependent modeling of these flows is required. An approximate way of treating non-steady shocks in single-fluid gas dynamics is the so-called truncated shock method (e.g., Raymond 1979). This method was adopted and extended to weakly ionized magnetized interstellar clouds by LeSaffre et al. (2004), who suggested that stable multifluid MHD shocks could be modeled as truncated quasi-steady CJ shocks, wherein a steady jump (“J-type”) shock model in the neutral fluid is essentially “glued together” with a steady continuous (“C-type”) shock model in the charged fluid and magnetic field. The truncated CJ model serves as the fundamental basis for several recent theoretical studies of the chemistry and line emission in molecular outflows and non-stationary shocks (e.g., Gusdorf et al. 2008; Flower & Pineau des Forêts 2012). Here we examine the region of applicability for truncated quasi-steady CJ shock models in weakly ionized molecular clouds by comparing them to fully time-dependent multifluid MHD simulations calculated using a recent numerical method presented in Ciolek & Roberge (2013).
Plane shock waves and Haff's law in a granular gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob
2015-11-01
The Riemann problem of planar shock waves is analyzed for a dilute granular gas by solving Euler- and Navier-Stokes-order equations numerically. The density and temperature profiles are found to be asymmetric, with the maxima of both density and temperature occurring within the shock-layer. The density-peak increases with increasing Mach number and inelasticity, and is found to propagate at a steady speed at late times. The granular temperature at the upstream end of the shock decay according to Haff's law [ θ (t) ~t-2 ], but the downstream temperature decays faster than its upstream counterpart. The Haff's law seems to hold inside the shock up-to a certain time for weak shocks, but deviations occur for strong shocks. The time at which the maximum temperature deviates from Haff's law follows a power-law scaling with upstream Mach number and the restitution coefficient. The continual build-up of density inside the shock is discussed, the origin of which seems to be tied to a pressure instability in granular gases. It is shown that the granular energy equation must be `regularized' to arrest the maximum density, and the regularized hydrodynamic equations should be used for shock calculations (Reddy & Alam, 2015, J. Fluid Mech., to be published).
Structure of Weak Shock Waves in a Monatomic Gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, F. S.; Talbot, L.
1959-01-01
The profiles and thicknesses of normal shock waves in argon at Mach numbers of 1.335, 1.454, 1.576, and 1-713 were determined experimentally by means of a free-molecule probe whose equilibrium temperature is related by kinetic theory to the local flow properties and their gradients. Comparisons were made between the experimental shock profiles and the theoretical profiles calculated from the Navier-Stokes equations, the Grad 13-moment equations, and the Burnett equations. New, very accurate numerical integrations of the Burnett equations were obtained for this purpose with results quite different from those found by Zoller, to whom the solution of this problem is frequently attributed. The experimental shock profiles were predicted with approximately equal success by the Navier-Stokes and Burnett theories, while the 13-moment method was definitely less satisfactory. A surprising feature of the theoretical results is the relatively small difference in predictions between the Navier-Stokes and Burnett theories in the present range of shock strengths and the contrastingly large difference between predictions of Burnett and the 13-moment theories. It is concluded that the Navier-Stokes equations are correct for weak shocks and that within the present shock strength range the Burnett equations make no improvement which merits the trouble of solving them. For shocks of noticeably greater strength, say with a shock Mach number of more than 2.5, it remains fundamentally doubtful that any of these theories can be correct.
Electromagnetic Pulse Generation by the Shock Wave of Explosion in the Ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorokin, V.; Sergeev, I.; Yaschenko, A.
High-amplitude electric field pulses have been recorded during experiments with explosive injection in the ionosphere. Considerable electric field disturbances were observed in cases where the measurements were carried out near the same line of force of the geomagnetic field. Formation of the explosion shock wave electromagnetic field in the ionosphere is theoretically investigated. A shock wave arises in explosion - type active experiments and disasters of space engines at the ionospheric altitudes. A semi - empirical model of shock wave in the rarefied gas is constructed. This model enable to determine the spatial - temporal distribution of gas temperature, velocity, density and pressure between shock wave front and explosion product surface depend on the Mach number and the explosion altitude. In analyzing the electrodynamic processes accompanying the explosive injection it was assumed that their source is the electric current generated in a propagating shock wave. Electric current occurs by the ionosphere plasma perturbation in external magnetic field behind of the shock wave front. This current is a source of electromagnetic pulse in the ionospheric plasma with Pedersen and Hall conductivities. It is shown that the electromagnetic perturbation propagates along to the magnetic-field direction and has the form of an oscillating wave packet. The frequency of the wave packet decreases depends on time. Its characteristic group velocity, wave length, and frequency decrease depends on angle between the propagation direction and the external magnetic field. The characteristic frequency of oscillations varies from 0.1 - 10 Hz. The phase velocity decreases in the interval from 10 to 100 km/sec depends on distance from the source. As the angle increases, the oscillations disappear and the field propagates as a single-polarity pulse. Theoretical results have been compared with experimental data obtained by observations of electromagnetic phenomena during explosive
Evolution of Shock Waves in Silicon Carbide Rods
Balagansky, I. A.; Balagansky, A. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Utkin, A. V.
2006-07-28
Evolution of shock waves in self-bonded silicon carbide bars in the shape of 20 mm x 20 mm square prisms of varying lengths (20 mm, 40 mm, and 77.5 mm) is investigated. The density and porosity of the test specimens were 3.08 g/cm3 and 2%, respectively. Shock waves were generated by detonating a cylindrical shaped (d=40 mm and 1=40 mm) stabilized RDX high explosive charge of density 1.60 g/cm3. Embedded manganin gauges at various distances from the impact face were used to monitor the amplitude of shock pressure profiles. Propagation velocity of the stress pulse was observed to be equal to the elastic bar wave velocity of 11 km/s and was independent of the amplitude of the impact pulse. Strong fuzziness of the stress wave front is observed. This observation conforms to the theory on the instability of the shock formation in a finite size elastic body. This phenomenon of wave front fuzziness may be useful for desensitization of heterogeneous high explosives.
Shock conditions and shock wave structures in a steady flow in a dissipative fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Germain, P.; Guiraud, J. P.
1983-01-01
More precisely, calling xi the reciprocal of the Reynolds number based on the shock wave curvature radius, the xi terms of the first order are systematically taken into account. The most important result is a system of formulas giving a correction of order xi for the various RANKINE-HUGONIOT conditions. The suggested formulas may for instance have to be used instead of the conventional ones to evaluate the loss of the total pressure across the detached shock wave which is found at the nose of a very small probe in supersonic flow.
The bactericidal effect of shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leighs, J. A.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Goff, M. J.; Hameed, A.; Hazell, P. J.
2014-05-01
There are a variety of theories relating to the origins of life on our home planet, some of which discuss the possibility that life may have been spread via inter-planetary bodies. There have been a number of investigations into the ability of life to withstand the likely conditions generated by asteroid impact (both contained in the impactor and buried beneath the planet surface). Previously published data regarding the ability of bacteria to survive such applied shockwaves has produced conflicting conclusions. The work presented here used an established and published technique in combination with a single stage gas gun, to shock and subsequently recover Escherichia coli populations suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution. Peak pressure across the sample region was calculated via numerical modelling. Survival data against peak sample pressure for recovered samples is presented alongside control tests. SEM micrographs of shocked samples are presented alongside control sets to highlight key differences between cells in each case.
Solitary and shock waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma
Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song
2014-02-15
An Ohm's law for electron-positron (EP) plasma is obtained. In the framework of EP magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate nonrelativistic nonlinear waves' solutions in a magnetized EP plasma. In the collisionless limit, quasistationary propagating solitary wave structures for the magnetic field and the plasma density are obtained. It is found that the wave amplitude increases with the Mach number and the Alfvén speed. However, the dependence on the plasma temperature is just the opposite. Moreover, for a cold EP plasma, the existence range of the solitary waves depends only on the Alfvén speed. For a hot EP plasma, the existence range depends on the Alfvén speed as well as the plasma temperature. In the presence of collision, the electromagnetic fields and the plasma density can appear as oscillatory shock structures because of the dissipation caused by the collisions. As the collision frequency increases, the oscillatory shock structure becomes more and more monotonic.
Kinetic simulation of a collisional shock wave in a plasma
Casanova, M.; Larroche, O. ); Matte, J. )
1991-10-14
The ion kinetic structure of a planar collisional shock front in a fully ionized plasma is investigated using a new Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code. The effects of ionic viscosity and ionic thermal conduction are found to be much larger than assumed in usual hydrodynamic plasma simulations with classical transport coefficients. This might have consequences on the numerical modeling of inertial-confinement fusion targets.
Weinberg, Kerstin; Ortiz, Michael
2009-08-01
In shock-wave lithotripsy--a medical procedure to fragment kidney stones--the patient is subjected to hypersonic waves focused at the kidney stone. Although this procedure is widely applied, the physics behind this medical treatment, in particular the question of how the injuries to the surrounding kidney tissue arise, is still under investigation. To contribute to the solution of this problem, two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of a human kidney under shock-wave loading are presented. For this purpose a constitutive model of the bio-mechanical system kidney is introduced, which is able to map large visco-elastic deformations and, in particular, material damage. The specific phenomena of cavitation induced oscillating bubbles is modeled here as an evolution of spherical pores within the soft kidney tissue. By means of large scale finite element simulations, we study the shock-wave propagation into the kidney tissue, adapt unknown material parameters and analyze the resulting stress states. The simulations predict localized damage in the human kidney in the same regions as observed in animal experiments. Furthermore, the numerical results suggest that in first instance the pressure amplitude of the shock wave impulse (and not so much its exact time-pressure profile) is responsible for damaging the kidney tissue. PMID:18807077
Unsteady relativistic shock-wave diffraction by cylinders and spheres.
Tsai, I-Nan; Huang, Juan-Chen; Tsai, Shang-Shi; Yang, J Y
2012-02-01
The unsteady relativistic shock-wave diffraction patterns generated by a relativistic blast wave impinging on a circular cylinder and a sphere are numerically simulated using some high-resolution relativistic kinetic beam schemes in a general coordinate system for solving the relativistic Euler equations of gas dynamics. The diffraction patterns are followed through about 6 radii of travel of the incident shock past the body. The complete diffraction patterns, including regular reflection, transition from regular to Mach reflection, slip lines, and the complex shock-on-shock interaction at the wake region resulting from the Mach shocks collision behind the body are reported in detail. Computational results of several incident shock Mach numbers covering the near ultrarelativistic limit are studied. Various contours of flow properties including the Lorentz factor and velocity streamline plots are also presented to add a better understanding of the complex diffraction phenomena. The three-dimensional relieving effects of the sphere cases are evident and can be quantitatively evaluated as compared with the corresponding cylinder cases. PMID:22463327
Unsteady relativistic shock-wave diffraction by cylinders and spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, I.-Nan; Huang, Juan-Chen; Tsai, Shang-Shi; Yang, J. Y.
2012-02-01
The unsteady relativistic shock-wave diffraction patterns generated by a relativistic blast wave impinging on a circular cylinder and a sphere are numerically simulated using some high-resolution relativistic kinetic beam schemes in a general coordinate system for solving the relativistic Euler equations of gas dynamics. The diffraction patterns are followed through about 6 radii of travel of the incident shock past the body. The complete diffraction patterns, including regular reflection, transition from regular to Mach reflection, slip lines, and the complex shock-on-shock interaction at the wake region resulting from the Mach shocks collision behind the body are reported in detail. Computational results of several incident shock Mach numbers covering the near ultrarelativistic limit are studied. Various contours of flow properties including the Lorentz factor and velocity streamline plots are also presented to add a better understanding of the complex diffraction phenomena. The three-dimensional relieving effects of the sphere cases are evident and can be quantitatively evaluated as compared with the corresponding cylinder cases.
The fingerprints of photoionization and shock-ionization in two CSS sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynaldi, Victoria; Feinstein, Carlos
2016-01-01
We investigate the ionization state of the extended emission-line regions (EELRs) around two compact steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies, 3C 268.3 and 3C 303.1, in order to identify the contribution of photoionization and shock-ionization. We perform a new spectroscopical (long-slit) analysis with GMOS/Gemini with the slit oriented in the radio-jet direction, where outflows are known to exist. The [Ne V] λ3426 emission is the most interesting feature of the spectra and the one key to breaking the degeneracy between the models: since this emission-line is more extended than He II, it challenges the ionization structure proposed by any photoionization model, also its intensity relative to H β does not behave as expected with respect to the ionization parameter U in the same scenario. On the contrary, when it is compared to the intensity of [O II] λ3727/H β and all these results are joined, the whole scenario is plausible to be explained as emission coming from the hot, compressed, shocked gas in shock-ionization models. Although the model fitting is strongly sensitive to the chosen line ratios, it argues for the presence of external and strong ionizing fields, such as the precursor field created by the shock or/and the AGN radiation field. In this paper, we show how AGN photoionization and shock-ionization triggered by jet-cloud interaction work together in these EELRs in order to explain the observed trends and line-ratio behaviours in a kinematically acceptable way.
Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2016-01-01
The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.
Stochastic electron acceleration during turbulent reconnection in strong shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Yosuke
2016-04-01
Acceleration of charged particles is a fundamental topic in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas. Very high energy particles are commonly found in the astrophysical and planetary shocks, and in the energy releases of solar flares and terrestrial substorms. Evidence for relativistic particle production during such phenomena has attracted much attention concerning collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection, respectively, as ultimate plasma energization mechanisms. While the energy conversion proceeds macroscopically, and therefore the energy mostly flows to ions, plasma kinetic instabilities excited in a localized region have been considered to be the main electron heating and acceleration mechanisms. We present that efficient electron energization can occur in a much larger area during turbulent magnetic reconnection from the intrinsic nature of a strong collisionless shock wave. Supercomputer simulations have revealed a multiscale shock structure comprising current sheets created via an ion-scale Weibel instability and resulting energy dissipation through magnetic reconnection. A part of the upstream electrons undergoes first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. The dynamics has shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves.
SIMULATION OF SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION AND DAMAGE IN GEOLOGIC MATERIALS
Lomov, I; Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T H
2004-09-17
A new thermodynamically consistent material model for large deformation has been developed. It describes quasistatic loading of limestone as well as high-rate phenomena. This constitutive model has been implemented into an Eulerian shock wave code with adaptive mesh refinement. This approach was successfully used to reproduce static triaxial compression tests and to simulate experiments of blast loading and damage of limestone. Results compare favorably with experimentally available wave profiles from spherically-symmetric explosion in rock samples.
Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.
Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2015-10-01
The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead. PMID:26442143
Measuring high pressure equation of state of polystyrene using laser driven shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Hua; Huang, Xiuguang; Ye, Junjian; Wu, Jiang; Jia, Guo; Fang, Zhiheng; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhou, Huazhen; Fu, Sizu
2015-11-01
High precision polystyrene equation of state data were measured using laser-driven shock waves with pressures from 180 GPa to 700 GPa. α quartz was used as standard material, the shock wave trajectory in quartz and polystyrene was measured using the Velocity Interferometer for Any Reflector (VISAR). Instantaneous shock velocity in quartz and polystyrene was obtained when the shock wave pass the interface. This provided ~1% precision in shock velocity measurements.
MOLECULAR LINE EMISSION FROM MULTIFLUID SHOCK WAVES. I. NUMERICAL METHODS AND BENCHMARK TESTS
Ciolek, Glenn E.; Roberge, Wayne G. E-mail: roberw@rpi.edu
2013-05-01
We describe a numerical scheme for studying time-dependent, multifluid, magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in weakly ionized interstellar clouds and cores. Shocks are modeled as propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field and consist of a neutral molecular fluid plus a fluid of ions and electrons. The scheme is based on operator splitting, wherein time integration of the governing equations is split into separate parts. In one part, independent homogeneous Riemann problems for the two fluids are solved using Godunov's method. In the other, equations containing the source terms for transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids are integrated using standard numerical techniques. We show that, for the frequent case where the thermal pressures of the ions and electrons are << magnetic pressure, the Riemann problems for the neutral and ion-electron fluids have a similar mathematical structure which facilitates numerical coding. Implementation of the scheme is discussed and several benchmark tests confirming its accuracy are presented, including (1) MHD wave packets ranging over orders of magnitude in length- and timescales, (2) early evolution of multifluid shocks caused by two colliding clouds, and (3) a multifluid shock with mass transfer between the fluids by cosmic-ray ionization and ion-electron recombination, demonstrating the effect of ion mass loading on magnetic precursors of MHD shocks. An exact solution to an MHD Riemann problem forming the basis for an approximate numerical solver used in the homogeneous part of our scheme is presented, along with derivations of the analytic benchmark solutions and tests showing the convergence of the numerical algorithm.
Molecular Line Emission from Multifluid Shock Waves. I. Numerical Methods and Benchmark Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciolek, Glenn E.; Roberge, Wayne G.
2013-05-01
We describe a numerical scheme for studying time-dependent, multifluid, magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in weakly ionized interstellar clouds and cores. Shocks are modeled as propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field and consist of a neutral molecular fluid plus a fluid of ions and electrons. The scheme is based on operator splitting, wherein time integration of the governing equations is split into separate parts. In one part, independent homogeneous Riemann problems for the two fluids are solved using Godunov's method. In the other, equations containing the source terms for transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids are integrated using standard numerical techniques. We show that, for the frequent case where the thermal pressures of the ions and electrons are Lt magnetic pressure, the Riemann problems for the neutral and ion-electron fluids have a similar mathematical structure which facilitates numerical coding. Implementation of the scheme is discussed and several benchmark tests confirming its accuracy are presented, including (1) MHD wave packets ranging over orders of magnitude in length- and timescales, (2) early evolution of multifluid shocks caused by two colliding clouds, and (3) a multifluid shock with mass transfer between the fluids by cosmic-ray ionization and ion-electron recombination, demonstrating the effect of ion mass loading on magnetic precursors of MHD shocks. An exact solution to an MHD Riemann problem forming the basis for an approximate numerical solver used in the homogeneous part of our scheme is presented, along with derivations of the analytic benchmark solutions and tests showing the convergence of the numerical algorithm.
Effect of electronic excitation on high-temperature flows behind strong shock waves
Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.
2014-12-09
In the present paper, a strongly non-equilibrium one-dimensional steady-state flow behind the plane shock wave is studied. We consider a high-temperature chemically reacting five-component ionized mixture of nitrogen species (N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}{sup 2}/N/N{sup +}/e{sup −}) taking into account electronic degrees of freedom in N and N{sup +} (170 and 625 electronic energy levels respectively), and electronic-rotational-vibrational modes in N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}{sup +} (5 and 7 electronic terms). Non-equilibrium reactions of ionization, dissociation, recombination and charge-transfer are included to the kinetic scheme. The system of governing equations is written under the assumption that translation and internal energy relaxation is fast whereas chemical reactions and ionization proceed on the macroscopic gas-dynamics time-scale. The developed model is applied to simulate the flow behind a plane shock wave under initial conditions characteristic for the spacecraft re-entry from an interplanetary flight (Hermes and Fire II experiments). Fluid-dynamic parameters behind the shock wave as well as transport coefficients and the heat flux are calculated for the (N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}{sup +}/N/N{sup +}/e{sup −}) mixture. The effect of electronic excitation on kinetics, dynamics and heat transfer is analyzed. Whereas the contribution of electronic degrees of freedom to the flow macroparameters is negligible, their influence on the heat flux is found to be important under conditions of Hermes re-entry.
Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.
1972-01-01
A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.
Solitary and shock waves in discrete double power law materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herbold, Eric; Nesterenko, Vitali
2007-06-01
A novel strongly nonlinear metamaterial is composed using a periodic arrangement of toroidal rings between plates. The toroids are considered massless strongly nonlinear springs where the force versus displacement relationship is described by two additive power-law relationships. In these systems the nonlinearity is due to the dramatic change of the contact plane, which starts as an arbitrarily thin circle then increases in thickness with increasing compression. Solitary and shock waves are examined numerically and experimentally using three different types of polymer or rubber o-rings allowing mitigation of higher amplitude shock impulses in comparison with granular systems. In these systems a train of pulses can consist of two separate groups related to two strongly nonlinear regimes with different values of exponents, depending on the amplitude. In experiments two types of shock waves (monotonic or oscillatory) were observed depending on the type of o-rings.
Shock wave refraction enhancing conditions on an extended interface
Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.
2013-04-15
We determined the law of shock wave refraction for a class of extended interfaces with continuously variable gradients. When the interface is extended or when the gas parameters vary fast enough, the interface cannot be considered as sharp or smooth and the existing calculation methods cannot be applied. The expressions we derived are general enough to cover all three types of the interface and are valid for any law of continuously varying parameters. We apply the equations to the case of exponentially increasing temperature on the boundary and compare the results for all three types of interfaces. We have demonstrated that the type of interface can increase or inhibit the shock wave refraction. Our findings can be helpful in understanding the results obtained in energy deposition experiments as well as for controlling the shock-plasma interaction in other settings.
Shock wave in a two-dimensional dusty plasma crystal
Ghosh, Samiran
2009-10-15
Two-dimensional (2D) shock structures of longitudinal dust lattice wave (LDLW) in a hexagonal Yukawa crystal are studied. The nonlinear evolution equation derived for dusty plasma crystal is found to be a 2D Burgers' equation, where the Burgers' term, i.e., the dissipation is provided by ''hydrodynamic damping'' due to irreversible processes that take place within the system. Analytical and numerical solutions of this equation on the basis of crystal experimental parameters show the development of compressional shock structures of LDLW in 2D dusty plasma crystal. The shock strength decreases (increases) with the increase in lattice parameter {kappa} (angle of propagation of the nonlinear wave). The results are discussed in the context of 2D monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal experiments.
Shock wave reflection over convex and concave wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitade, M.; Kosugi, T.; Yada, K.; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2001-04-01
It is well known that the transition criterion nearly agrees with the detachment criterion in the case of strong shocks, two-dimensional, and pseudosteady flow. However, when the shock wave diffracts over a wedge whose angle is below the detachment criterion, that is, in the domain of Mach reflection, precursory regular reflection (PRR) appears near the leading edge and as the shock wave propagates, the PRR is swept away by the overtaking corner signal (cs) that forces the transition to Mach reflection. It is clear that viscosity and thermal conductivity influences transition and the triple point trajectory. On the other hand, the reflection over concave and convex wedges is truly unsteady flow, and the effect of viscosity and thermal conductivity on transition and triple point trajectory has not been reported. This paper describes that influence of viscosity over convex and concave corners investigated both experiments and numerical simulations.
The optical emission from oscillating white dwarf radiative shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imamura, James N.; Rashed, Hussain; Wolff, Michael T.
1991-01-01
The hypothesis that quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are due to the oscillatory instability of radiative shock waves discovered by Langer et al. (1981, 1092) is examined. The time-dependent optical spectra of oscillating radiative shocks produced by flows onto magnetic white dwarfs are calculated. The results are compared with the observations of the AM Her QPO sources V834 Cen, AN UMa, EF Eri, and VV Pup. It is found that the shock oscillation model has difficulties with aspects of the observations for each of the sources. For VV Pup, AN UMa, and V834 Cen, the cyclotron luminosities for the observed magnetic fields of these systems, based on our calculations, are large. The strong cyclotron emission probably stabilizes the shock oscillations. For EF Eri, the mass of the white dwarf based on hard X-ray observations is greater than 0.6 solar mass.
Internal structure of shock waves in disparate mass mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Chan-Hong; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Jeng, Duen-Ren; Penko, Paul F.
1992-01-01
The detailed flow structure of a normal shock wave for a gas mixture is investigated using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo method. A variable diameter hard-sphere (VDHS) model is employed to investigate the effect of different viscosity temperature exponents (VTE) for each species in a gas mixture. Special attention is paid to the irregular behavior in the density profiles which was previously observed in a helium-xenon experiment. It is shown that the VTE can have substantial effects in the prediction of the structure of shock waves. The variable hard-sphere model of Bird shows good agreement, but with some limitations, with the experimental data if a common VTE is chosen properly for each case. The VDHS model shows better agreement with the experimental data without adjusting the VTE. The irregular behavior of the light-gas component in shock waves of disparate mass mixtures is observed not only in the density profile, but also in the parallel temperature profile. The strength of the shock wave, the type of molecular interactions, and the mole fraction of heavy species have substantial effects on the existence and structure of the irregularities.
Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.
2004-01-01
Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.
Numerical calculations of shock-wave/boundary-layer flow interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, P. G.; Liou, W. W.
1994-08-01
The paper presents results of calculations for 2-D supersonic turbulent compression corner flows. The results seem to indicate that the newer, improved kappa-epsilon models offer limited advantages over the standard kappa-epsilon model in predicting the shock-wave/boundary-layer flows in the 2-D compression corner over a wide range of corner angles and flow conditions.
Dynamic Theory: some shock wave and energy implications
Williams, P.E.
1981-02-01
The Dynamic Theory, a unifying five-dimensional theory of space, time, and matter, is examined. The theory predicts an observed discrepancy between shock wave viscosity measurements at low and high pressures in aluminum, a limiting mass-to-energy conversion rate consistent with the available data, and reduced pressures in electromagneticaly contained controlled-fusion plasmas.
Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.
2015-01-01
Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities 200 km s(exp -1) for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of approximately 2 compared to those of Jones et al. (1996), who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of approximately 3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of approximately 2-3 Gyr. These increases, while not able resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step towards understanding the origin, and evolution of dust in the ISM.
Shock wave properties of anorthosite and gabbro
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.
1984-01-01
Hugoniot data on San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbro to 11 GPA are presented. Release paths in the stress-density plane and sound velocities are reported as determined from particl velocity data. Electrical interference effects precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the gabbro. Because of the loss of shear strength in the shocked state, the plastic behavior exhibited by anorthosite indicates that calculations of energy partitioning due to impact onto planetary surfaces based on elastic-plastic models may underestimate the amount of internal energy deposited in the impacted surface material.
Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Böhm, Patrick S.; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.
2015-10-01
This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ~100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns-1. The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (~100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ~1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85-95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen curve for
Multidimensional detonation propagation modeled via nonlinear shock wave superposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higgins, Andrew; Mehrjoo, Navid
2010-11-01
Detonation waves in gases are inherently multidimensional due to their cellular structure, and detonations in liquids and heterogeneous solids are often associated with instabilities and stochastic, localized reaction centers (i.e., hot spots). To explore the statistical nature of detonation dynamics in such systems, a simple model that idealizes detonation propagation as an ensemble of interacting blast waves originating from spatially random point sources has been proposed. Prior results using this model exhibited features that have been observed in real detonating systems, such as anomalous scaling between axisymmetric and two-dimensional geometries. However, those efforts used simple linear superposition of the blast waves. The present work uses a model of blast wave superposition developed for multiple-source explosions (the LAMB approximation) that incorporates the nonlinear interaction of shock waves analytically, permitting the effect of a more physical model of blast wave interaction to be explored. The results are suggestive of a universal behavior in systems of spatially randomized energy sources.
Evolution of shock waves formed by laser-induced breakdown in air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yi; Li, Yu-Tong; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Feng; Zhong, Jia-Yong; Lin Xiao, Xuan; Liu, Feng; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Jie
2007-12-01
The evolution of shock waves produced by 7 ns laser pulses in air is investigated by time-resolved shadowgraph. A nodular structure of the shock wave is observed. It is found that the origin of the structure is the multi-longitudinal-microfocus caused by the astigmatism of the laser beam. The spherical shock waves formed by each microfocus expand gradually and collide with each other, resulting in the nodular structure of the shock wave.
Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2015-10-01
The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.
Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma
Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2015-10-15
The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.
CONSTRAINING STELLAR FEEDBACK: SHOCK-IONIZED GAS IN NEARBY STARBURST GALAXIES
Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela; Gallagher, John S. III; Martin, Crystal L.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Pellerin, Anne
2013-11-01
We investigate the properties of feedback-driven shocks in eight nearby starburst galaxies using narrow-band imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We identify the shock-ionized component via the line diagnostic diagram [O III] (λ5007)/Hβ versus [S II] (λλ6716, 6731) (or [N II] (λ6583))/Hα, applied to resolved regions 3-15 pc in size. We divide our sample into three sub-samples: sub-solar, solar, and super-solar, for consistent shock measurements. For the sub-solar sub-sample, we derive three scaling relations: (1) L{sub shock}∝SFR{sup 0.62}, (2) L{sub shock}∝Σ{sub SFR,{sub HL}} {sup 0.92}, and (3) L{sub shock}/L{sub tot}∝(L{sub H} /L{sub ☉,{sub H}}){sup –0.65}, where L{sub shock} is the Hα luminosity from shock-ionized gas, Σ{sub SFR,{sub HL}} the star formation rate (SFR) per unit half-light area, L{sub tot} the total Hα luminosity, and L{sub H} /L{sub ☉,{sub H}} the absolute H-band luminosity from the Two Micron All Sky Survey normalized to solar luminosity. The other two sub-samples do not have enough number statistics, but appear to follow the first scaling relation. The energy recovered indicates that the shocks from stellar feedback in our sample galaxies are fully radiative. If the scaling relations are applicable in general to stellar feedback, our results are similar to those by Hopkins et al. for galactic superwinds. This similarity should, however, be taken with caution at this point, as the underlying physics that enables the transition from radiative shocks to gas outflows in galaxies is still poorly understood.
Effects of D region ionization on radio wave propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larsen, T. R.
1979-01-01
The effects of anomalous D region ionization upon radio wave propagation are described for the main types of disturbances: sudden ionospheric disturbances, relativistic electron events, magnetic storms, auroral disturbances, polar cap events, and stratospheric warmings. Examples of radio wave characteristics for such conditions are given for the frequencies between the extremely low (3-3000 Hz) and high (3-30 MHz) frequency domains. Statistics on the disturbance effects and radio wave data are given in order to contribute towards the evaluation of possibilities for predicting the radio effects.
Studies of Shock Wave Interactions with Homogeneous and Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Briassulis, G.; Agui, J.; Watkins, C. B.; Andreopoulos, Y.
1998-01-01
A nearly homogeneous nearly isotropic compressible turbulent flow interacting with a normal shock wave has been studied experimentally in a large shock tube facility. Spatial resolution of the order of 8 Kolmogorov viscous length scales was achieved in the measurements of turbulence. A variety of turbulence generating grids provide a wide range of turbulence scales. Integral length scales were found to substantially decrease through the interaction with the shock wave in all investigated cases with flow Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 and shock Mach numbers from 1.2 to 1.6. The outcome of the interaction depends strongly on the state of compressibility of the incoming turbulence. The length scales in the lateral direction are amplified at small Mach numbers and attenuated at large Mach numbers. Even at large Mach numbers amplification of lateral length scales has been observed in the case of fine grids. In addition to the interaction with the shock the present work has documented substantial compressibility effects in the incoming homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow. The decay of Mach number fluctuations was found to follow a power law similar to that describing the decay of incompressible isotropic turbulence. It was found that the decay coefficient and the decay exponent decrease with increasing Mach number while the virtual origin increases with increasing Mach number. A mechanism possibly responsible for these effects appears to be the inherently low growth rate of compressible shear layers emanating from the cylindrical rods of the grid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortov, Vladimir E.
2007-04-01
The physical properties of hot dense matter over a broad domain of the phase diagram are of immediate interest in astrophysics, planetary physics, power engineering, controlled thermonuclear fusion, impulse technologies, enginery, and several special applications. The use of intense shock waves in dynamic physics and high-pressure chemistry has made the exotic high-energy-density states of matter a subject of laboratory experiments and enabled advancing by many orders of magnitude along the pressure scale to range into the megabars and even gigabars. The present report reviews the latest experimental research involving shock waves in nonideal plasmas under conditions of strong collective interparticle interaction. The results of investigations into the thermodynamic, transport, and optical properties of strongly compressed hot matter, as well as into its composition and conductivity, are discussed. Experimental techniques for high energy density cumulation, the drivers of intense shock waves, and methods for the fast diagnostics of high-energy plasma are considered. Also discussed are compression-stimulated physical effects: pressure-induced ionization, plasma phase transitions, the deformation of bound states, plasma blooming ('transparentization' of plasma), etc. Suggestions for future research are put forward.
Classification of pseudo-steady shock wave reflection types
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, A. N.; Berezkina, M. K.; Krassovskaya, I. V.
2012-07-01
Classification of various types of the reflections of a shock wave over a straight wedge is proposed. The idea about entire reflection phenomenon as a result of interaction of two processes—the shock wave reflection process and the flow deflection process—serves as a basis for the classification. To recognize the types of reflection, changes in the shapes of the reflected wave, Mach stem, and contact surface (slipstream) are taken into account. The boundaries and domains of existence for various types of reflection configuration are reported. New terms for some types of reflection are proposed. The domain of irregular non-Mach reflection is analyzed carefully. It is shown that the von Neumann reflection pattern can result from not only the weak shock reflection but also the strong shock reflection over thin wedges. Shadowgraph images of different types of irregular reflection that illustrate the suggested classification are presented. Emphasis is placed on near-wall behavior of the contact discontinuity in the Mach configuration.
Applications of Shock Wave Research to Developments of Therapeutic Devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2007-06-01
Underwater shock wave research applied to medicine started in 1980 by exploding micro lead azide pellets in water. Collaboration with urologists in the School of Medicine, Tohoku University at the same time was directed to disintegration of kidney stones by controlling shock waves. We initially proposed a miniature truncated ellipsoidal cavity for generating high-pressures enough to disintegrate the stone but gave up the idea, when encountering the Dornie Systems' invention of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Then we confirmed its effectiveness by using 10 mg silver azide pellets and constructed our own lithotripter, which was officially approved for a clinical use in 1987. Tissue damage during ESWL was attributable to bubble collapse and we convinced it could be done in a controlled fashion. In 1996, we used 160 mJ pulsed Ho:YAG laser beam focusing inside a catheter for shock generation and applied it to the revascularization of cerebral embolism, which is recently expanded to the treatment of pulmonary infarction. Micro water jets discharged in air were so effective to dissect soft tissues preserving small blood vessels. Animal experiments are successfully performed with high frequency water jets driven by an actuator-assisted micro-pump. A metal foil is deformed at high speed by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam loading. We used this technique to project micro-particles or dry drugs attached on its reverse side and extended it to a laser ablation assisted dry drug delivery or DNA introductory system.
Shock wave driven liquid microjets for drug delivery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menezes, Viren; Kumar, Satyam; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2009-10-01
A nonintrusive, minimally invasive, needle-less technique to deliver liquids into soft targets is presented. The technique uses a laser-induced shock wave to drive a liquid microjet at a very high speed such that the jet has sufficient momentum to penetrate soft targets. The method can be used to deliver liquid drugs into soft tissues in the human body. The liquid to be delivered is sandwiched between 200 μm thick aluminum foil and a base plate with a perforation of 100 μm diameter. The aluminum foil is ablated using an Nd:YAG laser beam in order to launch a shock wave through it. The shock wave from the foil is transmitted to the sandwiched liquid, which becomes pressurized by the shock propagation and emanates as a microjet through the perforation in the base plate. The microjet thus generated has a steady, average speed of over 200 m/s. The technique has been tested on gelatin models (5% gelatin), in which the jet penetrated to a depth of more than a millimeter.
Experimental research on dust lifting by propagating shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Żydak, P.; Oleszczak, P.; Klemens, R.
2016-05-01
The aim of the presented work was to study the dust lifting process from a layer of dust behind a propagating shock wave. The experiments were conducted with the use of a shock tube and a specially constructed, five-channel laser optical device enabling measurements at five positions located in one vertical plane along the height of the tube. The system enabled measurements of the delay in lifting up of the dust from the layer, and the vertical velocity of the dust cloud was calculated from the dust concentration measurements. The research was carried out for various initial conditions and for three fractions of black coal dust. In the presented tests, three shock wave velocities: 450, 490 and 518 m/s and three dust layer thicknesses, equal to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm, were taken into consideration. On the grounds of the obtained experimental results, it was assumed that the vertical component of the lifted dust velocity is a function of the dust particle diameter, the velocity of the air flow in the channel, the layer thickness and the dust bulk density. It appeared, however, that lifting up of the dust from the thick layers, thicker than 1 mm, is a more complex process than that from thin layers and still requires further research. A possible explanation is that the shock wave action upon the thick layer results in its aggregation in the first stage of the dispersing process, which suppresses the dust lifting process.
Vorticity Transfer in Shock Wave Interactions with Turbulence and Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agui, J. H.; Andreopoulos, J.
1998-11-01
Time-dependent, three-dimensional vorticity measurements of shock waves interacting with grid generated turbulence and concentrated tip vortices were conducted in a large diameter shock tube facility. Two different mesh size grids and a NACA-0012 semi-span wing acting as a tip vortex generator were used to carry out different relative Mach number interactions. The turbulence interactions produced a clear amplification of the lateral and spanwise vorticity rms, while the longitudinal component remained mostly unaffected. By comparison, the tip vortex/shock wave interactions produced a two fold increase in the rms of longitudinal vorticity. Considerable attention was given to the vorticity source terms. The mean and rms of the vorticity stretching terms dominated by 5 to 7 orders of magnitude over the dilitational compression terms in all the interactions. All three signals of the stretching terms manifested very intermittent, large amplitude peak events which indicated the bursting character of the stretching process. Distributions of these signals were characterized by extremely large levels of flatness with varying degrees of skewness. These distribution patterns were found to change only slightly through the turbulence interactions. However, the tip vortex/shock wave interactions brought about significant changes in these distributions which were associated with the abrupt structural changes of the vortex after the interaction.
Shock wave structure using nonlinear model Boltzmann equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Segal, Ben Maurice
1971-01-01
The structure of a strong plane shock wave in a monatomic rarefied perfect gas is one of the simplest problems able to be posed in kinetic theory, and one of the hardest to solve. Its simplicity lies in the absence of solid boundaries, geometrical complications, or internal molecular energy. Its difficulty arises from the great departure of the gas from equilibrium within the shock, which invalidates many of the techniques used successfully elsewhere in kinetic theory. In addition to this theoretical challenge, the modern development of ballistics and hypersonic flight has helped to stimulate extensive theoretical and experimental interest in the shock problem. The experimenters in turn have encountered great difficulties on account of the very small physical dimensions of shocks. In fact, until very recently indeed, any close comparisons of theoretical and experimental shock structure results have been rather unprofitable due to the inadequacies of both theory and experiment. During the last few years this situation has been appreciably improved by development of the Monte Carlo method. This allows idealized 'experiments' to be performed on large computers instead of in wind tunnels, using a known intermolecular force law. The most developed of these methods has been shown to be equivalent theoretically to the Boltzmann equation and to give results which agree extremely closely with measurements of high accuracy. Thus Monte Carlo results not only form the soundest basis for our present theoretical knowledge of shock wave structure, but, for purposes of developing other theories, can also be considered a very valuable experimental resource. However, such results remain very expensive to obtain. In this thesis we develop more economical kinetic theory methods for the approximate prediction of shock structure, and compare our results with those of the Monte Carlo method.
A numerical investigation of polygonal converging shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliasson, Veronica; Henshaw, William D.
2007-11-01
Numerical simulations of cylindrically converging shock waves were performed. The converging shocks impinged upon a set of zero to sixteen regularly spaced cylindrical obstacles. For more than two obstacles, the resulting diffracted shock fronts formed polygonal-shaped patterns near the point of focus. For three obstacles, a triangular-shaped shock was observed during the last stages of the focusing process. The triangle was subjected to regular reflection, and thus the shape remained unchanged until it had focused. Guderley's self-similar solution for the radius, R, as a function of time, t, can be expressed as R=ɛ0( tc-t )^α. The self similar exponent, α, was close to the expected value of unity for the triangular case. For the square-shaped shock undergoing Mach reflection, the self-similar exponent was found to be α=0.844, which agrees well with Guderley's solution for cylindrical shocks (α=0.834). Also, the maximum pressure and temperature as a function of number of obstacles were studied. The highest maximum pressure and temperature occurred with no obstacles. This should be expected, since in all other cases, part of the flow is reflected by the obstacles and never reaches the focal point.
Simulation of glancing shock wave and boundary layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, Ching-Mao
1989-01-01
Shock waves generated by sharp fins, glancing across a laminar boundary layer growing over a flat plate, are simulated numerically. Several basic issues concerning the resultant three-dimensional flow separation are studied. Using the same number of grid points, different grid spacings are employed to investigate the effects of grid resolution on the origin of the line of separation. Various shock strengths (generated by different fin angles) are used to study the so-called separated and unseparated boundary layer and to establish the existence or absence of the secondary separation. The usual interpretations of the flow field from previous studies and new interpretations arising from the present simulation are discussed.
'Thunder' - Shock waves in pre-biological organic synthesis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Nun, A.; Tauber, M. E.
1972-01-01
Theoretical study of the gasdynamics and chemistry of lightning-produced shock waves in a postulated primordial reducing atmosphere. It is shown that the conditions are similar to those encountered in a previously performed shock-tube experiment which resulted in 36% of the ammonia in the original mixture being converted into amino acids. The calculations give the (very large) energy rate of about 0.4 cal/sq cm/yr available for amino acid production, supporting previous hypotheses that 'thunder' could have been responsible for efficient large-scale production of organic molecules serving as precursors of life.
Shock wave compression of iron-silicate garnet.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graham, E. K.; Ahrens, T. J.
1973-01-01
Shock wave compression data to over 650 kb are presented for single-crystal almandine garnet. The data indicate the initiation of a phase transformation near 200 kb. Total transition to the high-pressure polymorph occurs at approximately 300 kb. The elastic properties of the high-pressure phase are calculated from the metastable Hugoniot data by using the linear shock velocity-particle velocity relationships. The overall results obtained strongly suggest that upper mantle minerals are likely to occur in the ilmenite structure over a substantial part of the lower mantle.
Optical emission from a fast shock wave - The remnants of Tycho's supernova and SN 1006
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chevalier, R. A.; Raymond, J. C.
1978-01-01
The faint optical filaments in Tycho's supernova remnant appear to be emission from a shock front moving at 5600 km/s. The intensity of the hydrogen lines, the absence of forbidden lines of heavy elements in the spectrum, and the width of the filaments are explained by a model in which a collisionless shock wave is moving into partially neutral gas. The presence of the neutral gas can be used to set an upper limit of approximately 5 x 10 to the 47th power ergs to the energy in ionizing radiation emitted by a Type I supernova. The patchy neutral gas is probably part of the warm neutral component of the interstellar medium. The existing information on the remnant of SN 1006 indicates that its emission is similar in nature to that from Tycho's remnant.
Analysis of self-similar problems of imploding shock waves by the method of characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Y.
1983-05-01
The asymptotic self-similar form of cylindrically or spherically imploding shock waves is extracted by numerically solving non-self-similar problems. The shock wave is generated by a contracting piston with finite initial velocity. For the initial shock motion, a perturbation method is used to determine the starting condition for the numerical calculation. Propagation of the shock wave and flow field properties are obtained and the transition of the non-self-similar motion of the shock wave into the self-similar one is presented. Good agreement between self-similar exponents determined from the variation of the shock strength and those calculated by Guderley is obtained.
Jang, Deoksuk; Kim, Dongsik; Park, Jin-Goo
2011-04-01
In laser shock cleaning (LSC), the shock wave is generated by laser-induced breakdown of the ambient gas. The shock wave intensity has thus been a factor limiting the performance of the LSC process. In this work, a novel method of amplifying a laser-induced plasma-generated shock wave by the breakdown of a liquid column is proposed and analyzed. When the laser beam is focused on a microscale liquid column, a shock wave having a significantly amplified intensity compared to that generated by air breakdown alone can be generated in air. Therefore, substantially amplified cleaning force can be obtained. The dynamics of a shock wave induced by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was analyzed by laser flash shadowgraphy. The peak pressure of the laser-induced shock wave was approximately two times greater than that of air breakdown at the same laser fluence. The proposed method of shock wave generation is expected to be useful in various applications of laser shock processing, including surface cleaning.
Alinejad, H.; Tribeche, M.
2010-12-15
A weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to investigate the properties of dust ion-acoustic shock waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with vortexlike electron distribution. We use the ionization model, hot ions with equilibrium streaming speed and a trapped electron charging current derived from the well-known orbit limited motion theory. A new modified Burger equation is derived. Besides nonlinear trapping, this equation involves two kinds of dissipation (the anomalous one inherent to nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and the one due to the particle loss and ionization). These two kinds of dissipation can act concurrently. The traveling wave solution has been acquired by employing the modified extended tanh-function method. The shocklike solution is numerically analyzed based on the typical numerical data from laboratory dusty plasma devices. It is found that ion temperature, trapped particles, and weak dissipations significantly modify the shock structures.
A New Acoustic Lens Design for Electromagnetic Shock Wave Lithotripters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Pei; Smith, Nathan; Simmons, Neal W.; Sankin, Georgy
2011-09-01
The 3rd-generation electromagnetic (EM) shock wave lithotripters often have narrow focal width and high peak pressure compared to the original Dornier HM-3. In addition, the pressure waveform produced by a typical EM lithotripter has a secondary compressive wave following the tensile component that suppresses lithotripter pulse induced cavitation, which may impact negatively on stone comminution. These characteristic changes in the modern EM lithotripters may contribute in part to their reduced effectiveness observed clinically. To overcome these two drawbacks, we have designed a new acoustic lens for the Siemens Modularis EM lithotripter that produces an idealized pressure waveform similar to that of the HM-3 with broad focal width and low peak pressure. At acoustic pulse energy of 53 mJ, the new lens design enlarges the -6 dB focal width of the Modularis by 47% while significantly reducing the second compressive wave in the lithotripter pulse throughout its focal plane. After 2000 shocks, in vitro comminution produced by the original and new lens designs are 100% and 99% at the lithotripter focus, and 52±16% and 77±8% (p<0.001) at 10 mm off axis, respectively. Corresponding values for stones that are translated to mimic respiratory motion during shock wave lithotripsy are 83±4% and 91±1% (p<0.01), demonstrating the significant performance improvement provided by the new lens design.
Experimental Investigation of Continuous-Wave Laser Ionization of Krypton
Cannon, Bret D.; Shannon, Robert F.
2001-10-30
This report describes experimental investigations of a method that uses continuous-wave (CW) lasers to ionize selected isotopes of krypton with high isotopic selectivity. The experiments show that the ionization rate is at least a factor of 100 lower than calculated with our model that has been described in a previous report. This discrepancy may be due to a much smaller excitation cross section that expected based on previous work and/or the aberrations in the ultraviolet beam used for the first step in the excitation. Additional problems with damage to mirrors, alignment instabilities, and manufacturers halting production of key products make this approach not worth further development at this time
Second sound shock waves and critical velocities in liquid helium 2. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, T. N.
1979-01-01
Large amplitude second-sound shock waves were generated and the experimental results compared to the theory of nonlinear second-sound. The structure and thickness of second-sound shock fronts are calculated and compared to experimental data. Theoretically it is shown that at T = 1.88 K, where the nonlinear wave steepening vanishes, the thickness of a very weak shock must diverge. In a region near this temperature, a finite-amplitude shock pulse evolves into an unusual double-shock configuration consisting of a front steepened, temperature raising shock followed by a temperature lowering shock. Double-shocks are experimentally verified. It is experimentally shown that very large second-sound shock waves initiate a breakdown in the superfluidity of helium 2, which is dramatically displayed as a limit to the maximum attainable shock strength. The value of the maximum shock-induced relative velocity represents a significant lower bound to the intrinsic critical velocity of helium 2.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinolo, A. R.; Clarke, J. H.
1973-01-01
The gas dynamic structures of the transport shock and the downstream collisional relaxation layer are evaluated for partially ionized monatomic gases. Elastic and inelastic collisional nonequilibrium effects are taken into consideration. In the microscopic model of the atom, three electronic levels are accounted for. By using an asymptotic technique, the shock morphology is found on a continuum flow basis. This procedure gives two distinct layers in which the nonequilibrium effects to be considered are different. A transport shock appears as the inner solution to an outer collisional relaxation layer. The results show four main interesting points: (1) on structuring the transport shock, ionization and excitation rates must be included in the formulation, since the flow is not frozen with respect to the population of the different electronic levels; (2) an electron temperature precursor appears at the beginning of the transport shock; (3) the collisional layer is rationally reduced to quadrature for special initial conditions, which (4) are obtained from new Rankine-Hugoniot relations for the inner shock.
Alfvénic Solitary and Shock Waves in Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Padma Kant; Eliasson, Bengt; Stenflo, Lennart
We present a review of nonlinear Alfvénic solitary and shock waves in a magnetized electron-ion plasma. The dynamics of these nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves is governed by the two-fluid equations, coupled with Faraday's and Ampère's laws. First, we demonstrate the existence of large amplitude compressional Alfvénic solitary and shock waves propagating across the external magnetic field in a warm electron-ion magnetoplasma. It is found that these nonlinear structures can exist in well defined speed ranges above the Alfvén speed, and their widths are several times larger than the electron skin depths. Second, we study the formation of nonlinear slow magnetosonic solitary (SMS) waves propagating almost perpendicular to the external magnetic field direction. The propagation speed of the SMS waves is below the Alfvén speed and their width is a few ion skin depth in a collisionless magnetoplasma. The nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves, as discussed here, can be associated with localized electromagnetic field excitations in magnetized laboratory and space plasmas that are composed of magnetized electrons and ions.
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Gao, Junying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong; Wu, Jian; Li, Hui; Pu, Shaozhi
2015-11-01
Propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in weakly ionized dusty plasmas are the subject of this study. Dielectric relation for EM waves propagating at a weakly ionized dusty plasma is derived based on the Boltzmann distribution law while considering the collision and charging effects of dust grains. The propagation properties of EM energy in dusty plasma of rocket exhaust are numerically calculated and studied, utilizing the parameters of rocket exhaust plasma. Results indicate that increase of dust radius and density enhance the reflection and absorption coefficient. High dust radius and density make the wave hardly transmit through the dusty plasmas. Interaction enhancements between wave and dusty plasmas are developed through effective collision frequency improvements. Numerical results coincide with observed results by indicating that GHz band wave communication is effected by dusty plasma as the presence of dust grains significantly affect propagation of EM waves in the dusty plasmas. The results are helpful to analyze the effect of dust in plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for the experiments.
The curious events leading to the theory of shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salas, Manuel D.
2007-07-01
We review the history of the development of the modern theory of shock waves. Several attempts at an early-theory quickly collapsed for lack of foundations in mathematics and thermodynamics. It is not until the works of Rankine and later Hugoniot that a full theory is established. Rankine is the first to show that within the shock a non-adiabatic process must occur. Hugoniot showed that in the absence of viscosity and heat conduction conservation of energy implies conservation of entropy in smooth regions and a jump in entropy across a shock. Even after the theory is fully developed, old notions continue to pervade the literature well into the early part of the twentieth century.
Hypersonic flow separation in shock wave boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamed, A.; Kumar, Ajay
1992-01-01
An assessment is presented for the experimental data on separated flow in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions at hypersonic and supersonic speeds. The data base consists mainly of two dimensional and axisymmetric interactions in compression corners or cylinder-flares, and externally generated oblique shock interactions with boundary layers over flat plates or cylindrical surfaces. The conditions leading to flow separation and the subsequent changes in the flow empirical correlations for incipient separation are reviewed. The effects of the Mach number, Reynolds number, surface cooling and the methods of detecting separation are discussed. The pertinent experimental data for the separated flow characteristics in separated turbulent boundary layer shock interaction are also presented and discussed.
The Curious Events Leading to the Theory of Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, Manuel D.
2006-01-01
We review the history of the development of the modern theory of shock waves. Several attempts at an early-theory quickly collapsed for lack of foundations in mathematics and thermodynamics. It is not until the works of Rankine and later Hugoniot that a full theory is established. Rankine is the first to show that within the shock a non-adiabatic process must occur. Hugoniot showed that in the absence of viscosity and heat conduction conservation of energy implies conservation of entropy in smooth regions and a jump in entropy across a shock. Even after the theory is fully developed, old notions continue to pervade the literature well into the early part of the 20th Century.
Particle Acceleration at Relativistic and Ultra-Relativistic Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meli, A.
We perform Monte Carlo simulations using diffusive shock acceleration at relativistic and ultra-relativistic shock waves. High upstream flow gamma factors are used, Γ=(1-uup2/c2)-0.5, which are relevant to models of ultra-relativistic particle shock acceleration in the central engines and relativistic jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) fireballs. Numerical investigations are carried out on acceleration properties in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic flow regime (Γ ˜ 10-1000) concerning angular distributions, acceleration time scales, particle energy gain versus number of crossings and spectral shapes. We perform calculations for both parallel and oblique sub-luminal and super-luminal shocks. For parallel and oblique sub-luminal shocks, the spectra depend on whether or not the scattering is represented by pitch angle diffusion or by large angle scattering. The large angle case exhibits a distinctive structure in the basic power-law spectrum not nearly so obvious for small angle scattering. However, both cases yield a significant 'speed-up' of acceleration rate when compared with the conventional, non-relativistic expression, tacc=[c/(uup-udown)] (λup/uup+λdown/udown). An energization by a factor Γ2 for the first crossing cycle and a large energy gains for subsequent crossings as well as the high 'speed-up' factors found, are important in supporting past works, especially the models developed by Vietri and Waxman on ultra-high energy cosmic ray, neutrino and gamma-ray production in GRB. For oblique super-luminal shocks, we calculate the energy gain and spectral shape for a number of different inclinations. For this case the acceleration of particles is 'pictured' by a shock drift mechanism. We use high gamma flows with Lorentz factors in the range 10-40 which are relevant to ultra-relativistic shocks in AGN accretion disks and jets. In all investigations we closely follow the particle's trajectory along the magnetic field
Oblique Shock Wave Effects on Impulsively Accelerated Heavy Gas Column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmstead, Dell T.
An experimental study was performed to elucidate the fundamental physics of shock-induced mixing for a simple three-dimensional interface. The interface studied consists of a gravity stabilized SF6-based heavy gas jet that produced a circular column with a diffuse interface into the surrounding air. The effects of density gradient (Atwood number, A), shock strength (Mach number, M), and column inclination angle (theta) were examined. Concentration was measured using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of an acetone vapor tracer mixed with the heavy gas jet and illuminated by a pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Shocks with Mach numbers of 1.13, 1.5, 1.7, and 2.0 were used for inclinations of 0° (planar normal shock wave), 20° and 30°. Columns with Atwood numbers of 0.25, 0.4, and 0.60 were tested at Mach 1.7 for inclinations of 0° and 20°. The oblique shock-accelerated cylindrical interface produced a typical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) consisting of a primary counter-rotating vortices. The streamwise extent of the vortex pair in the centerline plane (cross-section) images of the column is proportional to √A/√ M, regardless of oblique shock angle for theta < 20. A heretofore unseen manifestation of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) waves on the upstream edge of the column appear for oblique shock acceleration. The upstream edge K-H waves were observed in images from a vertical plane through the center of the column. The wavelength of the upstream edge K-H waves is proportional to theta/M ˙ √A. This upstream edge K-H instability (KHI) caused earlier onset of secondary instabilities in the primary RMI vortices seen in the centerline plane images. The combination of more rapid onset of secondary instabilities in the RMI and upstream edge KHI accelerated transition to turbulence and thus reduced the time to achieve well-mixed flow. Time to reach well-mixed flow was inversely related to Atwood number, and had a weak correlation with Mach number for M>1.13. Transition to
Unsteady oblique interaction of a shock wave with a plane disturbance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Franklin K
1954-01-01
Analysis is made of the flow field produced by oblique impingement of weak plane disturbances of arbitrary profile on a plane normal shock. Three types of disturbance are considered: (a) sound wave propagating in the gas at rest into which the shock moves; (b) sound wave overtaking the shock from behind,(The sound wave reflects as a sound wave, and a stationary vorticity wave is produced); (c) an incompressible vorticity wave stationary in the gas ahead of the shock. The incident wave refracts as a stationary vorticity wave, and either a sound wave or attenuating pressure wave is also produced. Computations are presented for the first two types of incident wave, over the range of incidence angles, for shock Mach numbers of 1, 1.5, and infinity.
Effect of surface roughness on characteristics of spherical shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huber, Paul W; Mcfarland, Donald R
1955-01-01
An investigation has been conducted on a small-scale test layout in which direct observation of the shock wave movement with time could be made in order to determine the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of spherical shock waves. Data were obtained with 15-gram pentolite charges at four heights of burst, both for a smooth surface and for a surface completely covered with pyramid-shaped roughness elements. The observations resulted in determinations of shock peak overpressure and Mach stem height as a function of distance for each test. Comparison of the smooth-surface data with those obtained for the extremely rough condition showed a small net effort of roughness on the shock peak overpressures at the surface for all burst heights, the effect being to lower the overpressures. The effect of surface roughness on the Mach stem formation and growth was to delay the formation at the greatest charge height and to lower the height of the Mach stem for all heights.Comparison of the free-air shock peak overpressures with larger scale data showed good similarity of the overpressure-distance relationships. The data did not fit a geometrical similarity parameter for the path of the triple point at different heights of burst suggested by other investigators. A simple similarity parameter (relating the horizontal distance to the theoretical point of Mach formation) was found which showed only a small influence of burst height on the path of the triple point. While the data presented provide knowledge of the effect of many surface-roughness elements on the overall shock characteristics, the data do not provide insight into the details of the air-flow characteristics along the surface, nor the relative contribution of individual roughness elements to the results obtained.
From weak discontinuities to nondissipative shock waves
Garifullin, R. N. Suleimanov, B. I.
2010-01-15
An analysis is presented of the effect of weak dispersion on transitions from weak to strong discontinuities in inviscid fluid dynamics. In the neighborhoods of transition points, this effect is described by simultaneous solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation u{sub t}'+ uu{sub x}' + u{sub xxx}' = 0 and fifth-order nonautonomous ordinary differential equations. As x{sup 2} + t{sup 2} {yields}{infinity}, the asymptotic behavior of these simultaneous solutions in the zone of undamped oscillations is given by quasi-simple wave solutions to Whitham equations of the form r{sub i}(t, x) = tl{sub i} x/t{sup 2}.
Multiscale whistler waves within Earth's perpendicular bow shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hull, A. J.; Muschietti, L.; Oka, M.; Larson, D. E.; Mozer, F. S.; Chaston, C. C.; Bonnell, J. W.; Hospodarsky, G. B.
2012-12-01
We present observations of intense whistler waves made by Polar in the frequency range from a few Hz to 600 Hz within Earth's nearly perpendicular bow shock. The long duration burst data provided by Polar reveal the detailed properties of whistler waves in context with the macrostructure of the layer of this supercritical shock. We show that the pedestal and ramp have superposed quasiperiodic, large amplitude precursor substructure occurring at a cadence of ˜3 sec, which is near the ion cyclotron period. With increasing penetration into the shock front, the amplitude of this substructure increases and ultimately reaches downstream values. The nonlinear substructure is shown to be concentrated regions of intense whistler wave activity. Power spectra in the whistler range show strong enhancements in two distinct bands: a relatively broadband lower frequency component occurring near the lower hybrid frequency (a few tens of Hertz) and a higher frequency component at a few hundred Hertz. The lower frequency component is composed of right-hand polarized whistler wave packets propagating quasiparallel to the magnetic coplanarity plane at oblique angles with respect to both the magnetic field and shock normal, with respective anglesθkb varying from 50°-70° and θkn ˜ 50°. These waves generally have relatively large amplitude (δB/B0˜ 0.1-0.4) magnetic fields ranging from a few nT to 15 nT. Given their preferential upstream propagation near the magnetic coplanarity plane, they are likely generated by a kinetic cross-field streaming instability driven by the relative drift between the reflected ion beam and the electrons. The high-frequency component appears to be the shock analog of whistler "lion roars" often observed in the magnetosheath. The lion roars occur within the foot and into the shock ramp in regions where sufficiently intense low-frequency whistlers exist. These are right-hand circularly polarized wave packets lasting up to ˜10 cycles, with amplitudes
Application of holographic interferometric studies of underwater shock-wave focusing to medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Nagoya, H.; Obara, Tetsuro; Kuwahara, M.
1993-01-01
Holographic interferometric flow visualization was successfully applied to underwater shock wave focusing and its application to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Real time diffuse holograms revealed the shock wave focusing process in an ellipsoidal reflector made from PMMA and double exposure holographic interferometry also clarified quantitatively the shock focusing process. Disintegration of urinary tract stones and gallbladder stones was observed by high speed photogrammetry. Tissue damage associated with the ESWL treatment is discussed in some detail.
Incidence of cavitation in the fragmentation process of extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rink, K.; Delacrétaz, G.; Pittomvils, G.; Boving, R.; Lafaut, J. P.
1994-05-01
The fragmentation mechanism occurring in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is investigated using a fiber optic stress sensing technique. With our technique, we demonstrate that cavitation is a major cause of fragmentation in ESWL procedures. When a target is placed in the operating area of the lithotriptor, two shock waves are detected. The first detected shock wave corresponds to the incoming shock wave generated by the lithotriptor. The second shock wave, detected some hundreds of microseconds later, is generated in situ. It results from the collapse of a cavitation bubble, formed by the reflection of the incoming shock wave at the target boundary. This cavitation induced shock wave generates the largest stress in the target area according to our stress sensing measurements.
Temperature kinetics during shock-wave consolidation of metallic powders
Schwarz, R.B.; Kasiraj, P.; Vreeland, T. Jr.
1985-01-01
Powders (60 ..mu..m diam) of constantan and pure copper were compressed statically into cylindrical greens (20.3 mm diam, 5.3 mm long) with a flat interface separating the two powders. A 20-mm propellant gun was used to accelerate a flyer of Lexan, copper, or aluminum, and generate in the green a shock wave with front parallel to the Cu/constantan interface. The voltages between opposite ends of the greens were measured as a function of time and for shock pressures between 1.3 and 9.4 GPa. When the shock wave arrives at the Cu/constantan interface, the voltage signal shows an abrupt increase, which lasts between 45 and 81 ns and leads to a peak temperature T/sub p/. After this, the hotter and cooler parts of the compact equilibrate and the temperature decreases to a value T/sub h/. With increasing shock pressure, T/sub h/ increases from 425 to 1215 K. The measurements of T/sub h/ are in excellent agreement with the temperatures calculated from the measured flyer velocity, the Hugoniot for copper powder, and thermodynamic data for the flyer and powders.
Reflectometric detection of shock wave propagation within a concrete wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biele, Joachim K.
2000-04-01
A reflectometer device was set up in order to observe shock wave propagation in concrete. Reflective elements were comprised of an upper edge of the concrete wall and the front of an embedded conduit which ran through the thickness of the wall. The reflectometer then was completed by two PVDF film sensors. The first one was located directly in the rectangular center of the vertical plane above the conduit center line. Thus, all its four corners were of equal distance, equal to the wall width of 40 cm. The second one was placed on a plug closing the intake area of the conduit in order to take face-on measurement of the blast from a HE charge to initiate shock waves in the concrete material. Measurements were taken after detonating HE face-on in front of the intake area sensor. From the reflectometer geometry and times between shocks, velocities within this type of concrete were deduced. The pulse profile is found to represent detailed material behavior under shock loading.
Strength of titanium diboride under shock wave loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dandekar, Dattatraya P.; Benfanti, Daniel C.
1993-01-01
Strength of TiB2 under plane shock wave loading is assessed in terms of its spall threshold and the shear stress sustained by it under shock compression to 60 GPa. The results of experiments support the thesis that the observed cusp in TiB2 at 4.5-7.0 GPa is of mechanical nature and its effect is to decrease the spall threshold values at stresses above the cusp but below the accepted Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) value of 13-17 GPa. A comparison of shock Hugoniot data on two different TiB2 obtained from Grady [Dynamic Material Properties of Armor Ceramics, Sandia Laboratories, SAND 91-0147. UC-704 (1991)] and the adiabats constructed from high pressure ultrasonic wave velocity measurements show that these materials sustain increasing shear stresses with increasing values of shock stress. For example, results of data analysis on the denser TiB2 show that it sustains around three times the shear stress at 60 GPa than at its HEL, i.e., 17 GPa.
Resonant wavepackets and shock waves in an atomtronic SQUID
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi-Hsieh; Kumar, A.; Jendrzejewski, F.; Wilson, Ryan M.; Edwards, Mark; Eckel, S.; Campbell, G. K.; Clark, Charles W.
The fundamental dynamics of ultracold atomtronic devices are reflected in their phonon modes of excitation. We probe such a spectrum by applying a harmonically driven potential barrier to a 23Na Bose-Einstein condensate in a ring-shaped trap. This perturbation excites phonon wavepackets. When excited resonantly, these wavepackets display a regular periodic structure. The resonant frequencies depend upon the particular configuration of the barrier, but are commensurate with the orbital frequency of a Bogoliubov sound wave traveling around the ring. Energy transfer to the condensate over many cycles of the periodic wavepacket motion causes enhanced atom loss from the trap at resonant frequencies. Solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation exhibit quantitative agreement with the experimental data. We also observe the generation of supersonic shock waves under conditions of strong excitation, and collisions of two shock wavepackets. Work supported by the U. S. Army Research Office Atomtronics MURI program.
Simulation and Analysis of Converging Shock Wave Test Problems
Ramsey, Scott D.; Shashkov, Mikhail J.
2012-06-21
Results and analysis pertaining to the simulation of the Guderley converging shock wave test problem (and associated code verification hydrodynamics test problems involving converging shock waves) in the LANL ASC radiation-hydrodynamics code xRAGE are presented. One-dimensional (1D) spherical and two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric geometric setups are utilized and evaluated in this study, as is an instantiation of the xRAGE adaptive mesh refinement capability. For the 2D simulations, a 'Surrogate Guderley' test problem is developed and used to obviate subtleties inherent to the true Guderley solution's initialization on a square grid, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity to the original problem, and minimally straining the general credibility of associated analysis and conclusions.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in periodontics: A new paradigm
Venkatesh Prabhuji, Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah; Khaleelahmed, Shaeesta; Vasudevalu, Sujatha; Vinodhini, K.
2014-01-01
The quest for exploring new frontiers in the field of medical science for efficient and improved treatment modalities has always been on a rise. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been enormously used in medical practice, principally, for the management of urolithiasis, cholelithiasis and also in various orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders. The efficacy of ESWT in the stimulation of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, induction of neovascularization and increased expression of bone morphogenic proteins has been well documented in the literature. However, dentistry is no exception to this trend. The present article enlightens the various applications of ESWT in the field of dentistry and explores its prospective applications in the field of periodontics, and the possibility of incorporating the beneficial properties of shock waves in improving the treatment outcome. PMID:25024562
The converging shock wave from a spherical or cylindrical piston
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Dyke, M.; Guttmann, A. J.
1982-07-01
A spherical or cylindrical cavity containing quiescent gas begins to contract at high constant radial speed, driving an axisymmetric shock wave inward to collapse at the center. We analyze the flow field by expanding the solution in powers of time, and calculate 40 terms by delegating the arithmetic to a computer. Analysis of the series for the radius of the shock wave confirms Guderley's local self-similar solution for the focusing, including recent refined values for his similarity exponent, and yields higher terms in his local expansion. In the range of adiabatic exponent where the Guderley solution has been shown not to be unique we find, in accord with a conjecture of Gel'fand, that the smallest admissible similarity exponent is realized.
Sonoluminescence, shock waves, and micro-thermonuclear fusion
Moss, W.C.; Clarke, D.B.; White, J.W.; Young, D.A.
1995-08-01
We have performed numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the growth and collapse of a sonoluminescing bubble in a liquid. Our calculations show that spherically converging shock waves are generated during the collapse of the bubble. The combination of the shock waves and a realistic equation of state for the gas in the bubble provides an explanation for the measured picosecond optical pulse widths and indicates that the temperatures near the center of the bubble may exceed 3O eV. This leads naturally to speculation about obtaining micro-thermonuclear fusion in a bubble filled with deuterium (D{sub 2}) gas. Consequently, we performed numerical simulations of the collapse of a D{sub 2} bubble in D{sub 2}0. A pressure spike added to the periodic driving amplitude creates temperatures that may be sufficient to generate a very small, but measurable number of thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions in the bubble.
Tracking shocked dust: State estimation for a complex plasma during a shock wave
Oxtoby, Neil P.; Ralph, Jason F.; Durniak, Celine; Samsonov, Dmitry
2012-01-15
We consider a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma crystal excited by an electrostatically-induced shock wave. Dust particle kinematics in such a system are usually determined using particle tracking velocimetry. In this work we present a particle tracking algorithm which determines the dust particle kinematics with significantly higher accuracy than particle tracking velocimetry. The algorithm uses multiple extended Kalman filters to estimate the particle states and an interacting multiple model to assign probabilities to the different filters. This enables the determination of relevant physical properties of the dust, such as kinetic energy and kinetic temperature, with high precision. We use a Hugoniot shock-jump relation to calculate a pressure-volume diagram from the shocked dust kinematics. Calculation of the full pressure-volume diagram was possible with our tracking algorithm, but not with particle tracking velocimetry.
Shock waves in Stokes flows down an inclined plate.
Benilov, E S; Lapin, V N
2011-06-01
We consider a viscous flow on an inclined plate, such that the liquid's depth far upstream is larger than that far downstream, resulting in a "smoothed-shock wave" steadily propagating downstream. Our numerical simulations show that in a large section of the problem's parameter space all initial conditions overturn (i.e., the liquid's surface becomes vertical at some point) and thus no steady solution exists. The overturning can only be stopped by a sufficiently strong surface tension. PMID:21797491
Flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaiswal, Surabhi; Bandyopadhyay, Pintu; Sen, Abhijit
2015-11-01
We report on experimental observations of particle flow induced large amplitude shock waves in a dusty plasma. These dust acoustic shocks (DAS) are observed for strongly supersonic flows and have been studied in a U-shaped Dusty Plasma Experimental (DPEx) device for charged kaolin dust in a background of Argon plasma. The strong flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change of the dust density near the potential hill is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks. The dynamics of the shocks are captured by fast video pictures of the structures that are illuminated by a laser sheet beam. The physical characteristics of the shock are delineated from a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of plasma parameters and flow speeds. Details of these observations and a physical explanation based on model calculations will be presented.
Coronal Shock Waves and Solar Energetic Particle Events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cliver, Edward
Recent evidence supports the view first expressed by Wild, Smerd, and Weiss in 1963 that large solar energetic particle (SEP) events are a consequence of shock waves manifested by radio type II bursts. Following Tylka et al. (ApJ 625, 474, 2005), our picture of SEP acceleration at shocks now includes the effects of variable seed particle population and shock geometry. By taking these factors into account, Tylka and Lee (ApJ 646, 1319, 2006; see also Sandroos Vainio, ApJ 662, L127, 2007; AA 507, L21, 2009) were able to account for the charge-to-mass variability in high-Z ions first reported by Breneman and Stone in 1985. Recent studies of electron-to-proton ratios, both in interplanetary space (Cliver Ling, ApJ 658, 1349, 2007; Dietrich et al., in preparation, 2010) and in gamma-ray-line events (Shih et al., ApJ 698, L152, 2009), also support the view that large SEP events originate in coronal shocks and not in solar flares. Concurrent with the above developments, there is growing evidence that coronal shocks are driven by coronal mass ejections rather than by flare pressure pulses.
Shock-wave response of titanium subhydride-potassium perchlorate
Sheffield, S.A.; Schwa, A.C.
1982-01-01
Shock initiation of pyrotechnic materials is becoming increasingly more interesting since this concept is now used in weapon component design. In this study we have performed several types of shock initiation experiments on TiH/sub 0/ /sub 65//KC10/sub 4/ to better understand its shock response and the process by which it undergoes reaction. Gas gun impact experiments have led to new unreacted Hugoniot information which was used, along with earlier reported data, to construct an equation of state for the unreacted material. Particle velocity records of the projectile impact interface and the shock transmitted through the sample show little evidence of reaction in the first microsecond even for 6 GPa shocks. Peculiarities in the waveforms at later times suggest some evidence of reaction although the experiments do not remain strictly one-dimensional long enough to make definite statements. Flyer plate initiated compacts indicate a short input pulse is rapidly attenuated but the material is initiated and a combustion wave propagates through the compact at velocities of about 0.4 to 0.7 km/s.
Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.
Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R
2016-02-01
The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540
Needleless vaccine delivery using micro-shock waves.
Jagadeesh, Gopalan; Prakash, G Divya; Rakesh, S G; Allam, Uday Sankar; Krishna, M Gopala; Eswarappa, Sandeepa M; Chakravortty, Dipshikha
2011-04-01
Shock waves are one of the most efficient mechanisms of energy dissipation observed in nature. In this study, utilizing the instantaneous mechanical impulse generated behind a micro-shock wave during a controlled explosion, a novel nonintrusive needleless vaccine delivery system has been developed. It is well-known that antigens in the epidermis are efficiently presented by resident Langerhans cells, eliciting the requisite immune response, making them a good target for vaccine delivery. Unfortunately, needle-free devices for epidermal delivery have inherent problems from the perspective of the safety and comfort of the patient. The penetration depth of less than 100 μm in the skin can elicit higher immune response without any pain. Here we show the efficient utilization of our needleless device (that uses micro-shock waves) for vaccination. The production of liquid jet was confirmed by high-speed microscopy, and the penetration in acrylamide gel and mouse skin was observed by confocal microscopy. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain pmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07) was delivered using our device in the murine salmonellosis model, and the effectiveness of the delivery system for vaccination was compared with other routes of vaccination. Vaccination using our device elicits better protection and an IgG response even at a lower vaccine dose (10-fold less) compared to other routes of vaccination. We anticipate that our novel method can be utilized for effective, cheap, and safe vaccination in the near future. PMID:21307276
A study on compressive shock wave propagation in metallic foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhihua; Zhang, Yifen; Ren, Huilan; Zhao, Longmao
2010-02-01
Metallic foam can dissipate a large amount of energy due to its relatively long stress plateau, which makes it widely applicable in the design of structural crashworthiness. However, in some experimental studies, stress enhancement has been observed when the specimens are subjected to intense impact loads, leading to severe damage to the objects being protected. This paper studies this phenomenon on a 2D mass-spring-bar model. With the model, a constitutive relationship of metal foam and corresponding loading and unloading criteria are presented; a nonlinear kinematics equilibrium equation is derived, where an explicit integration algorithm is used to calculate the characteristic of the compressive shock wave propagation within the metallic foam; the effect of heterogeneous distribution of foam microstructures on the shock wave features is also included. The results reveal that under low impact pulses, considerable energy is dissipated during the progressive collapse of foam cells, which then reduces the crush of objects. When the pulse is sufficiently high, on the other hand, stress enhancement may take place, especially in the heterogeneous foams, where high peak stresses usually occur. The characteristics of compressive shock wave propagation in the foam and the magnitude and location of the peak stress produced are strongly dependent on the mechanical properties of the foam material, amplitude and period of the pulse, as well as the homogeneity of the microstructures. This research provides valuable insight into the reliability of the metallic foams used as a protective structure.
Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.
2016-05-01
Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.
Assessment of shock wave lithotripters via cavitation potential
Iloreta, Jonathan I.; Zhou, Yufeng; Sankin, Georgy N.; Zhong, Pei; Szeri, Andrew J.
2008-01-01
A method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the −6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 to 0.4 cm3, the −6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 to 8.3 cm3, and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e., regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 µm) from 103 to 26 cm3. Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector. PMID:19865493
Optically triggered solid state driver for shock wave therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.
2012-10-01
Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) represents one of several first-line therapies for the treatment of stones located in the kidneys and ureters. Additional applications for shock wave therapy are also under exploration, including non-urinary calculi, orthopedics, and neovascularization. Except for the elimination of a large water bath in which the treatment is performed, current procedures remain largely unchanged, with one of the original commercial devices (the Dornier HM3) still considered a gold standard for comparison. To accelerate research in this area, Coleman, et al. published an experimental electrohydraulic shock wave generator capable of simulating the acoustic field generated by the HM3. We propose a further update of this system, replacing the triggered spark gap with an optically triggered solid state switch. The new system has better reliability, a wider operating range, and reduced timing jitter allowing synchronization with additional acoustic sources under exploration for improving efficacy and reducing injury. Originally designed for exciting electrohydraulic spark electrodes, the system can also be adapted for driving piezoelectric and electromagnetic sources.
A heuristic model of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy
Smith, Nathan B.; Zhong, Pei
2013-01-01
A heuristic model is presented to describe the overall progression of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), accounting for the effects of shock wave dose and the average peak pressure, P+(avg), incident on the stone during the treatment. The model is developed through adaptation of the Weibull theory for brittle fracture, incorporating threshold values in dose and P+(avg) that are required to initiate fragmentation. The model is validated against experimental data of stone comminution from two stone types (hard and soft BegoStone) obtained at various positions in lithotripter fields produced by two shock wave sources of different beam width and pulse profile both in water and in 1,3-butanediol (which suppresses cavitation). Subsequently, the model is used to assess the performance of a newly developed acoustic lens for electromagnetic lithotripters in comparison with its original counterpart both under static and simulated respiratory motion. The results have demonstrated the predictive value of this heuristic model in elucidating the physical basis for improved performance of the new lens. The model also provides a rationale for the selection of SWL treatment protocols to achieve effective stone comminution without elevating the risk of tissue injury. PMID:23927195
Needleless Vaccine Delivery Using Micro-Shock Waves ▿ †
Jagadeesh, Gopalan; Prakash, G. Divya; Rakesh, S. G.; Allam, Uday Sankar; Krishna, M. Gopala; Eswarappa, Sandeepa M.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha
2011-01-01
Shock waves are one of the most efficient mechanisms of energy dissipation observed in nature. In this study, utilizing the instantaneous mechanical impulse generated behind a micro-shock wave during a controlled explosion, a novel nonintrusive needleless vaccine delivery system has been developed. It is well-known that antigens in the epidermis are efficiently presented by resident Langerhans cells, eliciting the requisite immune response, making them a good target for vaccine delivery. Unfortunately, needle-free devices for epidermal delivery have inherent problems from the perspective of the safety and comfort of the patient. The penetration depth of less than 100 μm in the skin can elicit higher immune response without any pain. Here we show the efficient utilization of our needleless device (that uses micro-shock waves) for vaccination. The production of liquid jet was confirmed by high-speed microscopy, and the penetration in acrylamide gel and mouse skin was observed by confocal microscopy. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain pmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07) was delivered using our device in the murine salmonellosis model, and the effectiveness of the delivery system for vaccination was compared with other routes of vaccination. Vaccination using our device elicits better protection and an IgG response even at a lower vaccine dose (10-fold less) compared to other routes of vaccination. We anticipate that our novel method can be utilized for effective, cheap, and safe vaccination in the near future. PMID:21307276
Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.
2016-07-01
Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ˜550 kA and rise time of ˜300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ˜7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.
Goodman, Michael L.; Kazeminezhad, Farzad E-mail: fkazemin@earthlink.ne
2010-01-01
An electrical conductivity tensor is used in a 1.5D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation to describe how MHD shock waves may form, propagate, and heat the photosphere and chromosphere by compression and resistive dissipation. The spatial resolution is 1 km. A train of six shock waves is generated by a sinusoidal magnetic field driver in the photosphere with a period T = 30 s, mean of 500 G, and variation of 250 G. The duration of the simulation is 200 s. Waves generated in the photosphere evolve into shock waves at a height z approx 375 km above the photosphere. The transition of the atmosphere from weakly to strongly magnetized with increasing height causes the Pedersen resistivity eta{sub P} to increase to approx2000 times the Spitzer resistivity. This transition occurs over a height range of a few hundred kilometers near the temperature minimum of the initial state at z approx 500 km. The initial state is a model atmosphere derived by Fontenla et al., plus a background magnetic field. The increase in eta{sub P} is associated with an increase in the resistive heating rate Q. Shock layer thicknesses are approx10-20 km. They are nonzero due to the presence of resistive dissipation, so magnetization-induced resistivity plays a role in determining shock structure, and hence the compressive heating rate Q{sub c} . At t = 200 s the solution has the following properties. Within shock layers, Q{sub maximum} approx 1.4-7 erg cm{sup -3} s{sup -1}, and Q{sub c,maximum} approx 10-10{sup 3} Q{sub maximum}. Between shock waves, and at some points within shock layers, Q{sub c} < 0, indicating cooling by rarefaction. The integrals of Q and Q{sub c} over the shock wave train are F approx 4.6 x 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and F{sub c} approx 1.24 x 10{sup 9} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A method based on the thermal, mechanical, and electromagnetic energy conservation equations is presented for checking the accuracy of the numerical solution, and gaining insight into energy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Motschmann, Uwe; Raeder, Joachim
1992-01-01
The behavior of minor ions just downstream of a low Mach number quasi-perpendicular shock is investigated both theoretically and by computer simulations. Because all ions see the same cross shock electric field their deceleration depends on their charge to mass ratio, yielding different downstream velocities. It is shown that these differences in velocity can lead to coherent wave structures in the downstream region of quasi-perpendicular shocks with a narrow transition layer. These waves are shown to be multi ion hybrid waves in contrast to mirror waves and ion cyclotron waves. Under favorable conditions these waves should be observable both at interplanetary shocks and at planetary bowshocks.
Analysis of Metric Type II Burst and EUV Waves Generated by Shock Wave Driven by Cme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunha-Silva, Rafael; Fernandes, Francisco; Selhorst, Caius
2016-07-01
The relationship between solar type II radio bursts produced by plasma oscillations and coronal shocks is well shown since the 1960s. However, the details of the association between the drivers of the shocks and the metric type II bursts remains a controversial issue. The flares and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the potential drivers of these shocks. In this work, we present the analysis of a metric type II burst observed on May 17, 2013, by spectrometers from e-CALLISTO network and EUV images from the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI), aboard the STEREO. The event was associated with an M3.2 X-ray flare and a halo CME. The EUV images show the EUV wave was produced by the expansion of the CME. The heights of the EUV wave fronts and the magnetic field intensity determined in the regions of the shock are consistent with those the heights of radio source obtained with the three-fold Newkirk density model, which suggests an oblique propagation of the shock. The finding of an accelerating shock with speed of 530-640 km/s and of 870-1220 km/s for the first and the second stages of the type II emission, respectively, is consistent with both the average speed of the associated EUV wave front, of 626 km/s, during the initial expansion of the CME, and with the linear speed of the CME, of 1345 km/s. These results will be presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belov, E.; Blachman, M.; Britan, A.; Sadot, O.; Ben-Dor, G.
2015-11-01
A simple experimental technique, based on pressure transducers, capable of measuring the stress wave that propagates along the solid phase of a granular column after being hit head-on by a plane shock wave is presented. The technique is based on installing couples of gauges at different cross-sections along the granular column in such a way that one transducer measures the overall pressure acting on it while the other measures only the pressure exerted on it by the gaseous phase of the granular column. By means of the presented experimental technique the time histories of the stresses normal to the shock tube walls and data on the stress wave attenuation as it propagates downstream towards the shock tube end wall were obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Hirano, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Sato, Motoyuki; Shirane, R.; Takayama, Kazuya; Yoshimoto, Takashi
2003-07-01
To introduce shock wave as a new treatment modality for the lesions in the vicinity of brain and skull, pressure-dependent brain damages after exposure of shock wave were investigated. A novel compact Ho:YAG laser-induced cavitational shock wave generator (diameter: 15 mm, weight: 20g) was used intstead of clinical lithotriptors due to their wide distribution of shock waves. In the first part, we have developed and investigated characteristics of present generator by means of high-speed photography, shadowgraphy, and pressure measurement. Generation of localized shock wave without harmful effect of laser was observed after irradiation of Ho:YAG laser in the brass tube with internal water supply. Mechanical effect of accompanying laser-induced liquid jet was mitigated after placement of latex diaphragm with acrylic water reservoir. Maximum overpressure of generated shock wave was 15 MPa before placement of diaphragm, and 5 MPa after placement of diaphragm. In the second part, shock wave-induced brain damages were investigated in 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats. While subarachnoid hemorrhage could be observed between 1 and 5 MPa, intracerebral hemorrhage, and laceration of tissue were also observed above 5 MPa. We therefore conclude that overpressure of exposing shock wave over brain surface should be managed under 1 MPa.
Interferometric data for a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunagan, Stephen E.; Brown, James L.; Miles, John B.
1986-01-01
An experimental study of the axisymmetric shock-wave / boundary-layer strong interaction flow generated in the vicinity of a cylinder-cone intersection was conducted. The study data are useful in the documentation and understanding of compressible turbulent strong interaction flows, and are part of a more general effort to improve turbulence modeling for compressible two- and three-dimensional strong viscous/inviscid interactions. The nominal free stream Mach number was 2.85. Tunnel total pressures of 1.7 and 3.4 atm provided Reynolds number values of 18 x 10(6) and 36 x 10(6) based on model length. Three cone angles were studied giving negligible, incipient, and large scale flow separation. The initial cylinder boundary layer upstream of the interaction had a thickness of 1.0 cm. The subsonic layer of the cylinder boundary layer was quite thin, and in all cases, the shock wave penetrated a significant portion of the boundary layer. Owing to the thickness of the cylinder boundary layer, considerable structural detail was resolved for the three shock-wave / boundary-layer interaction cases considered. The primary emphasis was on the application of the holographic interferometry technique. The density field was deduced from an interferometric analysis based on the Able transform. Supporting data were obtained using a 2-D laser velocimeter, as well as mean wall pressure and oil flow measurements. The attached flow case was observed to be steady, while the separated cases exhibited shock unsteadiness. Comparisons with Navier-Stokes computations using a two-equation turbulence model are presented.
Relativistic shock waves and the excitation of plerions
Arons, J. ); Gallant, Y.A. . Dept. of Physics); Hoshino, Masahiro; Max, C.E. . Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics); Langdon, A.B. )
1991-01-07
The shock termination of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic wind from a pulsar is the most interesting and viable model for the excitation of the synchrotron sources observed in plerionic supernova remnants. We have studied the structure of relativistic magnetosonic shock waves in plasmas composed purely of electrons and positrons, as well as those whose composition includes heavy ions as a minority constituent by number. We find that relativistic shocks in symmetric pair plasmas create fully thermalized distributions of particles and fields downstream. Therefore, such shocks are not good candidates for the mechanism which converts rotational energy lost from a pulsar into the nonthermal synchrotron emission observed in plerions. However, when the upstream wind contains heavy ions which are minority constituent by number density, but carry the bulk of the energy density, much of the energy of the shock goes into a downstream, nonthermal power law distribution of positrons with energy distribution N(E)dE {proportional to}E{sup {minus}s}. In a specific model presented in some detail, s = 3. These characteristics are close to those assumed for the pairs in macroscopic MHD wind models of plerion excitation. The essential mechanism is collective synchrotron emission of left-handed extraordinary modes by the ions in the shock front at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, with the downstream positrons preferentially absorbing almost all of this radiation, mostly at their fundamental (relativistic) cyclotron frequencies. Possible applications to models of plerions and to constraints on theories of energy loss from pulsars are briefly outlines. 27 refs., 5 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.; Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Harvey, C.; Mangeney, A.; Kellogg, P.; Thiessen, J.; Canu, P.
1992-01-01
We present Ulysses URAP observations of plasma waves at seven interplanetary shocks detected between approximately 1 and 3 AU. The URAP data allows ready correlation of wave phenomena from .1 Hz to 1 MHz. Wave phenomena observed in the shock vicinity include abrupt changes in the quasi-thermal noise continuum, Langmuir wave activity, ion acoustic noise, whistler waves and low frequency electrostatic waves. We focus on the forward/reverse shock pair of May 27, 1991 to demonstrate the characteristics of the URAP data.
Shock wave irradiations avoiding fluid flow evoke intracellular Ca2+ signaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Toru; Tsukamoto, Akira; Tada, Shigeru
Shock wave irradiation accelerates therapeutic effects including angiogenesis. One mechanism underlying those effects is cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. Fluid flow is one of major physical phenomena induced by shock wave irradiation. Cellular responses evoked by fluid flow are similar to those evoked by shock wave irradiation. Thus, fluid flow could be responsible for cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. However, it is obscure whether fluid flow is required for the cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. In this study, intracellular Ca2 + signaling was observed in cells seeded in down-sized chambers. In the down-sized chambers, fluid flow was supposed to be suppressed because size of chambers (6 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) was analogous to size of shock wave focus region (3mm in diameter). Dynamics of polystyrene microbeads suspended in the chambers were visualized with a CCD camera and analyzed with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method to quantify fluid flow in the chamber. As a result, shock wave irradiation evoked intracellular Ca2 + signaling. However, fluid flow was not observed in the chamber due to shock wave irradiation. Thus, it was suggested that physical mechanics, not fluid flow, are further required for evoking intracellular Ca2 + signaling following to shock wave irradiation.
Experimental particle acceleration by water evaporation induced by shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scolamacchia, T.; Alatorre Ibarguengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Cimarelli, C.
2010-12-01
Shock waves are commonly generated during volcanic eruptions. They induce sudden changes in pressure and temperature causing phase changes. Nevertheless, their effects on flowfield properties are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of gas expansion generated by shock wave propagation in the acceleration of ash particles. We used a shock tube facility consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in internal diameter), pressurized with Ar gas, and a low-pressure tank at atmospheric conditions (LP). A copper diaphragm separated the HP autoclave from a 180 mm tube (PVC or acrylic glass) at ambient P, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Around the tube, a 30 cm-high acrylic glass cylinder, with the same section of the LP tank (40 cm), allowed the observation of the processes occurring downstream from the nozzle throat, and was large enough to act as an unconfined volume in which the initial diffracting shock and gas jet expand. All experiments were performed at Pres/Pamb ratios of 150:1. Two ambient conditions were used: dry air and air saturated with steam. Carbon fibers and glass spheres in a size range between 150 and 210 μm, were placed on a metal wire at the exit of the PVC tube. The sudden decompression of the Ar gas, due to the failure of the diaphragm, generated an initial air shock wave. A high-speed camera recorded the processes between the first 100 μsec and several ms after the diaphragm failure at frame rates ranging between 30,000 and 50,000 fps. In the experiments with ambient air saturated with steam, the high-speed camera allowed to visualize the condensation front associated with the initial air shock; a maximum velocity of 788 m/s was recorded, which decreases to 524 m/s at distance of 0.5 ±0.2 cm, 1.1 ms after the diaphragm rupture. The condensation front preceded the Ar jet front exhausting from the reservoir, by 0.2-0.5 ms. In all experiments particles velocities following the initial
Shock wave driven by CME evidenced by metric type II burst and EUV wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunha-Silva, R. D.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Selhorst, C. L.
2015-12-01
Solar type II radio bursts are produced by plasma oscillations in the solar corona as a result of shock waves. The relationship between type II bursts and coronal shocks is well evidenced by observations since the 1960s. However, the drivers of the shocks associated with type II events at metric wavelengths remain as a controversial issue among solar physicists. The flares and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are considered as potential drivers of these shocks. In this article, we present an analysis of a metric type II burst observed on May 17, 2013, using data provided by spectrometers from e-CALLISTO (extended-Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatories) and EUV images from the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI), aboard the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The event was associated with an M3.2 SXR flare and a halo CME. The EUV wave produced by the expansion of the CME was clear from the EUV images. The heights of the EUV wave fronts proved to be consistent with the heights of the radio source obtained with the 2-4 × Newkirk density model, which provided a clue to an oblique propagation of the type-II-emitting shock segment. The results for the magnetic field in the regions of the shock also revealed to be consistent with the heights of the radio source obtained using the 2-4 × Newkirk density model. Exponential fit on the intensity maxima of the harmonic emission provided a shock speed of ∼580-990 km s-1, consistent with the average speed of the associated EUV wave front of 626 km s-1.
Effect of the Body Wall on Lithotripter Shock Waves
McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C.; Berwick, Zachary C.
2014-01-01
Abstract Purpose: Determine the influence of passage through the body wall on the properties of lithotripter shock waves (SWs) and the characteristics of the acoustic field of an electromagnetic lithotripter. Methods: Full-thickness ex vivo segments of pig abdominal wall were secured against the acoustic window of a test tank coupled to the lithotripter. A fiber-optic probe hydrophone was used to measure SW pressures, determine shock rise time, and map the acoustic field in the focal plane. Results: Peak positive pressure on axis was attenuated roughly proportional to tissue thickness—approximately 6% per cm. Irregularities in the tissue path affected the symmetry of SW focusing, shifting the maximum peak positive pressure laterally by as much as ∼2 mm. Within the time resolution of the hydrophone (7–15 ns), shock rise time was unchanged, measuring ∼17–21 ns with and without tissue present. Mapping of the field showed no effect of the body wall on focal width, regardless of thickness of the body wall. Conclusions: Passage through the body wall has minimal effect on the characteristics of lithotripter SWs. Other than reducing pulse amplitude and having the potential to affect the symmetry of the focused wave, the body wall has little influence on the acoustic field. These findings help to validate laboratory assessment of lithotripter acoustic field and suggest that the properties of SWs in the body are much the same as have been measured in vitro. PMID:24308532
Nonlinear focusing of acoustic shock waves at a caustic cusp.
Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis
2005-02-01
The present study investigates the focusing of acoustical weak shock waves incoming on a cusped caustic. The theoretical model is based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya equation and its specific boundary conditions. Based on the so-called Guiraud's similitude law for a step shock, a new explanation about the wavefront unfolding due to nonlinear self-refraction is proposed. This effect is shown to be associated not only to nonlinearities, as expected by previous authors, but also to the nonlocal geometry of the wavefront. Numerical simulations confirm the sensitivity of the process to wavefront geometry. Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations are substantiated by an original experiment. This one is carried out in two steps. First, the canonical Pearcey function is synthesized in linear regime by the inverse filter technique. In the second step, the same wavefront is emitted but with a high amplitude to generate shock waves during the propagation. The experimental results are compared with remarkable agreement to the numerical ones. Finally, applications to sonic boom are briefly discussed. PMID:15759678
Three dimensional aspects of interplanetary shock waves. [and the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siscoe, G. L.
1976-01-01
Most of the interplanetary shock waves observed with 1 AU of the sun originate from some short lived solar event, such as a solar flare, and then propagate out as a more-or-less spherical shock wave until they leave the solar system. Beyond 1 AU another class of interplanetary shock wave becomes common--the corotating shock pair formed by the interaction of long lived solar wind streams. The three dimensional geometry of these two classes of interplanetary shocks is discussed. Also discussed are how these geometries can be statistically studied with an out-of-the-ecliptic mission. Diagrams of shock wave propagation are shown. Also given are numerical examples of shock wave propagation.
Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver
Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H.
1993-06-14
A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250ns, with a time-to-burst jitter under 10ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.
Shock wave strength reduction by passive control using perforated plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doerffer, Piotr; Szulc, Oskar
2007-05-01
Strong, normal shock wave, terminating a local supersonic area on an airfoil, not only limits aerodynamic performance but also becomes a source of a high-speed impulsive helicopter noise. The application of a passive control system (a cavity covered by a perforated plate) on a rotor blade should reduce the noise created by a moving shock. This article covers the numerical implementation of the Bohning/Doerffer transpiration law into the SPARC code and includes an extended validation against the experimental data for relatively simple geometries of transonic nozzles. It is a first step towards a full simulation of a helicopter rotor equipped with a noise reducing passive control device in hover and in forward flight conditions.
Estimating explosive performance from laser-induced shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gottfried, Jennifer
2015-06-01
A laboratory-scale method for predicting explosive performance (e.g., detonation velocity and pressure) based on milligram quantities of material is currently being developed. This technique is based on schlieren imaging of the shock wave generated in air by the formation of a laser-induced plasma on the surface of an energetic material. A large suite of pure and composite conventional energetic materials has been tested. Based on the observed linear correlation between the laser-induced shock velocity and the measured performance from full-scale detonation testing, this method is a potential screening tool for the development of new energetic materials and formulations prior to detonation testing. Recent results on the extension of this method to metal-containing energetic materials will be presented.
Shock-wave structure using nonlinear model Boltzmann equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Segal, B. M.; Ferziger, J. H.
1972-01-01
The structure of strong plane shock waves in a perfect monatomic gas was studied using four nonlinear models of the Boltzmann equation. The models involved the use of a simplified collision operator with velocity-independent collision frequency, in place of the complicated Boltzmann collision operator. The models employed were the BGK and ellipsoidal models developed by earlier authors, and the polynomial and trimodal gain function models developed during the work. An exact set of moment equations was derived for the density, velocity, temperature, viscous stress, and heat flux within the shock. This set was reduced to a pair of coupled nonlinear integral equations and solved using specially adapted numerical techniques. A new and simple Gauss-Seidel iteration was developed during the work and found to be as efficient as the best earlier iteration methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinolo, A. R.; Clarke, J. H.
1972-01-01
The gas dynamic structures of the transport shock and the downstream collisional relaxation layer are evaluated for partially ionized monatomic gases. Elastic and inelastic collisional nonequilibrium effects are taken into consideration. Three electronic levels are accounted for in the microscopic model of the atom. Nonequilibrium processes with respect to population of levels and species plus temperature are considered. By using an asymptotic technique the shock morphology is found on a continuum flow basis. The asymptotic procedure gives two distinct layers in which the nonequilibrium effects to be considered are different. A transport shock appears as the inner solution to an outer collisional relaxation layer in which the gas reaches local equilibrium. A family of numerical examples is displayed for different flow regimes. Argon and helium models are used in these examples.
The preplasma effect on the properties of the shock wave driven by a fast electron beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llor Aisa, E.; Ribeyre, X.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2016-08-01
Strong shock wave generation by a mono-energetic fast electron beam in a plasma with an increasing density profile is studied theoretically. The proposed analytical model describes the shock wave characteristics for a homogeneous plasma preceded by a low density precursor. The shock pressure and the time of shock formation depend on the ratio of the electron stopping length to the preplasma areal density and on the initial energy of injected electrons. The conclusions of theoretical model are confirmed in numerical simulations.
A numerical determination of the bow shock wave in transonic axisymmetric flow about blunt bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, D. J.; South, J. C., Jr.
1975-01-01
A numerical method was developed for calculating axisymmetric transonic (M greater than 1) flow about a blunt body; the bow shock wave location was investigated. A Rankine-Hugoniot jump was applied at the shock while relaxation on the isentropic equation of motion was used between shock and body. The shock wave is adjusted by a Newton type iteration scheme. Results are given for a sphere in the Mach number range 1.62 down to 1.02.
Kinematics of ICMEs/Shocks: Blast Wave Reconstruction Using Type-II Emissions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; De-la-Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.
2015-09-01
We present a physical methodology for reconstructing the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using Type-II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this blast-wave reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with Type-II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the Type-II frequency drifts and calculates shock onset speed, shock travel time, and shock speed at 1 AU. The BWR results agreed well with the Type-II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, in-situ measurements, and interplanetary scintillation observations. Perturbations in the Type-II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing Type-II emissions in real-time and to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1 AU.
COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED MEDIUM. III. EFFICIENT COSMIC RAY ACCELERATION
Morlino, G.; Blasi, P.; Bandiera, R.; Amato, E.; Caprioli, D.
2013-05-10
In this paper, we present the first formulation of the theory of nonlinear particle acceleration in collisionless shocks in the presence of neutral hydrogen in the acceleration region. The dynamical reaction of the accelerated particles, the magnetic field amplification, and the magnetic dynamical effects on the shock are also included. The main new aspect of this study, however, consists of accounting for charge exchange and the ionization of a neutral hydrogen, which profoundly change the structure of the shock, as discussed in our previous work. This important dynamical effect of neutrals is mainly associated with the so-called neutral return flux, namely the return of hot neutrals from the downstream region to upstream, where they deposit energy and momentum through charge exchange and ionization. We also present the self-consistent calculation of Balmer line emission from the shock region and discuss how to use measurements of the anomalous width of the different components of the Balmer line to infer cosmic ray acceleration efficiency in supernova remnants showing Balmer emission: the broad Balmer line, which is due to charge exchange of hydrogen atoms with hot ions downstream of the shock, is shown to become narrower as a result of the energy drainage into cosmic rays, while the narrow Balmer line, due to charge exchange in the cosmic-ray-induced precursor, is shown to become broader. In addition to these two well-known components, the neutral return flux leads to the formation of a third component with an intermediate width: this too contains information on ongoing processes at the shock.
Nonlinear waves and shocks in a rigid acoustical guide.
Fernando, Rasika; Druon, Yann; Coulouvrat, François; Marchiano, Régis
2011-02-01
A model is developed for the propagation of finite amplitude acoustical waves and weak shocks in a straight duct of arbitrary cross section. It generalizes the linear modal solution, assuming mode amplitudes slowly vary along the guide axis under the influence of nonlinearities. Using orthogonality properties, the model finally reduces to a set of ordinary differential equations for each mode at each of the harmonics of the input frequency. The theory is then applied to a two-dimensional waveguide. Dispersion relations indicate that there can be two types of nonlinear interactions either called "resonant" or "non-resonant." Resonant interactions occur dominantly for modes propagating at a rather large angle with respect to the axis and involve mostly modes propagating with the same phase velocity. In this case, guided propagation is similar to nonlinear plane wave propagation, with the progressive steepening up to shock formation of the two waves that constitute the mode and reflect onto the guide walls. Non-resonant interactions can be observed as the input modes propagate at a small angle, in which case, nonlinear interactions involve many adjacent modes having close phase velocities. Grazing propagation can also lead to more complex phenomena such as wavefront curvature and irregular reflection. PMID:21361419
Large amplitude MHD waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. L.; Smith, C. W.; Matthaeus, W. H.
1983-01-01
Observations of large amplitude magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves upstream of Jupiter's bow shock are analyzed. The waves are found to be right circularly polarized in the solar wind frame which suggests that they are propagating in the fast magnetosonic mode. A complete spectral and minimum variance eigenvalue analysis of the data was performed. The power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations contains several peaks. The fluctuations at 2.3 mHz have a direction of minimum variance along the direction of the average magnetic field. The direction of minimum variance of these fluctuations lies at approximately 40 deg. to the magnetic field and is parallel to the radial direction. We argue that these fluctuations are waves excited by protons reflected off the Jovian bow shock. The inferred speed of the reflected protons is about two times the solar wind speed in the plasma rest frame. A linear instability analysis is presented which suggests an explanation for many of the observed features of the observations.
Solid-particle jet formation under shock-wave acceleration.
Rodriguez, V; Saurel, R; Jourdan, G; Houas, L
2013-12-01
When solid particles are impulsively dispersed by a shock wave, they develop a spatial distribution which takes the form of particle jets whose selection mechanism is still unidentified. The aim of the present experimental work is to study particle dispersal with fingering effects in an original quasi-two-dimensional experiment facility in order to accurately extract information. Shock and blast waves are generated in the carrier gas at the center of a granular medium ring initially confined inside a Hele-Shaw cell and impulsively accelerated. With the present experimental setup, the particle jet formation is clearly observed. From fast flow visualizations, we notice, in all instances, that the jets are initially generated inside the particle ring and thereafter expelled outward. This point has not been observed in three-dimensional experiments. We highlight that the number of jets is unsteady and decreases with time. For a fixed configuration, considering the very early times following the initial acceleration, the jet size selection is independent of the particle diameter. Moreover, the influence of the initial overpressure and the material density on the particle jet formation have been studied. It is shown that the wave number of particle jets increases with the overpressure and with the decrease of the material density. The normalized number of jets as a function of the initial ring acceleration shows a power law valid for all studied configurations involving various initial pressure ratios, particle sizes, and particle materials. PMID:24483561
Shock-wave-based density down ramp for electron injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chunmei; Li, Ji; Sun, Jun; Luo, Xisheng
2012-02-01
We demonstrate a sharp density transition for electron injection in laser wakefield acceleration through numerical study. This density transition is generated by a detached shock wave induced by a cylinder inserted into a supersonic helium gas flow. In a Mach 1.5 flow, the scale length of the density transition Lgrad can approximately equal to plasma wavelength λp at the shock front, and can be further reduced with an increase of the flow Mach number. A density down ramp with Lgrad≥λp can reduce the phase velocity of the wakefield and lower the energy threshold for the electrons to be trapped. Moreover, the quality of the accelerated beam may be greatly improved by precisely controlling of Lgrad to be one λp. For an even sharper density down ramp with Lgrad≪λp, the oscillating electrons in the plasma wave will up shift their phase when crossing the ramp, therefore a fraction of the electrons are injected into the accelerating field. For this injection mechanism, there is no threshold requirement for the pump laser intensity to reach wave breaking, which is a big advantage as compared with other injection mechanisms.
Transient cavitation produced by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cioanta, Iulian
1998-12-01
Two decades ago, a new medical procedure was introduced, allowing the fragmentation of kidney stones from outside the human body (noninvasively) using a shock wave device termed lithotripter ('stone crusher'). Considered as one of the most important medical inventions of this century, lithotripsy is currently used in more than 80% of urolithiasis cases. Experimental studies have shown that transient or inertial cavitation is generated by this procedure near the stones and in renal tissue. To find a correlation between the number of shocks delivered and the treatment efficiency, the acoustic emission (AE) generated by the oscillation of cavitation bubbles, and its relation with stone fragmentation and tissue damage during shock wave lithotripsy were studied. In vitro experiments were carried out to identify the correlation between the AE signals and the expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles, which were captured by high-speed photography (20,000 frames per second). This correlation has been verified on four different electrohydraulic lithotripters, under multiple experimental conditions. The effects of tissue attenuation on AE and stone fragmentation were also studied. The in vitro results have further allowed the interpretation of AE signals from in vivo experiments with pigs. Although similar in general trend, in vivo AE signals are found to be shorter in expansion and longer in the total ringing times (including the rebound phenomenon) than for in vitro AE signals, indicating a tissue constraining effect on bubble oscillation. Based on this observation a new mechanism for renal vascular and tubular injury is proposed. In addition, changes in AE signals have been observed as the total number of shocks increases, and this dose dependence feature has allowed the determination of a threshold value for extended tissue injury at 20 kV. This result has been confirmed by histological analysis and by results of a theoretical model study of bubble oscillation in a
Observation of energetic protons penetrating previous shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Sawad, A.; Saloniemi, O.; Laitinen, T. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Valtonen, E.
2009-12-01
We report new evidence on energetic protons penetrating previous shock wave. We have chosen four Multi Eruption Solar Energetic Particle (MESEP) events from the list presented by Al-Sawad 2007, and observed by Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Two events were studied in details, the event of 2001 October 19-21, which was in association with two X1.6/2B solar flares and halo CMEs separated by ~15 hours and the event of 2000 April 04, which was associated with two CMEs separated by ~8 hours. The other two new MESEP events were on 2000 February 17-19 and 2005 August 22-25. The first event was associated with two CMEs. The first halo CME was associated with M 1.3 solar flare at S29E07 Hα location from the NOAA AR 8827, and with metric and later D-H type II radio bursts, indicating a formation of shock wave, which was later passed near the Earth's orbit and registered, by SOHO, ACE and Wind spacecrafts. The second CME erupted from the south-west after ~13 hours. The second event was associated with two halo CMEs separated by ~16 and erupted from same NOAA AR 10798 in association with M class solar flares. The first halo was in association with metric type II but both were in association with D-H type II. In both events the first CME was decelerating and both events can be classified as gradual SEP events. Our analysis for proton flux anisotropy data, He/P ratio and possible velocity dispersion in the second peak of the intensity-time profile are related to the second CME in both events. This suggests that the energetic protons > 10 MeV penetrate the first shock waves associated with first CMEs in order to reach 1 AU and thus, these observations indicate that capability of interplanetary shock to accelerate high-energy protons gradually declines as shock travels from near the Sun to beyond 1~AU.
Acoustic and Cavitation Fields of Shock Wave Therapy Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitnis, Parag V.; Cleveland, Robin O.
2006-05-01
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is considered a viable treatment modality for orthopedic ailments. Despite increasing clinical use, the mechanisms by which ESWT devices generate a therapeutic effect are not yet understood. The mechanistic differences in various devices and their efficacies might be dependent on their acoustic and cavitation outputs. We report acoustic and cavitation measurements of a number of different shock wave therapy devices. Two devices were electrohydraulic: one had a large reflector (HMT Ossatron) and the other was a hand-held source (HMT Evotron); the other device was a pneumatically driven device (EMS Swiss DolorClast Vet). Acoustic measurements were made using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone and a PVDF hydrophone. A dual passive cavitation detection system was used to monitor cavitation activity. Qualitative differences between these devices were also highlighted using a high-speed camera. We found that the Ossatron generated focused shock waves with a peak positive pressure around 40 MPa. The Evotron produced peak positive pressure around 20 MPa, however, its acoustic output appeared to be independent of the power setting of the device. The peak positive pressure from the DolorClast was about 5 MPa without a clear shock front. The DolorClast did not generate a focused acoustic field. Shadowgraph images show that the wave propagating from the DolorClast is planar and not focused in the vicinity of the hand-piece. All three devices produced measurable cavitation with a characteristic time (cavitation inception to bubble collapse) that varied between 95 and 209 μs for the Ossatron, between 59 and 283 μs for the Evotron, and between 195 and 431 μs for the DolorClast. The high-speed camera images show that the cavitation activity for the DolorClast is primarily restricted to the contact surface of the hand-piece. These data indicate that the devices studied here vary in acoustic and cavitation output, which may imply that the
Refractive phenomena in the shock wave dispersion with variable gradients
Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.
2010-06-15
In this article the refraction effects in the weak shock wave (SW) dispersion on an interface with a temperature variation between two mediums are described. In the case of a finite-gradient boundary, the effect of the SW dispersion is remarkably stronger than in the case of a step change in parameters. In the former case the vertical component of velocity for the transmitted SW (the refraction effect) must be taken into account. Results of comparative calculations based on the two-dimensional model corrected for the refraction effect show significant differences in the shapes of the dispersed SW fronts.
Shock-wave studies: modeling the giant planets
Ross, M.
1981-07-20
The giant planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune - differ markedly from the inner, or terrestrial, planets. Observations of their average density, gravitational moments, and atmospheric composition have enabled astrophysicists to draw some conclusions as to their structure, but efforts have been hampered by a lack of accurate data on the chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of constituent materials at the extremely high temperatures and pressures characteristic of planetary interiors. Shock-wave experiments conducted recently at LLNL have provided more accurate equations of state and electrical conductivities for many of these materials, and these have led to improved structural models of the giant planets.
The behaviour of turbulence anisotropy through shock waves and expansions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minh, H. H.; Kollmann, W.; Vandromme, D.
1985-01-01
A second order closure has been implemented in an implicit Navier-Stokes solver to study the behavior of the Reynolds stresses under the influence of severe pressure gradients. In the boundary layer zone, the strongly sheared character of the mean flow dominates the turbulence generation mechanisms. However, the pressure gradients play also a very important role for these processes, but at different locations within the boundary layer. This aspect may be emphasized by the analysis of turbulence anisotropy through shock waves and expansions.
Observation of Shock Waves in a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas
Joseph, J. A.; Thomas, J. E.; Kulkarni, M.; Abanov, A. G.
2011-04-15
We study collisions between two strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas clouds. We observe exotic nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior, distinguished by the formation of a very sharp and stable density peak as the clouds collide and subsequent evolution into a boxlike shape. We model the nonlinear dynamics of these collisions by using quasi-1D hydrodynamic equations. Our simulations of the time-dependent density profiles agree very well with the data and provide clear evidence of shock wave formation in this universal quantum hydrodynamic system.
Interaction of a plane shock wave in water with a thin layer of lower density
Bergel`son, V.I.; Nemchinov, I.V.; Orlova, T.I.; Khazins, V.M.
1992-08-01
A numerical analysis is conducted on the interaction of a plane shock wave in water with a thin layer of lower density, which is perpendicular to the wave front. Parameters are defined for the perturbed flow structure and for large-scale precursors, which arise ahead of the shock front. Possibilities are discussed of experimentally investigating this phenomena with a cylindrical shock wave using standard explosives. 4 refs., 4 figs.
Shock wave interaction with interfaces between materials having different acoustic impedances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, H.; Moosavi-Nejad, S.; Akiyama, H.; Menezes, V.
2014-03-01
We experimentally examined interaction of blast waves with water-air/air-water interfaces through high-speed-real-time visualization and measurement of pressure across the waves. The underwater shock wave, which was expected to reflect totally at the water-air interface, was observed transmitting a shock front to air. Transmission of a blast wave from air to water was also visualized and evaluated. Underwater shock waves are used in several medical/biological procedures, where such unforeseen transmissions can result in detriments. The details provide a guideline to evaluate blast wave transmissions, which can induce tissue and brain injuries. The results explain mechanisms behind blast-induced traumatic brain injury.
On the interaction between the shock wave attached to a wedge and freestream disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.; Lasseigne, D. Glenn; Hussaini, M. Y.
1993-01-01
A study of the interaction of small amplitude, unsteady, freestream disturbances with a shock wave induced by a wedge in supersonic flow is presented. These disturbances may be acoustic waves, vorticity waves, or entropy waves (or indeed a combination of all three). Their interactions then generate behind the shock disturbances of all three classes, an aspect that is investigated in some detail, our motivation being to investigate possible mechanisms for boundary-layer receptivity, caused through the amplification and modification of freestream turbulence through the shock-body coupling. Also, the possibility of enhanced mixing owing to additional vorticity produced by the shock-body coupling is investigated.
Role of helmet in the mechanics of shock wave propagation under blast loading conditions.
Ganpule, S; Gu, L; Alai, A; Chandra, N
2012-01-01
The effectiveness of helmets in extenuating the primary shock waves generated by the explosions of improvised explosive devices is not clearly understood. In this work, the role of helmet on the overpressurisation and impulse experienced by the head were examined. The shock wave-head interactions were studied under three different cases: (i) unprotected head, (ii) head with helmet but with varying head-helmet gaps and (iii) head covered with helmet and tightly fitting foam pads. The intensification effect was discussed by examining the shock wave flow pattern and verified with experiments. A helmet with a better protection against shock wave is suggested. PMID:21806412
Tandem shock waves in medicine and biology: a review of potential applications and successes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukes, P.; Fernández, F.; Gutiérrez-Aceves, J.; Fernández, E.; Alvarez, U. M.; Sunka, P.; Loske, A. M.
2016-01-01
Shock waves have been established as a safe and effective treatment for a wide range of diseases. Research groups worldwide are working on improving shock wave technology and developing new applications of shock waves to medicine and biology. The passage of a shock wave through soft tissue, fluids, and suspensions containing cells may result in acoustic cavitation i.e., the expansion and violent collapse of microbubbles, which generates secondary shock waves and the emission of microjets of fluid. Cavitation has been recognized as a significant phenomenon that produces both desirable and undesirable biomedical effects. Several studies have shown that cavitation can be controlled by emitting two shock waves that can be delayed by tenths or hundreds of microseconds. These dual-pulse pressure pulses, which are known as tandem shock waves, have been shown to enhance in vitro and in vivo urinary stone fragmentation, cause significant cytotoxic effects in tumor cells, delay tumor growth, enhance the bactericidal effect of shock waves and significantly increase the efficiency of genetic transformations in bacteria and fungi. This article provides an overview of the basic physical principles, methodologies, achievements and potential uses of tandem shock waves to improve biomedical applications.
Investigation on oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow
Wang Jian; Li Yinghong; Xing Fei
2009-10-01
Wedge oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow was investigated theoretically, experimentally, and numerically in this paper. Using thermal choking model, the change in oblique shock wave was deduced, which refer that the start point of shock wave shifts upstream, the shock wave angle decreases, and its intensity weakens. Then the theoretical results were validated experimentally in a Mach 2.2 wind tunnel. On the test conditions of arc discharge power of approx1 kW and arc plasma temperature of approx3000 K, schlieren photography and gas pressure measurements indicated that the start point of shock wave shifted upstream of approx4 mm, the shock wave angle decreased 8.6%, and its intensity weakened 8.8%. The deduced theoretical results match the test results qualitatively, so thermal mechanism and thermal choking model are rational to explain the problem of oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma. Finally, numerical simulation was developed. Based on thermal mechanism, the arc discharge plasma was simplified as a thermal source term that added to the Navier-Stokes equations. The simulation results of the change in oblique shock wave were consistent with the test results, so the thermal mechanism indeed dominates the oblique shock wave control process.
Reconstructing the Shock Wave From the Wolfe Creek Meteorite Impact.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heine, C.; O'Neill, C. J.
2003-12-01
The Wolfe Creek meteorite crater is an 800m diameter impact structure located in the Tanami Desert near Hall's Creek, Western Australia. The crater formed <300000 years ago, and is the 2nd largest crater from which fragments of the impacting meteorite (a medium octahedrite) have been recovered. We present the results of new ground based geophysical (magnetics and gravity) surveys conducted over the structure in July-August, 2003. The results highlight the simple structure of the crater under the infilling sediments, and track the extent of deformation and the ejecta blanket under the encroaching sanddunes. The variations in the dip of the foliations around the crater rim confirm that the crater approached from East-Northeast, as deduced from the ejecta distribution, and provide constraints on the kinetic energy and angle of the impactor. We also use the distribution of shocked quartz in the target rock (Devonian sandstones) to reconstruct the shock loading conditions of the impact using the Grieve and Robertson (1976) criterion. We also use a Simplified Arbitrary Langrangian-Eulerian hydrocode (SALE 2) to simulate the propagation of shock waves through a material described by a Tillotson equation of state. Using the deformational and PT constraints of the Wolfe-Creek crater, we can estimate the partitioning of kinetic energy as a result of this medium-size impact.
Observation of Dispersive Shock Waves, Solitons, and Their Interactions in Viscous Fluid Conduits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiden, Michelle D.; Lowman, Nicholas K.; Anderson, Dalton V.; Schubert, Marika E.; Hoefer, Mark A.
2016-04-01
Dispersive shock waves and solitons are fundamental nonlinear excitations in dispersive media, but dispersive shock wave studies to date have been severely constrained. Here, we report on a novel dispersive hydrodynamic test bed: the effectively frictionless dynamics of interfacial waves between two high viscosity contrast, miscible, low Reynolds number Stokes fluids. This scenario is realized by injecting from below a lighter, viscous fluid into a column filled with high viscosity fluid. The injected fluid forms a deformable pipe whose diameter is proportional to the injection rate, enabling precise control over the generation of symmetric interfacial waves. Buoyancy drives nonlinear interfacial self-steepening, while normal stresses give rise to the dispersion of interfacial waves. Extremely slow mass diffusion and mass conservation imply that the interfacial waves are effectively dissipationless. This enables high fidelity observations of large amplitude dispersive shock waves in this spatially extended system, found to agree quantitatively with a nonlinear wave averaging theory. Furthermore, several highly coherent phenomena are investigated including dispersive shock wave backflow, the refraction or absorption of solitons by dispersive shock waves, and the multiphase merging of two dispersive shock waves. The complex, coherent, nonlinear mixing of dispersive shock waves and solitons observed here are universal features of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamic flows.
Observation of Dispersive Shock Waves, Solitons, and Their Interactions in Viscous Fluid Conduits.
Maiden, Michelle D; Lowman, Nicholas K; Anderson, Dalton V; Schubert, Marika E; Hoefer, Mark A
2016-04-29
Dispersive shock waves and solitons are fundamental nonlinear excitations in dispersive media, but dispersive shock wave studies to date have been severely constrained. Here, we report on a novel dispersive hydrodynamic test bed: the effectively frictionless dynamics of interfacial waves between two high viscosity contrast, miscible, low Reynolds number Stokes fluids. This scenario is realized by injecting from below a lighter, viscous fluid into a column filled with high viscosity fluid. The injected fluid forms a deformable pipe whose diameter is proportional to the injection rate, enabling precise control over the generation of symmetric interfacial waves. Buoyancy drives nonlinear interfacial self-steepening, while normal stresses give rise to the dispersion of interfacial waves. Extremely slow mass diffusion and mass conservation imply that the interfacial waves are effectively dissipationless. This enables high fidelity observations of large amplitude dispersive shock waves in this spatially extended system, found to agree quantitatively with a nonlinear wave averaging theory. Furthermore, several highly coherent phenomena are investigated including dispersive shock wave backflow, the refraction or absorption of solitons by dispersive shock waves, and the multiphase merging of two dispersive shock waves. The complex, coherent, nonlinear mixing of dispersive shock waves and solitons observed here are universal features of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamic flows. PMID:27176524
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagao, Junji; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong
2010-08-01
Shock tubes are devices in which the state of a gas is changed suddenly from one uniform state to another by the passage of shock and expansion waves. In the theory of ideal shock tube flow, it is customarily assumed that the unsteady expansion and shock waves generated by diaphragm rupture are a perfectly centered plane wave. However, such waves are generally not centered, or may not even by plane in practice. In the present research, the time-dependent behavior of homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation of moist air in the shock tube is investigated by using a computational fluid dynamics work. Further, the numerical and experimental studies were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the diaphragm rupture process on the flow characteristics of expansion and shock waves generated near the diaphragm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grujicic, Mica; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.; Yavari, R.; Ramasubramanian, M. K.
2014-01-01
Over the past several years, considerable research efforts have been made toward investigating polyurea, a segmented thermoplastic elastomer, and particularly its shock-mitigation capacity, i.e., an ability to attenuate and disperse shock-waves. These research efforts have clearly established that the shock-mitigation capacity of polyurea is closely related to its chemistry, processing route, and the resulting microstructure. Polyurea typically possesses a nano-segregated microstructure consisting of (high glass transition temperature, T g) hydrogen-bonded discrete hard domains and a (low T g) contiguous soft matrix. While the effect of polyurea microstructure on its shock-mitigation capacity is well-established, it is not presently clear what microstructure-dependent phenomena and processes control its shock-mitigation capacity. To help identify these phenomena and processes, meso-scale simulations of the formation of nano-segregated microstructure and its interaction with a leading shock-wave and a trailing release-wave is analyzed in the present work. The results obtained revealed that shock-induced hard-domain densification makes an important contribution to the superior shock-mitigation capacity of polyurea, and that the extent of densification is a sensitive function of the polyurea soft-segment molecular weight. In particular, the ability of release-waves to capture and neutralize shock-waves has been found to depend strongly on the extent of shock-induced hard-domain densification and, thus, on the polyurea soft-segment molecular weight.
On the interaction of shock waves and sound waves in transonic buffet flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, A.; Feldhusen, A.; Schröder, W.
2013-02-01
To support Lee's buffet mechanism model [B. H. K. Lee, "Self-sustained shock oscillations on airfoils at transonic speeds," Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 37, 147-196 (2001), 10.1016/S0376-0421(01)00003-3], the sound wave propagation in the flow field outside the separation of a transonic buffet flow at a Mach number M∞ = 0.73 and an angle of attack α = 3.5° over a DRA 2303 supercritical airfoil is determined using high-speed particle-image velocimetry. Furthermore, the shock wave is influenced by an artificial sound source which evidently changes the shock oscillation properties. The dominant buffet mechanism is shown to be a feedback loop between the shock position and the noise generation at the trailing edge of the airfoil. The sound wave propagation speed is detected by correlating the surface pressure signals and the velocity fluctuations in the flow field. The quantitative results for the natural and the artificial sound source convincingly coincide and are in good agreement with a reformulated version of Lee's buffet model.
Effect of Shock Wave Lithotripsy on Renal Hemodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.
2008-09-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) can injure tissue and decrease blood flow in the SWL-treated kidney, both tissue and functional effects being largely localized to the region targeted with shock waves (SWs). A novel method of limiting SWL-induced tissue injury is to employ the "protection" protocol, where the kidney is pretreated with low-energy SWs prior to the application of a standard clinical dose of high-energy SWs. Resistive index measurements of renal vascular resistance/impedance to blood flow during SWL treatment protocols revealed that a standard clinical dose of high-energy SWs did not alter RI during SW application. However, there was an interaction between low- and high-energy SWL treatment phases of the "protection" protocol such that an increase in RI (vasoconstriction) was observed during the later half of SW application, a time when tissue damage is occurring during the standard high-energy SWL protocol. We suggest that renal vasoconstriction may be responsible for reducing the degree of tissue damage that normally results from a standard clinical dose of high-energy SWs.
Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.
2011-10-01
The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy does not improve hypertensive nephropathy.
Caron, Jonathan; Michel, Pierre-Antoine; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Ronco, Pierre; Boffa, Jean-Jacques
2016-06-01
Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (SWT) has been shown to improve myocardial dysfunction, hind limb ischemia, erectile function, and to facilitate cell therapy and healing process. These therapeutic effects were mainly due to promoting angiogenesis. Since chronic kidney diseases are characterized by renal fibrosis and capillaries rarefaction, they may benefit from a proangiogenic treatment. The objective of our study was to determine whether SWT could ameliorate renal repair and favor angiogenesis in L-NAME-induced hypertensive nephropathy in rats. SWT was started when proteinuria exceeded 1 g/mmol of creatinine and 1 week after L-NAME removal. SWT consisted of implying 0.09 mJ/mm(2) (400 shots), 3 times per week. After 4 weeks of SWT, blood pressure, renal function and urinary protein excretion did not differ between treated (LN + SWT) and untreated rats (LN). Histological lesions including glomerulosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis scores, tubular dilatation and interstitial fibrosis were similar in both groups. In addition, peritubular capillaries and eNOS, VEGF, VEGF-R, SDF-1 gene expressions did not increase in SWT-treated compared to untreated animals. No procedural complications or adverse effects were observed in control (C + SWT) and hypertensive rats (LN + SWT). These results suggest that extracorporeal kidney shock wave therapy does not induce angiogenesis and does not improve renal function and structure, at least in the model of hypertensive nephropathy although the treatment is well tolerated. PMID:27255359
High-efficiency shock-wave generator for extracorporeal lithotripsy.
Broyer, P; Cathignol, D; Theillère, Y; Mestas, J L
1996-09-01
In extracorporeal lithotripsy, the electro-acoustic efficiency of electrohydraulic generators is limited by the inductance of the electrical discharge circuit. A new shock-wave generator is described that uses a coaxial discharge line enabling electro-acoustic efficiency to be greatly increased. The line is built using a para-electric ceramic with a relative dielectric constant of 1700, manufactured for use in high-voltage impulse mode. A coaxial spark gap, with minimal inductance, has been developed to obtain the triggered breakdown of the discharge line. Shock waves are created with a coaxial electrode plugged directly into the spark gap and immersed in an electrolyte of degassed saline. Electrode gap and electrolyte resistivity are adjusted to match the resistivity of the electrolyte volume between the underwater electrodes to the characteristic impedance of the line. The discharge line generates in the medium a rectangular current pulse with an amplitude of about 6000 A and a rise time of 50 ns. Compared with conventional generators, measurements of the expansive peak pressure pulse show an increase of 105% at 10 kV, 86.5% at 12 kV and 34.5% at 14 kV charging voltage. Electro-acoustic efficiency is found to be 11% instead of 5.5% for a conventional discharge circuit. PMID:8945854
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a study of renal stone differences.
Powers, C J; Tinterow, M M; Burpee, J F
1989-01-01
The extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor (ESWL or lithotriptor) is a new, revolutionary, noninvasive method of treating renal calculi. It offers a safer, cheaper and more effective method of treatment compared to the traditional open surgery. Its history dates back only to 1980--and to 1985 at HCA Wesley Medical Center in Wichita, where research is just beginning. Initial research focused on ESWL versus traditional open surgery, but more recent research is investigating elements within the ESWL treatment. This article presents an investigation of renal stone size in relation to number of ESWL treatments needed per stone, number of shock waves per treatment, length of hospital stay post-lithotripsy, and hospital costs per length of stay during HCA Wesley's first year of operation. The subjects in this study consisted of approximately every third patient who received an ESWL treatment and were grouped according to stone sizes of less than 2 cm and those greater than 2 cm. A questionnaire was used, and after data were collected from the patient's charts and billing, a t-test for independent samples was used for analysis. PMID:2709649
Assessment of thermodynamic parameters of plasma shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasileva, O. V.; Isaev, Yu N.; Budko, A. A.; Filkov, A. I.
2014-11-01
The work is devoted to the solution of the one-dimensional equation of hydraulic gas dynamics for the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator by means of Lax-Wendroff modified algorithm with optimum choice of the regularization parameter artificial viscosity. Replacement of the differential equations containing private derivatives is made by finite difference method. Optimum parameter of regularization artificial viscosity is added using the exact known decision of Soda problem. The developed algorithm of thermodynamic parameter calculation in a braking point is proved. Thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave in front of the plasma piston of the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator are calculated on the basis of the offered algorithm. Unstable high-frequency fluctuations are smoothed using modeling and that allows narrowing the ambiguity area. Results of calculation of gas dynamic parameters in a point of braking coincide with literary data. The chart 3 shows the dynamics of change of speed and thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave such as pressure, density and temperature just before the plasma piston.
Nonplanar Positron-Acoustic Shock Waves in Astrophysical Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, M. G.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-04-01
The problem of nonlinear positron-acoustic shock waves (PASWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless, dense plasma system (containing non-relativistic cold positrons, both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons, and hot positron fluids and positively charged static ions) is addressed. The combined effects of the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electron and hot positron fluids are organized in the study of the PASWs. By using the reductive perturbation method, modified Burgers equation is derived and numerically analyzed. For the non-relativistic limits in like manner for the ultra-relativistic limits, it is seen that the shock wave characteristics are modified significantly. The effects of kinematic viscosity, degenerate pressure, nonplanar geometries, and plasma particle number densities on the properties of PASWs are numerically analyzed. As time goes, PASWs propagating in cylindrical and spherical geometry are deformed. The fundamental features and the underlying physics of PASWs, which are concerned to some astrophysical compact objects (viz. neutron stars, white dwarfs, etc.), are concisely mentioned.
Unsteady shock wave diagnostics with high-speed imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skews, B. W.; Kleine, H.; MacLucas, D.; Takehara, K.; Teranishi, H.; Etoh, T. G.
2008-11-01
The visual study of unsteady shock wave dynamics has in the past predominantly been done using single-shot images. The advent of ultra-fast, good-resolution high-speed digital cameras has changed this state of affairs and allows the true development of the flow to be studied. It enables the detection of weaker features which are easily overlooked in singleshot visualizations by virtue of the fact that human vision is very sensitive to detecting the motion of an object, even if it generates only a faint optical signal. Recent application of these devices to the study of the focusing of a shock wave in a cylindrical cavity has identified a number of previously unknown features, while other features that previously had been inadequately reported could be clearly identified and explained The observation of deliberately generated weak disturbances allows the quantification of which part of the flow is influenced by which part of the boundaries encompassing it. Whilst the imaging itself is very useful it is also highly desirable to use techniques from which quantitative data can be obtained. Color, such as in direction- and magnitude-indicating color schlieren, and polychrome shearing interferometry, adds an additional dimension to such investigations.
Spiral Density Wave Shock-induced Star Formation at High Galactic Latitudes.
Martos; Allen; Franco; Kurtz
1999-12-01
We have modeled the gas response to a spiral density wave (SDW) in a thick, magnetized galactic disk. The inclusion in the model of the vertically extended galactic warm ionized gas layer alters the conventional view of the SDW scenario for star formation: whereas marked density enhancements still occur in the midplane, the shock and a prominent high column density structure extend to high z (the height above the galactic midplane) above the arm. We argue that if the SDW mechanism indeed triggers molecular cloud and star formation, it should do so not only at the midplane but also at distances well above the star-forming thin disk of the conventional picture. The resulting structure resembles a hydraulic jump, or bore, in which gas entering the spiral arm rises suddenly on the upstream side of the arm, then accelerates and angles downward, finally landing on a large downfall region downstream of the arm. PMID:10550285
Wave and ion evolution downstream of quasi-perpendicular bow shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckean, M. E.; Omidi, N.; Krauss-Varban, D.
1995-01-01
Distribution functions of ions heated in quasi-perpendicular bow shocks have a large perpendicular temperature anisotropy that provides free energy for the growth of Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) waves and mirror waves. Both types of waves have been observed in the Earth's magnetosheath downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. We use a two-dimensional hybrid simulations to give a self-consistent description of the evolution of the wave spectra downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Both mirror and AIC waves are identified in the simulated magnetosheath. They are generated at or near the shock front and convected away from it by the sheath plasma. Near the shock, the waves have a broad spectrum, but downstream of the shock, shorter-wavelength modes are heavily damped and only longer-wavelength modes persist. The characteristics of these surviving modes can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by linear kinetic theory appropriate for downstream conditions. We also follow the evolution of the ion distribution function. The shocked ions that provide the free energy for wave growth have a two-component distribution function. The halo is initially gyrophase-bunched and extremely anisotropic. Within a relatively short distance downstream of the shock (of the order of 10 ion inertial lengths), wave-particle interactions remove these features from the halo and reduce the anisotropy of the distribution to near-threshold levels for the mirror and AIC instabilities. A similar evolution has been observed for ions at the Earth's bow shock.
Theory of steady-state plane tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves
Kyuregyan, A. S.
2013-07-15
The effect of band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling on the properties of steady-state plane ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} structures is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that such tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves do not differ in a qualitative sense from ordinary impact ionization waves propagating due to the avalanche multiplication of uniformly distributed seed electrons and holes. The quantitative differences of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves from impact ionization waves are reduced to a slightly different relation between the wave velocity u and the maximum field strength E{sub M} at the front. It is shown that disregarding impact ionization does not exclude the possibility of the existence of tunneling-assisted ionization waves; however, their structure radically changes, and their velocity strongly decreases for the same E{sub M}. A comparison of the dependences u(E{sub M}) for various ionization-wave types makes it possible to determine the conditions under which one of them is dominant. In conclusion, unresolved problems concerning the theory of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves are discussed and the directions of further studies are outlined.
Two-fluid modeling of magnetosonic wave propagation in the partially ionized solar chromosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maneva, Yana; Alvarez Laguna, Alejandro; Lani, Andrea; Poedts, Stefaan
2016-04-01
We perform 2D two-fluid simulations to study the effects of ion-neutral interactions on the propagation of magnetosonic waves in the partially ionized solar chromosphere, where the number density of neutrals significantly exceeds the number density of protons at low heights. Thus modeling the neutral-ion interactions and studying the effect of neutrals on the ambient plasma properties becomes important for better understanding the observed emission lines and the propagation of disturbances from the photosphere to the transition region and the corona. The role of charged particles (electrons and ions) is combined within resistive MHD approach with Coulomb collisions and anisotropic heat flux determined by Braginskii's transport coefficients. The electromagnetic fields are evolved according to the full Maxwell equations, allowing for propagation of higher frequency waves neglected by the standard MHD approximation. Separate mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are considered for the neutrals and the interaction between the different fluids is determined by the chemical reactions, such as impact ionization, radiative recombination and charge exchange, provided as additional source terms. To initialize the system we consider an ideal gas equation of state with equal initial temperatures for the electrons, ions and the neutrals and different density profiles. The initial temperature and density profiles are height-dependent and follow VAL C atmospheric model for the solar chromosphere. We have searched for a chemical and collisional equilibrium between the ions and the neutrals to minimize any unphysical outflows and artificial heating induced by initial pressure imbalances. Including different magnetic field profiles brings new source of plasma heating through Ohmic dissipation. The excitation and propagation of the magnetosonic waves depends on the type of the external velocity driver. As the waves propagate through the gravitationally stratified media
de Icaza-Herrera, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M
2015-04-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a common non-invasive treatment for urinary stones whose fragmentation is achieved mainly by acoustic cavitation and mechanical stress. A few years ago, in vitro and in vivo experimentation demonstrated that such fragmentation can be improved, without increasing tissue damage, by sending a second shock wave hundreds of microseconds after the previous wave. Later, numerical simulations revealed that if the second pulse had a longer full width at half maximum than a standard shock wave, cavitation could be enhanced significantly. On the other side, a theoretical study showed that stress inside the stone can be increased if two lithotripter shock waves hit the stone with a delay of only 20 μs. We used the Gilmore-Akulichev formulation to show that, in principle, both effects can be combined, that is, stress and cavitation could be increased using a pressure pulse with long full width at half maximum, which reaches the stone within hundreds of microseconds after two 20 μs-delayed initial shock waves. Implementing the suggested pressure profile into clinical devices could be feasible, especially with piezoelectric shock wave sources. PMID:25553714
Oscillations of a standing shock wave generated by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikaelian, Karnig O.
2016-07-01
In a typical Richtmyer-Meshkov experiment a fast moving flat shock strikes a stationary perturbed interface between fluids A and B creating a transmitted and a reflected shock, both of which are perturbed. We propose shock tube experiments in which the reflected shock is stationary in the laboratory. Such a standing perturbed shock undergoes well-known damped oscillations. We present the conditions required for producing such a standing shock wave, which greatly facilitates the measurement of the oscillations and their rate of damping. We define a critical density ratio Rcritical, in terms of the adiabatic indices of the two fluids, and a critical Mach number Mscritical of the incident shock wave, which produces a standing reflected wave. If the initial density ratio R of the two fluids is less than Rcritical then a standing shock wave is possible at Ms=Mscritical . Otherwise a standing shock is not possible and the reflected wave always moves in the direction opposite the incident shock. Examples are given for present-day operating shock tubes with sinusoidal or inclined interfaces. We consider the effect of viscosity, which affects the damping rate of the oscillations. We point out that nonlinear bubble and spike amplitudes depend relatively weakly on the viscosity of the fluids and that the interface area is a better diagnostic.
Oscillations of a standing shock wave generated by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
Mikaelian, Karnig O.
2016-07-13
In a typical Richtmyer-Meshkov experiment a fast moving flat shock strikes a stationary perturbed interface between fluids A and B creating a transmitted and a reflected shock, both of which are perturbed. We propose shock tube experiments in which the reflected shock is stationary in the laboratory. Such a standing perturbed shock undergoes well-known damped oscillations. We present the conditions required for producing such a standing shock wave, which greatly facilitates the measurement of the oscillations and their rate of damping. We define a critical density ratio Rcritical, in terms of the adiabatic indices of the two fluids, and amore » critical Mach number Mcriticals of the incident shock wave, which produces a standing reflected wave. If the initial density ratio R of the two fluids is less than Rcritical then a standing shock wave is possible at Ms=Mcriticals. Otherwise a standing shock is not possible and the reflected wave always moves in the direction opposite the incident shock. Examples are given for present-day operating shock tubes with sinusoidal or inclined interfaces. We consider the effect of viscosity, which affects the damping rate of the oscillations. Furthermore, we point out that nonlinear bubble and spike amplitudes depend relatively weakly on the viscosity of the fluids and that the interface area is a better diagnostic.« less
Lengyel-Frey, D. |; Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.J.; Stone, R.G.; Phillips, J.L. |
1997-02-01
We present the first quantitative investigation of interplanetary type II radio emission in which in situ waves measured at interplanetary shocks are used to compute radio wave intensities for comparison with type II observations. This study is based on in situ measurements of 42 in-ecliptic forward shocks as well as 10 intervals of type II emission observed by the Ulysses spacecraft between 1 AU and 5 AU. The analysis involves comparisons of statistical properties of type II bursts and in situ waves. Most of the 42 shocks are associated with the occurrence of electrostatic waves near the time of shock passage at Ulysses. These waves, which are identified as electron plasma waves and ion acoustic-like waves, are typically most intense several minutes before shock passage. This suggests that wave-wave interactions might be of importance in electromagnetic wave generation and that type II source regions are located immediately upstream of the shocks. We use the in situ wave measurements to compute type II brightness temperatures, assuming that emission at the fundamental of the electron plasma frequency is generated by the merging of electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves or the decay of electron plasma waves into ion acoustic and transverse waves. Second harmonic emission is assumed to be produced by the merging of electron plasma waves. The latter mechanism requires that a portion of the electron plasma wave distribution is backscattered, presumably by density inhomogeneities in regions of observed ion acoustic wave activity. The computed type II brightness temperatures are found to be consistent with observed values for both fundamental and second harmonic emission, assuming that strong ({approx_equal}10{sup {minus}4}V/m) electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves are coincident and that the electron plasma waves have phase velocities less than about 10 times the electron thermal velocity. (Abstract Truncated)
On one-dimensional planar and nonplanar shock waves in a relaxing gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, V. D.; Radha, Ch.
1994-06-01
The paper examines the evolutionary behavior of shock waves of arbitrary strength propagating through a relaxing gas in a duct with spatially varying cross section. An infinite system of transport equations, governing the strength of a shock wave and the induced discontinuities behind it, are derived in order to study the kinematics of the shock front. The infinite system of transport equations, when subjected to a truncation approximation, provides an efficient system of only finite number of ordinary differential equations describing the shock propagation problem. The analysis, which accounts for the dynamical coupling between the shock fronts and the flow behind them, describes correctly the nonlinear steepening effects of the flow behind the shocks. Effects of relaxation on the evolutionary behavior of shocks are discussed. The first-order truncation approximation accurately describes the decay behavior of weak shocks; the usual decay laws for weak shocks in a nonrelaxing gas are exactly recovered. The results concerning shocks of arbitrary strength are compared with the characteristic rule. In the limit of vanishing shock strength, the transport equation for the first-order induced discontinuity leads to an exact description of an acceleration wave. In the strong shock limit, the second-order truncation criterion leads to a propagation law for imploding shocks which is in agreement (within 5% error) with the Guderley's exact similarity solution.
Measurement of ionization in shock-compressed deuterium using x-ray Thomson scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, P.; Doeppner, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Unites, W.; Desjarlais, M.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.
2010-11-01
There is currently significant interest in the behavior of dense hydrogen under shock conditions, with applications ranging from planetary science to inertial confinement fusion. Here, we present the first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on warm, dense deuterium in the collective regime. The experiment, performed on LLNL's Janus laser, used one 2 ns beam to drive a shock at a nominal pressure of 0.5 MBar into a deuterium target held at liquid conditions (19 K). A second 2 ns pulse pumped the Si Ly-α x-ray probe at 2 keV. Scattered x-rays were collected at 45 degrees in the forward direction and spectrally dispersed with a HOPG crystal spectrometer. A plasmon was detected, providing a direct measure of electron density. Simultaneous velocity interferometry was performed to determine pressure, allowing ionization state to be inferred. These results are compared to ab initio and hydrodynamic simulations.
Energy-Dependent Ionization States of Shock-Accelerated Particles in the Solar Corona
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reames, Donald V.; Ng, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.
2000-01-01
We examine the range of possible energy dependence of the ionization states of ions that are shock-accelerated from the ambient plasma of the solar corona. If acceleration begins in a region of moderate density, sufficiently low in the corona, ions above about 0.1 MeV/amu approach an equilibrium charge state that depends primarily upon their speed and only weakly on the plasma temperature. We suggest that the large variations of the charge states with energy for ions such as Si and Fe observed in the 1997 November 6 event are consistent with stripping in moderately dense coronal. plasma during shock acceleration. In the large solar-particle events studied previously, acceleration occurs sufficiently high in the corona that even Fe ions up to 600 MeV/amu are not stripped of electrons.
Hugoniot and mean ionization of laser-shocked Ge-doped plastic
Huser, G.; Salin, G.; Galmiche, D.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Sano, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Miyanishi, K.; Asaumi, Y.; Kita, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakatsuka, K.; Uranishi, H.; Yang, T.; Yokoyama, N.
2013-12-15
Pressure, density, temperature, and reflectivity measurements along the principal Hugoniot of Ge-doped plastics used in Inertial Confinement Fusion capsules surrogates were obtained to pressures reaching up to 7 Mbar and compared to Quotidian Equation of State models. The experiment was performed using the GEKKO XII laser at the Institute of Laser Engineering at Osaka University in Japan. High precision measurements of pressure and density were obtained using a quartz standard and found to be in good agreement with theoretical Hugoniot curves. Modeling of reflectivity measurements show that shocked samples can be described as poor metals and that mean ionization calculated within the frame of QEOS is overestimated. Similarly, shock temperatures were found to be below theoretical Hugoniot curves.
The propagation and growth of whistler mode waves generated by electron beams in earth's bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tokar, R. L.; Gurnett, D. A.
1985-01-01
In this study, the propagation and growth of whistler mode waves generated by electron beams within earth's bow shock is investigated using a planar model for the bow shock and a model electron distribution function. Within the shock, the model electron distribution function possesses a field-aligned T greater than T beam that is directed toward the magnetosheath. Waves with frequencies between about 1 and 100 Hz with a wide range of wave normal angles are generated by the beam via Landau and anomalous cyclotron resonances. However, because the growth rate is small and because the wave packets traverse the shock quickly, these waves do not attain large amplitudes. Waves with frequencies between about 30 and 150 Hz with a wide range of wave normal angles are generated by the beam via the normal cyclotron resonance. The ray paths for most of these waves are directed toward the solar wind although some wave packets, due to plasma convection travel transverse to the shock normal. These wave packets grow to large amplitudes because they spend a long time in the growth region. The results suggest that whistler mode noise within the shock should increase in amplitude with increasing upstream theta sub Bn. The study provides an explanation for the origin of much of the whistler mode turbulence observed at the bow shock.
A study of mirror waves generated downstream of a quasi-perpendicular shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, L. C.; Price, C. P.; Wu, C. S.; Mandt, M. E.
1988-01-01
A large ion temperature anisotropy, which may lead to the generation of mirror waves, is found to exist downstream of a quasi-perpendicular shock simulated by a one-dimensional hybrid code. In the case of the earth's bow shock, large-amplitude mirror waves are found to develop approximately 0.5-1 earth radii downstream of the shock ramp. It is found that the instability criterion for mirror waves in the downstream region is satisfied for shocks with a large Alfven Mach number.
Particle response to shock waves in solids: dynamic witness plate/PIV method for detonations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Michael J.; Adrian, Ronald J.
2007-08-01
Studies using transparent, polymeric witness plates consisting of polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) have been conducted to measure the output of exploding bridge wire (EBW) detonators and exploding foil initiators (EFI). Polymeric witness plates are utilized to alleviate particle response issues that arise in gaseous flow fields containing shock waves and to allow measurements of shock-induced material velocities to be made using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Quantitative comparisons of velocity profiles across the shock waves in air and in PDMS demonstrate the improved response achieved by the dynamic witness plate method. Schlieren photographs complement the analysis through direct visualization of detonator-induced shock waves in the witness plates.
Microscopic structure of the Mach-type reflection of weak shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walenta, Z. A.
The purpose of the present work was to investigate the microscopic structure of the three-shock inter-action region generated in a low-density shock tube during the Mach-type reflection of a weak shock wave. The experimental conditions corresponded to the case when Von Neumann's theory fails to predict the existence of reflection while Guderley's theory predicts the presence of a rarefaction wave behind the reflected shock. The experiment shows that under such conditions the Mach-type reflection does exist, and no rarefaction wave is present. A possible reason for this disagreement is the influence of viscosity, neglected in Von Neumann's and Guderley's theories.
Experimental investigation of shock wave propagation in a 90 $(°) $ ∘ branched duct
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biamino, L.; Jourdan, G.; Igra, O.; Mariani, C.; Tosello, R.; Leriche, D.; Houas, L.
2014-05-01
An experimental investigation was conducted examining the option of using branched duct geometry for shock wave attenuation. Experiments were done in an 80 mm 80 mm square section shock tube to which a 20-mm diameter pipe was added vertically. Pressures were recorded along the shock tube wall (static pressure) and at the branched pipe end wall (stagnation pressure). Experiments were repeated with a constant incident shock wave Mach number () and with different pipe lengths. It was found that the length of the branched pipe has a significant effect on the flow inside the branched pipe and that in the present experimental configuration, the stagnation pressure recorded at the branched pipe end wall surpasses the pressure in the main channel behind the original incident shock wave. Finally, simulations were carried out using a commercial program, Star-CCM+, to complete the description of the flow studied here. The computed pressure profiles and shock wave locations agree quite well with the present experimental data.
ul Haq, Muhammad Noaman; Saeed, R.; Shah, Asif
2010-08-15
The propagation of ion acoustic shock waves in cylindrical and spherical geometries has been investigated. The plasma system consists of cold ions, Boltzmannian electrons and positrons. Spherical, cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equations have been derived by reductive perturbation technique and their shock behavior is studied by employing finite difference method. Our main emphasis is on the behavior of shock as it moves toward and away from center of spherical and cylindrical geometries. It is noticed, that the shock wave strength and steepness accrues with time as it moves toward the center and shock enervates as it moves away from center. The strength of shock in spherical geometry is found to dominate over shock strength in cylindrical geometry. Positron concentration, kinematic viscosity are also found to have significant effect on the shock structure and propagation. The results may have relevance in the inertial confinement fusion plasmas.
Spatial ionization effects of a shock layer in the RAM-C-II flight experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surzhikov, S. T.
2015-02-01
A three-dimensional computer model of the nonequilibrium ionization aerophysics of descent moduli entering dense atmospheric layers with orbital velocity in the height range of 60-90 km is developed. A three-dimensional numerical analysis of the experimental data on the ionization of the shock layer near the surface of a hypersonic flying module having the form of a blunt-sphere cone with the flight velocity higher than 7.5 km/s at heights of 61-81 km is fulfilled. The data of the flight experiment are obtained in the framework of the RAM-C-II investigatory program. The use of a three-dimensional computer model made it possible to find the calculated data in good agreement with the flight experiment data, as well as to explain some spatial effects not considered before.
Detection of singly ionized energetic lunar pick-up ions upstream of earth's bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilchenbach, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Moebius, E.
1992-01-01
Singly ionized suprathermal ions upstream of the earth's bow shock have been detected by using the time-of-flight spectrometer SULEICA on the AMPTE/IRM satellite. The data were collected between August and December 1985. The flux of the ions in the mass range between 23 and 37 amu is highly anisotropic towards the earth. The ions are observed with a period of about 29 days around new moon (+/- 3 days). The correlation of the energy of the ions with the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field orientation indicates the relation to the pick-up process. We conclude that the source of these pick-up ions is the moon. We argue that due to the impinging solar wind, atoms are sputtered off the lunar surface, ionized in the sputtering process or by ensuing photoionization and picked up by the solar wind.
Lukes, Petr; Zeman, Jan; Horak, Vratislav; Hoffer, Petr; Pouckova, Pavla; Holubova, Monika; Hosseini, S Hamid R; Akiyama, Hidenori; Sunka, Pavel; Benes, Jiri
2015-06-01
Shock waves can cause significant cytotoxic effects in tumor cells and tissues both in vitro and in vivo. However, understanding the mechanisms of shock wave interaction with tissues is limited. We have studied in vivo effects of focused shock waves induced in the syngeneic sarcoma tumor model using the TUNEL assay, immunohistochemical detection of caspase-3 and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Shock waves were produced by a multichannel pulsed-electrohydraulic discharge generator with a cylindrical ceramic-coated electrode. In tumors treated with shock waves, a large area of damaged tissue was detected which was clearly differentiated from intact tissue. Localization and a cone-shaped region of tissue damage visualized by TUNEL reaction apparently correlated with the conical shape and direction of shock wave propagation determined by high-speed shadowgraphy. A strong TUNEL reaction of nuclei and nucleus fragments in tissue exposed to shock waves suggested apoptosis in this destroyed tumor area. However, specificity of the TUNEL technique to apoptotic cells is ambiguous and other apoptotic markers (caspase-3) that we used in our study did not confirmed this observation. Thus, the generated fragments of nuclei gave rise to a false TUNEL reaction not associated with apoptosis. Mechanical stress from high overpressure shock wave was likely the dominant pathway of tumor damage. PMID:25200989
Revisiting geometrical shock dynamics for blast wave propagation in complex environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridoux, J.; Lardjane, N.; Gomez, T.; Coulouvrat, F.
2015-10-01
A new fast-running model for blast wave propagation in air is described. This model is an extension of Whitham's Geometrical Shock Dynamics with specific closure to non sustained shock waves. The numerical procedure relies on a Cartesian fast-marching like algorithm with immersed boundary method for complex boundaries. Comparison to academic results underline the capacity of this model.
Structural changes in a heterogeneous solid (granite) under shock wave action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vettegren, V. I.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Kulik, V. B.
2016-04-01
The structure of two granite types (plagiogranite and alaskite) before and after shock wave action has been studied by infrared, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopy methods. It has been found that the shock wave caused transformation of quartz and feldspar crystals composing these granites into diaplectic glasses.
Stability of shock waves for multi-dimensional hyperbolic-parabolic conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dening
1988-01-01
The uniform linear stability of shock waves is considerd for quasilinear hyperbolic-parabolic coupled conservation laws in multi-dimensional space. As an example, the stability condition and its dynamic meaning for isothermal shock wave in radiative hydrodynamics are analyzed.
Propagation of Impact-Induced Shock Waves in Heterogenous Rocks Using Mesoscale Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güldemeister, N.; Durr, N.; Wünnemann, K.; Elbeshausen, D.; Hiermaier, S.
2011-03-01
In the framework of the “MEMIN” project, the effect of porosity in dry and water-saturated sandstone on shock wave loading is investigated. We conducted a series of numerical experiments of shock wave propagation in porous material using macro- as well as mesoscale models.
Similarity flow in interaction of a shock wave with an inclined heated channel
Artemiev, V.I.; Medvedyuk, S.A.; Rybakov, V.A.
1993-11-01
A study is made of gasdynamic flow that initiates when a shock wave propagates along a thin heated channel. Analytical conditions of the onset of an unsteady flow precursor are obtained. The flow similarity is proved experimentally; precursor characteristics vs shock wave and heated channel parameters are analyzed.
Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media
Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T
2009-12-11
This study presents discrete and continuum simulations of shock wave propagating through jointed media. The simulations were performed using the Lagrangian hydrocode GEODYN-L with joints treated explicitly using an advanced contact algorithm. They studied both isotropic and anisotropic joint representations. For an isotropically jointed geologic medium, the results show that the properties of the joints can be combined with the properties of the intact rock to develop an equivalent continuum model suitable for analyzing wave propagation through the jointed medium. For an anisotropically jointed geologic medium, they found it difficult to develop an equivalent continuum (EC) model that matches the response derived from mesoscopic simulation. They also performed simulations of wave propagation through jointed media. Two appraoches are suggested for modeling the rock mass. In one approach, jointed are modeled explicitly in a Lagrangian framework with appropriate contact algorithms used to track motion along the interfaces. In the other approach, the effect of joints is taken into account using a constitutive model derived from mesoscopic simulations.
Shock wave propagation along constant sloped ocean bottoms.
Maestas, Joseph T; Taylor, Larissa F; Collis, Jon M
2014-12-01
The nonlinear progressive wave equation (NPE) is a time-domain model used to calculate long-range shock propagation using a wave-following computational domain. Current models are capable of treating smoothly spatially varying medium properties, and fluid-fluid interfaces that align horizontally with a computational grid that can be handled by enforcing appropriate interface conditions. However, sloping interfaces that do not align with a horizontal grid present a computational challenge as application of interface conditions to vertical contacts is non-trivial. In this work, range-dependent environments, characterized by sloping bathymetry, are treated using a rotated coordinate system approach where the irregular interface is aligned with the coordinate axes. The coordinate rotation does not change the governing equation due to the narrow-angle assumption adopted in its derivation, but care is taken with applying initial, interface, and boundary conditions. Additionally, sound pressure level influences on nonlinear steepening for range-independent and range-dependent domains are used to quantify the pressures for which linear acoustic models suffice. A study is also performed to investigate the effects of thin sediment layers on the propagation of blast waves generated by explosives buried beneath mud line. PMID:25480048