Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
A numerical scheme for ionizing shock waves
Aslan, Necdet . E-mail: naslan@yeditepe.edu.tr; Mond, Michael
2005-12-10
A two-dimensional (2D) visual computer code to solve the steady state (SS) or transient shock problems including partially ionizing plasma is presented. Since the flows considered are hypersonic and the resulting temperatures are high, the plasma is partially ionized. Hence the plasma constituents are electrons, ions and neutral atoms. It is assumed that all the above species are in thermal equilibrium, namely, that they all have the same temperature. The ionization degree is calculated from Saha equation as a function of electron density and pressure by means of a nonlinear Newton type root finding algorithms. The code utilizes a wave model and numerical fluctuation distribution (FD) scheme that runs on structured or unstructured triangular meshes. This scheme is based on evaluating the mesh averaged fluctuations arising from a number of waves and distributing them to the nodes of these meshes in an upwind manner. The physical properties (directions, strengths, etc.) of these wave patterns are obtained by a new wave model: ION-A developed from the eigen-system of the flux Jacobian matrices. Since the equation of state (EOS) which is used to close up the conservation laws includes electronic effects, it is a nonlinear function and it must be inverted by iterations to determine the ionization degree as a function of density and temperature. For the time advancement, the scheme utilizes a multi-stage Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm with time steps carefully evaluated from the maximum possible propagation speed in the solution domain. The code runs interactively with the user and allows to create different meshes to use different initial and boundary conditions and to see changes of desired physical quantities in the form of color and vector graphics. The details of the visual properties of the code has been published before (see [N. Aslan, A visual fluctuation splitting scheme for magneto-hydrodynamics with a new sonic fix and Euler limit, J. Comput. Phys. 197 (2004) 1
Shock wave structure for a fully ionized plasma
Masser, Thomas O; Wohibier, John G; Lowrie, Robert B
2009-01-01
We study the structure of planar shock waves in a two-temperature model of a fully ionized plasma that includes electron heat conduction and energy exchange between electrons and ions. For steady flow in a reference frame moving with the shock, the model reduces to an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations which can be numerically integrated. A phase space analysis of the ODEs provides additional insight into the structure of the solutions. For example, below a threshold mach number the model produces fully dispersed shocks; while above another threshold mach number, the solutions contain embedded hydrodynamic shocks. Between these two threshold values, the appearance of embedded shocks depends on the electron diffusivity and the electron-ion coupling term. We also find that the ion temperature may continue to increase after the shock and reaches a maximum near the isothermal sonic point. We summarize the methodology for solving for two-temperature shocks, and show results for several values of shock strength and material parameters to quantify the shock structure and explore the range of possible solutions. Such solutions may be used to verify hydrodynamic codes that use similar plasma physics models.
Revisiting the thermal effect on shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas
Zhou, Qianhong Dong, Zhiwei; Yang, Wei
2016-07-15
Many researchers have investigated shock propagation in weakly ionized plasmas and observed the following anomalous effects: shock acceleration, shock recovery, shock weakening, shock spreading, and splitting. It was generally accepted that the thermal effect can explain most of the experimental results. However, little attention was paid to the shock recovery. In this paper, the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas is studied by fluid simulation. It is found that the shock acceleration, weakening, and splitting appear after it enters the plasma (thermal) region. The shock splits into two parts right after it leaves the thermal region. The distance between the splitted shocks keeps decreasing until they recover to one. This paper can explain a whole set of features of the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas. It is also found that both the shock curvature and the splitting present the same photoacoustic deflection (PAD) signals, so they cannot be distinguished by the PAD experiments.
Prediction of Shock Wave Structure in Weakly Ionized Gas Flow by Solving MGD Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deng, Z. T.; Oviedo-Rojas, Ruben; Chow, Alan; Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper reports the recent research results of shockwave structure predictions using a new developed code. The modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations across a standing normal shock wave are discussed and adopted to obtain jump conditions. Coupling a electrostatic body force to the Burnett equations, the weakly ionized flow field across the shock wave was solved. Results indicated that the Modified Rankine-Hugoniot equations for shock wave are valid for a wide range of ionization fraction. However, this model breaks down with small free stream Mach number and with large ionization fraction. The jump conditions also depend on the value of free stream pressure, temperature and density. The computed shock wave structure with ionization provides results, which indicated that shock wave strength may be reduced by existence of weakly ionized gas.
Shock-wave structure in a partially ionized gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, C. S.; Huang, A. B.
1974-01-01
The structure of a steady plane shock in a partially ionized gas has been investigated using the Boltzmann equation with a kinetic model as the governing equation and the discrete ordinate method as a tool. The effects of the electric field induced by the charge separation on the shock structure have also been studied. Although the three species of an ionized gas travel with approximately the same macroscopic velocity, the individual distribution functions are found to be very different. In a strong shock the atom distribution function may have double peaks, while the ion distribution function has only one peak. Electrons are heated up much earlier than ions and atoms in a partially ionized gas. Because the interactions of electrons with atoms and with ions are different, the ion temperature can be different from the atom temperature.
Optimal use of double pin ionization gauges for shock wave detection.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcclenahan, J. O.
1973-01-01
A study was conducted to investigate the response of the gauges to ionization in the gas and to discover, if possible, how the circuitry could be modified to make the system operable over a wider range of operating conditions. Shock wave velocities in the range from 3.5 to 27 km/sec were used in the studies. The electronic circuit developed is capable of producing a trigger pulse at a given voltage level across the gauge pins.
Measurements of the structure of an ionizing shock wave in a hydrogen-helium mixture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leibowitz, L. P.
1972-01-01
Shock structure during ionization of a hydrogen-helium mixture was studied using hydrogen line and continuum emission measurements. A reaction scheme is proposed which includes hydrogen dissociation and a two-step excitation-ionization mechanism for hydrogen ionization by atom-atom and atom-electron collisions. Agreement was achieved between numerical calculations and measurements of emission intensity as a function of time for shock velocities from 13 to 20 km/sec in a 0.208 H2 - 0.792 He mixture. The electron temperature was found to be significantly different from the heavy particle temperature during much of the ionization process. Similar time histories for H beta and continuum emission indicate upper level populations of hydrogen in equilibrium with the electron concentration during the relaxation process.
Measurements of the structure of an ionizing shock wave in a hydrogen-helium mixture.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leibowitz, L. P.
1973-01-01
Shock structure during ionization of a hydrogen-helium mixture has been followed using hydrogen line and continuum emission measurements. A reaction scheme is proposed which includes hydrogen dissociation and a two-step excitation-ionization mechanism for hydrogen ionization by atom-atom and atom-electron collisions. Agreement has been achieved between numerical calculations and measurements of emission intensity as a function of time for shock velocities from 13 to 20 km/sec in a 0.208 H2-0.792 He mixture. The electron temperature was found to be significantly different from the heavy particle temperature during much of the ionization process. Similar time histories for H beta and continuum emission indicate upper level populations of hydrogen in equilibrium with the electron concentration during the relaxation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.
2016-11-01
Strongly non-equilibrium flows of reacting five-component ionized mixtures of nitrogen (N2/N2+/N /N+/e-) and oxygen (O2/O2+/O /O+/e-) behind the plane shock wave are studied taking into account electronic degrees of freedom of both neutral and ionized species. The kinetic scheme includes non-equilibrium reactions of ionization, dissociation, recombination and charge-transfer. Two test cases corresponding to the spacecraft re-entry (Hermes and Fire II experiments) are considered; fluid-dynamic variables, transport coefficients and heat flux are calculated, and different contribution to the heat flux are analyzed. The effect of electronic excitation on the heat transfer is governed by the competition of diffusion and heat conduction; it becomes weak if diffusive processes prevail. An important role of thermal diffusion in ionized flows is emphasized. The influence of dissociation rates on the heat flux is assessed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joussot, Romain; Lago, Viviana; Parisse, Jean-Denis
2014-12-01
This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations focused on the shock wave modification, induced by a dc glow discharge, of a Mach 2 flow under rarefied regime. The model under investigation is a flat plate equipped with a plasma actuator composed of two electrodes. The glow discharge is generated by applying a negative potential to the upstream electrode, enabling the creation of a weakly ionized plasma. The natural flow (i.e. without the plasma) exhibits a thick laminar boundary layer and a shock wave with a hyperbolic shape. Images of the flow obtained with an ICCD camera revealed that the plasma discharge induces an increase in the shock wave angle. Thermal effects (volumetric, and at the surface) and plasma effects (ionization, and thermal non-equilibrium) are the most relevant processes explaining the observed modifications. The effect induced by the heating of the flat plate surface is studied experimentally by replacing the upstream electrode by a heating element, and numerically by modifying the thermal boundary condition of the model surface. The results show that for a similar temperature distribution over the plate surface, modifications induced by the heating element are lower than those produced by the plasma. This difference shows that other effects than purely thermal effects are involved with the plasma actuator. Measurements of the electron density with a Langmuir probe highlight the fact that the ionization degree plays an important role into the modification of the flow. The gas properties, especially the isentropic exponent, are indeed modified by the plasma above the actuator and upstream the flat plate. This leads to a local modification of the flow conditions, inducing an increase in the shock wave angle.
Joussot, Romain; Lago, Viviana; Parisse, Jean-Denis
2014-12-09
This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations focused on the shock wave modification, induced by a dc glow discharge, of a Mach 2 flow under rarefied regime. The model under investigation is a flat plate equipped with a plasma actuator composed of two electrodes. The glow discharge is generated by applying a negative potential to the upstream electrode, enabling the creation of a weakly ionized plasma. The natural flow (i.e. without the plasma) exhibits a thick laminar boundary layer and a shock wave with a hyperbolic shape. Images of the flow obtained with an ICCD camera revealed that the plasma discharge induces an increase in the shock wave angle. Thermal effects (volumetric, and at the surface) and plasma effects (ionization, and thermal non-equilibrium) are the most relevant processes explaining the observed modifications. The effect induced by the heating of the flat plate surface is studied experimentally by replacing the upstream electrode by a heating element, and numerically by modifying the thermal boundary condition of the model surface. The results show that for a similar temperature distribution over the plate surface, modifications induced by the heating element are lower than those produced by the plasma. This difference shows that other effects than purely thermal effects are involved with the plasma actuator. Measurements of the electron density with a Langmuir probe highlight the fact that the ionization degree plays an important role into the modification of the flow. The gas properties, especially the isentropic exponent, are indeed modified by the plasma above the actuator and upstream the flat plate. This leads to a local modification of the flow conditions, inducing an increase in the shock wave angle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhongyu; Chen, Di; Wang, Jing; Shao, Lin
2014-04-01
Strong electronic stopping power of swift ions in a semiconducting or insulating substrate can lead to localized electron stripping. The subsequent repulsive interactions among charged target atoms can cause Coulomb explosion. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we simulate Coulomb explosion in silicon by introducing an ionization pulse lasting for different periods, and at different substrate temperatures. We find that the longer the pulse period, the larger the melting radius. The observation can be explained by a critical energy density model assuming that melting required thermal energy density is a constant value and the total thermal energy gained from Coulomb explosion is linearly proportional to the ionization period. Our studies also show that melting radius is larger at higher substrate temperatures. The temperature effect is explained due to a longer structural relaxation above the melting temperature at original ionization boundary due to lower heat dissipation rates. Furthermore, simulations show the formation of shock waves, created due to the compression from the melting core.
Tuck, J.L.
1955-03-01
This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with a voltage applied there-across which is insufficient to cause discharge. When it is desired to initiate operation of a device at the time the explosive shock wave reaches a particular point on the explosive line, the device having an inherent time delay, the electrodes are located ahead of the point such that the ionization of the area between the electrodes caused by the traveling explosive shock wave sends a signal to initiate operation of the device to cause it to operate at the proper time. The operated device may be photographic equipment consisting of an x-ray illuminating tube.
Singly-ionized helium in the driver gas of an interplanetary shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenn, R.; Rosenbauer, H.; Muehlhaeuser, K.-H.
1980-01-01
The interplanetary shock wave observed on Jan. 29, 1977 by the HELIOS-1 plasma instruments shows an unusual feature: in the cold tenuous piston plasma following this shock, there appears a third peak in the energy per charge (E/q) spectra, in addition to the normal proton and alpha-particle peaks. The peak is located at E/q ? 4 and persists for about 14 hours, with slowly varying intensities. Independent simultaneous measurement of these particles' charge yields a value of approximately 1. These ions are thought to be He-4(+) ions travelling with the same speed as protons and alpha particles. The occurrence of He-4(+) indicates the possibility that during eruptive prominences or other solar transients, 'cold' chromospheric plasma might escape from the sun without undergoing the normal coronal heating process.
Hysteresis of ionization waves
Dinklage, A.; Bruhn, B.; Testrich, H.; Wilke, C.
2008-06-15
A quasi-logistic, nonlinear model for ionization wave modes is introduced. Modes are due to finite size of the discharge and current feedback. The model consists of competing coupled modes and it incorporates spatial wave amplitude saturation. The hysteresis of wave mode transitions under current variation is reproduced. Sidebands are predicted by the model and found in experimental data. The ad hoc model is equivalent to a general--so-called universal--approach from bifurcation theory.
Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.
2016-06-01
Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartigan, P.; Foster, J.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Martinez, D.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.
2016-06-01
Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. The experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.
Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; ...
2016-06-01
Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed tomore » quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.« less
Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.
2016-06-01
Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.
Non-equilibrium ionized blast wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. T.
1974-01-01
The structure of a cylindrical blast wave with ionization at non-LTE conditions was calculated using equations previously developed by Wu and Fu (1970). The degree of ionization was predicted by a modified Saha equation. Temperature profiles show that the temperature at non-LTE conditions is lower than at LTE near the shock front. This corresponds to a higher degree of ionization for the non-LTE limit, which indicates that the neutral gas absorption is much more efficient at non-LTE than at the LTE limit. The decaying velocity under non-LTE is approximately 15% less than under LTE.
On the Stability of Ionizing Shocks in Monatomic Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Hai; Karagozian, Ann; Panesi, Marco; Cambier, Jean-Luc
2014-11-01
Prior work by our group demonstrates the use of a collisional-radiative model in reproducing the correct steady-state shock structure of ionizing shocks in monatomic gases. In this presentation, we report on time dependent calculations of ionizing shock flows, which reveal additional physical phenomena arising from the unsteadiness and non-linear wave coupling between convection and kinetics. The observed phenomena are similar to instabilities often seen in gaseous detonations. The present model also takes into account radiative heat losses and radiation transport, which result in a reduction in the shock velocity and precursor effects. The latter phenomena may be important at high shock velocities, and are being investigated in detail. Distribution A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Supported by AFOSR grant 12RZ06COR (PM: Dr. F. Fahroo).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yong W.
Various papers on shock waves are presented. The general topics addressed include: shock formation, focusing, and implosion; shock reflection and diffraction; turbulence; laser-produced plasmas and waves; ionization and shock-plasma interaction; chemical kinetics, pyrolysis, and soot formation; experimental facilities, techniques, and applications; ignition of detonation and combustion; particle entrainment and shock propagation through particle suspension; boundary layers and blast simulation; computational methods and numerical simulation.
Kim, Y.W.
1990-01-01
Various papers on shock waves are presented. The general topics addressed include: shock formation, focusing, and implosion; shock reflection and diffraction; turbulence; laser-produced plasmas and waves; ionization and shock-plasma interaction; chemical kinetics, pyrolysis, and soot formation; experimental facilities, techniques, and applications; ignition of detonation and combustion; particle entrainment and shock propagation through particle suspension; boundary layers and blast simulation; computational methods and numerical simulation.
Plasma Shock Wave Modification Experiments in a Temperature Compensated Shock Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vine, Frances J.; Mankowski, John J.; Saeks, Richard E.; Chow, Alan S.
2003-01-01
A number of researchers have observed that the intensity of a shock wave is reduced when it passes through a weakly ionized plasma. While there is little doubt that the intensity of a shock is reduced when it propagates through a weakly ionized plasma, the major question associated with the research is whether the reduction in shock wave intensity is due to the plasma or the concomitant heating of the flow by the plasma generator. The goal of this paper is to describe a temperature compensated experiment in a "large" diameter shock tube with an external heating source, used to control the temperature in the shock tube independently of the plasma density.
Plasma Shock Wave Modification Experiments in a Temperature Compensated Shock Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vine, Frances J.; Mankowski, John J.; Saeks, Richard E.; Chow, Alan S.
2003-01-01
A number of researchers have observed that the intensity of a shock wave is reduced when it passes through a weakly ionized plasma. While there is little doubt that the intensity of a shock is reduced when it propagates through a weakly ionized plasma, the major question associated with the research is whether the reduction in shock wave intensity is due to the plasma or the concomitant heating of the flow by the plasma generator. The goal of this paper is to describe a temperature compensated experiment in a "large" diameter shock tube with an external heating source, used to control the temperature in the shock tube independently of the plasma density.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.
1994-01-01
Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.
Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.
2011-05-01
In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.
Shock Structure Analysis and Aerodynamics in a Weakly Ionized Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saeks, R.; Popovic, S.; Chow, A. S.
2006-01-01
The structure of a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is analyzed using an electrofluid dynamics model composed of classical conservation laws and Gauss Law. A viscosity model is included to correctly model the spatial scale of the shock structure, and quasi-neutrality is not assumed. A detailed analysis of the structure of a shock wave propagating in a weakly ionized gas is presented, together with a discussion of the physics underlying the key features of the shock structure. A model for the flow behind a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is developed and used to analyze the effect of the ionization on the aerodynamics and performance of a two-dimensional hypersonic lifting body.
Piston Dispersive Shock Wave Problem
Hoefer, M. A.; Ablowitz, M. J.; Engels, P.
2008-02-29
The piston shock problem is a classical result of shock wave theory. In this work, the analogous dispersive shock wave (DSW) problem for a fluid described by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed. Asymptotic solutions are calculated for a piston (step potential) moving with uniform speed into a dispersive fluid at rest. In contrast to the classical case, there is a bifurcation of shock behavior where, for large enough piston velocities, the DSW develops a periodic wave train in its wake with vacuum points and a maximum density that remains fixed as the piston velocity is increased further. These results have application to Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics.
SPHERICAL SHOCK WAVES IN SOLIDS
Contents: Introduction-Reasons for Studying Spherical Shock Waves, Physics of Cavity Expansion due to Explosive Impact, General Nature of Shock Waves...Governing Differential Equation of Self-Similar Motion; Application of the Theory of Self-Similar Motion to the Problem of Expansion of a Spherical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treanor, C. E.; Hall, J. G.
1982-10-01
The present conference on shock tubes and waves considers shock tube drivers, luminous shock tubes, shock tube temperature and pressure measurement, shock front distortion in real gases, nonlinear standing waves, transonic flow shock wave turbulent boundary interactions, wall roughness effects on reflected shock bifurcation, argon thermal conductivity, pattern generation in gaseous detonations, cylindrical resonators, shock tunnel-produced high gain lasers, fluid dynamic aspects of laser-metal interaction, and the ionization of argon gas behind reflected shock waves. Also discussed are the ionization relaxation of shock-heated plasmas and gases, discharge flow/shock tube studies of singlet oxygen, rotational and vibrational relaxation, chemiluminescence thermal and shock wave decomposition of hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen azide, shock wave structure in gas-particle mixtures at low Mach numbers, binary nucleation in a Ludwieg tube, shock liquefaction experiments, pipeline explosions, the shock wave ignition of pulverized coal, and shock-initiated methane combustion.
1975-10-01
Moore and Erdos (Ref. 28) in solving the boundary layer equations for dissoci- tion and ionizing air in a nonequilibrium flow. * 21 Another powerful...8217 =o g =o ’ =o(4.31b) fit = 0 g" = 0 Zt =0 fi’ = 0 git = 0 where, the prime denotes differentiation with respect to 1. The edge of the sheath is now the...i LX ] (4.37e) where, C = pR/Pee and the prime denotes differentiation with respect to T. Equations 4.31 and 4.37 produce seven, seven, and five
Flow behind concave shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mölder, S.
2017-09-01
Curved shock theory is introduced and applied to calculate the flow behind concave shock waves. For sonic conditions, three characterizing types of flow are identified, based on the orientation of the sonic line, and it is shown that, depending on the ratio of shock curvatures, a continuously curving shock can exist with Type III flow, where the sonic line intercepts the reflected characteristics from the shock, thus preventing the formation of a reflected shock. The necessary shock curvature ratio for a Type III sonic point does not exist for a hyperbolic shock so that it will revert to Mach reflection for all Mach numbers. A demonstration is provided, by CFD calculations, at Mach 1.2 and 3.
Flow behind concave shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mölder, S.
2017-03-01
Curved shock theory is introduced and applied to calculate the flow behind concave shock waves. For sonic conditions, three characterizing types of flow are identified, based on the orientation of the sonic line, and it is shown that, depending on the ratio of shock curvatures, a continuously curving shock can exist with Type III flow, where the sonic line intercepts the reflected characteristics from the shock, thus preventing the formation of a reflected shock. The necessary shock curvature ratio for a Type III sonic point does not exist for a hyperbolic shock so that it will revert to Mach reflection for all Mach numbers. A demonstration is provided, by CFD calculations, at Mach 1.2 and 3.
Shock wave propagation in glow discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, B. N.
1998-10-01
The modification of acoustic shock wave propagation characteristics in a 25 cm long positive column low pressure (10 to 50 Torr), low current density (2 to 10 mA/cm^2) argon and N2 dc discharges have been measured by laser beam deflection technique. The simultaneous multi point shock velocity, dispersion and damping have been measured both inside and outside the glow discharge region. The local shock velocity is found to increase with the increased propagation path length through the discharge; for Mach number greater than 1.7 the upstream velocity exceeded the downstream velocity in contrast to the opposite behavior in neutral gas. The damping and dispersion are also dependent on the propagation distance. The recovery of the shock dispersion and damping in the post discharge region, for a given discharge condition, are functions of the initial Mach number. The optical measurement of the wall and the gas (rotational) temperatures suggest the observed shock features can not be solely explained by the gas heating in a self sustained discharge. The results are similar for both Ar and N2 discharges showing that vibrational excitation and relaxation are not essential^1. The explanation of the observed weak shock propagation properties in a glow discharge appears to require long range cooperative interactions that enhance heavy particle collisional energy transfer rates for the measured discharge conditions. Unlike collisional shock wave propagation in highly ionized plasmas^2,3, the exact energy coupling mechanism between the nonequilibrium weakly ionized plasma and shock is not understood. 1. A.I. Osipov and A.V. Uvarov, Sov. Phys. Usp. 35, 903 (1992) and other references there in. 2. M. Casanova, O. Larroche and J-P Matte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2143 (1991). 3. M.C.M. van de Sanden, R. van den Bercken and D.C. Schram, Plasma Sources Sci.Technol. 3, 511 (1994).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straughan, B.
2013-11-01
A hyperbolic model is presented which generalises Aoki's parabolic system for the combined propagation of a mutant gene together with a cultural innovation. It is shown that this model allows for the propagation of a shock wave and the shock amplitude is calculated numerically. Particular attention is paid to the case where the shock moves into a region where the frequencies of the mutant gene and of the individuals adopting the innovation are zero.
Shock waves show icebreaking promise
Wesley, R.H.; Stowell, W.R.
1985-11-01
State-of-the-art technology that is readily applicable in other offshore areas does not function adequately in Arctic regions. The common offshore problem in the Arctic, whether it be related to transportation, construction, drilling or production, is ice. Technology utilizing the phenomenal characteristics of the shock wave now exists that will allow relief from the ice problem in all of these categories. The feasibility of using shock waves for icebreaking is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deruelle, Nathalie; Linet, Bernard
1988-01-01
The theory of general relativistic shock waves is used to model the supersonic wake of a straight cosmic string. The motion of a supersonic fluid past an element of a cosmic string at rest, a problem which is equivalent to the motion of a cosmic string in a fluid at rest, is first investigated. The method is then demonstrated by treating the case of an infinite straight string. It is shown both that the density contrast is enhanced by the shock and that the pressure behind the shock wave is much greater than in front.
Shock waves in polycrystalline iron.
Kadau, Kai; Germann, Timothy C; Lomdahl, Peter S; Albers, Robert C; Wark, Justin S; Higginbotham, Andrew; Holian, Brad Lee
2007-03-30
The propagation of shock waves through polycrystalline iron is explored by large-scale atomistic simulations. For large enough shock strengths the passage of the wave causes the body-centered-cubic phase to transform into a close-packed phase with most structure being isotropic hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) and, depending on shock strength and grain orientation, some fraction of face-centered-cubic (fcc) structure. The simulated shock Hugoniot is compared to experiments. By calculating the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) directly from the atomic configurations, a comparison to experimental EXAFS measurements of nanosecond-laser shocks shows that the experimental data is consistent with such a phase transformation. However, the atomistically simulated EXAFS spectra also show that an experimental distinction between the hcp or fcc phase is not possible based on the spectra alone.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Gosling, J. T.; Isenberg, P. A.
1995-01-01
During average solar wind flow conditions at 1 AU, ionization rates of interstellar neutrals that penetrate into the inner heliosphere are dominated by charge exchange with solar wind protons for H atoms, and by photoionization for He atoms. During occurrences of strong, coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven interplanetary shock waves near 1 AU, electron impact ionization can make substantial, if not dominating, contributions to interstellar neutral ionization rates in the regions downstream of the shocks. However, electron impact ionization is expected to be relatively less important with increasing heliocentric distance because of the decrease in electron temperature. Ulysses encountered many CME-driven shocks during its journey to and beyond Jupiter, and in addition, encountered a number of strong corotating interaction region (CIR) shocks. These shocks generally occur only beyond approximately 2 AU. Many of the CIR shocks were very strong rivalling the Earth's bow shock in electron heating. We have compared electron impact ionization rates calculated from electron velocity distributions measured downstream from CIR shocks using the Ulysses SWOOPS experiment to charge-exchange rates calculated from measured proton number fluxes and the photoionization rate estimated from an assumed solar photon spectrum typical of solar maximum conditions. We find that, although normally the ratio of electron-impact ionization rates to charge-exchange (for H) and to photoionization (for He) rates amounts to only about one and a few tens of percent, respectively, downstream of some of the stronger CIR shocks they amount to more than 10% and greater than 100%, respectively.
Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.
2011-06-01
The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.
Shock wave-droplet interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habibi Khoshmehr, Hamed; Krechetnikov, Rouslan
2016-11-01
Disintegration of a liquid droplet under the action of a shock wave is experimentally investigated. The shock wave-pulse is electromagnetically generated by discharging a high voltage capacitor into a flat spiral coil, above which an isolated circular metal membrane is placed in a close proximity. The Lorentz force arising due to the eddy current induced in the membrane abruptly accelerates it away from the spiral coil thus generating a shock wave. The liquid droplet placed at the center of the membrane, where the maximum deflection occurs, is disintegrated in the process of interaction with the shock wave. The effects of droplet viscosity and surface tension on the droplet destruction are studied with high-speed photography. Water-glycerol solution at different concentrations is used for investigating the effect of viscosity and various concentrations of water-sugar and water-ethanol solution are used for studying the effect of surface tension. Here we report on how the metamorphoses, which a liquid drop undergoes in the process of interaction with a shock wave, are affected by varied viscosity and surface tension.
History of shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delius, Michael
2000-07-01
The first reports on the fragmentation of human calculi with ultrasound appeared in the fifties. Initial positive results with an extracorporeal approach with continuous wave ultrasound could, however, not be reproduced. A more promising result was found by generating the acoustic energy either in pulsed or continuous form directly at the stone surface. The method was applied clinically with success. Extracorporeal shock-wave generators unite the principle of using single ultrasonic pulses with the principle of generating the acoustic energy outside the body and focusing it through the skin and body wall onto the stone. Häusler and Kiefer reported the first successful contact-free kidney stone destruction by shock waves. They had put the stone in a water filled cylinder and generated a shock wave with a high speed water drop which was fired onto the water surface. To apply the new principle in medicine, both Häusler and Hoff's group at Dornier company constructed different shock wave generators for the stone destruction; the former used a torus-shaped reflector around an explosion wire, the latter the electrode-ellipsoid system. The former required open surgery to access the kidney stone, the latter did not. It was introduced into clinical practice after a series of experiments in Munich.
Stability of shock waves in high temperature plasmas
Das, Madhusmita; Bhattacharya, Chandrani; Menon, S. V. G.
2011-10-15
The Dyakov-Kontorovich criteria for spontaneous emission of acoustic waves behind shock fronts are investigated for high temperature aluminum and beryllium plasmas. To this end, the Dyakov and critical stability parameters are calculated from Rankine-Hugoniot curves using a more realistic equation of state (EOS). The cold and ionic contributions to the EOS are obtained via scaled binding energy and mean field theory, respectively. A screened hydrogenic model, including l-splitting, is used to calculate the bound electron contribution to the electronic EOS. The free electron EOS is obtained from Fermi-Dirac statistics. Predictions of the model for ionization curves and shock Hugoniot are found to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. It is observed that the electronic EOS has significant effect on the stability of the planar shock front. While the shock is stable for low temperatures and pressures, instability sets in as temperature rises. The basic reason is ionization of electronic shells and consequent increase in electronic specific heat. The temperatures and densities of the unstable region correspond to those where electronic shells get ionized. With the correct modeling of bound electrons, we find that shock instability for Al occurs at a compression ratio {approx}5.4, contrary to the value {approx}3 reported in the literature. Free electrons generated in the ionization process carry energy from the shock front, thereby giving rise to spontaneously emitted waves, which decay the shock front.
Olson, B J; Cook, A W
2007-08-30
Beginning from a state of hydrostatic equilibrium, in which a heavy gas rests atop a light gas in a constant gravitational field, Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface will launch a shock wave into the upper fluid. The rising bubbles of lighter fluid act like pistons, compressing the heavier fluid ahead of the fronts and generating shocklets. These shocklets coalesce in multidimensional fashion into a strong normal shock, which increases in strength as it propagates upwards. Large-eddy simulations demonstrate that the shock Mach number increases faster in three dimensions than it does in two dimensions. The generation of shocks via Rayleigh-Taylor instability could have profound implications for astrophysical flows.
Diagnostic of shock wave processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urtiew, P. A.
1992-05-01
Experimental measurements of high rate processes taking place in a shock wave dynamic environment require that the diagnostic systems have fast response and high resolution. This is not a trivial requirement considering the fact that under shock loading one can expect not only sudden changes of state across the shock discontinuity but also subsequent changes in pressure, temperature and volume due to chemical reaction, phase change and other transformations which may also take place behind the shock wave. Among the various parameters which provide direct ties to theoretical studies of the equation of state and at the same time yield to relatively accurate experimental measurements are shock velocity, particle velocity and pressure. Described here are the optical techniques VISAR and Fabry Perot interferometer for observing particle and free surface velocities in transparent media as well as in situ foil gauges for measuring pressure and particle velocity within the sample. Although these techniques are not new they have been continuously improved and upgraded at our facility to yield greater accuracy, reliability and state of the art performance. The emphasis in this paper is on the operational features of the measuring techniques, but examples of experimental results are also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz M.; Rosales, Rodolfo R.
2013-03-01
We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2-uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.
A new class of solutions for interstellar magnetohydrodynamic shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberge, W. G.; Draine, B. T.
1990-01-01
An analysis is presented of the equations of motion for steady MHD shock waves proopagating in interstellar clouds, for boundary conditions that preclude C shocks. In addition to J shocks, in which the neutral fluid component becomes subsonic at an adiabatic jump front, the equations admit a new class of solutions, called C-asterisk shocks, in which the transition to subsonic flow occurs continuously at a sonic point. Numerical methods are developed for computing the structure of J and C-asterisk shocks propagating in diffuse interstellar clouds. The effects of chemical, ionization, and recombination processes are included in this treatment. An alternative numerical method, which uses artificial viscosity to facilitate integration through sonic points, is analyzed and shown to be invalid. A set of exemplary solutions, computed for realistic shock parameters, shows that C-asterisk shocks occur for a broad range of conditions relevant to diffuse interstellar clouds.
Bow shock and magnetosheath waves at Mercury
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fairfield, D. H.; Behannon, K. W.
1975-01-01
Mariner 10 measurements at the Mercury bow shock provide examples where the magnetic field is approximately parallel or perpendicular to the bow shock normal. Upstream of a broad irregular parallel shock, left hand circularly polarized waves are observed which cut off very sharply at approximately 4 Hz. Upstream of a perpendicular shock, right hand circularly polarized waves are observed which persist up to the Nyquist frequency of 12 Ha. Determination of the wave propagation vector as a function of frequency helps conclusively identify the waves as whistler mode waves propagating from the shock. The magnetosheath downstream of the parallel shock is disturbed more than that downstream of the perpendicular shock particularly below 1 Hz. In the latter case regular left hand polarized waves observed slightly above the proton gyrofrequency are identified as ion cyclotron waves with wavelength approximately 300 km which are Doppler shifted up to their observed frequency.
Detonation onset following shock wave focusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, N. N.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Sevrouk, K. L.; Nikitin, V. F.; Stamov, L. I.; Tyurenkova, V. V.
2017-06-01
The aim of the present paper is to study detonation initiation due to focusing of a shock wave reflected inside a cone. Both numerical and experimental investigations were conducted. Comparison of results made it possible to validate the developed 3-d transient mathematical model of chemically reacting gas mixture flows incorporating hydrogen - air mixtures. The results of theoretical and numerical experiments made it possible improving kinetic schemes and turbulence models. Several different flow scenarios were detected in reflection of shock waves all being dependent on incident shock wave intensity: reflecting of shock wave with lagging behind combustion zone, formation of detonation wave in reflection and focusing, and intermediate transient regimes.
Analgesia for shock wave lithotripsy.
Parkin, John; Keeley FX, Francis X; Timoney, Anthony G
2002-04-01
We evaluated the effectiveness of and patient preference for analgesia used during shock wave lithotripsy by comparing diclofenac alone with a combination of diclofenac and patient controlled analgesia, that is alfentanil. A total of 64 patients were treated using a Lithotriptor S (Dornier Medical Systems, Marietta, Georgia) and randomized to receive diclofenac alone or combined with an alfentanil patient controlled analgesia pump. If treated twice, they crossed over to the alternative form of analgesia. A record was maintained of the site and size of the stone, maximum power achieved, number of shocks, amount of alfentanil used and need for additional analgesia. After treatment patients scored on a visual analog scale the maximum level of pain and satisfaction with analgesia. There was no difference in the mean size of the stone treated (8.6 and 7.5 mm.), energy level (71% and 71% or approximately 17 kV.) or number of shocks (3,000 and 2,900, respectively) in the groups. Only 2 patients in the diclofenac group required additional analgesia and there were no significant side effects from either treatment. The mean pain scores were not significantly different in the diclofenac and patient controlled analgesia groups (3.54 and 2.93, respectively, (p = 0.34), although those on patient controlled analgesia were more satisfied (7.72 versus 9.14, p = 0.04). Of the 38 patients who presented twice 58% preferred diclofenac alone. This study suggests that there is no significant difference in the level of pain experienced with diclofenac alone or when combined with an alfentanil patient controlled analgesia pump during shock wave lithotripsy. However, patients are more satisfied with treatment when a patient controlled analgesia pump is available.
Interplanetary shock waves associated with solar flares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, J. K.; Sakurai, K.
1974-01-01
The interaction of the earth's magnetic field with the solar wind is discussed with emphasis on the influence of solar flares. The geomagnetic storms are considerered to be the result of the arrival of shock wave generated by solar flares in interplanetary space. Basic processes in the solar atmosphere and interplanetary space, and hydromagnetic disturbances associated with the solar flares are discussed along with observational and theoretical problems of interplanetary shock waves. The origin of interplanetary shock waves is also discussed.
Observation of traveling thermoacoustic shock waves (L).
Biwa, Tetsushi; Takahashi, Takuma; Yazaki, Taichi
2011-12-01
Shock waves were explored in the thermoacoustic spontaneous gas oscillations occurring in a gas column with a steep temperature gradient. The results show that a periodic shock occurs in the traveling wave mode in a looped tube but not in the standing wave mode in a resonator. Measurements of the harmonic components of the acoustic intensity reveal a clear difference between them. The temperature gradient acts as an acoustic energy source for the harmonic components of the shock wave in the traveling wave mode but as an acoustic energy sink of the second harmonic in the standing wave mode. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen Beyond the Termination Shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruntman, Mike
2016-11-01
Models of solar wind interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium usually disregard ionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms beyond the solar wind termination shock. If and when included, the effects of ionization in the heliospheric interface region are often obscured by complexities of the interaction. This work assesses the importance of interstellar hydrogen ionization in the heliosheath. Photoionization could be accounted for in a straightforward way. In contrast, electron impact ionization is largely unknown because of poorly understood energy transfer to electrons at the termination shock and beyond. We first estimate the effect of photoionization and then use it as a yardstick to assess the role of electron impact ionization. The physical estimates show that ionization of interstellar hydrogen may lead to significant mass loading in the inner heliosheath which would slow down plasma flowing toward the heliotail and deplete populations of nonthermal protons, with the corresponding effect on heliospheric fluxes of energetic neutral atoms.
Cavitation in shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Evan, Andrew P.; McAteer, James A.; Colonius, Tim; Cleveland, Robin O.
2003-10-01
A case is presented for the important role of cavitation in stone comminution and tissue injury in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Confocal hydrophones and a coincidence algorithm were used to detect cavitation in kidney parenchyma. Elevated hydrostatic pressure dissolved cavitation nuclei and suppressed cell injury and stone comminution in vitro. A low-insertion-loss, thin, mylar film nearly eliminated stone erosion and crack formation only when in direct contact with the stone. This result indicates not only that cavitation is important in both cracking and erosion but also that bubbles act at the surface. Time inversion of the shock wave by use of a pressure-release reflector reduced the calculated pressure at bubble collapse and the measured depth of bubble-induced pits in aluminum. Correspondingly tissue injury in vivo was nearly eliminated. Cavitation was localized and intensified by the use of synchronously triggered, facing lithotripters. This dual pulse lithotripter enhanced comminution at its focus and reduced lysis in surrounding blood samples. The enhancement of comminution was lost when stones were placed in glycerol, which retarded bubble implosion. Thus, cavitation is important in comminution and injury and can be controlled to optimize efficacy and safety. [Work supported by NIH DK43381, DK55674, and FIRCA.
Shock Wave Technology and Application: An Update☆
Rassweiler, Jens J.; Knoll, Thomas; Köhrmann, Kai-Uwe; McAteer, James A.; Lingeman, James E.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Bailey, Michael R.; Chaussy, Christian
2012-01-01
Context The introduction of new lithotripters has increased problems associated with shock wave application. Recent studies concerning mechanisms of stone disintegration, shock wave focusing, coupling, and application have appeared that may address some of these problems. Objective To present a consensus with respect to the physics and techniques used by urologists, physicists, and representatives of European lithotripter companies. Evidence acquisition We reviewed recent literature (PubMed, Embase, Medline) that focused on the physics of shock waves, theories of stone disintegration, and studies on optimising shock wave application. In addition, we used relevant information from a consensus meeting of the German Society of Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Evidence synthesis Besides established mechanisms describing initial fragmentation (tear and shear forces, spallation, cavitation, quasi-static squeezing), the model of dynamic squeezing offers new insight in stone comminution. Manufacturers have modified sources to either enlarge the focal zone or offer different focal sizes. The efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) can be increased by lowering the pulse rate to 60–80 shock waves/min and by ramping the shock wave energy. With the water cushion, the quality of coupling has become a critical factor that depends on the amount, viscosity, and temperature of the gel. Fluoroscopy time can be reduced by automated localisation or the use of optical and acoustic tracking systems. There is a trend towards larger focal zones and lower shock wave pressures. Conclusions New theories for stone disintegration favour the use of shock wave sources with larger focal zones. Use of slower pulse rates, ramping strategies, and adequate coupling of the shock wave head can significantly increase the efficacy and safety of ESWL. PMID:21354696
Shock wave technology and application: an update.
Rassweiler, Jens J; Knoll, Thomas; Köhrmann, Kai-Uwe; McAteer, James A; Lingeman, James E; Cleveland, Robin O; Bailey, Michael R; Chaussy, Christian
2011-05-01
The introduction of new lithotripters has increased problems associated with shock wave application. Recent studies concerning mechanisms of stone disintegration, shock wave focusing, coupling, and application have appeared that may address some of these problems. To present a consensus with respect to the physics and techniques used by urologists, physicists, and representatives of European lithotripter companies. We reviewed recent literature (PubMed, Embase, Medline) that focused on the physics of shock waves, theories of stone disintegration, and studies on optimising shock wave application. In addition, we used relevant information from a consensus meeting of the German Society of Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Besides established mechanisms describing initial fragmentation (tear and shear forces, spallation, cavitation, quasi-static squeezing), the model of dynamic squeezing offers new insight in stone comminution. Manufacturers have modified sources to either enlarge the focal zone or offer different focal sizes. The efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) can be increased by lowering the pulse rate to 60-80 shock waves/min and by ramping the shock wave energy. With the water cushion, the quality of coupling has become a critical factor that depends on the amount, viscosity, and temperature of the gel. Fluoroscopy time can be reduced by automated localisation or the use of optical and acoustic tracking systems. There is a trend towards larger focal zones and lower shock wave pressures. New theories for stone disintegration favour the use of shock wave sources with larger focal zones. Use of slower pulse rates, ramping strategies, and adequate coupling of the shock wave head can significantly increase the efficacy and safety of ESWL. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PIC-DSMC analysis on interaction of a laser induced discharge and shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamura, Kohei
2015-09-01
Laser induced discharge and the shock wave have attracted great interest for use in the electrical engineering. When the high intensity laser (10 GW >) is focused in the atmosphere, the breakdown occurs and the discharge wave propagates toward to the laser irradiation. The shock wave is generated around the discharge wave, which is called as the laser supported detonation wave. After breakdown occurred, the initial electron of the avalanche ionization is produced by the photoionization due to the plasma radiation. It is well recognized that the radiation of the laser plasma affects the propagation mechanism of the laser induced discharge wave after the initiation of the breakdown. However, it is difficult to observe the interaction between the plasma radiation and the electron avalanche in the ionization-wave front in experimentally except in the high intensity laser. In the numerical calculation of the laser-induced discharge, the fluid dynamics based on the Navier-Stokes equation have been widely used. However, it is difficult to investigate the avalanche ionization at the wave front using the fluid dynamics simulation. To investigate the interaction of the ionization-wave front and the shock wave, it is appropriate to utilize the PIC-DSMC method. The present study showed the propagation of the ionization front of the discharge wave and the shock wave using the particle simulation. This work was supported by Kato Foundation for Promotion of Science and Japan Power Academy.
Biological Effects of Shock Waves on Infection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Janardhanraj, S.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Gopalan, Jagadeesh
Shock waves have been successfully used for disintegrating kidney stones[1], noninvasive angiogenic approach[2] and for the treatment of osteoporosis[3]. Recently shock waves have been used to treat different medical conditions including intestinal anastomosis[4], wound healing[5], Kienböck's disease[6] and articular cartilage defects[7].
Shock wave interactions with liquid sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, H.; Eliasson, V.
2017-04-01
Shock wave interactions with a liquid sheet are investigated by impacting planar liquid sheets of varying thicknesses with a planar shock wave. A square frame was designed to hold a rectangular liquid sheet, with a thickness of 5 or 10 mm, using plastic membranes and cotton wires to maintain the planar shape and minimize bulge. The flat liquid sheet, consisting of either water or a cornstarch and water mixture, was suspended in the test section of a shock tube. Incident shock waves with Mach numbers of M_s = 1.34 and 1.46 were considered. A schlieren technique with a high-speed camera was used to visualize the shock wave interaction with the liquid sheets. High-frequency pressure sensors were used to measure wave speed, overpressure, and impulse both upstream and downstream of the liquid sheet. Results showed that no transmitted shock wave could be observed through the liquid sheets, but compression waves induced by the shock-accelerated liquid coalesced into a shock wave farther downstream. A thicker liquid sheet resulted in a lower peak overpressure and impulse, and a cornstarch suspension sheet showed a higher attenuation factor compared to a water sheet.
Shock wave therapy in wound healing.
Qureshi, Ali A; Ross, Kimberly M; Ogawa, Rei; Orgill, Dennis P
2011-12-01
Recently, shock wave therapy has been investigated as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. There are several devices with focused and unfocused shock waves that have been administered to a heterogenous group of wounds. Encouraging preclinical and clinical studies suggest that shock wave therapy may promote wound healing with little or no adverse events, prompting investigations into the mechanism of action and additional clinical trials. The peer-reviewed literature within the past 10 years was studied using an evidence-based approach. Preclinical studies demonstrate that shock wave therapy affects cellular function and leads to the expression of several genes and elaboration of growth factors known to promote wound healing. Limited clinical trials are encouraging for the use of shock wave therapy in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. Serious complications, including wound infections, bleeding, hematomas, seromas, and petechiae, have not been reported in the largest of these studies. Shock wave therapy is an intriguing physical modality that may play an important role as an adjuvant therapy in wound healing. To date, there is no consensus on which wounds are most likely to benefit from shock wave therapy and what the optimal power, degree of focus, and frequency or number of cycles should be. Well-designed preclinical and clinical studies are necessary to better understand shock wave therapy in wound healing.
Numerical simulation of converging shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Seokjune; Abe, Kanji
We can achieve the high pressure and high temperature state of gas if the shock wave converges stably. In order to check the stability of the converging shock wave, we introduce two kinds of perturbed initial conditions. The Euler equations of conservation form are integrated by using explicit Non-Muscl TVD finite difference scheme.
Shock Waves in Inert and Reactive Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fomin, N. A.
2017-05-01
"Shock waves are of special interest from a whole number of aspects. On the one hand, where attempts at integrating equations without introducing discontinuities (i.e., shock waves) lead to these or those paradoxes and to the impossibility of solving these equations, the shock wave theory resolves paradoxes and permits creating regimes of motion under any conditions. One the other hand, shock waves themselves are a paradoxical event. They are paradoxical in the sense that without making any assumptions about dissipative forces — about viscosity and heat conduction — we obtain, from elementary considerations, laws, according to which there is an increase in entropy, i.e., laws, according to which the processes proceeding in the shock wave are irreversible."
Raman spectroscopy of hypersonic shock waves
Ramos; Mate; Tejeda; Fernandez; Montero
2000-10-01
Raman spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient diagnostic methodology for the study of hypersonic shock waves. As a test, absolute density and rotational population profiles have been measured across five representative normal shock waves of N2 generated in a free jet, spanning the Mach number range 7.7
Reflection of curved shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mölder, S.
2017-09-01
Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.
Reflection of curved shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mölder, S.
2017-03-01
Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.
Shock Wave Initiation of Mixture Liquid Explosives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, A. V.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Nazarov, D. V.; Finyushin, S. A.; Men'shikh, A. V.; Davydov, V. A.
2006-07-01
We investigated initiation of liquid HE consisting of tetranitromethane (TNM) and nitrobenzene (NB). Smooth stable (when mass of NB<20%) and pulsing unstable detonation wave front was registered (20-50% NB). We registered shock wave, shock compressed explosive (SCE) detonation wave and normal detonation wave for unstable detonation front on different parts of the front. In case of normal and SCE detonation wave we registered parameters rise during 3-25 nsec until the start of chemical reaction. We consider it to be the induction period of thermal explosion inside detonation wave front.
The Acoustics of Shock Wave Lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleveland, Robin O.
2007-04-01
The shock waves employed in lithotripsy are high amplitude acoustics waves. As they propagate through the body to the stone that are affected by coupling to the body and the presence of tissue through which they must pass. Once the shock wave arrives at the stone there is a complex transmission of energy into the stone as the shock wave can couple into compression and shear waves in the stone and produce cavitation in the surrounding fluid. The surrounding tissue is also subject to large physical forces that can result in damage. Physical phenomena that play a role include: generation of sound, nonlinear distortion, attenuation, diffraction, coupling into the body, transmission and mode conversion into the stone. This paper gives a synopsis of some of the relevant physics that applies to shock wave lithotripsy.
Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.
2012-01-01
We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary shocks measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these shocks, which on average are high beta shocks (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the shocks. In the upstream region the waves are mainly circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the shock normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the shock. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP shocks than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the shock interface, and they decrease as the distance to the shock increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the shock increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the shock. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the shock interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the shock-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to
Optical carrier wave shocking: detection and dispersion.
Kinsler, P; Radnor, S B P; Tyrrell, J C A; New, G H C
2007-06-01
Carrier wave shocking is studied using the pseudospectral spatial-domain (PSSD) technique. We describe the shock detection diagnostics necessary for this numerical study and verify them against theoretical shocking predictions for the dispersionless case. These predictions show a carrier envelope phase and pulse bandwidth sensitivity in the single-cycle regime. The flexible dispersion management offered by the PSSD enables us to independently control the linear and nonlinear dispersion. Customized dispersion profiles allow us to analyze the development of both carrier self-steepening and shocks. The results exhibit a marked asymmetry between normal and anomalous dispersion, both in the limits of the shocking regime and in the (near) shocked pulse wave forms. Combining these insights, we offer some suggestions on how carrier shocking (or at least extreme self-steepening) might be realized experimentally.
Development of microcapsules for shock wave DDS and angiogenesis using shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamagawa, M.; Yamanoi, I.; Iwakura, S.
2006-05-01
This paper describes the trial of making microcapsules including a bubble for shock wave drug delivery systems, evaluation of their mechanical properties and angiogenesis using plane shock waves. We have proposed drug delivery systems (DDS) using shock waves. In this system, a microcapsule including a gas bubble is flown in the blood vessel, and finally broken by shock induced microjet, then drug is reached to the affected part. In this paper, the mechanism for deformation and disintegration of capsules in our previous works is reviewed, and the trials of making special microcapsules are discussed. To determine Young's modulus of capsule membrane, the membrane is deformed by the aspiration device and compared with computational result by FEM. As for angiogenesis using shock wave, the effects of shock waves under 0.4 MPa on cell growth rate is investigated. It is found that increasing rate of cell population by working shock waves is faster than the control cells.
Feldman, W.C.; Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.; Isenberg, P.A.
1996-07-01
Solar wind plasma data measured during the near-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission between October, 1990 and January, 1993 were studied to determine the relative importance of electron-impact ionization to the total ionization rates of interstellar hydrogen and helium atoms. During times of quiet flow conditions electron-impact ionization rates were found to be generally low, of the order of 1{percent} of the total ionization rates. However, just downstream of the strongest CME- and CIR-driven shock waves encountered by Ulysses, the electron impact-ionization rate at times was more than 10{percent} that of the charge-exchange rate for hydrogen and more than 100{percent} that of the photoionization rate for helium. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Shock wave application to cell cultures.
Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Mathes, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael; Paulus, Patrick
2014-04-08
Shock waves nowadays are well known for their regenerative effects. Basic research findings showed that shock waves do cause a biological stimulus to target cells or tissue without any subsequent damage. Therefore, in vitro experiments are of increasing interest. Various methods of applying shock waves onto cell cultures have been described. In general, all existing models focus on how to best apply shock waves onto cells. However, this question remains: What happens to the waves after passing the cell culture? The difference of the acoustic impedance of the cell culture medium and the ambient air is that high, that more than 99% of shock waves get reflected! We therefore developed a model that mainly consists of a Plexiglas built container that allows the waves to propagate in water after passing the cell culture. This avoids cavitation effects as well as reflection of the waves that would otherwise disturb upcoming ones. With this model we are able to mimic in vivo conditions and thereby gain more and more knowledge about how the physical stimulus of shock waves gets translated into a biological cell signal ("mechanotransduction").
Shock wave equation of state of muscovite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekine, Toshimori; Rubin, Allan M.; Ahrens, Thomas J.
1991-01-01
Shock wave data were obtained between 20 and 140 GPa for natural muscovite obtained from Methuen Township (Ontario), in order to provide a shock-wave equation of state for this crustal hydrous mineral. The shock equation of state data could be fit by a linear shock velocity (Us) versus particle velocity (Up) relation Us = 4.62 + 1.27 Up (km/s). Third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state parameters were found to be K(OS) = 52 +/-4 GPa and K-prime(OS) = 3.2 +/-0.3 GPa. These parameters are comparable to those of other hydrous minerals such as brucite, serpentine, and tremolite.
Shock wave equation of state of muscovite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekine, Toshimori; Rubin, Allan M.; Ahrens, Thomas J.
1991-01-01
Shock wave data were obtained between 20 and 140 GPa for natural muscovite obtained from Methuen Township (Ontario), in order to provide a shock-wave equation of state for this crustal hydrous mineral. The shock equation of state data could be fit by a linear shock velocity (Us) versus particle velocity (Up) relation Us = 4.62 + 1.27 Up (km/s). Third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state parameters were found to be K(OS) = 52 +/-4 GPa and K-prime(OS) = 3.2 +/-0.3 GPa. These parameters are comparable to those of other hydrous minerals such as brucite, serpentine, and tremolite.
Overview of shock waves in medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleveland, Robin O.
2003-10-01
A brief overview of three applications of shock waves is presented. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has been in clinical use for more than 20 years. In the United States it is used to treat more than 80% of kidney stone cases and has wide acceptance with patients because it is a noninvasive procedure. Despite SWLs enormous success there is no agreement on how shock waves comminute stones. There is also a general acceptance that shock waves lead to trauma to the soft tissue of the kidney. Yet there has been little forward progress in developing lithotripters which provide comminution with less side-effects, indeed the original machine is still considered the gold standard. The last decade has seen the advent of new shock wave devices for treating principally musculoskeletal indications, such as plantar fasciitis, tennis elbow, and bone fractures that do not heal. This is referred to as shock wave therapy (SWT). The mechanisms by which SWT works are even less well understood than SWL and the consequences of bioeffects have also not been studied in detail. Shock waves have also been shown to be effective at enhancing drug delivery into cells and assisting with gene transfection. [Work partially supported by NIH.
Guided ionization waves: Theory and experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, X.; Naidis, G. V.; Laroussi, M.; Ostrikov, K.
2014-07-01
This review focuses on one of the fundamental phenomena that occur upon application of sufficiently strong electric fields to gases, namely the formation and propagation of ionization waves-streamers. The dynamics of streamers is controlled by strongly nonlinear coupling, in localized streamer tip regions, between enhanced (due to charge separation) electric field and ionization and transport of charged species in the enhanced field. Streamers appear in nature (as initial stages of sparks and lightning, as huge structures-sprites above thunderclouds), and are also found in numerous technological applications of electrical discharges. Here we discuss the fundamental physics of the guided streamer-like structures-plasma bullets which are produced in cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. Plasma bullets are guided ionization waves moving in a thin column of a jet of plasma forming gases (e.g., He or Ar) expanding into ambient air. In contrast to streamers in a free (unbounded) space that propagate in a stochastic manner and often branch, guided ionization waves are repetitive and highly-reproducible and propagate along the same path-the jet axis. This property of guided streamers, in comparison with streamers in a free space, enables many advanced time-resolved experimental studies of ionization waves with nanosecond precision. In particular, experimental studies on manipulation of streamers by external electric fields and streamer interactions are critically examined. This review also introduces the basic theories and recent advances on the experimental and computational studies of guided streamers, in particular related to the propagation dynamics of ionization waves and the various parameters of relevance to plasma streamers. This knowledge is very useful to optimize the efficacy of applications of plasma streamer discharges in various fields ranging from health care and medicine to materials science and nanotechnology.
Shock tube study of ionization rates of NaCl-contaminated argon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, K.-P.; Park, C.
1975-01-01
Electron density, electron temperature, and concentration of excited sodium atoms are measured in the weakly ionized regime behind a shock wave in impure argon in a shock tube using microwave techniques and spectrally resolved radiometry. Evidence is presented to show that an apparent increase in the rate of ionization is due to electron detachment of negative chlorine ions produced from sodium chloride vapor contained as an impurity. To be consistent with this chemical model, rate coefficients are found in the temperature range between 5500 and 8600 K for the dissociation of NaCl into an ion pair, dissociation of NaCl into a neutral pair, and electron detachment of a negative chlorine ion. Electron temperature is lower than heavy-particle temperature by roughly 1000 K. The electron-argon impact-ionization rate coefficient is a weak function of electron temperature in contradiction to expectation.
Limitations of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
Madaan, Sanjeev; Joyce, Adrian D
2007-03-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the preferred modality for the treatment of renal and upper ureteric calculi. The present review focuses on the limitations of ESWL, where recent developments have tried to identify patients who are unlikely to succeed with ESWL and where improvements in shock wave delivery may increase successful stone fragmentation. Evaluation of patients prior to ESWL is especially important, and the use of imaging in the decision process, with the use of computed tomography attenuation values and skin-to-stone distance, can help improve our ability to identify suitable patients for shock wave treatment. Continued research into the methods of shock wave delivery techniques and lithotripter designs will help achieve better stone fragmentation rates with reduced side effects. The importance of traditional factors in predicting ESWL success, such as stone size, location, composition and renal anatomy, are well known. More recently, authors have created nomograms to predict stone-free outcome after ESWL. Others have used the information obtained from computed tomography to predict stone comminution. In addition, modifications in shock wave delivery by altering shock rate and voltage have been researched in an effort to improve shock wave efficacy.
Shock waves in strongly coupled plasmas
Khlebnikov, Sergei; Kruczenski, Martin; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios
2010-12-15
Shock waves are supersonic disturbances propagating in a fluid and giving rise to dissipation and drag. Weak shocks, i.e., those of small amplitude, can be well described within the hydrodynamic approximation. On the other hand, strong shocks are discontinuous within hydrodynamics and therefore probe the microscopics of the theory. In this paper, we consider the case of the strongly coupled N=4 plasma whose microscopic description, applicable for scales smaller than the inverse temperature, is given in terms of gravity in an asymptotically AdS{sub 5} space. In the gravity approximation, weak and strong shocks should be described by smooth metrics with no discontinuities. For weak shocks, we find the dual metric in a derivative expansion, and for strong shocks we use linearized gravity to find the exponential tail that determines the width of the shock. In particular, we find that, when the velocity of the fluid relative to the shock approaches the speed of light v{yields}1 the penetration depth l scales as l{approx}(1-v{sup 2}){sup 1/4}. We compare the results with second-order hydrodynamics and the Israel-Stewart approximation. Although they all agree in the hydrodynamic regime of weak shocks, we show that there is not even qualitative agreement for strong shocks. For the gravity side, the existence of shock waves implies that there are disturbances of constant shape propagating on the horizon of the dual black holes.
Computation of shock wave/target interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mark, A.; Kutler, P.
1983-01-01
Computational results of shock waves impinging on targets and the ensuing diffraction flowfield are presented. A number of two-dimensional cases are computed with finite difference techniques. The classical case of a shock wave/cylinder interaction is compared with shock tube data and shows the quality of the computations on a pressure-time plot. Similar results are obtained for a shock wave/rectangular body interaction. Here resolution becomes important and the use of grid clustering techniques tend to show good agreement with experimental data. Computational results are also compared with pressure data resulting from shock impingement experiments for a complicated truck-like geometry. Here of significance are the grid generation and clustering techniques used. For these very complicated bodies, grids are generated by numerically solving a set of elliptic partial differential equations.
The microphysics of collisionless shock waves.
Marcowith, A; Bret, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O'C; Lembège, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem
2016-04-01
Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics.
Shock waves on complex networks
Mones, Enys; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Vicsek, Tamás; Herrmann, Hans J.
2014-01-01
Power grids, road maps, and river streams are examples of infrastructural networks which are highly vulnerable to external perturbations. An abrupt local change of load (voltage, traffic density, or water level) might propagate in a cascading way and affect a significant fraction of the network. Almost discontinuous perturbations can be modeled by shock waves which can eventually interfere constructively and endanger the normal functionality of the infrastructure. We study their dynamics by solving the Burgers equation under random perturbations on several real and artificial directed graphs. Even for graphs with a narrow distribution of node properties (e.g., degree or betweenness), a steady state is reached exhibiting a heterogeneous load distribution, having a difference of one order of magnitude between the highest and average loads. Unexpectedly we find for the European power grid and for finite Watts-Strogatz networks a broad pronounced bimodal distribution for the loads. To identify the most vulnerable nodes, we introduce the concept of node-basin size, a purely topological property which we show to be strongly correlated to the average load of a node. PMID:24821422
Existence Regions of Shock Wave Triple Configurations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bulat, Pavel V.; Chernyshev, Mikhail V.
2016-01-01
The aim of the research is to create the classification for shock wave triple configurations and their existence regions of various types: type 1, type 2, type 3. Analytical solutions for limit Mach numbers and passing shock intensity that define existence region of every type of triple configuration have been acquired. The ratios that conjugate…
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in childhood
Kroovand, R.L.; Harrison, L.H.; McCullough, D.L.
1987-10-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the treatment of choice for the majority of upper urinary calculi in adults. Technical limitations, including patient size and concerns over post-treatment stone fragment passage, have made the application of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in children less clearly defined. We report the successful application of the Dornier lithotriptor in the management of 18 children (22 kidneys) with upper urinary calculi.
Nonlinear Fresnel diffraction of weak shock waves.
Coulouvrat, François; Marchiano, Régis
2003-10-01
Fresnel diffraction at a straight edge is revisited for nonlinear acoustics. Considering the penumbra region as a diffraction boundary layer governed by the KZ equation and its associated jump relations for shocks, similarity laws are established for the diffraction of a step shock, an "N" wave, or a periodic sawtooth wave. Compared to the linear case described by the well-known Fresnel functions, it is shown that weak shock waves penetrate more deeply into the shadow zone than linear waves. The thickness of the penumbra increases as a power of the propagation distance, power 1 for a step shock, or 3/4 for an N wave, as opposed to power 1/2 for a periodic sawtooth wave or a linear wave. This is explained considering the frequency spectrum of the waveform and its nonlinear evolution along the propagation, and is confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the KZ equation. New formulas for the Rayleigh/Fresnel distance in the case of nonlinear diffraction of weak shock waves by a large, finite aperture are deduced from the present study.
Shock wave-boundary layer interaction in forced shock oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doerffer, Piotr; Szulc, Oskar; Magagnato, Franco
2003-02-01
The flow in transonic diffusers as well as in supersonic air intakes becomes often unsteady due to shock wave boundary layer interaction. The oscillations may be induced by natural separation unsteadiness or may be forced by boundary conditions. Significant improvement of CFD tools, increase of computer resources as well as development of experimental methods have again drawn the attention of researchers to this topic. To investigate the problem forced oscillations of transonic turbulent flow in asymmetric two-dimensional Laval nozzle were considered. A viscous, perfect gas flow, was numerically simulated using the Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes solver SPARC, employing a two-equation, eddy viscosity, turbulence closure in the URANS approach. For time-dependent and stationary flow simulations, Mach numbers upstream of the shock between 1.2 and 1.4 were considered. Comparison of computed and experimental data for steady states generally gave acceptable agreement. In the case of forced oscillations, a harmonic pressure variation was prescribed at the exit plane resulting in shock wave motion. Excitation frequencies between 0 Hz and 1024 Hz were investigated at the same pressure amplitude. The main result of the work carried out is the relation between the amplitude of the shock wave motion and the excitation frequency in the investigated range. Increasing excitation frequency resulted in decreasing amplitude of the shock movement. At high frequencies a natural mode of shock oscillation (of small amplitude) was observed which is not sensitive to forced excitement.
Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition
Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2013-08-15
A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number M{sub s0} is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter M{sub s}{sup −2}. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock Λ(t)∝dU{sub s}/dR{sub s} now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.
Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan
2013-01-01
Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.
Shock wave strengthening through area reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skews, B. W.; Subiah, S. D.; Paton, R. T.
2017-02-01
Experiments were conducted in a shock tube in order to determine the increases in shock wave strength due to reductions in area. Previous work has shown that if the reduction is too sudden significant wave reflections occur and gains are limited. A variety of curved symmetrical contractions are used, made up of parabolic surfaces with different points of inflection. High-speed Schlieren imaging was used to characterize the wave patterns with particular emphasis on wave reflections. Greatest wave amplification is present when Mach reflection of the wave is not reached at all, and this was found to occur with parabolic profiles with inflection point at 60% of the profile length. Clear Mach reflection is evident with the inflection point at 40% and the post shock flow shows significant reflected waves with their associated losses. With an area reduction of 80% and a inflection point at 60% of the contraction, a typical result gives an increase in Mach number from 1.6 to 2.0, corresponding to a 61% increase in post-shock pressure. It is found that profiles with later inflection points provide a more gradual initial area change and allow weaker compression waves to develop which can significantly reduce or even avoid transition to Mach reflection.
Attenuation of a shock wave in organoplastic
Bordzilovskii, S.A.; Karakhanov, S.M.; Merzhievskii, L.A.; Resnyanskii, A.D.
1995-09-01
The attenuation of a plane shock wave in organoplastic was experimentally and numerically investigated during its interaction with an overtaking rarefaction wave. Measurements were carried out with manganin gauges. An earlier formulation model of the dynamic deformation of composites was used in calculations. A comparison of calculated and experimental data has shown their good agreement.
Intense Shock Waves and Nonideal Plasma Physics: Shock Compression Science Award Lecture
Fortov, V. E.
2006-07-28
The physical properties of hot dense plasmas at megabar pressures in a broad area of material phase diagrams are of great interest for astro and planetary physics, and for many applications in inertial confinement fusion, energetics, defense and many other areas. The use of intense shock waves in physical and chemical research has made the exotic extreme state of plasmas an object of laboratory or semilaboratory experiments. In this presentation a brief summary of scientific results of experimental investigations of strongly coupled nonideal plasma by intense shock waves is presented. Equations of state, compositions, and thermodynamic transport properties, as well as the electrical conductivity of strongly coupled plasmas generated by intense shock and rarefaction waves, are presented. Experimental methods for the generation of high energy densities in condensed matter, drivers for shock waves, and fast diagnostics are discussed. The pressure ionization and 'dielectrization' of hot coupled matter are studied. The electrical conductivity and adiabatic compressibility of strongly coupled hydrogen and deuterium plasma demonstrate the first signature of plasma phase transition.
Relativistic soliton-like collisionless ionization wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arefiev, Alexey; McCormick, Matthew; Quevedo, Hernan; Bengtson, Roger; Ditmire, Todd
2014-10-01
It has been observed in recent experiments with laser-irradiated gas jets that a plasma filament produced by the laser and containing energetic electrons can launch a relativistic ionization wave into ambient gas. Here we present a self-consistent theory that explains how a collisionless ionization wave can propagate in a self-sustaining regime. A population of hot electrons necessarily generates a sheath electric field at the plasma boundary. This field penetrates the ambient gas, ionizing the gas atoms and thus causing the plasma boundary to expand. We show that the motion of the newly generated electrons can form a potential well adjacent to the plasma boundary. The outwards motion of the well causes a bunch of energetic electrons to become trapped, while allowing the newly generated electrons to escape into the plasma without retaining much energy. The resulting soliton-like ionizing field structure propagates outwards with a bunch of hot electrons that maintain a strong sheath field despite significant plasma expansion. We also present 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations that illustrate the described mechanism. The simulations were performed using HPC resources provided by the Texas Advanced Computing Center. This work was supported by NNSA Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512 and U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-FG02-04ER54742.
Plasma shock waves excited by THz radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudin, S.; Rupper, G.; Shur, M.
2016-10-01
The shock plasma waves in Si MOS, InGaAs and GaN HEMTs are launched at a relatively small THz power that is nearly independent of the THz input frequency for short channel (22 nm) devices and increases with frequency for longer (100 nm to 1 mm devices). Increasing the gate-to-channel separation leads to a gradual transition of the nonlinear waves from the shock waves to solitons. The mathematics of this transition is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation that has the single propagating soliton solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Obara, Tetsuro; Onodera, Osamu
1991-04-01
Underwater shock wave focusing is successfully applied to disintegrate and remove kidney stones or gallbladder stones without using surgical operations. This treatment is one of the most peaceful applications ofshock waves and is named as the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Ajoint research project is going on between the Institute ofFluid Science, Tohoku University and the School ofMedicine, Tohoku University. The paper describes a result of the fundamental research on the underwater shock wave focusing applied to the ESWL. Quantitatively to visualize the underwater shock waves, various optical flow visualization techniques were successfully used such as holographic interferometry, and shadowgraphs combined with Ima-Con high speed camera. Double exposure holographic interferometric observation revealed the mechanism of generation, propagation and focusing of underwater shock waves. The result of the present research was already used to manufacture a prototype machine and it has already been applied successfully to ESWL crinical treatments. However, despite of success in the clinical treatments, important fundamental questions still remain unsolved, i.e., effects of underwater shock wave focusing on tissue damage during the treatment. Model experiments were conducted to clarify mechanism of the tissue damage associated with the ESWL. Shock-bubble interactions were found responsible to the tissue damage during the ESWL treatment. In order to interprete experimental findings and to predict shock wave behavior and high pressures, a numerical simulation was carried. The numerical results agreed with the experiments.
Kim, I.; Quevedo, H. J.; Feldman, S.; Bang, W.; Serratto, K.; McCormick, M.; Aymond, F.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T.
2013-12-15
Radiative blast waves were created by irradiating a krypton cluster source from a supersonic jet with a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. It was found that the radiation from the shock surface is absorbed in the optically thick upstream medium creating a radiative heat wave that travels supersonically ahead of the main shock. As the blast wave propagates into the heated medium, it slows and loses energy, and the radiative heat wave also slows down. When the radiative heat wave slows down to the transonic regime, a secondary shock in the ionization precursor is produced. This paper presents experimental data characterizing both the initial and secondary shocks and numerical simulations to analyze the double-shock dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, I.; Quevedo, H. J.; Feldman, S.; Bang, W.; Serratto, K.; McCormick, M.; Aymond, F.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T.
2013-12-01
Radiative blast waves were created by irradiating a krypton cluster source from a supersonic jet with a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. It was found that the radiation from the shock surface is absorbed in the optically thick upstream medium creating a radiative heat wave that travels supersonically ahead of the main shock. As the blast wave propagates into the heated medium, it slows and loses energy, and the radiative heat wave also slows down. When the radiative heat wave slows down to the transonic regime, a secondary shock in the ionization precursor is produced. This paper presents experimental data characterizing both the initial and secondary shocks and numerical simulations to analyze the double-shock dynamics.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for tendinopathies.
Seil, Romain; Wilmes, Philippe; Nührenbörger, Christian
2006-07-01
Shock waves, as applied in urology and gastroenterology, were introduced in the middle of the last decade in Germany to treat different pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, including epicondylitis of the elbow, plantar fasciitis, and calcifying and noncalcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. With the noninvasive nature of these waves and their seemingly low complication rate, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) seemed a promising alternative to the established conservative and surgical options in the treatment of patients with chronically painful conditions. However, the apparent advantages of the method led to a rapid diffusion and even inflationary use of ESWT; prospective, randomized studies on the mechanisms and effects of shock waves on musculoskeletal tissues were urgently needed to define more accurate indications and optimize therapeutic outcome. This review covers recent international research in the field and presents actual indications and results in therapy of musculoskeletal conditions with ESWT.
Weak-shock theory for spherical shock waves
Curtis, W.D.; Rosenkilde, C.E.; Yee, K.S.
1982-03-01
We develop weak shock theory in a form which would allow us to utilize output from a hydrodynamic code (e.g. KOVEC) as either an initial or boundary condition and then follow the wave evolution to much greater distances than the codes themselves can attain.
Stishovite: Synthesis by shock wave
De Carli, P. S.; Milton, D.J.
1965-01-01
Small amounts of stishovite were separated from specimens of explosively shocked sandstones, novaculite, and single-crystal quartz. Estimated peak pressures for the syntheses ranged from 150 to 280 kilobars, and shock temperatures were from 150?? to 900??C. No coesite was detected in any sample. It is suggested that quartz can invert during shock to a short-range-order phase, with sixfold coordination. A small portion of this phase may develop the long-range order of stishovite, and, during the more protracted decrease of the pressure pulse through the stability field of coesite accompanying meteorite crater formation, a portion may invert to coesite.
Stishovite: Synthesis by Shock Wave.
De Carli, P S; Milton, D J
1965-01-08
Small amounts of stishovite were separated from specimens of explosively shocked sandstones, novaculite, and single-crystal quartz. Estimated peak pressures for the syntheses ranged from 150 to 280 kilobars, and shock temperatures were from 150 degrees to 900 degrees C. No coesite was detected in any sample. It is suggested that quartz can invert during shock to a short-range-order phase, with sixfold coordination. A small portion of this phase may develop the long-range order of stishovite, and, during the more protracted decrease of the pressure pulse through the stability field of coesite accompanying meteorite crater formation, a portion may invert to coesite.
Turbulent Water Coupling in Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Lautz, Jaclyn; Sankin, Georgy; Zhong, Pei
2013-01-01
Previous studies have demonstrated that stone comminution decreases with increased pulse repetition frequency as a result of bubble proliferation in the cavitation field of a shock wave lithotripter (Pishchalnikov et al., 2011). If cavitation nuclei remain in the propagation path of successive lithotripter pulses, especially in the acoustic coupling cushion of the shock wave source, they will consume part of the incident wave energy, leading to reduced tensile pressure in the focal region and thus lower stone comminution efficiency. We introduce a method to remove cavitation nuclei from the coupling cushion between successive shock exposures using a jet of degassed water. As a result, pre-focal bubble nuclei lifetime quantified by B-mode ultrasound imaging was reduced from 7 s to 0.3 s by a jet with an exit velocity of 62 cm/s. Stone fragmentation (percent mass < 2 mm) after 250 shocks delivered at 1 Hz was enhanced from 22 ± 6% to 33 ± 5% (p = 0.007) in water without interposing tissue mimicking materials. Stone fragmentation after 500 shocks delivered at 2 Hz was increased from 18 ± 6% to 28 ± 8% (p = 0.04) with an interposing tissue phantom of 8 cm thick. These results demonstrate the critical influence of cavitation bubbles in the coupling cushion on stone comminution and suggest a potential strategy to improve the efficacy of contemporary shock wave lithotripters. PMID:23322027
Some aspects of shock-wave research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glass, I. I.
1986-01-01
Examples are given of shock-wave phenomena on Earth and in space. A specific shock-wave research problem, namely, pseudostationary oblique shock-wave reflections in perfect and imperfect gases is presented. Consideration is given to what has been achieved to date by using two- and three-shock theory to predict what type of reflection results when a planar shock wave M sub s, in a shock tube, collides with a sharp compressive wedge of angle, theta sub w. Experimental (interferometric and other optical) data are presented in (M sub s, theta sub w)-plots for argon, nitrogen, oxygen, air carbon-dioxide, Freon 12 and sulfurhexafluoride, in order to check the validity of the analytically predicted regions and transition lines of the four types of reflection (RR, SMR, CMR, DMR). Some disagreements are noted and discussed. Our interferometric isopycnic data are also compared with state-of-the-art computational results from a solution of the inviscid Euler equations using a CRAY I computer. Good agreement was obtained, yet, it would be important to obtain new data by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as the rate equations for imperfect-gas excitations, in order to judge the improvement obtained with real-flow interferograms.
Turbulent water coupling in shock wave lithotripsy.
Lautz, Jaclyn; Sankin, Georgy; Zhong, Pei
2013-02-07
Previous studies have demonstrated that stone comminution decreases with increased pulse repetition frequency as a result of bubble proliferation in the cavitation field of a shock wave lithotripter (Pishchalnikov et al 2011 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130 EL87-93). If cavitation nuclei remain in the propagation path of successive lithotripter pulses, especially in the acoustic coupling cushion of the shock wave source, they will consume part of the incident wave energy, leading to reduced tensile pressure in the focal region and thus lower stone comminution efficiency. We introduce a method to remove cavitation nuclei from the coupling cushion between successive shock exposures using a jet of degassed water. As a result, pre-focal bubble nuclei lifetime quantified by B-mode ultrasound imaging was reduced from 7 to 0.3 s by a jet with an exit velocity of 62 cm s(-1). Stone fragmentation (percent mass <2 mm) after 250 shocks delivered at 1 Hz was enhanced from 22 ± 6% to 33 ± 5% (p = 0.007) in water without interposing tissue mimicking materials. Stone fragmentation after 500 shocks delivered at 2 Hz was increased from 18 ± 6% to 28 ± 8% (p = 0.04) with an interposing tissue phantom of 8 cm thick. These results demonstrate the critical influence of cavitation bubbles in the coupling cushion on stone comminution and suggest a potential strategy to improve the efficacy of contemporary shock wave lithotripters.
Damage mechanisms in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lokhandwalla, Murtuza
Shock wave lithotripsy is a 'non-invasive' therapy for treating kidney stones. Focused shock waves fragment stones to a size that can be passed naturally. There is, however, considerable tissue injury, and the mechanisms of stone fragmentation and tissue injury are not well understood. This work investigates potential tissue damage mechanisms, with an aim towards enhancing stone fragmentation and minimizing tissue damage. Lysis of red blood cells (RBC's) due to in vitro exposure to shock waves was investigated. Fluid flow-fields induced by a non-uniform shock wave, as well as radial expansion/implosion of a bubble was hypothesized to cause cell lysis. Both the above flow-fields constitute an unsteady extensional flow, exerting inertial as well as viscous forces on the RBC membrane. The resultant membrane tension and the membrane areal strain due to the above flow-fields were estimated. Both were found to exert a significantly higher inertial force (50--100 mN/m) than the critical membrane tension (10 mN/m). Bubble-induced flow-field was estimated to last for a longer duration (˜1 microsec) compared to the shock-induced flow (˜1 ns) and hence, was predicted to be lytically more effective, in typical in vitro experimental conditions. However, in vivo conditions severely constrain bubble growth, and cell lysis due to shock-induced shear could be dominant. Hemolysis due to shock-induced shear, in absence of cavitation, was experimentally investigated. The lithotripter-generated shock wave was refocused by a parabolic reflector. This refocused wave-field had a tighter focus (smaller beam-width and a higher amplitude) than the lithotripter wave-field. Cavitation was eliminated by applying overpressure to the fluid. Acoustic emissions due to bubble activity were monitored by a novel passive cavitation detector (HP-PCD). Aluminum foils were also used to differentiate cavitational from non-cavitational mode of damage. RBC's were exposed to the reflected wave-field from
Shock Wave Structure Mediated by Energetic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.
2016-12-01
Energetic particles such as cosmic rays, Pick Up Ions (PUIs), and solar energetic particles can affect all facets of plasma physics and astrophysical plasma. Energetic particles play an especially significant role in the dissipative process at shocks and in determining their structure. The very interesting recent observations of shocks in the inner heliosphere found that many shocks appear to be significantly mediated by solar energetic particles which have a pressure that exceeds considerably both the thermal gas pressure and the magnetic field pressure. Energetic particles contribute an isotropic scalar pressure to the plasma system at the leading order, as well as introducing dissipation via a collisionless heat flux (diffusion) at the next order and a collisionless stress tensor (viscosity) at the second order. Cosmic-ray modified shocks were discussed by Axford et al. (1982), Drury (1983), and Webb (1983). Zank et al. (2014) investigated the incorporation of PUIs in the supersonic solar wind beyond 10AU, in the inner Heliosheath and in the Very Local Interstellar Medium. PUIs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background plasma in these regimes. In the absence of equilibration between plasma components, a separate coupled plasma description for the energetic particles is necessary. This model is used to investigate the structure of shock waves assuming that we can neglect the magnetic field. Specifically, we consider the dissipative role that both the energetic particle collisionless heat flux and viscosity play in determining the structure of collisionless shock waves. We show that the incorporation of both energetic particle collisionless heat flux and viscosity is sufficient to completely determine the structure of a shock. Moreover, shocks with three sub-shocks converge to the weak sub-shocks. This work differs from the investigation of Jokipii and Williams (1992) who restricted their attention to a cold thermal gas. For a cold thermal non
Shock waves: The Maxwell-Cattaneo case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, F. J.
2016-03-01
Several continuum theories for shock waves give rise to a set of differential equations in which the analysis of the underlying vector field can be done using the tools of the theory of dynamical systems. We illustrate the importance of the divergences associated with the vector field by considering the ideas by Maxwell and Cattaneo and apply them to study shock waves in dilute gases. By comparing the predictions of the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations with shock wave experiments we are lead to the following conclusions: (a) For low compressions (low Mach numbers: M ) the results from the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations provide profiles that are in fair agreement with the experiments, (b) as the Mach number is increased we find a range of Mach numbers (1.27 ≈M1
Shock waves: The Maxwell-Cattaneo case.
Uribe, F J
2016-03-01
Several continuum theories for shock waves give rise to a set of differential equations in which the analysis of the underlying vector field can be done using the tools of the theory of dynamical systems. We illustrate the importance of the divergences associated with the vector field by considering the ideas by Maxwell and Cattaneo and apply them to study shock waves in dilute gases. By comparing the predictions of the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations with shock wave experiments we are lead to the following conclusions: (a) For low compressions (low Mach numbers: M) the results from the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations provide profiles that are in fair agreement with the experiments, (b) as the Mach number is increased we find a range of Mach numbers (1.27 ≈ M(1) < M < M(2) ≈ 1.90) such that numerical shock wave solutions to the Maxwell-Cattaneo equations cannot be found, and (c) for greater Mach numbers (M>M_{2}) shock wave solutions can be found though they differ significantly from experiments.
The structure of radiative shock waves. IV. Effects of electron thermal conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fadeyev, Yu. A.; Le Coroller, H.; Gillet, D.
2002-09-01
We consider the structure of steady-state radiative shock waves propagating in partially ionized hydrogen gas with density rho1 = 10-10 gm cm-3 and temperature 3000 Kle T1<=8000 K. The radiative shock wave models with electron thermal conduction in the vicinity of the viscous jump are compared with pure radiative models. The threshold shock wave velocity above which effects of electron thermal conduction become perceptible is found to be U1*~ 70 km s-1 and corresponds to the upstream Mach numbers from M1~ 6 at T1=8000 K to M1~ 11 at T1=3000 K. In shocks with efficient electron heat conduction more than a half of the hydrogen atoms are ionized in the radiative precursor, whereas behind the viscous jump the hydrogen gas undergoes the full ionization. The existence of the electron heat conduction precursor leads to the enhancement of the Lyman continuum flux trapped in the surroundings of the discontinuous jump. As a result, the partially ionized hydrogen gas of the radiative precursor undergoes an additional ionization (deltaxH <~ 5%), whereas the total radiave flux emerging from the shock wave increases by 10%le delta (FR) <=25% for 70 km s-1le U1 <=85 km s-1.
Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2011-11-29
Nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) electro-acoustic [dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dust charge fluctuation (strong correlation among highly charged dust) is the source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DIA (DA) shock structures. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries on the time evolution of DIA and DA shock structures are examined and identified. The combined effects of vortex-like electron distribution and dust charge fluctuation (dust-correlation and effective dust-temperature) on the basic features of nonplanar DIA (DA) shock waves are pinpointed. The implications of our results in laboratory dusty plasma experiments are briefly discussed.
Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2011-11-01
Nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) electro-acoustic [dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dust charge fluctuation (strong correlation among highly charged dust) is the source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DIA (DA) shock structures. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries on the time evolution of DIA and DA shock structures are examined and identified. The combined effects of vortex-like electron distribution and dust charge fluctuation (dust-correlation and effective dust-temperature) on the basic features of nonplanar DIA (DA) shock waves are pinpointed. The implications of our results in laboratory dusty plasma experiments are briefly discussed.
Polymerization, shock cooling and ionization of liquid nitrogen
Ross, M; Rogers, F
2005-07-21
The trajectory of thermodynamic states passed through by the nitrogen Hugoniot starting from the liquid and up to 10{sup 6} GPa has been studied. An earlier report of cooling in the doubly shocked liquid, near 50 to 100 GPa and 7500 K, is revisited in light of the recent discovery of solid polymeric nitrogen. It is found that cooling occurs when the doubly shocked liquid is driven into a volume near the molecular to polymer transition and raising the possibility of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT). By increasing the shock pressure and temperature by an order of magnitude, theoretical calculations predict thermal ionization of the L shell drives the compression maxima to 5-6 fold compression at 10 Mbar (T {approx} 3.5 10{sup 5} K) and at 400 Mbar (T {approx} 2.3 10{sup 6} K) from K shell ionization. Near a pressure of 10{sup 6} GPa the K shell ionizes completely and the Hugoniot approaches the classical ideal gas compression fourfold limit.
Shock Wave Structure in Particulate Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauls, Michael; Ravichandran, Guruswami
2015-06-01
Shock wave experiments are conducted on a particulate composite consisting of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix reinforced by glass beads. Such a composite with an impedance mismatch of 4.3 closely mimics heterogeneous solids of interest such as concrete and energetic materials. The composite samples are prepared using a compression molding process. The structure and particle velocity rise times of the shocks are examined using forward ballistic experiments. Reverse ballistic experiments are used to track how the interface density influences velocity overshoot above the steady state particle velocity. The effects of particle size (0.1 to 1 mm) and volume fraction of glass beads (30-40%) on the structure of the leading shock wave are investigated. It is observed that the rise time increases with increasing particle size and scales linearly for the range of particle sizes considered here. Results from numerical simulations using CTH are compared with experimental results to gain insights into wave propagation in heterogeneous particulate composites.
Magnetoacoustic shock waves in dissipative degenerate plasmas
Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.
2011-11-15
Quantum magnetoacoustic shock waves are studied in homogenous, magnetized, dissipative dense electron-ion plasma by using two fluid quantum magneto-hydrodynamic (QMHD) model. The weak dissipation effects in the system are taken into account through kinematic viscosity of the ions. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) equation for magnetoacoustic wave propagating in the perpendicular direction to the external magnetic field in dense plasmas. The strength of magnetoacoustic shock is investigated with the variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, and ion kinematic viscosity of dense plasma system. The necessary condition for the existence of monotonic and oscillatory shock waves is also discussed. The numerical results are presented for illustration by using the data of astrophysical dense plasma situations such as neutron stars exist in the literature.
Lynch, Patrick T; Troy, Tyler P; Ahmed, Musahid; Tranter, Robert S
2015-02-17
Tunable synchrotron-sourced photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOF-MS) is an important technique in combustion chemistry, complementing lab-scale electron impact and laser photoionization studies for a wide variety of reactors, typically at low pressure. For high-temperature and high-pressure chemical kinetics studies, the shock tube is the reactor of choice. Extending the benefits of shock tube/TOF-MS research to include synchrotron sourced PI-TOF-MS required a radical reconception of the shock tube. An automated, miniature, high-repetition-rate shock tube was developed and can be used to study high-pressure reactive systems (T > 600 K, P < 100 bar) behind reflected shock waves. In this paper, we present results of a PI-TOF-MS study at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dimethyl ether pyrolysis (2% CH3OCH3/Ar) was observed behind the reflected shock (1400 < T5 < 1700 K, 3 < P5 < 16 bar) with ionization energies between 10 and 13 eV. Individual experiments have extremely low signal levels. However, product species and radical intermediates are well-resolved when averaging over hundreds of shots, which is ordinarily impractical in conventional shock tube studies. The signal levels attained and data throughput rates with this technique are comparable to those with other synchrotron-based PI-TOF-MS reactors, and it is anticipated that this high pressure technique will greatly complement those lower pressure techniques.
Reflection and Refraction of Acoustic Waves by a Shock Wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brillouin, J.
1957-01-01
The presence of sound waves in one or the other of the fluid regions on either side of a shock wave is made apparent, in the region under superpressure, by acoustic waves (reflected or refracted according to whether the incident waves lie in the region of superpressure or of subpressure) and by thermal waves. The characteristics of these waves are calculated for a plane, progressive, and uniform incident wave. In the case of refraction, the refracted acoustic wave can, according to the incidence, be plane, progressive, and uniform or take the form of an 'accompanying wave' which remains attached to the front of the shock while sliding parallel to it. In all cases, geometrical constructions permit determination of the kinematic characteristics of the reflected or refractive acoustic waves. The dynamic relationships show that the amplitude of the reflected wave is always less than that of the incident wave. The amplitude of the refracted wave, whatever its type, may in certain cases be greater than that of the incident wave.
Laser Light Scattering by Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Adamovsky, G.
1995-01-01
Scattering of coherent light as it propagates parallel to a shock wave, formed in front of a bluff cylindrical body placed in a supersonic stream, is studied experimentally and numerically. Two incident optical fields are considered. First, a large diameter collimated beam is allowed to pass through the shock containing flow. The light intensity distribution in the resultant shadowgraph image, measured by a low light CCD camera, shows well-defined fringes upstream and downstream of the shadow cast by the shock. In the second situation, a narrow laser beam is brought to a grazing incidence on the shock and the scattered light, which appears as a diverging sheet from the point of interaction, is visualized and measured on a screen placed normal to the laser path. Experiments are conducted on shocks formed at various free-stream Mach numbers, M, and total pressures, P(sub 0). It is found that the widths of the shock shadows in a shadowgraph image become independent of M and P(sub 0) when plotted against the jump in the refractive index, (Delta)n, created across the shock. The total scattered light measured from the narrow laser beam and shock interaction also follows the same trend. In the numerical part of the study, the shock is assumed to be a 'phase object', which introduces phase difference between the upstream and downstream propagating parts of the light disturbances. For a given shape and (Delta)n of the bow shock the phase and amplitude modulations are first calculated by ray tracing. The wave front is then propagated to the screen using the Fresnet diffraction equation. The calculated intensity distribution, for both of the incident optical fields, shows good agreement with the experimental data.
Shock waves from nonspherical cavitation bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Tinguely, Marc; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Farhat, Mohamed
2017-09-01
We present detailed observations of the shock waves emitted at the collapse of single cavitation bubbles using simultaneous time-resolved shadowgraphy and hydrophone pressure measurements. The geometry of the bubbles is systematically varied from spherical to very nonspherical by decreasing their distance to a free or rigid surface or by modulating the gravity-induced pressure gradient aboard parabolic flights. The nonspherical collapse produces multiple shocks that are clearly associated with different processes, such as the jet impact and the individual collapses of the distinct bubble segments. For bubbles collapsing near a free surface, the energy and timing of each shock are measured separately as a function of the anisotropy parameter ζ , which represents the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. For a given source of bubble deformation (free surface, rigid surface, or gravity), the normalized shock energy depends only on ζ , irrespective of the bubble radius R0 and driving pressure Δ p . Based on this finding, we develop a predictive framework for the peak pressure and energy of shock waves from nonspherical bubble collapses. Combining statistical analysis of the experimental data with theoretical derivations, we find that the shock peak pressures can be estimated as jet impact-induced hammer pressures, expressed as ph=0.45 (ρc2Δ p ) 1 /2ζ-1 at ζ >10-3 . The same approach is found to explain the shock energy decreasing as a function of ζ-2 /3.
Mechanochemistry for shock wave energy dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, William L.; Ren, Yi; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Dlott, Dana D.
2017-01-01
Using a laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus to launch 75 μm thick Al flyers up to 2.8 km/s, we developed a technique for detecting the attenuation of shock waves by mechanically-driven chemical reactions. The attenuating sample was spread on an ultrathin Au mirror deposited onto a glass window having a known Hugoniot. As shock energy exited the sample and passed through the mirror, into the glass, photonic Doppler velocimetry monitored the velocity profile of the ultrathin mirror. Knowing the window Hugoniot, the velocity profile could be quantitatively converted into a shock energy flux or fluence. The flux gave the temporal profile of the shock front, and showed how the shock front was reshaped by passing through the dissipative medium. The fluence, the time-integrated flux, showed how much shock energy was transmitted through the sample. Samples consisted of microgram quantities of carefully engineered organic compounds selected for their potential to undergo negative-volume chemistry. Post mortem analytical methods were used to confirm that shock dissipation was associated with shock-induced chemical reactions.
Propagation of shock waves through clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xin Xin
1990-10-01
The behavior of a shock wave propagating into a cloud consisting of an inert gas, water vapor and water droplets was investigated. This has particular application to sonic bangs propagating in the atmosphere. The finite different method of MacCormack is extended to solve the one and two dimensional, two phase flow problems in which mass, momentum and energy transfers are included. The FCT (Fluid Corrected Transport) technique developed by Boris and Book was used in the basic numerical scheme as a powerful corrective procedure. The results for the transmitted shock waves propagating in a one dimensional, semi infinite cloud obtained by the finite difference approach are in good agreement with previous results by Kao using the method characteristics. The advantage of the finite difference method is its adaptability to two and three dimensional problems. Shock wave propagation through a finite cloud and into an expansion with a 90 degree corner was investigated. It was found that the transfer processes between the two phases in two dimensional flow are much more complicated than in the one dimensional flow cases. This is mainly due to the vortex and expansion wave generated at the corner. In the case considered, further complications were generated by the reflected shock wave from the floor. Good agreement with experiment was found for one phase flow but experimental data for the two phase case is not yet available to validate the two phase calculations.
Biological effects of shock waves: lung hemorrhage by shock waves in dogs--pressure dependence.
Delius, M; Enders, G; Heine, G; Stark, J; Remberger, K; Brendel, W
1987-02-01
The most serious side effect observed during the destruction of gallstones by shock waves in dogs was lung bleeding. To determine the conditions leading to lung damage, pressure probes were implanted into dogs between the lung and the diaphragm. The distance between the lung and the focal point of the pressure field was determined at which 1000 shock waves caused no more lung hemorrhage. On the long axis it is greater than 15 cm and perpendicular to the long axis it is 4 cm. Shock wave pressures over 2 MPa could be administered safely, whereas a pressure of 10 MPa caused bleedings in beagles, but probably not in boxers.
Injection to Rapid Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Perpendicular Shocks in Partially Ionized Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohira, Yutaka
2016-08-01
We present a three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a collisionless perpendicular shock in a partially ionized plasma for the first time. In this simulation, the shock velocity and upstream ionization fraction are v sh ≈ 1333 km s-1 and f i ˜ 0.5, which are typical values for isolated young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium. We confirm previous two-dimensional simulation results showing that downstream hydrogen atoms leak into the upstream region and are accelerated by the pickup process in the upstream region, and large magnetic field fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the magnetic field fluctuations have three-dimensional structures and the leaking hydrogen atoms are injected into the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at the perpendicular shock after the pickup process. The observed DSA can be interpreted as shock drift acceleration with scattering. In this simulation, particles are accelerated to v ˜ 100 v sh ˜ 0.3 c within ˜100 gyroperiods. The acceleration timescale is faster than that of DSA in parallel shocks. Our simulation results suggest that SNRs can accelerate cosmic rays to 1015.5 eV (the knee) during the Sedov phase.
Shock Waves and the Origin of Life
1977-01-01
The thunder shock-wave can be approximated by the so-called cyl- indrical ’blast wave theory ’ (22, 24) for a single lightning stroke. The ’ theory ’ is... theory can be finally tested. Historically, the question of how life originated received the answer which was contemporarily available within the...Origin of Species," that the theory of spontaneous gpneration was finally aisproved by Louis Pasteur. In a series of exceptiorally lucid experiments
Magnetically accelerated foils for shock wave experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neff, Stephan; Ford, Jessica; Martinez, David; Plechaty, Christopher; Wright, Sandra; Presura, Radu
2008-04-01
The interaction of shock waves with inhomogeneous media is important in many astrophysical problems, e.g. the role of shock compression in star formation. Using scaled experiments with inhomogeneous foam targets makes it possible to study relevant physics in the laboratory, to better understand the mechanisms of shock compression and to benchmark astrophysical simulation codes. Experiments with flyer-generated shock waves have been performed on the Z machine in Sandia. The Zebra accelerator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) allows for complementary experiments with high repetition rate. First experiments on Zebra demonstrated flyer acceleration to sufficiently high velocities (around 2 km/s) and that laser shadowgraphy can image sound fronts in transparent targets. Based on this, we designed an optimized setup to improve the flyer parameters (higher speed and mass) to create shock waves in transparent media. Once x-ray backlighting with the Leopard laser at NTF is operational, we will switch to foam targets with parameters relevant for laboratory astrophysics.
Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1993-01-01
In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.
Some aspects of shock-wave research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glass, I. I.
1986-01-01
The major portion of the paper is devoted to a specific shock-wave research problem, namely, pseudostationary oblique shock-wave reflections in perfect and imperfect gases. Consideration is given to what has been achieved to date by using two- and three-shock theory to predict what type of reflection results when a planar shock wave M(S), in a shock tube, collides with a sharp compressive wedge of angle, theta(W). Expermental (interferometric and other optical) data are presented in (M(S), theta(W))-plots for argon, nitrogen, oxygen, air, carbon-dioxide, Freon-12 and sulfurhexafluoride, in order to check the validity of the analytically predicted regions and transition lines of the four types of reflection. Some disagreements are noted and discussed. The present interferometric isopycnic data are also compared with state-of-the-art computational results from a solution of the inviscid Euler equations using a CRAY I computer. Good agreement was obtained; it would be important, however, to obtain new data by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as the rate equations for imperfect-gas excitations, in order to judge the improvement obtained with real-flow interferograms.
State of the art extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Kandel, L.B. ); Harrison, L.H.; McCullough, D.L. )
1987-01-01
This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics that are covered are: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Development; Laser-Generated Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter; Radiation Exposure during ESWL; Caliceal Calculi; and Pediatric ESWL.
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney... Notifications (510(k)'s) for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripters Indicated for the Fragmentation of...
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney... Notifications (510(k)'s) for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripters Indicated for the Fragmentation of...
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney... Notifications (510(k)'s) for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripters Indicated for the Fragmentation of...
Magnetically accelerated foils for shock wave experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neff, S.; Ford, J.; Wright, S.; Martinez, D.; Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.
2009-08-01
Many astrophysical phenomena involve the interaction of a shock wave with an inhomogeneous background medium. Using scaled experiments with inhomogeneous foam targets makes it possible to study relevant physics in the laboratory to better understand the mechanisms of shock compression and to benchmark astrophysical simulation codes. First experiments on Zebra at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) have demonstrated flyer acceleration to sufficiently high velocities (up to 5 km/s) and that laser shadowgraphy can image sound fronts in transparent targets. Based on this, we designed an optimized setup to improve the flyer parameters (higher speed and mass) to create shock waves in transparent media. Once x-ray backlighting with the Leopard laser at NTF is operational, we will switch to foam targets with parameters relevant for laboratory astrophysics.
International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levashov, Pavel
2013-06-01
Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound
Passive control of unsteady condensation shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Matsuo, Shigeru; Shimamoto, Katsumi; Yasugi, Shinichi; Yu, Shen
2000-12-01
A rapid expansion of moist air or steam in a supersonic nozzle gives rise to nonequilibrium condensation phenomena. Thereby, if the heat released by condensation of water vapour exceeds a certain quantity, the flow will become unstable and periodic flow oscillations of the unsteady condensation shock wave will occur. For the passive control of shock-boundary layer interaction using the porous wall with a plenum underneath, many papers have been presented on the application of the technique to transonic airfoil flows. In this paper, the passive technique is applied to three types of oscillations of the unsteady condensation shock wave generated in a supersonic nozzle in order to suppress the unsteady behavior. As a result, the effects of number of slits and length of cavity on the aspect of flow field have been clarified numerically using a 3rd-order MUSCL type TVD finite-difference scheme with a second-order fractional-step for time integration.
Shock wave driven by a phased implosion
Menikoff, R.; Lackner, K.S.; Johnson, N.L.; Colgate, S.A.; Hyman, J.M. ); Miranda, G.A. )
1991-01-01
In this paper the theory of an axially phased radial implosion of a channel is developed. When the phase velocity of the implosion exceeds the sound velocity inside the channel, a planar shock wave traveling along the channel axis can develop. For the energy of the implosion system in the appropriate range, the theory predicts a stable steady-state flow configuration. The effect of the phased implosion is for the channel wall to form a nozzle that travels along the channel axis. The flow behind the axial shock is well described by the equations for nozzle flow with an additional dynamical degree of freedom for the shape of the wall. Experiments presented here verify the theoretical predictions. The numerical simulations show the formation of the axial shock during start-up and the approach to steady state to be in good agreement with experiment and theory. A potential application of the axially phased implosion is the design of a super shock tube.
The Collisions of Chondrules Behind Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ciesla, F. J.; Hood, L. L.
2004-01-01
One of the reasons that the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of chondrules has remained so elusive is that each proposed mechanism must be able to explain a large number of features observed in chondrules. Most models of chondrule formation focus on matching the expected thermal histories of chondrules: rapid heating followed by cooling during crystallization at rates between approx. 10-1000 K/hr [1], and references therein]. Thus far, only models for large shock waves in the solar nebula have quantitatively shown that the thermal evolution of millimeter-sized particles in the nebula can match these inferred thermal histories [2-4]. While this is a positive step for the shock wave model, further testing is needed to see if other properties of chondrules can be explained in the context of this model. One area of interest is understanding the collisional evolution of chondrules after they encounter a shock wave. These collisions could lead to sticking, destruction, or bouncing. Here we focus on understanding what conditions are needed for these different outcomes to occur and try to reconcile the seemingly contradictory conclusions reached by studies of compound chondrule formation and chondrule destruction by collisions behind a shock wave.
Density Shock Waves in Confined Microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva
2016-01-01
Motile and driven particles confined in microfluidic channels exhibit interesting emergent behavior, from propagating density bands to density shock waves. A deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for these emergent structures is relevant to a number of physical and biomedical applications. Here, we study the formation of density shock waves in the context of an idealized model of microswimmers confined in a narrow channel and subject to a uniform external flow. Interestingly, these density shock waves exhibit a transition from "subsonic" with compression at the back to "supersonic" with compression at the front of the population as the intensity of the external flow increases. This behavior is the result of a nontrivial interplay between hydrodynamic interactions and geometric confinement, and it is confirmed by a novel quasilinear wave model that properly captures the dependence of the shock formation on the external flow. These findings can be used to guide the development of novel mechanisms for controlling the emergent density distribution and the average population speed, with potentially profound implications on various processes in industry and biotechnology, such as the transport and sorting of cells in flow channels.
Uncovering the Secret of Shock Wave Lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, P.
Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is an engineering innovation that has revolutionized the treatment of kidney stone disease since the early 1980s [1] - [3]. Today, SWL is the first-line therapy for millions of patients worldwide with renal and upper urinary stones [3, 4].
Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner
Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.
1983-08-26
This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.
Constraining Stellar Feedbacks: Photo-ionization vs. Shock-ionization in Local Starburst Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Martin, C.; Pellerin, A.; Strickland, D.; Dopita, M. A.
2010-01-01
We present the small- and intermediate-scale structure of interstellar medium(ISM) of five local starburst galaxies; NGC1569, NGC4449, Holmberg II, NGC5236, and HE2-10. Each galaxy has four narrow band images for H-beta(4861A), [OIII](5007A), H-alpha(6563A), and [SII](6717,6731A) (or [NII](6583A)), imaged by Advanced Camera for Survey(ACS), Wide Field Planetary Camera 2(WFPC2), and Wide Field Camera 3(WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope(HST). We produce line diagnostics diagrams from those narrow band images on a pixel-by-pixel basis and discriminate shock-ionized gas (pixels) by using the ``maximum starburst line'' of Kewley et al. (2001). The properties of line ratios, [SII]/H-alpha vs [OIII]/H-beta, H-alpha vs [OIII]/H-beta, and H-alpha vs [SII]/H-alpha, for photo-ionized gas are well explained by the photo-ionization model of Kewley et al. (2001). When comparing the four galaxies, NGC3077, NGC4214, NGC5236, and NGC5253, previously studied in Calzetti et al. (2004) with our galaxies, we have found similar groups which share the same trend in line ratio plots. The origin of the groups can be explained by the effects of different metallicity and different starforming strength with respect to potential depth, which are strongly related to cooling rate and galactic wind driving mechanism. We compare the shock-ionized gas with shock-ionization model of Allen et al. (2008). Although the ``maximum starburst line'' gives us conservative estimation of shock-ionized gas, our rough estimation of shock velocity 250km/s of HE2-10 is consistent with Mendez et al. (1999). As an Appendix, we present a new objective technique for continuum subtraction from narrow-band image. We have found that skewness values of continuum subtracted images show a transitional feature around the optimal subtraction. We present some real applications and discuss about the strong points and the weak points of this technique.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellott, M. M.
1986-01-01
Observations of the plasma waves associated with collisionless shocks are reviewed, and the understanding of their generation mechanisms and their importance to shock physics are summarized. The emphasis is on waves generated directly at the shock, especially ion acoustic and lower-hybrid-like modes. The observations are discussed in the context of shock structure, with attention given to the distinctions between waves generated in the shock foot and ramp. The behavior of resistive, dispersive, and supercritical quasi-perpendicular shocks is contrasted. Evidence for the operation of various generation mechanisms, including interactions with cross-field currents, gyrating reflected ions, and field-aligned electron beams, are summarized. The various forms of plasma heating which are actually observed are outlined, and the role of the various wave modes in this heating is discussed. Conclusion, it is argued that, while plasma wave turbulence may play a vital role in plasma heating for some special shocks, it is of second-order importance in most cases.
Shock wave structure in heterogeneous reactive media
Baer, M.R.
1997-06-01
Continuum mixture theory and mesoscale modeling are applied to describe the behavior of shock-loaded heterogeneous media. One-dimensional simulations of gas-gun experiments demonstrate that the wave features are well described by mixture theory, including reflected wave behavior and conditions where significant reaction is initiated. Detailed wave fields are resolved in numerical simulations of impact on a lattice of discrete explosive {open_quotes}crystals{close_quotes}. It is shown that rapid distortion first occurs at material contact points; the nature of the dispersive fields includes large amplitude fluctuations of stress over several particle pathlengths. Localization of energy causes {open_quotes}hot-spots{close_quotes} due to shock focusing and plastic work as material flows into interstitial regions.
Canseco, Guillermo; de Icaza-Herrera, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M
2011-10-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a reliable therapy for the treatment of urolithiasis. Nevertheless, improvements to enhance stone fragmentation and reduce tissue damage are still needed. During SWL, cavitation is one of the most important stone fragmentation mechanisms. Bubbles with a diameter between about 7 and 55μm have been reported to expand and collapse after shock wave passage, forming liquid microjets at velocities of up to 400m/s that contribute to the pulverization of renal calculi. Several authors have reported that the fragmentation efficiency may be improved by using tandem shock waves. Tandem SWL is based on the fact that the collapse of a bubble can be intensified if a second shock wave arrives tenths or even a few hundredths of microseconds before its collapse. The object of this study is to determine if tandem pulses consisting of a conventional shock wave (estimated rise time between 1 and 20ns), followed by a slower second pressure profile (0.8μs rise time), have advantages over conventional tandem SWL. The Gilmore equation was used to simulate the influence of the modified pressure field on the dynamics of a single bubble immersed in water and compare the results with the behavior of the same bubble subjected to tandem shock waves. The influence of the delay between pulses on the dynamics of the collapsing bubble was also studied for both conventional and modified tandem waves. For a bubble of 0.07mm, our results indicate that the modified pressure profile enhances cavitation compared to conventional tandem waves at a wide range of delays (10-280μs). According to this, the proposed pressure profile could be more efficient for SWL than conventional tandem shock waves. Similar results were obtained for a ten times smaller bubble.
Area change effects on shock wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowse, J.; Skews, B.
2014-07-01
Experimental testing was conducted for a planar shock wave of incident Mach number propagating through one of three compound parabolic profiles of 130, 195 or 260 mm in length, all of which exhibit an 80 % reduction in area. Both high-resolution single shot and low-resolution video were used in a schlieren arrangement. Results showed three main types of flow scenarios for propagation through a gradual area reduction, and an optimal net increase of 12.7 % in shock Mach number was determined for the longest profile, which is within 5 % of theoretical predictions using Milton's modified Chester-Chisnell-Whitham relation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooseria, S. J.; Skews, B. W.
2017-01-01
A complex interference flowfield consisting of multiple shocks and expansion waves is produced when high-speed slender bodies are placed in close proximity. The disturbances originating from a generator body impinge onto the adjacent receiver body, modifying the local flow conditions over the receiver. This paper aims to uncover the basic gas dynamics produced by two closely spaced slender bodies in a supersonic freestream. Experiments and numerical simulations were used to interpret the flowfield, where good agreement between the predictions and measurements was observed. The numerical data were then used to characterise the attenuation associated with shock wave diffraction, which was found to be interdependent with the bow shock contact perimeter over the receiver bodies. Shock-induced boundary layer separation was observed over the conical and hemispherical receiver bodies. These strong viscous-shock interactions result in double-reflected, as well as double-diffracted shock wave geometries in the interference region, and the diffracting waves progress over the conical and hemispherical receivers' surfaces in "lambda" type configurations. This gives evidence that viscous effects can have a substantial influence on the local bow shock structure surrounding high-speed slender bodies in close proximity.
Numerical simulation of shock wave generation and focusing in shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krimmel, Jeff; Colonius, Tim
2007-11-01
Shock wave lithotripsy is a procedure where focused shock waves are fired at kidney stones in order to pulverize them. Many lithotripters with different source mechanisms and reflector shapes (or lenses) are in clinical use, but accurate prediction of focal region pressure is made difficult by nonlinearity and cavitation. We report on development of a numerical simulation framework aimed at accurate prediction of focal region flow physics. Shock wave generation and beam focusing are simulated via the Euler equations with MUSCL-type shock capturing scheme and adaptive mesh-refinement (Berger and Oliger, 1984). In future work, a bubbly cavitating flow model will be added. Electrohydraulic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric lithotripters are modeled with axisymmetric and three-dimensional geometries. In the electrohydraulic case, a simple expanding bubble model simulates spark firing. In the piezoelectric case, a boundary condition prescribing the motion of individual elements is used. Amplitudes and durations of calculated focal region waveforms are in reasonable agreement with experimental data.
Experimental Investigation of Passive Shock Wave Mitigation using Obstacle Arrangements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Monica; Wan, Qian; Eliasson, Veronica
2014-11-01
With its vast range in applications, especially in the defense industry, shock wave mitigation is an ongoing research area of interest to the shock dynamics community. Passive shock wave mitigation methods range from forcing the shock wave to abruptly change its direction to introducing barriers or obstacles of various shapes and materials in the path of the shock wave. Obstacles provide attenuation through complicated shock wave interactions and reflections. In this work, we have performed shock tube experiments to investigate shock wave mitigation due to solid obstacles placed along the curve of a logarithmic spiral. Different shapes (cylindrical and square) of obstacles with different materials (solid and foam) have been used. High-speed schlieren optics and background-oriented schlieren techniques have been used together with pressure measurements to quantify the effects of mitigation. Results have also been compared to numerical simulations and show good agreement.
Precursor ionization ahead of laser-supported detonation wave in air and argon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamura, Kohei; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Yoshihiro
2012-10-01
Laser-produced plasma in a gaseous form is considered, which has attracted great interest for use in many devices. After breakdown one of possible mechanisms of occurrence of this process is noted as laser-supported detonation wave. This wave consisting of the shock wave and the beam absorbing plasma travels at several kilometers per second along the laser beam channel in the direction opposite to the beam incidence. A Nd: Glass laser and a TEA CO2 laser were utilized. According to shadowgraph and spectroscopic studies, the wave has a velocity of 1-10 km/s, an electron temperature of 2-5 eV and an electron density of 10^24 m-3 after breakdown. For simplicity, the discussion is restricted to one-dimensional flows that considers the radiation from plasma and the collisional ionization by laser irradiation. Assuming that UV photons radiating from laser plasma induce photoionization ahead of ionization front, this ionization frequency fp at the distance lp (mean free path of photon) from the wave front corresponds to 10^10 s-1. This is higher than the collisional ionization frequency (10^5-6 s-1). Analytical velocities (fplp) describing the avalanche ionization in the pre-ionization layer agree with the experimentally observed velocities. These results does not depend on background gas and laser-wavelength.
Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter.
Gómez, Leopoldo R; Turner, Ari M; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2012-10-01
The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low-pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.
Fluid dynamics of the shock wave reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masse, Robert Kenneth
2000-10-01
High commercial incentives have driven conventional olefin production technologies to near their material limits, leaving the possibility of further efficiency improvements only in the development of entirely new techniques. One strategy known as the Shock Wave Reactor, which employs gas dynamic processes to circumvent limitations of conventional reactors, has been demonstrated effective at the University of Washington. Preheated hydrocarbon feedstock and a high enthalpy carrier gas (steam) are supersonically mixed at a temperature below that required for thermal cracking. Temperature recovery is then effected via shock recompression to initiate pyrolysis. The evolution to proof-of-concept and analysis of experiments employing ethane and propane feedstocks are presented. The Shock Wave Reactor's high enthalpy steam and ethane flows severely limit diagnostic capability in the proof-of-concept experiment. Thus, a preliminary blow down supersonic air tunnel of similar geometry has been constructed to investigate recompression stability and (especially) rapid supersonic mixing necessary for successful operation of the Shock Wave Reactor. The mixing capabilities of blade nozzle arrays are therefore studied in the air experiment and compared with analytical models. Mixing is visualized through Schlieren imaging and direct photography of condensation in carbon dioxide injection, and interpretation of visual data is supported by pressure measurement and flow sampling. The influence of convective Mach number is addressed. Additionally, thermal behavior of a blade nozzle array is analyzed for comparison to data obtained in the course of succeeding proof-of-concept experiments. Proof-of-concept is naturally succeeded by interest in industrial adaptation of the Shock Wave Reactor, particularly with regard to issues involving the scaling and refinement of the shock recompression. Hence, an additional, variable geometry air tunnel has been constructed to study the parameter
Stability of spherical converging shock wave
Murakami, M.; Sanz, J.; Iwamoto, Y.
2015-07-15
Based on Guderley's self-similar solution, stability of spherical converging shock wave is studied. A rigorous linear perturbation theory is developed, in which the growth rate of perturbation is given as a function of the spherical harmonic number ℓ and the specific heats ratio γ. Numerical calculation reveals the existence of a γ-dependent cut-off mode number ℓ{sub c}, such that all the eigenmode perturbations for ℓ > ℓ{sub c} are smeared out as the shock wave converges at the center. The analysis is applied to partially spherical geometries to give significant implication for different ignition schemes of inertial confinement fusion. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to verify the theory.
Material Point Methods for Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Duan; Dhakal, Tilak
2016-11-01
Particle methods are often the choice for problems involving large material deformation with history dependent material models. Often large deformation of a material is caused by shock loading, therefore accurate calculation of shock waves is important for particle methods. In this work, we study four major versions (original MPM, GIMP, CPDI, and DDMP) of material point methods, using a weak one-dimensional isothermal shock of ideal gas as an example. The original MPM fails. With a small number of particles, the GIMP and the CPDI methods produce reasonable results. However, as the number of particles increases these methods do not converge and produce pressure spikes. With sparse particles, DDMP results are unsatisfactory. As the number of particles increases, DDMP results converge to correct solutions, but the large number of particles needed for an accurate result makes the method very expensive to use in shock wave problems. To improve the numerical accuracy while preserving the convergence, conservation, and smoothness of the DDMP method, a new numerical integration scheme is introduced. The improved DDMP method is only slightly more expensive than the original DDMP method, but accuracy improvements are significant as shown by numerical examples. This work was performed under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy.
Modeling shock waves in orthotropic elastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vignjevic, Rade; Campbell, James C.; Bourne, Neil K.; Djordjevic, Nenad
2008-08-01
A constitutive relationship for modeling of shock wave propagation in orthotropic materials is proposed for nonlinear explicit transient large deformation computer codes (hydrocodes). A procedure for separation of material volumetric compression (compressibility effects equation of state) from deviatoric strain effects is formulated, which allows for the consistent calculation of stresses in the elastic regime as well as in the presence of shock waves. According to this procedure the pressure is defined as the state of stress that results in only volumetric deformation, and consequently is a diagonal second order tensor. As reported by Anderson et al. [Comput. Mech. 15, 201 (1994)], the shock response of an orthotropic material cannot be accurately predicted using the conventional decomposition of the stress tensor into isotropic and deviatoric parts. This paper presents two different stress decompositions based on the assumption that the stress tensor is split into two components: one component is due to volumetric strain and the other is due to deviatoric strain. Both decompositions are rigorously derived. In order to test their ability to describe shock propagation in orthotropic materials, both algorithms were implemented in a hydrocode and their predictions were compared to experimental plate impact data. The material considered was a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy material, which was tested in both the through-thickness and longitudinal directions. The ψ decomposition showed good agreement with the physical behavior of the considered material, while the ζ decomposition significantly overestimated the longitudinal stresses.
Davie, C J; Evans, R G
2013-05-03
We examine the properties of perturbed spherically imploding shock waves in an ideal fluid through the collapse, bounce, and development into an outgoing shock wave. We find broad conservation of the size and shape of ingoing and outgoing perturbations when viewed at the same radius. The outgoing shock recovers the velocity of the unperturbed shock outside the strongly distorted core. The results are presented in the context of the robustness of the shock ignition approach to inertial fusion energy.
Optimizing Shock Wave Lithotripsy: A Comprehensive Review
McClain, Paul D; Lange, Jessica N; Assimos, Dean G
2013-01-01
Shock wave lithotripsy is a commonly used procedure for eradicating upper urinary tract stones in patients who require treatment. A number of methods have been proposed to improve the results of this procedure, including proper patient selection, modifications in technique, adjunctive therapy to facilitate elimination of fragments, and changes in lithotripter design. This article assesses the utility of these measures through an analysis of contemporary literature. PMID:24082843
Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, C. H.; Lin, J. T.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Sun, Y. Y.; Kakinami, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Chen, W. H.; Liu, H.; Rau, R. J.
2014-09-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC) derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK) Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK) Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II) rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100-600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800-1200 m s-1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800-1200 m s-1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagstrom, George; Hameiri, Eliezer
2012-03-01
Hall-MHD is a partial differential equation of degenerate parabolic type that describes the dynamics of an ideal two fluid plasma with massless electrons. We study shock waves and discontinuities in this system. We characterize planar travelling wave solutions and find solutions with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic variables. These solutions, which correspond to the ion-acoustic wave, arise due to the presence of hydrodynamic real characteristics in Hall-MHD. We demonstrate finite-time discontinuity formation for certain types of initial data with discontinuous derivatives and study the shock structure under different regularizations. We also explore the possible existence of solutions with discontinuous magnetic field. A non-algebraic, non-local set of jump conditions is derived under the assumption of [B]!=0. These conditions are used to study the contact discontinuity and it is shown that massless electrons crossing the surface of discontinuity may enter and leave at different locations. These conditions suggest the possible existence of mathematically novel shocks in Hall-MHD.
Shock Waves and Commutation Speed of Memristors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Shao; Tesler, Federico; Marlasca, Fernando Gomez; Levy, Pablo; Dobrosavljević, V.; Rozenberg, Marcelo
2016-01-01
Progress of silicon-based technology is nearing its physical limit, as the minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 10 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next-generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade, and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, this progress has mainly been the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of the essence. In the present work, we report the striking result of a connection between the resistive switching and shock-wave formation, a classic topic of nonlinear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen vacancies that migrate during the commutation forms a shock wave that propagates through a highly resistive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations and experiments in a manganese-oxide-based memristor device, and we extend our theory to the case of binary oxides. The shock-wave scenario brings unprecedented physical insight and enables us to rationalize the process of oxygen-vacancy-driven resistive change with direct implications for a key technological aspect—the commutation speed.
Innovations in shock wave lithotripsy technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Pei; Zhou, Yufeng; Zhu, Songlin; Cocks, Franklin; Preminger, Glenn
2003-10-01
Since its introduction in early 1980s, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has been used widely in clinic for the treatment of kidney and upper urinary stones. Although a variety of methods have been developed for shock wave generation, coupling, and focusing, the core of SWL technology has not changed significantly. In this talk, we will present a summary of our research efforts, aiming to provide innovations in SWL technology. Our strategy is to first better understand the mechanisms by which stone comminution and tissue injury are produced in SWL using various experimental and theoretical techniques. Based on this knowledge, we then developed novel techniques that can optimize the effect of cavitation in SWL via modification of the waveform profile, pressure distribution, and pulse sequence of lithotripter-generated shock waves. These new techniques were upgraded on a Dornier HM-3 lithotripter, the gold standard in SWL. Both in vitro phantom and in vivo animal experiments were carried out which demonstrated that the performance and safety of the upgraded HM-3 lithotripter is superior to the original HM-3 lithotripter. Finally, strategies to improve stone comminution efficiency while reducing tissue injury in SWL will be presented. [Work supported by NIH DK52985 and DK58266.
On Reflection of Shock Waves from Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liepmann, H W; Roshko, A; Dhawan, S
1952-01-01
Measurements are presented at Mach numbers from about 1.3 to 1.5 of reflection characteristics and the relative upstream influence of shock waves impinging on a flat surface with both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The difference between impulse and step waves is discussed and their interaction with the boundary layer is compared. General considerations on the experimental production of shock waves from wedges and cones and examples of reflection of shock waves from supersonic shear layers are also presented.
Feshbach resonance induced shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates.
Pérez-García, Víctor M; Konotop, Vladimir V; Brazhnyi, Valeriy A
2004-06-04
We propose a method for generating shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates by rapidly increasing the value of the nonlinear coefficient using Feshbach resonances. We show that in a cigar-shaped condensate there exist primary (transverse) and secondary (longitudinal) shock waves. We analyze how the shocks are generated in multidimensional scenarios and describe the related phenomenology.
CHARGED PARTICLE MOTION IN AN EXPLOSIVELY GENERATED IONIZING SHOCK
Boswell, Christopher J.; O'Connor, Patrick D.
2009-12-28
Different aspects of the plasma generated in a gas contained in a tube due to detonation of a small explosive charge located at one end of the tube are presented. The motion of the charged particles within the plasma is monitored using Rogowski coils. Using time-resolved emission spectroscopy the temperature and species in the detonation products and compressed gas behind the shock wave are recorded. From the spectral lines of the emission profiles the temperatures and electron density were evaluated to be in the vicinity of 7,000 K and 5x10{sup 22} m{sup -3}. An ultra fast wave traveling down the guide tube ahead of the hydrodynamic shock and causing any charged particles there to move fast enough to be detected by the Rogowski coils was recorded. From the measurements the phase velocity of the wave was calculated at 525 km/s when krypton filled the tube, and 1300 km/s in the case of argon. The temperature and density measurements are consistent with the data reported in the literature for similar tests. The electrostatic pulse measurements are a new phenomena not previously observed.
Treatment protocols to reduce renal injury during shock wave lithotripsy
McAteer, James A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Williams, James C.; Lingeman, James E.
2010-01-01
Purpose of review Growing concern over the acute and long-term adverse effects associated with shock wave lithotripsy calls for treatment strategies to reduce renal injury and improve the efficiency of stone breakage in shock wave lithotripsy. Recent findings Experimental studies in the pig model show that lithotripter settings for power and shock wave rate and the sequence of shock wave delivery can be used to reduce trauma to the kidney. Step-wise power ramping as is often used to acclimate the patient to shock waves causes less tissue trauma when the initial dose is followed by a brief (3–4 min) pause in shock wave delivery. Slowing the firing rate of the lithotripter to 60 shock waves/min or slower is also effective in reducing renal injury and has the added benefit of improving stone breakage outcomes. Neither strategy to reduce renal injury – not power ramping with ‘pause-protection’ nor delivering shock waves at reduced shock wave rate – have been tested in clinical trials. Summary Technique in lithotripsy is critically important, and it is encouraging that simple, practical steps can be taken to improve the safety and efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy. PMID:19195131
ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M. E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es
2013-04-20
Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
Development of shock wave assisted therapeutic devices and establishment of shock wave therapy.
Hosseini, S H R; Menezes, V; Moosavi-Nejad, S; Ohki, T; Nakagawa, A; Tominaga, T; Takayama, K
2006-01-01
In order to exploit systems for shock wave therapy, we are working for the development of clinical devices that are based on the concept of shock waves or related phenomena. The paper describes these new therapeutic devices designed for the minimally invasive approach to vascular thromboloysis, selective dissection of tissues, and drug or DNA delivery. To investigate the response of cells to shock loading, a precise method of shock waves generation in space and time has been developed. This method has been studied for application in cardiovascular therapy, cancer treatment, and cranioplasty in close vicinity of the brain. A laser ablation shock wave assisted particle acceleration device has been developed for delivering drug and DNA into soft targets in the human body. The penetration depth of microparticles observed in the experimental targets is believed to be sufficient for pharmacological treatments. In order to achieve an efficient method for rapid revascularization of cerebral thrombosis, a laser induced liquid jet (LILJ) system has been developed. The LILJ has been successfully applied for selective dissection of soft tissue preserving nerve and blood vessels. The system has been further improved by using piezoelectric actuators to drive the liquid jets, as an alternative to pulse laser.
Direct Visualization of Shock Waves in Supersonic Space Shuttle Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
OFarrell, J. M.; Rieckhoff, T. J.
2011-01-01
Direct observation of shock boundaries is rare. This Technical Memorandum describes direct observation of shock waves produced by the space shuttle vehicle during STS-114 and STS-110 in imagery provided by NASA s tracking cameras.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS
Nirmol K. Podder
2009-03-17
In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1–20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas.
Mechanochemistry for Shock Wave Energy Dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, William; Ren, Yi; Su, Zhi; Moore, Jeffrey; Suslick, Kenneth; Dlott, Dana
2015-06-01
Using our laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus we have developed a technique for detecting mechanically driven chemical reactions that attenuate shock waves. In these experiments 75 μm laser-driven flyer-plates travel at speeds of up to 2.8 km/s. Photonic Doppler velocimetry is used to monitor both the flight speed and the motions of an embedded mirror behind the sample on the supporting substrate. Since the Hugoniot of the substrate is known, mirror motions can be converted into the transmitted shock wave flux and fluence through a sample. Flux shows the shock profile whereas fluence represents the total energy transferred per unit area, and both are measured as a function of sample thickness. Targets materials are micrograms of carefully engineered organic and inorganic compounds selected for their potential to undergo negative volume, endothermic reactions. In situ fluorescence measurements and a suite of post mortem analytical methods are used to detect molecular chemical reactions that occur due to impact.
Modeling Propagation of Shock Waves in Metals
Howard, W M; Molitoris, J D
2005-08-19
We present modeling results for the propagation of strong shock waves in metals. In particular, we use an arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE3D) code to model the propagation of strong pressure waves (P {approx} 300 to 400 kbars) generated with high explosives in contact with aluminum cylinders. The aluminum cylinders are assumed to be both flat-topped and have large-amplitude curved surfaces. We use 3D Lagrange mechanics. For the aluminum we use a rate-independent Steinberg-Guinan model, where the yield strength and shear modulus depend on pressure, density and temperature. The calculation of the melt temperature is based on the Lindermann law. At melt the yield strength and shear modulus is set to zero. The pressure is represented as a seven-term polynomial as a function of density. For the HMX-based high explosive, we use a JWL, with a program burn model that give the correct detonation velocity and C-J pressure (P {approx} 390 kbars). For the case of the large-amplitude curved surface, we discuss the evolving shock structure in terms of the early shock propagation experiments by Sakharov.
Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.
2013-07-01
The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.
Particle Acceleration in SN1006 Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
This grant is for the analysis of FUSE observations of particle acceleration in supernova remnant SN1006 shock waves. We have performed quick look analysis of the data, but because the source is faint and because the O VI emission lines on SN1006 are extremely broad, extreme care is needed for background subtraction and profile fitting. Moreover, the bulk of the analysis in will consist of model calculations. The Ly beta and O VI lines are clearly detected at the position in the NW filament of SN1006, but not in the NE position where non-thermal X-rays are strong. The lack of O VI emission in the NE places an upper limit on the pre-shock density there.
Shock wave absorber having apertured plate
Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.
1983-08-26
The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.
Shock wave absorber having apertured plate
Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.
1985-01-01
The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.
Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in dense plasmas
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.
2010-02-15
Two-dimensional quantum ion acoustic shock waves (QIASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons and ions. In this regard, a nonplanar quantum Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (QKPB) equation is derived using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. Using the tangent hyperbolic method, an analytical solution of the planar QKPB equation is obtained and subsequently used as the initial profile to numerically solve the nonplanar QKPB equation. It is observed that the increasing number density (and correspondingly the quantum Bohm potential) and kinematic viscosity affect the propagation characteristics of the QIASW. The temporal evolution of the nonplanar QIASW is investigated both in Cartesian and polar planes and the results are discussed from the numerical stand point. The results of the present study may be applicable in the study of propagation of small amplitude localized electrostatic shock structures in dense astrophysical environments.
Electrostatic waves in the bow shock at Uranus
Moses, S.L.; Coroniti, F.V.; Kennel, C.F.; Scarf, F.L. ); Bagenal, F. ); Lepping, R.P. ); Quest, K.B. ); Kurth, W.S. )
1989-10-01
Electrostatic emissions measured by the Voyager 2 plasma wave detector (PWS) during the inbound crossing of the Uranian bow shock are shown to differ in some aspects from the waves measured during bow shock crossings at Jupiter and Saturn. The wave amplitudes in the foot of the bow shock at Uranus are in general much lower than those detected at the other out planets due to the unusually enhanced solar wind ion temperature during the crossing. This reduces the effectiveness of wave-particle interactions in heating the incoming electrons. Strong wave emissions are observed in the shock ramp that possibly arise from currents producing a Buneman mode instability. Plasma instrument (PLS) and magnetometer (MAG) measurements reveal a complicated shock structure reminiscent of computer simulations of high-Mach number shocks when the effects of anomalous resistivity are reduced, and are consistent with high ion temperatures restricting the growth of electrostatic waves.
New Devices and Old Pitfalls in Shock Wave Therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Michael R.; Matula, Thomas J.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.
2006-05-01
Shock waves are now used to treat a variety of musculoskeletal indications and the worldwide demand for shock wave therapy (SWT) is growing rapidly. It is a concern that very little is known about the mechanisms of action of shock waves in SWT. The technology for SWT devices is little changed from that of shock wave lithotripters developed for the treatment of urinary stones. SWT devices are engineered on the same acoustics principles as lithotripters, but the targets of therapy for SWT and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) are altogether different. For SWT to achieve its potential as a beneficial treatment modality it will be necessary to determine precisely how SWT shock waves interact with biological targets. In addition, for SWT to evolve, the future design of these devices should be approached with caution, and lithotripsy may serve as a useful model. Indeed, there is a great deal to be learned from the basic research that has guided the development of SWL.
Subcritical collisionless shock waves. [in earth space plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellott, M. M.
1985-01-01
The development history of theoretical accounts of low Mach number collisionless shock waves is related to recent observational advancements, with attention to weaker shocks in which shock steepening is limited by dispersion and/or anomalous resistivity and whose character is primarily determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma. Attention has focused on nearly perpendicular shocks where dispersive scale lengths become small and the associated cross-field currents become strong enough to generate significant plasma wave turbulence. A number of oblique, low Mach number bow shocks have been studied on the basis of data from the ISEE dual spacecraft pair, allowing an accurate determination of shock scale lengths.
Tension of Liquids by Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Utkin, Alexander V.; Sosikov, Vasiliy A.; Bogach, Andrey A.; Fortov, Vladimir E.
2004-07-01
The influences of strain rate and initial temperature on the negative pressure in distillate water, hexane, glycerol and methyl alcohol under shock waves have been investigated. The wave profiles were registered by laser interferometer VISAR. Shock waves were produced by aluminum plates accelerated by high explosive up to 600 m/s. At initial temperature 19 °C spall strength of water, hexane, and methyl alcohol is equal to 45, 15, and 47 MPa respectively and not depend on the strain rate in interval from 10-4 to 10-5 1/s. A strong dependence of negative pressure on strain rate was observed only for glycerol. The reason is that the initial temperature of glycerol was equal to the freezing point, and in the vicinity of it the relaxation properties are usually very much more pronounced. To confirm this assumption the experiments with water an initial temperature 0.7 °C were made and strong influence of strain rate on spall strength was observed close to freezing temperature too. Moreover expansion isentropes intersected the melting curve at negative pressure and double metastable state was realized in water. Theory of homogeneous bubble nucleation was used to explain the experimental results.
Local stability analysis for a planar shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, M. D.
1984-01-01
A procedure to study the local stability of planar shock waves is presented. The procedure is applied to a Rankine-Hugoniot shock in a divergent/convergent nozzle, to an isentropic shock in a divergent/convergent nozzle, and to Rankine-Hugoniot shocks attached to wedges and cones. It is shown that for each case, the equation governing the shock motion is equivalent to the damped harmonic oscillator equation.
Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.
1993-01-01
Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of
Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave Behavior
2016-06-07
SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave ...Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave Behavior L. Dale Bibee Seafloor Geosciences – Code 7432 Naval Research Laboratory Stennis...mines is critically dependent upon the propagation effectiveness of shock waves from the charge to the mine. Data and modeling show that this
Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.
1991-01-01
In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.
Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure
Josyula, Eswar Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash
2013-12-15
The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream.
On the interplay between cosmological shock waves and their environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin-Alvarez, Sergio; Planelles, Susana; Quilis, Vicent
2017-05-01
Cosmological shock waves are tracers of the thermal history of the structures in the Universe. They play a crucial role in redistributing the energy within the cosmic structures and are also amongst the main ingredients of galaxy and galaxy cluster formation. Understanding this important function requires a proper description of the interplay between shocks and the different environments where they can be found. In this paper, an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) Eulerian cosmological simulation is analysed by means of a shock-finding algorithm that allows to generate shock wave maps. Based on the population of dark matter halos and on the distribution of density contrast in the simulation, we classify the shocks in five different environments. These range from galaxy clusters to voids. The shock distribution function and the shocks power spectrum are studied for these environments dynamics. We find that shock waves on different environments undergo different formation and evolution processes, showing as well different characteristics. We identify three different phases of formation, evolution and dissipation of these shock waves, and an intricate migration between distinct environments and scales. Shock waves initially form at external, low density regions and are merged and amplified through the collapse of structures. Shock waves and cosmic structures follow a parallel evolution. Later on, shocks start to detach from them and dissipate. We also find that most of the power that shock waves dissipate is found at scales of k ˜0.5 Mpc^{-1}, with a secondary peak at k ˜8 Mpc^{-1}. The evolution of the shocks power spectrum confirms that shock waves evolution is coupled and conditioned by their environment.
A review of shock waves around aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, C.
1985-01-01
Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs) are a proposed type of reusable spacecraft that would be used to transport cargoes from one Earth-bound orbit to another. Such vehicles could be based on the proposed space station and used to transport commercial satellites from the space station to geostationary orbits or to polar orbits and return. During a mission, AOTVs would fly through Earth's atmosphere, thus generating aerodynamic forces that could be used for decelerating the vehicles or changing their direction. AOTV research findings were concerned with the shock-wave-induced, high-temperature airflows that would be produced around these vehicles during atmospheric flight. Special emphasis was placed on the problems of: (1) the chemical physics of multitemperature, ionizing, nonequilibrium air flows, and (2) the dynamics of the flows in the base region of a blunt body with complex afterbody geometry.
A review of shock waves around aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, C.
1986-01-01
Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs) are a proposed type of reusable spacecraft that would be used to transport cargoes from one earth-bound orbit to another. Such vehicles could be based on the proposed space station and used to transport commercial satellites from the space station to geostationary orbits or to polar orbits and return. During a mission, AOTVs would fly through earth's atmosphere, thus generating aerodynamic forces that could be used for decelerating the vehicles or changing their direction. AOTV research findings were concerned with the shock-wave-induced, high-temperature airflows that would be produced around these vehicles during atmospheric flight. Special emphasis was placed on the problems of: (1) the chemical physics of multitemperature, ionizing, nonequilibrium air flows, and (2) the dynamics of the flows in the base region of a blunt body with complex afterbody geometry.
Biodamage via shock waves initiated by irradiation with ions.
Surdutovich, Eugene; Yakubovich, Alexander V; Solov'yov, Andrey V
2013-01-01
Radiation damage following the ionising radiation of tissue has different scenarios and mechanisms depending on the projectiles or radiation modality. We investigate the radiation damage effects due to shock waves produced by ions. We analyse the strength of the shock wave capable of directly producing DNA strand breaks and, depending on the ion's linear energy transfer, estimate the radius from the ion's path, within which DNA damage by the shock wave mechanism is dominant. At much smaller values of linear energy transfer, the shock waves turn out to be instrumental in propagating reactive species formed close to the ion's path to large distances, successfully competing with diffusion.
Magnetosonic shock wave in collisional pair-ion plasma
Adak, Ashish Khan, Manoranjan; Sikdar, Arnab
2016-06-15
Nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic shock wave has been studied in collisional magnetized pair-ion plasma. The masses of both ions are same but the temperatures are slightly different. Two fluid model has been taken to describe the model. Two different modes of the magnetosonic wave have been obtained. The dynamics of the nonlinear magnetosonic wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers' equation. It has been shown that the ion-ion collision is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The numerical investigations reveal that the magnetosonic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the strength of the dissipation. The nonlinear wave exhibited the oscillatory shock wave for strong magnetic field (weak dissipation) and monotonic shock wave for weak magnetic field (strong dissipation). The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.
Expansion shock waves in regularized shallow-water theory
El, Gennady A.; Shearer, Michael
2016-01-01
We identify a new type of shock wave by constructing a stationary expansion shock solution of a class of regularized shallow-water equations that include the Benjamin–Bona–Mahony and Boussinesq equations. An expansion shock exhibits divergent characteristics, thereby contravening the classical Lax entropy condition. The persistence of the expansion shock in initial value problems is analysed and justified using matched asymptotic expansions and numerical simulations. The expansion shock's existence is traced to the presence of a non-local dispersive term in the governing equation. We establish the algebraic decay of the shock as it is gradually eroded by a simple wave on either side. More generally, we observe a robustness of the expansion shock in the presence of weak dissipation and in simulations of asymmetric initial conditions where a train of solitary waves is shed from one side of the shock. PMID:27279780
Expansion shock waves in regularized shallow-water theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El, Gennady A.; Hoefer, Mark A.; Shearer, Michael
2016-05-01
We identify a new type of shock wave by constructing a stationary expansion shock solution of a class of regularized shallow-water equations that include the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony and Boussinesq equations. An expansion shock exhibits divergent characteristics, thereby contravening the classical Lax entropy condition. The persistence of the expansion shock in initial value problems is analysed and justified using matched asymptotic expansions and numerical simulations. The expansion shock's existence is traced to the presence of a non-local dispersive term in the governing equation. We establish the algebraic decay of the shock as it is gradually eroded by a simple wave on either side. More generally, we observe a robustness of the expansion shock in the presence of weak dissipation and in simulations of asymmetric initial conditions where a train of solitary waves is shed from one side of the shock.
Cylindrically converging shock and detonation waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuo, H.
1983-07-01
The non-self-similar implosion of cylindrical shock and detonation waves generated by an instantaneous energy release at a cylindrical wall is analyzed theoretically by the method of integral relations. The analysis shows that as the wave propagates towards the axis, the solutions tend to approach but never reach the self-similar implosion limit. The rate of approach appears to be slower than expected, and the region of applicability of the self-similar solution appears to be restricted to a very small region behind the front. This tendency is more pronounced for the detonation case. It is also demonstrated that for detonations where the initiation energy is negligible in comparison with the chemical energy, the Chapman-Jouguet detonation jump conditions apply at the front except near the axis and near the outer wall. The chemical heating in the detonation process increases the pressure and the temperature but considerably reduces the density near the front.
Brane-induced-gravity shock waves.
Kaloper, Nemanja
2005-05-13
We construct exact gravitational field solutions for a relativistic particle localized on a tensional brane in brane-induced gravity. They are a generalization of gravitational shock waves in 4D de Sitter space. We provide the metrics for both the normal branch and the self-inflating branch Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati brane worlds, and compare them to the 4D Einstein gravity solution and to the case when gravity resides only in the 5D bulk, without any brane-localized curvature terms. At short distances the wave profile looks the same as in four dimensions. The corrections appear only far from the source, where they differ from the long distance corrections in 4D de Sitter space. We also discover a new nonperturbative channel for energy emission into the bulk from the self-inflating [corrected] branch, when gravity is modified at the de Sitter radius.
Augmented Shock Wave Severance of Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.
1995-01-01
This paper describes a new approach for severing or weakening a variety of materials. The technique employs embedding explosive cords into parallel grooves that are cut into a surface of a material. The cords are initiated simultaneously to produce shock waves that progress toward the centerline between the cords and the lower surface of the material. Intersecting incident and reflected waves augment at the centerline to fail or weaken the material in tension. No harmful debris is produced on the opposite side of the material from the explosive cords. The primary focus of the effort described in this paper was to fracture the F-16 aircraft trilaminate canopy. Also, complete severance was achieved in 2024-T4 aluminum plate stock. Possible applications are through canopy egress and crew module severance from military aircraft and separation of rocket vehicle stages and payloads. This approach offers important advantages over explosive methods currently in use.
Electrohydrodynamic instability of ion-concentration shock wave in electrophoresis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaur, Rahul; Bahga, Supreet Singh
2017-06-01
Capillary electrophoresis techniques often involve ion-concentration shock waves in an electrolyte solution, propagating under the effect of an external electric field. These shock waves are characterized by self-sharpening gradients in ion concentrations and electrical conductivity that are collinear with the electric field. The coupling of electric field and fluid motion at the shock interface sometimes leads to an undesirable electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instability. Using linear stability analysis, we describe the motion of small-amplitude disturbances of an electrophoretic shock wave. Our analysis shows that the EHD instability results due to the competition between destabilizing electroviscous flow and stabilizing electromigration of the shock wave. The ratio of timescales corresponding to electroviscous flow and electromigration yields a threshold criterion for the onset of instability. We present a validation of this threshold criterion with published experimental data and also describe the physical mechanism underlying the EHD instability of the electrophoretic shock wave.
Radial Shock Wave Devices Generate Cavitation
Császár, Nikolaus B. M.; Angstman, Nicholas B.; Milz, Stefan; Sprecher, Christoph M.; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed; Furia, John P.; Schmitz, Christoph
2015-01-01
Background Conflicting reports in the literature have raised the question whether radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) devices and vibrating massage devices have similar energy signatures and, hence, cause similar bioeffects in treated tissues. Methods and Findings We used laser fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) measurements, high-speed imaging and x-ray film analysis to compare fundamental elements of the energy signatures of two rESWT devices (Swiss DolorClast; Electro Medical Systems, Nyon, Switzerland; D-Actor 200; Storz Medical, Tägerwillen, Switzerland) and a vibrating massage device (Vibracare; G5/General Physiotherapy, Inc., Earth City, MO, USA). To assert potential bioeffects of these treatment modalities we investigated the influence of rESWT and vibrating massage devices on locomotion ability of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) worms. Results FOPH measurements demonstrated that both rESWT devices generated acoustic waves with comparable pressure and energy flux density. Furthermore, both rESWT devices generated cavitation as evidenced by high-speed imaging and caused mechanical damage on the surface of x-ray film. The vibrating massage device did not show any of these characteristics. Moreover, locomotion ability of C. elegans was statistically significantly impaired after exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves but was unaffected after exposure of worms to the vibrating massage device. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that both energy signature and bioeffects of rESWT devices are fundamentally different from those of vibrating massage devices. Clinical Relevance Prior ESWT studies have shown that tissues treated with sufficient quantities of acoustic sound waves undergo cavitation build-up, mechanotransduction, and ultimately, a biological alteration that “kick-starts” the healing response. Due to their different treatment indications and contra-indications rESWT devices cannot be equated to vibrating
Particle Acceleration in SN1006 Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Raymond, John C.
2004-01-01
The FUSE data have been reduced, and a paper on the results is in progress. The main results have been presented in a poster at the January 2004 AAS meeting and an ApJ paper in press. The primary result is that the widths of the 0 VI lines in the NW filament are a bit less than the width expected if the oxygen kinetic temperature is 16 times the proton temperature (mass proportional heating). This is at variance with measurements of shocks in the heliosphere, where preferential heating of oxygen and other heavy species is observed. The paper discusses the theoretical implications for collisionless shock wave physics. A secondary result is that no O VI emission was observed from the NE filament. While the very different particle distribution in that region can partially account for the weakness of the O VI lines, the simplest interpretation is that the pre-shock density in the NE is less than 0.22 times the density in the NW.
Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.
1972-01-01
The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.
MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es
2013-11-01
Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.
Shock-wave boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delery, J.; Marvin, J. G.; Reshotko, E.
1986-01-01
Presented is a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the shock-wave boundary-layer interaction problem. A detailed physical description of the phenomena for transonic and supersonic speed regimes is given based on experimental observations, correlations, and theoretical concepts. Approaches for solving the problem are then reviewed in depth. Specifically, these include: global methods developed to predict sudden changes in boundary-layer properties; integral or finite-difference methods developed to predict the continuous evolution of a boundary-layer encountering a pressure field induced by a shock wave; coupling methods to predict entire flow fields; analytical methods such as multi-deck techniques; and finite-difference methods for solving the time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations used to predict the development of entire flow fields. Examples are presented to illustrate the status of the various methods and some discussion is devoted to delineating their advantages and shortcomings. Reference citations for the wide variety of subject material are provided for readers interested in further study.
Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su
2001-08-01
This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffer, P.; Lukes, P.; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.
2016-12-01
The paper presents an experimental study on spatiotemporal dynamics of conical shock waves focusing in water. A multichannel pulsed electrohydraulic discharge source with a cylindrical ceramic-coated electrode was used. Time-resolved visualizations revealed that cylindrical pressure waves were focused to produce conical shock wave reflection over the axis of symmetry in water. Positive and negative pressures of 372 MPa and -17 MPa at the focus with 0.48 mm lateral and 22 mm axial extension (-6 dB) were measured by a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. The results clearly show the propagation process leading to the high-intensity underwater shock wave. Such strong and sharp shock wave focusing offers better localization for extracorporeal lithotripsy or other non-invasive medical shock wave procedures.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffer, P.; Lukes, P.; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.
2017-07-01
The paper presents an experimental study on spatiotemporal dynamics of conical shock waves focusing in water. A multichannel pulsed electrohydraulic discharge source with a cylindrical ceramic-coated electrode was used. Time-resolved visualizations revealed that cylindrical pressure waves were focused to produce conical shock wave reflection over the axis of symmetry in water. Positive and negative pressures of 372 MPa and -17 MPa at the focus with 0.48 mm lateral and 22 mm axial extension (-6 dB) were measured by a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. The results clearly show the propagation process leading to the high-intensity underwater shock wave. Such strong and sharp shock wave focusing offers better localization for extracorporeal lithotripsy or other non-invasive medical shock wave procedures.
Shock waves in a long-period optical fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamova, M. S.; Zolotovskiĭ, I. O.; Sementsov, D. I.
2008-12-01
The possibility of forming a shock wave of the pulse envelope has been investigated in a long-period or Bragg optical fiber with a system of two unidirectional linearly coupled waves. It has been demonstrated that, in principle, the possibility exists of forming a shock wave in a nonlinear optical fiber not only at the trailing edge but also at the leading edge of the wave packet. The origin of the formation of a shock wave depends substantially on the initial conditions providing excitation of the optical fiber.
Waves in low-beta plasmas - Slow shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinolfson, R. S.; Hundhausen, A. J.
1989-01-01
Results from wave theory and numerical simulation of the nonlinear MHD equations are used to study the response of a conducting fluid containing an embedded magnetic field with beta less than 1 to the sudden injection of material along the field lines. It is shown that the injection produces slow shocks with configurations which are concave toward the ejecta driver. Fast-mode waves which have not steepened into the shock precede the slow shock and alter the ambient medium. When beta equals 0.1, the fast mode becomes a transverse wave for parallel propagation, while the slow wave approaches a longitudinal, or sound, wave.
Planar shock wave sliding over a water layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, V.; Jourdan, G.; Marty, A.; Allou, A.; Parisse, J.-D.
2016-08-01
In this work, we conduct experiments to study the interaction between a horizontal free water layer and a planar shock wave that is sliding over it. Experiments are performed at atmospheric pressure in a shock tube with a square cross section (200× 200 mm^2) for depths of 10, 20, and 30 mm; a 1500-mm-long water layer; and two incident planar shock waves having Mach numbers of 1.11 and 1.43. We record the pressure histories and high-speed visualizations to study the flow patterns, surface waves, and spray layers behind the shock wave. We observe two different flow patterns with ripples formed at the air-water interface for the weaker shock wave and the dispersion of a droplet mist for the stronger shock wave. From the pressure signals, we extract the delay time between the arrival of the compression wave into water and the shock wave in air at the same location. We show that the delay time evolves with the distance traveled over the water layer, the depth of the water layer, and the Mach number of the shock wave.
Interaction of weak shock waves and discrete gas inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haas, Jean-Francois Luc
An experimental investigation of the interaction of shock waves with discrete gas inhomogeneities is conducted in the GALCIT 15 cm diameter shock tube. The gas volumes are cylindrical refraction cells of 5 cm diameter with a 0.5 [...] thick membrane separating the test gas (helium or Freon 22) from the ambient air and large spherical soap bubbles containing the same gases. The incident wave Mach numbers are nominally 1.09 and 1.22. The wave pattern and the deformation of the gas volumes are documented by shadowgraphs. The transmitted and diffracted wave pressure profiles are recorded by pressure transducers at various distances behind the cylinders. The basic phenomena of acoustic wave refraction, reflection and diffraction by cylindrical acoustic lenses, with indices of refraction appropriate to the gases used in the experiments, are illustrated with computer-generated ray and wave-front diagrams. In the case of a Freon 22-filled cylinder, the wave diffracted externally around the body precedes the wave transmitted from the interior which goes through a focus just behind the cylinder, while in the case of the helium-filled cylinder the expanding transmitted wave runs ahead of the diffracted wave. Both sets of waves merge a few cylinder diameters downstream. The wave patterns inside the cylinder, showing initially the refracted waves and later the same waves reflected internally, present some interesting phenomena. The mechanisms by which the gas volumes are transformed into vertical structures by the shock motion are observed. The unique effect of shock acceleration and Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the spherical volume of helium leads to the formation of a strong vortex ring which rapidly separates from the main volume of helium. Measurements of the wave and gas-interface velocities are compared to values calculated for one-dimensional interactions and for a simple model of shock-induced Taylor instability. The behavior of thin liquid membranes accelerated by
Steady state risetimes of shock waves in the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raspet, Richard; Bass, Henry; Yao, Lixin; Wu, Wenliang
1992-01-01
A square wave shape is used in the Pestorius algorithm to calculate the risetime of a step shock in the atmosphere. These results agree closely with steady shock calculations. The healing distance of perturbed shocks due to finite wave effects is then investigated for quasi-steady shocks. Perturbed 100 Pa shocks require on the order of 1.0 km travel distance to return to within 10 percent of their steady shock risetime. For 30 Pa shocks, the minimum recovery distance increases to 3.0 km. It is unlikely that finite wave effects can remove the longer risetimes and irregular features introduced into the sonic boom by turbulent scattering in the planetary boundary layer.
Interplanetary shock waves and the structure of solar wind disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hundhausen, A. J.
1972-01-01
Observations and theoretical models of interplanetary shock waves are reviewed, with emphasis on the large-scale characteristics of the associated solar wind disturbances and on the relationship of these disturbances to solar activity. The sum of observational knowledge indicates that shock waves propagate through the solar wind along a broad, roughly spherical front, ahead of plasma and magnetic field ejected from solar flares. Typically, the shock front reaches 1 AU about two days after its flare origin, and is of intermediate strength. Not all large flares produce observable interplanetary shock waves; the best indicator of shock production appears to be the generation of both type 2 and type 4 radio bursts by a flare. Theoretical models of shock propagation in the solar wind can account for the typically observed shock strength, transit time, and shape.
Laser measurements of bacterial endospore destruction from shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lappas, Petros P.; McCartt, A. Daniel; Gates, Sean D.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.
2013-12-01
The effects of shock waves on bioaerosols containing endospores were measured by combined laser absorption and scattering. Experiments were conducted in the Stanford aerosol shock tube for post-shock temperatures ranging from 400 K to 1100 K. Laser intensity measurements through the test section of the shock tube at wavelengths of 266 and 665 nm provided real-time monitoring of the morphological changes (includes changes in shape, structure and optical properties) in the endospores. Scatter of the visible light measured the integrity of endospore structure, while absorption of the UV light provided a measure of biochemicals released when endospores ruptured. For post-shock temperatures above 750 K the structural breakdown of Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) endospores was observed. A simple theoretical model using laser extinction is presented for determining the fraction of endospores that are ruptured by the shock waves. In addition, mechanisms of endospore mortality preceding their disintegration due to shock waves are discussed.
Optical distortion in the field of a lithotripter shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnell, M. T.; Emmony, D. C.
1995-10-01
The schlieren observation of cavitation phenomena produced in the tail of a lithotripter shock wave has indicated the presence of some interesting features. The images produced appear to indicate that cavitation transients in the field of a shock wave propagate nonsymmetrically; this is not the case. The apparent lack of symmetry exhibited by the primary cavitation transients is due to a complex optical lensing effect, which is brought about by the change in refractive index associated with the pressure profile of the shock wave. Objects seen through or immersed in the shock-wave field of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer, such as cavitation, appear highly distorted because of the strong positive and negative lensing effects of the compression and rarefaction cycles of the shock wave. A modification of the schlieren technique called the scale method has been used to model the distortion introduced by the shock wave and consequently explain the cavitation distortion. The technique has also been used to quantitatively analyze and partially reconstruct the lithotripter shock wave. The combination of schlieren and scale imaging gives more information about the refractive index field and therefore the shock-wave structure itself.
Shock Waves for Possible Application in Regenerative Medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S. H. R.; Nejad, S. Moosavi; Akiyama, H.
The paper reports experimental study of underwater shock waves effects in modification and possible control of embryonic stem cell differentiation and proliferation. The study is motivated by its application in regenerativemedicine. Underwater shock waves have been of interest for various scientific, industrial, and medical applications.
Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kum, Oyeon; Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.
1997-07-01
We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy's pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith's model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases.
Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.; Fernández, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier
2002-11-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary shock waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second shock wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated shock waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 µs is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a shock wave delay of about 400 and 250 µs using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second shock wave generator.
The mechanism of shock wave treatment in bone healing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ching-Jen
2005-04-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological mechanism of shock wave treatment in bone healing in rabbits. A closed fracture of the right femur was created with a three-point bend method and the fracture was stabilized with an intra-medullary pin. Shock waves were applied one week after the fracture. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (the control) received no shock waves; group 2 received low-energy and group 3 high-energy shock waves. The animals were sacrificed at 24 weeks, and a 5-cm segment of the femur bone including the callus was harvested. The specimens were studied with histomorphological examination, biomechanical analysis and immunohistochemical stains. The results showed that high-energy shock waves improved bone healing with significant increases in cortical bone formation and the number neovascularization in histomorphology, better bone strength and bone mass in biomechanics, and increased expressions of angiogenic growth markers including BMP-2, eNOS, VEGF and PCNA than the control and low-energy shock wave groups. The effect of shock wave treatment appears to be dose-dependent. In conclusion, high-energy shock waves promote bone healing associated with ingrowth of neovascularization and increased expressions of angiogenic growth factors.
Interaction of Isotropic Turbulence with a Shock Wave
1992-03-01
5 1.3 Objectives and Overview....................................... 6 2. Linear Analysis...Length Scales .................................. 74 4.1.5 Thermodynamic Properties ................................ 75 5 4.1.6 M odeling Issues...78 4.2 Modification of a Shock Wave ...................................... 82 5 4.2.1 Statistics of a Shock Wave
Numerical simulation of shock wave emanating from a square shock tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Akihisa; Itoh, Katsuhiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
1990-11-01
The flow field behind a shock wave emitted from a square shock tube was studied. Being 3-D, various phenomena were observed for axisymmetric flow such as distorted vortex ring structures generated from the shock tube exit, shock wave deformation, and a variety of flow structures behind the shock wave. If the generative mechanisms of distorted vortex ring and flows from the shock tube are clear, this also contributes to the technical advancement, regarding the mixture of different chemical species. The shock wave emanating from a square shock tube was studied in numerical simulation and shock tube experiment. In order to simulate these flow fields, a second order upwind Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) finite difference scheme was used. The TVD scheme, having been used for 2-D problems, was extended to 3-D and applied to Euler equations. The computational domain of 60 x 60 x 60 grid points covers a quarter of the shock tube cross section. As an initial configuration, a normal shock wave with Mach 1.5 was taken. The numerical results were compared with data from optical measurements. Good qualitative agreement was obtained between numerical and experimental results.
IPShocks: Database of Interplanetary Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isavnin, Alexey; Lumme, Erkka; Kilpua, Emilia; Lotti, Mikko; Andreeova, Katerina; Koskinen, Hannu; Nikbakhsh, Shabnam
2016-04-01
Fast collisionless shocks are one of the key interplanetary structures, which have also paramount role for solar-terrestrial physics. In particular, coronal mass ejection driven shocks accelerate particles to high energies and turbulent post-shock flows may drive intense geomagnetic storms. We present comprehensive Heliospheric Shock Database (ipshocks.fi) developed and hosted at University of Helsinki. The database contains currently over 2000 fast forward and fast reverse shocks observed by Wind, ACE, STEREO, Helios, Ulysses and Cluster spacecraft. In addition, the database has search and sort tools based on the spacecraft, time range, and several key shock parameters (e.g., shock type, shock strength, shock angle), data plots for each shock and data download options. These features allow easy access to shocks and quick statistical analyses. All current shocks are identified visually and analysed using the same procedure.
Formation of Chondrules by Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, M. A.; Boley, A. C.
2017-02-01
We describe and assess current shock models for chondrule formation, particularly those driven by gravitational disk instabilities and bow shocks. We discuss predictions made by shock models and further work needed.
Radiant properties of strong shock waves in argon.
Taylor, W H; Kane, J W
1967-09-01
Measurements of the visible radiation emitted by one dimensional, explosively generated, shock waves in argon initially at 1 atm are reported. A time-resolved spectrograph and calibrated photodetectors were used to measure the intensity of the source at 5450 A and 4050 A. The results show that explosive induced shock waves in argon having shock velocities in the range 8-9 mm/microusec radiate at these wavelengths like a blackbody having a temperature of approximately 23,000 degrees K.
Biomechanical and Biochemical Cellular Response Due to Shock Waves
2008-12-01
using shock- wave-induced cavitation . Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 29, 1769-1776. Lew, H. L., J. H. Poole, S. Alvarez, and W. Moore, 2005...sheets of adipose derived stem cells to shock waves. A key guideline in the experimental design was to suppress cavitation . To this end we...shock-exposed cells and controls. We attribute this to the absence of cavitation . Time-resolved gene expression revealed that a large
Dispersive shock waves in nematic liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smyth, Noel F.
2016-10-01
The propagation of coherent light with an initial step intensity profile in a nematic liquid crystal is studied using modulation theory. The propagation of light in a nematic liquid crystal is governed by a coupled system consisting of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the light beam and an elliptic equation for the medium response. In general, the intensity step breaks up into a dispersive shock wave, or undular bore, and an expansion fan. In the experimental parameter regime for which the nematic response is highly nonlocal, this nematic bore is found to differ substantially from the standard defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation structure due to the effect of the nonlocality of the nematic medium. It is found that the undular bore is of Korteweg-de Vries equation-type, consisting of bright waves, rather than of nonlinear Schrödinger equation-type, consisting of dark waves. In addition, ahead of this Korteweg-de Vries bore there can be a uniform wavetrain with a short front which brings the solution down to the initial level ahead. It is found that this uniform wavetrain does not exist if the initial jump is below a critical value. Analytical solutions for the various parts of the nematic bore are found, with emphasis on the role of the nonlocality of the nematic medium in shaping this structure. Excellent agreement between full numerical solutions of the governing nematicon equations and these analytical solutions is found.
Shock-wave properties of soda-lime glass
Grady, D.E.; Chhabildas, L.C.
1996-11-01
Planar impact experiments and wave profile measurements provided single and double shock equation of state data to 30 GPa. Both compression wave wave profile structure and release wave data were used to infer time-dependent strength and equation of state properties for soda-lime glass.
Marti-Lopez, L.; Ocana, R.; Porro, J. A.; Morales, M.; Ocana, J. L.
2009-07-01
We report an experimental study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of shock waves, cavitation bubbles, and sound waves generated in water during laser shock processing by single Nd:YAG laser pulses of nanosecond duration. A fast ICCD camera (2 ns gate time) was employed to record false schlieren photographs, schlieren photographs, and Mach-Zehnder interferograms of the zone surrounding the laser spot site on the target, an aluminum alloy sample. We recorded hemispherical shock fronts, cylindrical shock fronts, plane shock fronts, cavitation bubbles, and phase disturbance tracks.
Shock-wave-induced flow past a circular cylinder in a dusty-gas shock tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiyama, Hiromu; Shirota, Takahiro; Doi, Hiromichi; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
1990-05-01
An experimental investigation of a shock-wave-induced flow past a circular cylinder in a dusty-gas shock tube was made. The shock tubes used for the present research had test sections of identical geometry. For a frozen-shock Mach number of 1.3, flow visualization studies were conducted by the schlieren method, using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-laser holographic interferometer. The behavior of shock waves past a circular cylinder in a dusty-gas, the development of dust-free regions, and the formation of vortices behind a circular cylinder were observed in detail.
Martí-López, L; Ocaña, R; Porro, J A; Morales, M; Ocaña, J L
2009-07-01
We report an experimental study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of shock waves, cavitation bubbles, and sound waves generated in water during laser shock processing by single Nd:YAG laser pulses of nanosecond duration. A fast ICCD camera (2 ns gate time) was employed to record false schlieren photographs, schlieren photographs, and Mach-Zehnder interferograms of the zone surrounding the laser spot site on the target, an aluminum alloy sample. We recorded hemispherical shock fronts, cylindrical shock fronts, plane shock fronts, cavitation bubbles, and phase disturbance tracks.
Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries
Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.
2015-04-28
The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ∼45 kA and rise time of ∼80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.
SHOCK-WAVE THERAPY APPLICATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE (REVIEW).
Sheveleva, N; Minbayeva, L; Belyayeva, Y
2016-03-01
The article presents literature review on the use of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy in physiotherapeutic practice. The basic mechanisms of shock waves influence on the organism are spotlighted. Studies proving high efficacy of the method in treatment of wide variety of inflammatory diseases and traumatic genesis are presented. The data on comparative assessment of shock-wave therapy efficacy, and results of researches on possibility of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy effect potentiating in combination with other therapeutic methods are reflected. Recent years, the range of indications for shock-wave therapy application had been significantly widened. However, further study of the method is still relevant because mechanisms of action of the factor are studied insufficiently; methods of therapy parameters selection (energy flux density, number of pulses per treatment, duration of a course) are either advisory or empirical.
Shock waves in noble gases and their mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bratos, M.; Herczynski, R.
The shock wave structures in pure monatomic gases and in binary gas mixtures are investigated in this paper using a variational approach. The idea of Mott-Smith's distribution function (generalized in the case of a gas mixture) was combined with Tamm's method of solving the Boltzmann equation. The intermolecular potential used is of the Lennard-Jones type. The relation between the dimensionless shock wave thickness and Mach number in front of the shock wave is analyzed. Special attention was paid to the determination of shock wave structures in mixtures of gases with disparate molecular masses. The calculation performed for the shock wave in the binary gas mixture, xenon-helium, confirm the existence of a 'hump' of the density profile of the lighter component. The heavy gas component temperature overshoots its downstream equilibrium value in the case of a mixture of gases with disparate molecular masses and for a small mole fraction of the heavy gas component.
Intense shock waves and shock-compressed gas flows in the channels of rail accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobashev, S. V.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Reznikov, B. I.; Tverdokhlebov, K. V.
2015-01-01
Shock wave generation and shock-compressed gas flows attendant on the acceleration of an striker-free plasma piston in the channels of electromagnetic rail accelerators (railguns) are studied. Experiments are carried out in channels filled with helium or argon to an initial pressure of 25-500 Torr. At a pressure of 25 Torr, Mach numbers equal 32 in argon and 16 in helium. It is found that with the initial currents and gas initial densities in the channels being the same, the shock wave velocities in both gases almost coincide. Unlike standard shock tubes, a high electric field (up to 300 V/cm) present in the channel governs the motion of a shock-compressed layer. Once the charged particle concentration behind the shock wave becomes sufficiently high, the field causes part of the discharge current to pass through the shock-compressed layer. As a result, the glow of the layer becomes much more intense.
Viscous Shear Layers Formed by Non-Bifurcating Shock Waves in Shock-Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grogan, Kevin; Ihme, Matthias
2015-11-01
Shock-tubes are test apparatuses that are used extensively for chemical kinetic measurements. Under ideal conditions, shock-tubes provide a quiescent region behind a reflected shock wave where combustion may take place without complications arising from gas-dynamic effects. However, due to the reflected shock wave encountering a boundary layer, significant inhomogeneity may be introduced into the test region. The bifurcation of the reflected shock-wave is well-known to occur under certain conditions; however, a viscous shear layer may form behind a non-bifurcating reflected shock wave as well and may affect chemical kinetics and ignition of certain fuels. The focus of this talk is on the development of the viscous shear layer and the coupling to the ignition in the regime corresponding to the negative temperature conditions.
Dispersive shock wave interactions and asymptotics.
Ablowitz, Mark J; Baldwin, Douglas E
2013-02-01
Dispersive shock waves (DSWs) are physically important phenomena that occur in systems dominated by weak dispersion and weak nonlinearity. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is the universal model for systems with weak dispersion and weak, quadratic nonlinearity. Here we show that the long-time-asymptotic solution of the KdV equation for general, steplike data is a single-phase DSW; this DSW is the "largest" possible DSW based on the boundary data. We find this asymptotic solution using the inverse scattering transform and matched-asymptotic expansions. So while multistep data evolve to have multiphase dynamics at intermediate times, these interacting DSWs eventually merge to form a single-phase DSW at large time.
Augmented shock wave fracture/severance of materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
The present invention related generally to severing materials, and more particularly to severing or weakening materials through explosively induced, augmented shock waves. Explosive cords are placed in grooves on the upper surface of the material to be severed or weakened. The explosive cords are initiated simultaneously to introduce explosive shock waves into the material. These shock waves progress toward the centerline between the explosive cords and the lower surface of the material. Intersecting and reflected waves produce a rarefaction zone on the centerline to fail the material in tension. A groove may also be cut in the lower surface of the material to aid in severing or weakening the material.
Reflection of a plane shock wave from a slit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serov, A. O.; Shtemenko, L. S.; Shugaev, F. V.
Laser shadow photography was used in a shock-tube visualization study of a plane shock wave reflected from a slit. The working gases were air and Freon 14, and the Mach number of the incident shock wave was in the 2-3 range. An intense interaction between the reflected wave and the walls of the slit was observed. This interaction could lead to the disappearance of the rectilinear part of this wave, thus reducing the load experienced by the body during this type of reflection.
The physical mechanisms of subcritical collisionless shock-wave formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellott, M. M.
1984-01-01
The key process in shock wave formation is related to energy dissipation, and the nature of the operative dissipation mechanism determines the basic character of the resulting shock. In the case of collisionless plasmas, the primary problem consists in the identification of the processes which can provide the necessary dissipation in relatively short spatial scale lengths. The present investigation is concerned with the various collisionless dissipation mechanisms which can operate in weak shocks, taking into account the effects of different mechanisms on shock structure. Particular attention is given to a restricted class of quasi-perpendicular low beta low Mach number shocks. Such shocks are traditionally called 'laminar shocks'. Resistive shocks are considered along with subcritical shocks observed with the aid of the ISEE spacecraft.
Cytoplasmic molecular delivery with shock waves: importance of impulse.
Kodama, T; Hamblin, M R; Doukas, A G
2000-10-01
Cell permeabilization using shock waves may be a way of introducing macromolecules and small polar molecules into the cytoplasm, and may have applications in gene therapy and anticancer drug delivery. The pressure profile of a shock wave indicates its energy content, and shock-wave propagation in tissue is associated with cellular displacement, leading to the development of cell deformation. In the present study, three different shock-wave sources were investigated; argon fluoride excimer laser, ruby laser, and shock tube. The duration of the pressure pulse of the shock tube was 100 times longer than the lasers. The uptake of two fluorophores, calcein (molecular weight: 622) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (molecular weight: 71,600), into HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells was investigated. The intracellular fluorescence was measured by a spectrofluorometer, and the cells were examined by confocal fluorescence microscopy. A single shock wave generated by the shock tube delivered both fluorophores into approximately 50% of the cells (p < 0.01), whereas shock waves from the lasers did not. The cell survival fraction was >0.95. Confocal microscopy showed that, in the case of calcein, there was a uniform fluorescence throughout the cell, whereas, in the case of FITC-dextran, the fluorescence was sometimes in the nucleus and at other times not. We conclude that the impulse of the shock wave (i.e., the pressure integrated over time), rather than the peak pressure, was a dominant factor for causing fluorophore uptake into living cells, and that shock waves might have changed the permeability of the nuclear membrane and transferred molecules directly into the nucleus.
Cytoplasmic molecular delivery with shock waves: importance of impulse.
Kodama, T; Hamblin, M R; Doukas, A G
2000-01-01
Cell permeabilization using shock waves may be a way of introducing macromolecules and small polar molecules into the cytoplasm, and may have applications in gene therapy and anticancer drug delivery. The pressure profile of a shock wave indicates its energy content, and shock-wave propagation in tissue is associated with cellular displacement, leading to the development of cell deformation. In the present study, three different shock-wave sources were investigated; argon fluoride excimer laser, ruby laser, and shock tube. The duration of the pressure pulse of the shock tube was 100 times longer than the lasers. The uptake of two fluorophores, calcein (molecular weight: 622) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (molecular weight: 71,600), into HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells was investigated. The intracellular fluorescence was measured by a spectrofluorometer, and the cells were examined by confocal fluorescence microscopy. A single shock wave generated by the shock tube delivered both fluorophores into approximately 50% of the cells (p < 0.01), whereas shock waves from the lasers did not. The cell survival fraction was >0.95. Confocal microscopy showed that, in the case of calcein, there was a uniform fluorescence throughout the cell, whereas, in the case of FITC-dextran, the fluorescence was sometimes in the nucleus and at other times not. We conclude that the impulse of the shock wave (i.e., the pressure integrated over time), rather than the peak pressure, was a dominant factor for causing fluorophore uptake into living cells, and that shock waves might have changed the permeability of the nuclear membrane and transferred molecules directly into the nucleus. PMID:11023888
The influence of incident shock Mach number on radial incident shock wave focusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin; Tan, Sheng; He, Liming; Rong, Kang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaobin
2016-04-01
Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate radial incident shock focusing on a test section where the planar incident shock wave was divided into two identical ones. A conventional shock tube was used to generate the planar shock. Incident shock Mach number of 1.51, 1.84 and 2.18 were tested. CCD camera was used to obtain the schlieren photos of the flow field. Third-order, three step strong-stability-preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta method, third-order weighed essential non-oscillation (WENO) scheme and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm were adopted to simulate the complicated flow fields characterized by shock wave interaction. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Complex shock wave configurations and interactions (such as shock reflection, shock-vortex interaction and shock focusing) were observed in both the experiments and numerical results. Some new features were observed and discussed. The differences of structure of flow field and the variation trends of pressure were compared and analyzed under the condition of different Mach numbers while shock wave focusing.
Biological effects of tandem shock waves demonstrated on magnetic resonance.
Benes, J; Zeman, J; Pouckova, P; Zadinova, M; Sunka, P; Lukes, P
2012-01-01
The shock wave is used for the treatment of kidney stones, eventually of gall stones, for more than 20 years. It is a pressure wave, which breaks through soft tissues easily and it is possible to focus it into a small volume. The excellent results of the treatment of concrements led to considerations about another usage of the shock wave. The research is now concentrated on the possibility of the damage to tumour tissues. In contrast to concrements tumour tissues are not different from healthy tissues as for their acoustic attributes. That is why a new source of shock waves was used in this work. The source allows generating two successive shock waves focused into a common focus, so-called tandem shock waves. The biological effects of the tandem shock waves generated by the new source on rats hepatic tissue and rabbit femoral muscle in vivo were studied in this work. The damage is demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. MR images showed tissue damage in focus. There was damage of the liver tissue, muscle and also stomach wall. We found that the tandem shock waves are able to damage the acoustically homogeneous soft tissue in the focus, i.e. in the depth. In tissues in front of the focus, there is, however, no damage (Fig. 10, Ref. 15).
August Toepler — The first who visualized shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krehl, P.; Engemann, S.
1995-06-01
The scientific investigation of the nature of shock waves started 130 years ago with the advent of the schlieren method which was developed in the period 1859 1864 by August Toepler. At the very beginning applied to the visualization of heat and flow phenomena, he immediately turned to air shock waves generated by electric sparks, and subjectively studied the propagation, reflection and refraction of shock waves. His new delay circuit in the microsecond time regime for the first time made it possible to vary electrically the delay time between a spark generating a shock wave and a second spark acting as a flash light source in his chlieren setup. In 1870 Toepler, together with Boltzmann, applied Jamin's interferometric refractometer and extended the visualization to very weak sound waves at the threshold of hearing. Toepler's pioneering schlieren method stimulated Ernst Mach and his team to objectively investigate the nature of shock waves: they improved Toepler's time delay circuit; continued the study on the reflection of shock waves; introduced shadowgraphy as a modification of the schlieren method; photographed the propagation of shock waves generated by an electric spark and by supersonic projectiles, and improved interferometry. Based on a large number of original documents the paper illuminates the concomitant circumstances of the invention of the schlieren method and its first applications by others.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Auslender, Aaron H.
1999-01-01
The decay of anomalous effects on shock waves in weakly ionized gases following plasma generator extinction has been measured in the anticipation that the decay time must correlate well with the relaxation time of the mechanism responsible for the anomalous effects. When the relaxation times cannot be measured directly, they are inferred theoretically, usually assuming that the initial state is nearly in thermal equilibrium. In this paper, it is demonstrated that relaxation from any steady state far from equilibrium, including the state of a weakly ionized gas, can proceed much more slowly than arguments based on relaxation from near equilibrium states might suggest. This result justifies a more careful analysis of the relaxation times in weakly ionized gases and suggests that although the experimental measurements of relaxation times did not lead to an unambiguous conclusion, this approach to understanding the anomalous effects may warrant further investigation.
Shock waves in cosmic space and planetary materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, Y.; Kato, T.
1993-08-01
Shock waves can be produced in the Earth's atmosphere and near vacuum of cosmic space as ``collision (as shock metamorphism)'' and ``collisionless (as plasma)'' shock events, respectively. Collisionless shock forms when the ``solar wind'' hits the ``magnetic fields'' of all the planets and comets which were found by many spacecrafts and Voyager missions as intense Alfven plasma waves. Main causes to generate the collision shock waves are bombardments of the meteorites (or asteroids) against the meteorite itself (including interplanetary dust particles), the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Material evidence of the collision shock has been studied by shock metamorphism. Because of randomly distributed fragments of meteorites and lunar regolith, shock metamorphic study to the planetary materials should require the standard impact materials from artificial and terrestrial impact craters. Collision and collisionless shocks onto the airless lunar surface produce the regolith soils with agglutinates and solar wind components. Shock waves (including space debris) are considered to play a significant role in space environments of the Space Station and the Lunar and Martian Base projects for human (or robot) activities.
Theoretical study of plasma effect on a conical shock wave
Kuo, S.P.; Kuo, Steven S.
2006-03-15
Experiments conducted previously in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel showed that localized plasma generated by an on-board 60 Hz electric discharge in front of a 60 deg. cone-shaped model considerably increases the shock angle of the attached shock generated by the cone model. Based on the measured power and cycle energy of the electric discharge, the estimated peak and average temperature enhancements were too low to justify the heating effect as a possible cause of the observed shock wave modification. In this work, a theory also using a cone model as the shock wave generator is presented to explain the observed plasma effect on the shock wave. Through electron-neutral elastic collisions and ion-neutral charge transfer collisions, plasma generated in front of the baseline shock front can deflect the incoming flow before it reaches the cone model; such a flow deflection modifies the structure of the shock wave generated by the cone model from a conic shape to a slightly curved one. The shock remains to be attached to the tip of the cone; however, the shock front moves upstream to increase the shock angle, consistent with the experimental results.
Dispersive radiation induced by shock waves in passive resonators.
Malaguti, Stefania; Conforti, Matteo; Trillo, Stefano
2014-10-01
We show that passive Kerr resonators pumped close to zero dispersion wavelengths on the normal dispersion side can develop the resonant generation of linear waves driven by cavity (mixed dispersive-dissipative) shock waves. The resonance mechanism can be successfully described in the framework of the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation with higher-order dispersive terms. Substantial differences with radiation from cavity solitons and purely dispersive shock waves dispersion are highlighted.
The management of sialolithiasis in 2 children through use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
Escudier, M P; Drage, N A
1999-07-01
The management of salivary calculi in children may prove difficult for a number of reasons. Traditional investigations require ionizing radiation and in cases of sialography may be poorly tolerated. Similarly, any surgical treatment is likely to require general anesthesia and, in a number of cases, removal of the affected gland, which is associated with attendant risks. As an alternative, ultrasound and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy therapy offers low morbidity and outpatient procedures that are well tolerated, as illustrated by these 2 cases.
Laminar wave train structure of collisionless magnetic slow shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.
1970-01-01
The laminar wave train structure of collisionless magnetic slow shocks is investigated using two fluid hydromagnetics with ion cyclotron radius dispersion. For shock strengths less than the maximally strong switch-off shock, in the shock leading edge dispersive steepening forms a magnetic field gradient, while in the downstream flow dispersive propagation forms a trailing wave train; dispersion scale lengths are the ion inertial length if beta is smaller than 1 and the ion cyclotron radius if beta is greater than 1. In the switch-off slow shock leading edge, dispersion only produced rotations of the magnetic field direction; the gradient of the magnetic field magnitude, and hence the shock steepening length, is determined solely by resistive diffusion. The switch-off shock structure consists of a long trailing of magnetic rotations which are gradually damped by resistivity.
Medical applications and bioeffects of extracorporeal shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delius, M.
1994-09-01
Lithotripter shock waves are pressure pulses of microsecond duration with peak pressures of 35 120 MPa followed by a tensile wave. They are an established treatment modality for kidney and gallstone disease. Further applications are pancreatic and salivary stones, as well as delayed fracture healing. The latter are either on their way to become established treatments or are currently under investigation. Shock waves generate tissue damage as a side effect which has been extensively investigated in the kidney, the liver, and the gallbladder. The primary adverse effects are local destruction of blood vessels, bleedings, and formation of blood clots in vessels. Investigations on the mechanism of shock wave action revealed that lithotripters generate cavitation both in vitro and in vivo. An increase in tissue damage at higher pulse administration rates, and also at shock wave application with concomitant gas bubble injection suggested that cavitation is a major mechanism of tissue damage. Disturbances of the heart rhythm and excitation of nerves are further biological effects of shock waves; both are probably also mediated by cavitation. On the cellular level, shock waves induce damage to cell organelles; its extent is related to their energy density. They also cause a transient increase in membrane permeability which does not lead to cell death. Administered either alone or in combination with drugs, shock waves have been shown to delay the growth of small animal tumors and even induce tumor remissions. While the role of cavitation in biological effects is widely accepted, the mechanism of stone fragmentation by shock waves is still controversial. Cavitation is detected around the stone and hyperbaric pressure suppresses fragmentation; yet major cracks are formed early before cavitation bubble collapse is observed. The latter has been regarded as evidence for a direct shock wave effect.
The Observational Consequences of Proton-Generated Waves at Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reames, Donald V.
2000-01-01
In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration takes place at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections. Protons streaming away from strong shocks generate Alfven waves that trap particles in the acceleration region, limiting outflowing intensities but increasing the efficiency of acceleration to higher energies. Early in the events, with the shock still near the Sun, intensities at 1 AU are bounded and spectra are flattened at low energies. Elements with different charge-to-mass ratios, Q/A, differentially probe the wave spectra near shocks, producing abundance ratios that vary in space and time. An initial rise in He/H, while Fe/O declines, is a typical symptom of the non-Kolmogorov wave spectra in the largest events. Strong wave generation can cause cross-field scattering near the shock and unusually rapid reduction in anisotropies even far from the shock. At the highest energies, shock spectra steepen to form a "knee." For protons, this spectral knee can vary from approx. 10 MeV to approx. 1 GeV depending on shock conditions for wave growth. In one case, the location of the knee scales approximately as Q/A in the energy/nucleon spectra of other species.
Interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, G.; Zhao, Y. X.; Zhou, J.
2017-09-01
The interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake has been studied. The swept shock wave is generated by a swept compression sidewall, and the supersonic wake is generated by a wake generator. The flow field is visualized with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering method, and a supplementary numerical simulation is conducted by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the pressure rise induced by the swept shock wave can propagate upstream in the wake, which makes the location where vortices are generated move upstream, thickens the laminar section of the wake, and enlarges the generated vortices. The wake is swept away from the swept compression sidewall by the pressure gradient of the swept shock wave. This pressure gradient is not aligned with the density gradient of the supersonic wake, so the baroclinic torque generates streamwise vorticity and changes the distribution of the spanwise vorticity. The wake shock is curved, so the flow downstream of it is non-uniform, leaving the swept shock wave being distorted. A three-dimensional Mach disk structure is generated when the wake shock interacts with the swept shock wave.
Interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, G.; Zhao, Y. X.; Zhou, J.
2017-03-01
The interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake has been studied. The swept shock wave is generated by a swept compression sidewall, and the supersonic wake is generated by a wake generator. The flow field is visualized with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering method, and a supplementary numerical simulation is conducted by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the pressure rise induced by the swept shock wave can propagate upstream in the wake, which makes the location where vortices are generated move upstream, thickens the laminar section of the wake, and enlarges the generated vortices. The wake is swept away from the swept compression sidewall by the pressure gradient of the swept shock wave. This pressure gradient is not aligned with the density gradient of the supersonic wake, so the baroclinic torque generates streamwise vorticity and changes the distribution of the spanwise vorticity. The wake shock is curved, so the flow downstream of it is non-uniform, leaving the swept shock wave being distorted. A three-dimensional Mach disk structure is generated when the wake shock interacts with the swept shock wave.
Dynamics of concerted bubble cluster collapse in shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Colonius, Tim; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.
2003-10-01
Cavitation bubble cluster collapse at the surface of artificial kidney stones during shock wave lithotripsy was investigated in vitro by means of multiframe high-speed photography, passive cavitation detection (PCD), and pressure waveform measurements using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone (FOPH). It was observed that after the passage of the lithotripter shock pulse the stone was covered by numerous individual bubbles. During their growth phase the bubbles coalesced into bubble clusters, with the biggest cluster at the proximal face of the stone. High-speed camera images suggested that cluster collapse started at the periphery and ended with a violent collapse in a small region in the center of the surface of the stone. Shadowgraphy resolved numerous secondary shock waves emitted during this focused collapse. Shock wave emission during cluster collapse was confirmed by PCD. Measurement with the FOPH showed that these shock waves were typically of short duration (0.2 μs). The majority of the shock waves emanating from cluster collapse were low amplitude but some shock waves registered amplitudes on the order of the incident shock pulse (tens of MPa). [Work supported by NIH DK43881, DK55674.
Shock Wave Profiles in Glass Reinforced Polyester
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boteler, J. Michael; Rajendran, A. M.; Grove, David
1999-06-01
The promise of lightweight armor which is also structurally robust is of particular importance to the Army for future combat vehicles. Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites such as Glass Reinforced Polyester (GRP) are being considered for this purpose due to their lower density and promising dynamic response. The work discussed here extends the prior work of Boteler who studied the delamination strength of GRP and Dandekar and Beaulieu who investigated the compressive and tensile strengths of GRP. In a series of shock wave experiments, the wave profile was examined as a function of propagation distance in GRP. Uniaxial strain was achieved by plate impact in the ARL 102 mm bore single-stage light gas gun. Embedded polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) stress-rate gauges provided a stress history at three unique locations in the GRP and particle velocity history was recorded with VISAR. The use of Lagrange gauges embedded in such a manner provides a means of calculating the constitutive relationships between specific volume, stress, and particle velocity uniquely with no prior assumptions of the form of constitutive relation. The Lagrangian analysis will be discussed and compared to Lagrangian hydrocode (EPIC) results employing a model to describe the viscoelastic response of the composite material in one-dimension.
Shock wave profiles in polymer matrix composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boteler, J. Michael; Rajendran, A. M.; Grove, David
2000-04-01
The promise of lightweight armor which is also structurally robust is of particular importance to the Army for future combat vehicles. Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites such as Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) are being considered for this purpose due to their lower density and promising dynamic response. The work discussed here extends the prior work of Boteler who studied the delamination strength of PMC and Dandekar and Beaulieu who investigated the compressive and tensile strengths of PMC. In a series of shock wave experiments, the wave profile was examined as a function of propagation distance in PMC. Uniaxial strain was achieved by symmetric plate impact in the ARL 102 mm bore single-stage light gas gun. Embedded polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) stress-rate gauges provided a stress history at three unique locations in the PMC and particle velocity history was recorded with VISAR. All stress data was compared to a Lagrangian hydrocode (EPIC) employing a model to describe the viscoelastic response of the composite material in one-dimension. The experimental stress histories displayed attenuation and loading properties in good agreement with model predictions. However, the unloading was observed to be markedly different than the hydrocode simulations. These results are discussed.
Shock wave loading of a magnetic guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kindt, L.
2011-10-01
velocities and a shock wave is created between the two velocity regions. In order to conserve number of particle, momentum and enthalpy the density of the atomic beam passing through the shock wave must increase. We have build such a shock wave in an atomic beam and observed the density increase due to this. As an extra feature having a subsonic beam on a downward slope adds an extra density increase due to gravitational compression. Loading ultra cold atoms into a 3D trap from the dense subsonic beam overcomes the problem with 2D cooling and thermal conductivity. This was done and evaporative cooling was applied creating an unprecedented large number rubidium BEC.
[The disguised face of blast injuries: shock waves].
Ozer, M Tahir; Coşkun, Kağan; Oğünç, Gökhan I; Eryılmaz, Mehmet; Yiğit, Taner; Kozak, Orhan; Apaydın, Kanbi; Uzar, A Ihsan
2010-09-01
The increase in terrorist attacks has brought a profound and new knowledge of blast injuries. In order to improve our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of blast injuries, we analyzed the effects of shock waves. 100 g TNT and 1000 g C4 were detonated and recorded by high-speed camera. Blast wind, shock wave and shrapnel speeds were calculated, and final condition of the target was examined. A flash ball appeared first followed by the shock wave. Finally, blast wind occurred and shrapnel was distributed. The macroscopic structure of targets was not affected by the shock wave but was affected by shrapnel and blast wind. Shock waves created a transparent ballistic gel inside the target mat by changing its microscopic structure. The speed of the shock wave was 6482-7194 m/sn and shrapnel speed was 1420-1752 m/sn. Shock waves especially affect the air-filled organs and cause lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and intestinal and eardrum perforation. Blast wind destroys targets due to its high speed and high density. The main cause of mortality is shrapnel injury. The high temperature created by the explosion causes thermal injuries. Being informed of the mechanisms of blast injuries will assist in providing better treatment. Additionally, consideration of all mechanisms of blast injuries will facilitate lower mortality and morbidity rates.
Redirection of the spherical expanding shock wave on the interface with plasma
Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.
2014-02-15
We study a strong spherical expanding shock wave interacting with the finite-gradient interface between neutral cold gas and weakly ionized plasma. We want to see how the interaction with the interface can alter the shock structure compared to the case of its free propagation through the media with the exponentially varying density. From our comparative calculations based on the 2D model, we found substantial difference in the shock structure including strong deformation of the shock front followed with its gradual flattening and the redirection in its propagation. There are a number of factors that can be used to control this phenomenon in order to strengthen or lessen the effect. The calculations can be made on any scale, limited with the requirement for the shock wave to be strong. The study points at the possibility in certain applications to avoid the shock wave with its redirection rather than attenuation. The results can be applicable to optimization of the energy deposition into the supersonic flux, the drag reduction in hypersonic flight, in the detonation theory, and combustion through the control of the ignition conditions, and for environmental improvements through sonic boom reduction. Cartesian coordinates were used in order to visualize the phenomenon.
Analysis of shock-wave propagation in aqueous foams using shock tube experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourdan, G.; Mariani, C.; Houas, L.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Del Prete, E.; Haas, J.-F.; Rambert, N.; Counilh, D.; Faure, S.
2015-05-01
This paper reports experimental results of planar shock waves interacting with aqueous foams in a horizontal conventional shock tube. Four incident shock wave Mach numbers are considered, ranging from 1.07 to 1.8, with two different foam columns of one meter thickness and expansion ratios of 30 and 80. High-speed flow visualizations are used along with pressure measurements to analyse the main physical mechanisms that govern shock wave mitigation in foams. During the shock/foam interaction, a precursor leading pressure jump was identified as the trace of the liquid film destruction stage in the foam fragmentation process. The corresponding pressure threshold is found to be invariant for a given foam. Regarding the mitigation effect, the results show that the speed of the shock is drastically reduced and that wetter is the foam, slower are the transmitted waves. The presence of the foam barrier attenuates the induced pressure impulse behind the transmitted shock, while the driest foam appears to be more effective, as it limits the pressure induced by the reflected shock off the foam front. Finally, it was found that the pressure histories in the two-phase gas-liquid mixture are different from those previously obtained within a cloud of droplets. The observed behavior is attributed to the process of foam fragmentation and to the modification of the flow topology past the shock. These physical phenomena occurring during the shock/foam interaction should be properly accounted for when elaborating new physical models.
Three dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mowatt, S.; Skews, B.
2011-09-01
An investigation into a three-dimensional, curved shock wave interacting with a three-dimensional, curved boundary layer on a slender body is presented. Three different nose profiles mounted on a cylindrical body were tested in a supersonic wind tunnel and numerically simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The conical and hemispherical nose profiles tested were found to generate shock waves of sufficient strength to separate the boundary layer on the cylinder, while the shock wave generated by the ogival profile did not separate the boundary layer. For the separated flow, separation was found to occur predominantly on the windward side of the cylinder with the lee-side remaining shielded from the direct impact of the incident shock wave. A thickening of the boundary layer on the lee-side of all the profiles was observed, and in the conical and hemispherical cases this leads to the re-formation of the incident shock wave some distance away from the surface of the cylinder. A complex reflection pattern off the shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) was also identified for the separated flow cases. For comparative purposes, an inviscid simulation was performed using the hemispherical profile. Significant differences between the viscous and inviscid results were noted including the absence of a boundary layer leading to a simplified shock wave reflection pattern forming. The behaviour of the incident shock wave on the lee-side of the cylinder was also affected with the shock wave amalgamating on the surface of the cylinder instead of away from the surface as per the viscous case. Test data from the wind tunnel identified two separation lines present on the cylindrical surface of the hemispherical SWBLI generator. The pair of lines were not explicitly evident in the original CFD simulations run, but were later identified in a high-resolution simulation.
What is a Shock Wave to an Explosive Molecule?
Tarver, C M
2001-06-12
An explosive molecule is a metastable chemical species that reacts exothermically given the correct stimulus. Impacting an explosive with a shock wave is a ''wake-up call'' or ''trigger'' which compresses and heats the molecule. The energy deposited by the shock wave must be distributed to the vibrational modes of the explosive molecule before chemical reaction can occur. If the shock pressure and temperature are high enough and last long enough, exothermic chemical decomposition can lead to the formation of a detonation wave. For gaseous, liquid, and perfect single crystal solid explosives, after an induction time, chemical reaction begins at or near the rear boundary of the charge. This induction time can be calculated by high pressure, high temperature transition state theory. A ''superdetonation'' wave travels through the preshocked explosive until it overtakes the initial shock wave and then slows to the steady state Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) velocity. In heterogeneous solid explosives, initiation of reaction occurs at ''hot spots'' created by shock compression. If there is a sufficient number of large and hot enough ''hot spots,'' these ignition sites grow creating a pressure pulse that overtakes the leading shock front causing detonation. Since the chemical energy is released well behind the leading shock front of a detonation wave, a mechanism is required for this energy to reinforce the leading shock front and maintain its overall constant velocity. This mechanism is the amplification of pressure wavelets in the reaction zone by the process of de-excitation of the initially highly vibrationally excited reaction product molecules. This process leads to the development of the three-dimensional structure of detonation waves observed for all explosives. In a detonation wave, the leading shock wave front becomes a ''burden'' for the explosive molecule to sustain by its chemical energy release.
Temperature measurements of explosively driven strong shock waves in gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Yoshio; Yoshida, Masatake; Kakudate, Yozo; Usuba, Shu; Yamawaki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Katsumi; Fujiwara, Shuzo
1992-03-01
Two types of explosively driven shock tube; one-dimensional shock tube, and cumulative shock tube were used to generate strong shock waves in gases. Temperature measurements were made by using a spectroscope with eight-PIN photodiode system over the visible wavelength range (440-740 nm). The color temperature as well as the brightness temperature for one-dimensional shock tube with atmospheric pressure argon agreed fairly well with theoretical calculations; the brightness temperature was 18,000 K and 19,200 K for shock velocity of 4.8 km/s and 5.7 km/s respectively with an accuracy of +/- 500 K. The brightness temperature in the cumulative shock tube was 62,200 +/- 2,010 K at shock velocity of 27 km/s for atmospheric pressure air and agreed with theoretical values.
Numerical simulation of MHD shock waves in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinolfson, R. S.; Dryer, M.
1978-01-01
The effects of the interplanetary magnetic field on the propagation speed of shock waves through an ambient solar wind are examined by numerical solutions of the time-dependent nonlinear equations of motion. The magnetic field always increases the velocity of strong shocks. Although the field may temporarily slow down weak shocks inside 1 AU, it eventually also causes weak shocks to travel faster than they would without the magnetic field at larger distances. Consistent with the increase in the shock velocity, the gas pressure ratio across a shock is reduced considerably in the presence of the magnetic field. The numerical method is used to simulate (starting at 0.3 AU) the large deceleration of a shock observed in the lower corona by ground-based radio instrumentation and the more gradual deceleration of the shock in the solar wind observed by the Pioneer 9 and Pioneer 10 spacecraft.
Theory of the corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave.
Bates, J W
2015-01-01
We analyze the two-dimensional stability of a shock wave driven by a steadily moving corrugated piston in an inviscid fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. For h≤-1 or h>h(c), where h is the D'yakov parameter and h(c) is the Kontorovich limit, we find that small perturbations on the shock front are unstable and grow--at first quadratically and later linearly--with time. Such instabilities are associated with nonequilibrium fluid states and imply a nonunique solution to the hydrodynamic equations. The above criteria are consistent with instability limits observed in shock-tube experiments involving ionizing and dissociating gases and may have important implications for driven shocks in laser-fusion, astrophysical, and/or detonation studies.
Theory of the corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bates, J. W.
2015-01-01
We analyze the two-dimensional stability of a shock wave driven by a steadily moving corrugated piston in an inviscid fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. For h ≤-1 or h >hc , where h is the D'yakov parameter and hc is the Kontorovich limit, we find that small perturbations on the shock front are unstable and grow—at first quadratically and later linearly—with time. Such instabilities are associated with nonequilibrium fluid states and imply a nonunique solution to the hydrodynamic equations. The above criteria are consistent with instability limits observed in shock-tube experiments involving ionizing and dissociating gases and may have important implications for driven shocks in laser-fusion, astrophysical, and/or detonation studies.
The effects of shock wave precursors ahead of hypersonic entry vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanley, Scott A.; Carlson, Leland A.
1991-01-01
A model has been developed to predict the magnitude and characteristics of the shock wave precursor ahead of a hypervelocity vehicle. This model includes both chemical and thermal nonequilibrium, utilizes detailed mass production rates for the photodissociation and photoionization reactions, and accounts for the effects of radiative absorption and emission on the individual internal energy modes of both atomic and diatomic species. Comparison of the present results with shock tube data indicates that the model is reasonably accurate. A series of test cases representing earth aerocapture return from Mars indicate that there is significant production of atoms, ions and electrons ahead of the shock front due to radiative absorption and that the precursor is characterized by an enhanced electron/electronic temperature and molecular ionization. However, the precursor has a negligible effect on the shock layer flow field.
Shock wave formation in the collapse of a vapor nanobubble.
Magaletti, F; Marino, L; Casciola, C M
2015-02-13
In this Letter, the dynamics of a collapsing vapor bubble is addressed by means of a diffuse-interface formulation. The model cleanly captures, through a unified approach, all the critical features of the process, such as phase change, transition to supercritical conditions, thermal conduction, compressibility effects, and shock wave formation and propagation. Rather unexpectedly for pure vapor bubbles, the numerical experiments show that the process consists in the oscillation of the bubble associated with the emission of shock waves in the liquid, and with the periodic disappearance and reappearance of the liquid-vapor interface due to transition to super- or subcritical conditions. The results identify the mechanism of shock wave formation as strongly related to the transition of the vapor to the supercritical state, with a progressive steepening of a focused compression wave evolving into a shock which is eventually reflected as an outward propagating wave in the liquid.
Shock Formation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuntz, Manfred; Suess, Steve; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We investigate the height of shock formation in coronal plumes for slow magnetosonic waves. The models take into account plume geometric spreading, heat conduction, and radiative damping. The wave parameters as well as the spreading functions of the plumes and the base magnetic field strengths are given by empirical constraints mostly from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), and Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). Our models show that shock formation occurs at relatively low coronal heights, typically within 1.2 RsuN, depending on the model parameters. The shock formation is calculated using the well-established wave breaking criterion given by the intersection of C+ characteristics in the space-time plane. Our models show that shock heating by slow magnetosonic waves is expected to be relevant at most heights in solar coronal plumes, although such waves are probably not the main energy supply mechanism.
Shock Formation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuntz, Manfred; Suess, Steven T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We investigate the height of shock formation in coroner plumes for slow magnetosonic waves. The models take into account plume geometric spreading, heat conduction and radiative damping. The wave parameters as well as the spreading functions of the plumes and the base magnetic field strengths are given by empirical constraints mostly from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (SOHO/UVCS). Our models show that shock formation occurs at low coronal heights, i.e., within 1.3 solar radius, depending on the model parameters. The shock formation is calculated using the well-established wave breaking condition given by the intersection of C+ characteristics in the space-time plane. Our models show that shock heating by slow magnetosonic waves is expected to be relevant at most heights in solar coronal plumes, although slow magnetosonic waves are most likely not a solely operating energy supply mechanism.
Shock Formation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuntz, Manfred; Suess, Steve; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We investigate the height of shock formation in coronal plumes for slow magnetosonic waves. The models take into account plume geometric spreading, heat conduction, and radiative damping. The wave parameters as well as the spreading functions of the plumes and the base magnetic field strengths are given by empirical constraints mostly from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), and Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). Our models show that shock formation occurs at relatively low coronal heights, typically within 1.2 RsuN, depending on the model parameters. The shock formation is calculated using the well-established wave breaking criterion given by the intersection of C+ characteristics in the space-time plane. Our models show that shock heating by slow magnetosonic waves is expected to be relevant at most heights in solar coronal plumes, although such waves are probably not the main energy supply mechanism.
Convection of a pattern of vorticity through a shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ribner, H S
1954-01-01
An arbitrary weak spatial distribution of vorticity can be represented in terms of plane sinusoidal shear waves of all orientations and wave lengths (Fourier integral). The analysis treats the passage of a single representative weak shear wave through a plane shock and shows refraction and modification of the shear wave with simultaneous generation of an acoustically intense sound wave. Applications to turbulence and to noise in supersonic wind tunnels are indicated.
Shock Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail
2005-01-01
A paper presents a theoretical study of shock waves in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The mathematical model of the BEC in this study is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) in which (1) the role of the wave function of a single particle in the traditional Schroedinger equation is played by a space- and time-dependent complex order parameter (x,t) proportional to the square root of the density of atoms and (2) the atoms engage in a repulsive interaction characterized by a potential proportional to | (x,t)|2. Equations that describe macroscopic perturbations of the BEC at zero temperature are derived from the NLSE and simplifying assumptions are made, leading to equations for the propagation of sound waves and the transformation of sound waves into shock waves. Equations for the speeds of shock waves and the relationships between jumps of velocity and density across shock fronts are derived. Similarities and differences between this theory and the classical theory of sound waves and shocks in ordinary gases are noted. The present theory is illustrated by solving the equations for the example of a shock wave propagating in a cigar-shaped BEC.
First experience with a modified Siemens Lithostar shock wave system.
Volmer, K D; Köhler, G; Folberth, W; Planz, K
1991-01-01
A Siemens Lithostar shock wave system was modified and investigated clinically. The modified system yields increased focal pressure and energy density. The first clinical experience in renal calculi shows a significant reduction in shock wave numbers per treatment. Higher energy output enables better treatment results for difficult stones such as staghorn and infections calculi. Despite the higher energy output more than 90% of treatments could be performed without anesthesia or analgesia. No significant side effects could be detected. The service life of the modified shock wave system increased by a factor of two.
Shock wave-boundary layer interactions in rarefied gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bird, G. A.
1991-01-01
A numerical study is presented, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, of shock wave-boundary layer interactions in low density supersonic flows. Test cases include two-dimensional, axially-symmetric and three-dimensional flows. The effective displacement angle of the boundary layer is calculated for representative flat plate, wedge, and cone flows. The maximum pressure, shear stress, and heat transfer in the shock formation region is determined in each case. The two-dimensional reflection of an oblique shock wave from a flat plate is studied, as is the three-dimensional interaction of such a wave with a sidewall boundary layer.
Shock wave-boundary layer interactions in rarefied gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bird, G. A.
1991-01-01
A numerical study is presented, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, of shock wave-boundary layer interactions in low density supersonic flows. Test cases include two-dimensional, axially-symmetric and three-dimensional flows. The effective displacement angle of the boundary layer is calculated for representative flat plate, wedge, and cone flows. The maximum pressure, shear stress, and heat transfer in the shock formation region is determined in each case. The two-dimensional reflection of an oblique shock wave from a flat plate is studied, as is the three-dimensional interaction of such a wave with a sidewall boundary layer.
In vivo pressure measurements of lithotripsy shock waves in pigs.
Cleveland, R O; Lifshitz, D A; Connors, B A; Evan, A P; Willis, L R; Crum, L A
1998-02-01
Stone comminution and tissue damage in lithotripsy are sensitive to the acoustic field within the kidney, yet knowledge of shock waves in vivo is limited. We have made measurements of lithotripsy shock waves inside pigs with small hydrophones constructed of a 25-microm PVDF membrane stretched over a 21-mm diameter ring. A thin layer of silicone rubber was used to isolate the membrane electrically from pig fluid. A hydrophone was positioned around the pig kidney following a flank incision. Hydrophones were placed on either the anterior (shock wave entrance) or the posterior (shock wave exit) surface of the left kidney. Fluoroscopic imaging was used to orient the hydrophone perpendicular to the shock wave. For each pig, the voltage settings (12-24 kV) and the position of the shock wave focus within the kidney were varied. Waveforms measured within the pig had a shape very similar to those measured in water, but the peak pressure was about 70% of that in water. The focal region in vivo was 82 mm x 20 mm, larger than that measured in vitro (57 mm x 12 mm). It appeared that a combination of nonlinear effects and inhomogeneities in the tissue broadened the focus of the lithotripter. The shock rise time was on the order of 100 ns, substantially more than the rise time measured in water, and was attributed to higher absorption in tissue.
Detecting shock waves in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfrommer, C.; Springel, V.; Enßlin, T. A.; Jubelgas, M.
2006-03-01
We develop a formalism for the identification and accurate estimation of the strength of structure formation shocks during cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Shocks play a decisive role not only for the thermalization of gas in virializing structures but also for the acceleration of relativistic cosmic rays (CRs) through diffusive shock acceleration. Our formalism is applicable both to ordinary non-relativistic thermal gas, and to plasmas composed of CRs and thermal gas. To this end, we derive an analytic solution to the one-dimensional Riemann shock tube problem for a composite plasma of CRs and thermal gas. We apply our methods to study the properties of structure formation shocks in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. We find that most of the energy is dissipated in weak internal shocks with Mach numbers which are predominantly central flow shocks or merger shock waves traversing halo centres. Collapsed cosmological structures are surrounded by external shocks with much higher Mach numbers up to , but they play only a minor role in the energy balance of thermalization. This is because of the higher pre-shock gas densities within non-linear structures, and the significant increase of the mean shock speed as the characteristic halo mass grows with cosmic time. We show that after the epoch of cosmic reionization the Mach number distribution is significantly modified by an efficient suppression of strong external shock waves due to the associated increase of the sound speed of the diffuse gas. Invoking a model for CR acceleration in shock waves, we find that the average strength of shock waves responsible for CR energy injection is higher than that for shocks that dominate the thermalization of the gas. This implies that the dynamical importance of shock-injected CRs is comparatively large in the low-density, peripheral halo infalling regions, but is less important for the weaker flow shocks
Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo
1995-01-01
The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.
Cardiac damage produced by transchest damped sine wave shocks.
Tacker, W A; Davis, J S; Lie, J T; Titus, J L; Geddes, L A
1978-01-01
High-energy transchest damped wave sine defibrillation shocks have been shown to produce cardiac damage when applied in rapid sequence. However, there are no reports as to whether single, threshold-intensity shocks produce damage. In this study, nonfibrillating dogs were subjected either to a single, threshold-intensity (1 A/kg) shock, or to a series of 6 shocks with high intensity (3 to 4.8 A/kg). Electrodes of 8 cm diameter were used to apply the shock through the chest wall. Dogs receiving shocks of adequate (but not excessive) strength to defibrillate showed no cardiac damage, although they exhibited transient ventricular arrhythmias after the shock was applied. All dogs receiving the higher intensity, multiple shocks showed gross and microscopic evidence of cardiac damage. Ventricular lesions were observed in both right and left ventricular free walls and were sometimes transmural in extent. ECG analysis of the records from the dogs receiving multiple, high-intensity shocks showed second and third degree A-V block, ventricular ectopic beats, ventricular tachycardia, S-T segment changes, and T-wave inversion. Although multiple, high-energy, high-current defibrillation shocks produce permanent cardiac damage in dogs, threshold shocks do not produce morphologic changes.
Simulations for detonation initiation behind reflected shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takano, Yasunari
Numerical simulations are carried out for detonation initiation behind reflected shock waves in a shock tube. The two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with chemical effects are numerically solved by use of a combined method consisting of the Flux-Corrected Transport scheme, the Crank-Nicolson scheme, and a chemical calculation step. Effects of chemical reactions occurring in a shock-heated hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture are estimated by using a simplified reaction model: two progress parameters are introduced to take account of induction reactions as well as exothermic reactions. Simulations are carried out referring to several experiments: generation of multidimensional and unstable reaction shock waves; strong and mild ignitions; and reacting shock waves in hydrogen and oxygen diluted in argon mixture.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichler, D.
1985-01-01
The nonlinear theory of shock acceleration developed in earlier papers, which treated the waves as being completely frozen into the fluid, is generalized to include wave dynamics. In the limit where damping keeps the wave amplitude small, it is found that a finite phase velocity (V sub ph) of the scattering waves through the background fluid, tempers the acceleration generated by high Mach number shocks. Asymptotic spectra proportional to 1/E sq are possible only when the ratio of wave velocity to shock velocity is less than 0.13. For a given asymptotic spectrum, the efficiency of relativistic particle production is found to be practically independent of the value of V sub ph, so that earlier results concerning its value remain valid for finite V sub ph. In the limit where there is no wave damping, it is shown that for modest Alfven Mach numbers, approximately greater than 4 and less than 6, the magnetic field is amplified by the energetic particles to the point of being in rough equipartition with them, as models of synchrotron emission frequently take the field to be. In this case, the disordering and amplification of field energy may play a major role in the shock transition.
Investigations of vibrational kinetics relaxation within air shock wave plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, W.; Bruno, D.; Babou, Y.
2017-02-01
A vibrationally detailed kinetic model is used to study the relaxation behind shock waves in air. The role of recently published data for the rate coefficients of the Zeldovich reactions of NO formation is studied in detail. Results allow to study the radiation emitted from the shock-heated gas. Comparison with some emission spectroscopy study performed in a shock tube facility shows only qualitative agreement with the model predictions but it allows to identify directions for model improvement.
Shock wave perturbation decay in granular materials
Vogler, Tracy J.
2015-11-05
A technique in which the evolution of a perturbation in a shock wave front is monitored as it travels through a sample is applied to granular materials. Although the approach was originally conceived as a way to measure the viscosity of the sample, here it is utilized as a means to probe the deviatoric strength of the material. Initial results for a tungsten carbide powder are presented that demonstrate the approach is viable. Simulations of the experiments using continuum and mesoscale modeling approaches are used to better understand the experiments. The best agreement with the limited experimental data is obtainedmore » for the mesoscale model, which has previously been shown to give good agreement with planar impact results. The continuum simulations indicate that the decay of the perturbation is controlled by material strength but is insensitive to the compaction response. Other sensitivities are assessed using the two modeling approaches. The simulations indicate that the configuration used in the preliminary experiments suffers from certain artifacts and should be modified to remove them. As a result, the limitations of the current instrumentation are discussed, and possible approaches to improve it are suggested.« less
Shock wave perturbation decay in granular materials
Vogler, Tracy J.
2015-11-05
A technique in which the evolution of a perturbation in a shock wave front is monitored as it travels through a sample is applied to granular materials. Although the approach was originally conceived as a way to measure the viscosity of the sample, here it is utilized as a means to probe the deviatoric strength of the material. Initial results for a tungsten carbide powder are presented that demonstrate the approach is viable. Simulations of the experiments using continuum and mesoscale modeling approaches are used to better understand the experiments. The best agreement with the limited experimental data is obtained for the mesoscale model, which has previously been shown to give good agreement with planar impact results. The continuum simulations indicate that the decay of the perturbation is controlled by material strength but is insensitive to the compaction response. Other sensitivities are assessed using the two modeling approaches. The simulations indicate that the configuration used in the preliminary experiments suffers from certain artifacts and should be modified to remove them. As a result, the limitations of the current instrumentation are discussed, and possible approaches to improve it are suggested.
Dispersive shock waves and modulation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.
2016-10-01
There is growing physical and mathematical interest in the hydrodynamics of dissipationless/dispersive media. Since G.B. Whitham's seminal publication fifty years ago that ushered in the mathematical study of dispersive hydrodynamics, there has been a significant body of work in this area. However, there has been no comprehensive survey of the field of dispersive hydrodynamics. Utilizing Whitham's averaging theory as the primary mathematical tool, we review the rich mathematical developments over the past fifty years with an emphasis on physical applications. The fundamental, large scale, coherent excitation in dispersive hydrodynamic systems is an expanding, oscillatory dispersive shock wave or DSW. Both the macroscopic and microscopic properties of DSWs are analyzed in detail within the context of the universal, integrable, and foundational models for uni-directional (Korteweg-de Vries equation) and bi-directional (Nonlinear Schrödinger equation) dispersive hydrodynamics. A DSW fitting procedure that does not rely upon integrable structure yet reveals important macroscopic DSW properties is described. DSW theory is then applied to a number of physical applications: superfluids, nonlinear optics, geophysics, and fluid dynamics. Finally, we survey some of the more recent developments including non-classical DSWs, DSW interactions, DSWs in perturbed and inhomogeneous environments, and two-dimensional, oblique DSWs.
Shock wave driven microparticles for pharmaceutical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menezes, V.; Takayama, K.; Gojani, A.; Hosseini, S. H. R.
2008-10-01
Ablation created by a Q-switched Nd:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser beam focusing on a thin aluminum foil surface spontaneously generates a shock wave that propagates through the foil and deforms it at a high speed. This high-speed foil deformation can project dry micro- particles deposited on the anterior surface of the foil at high speeds such that the particles have sufficient momentum to penetrate soft targets. We used this method of particle acceleration to develop a drug delivery device to deliver DNA/drug coated microparticles into soft human-body targets for pharmaceutical applications. The device physics has been studied by observing the process of particle acceleration using a high-speed video camera in a shadowgraph system. Though the initial rate of foil deformation is over 5 km/s, the observed particle velocities are in the range of 900-400 m/s over a distance of 1.5-10 mm from the launch pad. The device has been tested by delivering microparticles into liver tissues of experimental rats and artificial soft human-body targets, modeled using gelatin. The penetration depths observed in the experimental targets are quite encouraging to develop a future clinical therapeutic device for treatments such as gene therapy, treatment of cancer and tumor cells, epidermal and mucosal immunizations etc.
Observation of cavitation during shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Cleveland, Robin O.
2005-04-01
A system was built to detect cavitation in pig kidney during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) with a Dornier HM3 lithotripter. Active detection, using echo on B-mode ultrasound, and passive cavitation detection (PCD), using coincident signals on confocal, orthogonal receivers, were equally sensitive and were used to interrogate the renal collecting system (urine) and the kidney parenchyma (tissue). Cavitation was detected in urine immediately upon SW administration in urine or urine plus X-ray contrast agent, but in tissue, cavitation required hundreds of SWs to initiate. Localization of cavitation was confirmed by fluoroscopy, sonography, and by thermally marking the kidney using the PCD receivers as high intensity focused ultrasound sources. Cavitation collapse times in tissue and native urine were about the same but less than in urine after injection of X-ray contrast agent. Cavitation, especially in the urine space, was observed to evolve from a sparse field to a dense field with strong acoustic collapse emissions to a very dense field that no longer produced detectable collapse. The finding that cavitation occurs in kidney tissue is a critical step toward determining the mechanisms of tissue injury in SWL. [Work sup ported by NIH (DK43881, DK55674, FIRCA), ONRIFO, CRDF and NSBRI SMS00203.
Shock wave therapy of fracture nonunion.
Alkhawashki, Hazem M I
2015-11-01
We have used the principles of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of nonunion of fractures in 44 patients (49 bones).There were 35 males and 9 females with a mean age of 34 years(range14-70). Clinical and radiological assessment was performed at regular time intervals with a minimum follow up of 18 months. Most common sites involved were the femur and tibia. The average time from initial fracture treatment to intervention with ESWT was 11.9 months (6 months to 5 years). Thirty eight non-union sites had one session of treatment and the rest (11) had more than one session. Union was successful in 75.5% of cases at a mean time of 10.2 months (range 3-19). Failure in the remaining cases was due to more than 5mm gap, instability, compromised vascularity (type of bone) and deep low grade infection; which was discovered at the time of surgical intervention when no signs of radiological healing occurred after 6 months from treatment. Failing sites were shaft of femur, scaphoid, neck of humerus and neck of femur. No local complications were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.
1972-01-01
A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.
Shock waves from an open-ended shock tube with different shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Q.; Grönig, H.
1996-11-01
A new method for decreasing the attenuation of a shock wave emerging from an open-ended shock tube exit into a large free space has been developed to improve the shock wave technique for cleaning deposits on the surfaces in industrial equipments by changing the tube exit geometry. Three tube exits (the simple tube exit, a tube exit with ring and a coaxial tube exit) were used to study the propagation processes of the shock waves. The detailed flow features were experimentally investigated by use of a two-dimensional color schlieren method and by pressure measurements. By comparing the results for different tube exits, it is shown that the expansion of the shock waves near the mouth can be restricted by using the tube exit with ring or the coaxial tube exit. Thus, the attenuation of the shock waves is reduced. The time histories of overpressure have illustrated that the best results are obtained for the coaxial tube exit. But the pressure signals for the tube exit with ring showed comparable results with the advantage of a relatively simple geometry. The flow structures of diffracting shock waves have also been simulated by using an upwind finite volume scheme based on a high order extension of Godunov's method as well as an adaptive unstructured triangular mesh refinement/unrefinement algorithm. The numerical results agree remarkably with the experimental ones.
Acetabular augmentation induced by extracorporeal shock waves in rabbits.
Saisu, Takashi; Kamegaya, Makoto; Wada, Yuichi; Takahashi, Kenji; Mitsuhashi, Shigeru; Moriya, Hideshige; Maier, Markus
2005-05-01
We conducted this animal study to demonstrate whether exposing the acetabulum in immature rabbits to extracorporeal shock waves induces bone formation in the acetabulum. Five thousand shock waves of 100 MPa each were directed, from outside, at the acetabular roof of eight immature rabbits. At each of two time points (4 and 8 weeks) after treatment, the pelvises of four rabbits were removed and evaluated morphologically. Woven bone formation was observed on the lateral margin of the acetabular roof at 4 weeks after treatment, and the breadth of the acetabular roof in the coronal plane was significantly increased. Eight weeks after treatment, the woven bone disappeared; the breadth of the acetabular roof, however, was significantly increased. These findings demonstrated that extracorporeal shock waves induced acetabular augmentation in rabbits. We conclude that extracorporeal shock waves, perhaps, could be applied clinically for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia.
Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves
Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan
2008-10-01
Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function
Persistence of Precursor Waves in Two-dimensional Relativistic Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwamoto, Masanori; Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yosuke
2017-05-01
We investigated the efficiency of coherent upstream large-amplitude electromagnetic wave emission via synchrotron maser instability in relativistic magnetized shocks using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We considered a purely perpendicular shock in an electron-positron plasma. The coherent wave emission efficiency was measured as a function of the magnetization parameter σ, which is defined as the ratio of the Poynting flux to the kinetic energy flux. The wave amplitude was systematically smaller than that observed in one-dimensional simulations. However, it continued to persist, even at a considerably low magnetization rate, where the Weibel instability dominated the shock transition. The emitted electromagnetic waves were sufficiently strong to disturb the upstream medium, and transverse filamentary density structures of substantial amplitude were produced. Based on this result, we discuss the possibility of the wakefield acceleration model to produce nonthermal electrons in a relativistic magnetized ion-electron shock.
Density inhomogeneity driven electrostatic shock waves in planetary rings
Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Rizvi, H.; Haque, Q.; Hasnain, H.
2011-05-15
Dust inertia and background density driven dust drift shock waves are theoretically studied in a rotating planetary environment and are subsequently applied to the planetary rings where the collisional effects are pronounced. It has been found that the system under consideration admits significant shock formation if the collision frequency is of the order of or less than the rotational frequency of the Saturn's rings.
Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi
2013-12-01
Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants (SNRs), gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV λ1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 μm and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus, these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the C IV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared with the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction, and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.
Grain destruction in a supernova remnant shock wave
Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Sankrit, Ravi
2013-12-01
Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants (SNRs), gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV λ1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 μm and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus, these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the C IV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared with the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction, and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.
Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi
2014-01-01
Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV (lambda)1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre- shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.
A geometric singular perturbation approach for planar stationary shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhuopu; Zhang, Jiazhong; Ren, Junheng; Aslam, Muhammad Nauman
2015-08-01
The non-linear non-equilibrium nature of shock waves in gas dynamics is investigated for the planar case. Along each streamline, the Euler equations with non-equilibrium pressure are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations defining a slow-fast system, and geometric singular perturbation theory is applied. The proposed theory shows that an orbit on the slow manifold corresponds to the smooth part of the solution to the Euler equation, where non-equilibrium effects are negligible; and a relaxation motion from the unsteady to the steady branch of the slow manifold corresponds to a shock wave, where the flow relaxes from non-equilibrium to equilibrium. Recognizing the shock wave as a fast motion is found to be especially useful for shock wave detection when post-processing experimental measured or numerical calculated flow fields. Various existing shock detection methods can be derived from the proposed theory in a rigorous mathematical manner. The proposed theory provides a new shock detection method based on its non-linear non-equilibrium nature, and may also serve as the theoretical foundation for many popular shock wave detection techniques.
Observation and Control of Shock Waves in Individual Nanoplasmas
2014-03-18
Observation and Control of Shock Waves in Individual Nanoplasmas Daniel D. Hickstein,1 Franklin Dollar,1 Jim A. Gaffney,2 Mark E. Foord,2 George M...distribution of individual, isolated 100-nm-scale plasmas, we make the first experimental observation of shock waves in nanoplasmas . We demonstrate that...i Nanoscale plasmas ( nanoplasmas ) offer enhanced laser absorption compared to solid or gas targets [1], enabling high-energy physics with tabletop
Does extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy cause hearing impairment in children?
Tuncer, Murat; Sahin, Cahit; Yazici, Ozgur; Kafkasli, Alper; Turk, Akif; Erdogan, Banu A; Faydaci, Gokhan; Sarica, Kemal
2015-03-01
We evaluated the possible effects of noise created by high energy shock waves on the hearing function of children treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. A total of 65 children with normal hearing function were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups, ie those becoming stone-free after 1 session of shock wave lithotripsy (group 1, 22 children), those requiring 3 sessions to achieve stone-free status (group 2, 21) and healthy children/controls (group 3, 22). Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was applied with patients in the supine position with a 90-minute frequency and a total of 2,000 shock waves in each session (Compact Sigma, Dornier MedTech, Wessling, Germany). Second energy level was used with a maximum energy value of 58 joules per session in all patients. Hearing function and possible cochlear impairment were evaluated by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions test at 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8 and 4.0 kHz frequencies before the procedure, 2 hours later, and 1 month after completion of the first shock wave lithotripsy session in groups 1 and 2. In controls the same evaluation procedures were performed at the beginning of the study and 7 weeks later. Regarding transient evoked otoacoustic emissions data, in groups 1 and 2 there was no significant alteration in values obtained after shock wave lithotripsy compared to values obtained at the beginning of the study, similar to controls. A well planned shock wave lithotripsy procedure is a safe and effective treatment in children with urinary stones and causes no detectable harmful effect on hearing function. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kracht, Jonathan M.
The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.
Statistical Case Study of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
2007-11-02
Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the recent, most common ways of treating patients with urinary (renal and ureteric) stones through non...Page 1 of 3 Statistical Case Study of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Hani M. Amasha1 and Basel M. Al-Eideh2 1Department of...invasive destruction of stones [1]. Many reports and studies have shown its safety and success. It offers the patient less pain; much less discomfort and
More efficient focusing for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.
2001-10-01
The purpose of this study was to generate alternative pressure waveforms in order to increase efficiency during non-invasive treatments of nephrolithiasis. Two new systems for electrohydraulic shock wave generators were tested. These devices generate two pressure pulses, instead of only one positive peak, followed by a trough, as in conventional systems. Pressure measurements and stone fragmentation efficiency were compared to that of conventional shock wave generators, using needle hydrophones and kidney-stone models.
Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains
El-Shewy, E. K.; Abdelwahed, H. G.; Elmessary, M. A.
2011-11-15
The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.
T-wave oversensing and inappropriate shocks: a case report.
Srivathsan, Komandoor; Scott, Luis R; Altemose, Gregory T
2008-05-01
A 27-year-old male with congenital long QT syndrome, SCN5A mutation experienced recurrent inappropriate exercise-related implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. This device showed T-wave oversensing with double, which lead to these device discharges. Dynamic T-wave oversensing was reproducibly provoked at exercise treadmill testing and was confirmed as the mechanism leading to double counting. The insertion of a new pacing and sensing lead with increased R-wave amplitude did not solve the problem. Exchanging the existing ICD generator with one capable of automatic sensitivity control (Biotronik, Lexos DR, Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) completely eliminated T-wave oversensing and inappropriate shocks.
Particle Acceleration by Cme-driven Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reames, Donald V.
1999-01-01
In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Peak particle intensities are a strong function of CME speed, although the intensities, spectra, and angular distributions of particles escaping the shock are highly modified by scattering on Alfven waves produced by the streaming particles themselves. Element abundances vary in complex ways because ions with different values of Q/A resonate with different parts of the wave spectrum, which varies with space and time. Just recently, we have begun to model these systematic variations theoretically and to explore other consequences of proton-generated waves.
Shock wave interaction with an abrupt area change
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, Manuel D.
1991-01-01
The wave patterns that occur when a shock wave interacts with an abrupt area changed are analyzed in terms of the incident shock wave Mach number and area-jump ratio. The solutions predicted by a semi-similar models are in good agreement with those obtained numerically from the quasi-one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations. The entropy production for the wave system is defined and the principle of minimum entropy production is used to resolve a nonuniqueness problem of the self-similar model.
Turbulent Magnetic Field Amplification behind Strong Shock Waves in GRB and SNR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Tsuyoshi
2012-09-01
Using three-dimensional (special relativistic) magnetohydrodynamics simulations, the amplification of magnetic field behind strong shock wave is studied. In supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts, strong shock waves propagate through an inhomogeneous density field. When the shock wave hit a density bump or density dent, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is induced that cause a deformation of the shock front. The deformed shock leaves vorticity behind the shock wave that amplifies the magnetic field due to the stretching of field lines.
Computation of Thermally Perfect Properties of Oblique Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatum, Kenneth E.
1996-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon a value of cp expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135, and with a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics code. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use, and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).
Computation of Thermally Perfect Oblique Shock Wave Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatum, Kenneth E.
1997-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon the specific heat expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).
Energetic Particle Abundances as Probes of an Interplanetary Shock Wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reames, D. V.; Tylka, A. J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We examine the unique abundance variations of Fe/O and He/H in solar energetic particles from a W09 event of 2001 April 10, that have leaked through the flank of an interplanetary shock launched from W04 on April 9. Shock waves from both events reach the Wind spacecraft on April 11. During the second event, both Fe/O and He/H begin at low values and rise to maxima near the time of passage of the shock waves, indicating greater scattering for the species with the highest rigidity at a given velocity. Strong modulation of Fe/O suggests preferential scattering and trapping of Fe by the wave spectrum near and behind the intermediate shock. A significant factor may be the residual proton-generated waves from the very hard proton spectrum accelerated by the early shock wave prior to the onset of the second event. Thus, ion abundances from the later event probe the residual wave spectrum at the earlier shock.
Deconvolution of acoustically detected bubble-collapse shock waves.
Johansen, Kristoffer; Song, Jae Hee; Johnston, Keith; Prentice, Paul
2017-01-01
The shock wave emitted by the collapse of a laser-induced bubble is detected at propagation distances of 30, 40and50mm, using a PVdF needle hydrophone, with a non-flat end-of-cable frequency response, calibrated for magnitude and phase, from 125kHz to 20MHz. High-speed shadowgraphic imaging at 5×10(6) frames per second, 10nstemporal resolution and 256 frames per sequence, records the bubble deflation from maximum to minimum radius, the collapse and shock wave generation, and the subsequent rebound in unprecedented detail, for a single sequence of an individual bubble. The Gilmore equation for bubble oscillation is solved according to the resolved bubble collapse, and simulated shock wave profiles deduced from the acoustic emissions, for comparison to the hydrophone recordings. The effects of single-frequency calibration, magnitude-only and full waveform deconvolution of the experimental data are presented, in both time and frequency domains. Magnitude-only deconvolution increases the peak pressure amplitude of the measured shock wave by approximately 9%, from single-frequency calibration, with full waveform deconvolution increasing it by a further 3%. Full waveform deconvolution generates a shock wave profile that is in agreement with the simulated profile, filtered according to the calibration bandwidth. Implications for the detection and monitoring of acoustic cavitation, where the role of periodic bubble collapse shock waves has recently been realised, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Intensity improvement of shock waves induced by liquid electrical discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yi; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xian-Dong; Liu, Si-Wei; Zhou, Gu-Yue; Lin, Fu-Chang
2017-04-01
When shock waves induced by pulsed electrical discharges in dielectric liquids are widely applied in industrial fields, it is necessary to improve the energy transfer efficiency from electrical energy to mechanical energy to improve the shock wave intensity. In order to investigate the effect of the plasma channel length created by the liquid electrical discharge on the shock wave intensity, a test stand of dielectric liquid pulsed electrical discharge is designed and constructed. The main capacitor is 3 μF, and the charging voltage is 0-30 kV. Based on the needle-needle electrode geometry with different gap distances, the intensities of shock waves corresponding to the electrical parameters, the relationship between the plasma channel length and the deposited energy, and the time-resolved observation of the plasma channel development by a high speed camera are presented and compared. The shock wave intensity is closely related to the power and energy dissipated into the plasma channel. The longer plasma channel and the quicker arc expansion can lead to a higher power and energy deposited into the plasma channel, which can activate a stronger shock wave.
The structure of steady shock waves in porous metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czarnota, Christophe; Molinari, Alain; Mercier, Sébastien
2017-10-01
The paper aims at developing an understanding of steady shock wave propagation in a ductile metallic material containing voids. Porosity is assumed to be less than 0.3 and voids are not connected (foams are not considered). As the shock wave is traveling in the porous medium, the voids are facing a rapid collapse. During this dynamic compaction process, material particles are subjected to very high acceleration in the vicinity of voids, thus generating acceleration forces at the microscale that influence the overall response of the porous material. Analyzing how stationary shocks are influenced by these micro-inertia effects is the main goal of this work. The focus is essentially on the shock structure, ignoring oscillatory motion of pores prevailing at the tail of the shock wave. Following the constitutive framework developed by Molinari and Ravichandran (2004) for the analysis of steady shock waves in dense metals, an analytical approach of steady state propagation of plastic shocks in porous metals is proposed. The initial void size appears as a characteristic internal length that scales the overall dynamic response, thereby contributing to the structuring of the shock front. This key feature is not captured by standard damage models where the porosity stands for the single damage parameter with no contribution of the void size. The results obtained in this work provide a new insight in the fundamental understanding of shock waves in porous media. In particular, a new scaling law relating the shock width to the initial void radius is obtained when micro-inertia effects are significant.
Pickup ion mediated plasmas: Shock wave structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.
2016-03-01
Energetic particles such as pickup ions, solar energetic particles, or cosmic rays play an important role in determining shock structure. Cosmic-ray modified shocks were discussed by Axford et al. [2]. Jokipii and Williams [8] considered the effect of cosmic ray viscosity on the structure of cold thermal gas shocks mediated by cosmic rays. In the present paper, we consider a background thermal gas of arbitrary temperature to extend their work. The Zank et al. [7] model is used to determine the shock structure when energetic particle collisionless heat flux and viscosity is included.
A new configuration of irregular reflection of shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gvozdeva, L. G.; Gavrenkov, S. A.
2015-06-01
A new configuration of shock waves has been found in the reflection of shock waves in a stationary supersonic gas flow in addition to the wellknown regular and Mach reflections. This new three-shock configuration occurs with a negative angle of reflection and Mach numbers greater than 3 and an adiabatic index smaller than 1.4. It has been shown that this new configuration is unstable and leads to a radical change of the total flow pattern. The emergence of this new kind of instability can negatively affect operation of aircraft and rocket engines due to the failure of the flow to be as conventionally predicted.
Oblique ion acoustic shock waves in a magnetized plasma
Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2013-08-15
Ion acoustic (IA) shock waves are studied in a magnetized plasma consisting of a cold viscous ion fluid and Maxwellian electrons. The Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation method. It is shown that the combined effects of external magnetic field and obliqueness significantly modify the basic properties (viz., amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of the IA shock waves. It is observed that the ion-viscosity is a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of IA shock structures. The implications of our results in some space and laboratory plasma situations are discussed.
Numerical Simulation of Low-Density Shock-Wave Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, Christopher E.
1999-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations of low-density shock-wave interactions for an incident shock impinging on a cylinder have been performed. Flow-field density gradient and surface pressure and heating define the type of interference pattern and corresponding perturbations. The maximum pressure and heat transfer level and location for various interaction types (i.e., shock-wave incidence with respect to the cylinder) are presented. A time-accurate solution of the Type IV interference is employed to demonstrate the establishment and the steadiness of the low-density flow interaction.
Nonstandard Analysis and Jump Conditions for Converging Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baty, Roy S.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Tucker, Don H.
2008-01-01
Nonstandard analysis is an area of modern mathematics which studies abstract number systems containing both infinitesimal and infinite numbers. This article applies nonstandard analysis to derive jump conditions for one-dimensional, converging shock waves in a compressible, inviscid, perfect gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. Predistributions of the Heaviside function and the Dirac delta measure are introduced to model the flow parameters across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters.
Nonstandard analysis and jump conditions for converging shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baty, Roy S.; Farassat, F.; Tucker, Don H.
2008-06-01
Nonstandard analysis is an area of modern mathematics that studies abstract number systems containing both infinitesimal and infinite numbers. This article applies nonstandard analysis to derive jump conditions for one-dimensional, converging shock waves in a compressible, inviscid, perfect gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. Predistributions of the Heaviside function and the Dirac delta measure are introduced to model the flow parameters across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters.
Fractionated Repetitive Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy: A New Standard in Shock Wave Therapy?
Kisch, Tobias; Sorg, Heiko; Forstmeier, Vinzent; Mailaender, Peter; Kraemer, Robert
2015-01-01
Background. ESWT has proven clinical benefit in dermatology and plastic surgery. It promotes wound healing and improves tissue regeneration, connective tissue disorders, and inflammatory skin diseases. However, a single treatment session or long intervals between sessions may reduce the therapeutic effect. The present study investigated the effects of fractionated repetitive treatment in skin microcirculation. Methods. 32 rats were randomly assigned to two groups and received either fractionated repetitive high-energy ESWT every ten minutes or placebo shock wave treatment, applied to the dorsal lower leg. Microcirculatory effects were continuously assessed by combined laser Doppler imaging and photospectrometry. Results. In experimental group, cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation was increased 1 minute after the first application and until the end of the measuring period at 80 minutes after the second treatment (P < 0.05). The third ESWT application boosted the effect to its highest extent. Cutaneous capillary blood flow showed a significant increase after the second application which was sustained for 20 minutes after the third application (P < 0.05). Placebo group showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusions. Fractionated repetitive extracorporeal shock wave therapy (frESWT) boosts and prolongs the effects on cutaneous hemodynamics. The results indicate that frESWT may provide greater benefits in the treatment of distinct soft tissue disorders compared with single-session ESWT. PMID:26273619
Pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Predicting successful outcomes
McAdams, Sean; Shukla, Aseem R.
2010-01-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently a first-line procedure of most upper urinary tract stones <2 cm of size because of established success rates, its minimal invasiveness and long-term safety with minimal complications. Given that alternative surgical and endourological options exist for the management of stone disease and that ESWL failure often results in the need for repeat ESWL or secondary procedures, it is highly desirable to identify variables predicting successful outcomes of ESWL in the pediatric population. Despite numerous reports and growing experience, few prospective studies and guidelines for pediatric ESWL have been completed. Variation in the methods by which study parameters are measured and reported can make it difficult to compare individual studies or make definitive recommendations. There is ongoing work and a need for continuing improvement of imaging protocols in children with renal colic, with a current focus on minimizing exposure to ionizing radiation, perhaps utilizing advancements in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This report provides a review of the current literature evaluating the patient attributes and stone factors that may be predictive of successful ESWL outcomes along with reviewing the role of pre-operative imaging and considerations for patient safety. PMID:21369388
Pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Predicting successful outcomes.
McAdams, Sean; Shukla, Aseem R
2010-10-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently a first-line procedure of most upper urinary tract stones <2 cm of size because of established success rates, its minimal invasiveness and long-term safety with minimal complications. Given that alternative surgical and endourological options exist for the management of stone disease and that ESWL failure often results in the need for repeat ESWL or secondary procedures, it is highly desirable to identify variables predicting successful outcomes of ESWL in the pediatric population. Despite numerous reports and growing experience, few prospective studies and guidelines for pediatric ESWL have been completed. Variation in the methods by which study parameters are measured and reported can make it difficult to compare individual studies or make definitive recommendations. There is ongoing work and a need for continuing improvement of imaging protocols in children with renal colic, with a current focus on minimizing exposure to ionizing radiation, perhaps utilizing advancements in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This report provides a review of the current literature evaluating the patient attributes and stone factors that may be predictive of successful ESWL outcomes along with reviewing the role of pre-operative imaging and considerations for patient safety.
Effects of D region ionization on radio wave propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larsen, T. R.
1979-01-01
The effects of anomalous D region ionization upon radio wave propagation are described for the main types of disturbances: sudden ionospheric disturbances, relativistic electron events, magnetic storms, auroral disturbances, polar cap events, and stratospheric warmings. Examples of radio wave characteristics for such conditions are given for the frequencies between the extremely low (3-3000 Hz) and high (3-30 MHz) frequency domains. Statistics on the disturbance effects and radio wave data are given in order to contribute towards the evaluation of possibilities for predicting the radio effects.
Effects of D region ionization on radio wave propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larsen, T. R.
1979-01-01
The effects of anomalous D region ionization upon radio wave propagation are described for the main types of disturbances: sudden ionospheric disturbances, relativistic electron events, magnetic storms, auroral disturbances, polar cap events, and stratospheric warmings. Examples of radio wave characteristics for such conditions are given for the frequencies between the extremely low (3-3000 Hz) and high (3-30 MHz) frequency domains. Statistics on the disturbance effects and radio wave data are given in order to contribute towards the evaluation of possibilities for predicting the radio effects.
Shock wave consolidated MgB 2 bulk samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuzawa, Hidenori; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ohashi, Wataru; Kakimoto, Etsuji; Dohke, Kiyotaka; Atou, Toshiyuki; Fukuoka, Kiyoto; Kikuchi, Masae; Kawasaki, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko
2004-10-01
Commercially available MgB 2 powders were consolidated into bulk samples by two different shock wave consolidation methods: underwater shock consolidation method and gun method. Resistance vs. temperature of the samples was measured by the four-terminal method for pulsed currents of up to 3 A in self-field, as well as Vickers hardness, SEM micrographs of fraction surfaces, packing densities, and X-ray diffraction patterns. These results, in comparison with cold isostatic pressed samples, indicated that the underwater shock consolidated sample was superior in grain connectivity to the others. This is probably because the underwater shock consolidation generated most anisotropic and hence high frictional, compressive, intergrain forces.
Shock Waves Impacting Composite Material Plates: The Mutual Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreopoulos, Yiannis
2013-02-01
High-performance, fiber-reinforced polymer composites have been extensively used in structural applications in the last 30 years because of their light weight combined with high specific stiffness and strength at a rather low cost. The automotive industry has adopted these materials in new designs of lightweight vehicles. The mechanical response and characterization of such materials under transient dynamic loading caused with shock impact induced by blast is not well understood. Air blast is associated with a fast traveling shock front with high pressure across followed by a decrease in pressure behind due to expansion waves. The time scales associated with the shock front are typically 103 faster than those involved in the expansion waves. Impingement of blast waves on structures can cause a reflection of the wave off the surface of the structure followed by a substantial transient aerodynamic load, which can cause significant deformation and damage of the structure. These can alter the overpressure, which is built behind the reflected shock. In addition, a complex aeroelastic interaction between the blast wave and the structure develops that can induce reverberation within an enclosure, which can cause substantial overpressure through multiple reflections of the wave. Numerical simulations of such interactions are quite challenging. They usually require coupled solvers for the flow and the structure. The present contribution provides a physics-based analysis of the phenomena involved, a critical review of existing computational techniques together with some recent results involving face-on impact of shock waves on thin composite plates.
Generation of Focused Shock Waves in Water for Biomedical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukeš, Petr; Šunka, Pavel; Hoffer, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Beneš, Jiří; Poučková, Pavla; Zadinová, Marie; Zeman, Jan
The physical characteristics of focused two-successive (tandem) shock waves (FTSW) in water and their biological effects are presented. FTSW were generated by underwater multichannel electrical discharges in a highly conductive saline solution using two porous ceramic-coated cylindrical electrodes of different diameter and surface area. The primary cylindrical pressure wave generated at each composite electrode was focused by a metallic parabolic reflector to a common focal point to form two strong shock waves with a variable time delay between the waves. The pressure field and interaction between the first and the second shock waves at the focus were investigated using schlieren photography and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shock gauge sensors. The largest interaction was obtained for a time delay of 8-15 μs between the waves, producing an amplitude of the negative pressure phase of the second shock wave down to -80 MPa and a large number of cavitations at the focus. The biological effects of FTSW were demonstrated in vitro on damage to B16 melanoma cells, in vivo on targeted lesions in the thigh muscles of rabbits and on the growth delay of sarcoma tumors in Lewis rats treated in vivo by FTSW, compared to untreated controls.
Explosive-driven shock wave and vortex ring interaction with a propane flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannuzzi, P. M.; Hargather, M. J.; Doig, G. C.
2016-11-01
Experiments were performed to analyze the interaction of an explosively driven shock wave and a propane flame. A 30 g explosive charge was detonated at one end of a 3-m-long, 0.6-m-diameter shock tube to produce a shock wave which propagated into the atmosphere. A propane flame source was positioned at various locations outside of the shock tube to investigate the effect of different strength shock waves. High-speed retroreflective shadowgraph imaging visualized the shock wave motion and flame response, while a synchronized color camera imaged the flame directly. The explosively driven shock tube was shown to produce a repeatable shock wave and vortex ring. Digital streak images show the shock wave and vortex ring propagation and expansion. The shadowgrams show that the shock wave extinguishes the propane flame by pushing it off of the fuel source. Even a weak shock wave was found to be capable of extinguishing the flame.
Biological decontamination of surfaces using guided ionization waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarrige, Julien; Zaepffel, Clement
2016-09-01
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets have received an increasing attention these last ten years in various domains, including biomedical applications and decontamination. Among these technologies, guided ionization waves (also called ``plasma bullets'') are very promising because of their ability to produce a highly non-equilibrium plasma. Reactive species can be generated in the open air over a long distance during the propagation of the wave (typically: several cm), while the background gas remains at ambient temperature. A non-thermal plasma system has been developed and tested for the biological decontamination of surfaces. It consists of a dielectric barrier discharge in a helium flow driven by high voltage pulses. The propagation of the ionization wave and the spatial distribution of the species have been characterized by high speed imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. The influence of the discharge parameters on the plasma properties is investigated. Results of decontamination on several bacteria are shown, and the decontamination efficiency is compared with the plasma properties.
Optimization on the focusing of multiple shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Shi; Eliasson, Veronica
2016-11-01
Focusing of multiple shock waves can lead to extreme thermodynamic conditions, which are desired for applications like shock wave lithotripsy and inertial confinement fusion. To study shock focusing effects, multiple energy sources have been placed in a circular pattern around an intended target, while the distance between each source and the target is fixed. All the sources are set to release the same amount of energy at the same time in order to create multiple identical shock waves. The object is to optimize the thermodynamic conditions at the target by rearranging the initial placement of each source. However, dealing with this optimization problem can be challenging due to the high computational cost introduced by solving the Euler equations. To avoid this issue, both numerical and analytical methods have been applied to handle shock focusing more efficiently. A numerical method, an approximate theory named Geometrical Shock Dynamics (GSD), has been utilized to describe the motion of shock. Using an analytical method, a transition curve between regular and irregular reflection has been employed to predict shock interactions. Results show that computational cost can be reduced dramatically by combining GSD and a transition curve. In addition, optimization results based on varying initial setups is discussed.
Burnett-Cattaneo continuum theory for shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel; Ravelo, Ramon
2011-02-01
We model strong shock-wave propagation, both in the ideal gas and in the dense Lennard-Jones fluid, using a refinement of earlier work, which accounts for the cold compression in the early stages of the shock rise by a nonlinear, Burnett-like, strain-rate dependence of the thermal conductivity, and relaxation of kinetic-temperature components on the hot, compressed side of the shock front. The relaxation of the disequilibrium among the three components of the kinetic temperature, namely, the difference between the component in the direction of a planar shock wave and those in the transverse directions, particularly in the region near the shock front, is accomplished at a much more quantitative level by a rigorous application of the Cattaneo-Maxwell relaxation equation to a reference solution, namely, the steady shock-wave solution of linear Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory, along with the nonlinear Burnett heat-flux term. Our new continuum theory is in nearly quantitative agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations under strong shock-wave conditions, using relaxation parameters obtained from the reference solution.
[Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in chronic prostatitis].
Kul'chavenya, E V; Shevchenko, S Yu; Brizhatyuk, E V
2016-04-01
Chronic prostatitis is a prevalent urologic disease, but treatment outcomes are not always satisfactory. As a rule, chronic prostatitis results in chronic pelvic pain syndrome, significantly reducing the patient's quality of life. Open pilot prospective non-comparative study was conducted to test the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) using Aries (Dornier) machine in patients with chronic prostatitis (CP) of IIIb category. A total of 27 patients underwent ESWL as monotherapy, 2 times a week for a course of 6 sessions. Exposure settings: 5-6 energy level (by sensation), the frequency of 5 Hz, 2000 pulses per session; each patient received a total energy up to 12000 mJ. per procedure. Treatment results were evaluated using NIH-CPSI (National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) upon completing the 3 week course of 6 treatments and at 1 month after ESWT. Immediately after the ESWT course positive trend was not significant: pain index decreased from 9.1 to 7.9, urinary symptom score remained almost unchanged (4.2 at baseline, 4.1 after treatment), quality of life index also showed a slight improvement, dropping from 7.2 points to 6.0. Total NIH-CPSI score decreased from 20.5 to 18.0. One month post-treatment pain significantly decreased to 3.2 points, the urinary symptom score fell to 2.7 points, the average quality of life score was 3.9 points. ESWT, performed on Aries (Dornier) machine, is highly effective as monotherapy in patients with category IIIb chronic prostatitis.
Hydrodynamic growth and decay of planar shock waves
Piriz, A. R. Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.
2016-03-15
A model for the hydrodynamic attenuation (growth and decay) of planar shocks is presented. The model is based on the approximate integration of the fluid conservation equations, and it does not require the heuristic assumptions used in some previous works. A key issue of the model is that the boundary condition on the piston surface is given by the retarded pressure, which takes into account the transit time of the sound waves between the piston and any position at the bulk of the shocked fluid. The model yields the shock pressure evolution for any given pressure pulse on the piston, as well as the evolution of the trajectories, velocities, and accelerations on the shock and piston surfaces. An asymptotic analytical solution is also found for the decay of the shock wave.
Radiative transfer effects on reflected shock waves. II - Absorbing gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, F. Y.; Olfe, D. B.
1972-01-01
Radiative cooling effects behind a reflected shock wave are calculated for an absorbing-emitting gas by means of an expansion procedure in the small density ratio across the shock front. For a gray gas shock layer with an optical thickness of order unity or less the absorption integral is simplified by use of the local temperature approximation, whereas for larger optical thicknesses a Rosseland diffusion type of solution is matched with the local temperature approximation solution. The calculations show that the shock wave will attenuate at first and then accelerate to a constant velocity. Under appropriate conditions the gas enthalpy near the wall may increase at intermediate times before ultimately decreasing to zero. A two-band absorption model yields end-wall radiant-heat fluxes which agree well with available shock-tube measurements.
Growth and decay of weak shock waves in magnetogasdynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, L. P.; Singh, D. B.; Ram, S. D.
2016-11-01
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the problem of the propagation of weak shock waves in an inviscid, electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. The analysis assumes the following two cases: (1) a planar flow with a uniform transverse magnetic field and (2) cylindrically symmetric flow with a uniform axial or varying azimuthal magnetic field. A system of two coupled nonlinear transport equations, governing the strength of a shock wave and the first-order discontinuity induced behind it, are derived that admit a solution that agrees with the classical decay laws for a weak shock. An analytic expression for the determination of the shock formation distance is obtained. How the magnetic field strength, whether axial or azimuthal, influences the shock formation is also assessed.
Plane shock wave structure in a dilute granular gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, M. H. Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob
2016-11-01
We analyse the early time evolution of the Riemann problem of planar shock wave structures for a dilute granular gas by solving Navier-Stokes equations numerically. The one-dimensional reduced Navier-Stokes equations for plane shock wave problem are solved numerically using a relaxation-type numerical scheme. The results on the shock structures in granular gases are presented for different Mach numbers and restitution coefficients. Based on our analysis on early time shock dynamics we conclude that the density and temperature profiles are "asymmetric"; the density maximum and the temperature maximum occur within the shock layer; the absolute magnitudes of longitudinal stress and heat flux which are initially zero at both end states attain maxima in a very short time and thereafter decrease with time.
Development of an Explosively Driven Sustained Shock Generator for Shock Wave Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, P.; Cook, I. T.; Salisbury, D. A.
2004-07-01
Investigation of explosive initiation phenomena close to the initiation threshold with explosively driven shock waves is difficult due to the attenuative nature of the pressure input. The design and experimental testing of a sustained shock wave generator based on an explosive plane wave lens and impedance mismatched low density foam and high impedance layers is described. Calibration experiments to develop a 1-D calculational model for the plane wave lens and booster charge were performed. A calculational study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the output pulse to plate and foam thicknesses and foam density. A geometry which generates a 24kb almost flat topped shock wave with a duration of over 4μs into the HMX based plastic explosive EDC37 was defined and tested. Experimental shock profile data is compared with pre-shot predictions from the PETRA Eulerian hydrocode incorporating a "snowplough" or simple locking model for the foam. A reasonable match to the observed magnitude and profile of the initial shock is achieved, although the timing of subsequent shock waves is less well matched.
Laboratory observations of self-excited dust acoustic shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merlino, Robert L.; Heinrich, Jonathon R.; Kim, Su-Hyun
2009-11-01
Dust acoustic waves have been discussed in connection with dust density structures in Saturn's rings and the Earth's mesosphere, and as a possible mechanism for triggering condensation of small grains in dust molecular clouds. Dust acoustic waves are a ubiquitous occurrence in laboratory dusty plasmas formed in glow discharges. We report observations of repeated, self-excited dust acoustic shock waves in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma using high-speed video imaging. Two major observations will be presented: (1) The self-steepening of a nonlinear dust acoustic wave into a saw-tooth wave with sharp gradient in dust density, very similar to those found in numerical solutions [1] of the fully nonlinear fluid equations for nondispersive dust acoustic waves, and (2) the collision and confluence of two dust acoustic shock waves. [4pt] [1] B. Eliasson and P. K. Shukla, Phys. Rev. E 69, 067401 (2004).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundkvist, David; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Bale, S. D.; Schwartz, S. J.; Soucek, J.; Mozer, F.
2012-01-01
Whistler wave trains are observed in the foot region of high Mach number quasiperpendicular shocks. The waves are oblique with respect to the ambient magnetic field as well as the shock normal. The Poynting flux of the waves is directed upstream in the shock normal frame starting from the ramp of the shock. This suggests that the waves are an integral part of the shock structure with the dispersive shock as the source of the waves. These observations lead to the conclusion that the shock ramp structure of supercritical high Mach number shocks is formed as a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity.
Development of a Novel Shock Wave Catheter Ablation System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, H.; Hasebe, Yuhi; Kondo, Masateru; Fukuda, Koji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki
Although radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is quite effective for the treatment tachyarrhythmias, it possesses two fundamental limitations, including limited efficacy for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias of epicardial origin and the risk of thromboembolism. Consequently, new method is required, which can eradicate arrhythmia source in deep part of cardiac muscle without heating. On the other hand, for a medical application of shock waves, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL) has been established [1]. It was demonstrated that the underwater shock focusing is one of most efficient method to generate a controlled high pressure in a small region [2]. In order to overcome limitations of existing methods, we aimed to develop a new catheter ablation system with underwater shock waves that can treat myocardium at arbitrary depth without causing heat.
Initiating solar system formation through stellar shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boss, A. P.; Myhill, E. A.
1993-01-01
Isotopic anomalies in presolar grains and other meteoritical components require nucleosynthesis in stellar interiors, condensation into dust grains in stellar envelopes, transport of the grains through the interstellar medium by stellar outflows, and finally injection of the grains into the presolar nebula. The proximity of the presolar cloud to these energetic stellar events suggests that a shock wave from a stellar outflow might have initiated the collapse of an otherwise stable presolar cloud. We have begun to study the interactions of stellar shock waves with thermally supported, dense molecular cloud cores, using a three spatial dimension (3D) radiative hydrodynamics code. Supernova shock waves have been shown by others to destroy quiescent clouds, so we are trying to determine if the much smaller shock speeds found in, e.g., asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star winds, are strong enough to initiate collapse in an otherwise stable, rotating, solar-mass cloud core, without leading to destruction of the cloud.
A novel method to transform prokaryotic cells using shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nataraja, K. N.; Udayakumar, M.; Jagadeesh, G.
The transgenic approach that is being used to study gene function or to improve the efficiency of crop plants/organisms involves transformation of a wide range of cells, tissues, and organisms with nucleic acid. In this study we report a new micro- shock assisted prokaryotic cell transformation technique. An underwater electric discharge based shock wave generator (25 kV; 150 m A; high voltage capacitor) has been designed and fabricated to carry out the prokaryotic cell transformation experiments. Test tubes with bacterial cell suspension with appropriate plasmid DNA, immersed in water are exposed to shock wave loading (typical overpressure 130 bar). The transformation efficiency of samples of the prokaryotic cells exposed to shock waves is very high compared to conventional methods.
Schlieren imaging of shock waves radiated by a trumpet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rendon, Pablo L.; Velasco-Segura, Roberto; Echeverria, Carlos; Porta, David; Vazquez, Teo; Perez-Lopez, Antonio; Stern, Catalina
2014-11-01
The flaring bell section of modern trumpets is known to be critical in determining a wide variety of properties associated with the sound radiated by these instruments. We are particularly interested in the shape of the radiated wavefront, which clearly depends on the bell profile. A horn loudspeaker is used to drive high-intensity sound at different frequencies through a B-flat concert trumpet. The sound intensity is high enough to produce shock waves inside the instrument resonator, and the radiated shocks are then visualised using Schlieren imaging. Through these images we are able to study the geometry of the shock waves radiated by the instrument bell, and also to calculate their propagation speed. The results show that propagation outside the bell is very nearly spherical, and that, as expected, the frequency of the driving signal affects the point at which the shock waves separate from the instrument. We acknowledge financial support from PAPIIT IN109214 and PAPIIT IN117712.
Observation and control of shock waves in individual nanoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickstein, Daniel D.; Dollar, Franklin; Xiong, Wei; Keister, K. Ellen; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Ding, Chengyuan; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark E.; Libby, Stephen B.; Palm, Brett B.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Petrov, George M.
2013-10-01
Using short (40 fs) laser pulses at an intensity of 1014 W/cm2, we present the first observation of shock waves in nanometer-scale plasmas (nanoplasmas). Nanoplasmas offer enhanced laser absorption compared to either solid or gas targets, and the generation of shock waves presents an appealing method for creating new sources of monoenergetic ions and X-rays from a tabletop scale apparatus. By utilizing an instrument that images photoions from a single nanoparticle, we make the first experimental observation of individual nanoplasmas and observe clear shock waves. We demonstrate that the introduction of a heating pulse prior to the main laser pulse increases the intensity of the shock wave, and produces a strong burst of quasi-monochromatic ions with energies around 100 eV. Numerical hydrodynamic calculations show that the energy of the quasi-monochromatic ions increases with the intensity of the driving laser, suggesting a possible avenue for production of higher-energy monoenergetic ions required for medical applications. Additionally, this observation of well-characterized shock waves in dense, low-temperature plasmas may enable the laboratory control, study, and exploitation of nanoscale shock phenomena with tabletop lasers.
A study of X-ray and infrared emissions from dusty nonradiative shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vancura, Olaf; Raymond, John C.; Dwek, Eli; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S.; Foster, Scott
1994-01-01
We have constructed models that predict the dynamic evolution and infrared (IR) emission of grains behind nonradiative shock waves. We present a self-consistent treatment of the effect of grain destruction and heating on the ionization structure and X-ray emission of the postshock gas. Incorporating thermal sputtering, collisional heating, and deceleration of grains in the postshock flow, we predict the IR and X-ray fluxes from the dusty plasma as a function of swept-up column density. Heavy elements such as C, O, Mg, S, Si and Fe are initially depleted from the gas phase but are gradually returned as the grains are destroyed. The injected neutral atoms require some time to 'catch up' with the ionization state of the ambient gas. The nonequilibrium ionization state and gradient in elemental abundances in the postshock flow produces characteristic X-ray signatures that can be related to the age of the shock and amount of grain destruction. We study the effects of preshock density and shock velocity on the X-ray and IR emission from the shock. We show that the effects of graindestruction on the X-ray spectra of shock waves are substantial. In particular, temperatures derived from X-ray spectra of middle-aged remnants are likely to be overestimated by approximately 15% if cosmic abundances are assumed. Due to the long timescales for grain destruction in X-ray gases over a wide range of temperatures, we suggest that future X-ray spectra studies of supernova remnants be based on depleted abundances instead of cosmic abundances. Our model predictions agree reasonably well with IRAS and Einstein IPC observations of the Cygnus Loop.
A study of X-ray and infrared emissions from dusty nonradiative shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vancura, Olaf; Raymond, John C.; Dwek, Eli; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S.; Foster, Scott
1994-01-01
We have constructed models that predict the dynamic evolution and infrared (IR) emission of grains behind nonradiative shock waves. We present a self-consistent treatment of the effect of grain destruction and heating on the ionization structure and X-ray emission of the postshock gas. Incorporating thermal sputtering, collisional heating, and deceleration of grains in the postshock flow, we predict the IR and X-ray fluxes from the dusty plasma as a function of swept-up column density. Heavy elements such as C, O, Mg, S, Si and Fe are initially depleted from the gas phase but are gradually returned as the grains are destroyed. The injected neutral atoms require some time to 'catch up' with the ionization state of the ambient gas. The nonequilibrium ionization state and gradient in elemental abundances in the postshock flow produces characteristic X-ray signatures that can be related to the age of the shock and amount of grain destruction. We study the effects of preshock density and shock velocity on the X-ray and IR emission from the shock. We show that the effects of graindestruction on the X-ray spectra of shock waves are substantial. In particular, temperatures derived from X-ray spectra of middle-aged remnants are likely to be overestimated by approximately 15% if cosmic abundances are assumed. Due to the long timescales for grain destruction in X-ray gases over a wide range of temperatures, we suggest that future X-ray spectra studies of supernova remnants be based on depleted abundances instead of cosmic abundances. Our model predictions agree reasonably well with IRAS and Einstein IPC observations of the Cygnus Loop.
A Note on the Viability of Gaseous Ionization in Active Galaxies by Fast Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laor, Ari
1998-04-01
Morphological and spectroscopic evidence suggests that shocks may affect the spatial and velocity distributions of gas in the narrow-line region (NLR) and the extended NLR of some active galaxies. It thus seemed plausible that shocks may energize the NLR also. The observed emission-line ratios strongly favor photoionization as the heating source for this gas, but it is not clear whether the ionizing radiation is generated in the NLR by ``photoionizing shocks'' or whether the ionizing radiation originates at the central continuum source. Here I point out that shocks are highly inefficient in producing line emission. Shocks in the NLR can convert at most ~10-6 of the rest mass to ionizing radiation, compared with a maximum conversion efficiency of ~10-1 for the central continuum source. The required mass flow rate through ``photoionizing shocks'' in the NLR is thus a few orders of magnitude higher than the mass accretion rate required to power the NLR by the central continuum source. Since gravity appears to dominate the NLR cloud dynamics, shocks must lead to an inflow, and the implied high inflow rates can be ruled out in most active galaxies. NLR dynamics driven by a thermal wind or by some jet configurations may produce the mass flux through shocks required for photoionizing shocks to be viable, but the mass flux inward from the NLR must be kept ~100-1000 times smaller. Photoionizing shocks are a viable mechanism in very low luminosity active galaxies if they are highly sub-Eddington (<~10-4) and if they convert mass to radiation with a very low efficiency (<~10-4).
The fingerprints of photoionization and shock-ionization in two CSS sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynaldi, Victoria; Feinstein, Carlos
2016-01-01
We investigate the ionization state of the extended emission-line regions (EELRs) around two compact steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies, 3C 268.3 and 3C 303.1, in order to identify the contribution of photoionization and shock-ionization. We perform a new spectroscopical (long-slit) analysis with GMOS/Gemini with the slit oriented in the radio-jet direction, where outflows are known to exist. The [Ne V] λ3426 emission is the most interesting feature of the spectra and the one key to breaking the degeneracy between the models: since this emission-line is more extended than He II, it challenges the ionization structure proposed by any photoionization model, also its intensity relative to H β does not behave as expected with respect to the ionization parameter U in the same scenario. On the contrary, when it is compared to the intensity of [O II] λ3727/H β and all these results are joined, the whole scenario is plausible to be explained as emission coming from the hot, compressed, shocked gas in shock-ionization models. Although the model fitting is strongly sensitive to the chosen line ratios, it argues for the presence of external and strong ionizing fields, such as the precursor field created by the shock or/and the AGN radiation field. In this paper, we show how AGN photoionization and shock-ionization triggered by jet-cloud interaction work together in these EELRs in order to explain the observed trends and line-ratio behaviours in a kinematically acceptable way.
Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel
Harvey, W.B.
1986-06-01
By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs.
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED FILAMENT THREAD
Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es
2009-07-10
Oscillations and propagating waves are commonly seen in high-resolution observations of filament threads, i.e., the fine-structures of solar filaments/prominences. Since the temperature of prominences is typically of the order of 10{sup 4} K, the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. In this paper, we study the effect of neutrals on the wave propagation in a filament thread modeled as a partially ionized homogeneous magnetic flux tube embedded in an homogeneous and fully ionized coronal plasma. Ohmic and ambipolar magnetic diffusion are considered in the basic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. We numerically compute the eigenfrequencies of kink, slow, and Alfven linear MHD modes and obtain analytical approximations in some cases. We find that the existence of propagating modes is constrained by the presence of critical values of the longitudinal wavenumber. In particular, the lower and upper frequency cutoffs of kink and Alfven waves owe their existence to magnetic diffusion parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field lines, respectively. The slow mode only has a lower frequency cutoff, which is caused by perpendicular magnetic diffusion and is significantly affected by the ionization degree. In addition, ion-neutral collision is the most efficient damping mechanism for short wavelengths, while ohmic diffusion dominates in the long-wavelength regime.
Characterization of the Shock Wave Structure in Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teitz, Emilie Maria
The scientific community is interested in furthering the understanding of shock wave structures in water, given its implications in a wide range of applications; from researching how shock waves penetrate unwanted body tissues to studying how humans respond to blast waves. Shock wave research on water has existed for over five decades. Previous studies have investigated the shock response of water at pressures ranging from 1 to 70 GPa using flyer plate experiments. This report differs from previously published experiments in that the water was loaded to shock pressures ranging from 0.36 to 0.70 GPa. The experiment also utilized tap water rather than distilled water as the test sample. Flyer plate experiments were conducted in the Shock Physics Laboratory at Marquette University to determine the structure of shock waves within water. A 12.7 mm bore gas gun fired a projectile made of copper, PMMA, or aluminum at a stationary target filled with tap water. Graphite break pins in a circuit determined the initial projectile velocity prior to coming into contact with the target. A Piezoelectric timing pin (PZT pin) at the front surface of the water sample determined the arrival of the leading wave and a Photon Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) measured particle velocity from the rear surface of the water sample. The experimental results were compared to simulated data from a Eulerian Hydrocode called CTH [1]. The experimental results differed from the simulated results with deviations believed to be from experimental equipment malfunctions. The main hypothesis being that the PZT pin false triggered, resulting in measured lower than expected shock velocities. The simulated results were compared to published data from various authors and was within range.
The anatomy of floating shock fitting. [shock waves computation for flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, M. D.
1975-01-01
The floating shock fitting technique is examined. Second-order difference formulas are developed for the computation of discontinuities. A procedure is developed to compute mesh points that are crossed by discontinuities. The technique is applied to the calculation of internal two-dimensional flows with arbitrary number of shock waves and contact surfaces. A new procedure, based on the coalescence of characteristics, is developed to detect the formation of shock waves. Results are presented to validate and demonstrate the versatility of the technique.
The anatomy of floating shock fitting. [shock waves computation for flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, M. D.
1975-01-01
The floating shock fitting technique is examined. Second-order difference formulas are developed for the computation of discontinuities. A procedure is developed to compute mesh points that are crossed by discontinuities. The technique is applied to the calculation of internal two-dimensional flows with arbitrary number of shock waves and contact surfaces. A new procedure, based on the coalescence of characteristics, is developed to detect the formation of shock waves. Results are presented to validate and demonstrate the versatility of the technique.
Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence
MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; ...
2016-09-22
We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer was used to obtain spatially-resolved measurements of Ti K-more » $$\\alpha$$ emission. Density profiles were measured from K-$$\\alpha$$ intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-$$\\alpha$$ spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This study shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.« less
Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence
MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Scott, H. A.; Biener, M. M.; Fein, J. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.
2016-09-22
We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer was used to obtain spatially-resolved measurements of Ti K-$\\alpha$ emission. Density profiles were measured from K-$\\alpha$ intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-$\\alpha$ spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This study shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.
Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence
MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Scott, H. A.; Biener, M. M.; Fein, J. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.
2016-09-22
We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer was used to obtain spatially-resolved measurements of Ti K-$\\alpha$ emission. Density profiles were measured from K-$\\alpha$ intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-$\\alpha$ spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This study shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.
Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence
MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Scott, H. A.; Biener, M. M.; Fein, J. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.
2016-09-28
We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer obtained spatially resolved measurements of Ti K-α emission. Density profiles were measured from K-α intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-α spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This work shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.
Experimental Investigation of Continuous-Wave Laser Ionization of Krypton
Cannon, Bret D.; Shannon, Robert F.
2001-10-30
This report describes experimental investigations of a method that uses continuous-wave (CW) lasers to ionize selected isotopes of krypton with high isotopic selectivity. The experiments show that the ionization rate is at least a factor of 100 lower than calculated with our model that has been described in a previous report. This discrepancy may be due to a much smaller excitation cross section that expected based on previous work and/or the aberrations in the ultraviolet beam used for the first step in the excitation. Additional problems with damage to mirrors, alignment instabilities, and manufacturers halting production of key products make this approach not worth further development at this time
Mass-loss rates, ionization fractions, shock velocities, and magnetic fields of stellar jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartigan, Patrick; Morse, Jon A.; Raymond, John
1994-01-01
In this paper we calculate emission-line ratios from a series of planar radiative shock models that cover a wide range of shock velocities, preshock densities, and magnetic fields. The models cover the initial conditions relevant to stellar jets, and we show how to estimate the ionization fractions and shock velocities in jets directly from observations of the strong emission lines in these flows. The ionization fractions in the HH 34, HH 47, and HH 111 jets are approximately 2%, considerably smaller than previous estimates, and the shock velocities are approximately 30 km/s. For each jet the ionization fractions were found from five different line ratios, and the estimates agree to within a factor of approximately 2. The scatter in the estimates of the shock velocities is also small (+/- 4 km/s). The low ionization fractions of stellar jets imply that the observed electron densities are much lower than the total densities, so the mass-loss rates in these flows are correspondingly higher (approximately greater than 2 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr). The mass-loss rates in jets are a significant fraction (1%-10%) of the disk accretion rates onto young stellar objects that drive the outflows. The momentum and energy supplied by the visible portion of a typical stellar jet are sufficient to drive a weak molecular outflow. Magnetic fields in stellar jets are difficult to measure because the line ratios from a radiative shock with a magnetic field resemble those of a lower velocity shock without a field. The observed line fluxes can in principle indicate the strength of the field if the geometry of the shocks in the jet is well known.
Shock-wave studies of anomalous compressibility of glassy carbon
Molodets, A. M. Golyshev, A. A.; Savinykh, A. S.; Kim, V. V.
2016-02-15
The physico-mechanical properties of amorphous glassy carbon are investigated under shock compression up to 10 GPa. Experiments are carried out on the continuous recording of the mass velocity of compression pulses propagating in glassy carbon samples with initial densities of 1.502(5) g/cm{sup 3} and 1.55(2) g/cm{sup 3}. It is shown that, in both cases, a compression wave in glassy carbon contains a leading precursor with amplitude of 0.135(5) GPa. It is established that, in the range of pressures up to 2 GPa, a shock discontinuity in glassy carbon is transformed into a broadened compression wave, and shock waves are formed in the release wave, which generally means the anomalous compressibility of the material in both the compression and release waves. It is shown that, at pressure higher than 3 GPa, anomalous behavior turns into normal behavior, accompanied by the formation of a shock compression wave. In the investigated area of pressure, possible structural changes in glassy carbon under shock compression have a reversible character. A physico-mechanical model of glassy carbon is proposed that involves the equation of state and a constitutive relation for Poisson’s ratio and allows the numerical simulation of physico-mechanical and thermophysical properties of glassy carbon of different densities in the region of its anomalous compressibility.
Converging shock wave focusing and interaction with a target
Nitishinskiy, M.; Efimov, S.; Antonov, O.; Yanuka, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Bernshtam, V.; Fisher, V.
2016-04-15
Converging shock waves in liquids can be used efficiently in the research of the extreme state of matter and in various applications. In this paper, the recent results related to the interaction of a shock wave with plasma preliminarily formed in the vicinity of the shock wave convergence are presented. The shock wave is produced by the underwater electrical explosion of a spherical wire array. The plasma is generated prior to the shock wave's arrival by a low-pressure gas discharge inside a quartz capillary placed at the equatorial plane of the array. Analysis of the Stark broadening of H{sub α} and H{sub β} spectral lines and line-to-continuum ratio, combined with the ratio of the relative intensities of carbon C III/C II and silicon Si III/Si II lines, were used to determine the plasma density and temperature evolution. It was found that during the first ∼200 ns with respect to the beginning of the plasma compression by the shock wave and when the spectral lines are resolved, the plasma density increases from 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 5 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}, while the temperature remains at the same value of 3–4 eV. Further, following the model of an adiabatically imploding capillary, the plasma density increases >10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}, leading to the continuum spectra obtained experimentally, and the plasma temperature >30 eV at radii of compression of ≤20 μm. The data obtained indicate that the shock wave generated by the underwater electrical explosion of a spherical wire array retains its uniformity during the main part of its convergence.
Visualization of Shock Wave Driven by Millimeter Wave Plasma in a Parabolic Thruster
Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shimada, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Yuya; Shibata, Teppei; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Arakawa, Yoshihiro
2010-05-06
By focusing a high-power millimeter wave beam generated by a 170 GHz gyrotron, a breakdown occurred and a shock wave was driven by plasma heated by following microwave energy. The shock wave and the plasma around a focal point of a parabolic thruster were visualized by a shadowgraph method, and a transition of structures between the shock wave and the plasma was observed. There was a threshold local power density to make the transition, and the propagation velocity at the transition was around 800 m/s.
Implications of heterogeneity in the shock wave propagation of dynamically shocked materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LaJeunesse, Jeff
The field of shock physics as a whole has only recently begun to pay particular attention to modeling heterogeneous materials under shock loading. These materials are important because of their practicality in terms of creating stronger, more shock resistant materials. To understand why they absorb shock impact energy better than homogeneous materials means that the small-scale processes that occur during the shock loading of these heterogeneous materials needs to be understood. Recent computational experiments, called mesoscale simulations, have shown that explicitly incorporating small-scale heterogeneous features into hydrocode simulations allows the bulk shock response of the heterogeneous material to be observed while not requiring the use of empirically determined constitutive equations. Including these features in simulations can offer insights into the irreversible mechanisms that dominate the propagation of shock waves in heterogeneous materials. Three cases where the mesoscale approach for modeling the dynamic shock loading of heterogeneous materials are presented. These materials fall into three categories: granular - dry sand, granular with binder - concrete, and granular contained in a metal foam with a binder - granular explosive contained in an aluminum foam. The processes in which shock waves propagate through each material are addressed and relationships between the three materials are discussed. Particle velocity profiles for dry sand and concrete was obtained from Harvard University and Eglin Air Force Base, respectively. Mesoscale simulations using CTH are conducted for each type of heterogeneous material and the results are compared to the experimental data.
Study on miss distance based on projectile shock wave sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Guohua; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Chenjun; Zhou, Lei
2017-05-01
The paper establishes miss distance models based on physical characteristic of shock-wave. The aerodynamic theory shows that the shock-wave of flying super-sonic projectile is generated for the projectile compressing and expending its ambient atmosphere. It advances getting miss distance according to interval of the first sensors, which first catches shock-wave, to solve the problem such as noise filtering on severe background, and signals of amplifier vibration dynamic disposal and electromagnetism compatibility, in order to improves the precision and reliability of gathering wave N signals. For the first time, it can identify the kinds of pills and firing units automatically, measure miss distance and azimuth when pills are firing. Application shows that the tactics and technique index is advanced all of the world.
Application of shock wave data to earth and planetary science
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahrens, T. J.
1985-01-01
It is pointed out that shock wave data for: (1) low temperature condensable gases H2 and He, (2) H2O, CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, and N2 ices, and (3) silicates, metals, oxides and sulfides have many applications in geophysics and planetary science. The present paper is concerned with such applications. The composition of planetary interiors is discussed, taking into account the division of the major constituent of the planets in three groups on the basis of 'cosmic abundance' arguments, the H-He mixtures in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, shock wave data for hydrogen, and constraints on the internal structure of Uranus and Neptune. Attention is also given to the earth's mantle, shock wave data for mantle materials, the earth's core, impacts on planetary surfaces, elastic wave velocities as a function of pressure along the Hugoniot of iron, and reactions which yield the CO2 bearing atmospheres for Venus, earth, and Mars.
Hybrid Simulation of the Shock Wave Trailing the Moon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Israelevich, P.; Ofman, Leon
2012-01-01
A standing shock wave behind the Moon was predicted by Michel (1967) but never observed nor simulated. We use 1D hybrid code in order to simulate the collapse of the plasma-free cavity behind the Moon and for the first time to model the formation of this shock. Starting immediately downstream of the obstacle we consider the evolution of plasma expansion into the cavity in the frame of reference moving along with the solar wind. Well-known effects as electric charging of the cavity affecting the plasma flow and counterstreaming ion beams in the wake are reproduced. Near the apex of the inner Mach cone where the plasma flows from the opposite sides of the obstacle meet, a shock wave arises. We expect the shock to be produced at periods of high electron temperature solar wind streams (T(sub i) much less than T(sub e) approximately 100 eV). The shock is produced by the interaction of oppositely directed proton beams in the plane containing solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field vectors. In the direction across the magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, the shock results from the interaction of the plasma flow with the region of the enhanced magnetic field inside the cavity that plays the role of the magnetic barrier. The appearance of the standing shock wave is expected at the distance of approximately 7R(sub M) downstream of the Moon.
Hybrid simulation of the shock wave trailing the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Israelevich, P.; Ofman, L.
2012-08-01
A standing shock wave behind the Moon was predicted by Michel (1967) but never observed nor simulated. We use 1D hybrid code in order to simulate the collapse of the plasma-free cavity behind the Moon and for the first time to model the formation of this shock. Starting immediately downstream of the obstacle we consider the evolution of plasma expansion into the cavity in the frame of reference moving along with the solar wind. Well-known effects as electric charging of the cavity affecting the plasma flow and counterstreaming ion beams in the wake are reproduced. Near the apex of the inner Mach cone where the plasma flows from the opposite sides of the obstacle meet, a shock wave arises. We expect the shock to be produced at periods of high electron temperature solar wind streams (Ti ≪ Te ˜ 100 eV). The shock is produced by the interaction of oppositely directed proton beams in the plane containing solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field vectors. In the direction across the magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, the shock results from the interaction of the plasma flow with the region of the enhanced magnetic field inside the cavity that plays the role of the magnetic barrier. The appearance of the standing shock wave is expected at the distance of ˜7RM downstream of the Moon.
Shock wave propagation past a gap in a pipeline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Russell; Kapfudzaruwa, Simbarashe; Skews, Beric; Paton, Randall
2017-08-01
This study numerically and experimentally examines the resulting flow field of a shock wave passing through a pipe gap. The effects of gap geometry and shock Mach number variation are investigated. Incident shock Mach numbers of 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 and gap widths of 25 and 50 mm were used, which correspond to 0.5 and 1.0 pipe inner diameters, respectively. For both cases, the incident shock wave propagated into the downstream pipe at much reduced strength. A strong expansion propagated into the upstream pipe causing a significant pressure drop from the initial post-shock pressure. Expansion waves at the outflow resulted in supersonic speeds as the flow entered the gap for Mach 1.4 and 1.5. A notable feature was the formation of a standing shock at the inlet to the downstream pipe for the higher two Mach numbers in both cases. Decreasing the gap width moved the standing shock closer to the downstream pipe. For the lowest Mach number of 1.3, no standing shock system was set up. The propagation conditions in the downstream pipe showed that the pressure is initially unsteady, but becomes more uniform, controlled by the developed wave system in the gap. For the flanged gap case, the flow within the gap is confined for much longer and hence produces more intense and complex flow feature interactions and an earlier transition to turbulence. The induced shock strength in the downstream pipe is independent of gap geometry and separation distance examined in this paper as verified by experimental pressure traces.
The role of granular shocks in dust-layer dispersal by shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houim, Ryan; Ugarte, Orlando; Oran, Elaine
2016-11-01
Exactly how dust-layers are lifted and dispersed by shocks has been a longstanding question in compressible multiphase flow. Understanding the mechanism for this, however, is extremely important for early control of dust explosions. We address this problem by numerically solving a set of equations that couples a fully compressible representation of a gas with a kinetic-theory model for a granular medium (see) to simulate a shock propagating along the surface of a dust layer. The results show that the majority of the dispersed dust is lifted by hydrodynamic shear directly behind the shock wave. Simultaneously, large forces are produced behind the shock that compact the dust layer and create a granular shock. The effects from this granular shock on the surface of the dust layer destabilize the gas-dust boundary layer, which, in turn, enhances turbulence and the rate of dust dispersal.
A new numerical method for shock wave propagation based on geometrical shock dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwendeman, D. W.
1993-05-01
In this paper, a new numerical method for calculating the motion of shock waves in two and three dimensions is presented. The numerical method is based on Whitham's theory of geometrical shock dynamics, which is an approximate theory that determines the motion of the leading shockfront explicitly. The numerical method uses a conservative finite difference discretization of the equations of geometrical shock dynamics. These equations are similar to those for steady supersonic potential flow, and thus the numerical method developed here is similar to ones developed for that context. Numerical results are presented for shock propagation in channels and for converging cylindrical and spherical shocks. The channel problem is used in part to compare this new numerical method with ones developed earlier. Converging cylindrical and spherical shocks arc calculated to analyze their stability.
International Shock-Wave Database: Systematization of Experimental Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levashov, Pavel R.; Khishchenko, Konstantin V.; Lomonosov, Igor V.; Minakov, Dmitry V.; Zakharenkov, Alexey S.
2011-06-01
In this work, we announce the creation of the International Shock-Wave Database (ISWDB). Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Our objectives are (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models, and (ii) to make this database available internationally thru the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWDB will be guided by input from a steering committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA. The database will provide access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound speed in the Hugoniot state, and time-dependent free-surface or window-interface velocity profiles. We believe that the ISWDB will be a useful tool for the shock-wave community.
Hybrid simulation of the shock wave formation behind the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Israelevich, P.; Ofman, L.
2012-09-01
A standing shock wave behind the Moon was predicted by Michel (1967) but never observed nor simulated. We use 1D hybrid code in order to simulate the collapse of the plasma-free cavity behind the Moon and for the first time to model the formation of this shock. Starting immediately downstream of the obstacle we consider the evolution of plasma expansion into the cavity in the frame of reference moving along with the solar wind. Wellknown effects as electric charging of the cavity affecting the plasma flow and counter streaming ion beams in the wake are reproduced. Near the apex of the inner Mach cone where the plasma flows from the opposite sides of the obstacle meet, a shock wave arises. The shock is produced by the interaction of oppositely directed proton beams in the plane containing solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field vectors. In the direction across the magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, the shock results from the interaction of the plasma flow with the region of the enhanced magnetic field inside the cavity that plays the role of the magnetic barrier. Simulations with lower electron temperatures (Te~20eV) show weakened shock formation behind the moon at much greater distances. The shock disappears for typical solar wind conditions (Ti ~ Te) Therefore, in order to observe the trailing shock, a satellite should have a trajectory passing very close to the wake axis during the period of hot solar wind streams. We expect the shock to be produced at periods of high electron temperature solar wind streams (Ti<
A Guided Tour of Heliospheric Waves, Shocks and Energetic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, M. A.
2008-05-01
This Parker Lecture is a personal guided tour through the heliosphere featuring hydromagnetic waves, shocks, and energetic particle populations, their observed behavior from the Sun to the solar wind termination shock, and the theoretical concepts that have been developed to describe them. As a first-year graduate student, I first met Gene Parker in January 1967 when he was my instructor in Electrodynamics at the University of Chicago. His contributions to our understanding of heliospheric waves, shocks, and energetic particles over the last 50 years have molded our view of these diverse but connected heliospheric phenomena. I shall mention those contributions that have been particularly influential in my own work. The tour will include, for example, stops at Earth's bow shock, the shocks bounding corotating interaction regions in the solar wind, the solar wind termination shock, the space environment around comets, the mass and momentum loading of the solar wind through its interaction with the interstellar gas, the theory of diffusive shock acceleration, and the process of stochastic acceleration. The lecture will end with a list of outstanding puzzles concerning energetic particle transport and shock structure for which we seek solutions as we complete Voyagers' exploration of the outer heliosphere and start to explore the inner neighborhood of the Sun.
Lagrangian averaging, nonlinear waves, and shock regularization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhat, Harish S.
In this thesis, we explore various models for the flow of a compressible fluid as well as model equations for shock formation, one of the main features of compressible fluid flows. We begin by reviewing the variational structure of compressible fluid mechanics. We derive the barotropic compressible Euler equations from a variational principle in both material and spatial frames. Writing the resulting equations of motion requires certain Lie-algebraic calculations that we carry out in detail for expository purposes. Next, we extend the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE-alpha) equations to the case of barotropic compressible flows. The derivation in this thesis involves averaging over a tube of trajectories etaepsilon centered around a given Lagrangian flow eta. With this tube framework, the LAE-alpha equations are derived by following a simple procedure: start with a given action, expand via Taylor series in terms of small-scale fluid fluctuations xi, truncate, average, and then model those terms that are nonlinear functions of xi. We then analyze a one-dimensional subcase of the general models derived above. We prove the existence of a large family of traveling wave solutions. Computing the dispersion relation for this model, we find it is nonlinear, implying that the equation is dispersive. We carry out numerical experiments that show that the model possesses smooth, bounded solutions that display interesting pattern formation. Finally, we examine a Hamiltonian partial differential equation (PDE) that regularizes the inviscid Burgers equation without the addition of standard viscosity. Here alpha is a small parameter that controls a nonlinear smoothing term that we have added to the inviscid Burgers equation. We show the existence of a large family of traveling front solutions. We analyze the initial-value problem and prove well-posedness for a certain class of initial data. We prove that in the zero-alpha limit, without any standard viscosity
Extracorporeal shock waves improve angiogenesis after full thickness burn.
Goertz, O; Lauer, H; Hirsch, T; Ring, A; Lehnhardt, M; Langer, S; Steinau, H U; Hauser, J
2012-11-01
Extensive wounds of burn patients remain a challenge due to wound infection and subsequent septicemia. We wondered whether extracorporeal shock wave application (ESWA) accelerates the healing process. The aim of the study was to analyze microcirculation, angiogenesis and leukocyte endothelium interaction after burns by using ESWA with two types of low intensity. Full-thickness burns were inflicted to the ears of hairless mice (n=51; area: 1.3 mm(2)). The mice were randomized into five groups: (A) low-energy shock waves after burn injury (0.04 mJ/mm(2)); (B) very low-energy shock waves after burn injury (0.015 mJ/mm(2)); (C) mice received burns but no ESWA (control group); (D) mice without burn were exposed to low-energy shock waves; (E) mice without burns and with no shock wave application. Intravital fluorescent microscopy was used to assess microcirculatory parameters, angiogenesis and leukocyte behavior. ESWA was performed on day 1, 3 and 7 (500 shoots, 1 Hz). Values were obtained straight after and on days 1, 3, 7 and 12 post burn. Group A showed accelerated angiogenesis (non-perfused area at day 12: 5.3% vs. 9.1% (group B) and 12.6% (group C), p=0.005). Both shock wave groups showed improved blood flow after burn compared to group C. Shock waves significantly increased the number of rolling leukocytes compared to the non-ESWA-treated animals (group D: 210.8% vs. group E: 83.3%, p=0.017 on day 7 and 172.3 vs. 90.9%, p=0.01 on day 12). Shock waves have a positive effect on several parameters of wound healing after burns, especially with regard to angiogenesis and leukocyte behaviour. In both ESWA groups, angiogenesis and blood flow outmatched the control group. Within the ESWA groups the higher intensity (0.04 mJ/mm(2)) showed better results than the lower intensity group. Moreover, shock waves increased the number of rolling and sticking leukocytes as a part of an improved metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Collisionless shock waves mediated by Weibel Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naseri, Neda; Ruan, Panpan; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady
2015-11-01
Relativistic collisionless shocks are common events in astrophysical environments. They are thought to be responsible for generating ultra-high energy particles via the Fermi acceleration mechanism. It has been conjectured that the formation of collisionless shocks is mediated by the Weibel instability that takes place when two initially cold, unmagnetized plasma shells counter-propagate into each other with relativistic drift velocities. Using a PIC code, VLPL, which is modified to suppress numerical Cherenkov instabilities, we study the shock formation and evolution for asymmetric colliding shells with different densities in their own proper reference frame. Plasma instabilities in the region between the shock and the precursor are also investigated using a moving-window simulation that advances the computational domain at the shock's speed. This method helps both to save computation time and avoid severe numerical Cherenkov instabilities, and it allows us to study the shock evolution in a longer time period. Project is supported by US DOE grants DE-FG02-04ER41321 and DE-FG02-07ER54945.
A suppressor to prevent direct wave-induced cavitation in shock wave therapy devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matula, Thomas J.; Hilmo, Paul R.; Bailey, Michael R.
2005-07-01
Cavitation plays a varied but important role in lithotripsy. Cavitation facilitates stone comminution, but can also form an acoustic barrier that may shield stones from subsequent shock waves. In addition, cavitation damages tissue. Spark-gap lithotripters generate cavitation with both a direct and a focused wave. The direct wave propagates as a spherically diverging wave, arriving at the focus ahead of the focused shock wave. It can be modeled with the same waveform (but lower amplitude) as the focused wave. We show with both simulations and experiments that bubbles are forced to grow in response to the direct wave, and that these bubbles can still be large when the focused shock wave arrives. A baffle or ``suppressor'' that blocks the propagation of the direct wave is shown to significantly reduce the direct wave pressure amplitude, as well as direct wave-induced bubble growth. These results are applicable to spark-gap lithotripters and extracorporeal shock wave therapy devices, where cavitation from the direct wave may interfere with treatment. A simple direct-wave suppressor might therefore be used to improve the therapeutic efficacy of these devices.
Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovchegov, Y. V.
We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.
Cylindrical sound wave generated by shock-vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ribner, H. S.
1985-01-01
The passage of a columnar vortex broadside through a shock is investigated. This has been suggested as a crude, but deterministic, model of the generation of 'shock noise' by the turbulence in supersonic jets. The vortex is decomposed by Fourier transform into plane sinusoidal shear waves disposed with radial symmetry. The plane sound waves produced by each shear wave/shock interaction are recombined in the Fourier integral. The waves possess an envelope that is essentially a growing cylindrical sound wave centered at the transmitted vortex. The pressure jump across the nominal radius R = ct attenuates with time as 1/(square root of R) and varies around the arc in an antisymmetric fashion resembling a quadrupole field. Very good agreement, except near the shock, is found with the antisymmetric component of reported interferometric measurements in a shock tube. Beyond the front r approximately equals R is a precursor of opposite sign, that decays like 1/R, generated by the 1/r potential flow around the vortex core. The present work is essentially an extension and update of an early approximate study at M = 1.25. It covers the range (R/core radius) = 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 for M = 1.25 and (in part) for M = 1.29 and, for fixed (R/core radius) = 1000, the range M = 1.01 to infinity.
Regulatory standards and calibration procedures for shock wave devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schafer, Mark E.
2003-10-01
In order to bring any shock wave device into commercial use, i.e., clinical practice, it must receive regulatory approval from either the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the appropriate national agency. A key part of this process involves the complete temporal and spatial description of the shock wave field. This device characterization presents a number of formidable measurement challenges, principally due to the destructive effects of shock waves on the measurement sensor, and shock wave variability (especially for electrohydraulic systems). This presentation reviews the measurement and regulatory approaches used for characterizing shock wave devices, including FDA and international measurement standards. The current approach is a compromise between the desire for a complete characterization of all possible parameters, and the realities of making the measurements. The complete measurement process will be described, including equipment, procedures and pitfalls. Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) membrane hydrophones have been the key enabling technology, providing sufficient temporal bandwidth and minimal effective sensor area, all at reasonable cost. Other types of sensors, both good and bad, have been used for these measurements. The talk will also present case studies of measurements of several lithotripters measured over the last 15 years.
Treatment of nonunions of long bone fractures with shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ching-Jen
2003-10-01
A prospective clinical study investigated the effectiveness of shock waves in the treatment of 72 patients with 72 nonunions of long bone fractures (41 femurs, 19 tibias, 7 humeri, 1 radius, 3 ulnas and 1 metatarsal). The doses of shock waves were 6000 impulses at 28 kV for the femur and tibia, 3000 impulses at 28 kV for the humerus, 2000 impulses at 24 kV for the radius and ulna, and 1000 impulses at 20 kV for the metatarsal. The results of treatment were assessed clinically, and fracture healing was assessed with plain x-rays and tomography. The rate of bony union was 40% at 3 months, 60.9% at 6 months and 80% at 12 months followup. Shock wave treatment was most successful in hypertrophic nonunions and nonunions with a defect and was least effective in atrophic nonunions. There were no systemic complications or device-related problems. Local complications included petechiae and hematoma formation that resolved spontaneously. In the author's experience, the results of the shock wave treatment were similar to the results of surgical treatment for chronic nonunions with no surgical risks. Shock wave treatment is a safe and effective alternative method in the treatment of chronic nonunions of long bones.
Effects of low-dose extracorporeal shock waves on microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaled, Walaa; Goertz, Ole; Lauer, Henrik; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Hauser, Jörg
2012-11-01
The extended wounds of burn patients remain a challenge due to wound infection and following septicemia. The aim of this study was to analyze microcirculation, angiogenesis and leukocyte endothelium interaction after burn injury with and without extracorporeal shock wave application (ESWA). A novel shockwave system was developed based on a commercially available device for orthopedics (Dornier Aries®) that was equipped with a newly developed applicator. This system is based on the electromagnetic shock wave emitter (EMSE) technology and was introduced to accomplish a localized treatment for wound healing. The system includes a novel field of focus for new applications, with high precision and ease of use. In the animal study, full-thickness burns were inflicted on to the ears of hairless mice (n=51). Intravital fluorescent microscopy was used to assess microcirculatory parameters, angiogenesis and leukocyte behavior. ESWA was performed on day 1, 3 and 7. Values were obtained immediately after burn, as well as at days 1, 3, 7, and 12 post burn. All shockwave treated groups showed an accelerated angiogenesis with a less non-perfused area and an improved blood flow after burn injury compared to the placebo control group. After three treatments, the shock waves increased the number of rolling leukocytes significantly compared to the non-treated animals. Shock waves seem to have a positive effect on several parameters of wound healing after burn injury. However, further investigations are necessary to detect positive influence of shock waves on microcirculation after burn injuries.
Shock-wave cosmology inside a black hole.
Smoller, Joel; Temple, Blake
2003-09-30
We construct a class of global exact solutions of the Einstein equations that extend the Oppeheimer-Snyder model to the case of nonzero pressure, inside the black hole, by incorporating a shock wave at the leading edge of the expansion of the galaxies, arbitrarily far beyond the Hubble length in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. Here the expanding FRW universe emerges be-hind a subluminous blast wave that explodes outward from the FRW center at the instant of the big bang. The total mass behind the shock decreases as the shock wave expands, and the entropy condition implies that the shock wave must weaken to the point where it settles down to an Oppenheimer-Snyder interface, (bounding a finite total mass), that eventually emerges from the white hole event horizon of an ambient Schwarzschild spacetime. The entropy condition breaks the time symmetry of the Einstein equations, selecting the explosion over the implosion. These shock-wave solutions indicate a cosmological model in which the big bang arises from a localized explosion occurring inside the black hole of an asymptotically flat Schwarzschild spacetime.
Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos
Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph
2015-01-01
Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309
Linear analysis of an oscillatory instability of radiative shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevalier, R. A.; Imamura, J. N.
1982-10-01
A linear stability analysis of a planar radiative shock structure is presented that is applicable both to accretion onto compact objects and to radiative shock waves in the interstellar medium. The cooling function of the shock is directly proportional to temperature raised to the power alpha. An oscillatory instability similar to that found in numerical calculations of accretion onto degenerate dwarfs is investigated, and it is shown that multiple modes of oscillation are possible. Oscillation frequencies are determined, along with the values of alpha for which the various modes are unstable. It is concluded that the instability may explain why steady-state shock-wave models cannot reproduce certain observations of old supernova remnants and Herbig-Haro objects.
Coherent optical photons from shock waves in crystals.
Reed, Evan J; Soljacić, Marin; Gee, Richard; Joannopoulos, J D
2006-01-13
We predict that coherent electromagnetic radiation in the 1-100 THz frequency range can be generated in crystalline materials when subject to a shock wave or soliton-like propagating excitation. To our knowledge, this phenomenon represents a fundamentally new form of coherent optical radiation source that is distinct from lasers and free-electron lasers. The radiation is generated by the synchronized motion of large numbers of atoms when a shock wave propagates through a crystal. General analytical theory and NaCl molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate coherence lengths on the order of mm (around 20 THz) and potentially greater. The emission frequencies are determined by the shock speed and the lattice constants of the crystal and can potentially be used to determine atomic-scale properties of the shocked material.
Shock formation in stellar perturbations and tidal shock waves in binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gundlach, Carsten; Murphy, Jeremiah W.
2011-09-01
We investigate whether tidal forcing can result in sound waves steepening into shocks at the surface of a star. To model the sound waves and shocks, we consider adiabatic non-spherical perturbations of a Newtonian perfect fluid star. Because tidal forcing of sound waves is naturally treated with linear theory, but the formation of shocks is necessarily non-linear, we consider the perturbations in two regimes. In most of the interior, where tidal forcing dominates, we treat the perturbations as linear, while in a thin layer near the surface we treat them in full non-linearity but in the approximation of plane symmetry, fixed gravitational field and a barotropic equation of state. Using a hodograph transformation, this non-linear regime is also described by a linear equation. We show that the two regimes can be matched to give rise to a single-mode equation which is linear but models non-linearity in the outer layers. This can then be used to obtain an estimate for the critical mode amplitude at which a shock forms near the surface. As an application, we consider the tidal waves raised by the companion in an irrotational binary system in circular orbit. We find that shocks form at the same orbital separation where Roche lobe overflow occurs, and so shock formation is unlikely to occur.
CONSTRAINING STELLAR FEEDBACK: SHOCK-IONIZED GAS IN NEARBY STARBURST GALAXIES
Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela; Gallagher, John S. III; Martin, Crystal L.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Pellerin, Anne
2013-11-01
We investigate the properties of feedback-driven shocks in eight nearby starburst galaxies using narrow-band imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We identify the shock-ionized component via the line diagnostic diagram [O III] (λ5007)/Hβ versus [S II] (λλ6716, 6731) (or [N II] (λ6583))/Hα, applied to resolved regions 3-15 pc in size. We divide our sample into three sub-samples: sub-solar, solar, and super-solar, for consistent shock measurements. For the sub-solar sub-sample, we derive three scaling relations: (1) L{sub shock}∝SFR{sup 0.62}, (2) L{sub shock}∝Σ{sub SFR,{sub HL}} {sup 0.92}, and (3) L{sub shock}/L{sub tot}∝(L{sub H} /L{sub ☉,{sub H}}){sup –0.65}, where L{sub shock} is the Hα luminosity from shock-ionized gas, Σ{sub SFR,{sub HL}} the star formation rate (SFR) per unit half-light area, L{sub tot} the total Hα luminosity, and L{sub H} /L{sub ☉,{sub H}} the absolute H-band luminosity from the Two Micron All Sky Survey normalized to solar luminosity. The other two sub-samples do not have enough number statistics, but appear to follow the first scaling relation. The energy recovered indicates that the shocks from stellar feedback in our sample galaxies are fully radiative. If the scaling relations are applicable in general to stellar feedback, our results are similar to those by Hopkins et al. for galactic superwinds. This similarity should, however, be taken with caution at this point, as the underlying physics that enables the transition from radiative shocks to gas outflows in galaxies is still poorly understood.
Global Model of a Fast Ionization Wave in Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Benjamin; Barnat, Edward; Foster, John
2014-10-01
Technical challenges inhibit a complete examination of fast ionization waves via empirical means. The high-voltage pulses used to excite these waves can be on the order of nanoseconds or less. Such short timescales require instruments with exceptional sensitivity and bandwidth, but these may not be available or may not exist. In order to more completely understand the energetics of the fast ionization wave, a global model of a helium discharge was developed. We present the results of the model predictions and a comparison to experimental measurements when possible. The model follows 19 neutral helium states, helium ions, and electrons. Among the reactions included in the model are: electron impact ionization, electron (de)excitation, atomic excitation transfer, radiative decay, and radiation trapping. Comparisons demonstrate that the model can accurately predict 23S metastable densities, but discrepancies in the measured and predicted emissions indicate a greater than expected number of higher excited states. This suggests the presence of a persistent source of excitation which is believed to be the result of space charge buildup within the system. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Science Contract DE-SC0001939.
Self Generated Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Shock Waves
1978-12-01
piston plasmas would be intermixed in the region of 23 I.= interface, that is, the model is one in which the background plasma is "captured" at the...Therefore a classical collisional shock wave cannot exist. Satellite observations showed the presence cf a well -defined shock transition of the order of...reference frame, a number of relations between u2st’. eam and downstream quantities are given by jump conditions, wntch derive directly from the conse
Nonequilibrium molecular motion in a hypersonic shock wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pham-Van-diep, G.; Erwin, D.; Muntz, E. P.
1989-01-01
Molecular velocities have been measured inside a hypersonic, normal shock wave, where the gas experiences rapid changes in its macroscopic properties. As first hypothesized by Mott-Smith, but never directly observed, the molecular velocity distribution exhibits a qualitatively bimodal character that is derived from the distribution functions on either side of the shock. Quantitatively correct forms of the molecular velocity distribution function in highly nonequilibrium flows can be calculated, by means of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique.
Nonequilibrium molecular motion in a hypersonic shock wave.
Pham-Van-Diep, G; Erwin, D; Muntz, E P
1989-08-11
Molecular velocities have been measured inside a hypersonic, normal shock wave, where the gas experiences rapid changes in its macroscopic properties. As first hypothesized by Mott-Smith, but never directly observed, the molecular velocity distribution exhibits a qualitatively bimodal character that is derived from the distribution functions on either side of the shock. Quantitatively correct forms of the molecular velocity distribution function in highly nonequilibrium flows can be calculated, by means of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique.
Elimination of cavitation-related attenuation in shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankin, G. N.; Lautz, J. M.; Simmons, W. N.; Zhong, P.; Frank, S. T.; Szeri, A. J.
2017-03-01
In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), acoustic pulses with a leading compression wave followed by a tensile wave are delivered into the patient's body using a water-filled coupling cushion. Cavitation-related acoustic energy loss in the coupling unit depends critically on water conditions, e.g. dissolved gas concentration and exchange flow rate. We have systematically investigated the attenuation mechanism in the coupling water via pressure measurements and cavitation characterization. In non-degassed water the bubble cluster became progressively dense (i.e., proliferated because of gas diffusion into bubbles and splitting of bubbles into many daughter bubbles) in shock waves delivered at 1 Hz leading to reduction in the tensile wave duration from a nominal value of 4.6 to 1.8 µs. To reduce cavitation in the coupling water along the beam path, we have used a continuous jet flow to remove residual daughter bubbles between consecutive shocks. As a result, stone fragmentation efficiency was increased from 16±4% to 30±5% (p = 0.002) after 250 shocks. Such a hydrodynamic approach for tensile wave attenuation in the coupling water may be used to provide a flexible means for a novel treatment strategy with tissue protection.
Tensile failure of water due to shock wave interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boteler, J. M.; Sutherland, G. T.
2004-12-01
A series of low stress shock impact experiments were performed on water to examine the dynamic response under tension and establish a lower bound for water rupture or cavitation threshold. The experimental cell configuration permitted particle velocity measurements at the water-air free surface separated by a 5-μm-thick aluminized Mylar diaphragm. Water samples were triply distilled, de-ionized, and degassed prior to experiments. The average tensile strength for shock-induced cavitation in the water was found to be 8.7±0.2MPa. Experiments are compared with hydrocode simulations using a simple fracture criterion and published experimental data.
Measurements on a shock wave generated by a solar flare
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxwell, A.; Dryer, M.
1982-11-01
Shock waves generated by intense solar flares may be driven by a large amount of ejected mass, about 5 x 10 to the 16th g, and the total energy involved may be of the order of 10 to the 32nd erg. The shocks may have initial velocities of the order of 2,000 km/s and, in their exodus through the corona, may be accompanied by fast-moving optical transients, the emission of highly characteristic radio signatures and the acceleration of particles to quasi-relativistic velocities. Here, a review is presented of data on a high-velocity shock generated by a flare on 18 August 1979, 1400 UT, and comments are provided on some previously deduced velocities for the shock. Attention is given to a model, based on current computer programs to account for the overall characteristics of the shock as it propagated through the corona and the interplanetary plasma.
Measurements on a shock wave generated by a solar flare
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maxwell, A.; Dryer, M.
1982-01-01
Shock waves generated by intense solar flares may be driven by a large amount of ejected mass, about 5 x 10 to the 16th g, and the total energy involved may be of the order of 10 to the 32nd erg. The shocks may have initial velocities of the order of 2,000 km/s and, in their exodus through the corona, may be accompanied by fast-moving optical transients, the emission of highly characteristic radio signatures and the acceleration of particles to quasi-relativistic velocities. Here, a review is presented of data on a high-velocity shock generated by a flare on 18 August 1979, 1400 UT, and comments are provided on some previously deduced velocities for the shock. Attention is given to a model, based on current computer programs to account for the overall characteristics of the shock as it propagated through the corona and the interplanetary plasma.
Ion streaming instabilities with application to collisionless shock wave structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, K. I.; Linson, L. M.; Mani, S. A.
1973-01-01
The electromagnetic dispersion relation for two counterstreaming ion beams of arbitrary relative strength flowing parallel to a dc magnetic field is derived. The beams flow through a stationary electron background and the dispersion relation in the fluid approximation is unaffected by the electron thermal pressure. The dispersion relation is solved with a zero net current condition applied and the regions of instability in the k-U space (U is the relative velocity between the two ion beams) are presented. The parameters are then chosen to be applicable for parallel shocks. It was found that unstable waves with zero group velocity in the shock frame can exist near the leading edge of the shock for upstream Alfven Mach numbers greater than 5.5. It is suggested that this mechanism could generate sufficient turbulence within the shock layer to scatter the incoming ions and create the required dissipation for intermediate strength shocks.
A shock wave approach to the noise of supersonic propellers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittmar, J. H.; Rice, E. J.
1981-12-01
To model propeller noise expected for a turboprop aircraft, the pressure ratio across the shock at the propeller tip was calculated and compared with noise data from three propellers. At helical tip Mach numbers over 1.0, using only the tip shock wave, the model gave a fairly good prediction of the noise for a bladed propeller and for a propeller swept for aerodynamic purposes. However for another propeller, which was highly swept and designed to have noise cancellations from the inboard propeller sections, the shock strength from the tip over predicted the noise. In general the good agreement indicates that shock theory is a viable method for predicting the noise from these supersonic propellers but that the shock strengths from all of the blade sections need to be properly included.
Resolving the Shock Wave Profile in Viscous Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Kenneth; Borg, John
2011-06-01
Capturing and modeling shock wave profiles has a long history in computational analysis. Often artificial irreversibilities and/or smearing schemes are implemented in order to stabilize and resolve the shock. This work presents a direct numeric simulation of the full Navier-Stokes equations where the shock profile is completely resolved without the use of artificial viscosity or shock smearing techniques. Several viscosity models are employed to study the role of viscosity on this second order accurate finite difference scheme. The results are compared to an analytic solutions and experimental results. The results indicated that the shock front thickness and entropy production are in good agreement with simple analytic solutions and experimental results. The extension of this technique to solid and granular materials will be discussed.
Shock waves in dusty plasma with two temperature superthermal ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghai, Yashika; Saini, N. S.
2017-03-01
An investigation of dust acoustic shock waves in dusty plasma containing two temperature ions is presented. The present investigation is motivated by the observations of Geotail spacecraft that report the occurrence of two temperature ion populations in Earth's magnetotail. We have derived Burgers equation to study dust acoustic shock structures in an unmagnetized plasma with two temperature superthermal ions. We have also derived the modified Burgers equation at critical values of physical parameters for which nonlinear coefficient (A) of Burgers equation vanishes. The numerical analysis is performed in context with observations in Earth's magnetotail and the influence of various plasma parameters viz. ions temperature ratio, superthermality of hot and cold ions, kinematic viscosity etc. has been observed on characteristics of DA shocks. It is observed that the amplitude of positive shocks via Burgers equation decreases whereas that of modified shocks with higher order nonlinearity increases with increase in superthermality of cold ions.
Observation of thermoacoustic shock waves in a resonance tube.
Biwa, Tetsushi; Sobata, Kazuya; Otake, Shota; Yazaki, Taichi
2014-09-01
This paper reports thermally induced shock waves observed in an acoustic resonance tube. Self-sustained oscillations of a gas column were created by imposing an axial temperature gradient on the short stack of plates installed in the resonance tube filled with air at atmospheric pressure. The tube length and axial position of the stack were examined so as to make the acoustic amplitude of the gas oscillations maximum. The periodic shock wave was observed when the acoustic pressure amplitude reached 8.3 kPa at the fundamental frequency. Measurements of the acoustic intensity show that the energy absorption in the stack region with the temperature gradient tends to prevent the nonlinear excitation of harmonic oscillations, which explains why the shock waves had been unfavorable in the resonance tube thermoacoustic systems.
Excimer laser drilling of bone: shock wave and profile measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sviridov, Alexander P.; Dmitriev, A. K.; Karoutis, Athanase D.; Christodoulou, P. N.; Helidonis, Emmanuel S.
1995-01-01
The shock wave generation in stapes models during laser ear surgery is experimentally investigated. The intensity absolute measurements of shock waves generated by excimer laser in the treated bone are performed. It is shown that the roughness of the crater bottom profile depends on the laser beam fluence. It is revealed that in the pulse repetition regime of bone drilling there exists an optimal laser beam fluence, which provides as high a rate of drilling as the smooth bottom of the crater. For ArF and KrF excimer lasers the optimal fluence is equal to about 0.4 - 0.5 J/cm2 at the repetition rate 5 Hz. The amplitude of shock wave induced at these parameters of laser beam in the back side of the bone sample of 1.1 mm thickness was measured to be about 25 bar and the corresponding pressure gradient 0.35 bar/micrometers .
Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.
1990-07-01
The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.
[High energy shock wave treatment of the painful heel spur].
Perlick, L; Boxberg, W; Giebel, G
1998-12-01
Extracorporal shock wave application (ESWA) has been used in the treatment of stones located in kidneys, bile, pancreas and the glandula parotis. In the last 2 years several studies have shown the benefit of the ESWA on the treatment of soft tissue disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of high energy extracorporal shock waves in patients with painful calcaneus spurs. 83 patients who underwent medicophysical treatment without benefit were treated with 3000 impulses of 0.30 mj/mm2. Follow-ups after 12 weeks and 12 months showed that 51 of 83 patients became pain-free and 20 patients improved from the treatment. The results are showing the benefit of the high energy extracorporal shock wave application in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.
Effect of extracorporeal shock waves on calcaneal bone spurs.
Lee, Gregory P; Ogden, John A; Cross, G Lee
2003-12-01
In a prospective study of 435 patients with chronic proximal plantar fasciitis, 283 (65%) had an inferior calcaneal bone spur of variable size evident prior to treatment with electrohydraulic high-energy extracorporeal shock waves (ESW). This included 308 patients who received extracorporeal shock wave treatments and 127 placebo (sham control) patients. At both initial (3 months) and final (12 months) evaluations after receiving ESW, no patient who received shock wave applications had significant disappearance or change in the radiographic appearance of the heel spur. Clinical outcome after ESW was satisfactory in 168 patients (82%) with a radiographically demonstrable inferior heel spur and in 81 patients (79%) without such a heel spur. The results showed no correlation between the presence or absence of the heel spur and the eventual treatment outcome.
Boundaries of the ambiguity area upon reflection of compression shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulat, P. V.; Upyrev, V. V.
2016-01-01
Oblique shock waves can be reflected from hard walls, the axis, or the plane of symmetry, as well as from other counterpropagating shock waves with the formation of regular and Mach shock wave configurations. The specific form of shock wave structures is determined by the parameters of the problem: Mach number and intensity of incident shock waves. On the plane of parameters, there exists an ambiguity area in which laws of conservation admit both the regular and Mach reflection of shock waves. The boundaries of this region have been determined.
Hybrid simulation of the shock wave trailing the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Israelevich, P.; Ofman, L.
2012-04-01
Standing shock wave behind the Moon was predicted be Michel (1967) but never observed nor simulated. We use 1D hybrid code in order to simulate the collapse of the plasma-free cavity behind the Moon and for the first time to model the formation of this shock. Starting immediately downstream of the obstacle we consider the evolution of plasma expansion into the cavity in the frame of reference moving along with the solar wind. Well-known effects as electric charging of the cavity affecting the plasma flow and counter streaming ion beams in the wake are reproduced. Near the apex of the inner Mach cone where the plasma flows from the opposite sides of the obstacle meet, a shock wave arises. The shock is produced by the interaction of oppositely directed proton beams in the plane containing solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field vectors. In the direction across the magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, the shock results from the interaction of the plasma flow with the region of the enhanced magnetic field inside the cavity that plays the role of magnetic barrier. The appearance of the standing shock wave is expected at the distance of ~ 7RM downstream of the Moon.
Finite difference solutions to shocked acoustic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walkington, N. J.; Eversman, W.
1983-01-01
The MacCormack, Lambda and split flux finite differencing schemes are used to solve a one dimensional acoustics problem. Two duct configurations were considered, a uniform duct and a converging-diverging nozzle. Asymptotic solutions for these two ducts are compared with the numerical solutions. When the acoustic amplitude and frequency are sufficiently high the acoustic signal shocks. This condition leads to a deterioration of the numerical solutions since viscous terms may be required if the shock is to be resolved. A continuous uniform duct solution is considered to demonstrate how the viscous terms modify the solution. These results are then compared with a shocked solution with and without viscous terms. Generally it is found that the most accurate solutions are those obtained using the minimum possible viscosity coefficients. All of the schemes considered give results accurate enough for acoustic power calculations with no one scheme performing significantly better than the others.
Effect of Surface Roughness on Characteristics of Spherical Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huber, Paul W.; McFarland, Donald R.
1959-01-01
Measurements of peak overpressure and Mach stem height were made at four burst heights. Data were obtained with instrumentation capable of directly observing the variation of shock wave movement with time. Good similarity of free air shock peak overpressure with larger scale data was found to exist. The net effect of surface roughness on shock peak overpressures slightly. Surface roughness delayed the Mach stem formation at the greatest charge height and lowered the growth at all burst heights. A similarity parameter was found which approximately correlates the triple point path at different burst heights.
Hybrid simulation codes with application to shocks and upstream waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winske, D.
1985-01-01
Hybrid codes in which part of the plasma is represented as particles and the rest as a fluid are discussed. In the past few years such codes with particle ions and massless, fluid electrons have been applied to space plasmas, especially to collisionless shocks. All of these simulation codes are one-dimensional and similar in structure, except for how the field equations are solved. The various approaches that are used (resistive Ohm's law, predictor-corrector, Hamiltonian) are described in detail and results from the various codes are compared with examples taken from collisionless shocks and low frequency wave phenomena upstream of shocks.
A physical mechanism of nonthermal plasma effect on shock wave
Kuo, S.P.; Kuo, Steven S.
2005-01-01
An electric discharge is applied to generate a plasma spike in front of a wedge. Use of this plasma spike to modify the shock wave structure in a supersonic flow over the wedge is then studied. It is shown that the plasma spike can effectively deflect the incoming flow before the flow reaches the wedge; consequently, the shock structure in the interaction region is modified from an oblique to a curved shape. Moreover, the shock becomes detached as the strength of the plasma spike exceeds a critical level.
Supernova remnants and the physics of strong shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellison, Donald C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Chevalier, Roger; Cox, Donald P.; Dickel, John R.; Pisarski, Ryszard; Raymond, John; Spangler, Stephen R.; Volk, Heinrich J.
1994-01-01
This paper reports on a Workshop on Supernova Remnants and the Physics of Strong Shock Waves hosted by North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina, September 16-18, 1993. The workshop brought together observers, shock theorists, cosmic-ray specialists, and simulators to address the role supernova remnants can play in furthering our understanding of the complex plasma physics associated with collisionless shocks and particle acceleration. Over fifty scientists presented papers on various aspects of supernova remnants. In lieu of a proceedings volume, we present here a synopsis of the workshop, in the form of brief summaries of each workshop session.
Supernova remnants and the physics of strong shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellison, Donald C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Chevalier, Roger; Cox, Donald P.; Dickel, John R.; Pisarski, Ryszard; Raymond, John; Spangler, Stephen R.; Volk, Heinrich J.
1994-01-01
This paper reports on a Workshop on Supernova Remnants and the Physics of Strong Shock Waves hosted by North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina, September 16-18, 1993. The workshop brought together observers, shock theorists, cosmic-ray specialists, and simulators to address the role supernova remnants can play in furthering our understanding of the complex plasma physics associated with collisionless shocks and particle acceleration. Over fifty scientists presented papers on various aspects of supernova remnants. In lieu of a proceedings volume, we present here a synopsis of the workshop, in the form of brief summaries of each workshop session.
Far-Infrared Water Emissions from Magnetohydrodynamic Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, Michael J.; Neufeld, David A.
1996-01-01
Nondissociative, magnetohydrodynamic, C-type shock waves are expected to be a prodigious source of far-infrared water emissions in dense interstellar regions. We have constructed a model to calculate the farinfrared H20 line spectra that emerge from such shocks. Using the best estimates currently available for the radiative cooling rate and the degree of ion-neutral coupling within the shocked gas, we modeled the temperature structure of MHD shocks using standard methods in which the charged and neutral particles are treated separately as two weakly coupled, interpenetrating fluids. Then we solved the equations of statistical equilibrium to find the populations of the lowest 179 and 170 rotational states of ortho- and para-H2O We have completed an extensive parameter study to determine the emergent H2O line luminosities as a function of preshock density in the range n(H2) equals 10(exp 4) - 10(sup 6.5)/cc and shock velocity in the range upsilon(sub s) = 5 - 40 km/ s. We find that numerous rotational transitions of water are potentially observable using the Infrared Space Observatory and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite and may be used as diagnostics of the shocked gas. We have also computed the rotational and ro-vibrational emissions expected from H2, CO, and OH, and we discuss how complementary observations of such emissions may be used to further constrain the shock conditions. In common with previous studies, we come close to matching the observed H2, and high-J CO emissions from the Orion-KL star-forming region on the basis of a single shock model. We present our predictions for the strengths of H2O line emission from the Orion shock, and we show how our results may be scaled to other regions where molecular shocks are likely to be present.
Numerical Study of Shock Wave Attenuation Using Logarithmic Spiral Liquid Sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Qian; Deiterding, Ralf; Eliasson, Veronica
2016-11-01
Research of shock wave attenuation has drawn much attention due to its military and civilian applications. One method to attenuate shock waves is to use water to block the shock wave propagation path and allow the shock wave to lose energy by breaking up the water sheet. We propose a way by holding a water sheet in logarithmic spiral shape, which has the ability of focusing the incident shock wave to its focal region. In addition, the shock wave will break up the bulk water and thus lose energy. The process of shock wave reflecting off and transmitting through the water sheet is numerically modeled using Euler equations and stiffened gas equation of state. In this study, the shock focusing ability of a logarithmic spiral water sheet is compared for various logarithmic spiral sheets. Further, the attenuation effect is quantified by the measurement of pressure impulse and peak pressure behind the transmitted and reflected shock waves.
A Study of Uranus' Bow Shock Motions Using Langmuir Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xue, S.; Cairns, I. H.; Smith, C. W.; Gurnett, D. A.
1996-01-01
During the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, strong electron plasma oscillations (Langmuir waves) were detected by the plasma wave instrument in the 1.78-kHz channel on January 23-24, 1986, prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. Langmuir waves are excited by energetic electrons streaming away from the bow shock. The goal of this work is to estimate the location and motion of Uranus' bow shock using Langmuir wave data, together with the spacecraft positions and the measured interplanetary magnetic field. The following three remote sensing analyses were performed: the basic remote sensing method, the lag time method, and the trace-back method. Because the interplanetary magnetic field was highly variable, the first analysis encountered difficulties in obtaining a realistic estimation of Uranus' bow shock motion. In the lag time method developed here, time lags due to the solar wind's finite convection speed are taken into account when calculating the shock's standoff distance. In the new trace-back method, limits on the standoff distance are obtained as a function of time by reconstructing electron paths. Most of the results produced by the latter two analyses are consistent with predictions based on the standard theoretical model and the measured solar wind plasma parameters. Differences between our calculations and the theoretical model are discussed.
A Study of Uranus' Bow Shock Motions Using Langmuir Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xue, S.; Cairns, I. H.; Smith, C. W.; Gurnett, D. A.
1996-01-01
During the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, strong electron plasma oscillations (Langmuir waves) were detected by the plasma wave instrument in the 1.78-kHz channel on January 23-24, 1986, prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. Langmuir waves are excited by energetic electrons streaming away from the bow shock. The goal of this work is to estimate the location and motion of Uranus' bow shock using Langmuir wave data, together with the spacecraft positions and the measured interplanetary magnetic field. The following three remote sensing analyses were performed: the basic remote sensing method, the lag time method, and the trace-back method. Because the interplanetary magnetic field was highly variable, the first analysis encountered difficulties in obtaining a realistic estimation of Uranus' bow shock motion. In the lag time method developed here, time lags due to the solar wind's finite convection speed are taken into account when calculating the shock's standoff distance. In the new trace-back method, limits on the standoff distance are obtained as a function of time by reconstructing electron paths. Most of the results produced by the latter two analyses are consistent with predictions based on the standard theoretical model and the measured solar wind plasma parameters. Differences between our calculations and the theoretical model are discussed.
Plasma wave generation near the inner heliospheric shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macek, W. M.; Cairns, I. H.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.
1991-01-01
There is mounting evidence that the Voyager 1 and 2 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft may approach the inner (termination) heliospheric shock near the end of this century. It is argued here, by analogy with planetary bow shocks, that energetic electrons backstreaming from the heliospheric shock along the magnetic field should be unstable to the generation of Langmuir waves by the electron beam instability. Analytic expressions for the cutoff velocity, corresponding to the beam speed of the electrons backstreaming from the shock, are derived for a standard solar wind model. At the front side of the heliosphere the maximum beam velocity is expected to be at the meridian passing through the nose of the shock, which is assumed to be aligned with the Very Local Inter-Stellar Medium flow. This foreshock region and the associated Langmuir waves are relevant to both the expected in situ observations of the heliospheric boundaries, and to the low-frequency (2-3 kHz) radio emissions observed by the Voyager spacecraft in the outer heliosphere. Provided that these radio emissions are generated by Langmuir waves, the minimum Langmuir wave electric fields at the remote source are estimated to be greater than about 3 - 30 microV/m.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoshino, Masahiro; Arons, Jonathan; Gallant, Yves A.; Langdon, A. B.
1992-01-01
The theoretical properties of relativistic, transverse, magnetosonic collisionless shock waves in electron-positron-heavy ion plasmas of relevance to astrophysical sources of synchrotron radiation are investigated. Both 1D electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations and quasi-linear theory are used to examine the spatial and kinetic structure of these nonlinear flows. A new process of shock acceleration of nonthermal positrons, in which the gyrating reflected heavy ions dissipate their energy in the form of collectively emitted, left-handed magnetosonic waves which are resonantly absorbed by the positrons immediately behind the ion reflection region, is described. Applications of the results to the termination shocks of pulsar winds and to the termination shocks of jets emanating from the AGN are outlined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikui, T.; Matsuo, K.; Aoki, T.; Kondoh, N.
1982-10-01
In reflection problems arising when a plane-moving shock wave encounters an inclined wall and is reflected, shock tube experiments have indicated four different types of reflection: regular, single-Mach, complex Mach, and double-Mach. In the present study, the reflection phenomena of the shock waves have been experimentally investigated over a range of incident shock Mach numbers and wedge angles using air or Freon-12 as a working gas. In the Freon-12 experiments, a new type of reflection which cannot be classified in terms of the previously studied four was observed. A discussion is presented of the domains where these five reflection types can occur, and of the transition boundaries between reflection types.
The Universal Role of Tubulence in the Propagation of Strong Shocks and Detonation Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, John H.
2001-06-01
The passage of a strong shock wave usually results in irreversible physical and chemical changes in the medium. If the chemical reactions are sufficiently exothermic, the shock wave can be self-propagating, i.e., sustained by the chemical energy release via the expansion work of the reaction products. Although shocks and detonations can be globally stable and propagate at constant velocities (in the direction of motion), their structure may be highly unstable and exhibit large hydrodynamic fluctuations, i.e., turbulence. Recent investigations on plastic deformation of polycrystalline material behind shock waves have revealed particle velocity dispersion at the mesoscopic level, a result of vortical rotational motion similar to that of turbulent fluid flows at high Reynolds number.1 Strong ionizing shocks in noble gases2, as well as dissociating shock waves in carbon dioxide,3 also demonstrate a turbulent density fluctuation in the non-equilibrium shock transition zone. Perhaps the most thoroughly investigated unstable structure is that of detonation waves in gaseous explosives.4 Detonation waves in liquid explosives such as nitromethane also take on similar unstable structure as gaseous detonations.5 There are also indications that detonations in solid explosives have a similar unsteady structure under certain conditions. Thus, it appears that it is more of a rule than an exception that the structure of strong shocks and detonations are unstable and exhibit turbulent-like fluctuations as improved diagnostics now permit us to look more closely at the meso- and micro-levels. Increasing attention is now devoted to the understanding of the shock waves at the micro-scale level in recent years. This is motivated by the need to formulate physical and chemical models that contain the correct physics capable of describing quantitatively the shock transition process. It should be noted that, in spite of its unstable 3-D structure, the steady 1-D conservation laws (in the
Nuclear reactions in shock wave front during supernova events
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lavrukhina, A. K.
1985-01-01
The new unique isotopic anomalous coponent of Xe(XeX) was found in the carbonaceous chondrites. It is enriched in light shielded isotopes (124Xe and 126Xe) and in heavy nonshielded isotopes (134Xe and 136Xe. All characteristics of Xe-X can be explained by a model of nucleosynthesis of the Xe isotopes in shock wave front passed through the He envelope during supernova events. The light isotopes are created by p process and the heavy isotopes are created by n process (slow r process). They were captured with high temperature carbon grains condensing by supernova shock waves.
The importance of microjet vs shock wave formation in sonophoresis.
Wolloch, Lior; Kost, Joseph
2010-12-01
Low-frequency ultrasound application has been shown to greatly enhance transdermal drug delivery. Skin exposed to ultrasound is affected in a heterogeneous manner, thus mass transport through the stratum corneum occurs mainly through highly permeable localized transport regions (LTRs). Shock waves and microjets generated during inertial cavitations are responsible for the transdermal permeability enhancement. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these two phenomena using direct and indirect methods, and demonstrated that the contribution of microjets to skin permeability enhancement is significantly higher than shock waves.
Shock wave emission during the collapse of cavitation bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garen, W.; Hegedűs, F.; Kai, Y.; Koch, S.; Meyerer, B.; Neu, W.; Teubner, U.
2016-07-01
Shock wave emission induced by intense laser pulses is investigated experimentally. The present work focuses on the conditions of shock wave emission in glycerine and distilled water during the first bubble collapse. Experimental investigations are carried out in liquids as a function of temperature and viscosity. Comparison is made with the theoretical work of Poritsky (Proc 1st US Natl Congress Appl Mech 813-821, 1952) and Brennen (Cavitation and bubble dynamics, Oxford University Press 1995). To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first experimental verification of those theories.
Analysis of embedded shock waves calculated by relaxation methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, E. M.
1973-01-01
The requirements for uniqueness of the calculated jump conditions across embedded shock waves are investigated for type-dependent difference systems used in transonic flow studies. A mathematical analysis shows that sufficient conditions are (1) the equations should be differenced in conservative form and (2) a special difference operator should be used when switching from a hyperbolic to an elliptic operator. The latter results in a consistency condition on the integral equations, rather than the differential, at these points. Calculated jump conditions for several embedded and detached shock waves are analyzed in the physical and hodograph planes. Comparisons are made with previous results, a time-dependent calculation, and data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bershader, D. (Editor); Hanson, R. (Editor)
1986-01-01
A detailed survey is presented of shock tube experiments, theoretical developments, and applications being carried out worldwide. The discussions explore shock tube physics and the related chemical, physical and biological science and technology. Extensive attention is devoted to shock wave phenomena in dusty gases and other multiphase and heterogeneous systems, including chemically reactive mixtures. Consideration is given to techniques for measuring, visualizing and theoretically modeling flowfield, shock wave and rarefaction wave characteristics. Numerical modeling is explored in terms of the application of computational fluid dynamics techniques to describing flowfields in shock tubes. Shock interactions and propagation, in both solids, fluids, gases and mixed media are investigated, along with the behavior of shocks in condensed matter. Finally, chemical reactions that are initiated as the result of passage of a shock wave are discussed, together with methods of controlling the evolution of laminar separated flows at concave corners on advanced reentry vehicles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bershader, D. (Editor); Hanson, R. (Editor)
1986-01-01
A detailed survey is presented of shock tube experiments, theoretical developments, and applications being carried out worldwide. The discussions explore shock tube physics and the related chemical, physical and biological science and technology. Extensive attention is devoted to shock wave phenomena in dusty gases and other multiphase and heterogeneous systems, including chemically reactive mixtures. Consideration is given to techniques for measuring, visualizing and theoretically modeling flowfield, shock wave and rarefaction wave characteristics. Numerical modeling is explored in terms of the application of computational fluid dynamics techniques to describing flowfields in shock tubes. Shock interactions and propagation, in both solids, fluids, gases and mixed media are investigated, along with the behavior of shocks in condensed matter. Finally, chemical reactions that are initiated as the result of passage of a shock wave are discussed, together with methods of controlling the evolution of laminar separated flows at concave corners on advanced reentry vehicles.
Failure waves in shock-compressed glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanel, Gennady I.
2005-07-01
The failure wave is a network of cracks that are nucleated on the surface and propagate into the elastically stressed body. It is a mode of catastrophic fracture in an elastically stressed media whose relevance is not limited to impact events. In the presentation, main properties of the failure waves are summarized and discussed. It has been shown that the failure wave is really a wave process which is characterized by small increase of the longitudinal stress and corresponding increments of the particle velocity and the density. The propagation velocity of the failure wave is less than the sound speed; it is not directly related to the compressibility but is determined by the crack growth speed. Transformation of elastic compression wave followed by the failure wave in a thick glass plate into typical two-wave configuration in a pile of thin glass plates confirms crucial role of the surfaces. The latter, as well as specific kinematics of the process distinguishes the failure wave from a time-dependent inelastic compressive behavior of brittle materials. The failure wave is steady if the stress state ahead of it is supported unchanging. Mechanism of this self-supporting propagation of compressive fracture is not quite clear as yet. On the other hand, collected data about its kinematics allow formulating phenomenological models of the phenomenon. In some sense the process is similar to the diffusion of cracks from a source on the glass surface. However, the diffusion-like models contradict to observed steady propagation of the failure wave. Analogy with a subsonic combustion wave looks more fruitful. Computer simulations based on the phenomenological combustion-like model reproduces well all kinematical aspects of the phenomenon.
Molecular Line Emission from Multifluid Shock Waves. I. Numerical Methods and Benchmark Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciolek, Glenn E.; Roberge, Wayne G.
2013-05-01
We describe a numerical scheme for studying time-dependent, multifluid, magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in weakly ionized interstellar clouds and cores. Shocks are modeled as propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field and consist of a neutral molecular fluid plus a fluid of ions and electrons. The scheme is based on operator splitting, wherein time integration of the governing equations is split into separate parts. In one part, independent homogeneous Riemann problems for the two fluids are solved using Godunov's method. In the other, equations containing the source terms for transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids are integrated using standard numerical techniques. We show that, for the frequent case where the thermal pressures of the ions and electrons are Lt magnetic pressure, the Riemann problems for the neutral and ion-electron fluids have a similar mathematical structure which facilitates numerical coding. Implementation of the scheme is discussed and several benchmark tests confirming its accuracy are presented, including (1) MHD wave packets ranging over orders of magnitude in length- and timescales, (2) early evolution of multifluid shocks caused by two colliding clouds, and (3) a multifluid shock with mass transfer between the fluids by cosmic-ray ionization and ion-electron recombination, demonstrating the effect of ion mass loading on magnetic precursors of MHD shocks. An exact solution to an MHD Riemann problem forming the basis for an approximate numerical solver used in the homogeneous part of our scheme is presented, along with derivations of the analytic benchmark solutions and tests showing the convergence of the numerical algorithm.
MOLECULAR LINE EMISSION FROM MULTIFLUID SHOCK WAVES. I. NUMERICAL METHODS AND BENCHMARK TESTS
Ciolek, Glenn E.; Roberge, Wayne G. E-mail: roberw@rpi.edu
2013-05-01
We describe a numerical scheme for studying time-dependent, multifluid, magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in weakly ionized interstellar clouds and cores. Shocks are modeled as propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field and consist of a neutral molecular fluid plus a fluid of ions and electrons. The scheme is based on operator splitting, wherein time integration of the governing equations is split into separate parts. In one part, independent homogeneous Riemann problems for the two fluids are solved using Godunov's method. In the other, equations containing the source terms for transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids are integrated using standard numerical techniques. We show that, for the frequent case where the thermal pressures of the ions and electrons are << magnetic pressure, the Riemann problems for the neutral and ion-electron fluids have a similar mathematical structure which facilitates numerical coding. Implementation of the scheme is discussed and several benchmark tests confirming its accuracy are presented, including (1) MHD wave packets ranging over orders of magnitude in length- and timescales, (2) early evolution of multifluid shocks caused by two colliding clouds, and (3) a multifluid shock with mass transfer between the fluids by cosmic-ray ionization and ion-electron recombination, demonstrating the effect of ion mass loading on magnetic precursors of MHD shocks. An exact solution to an MHD Riemann problem forming the basis for an approximate numerical solver used in the homogeneous part of our scheme is presented, along with derivations of the analytic benchmark solutions and tests showing the convergence of the numerical algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinolo, A. R.; Clarke, J. H.
1973-01-01
The gas dynamic structures of the transport shock and the downstream collisional relaxation layer are evaluated for partially ionized monatomic gases. Elastic and inelastic collisional nonequilibrium effects are taken into consideration. In the microscopic model of the atom, three electronic levels are accounted for. By using an asymptotic technique, the shock morphology is found on a continuum flow basis. This procedure gives two distinct layers in which the nonequilibrium effects to be considered are different. A transport shock appears as the inner solution to an outer collisional relaxation layer. The results show four main interesting points: (1) on structuring the transport shock, ionization and excitation rates must be included in the formulation, since the flow is not frozen with respect to the population of the different electronic levels; (2) an electron temperature precursor appears at the beginning of the transport shock; (3) the collisional layer is rationally reduced to quadrature for special initial conditions, which (4) are obtained from new Rankine-Hugoniot relations for the inner shock.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinolo, A. R.; Clarke, J. H.
1973-01-01
The gas dynamic structures of the transport shock and the downstream collisional relaxation layer are evaluated for partially ionized monatomic gases. Elastic and inelastic collisional nonequilibrium effects are taken into consideration. In the microscopic model of the atom, three electronic levels are accounted for. By using an asymptotic technique, the shock morphology is found on a continuum flow basis. This procedure gives two distinct layers in which the nonequilibrium effects to be considered are different. A transport shock appears as the inner solution to an outer collisional relaxation layer. The results show four main interesting points: (1) on structuring the transport shock, ionization and excitation rates must be included in the formulation, since the flow is not frozen with respect to the population of the different electronic levels; (2) an electron temperature precursor appears at the beginning of the transport shock; (3) the collisional layer is rationally reduced to quadrature for special initial conditions, which (4) are obtained from new Rankine-Hugoniot relations for the inner shock.
Structure of Weak Shock Waves in a Monatomic Gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, F. S.; Talbot, L.
1959-01-01
The profiles and thicknesses of normal shock waves in argon at Mach numbers of 1.335, 1.454, 1.576, and 1-713 were determined experimentally by means of a free-molecule probe whose equilibrium temperature is related by kinetic theory to the local flow properties and their gradients. Comparisons were made between the experimental shock profiles and the theoretical profiles calculated from the Navier-Stokes equations, the Grad 13-moment equations, and the Burnett equations. New, very accurate numerical integrations of the Burnett equations were obtained for this purpose with results quite different from those found by Zoller, to whom the solution of this problem is frequently attributed. The experimental shock profiles were predicted with approximately equal success by the Navier-Stokes and Burnett theories, while the 13-moment method was definitely less satisfactory. A surprising feature of the theoretical results is the relatively small difference in predictions between the Navier-Stokes and Burnett theories in the present range of shock strengths and the contrastingly large difference between predictions of Burnett and the 13-moment theories. It is concluded that the Navier-Stokes equations are correct for weak shocks and that within the present shock strength range the Burnett equations make no improvement which merits the trouble of solving them. For shocks of noticeably greater strength, say with a shock Mach number of more than 2.5, it remains fundamentally doubtful that any of these theories can be correct.
Evolution of Shock Waves in Silicon Carbide Rods
Balagansky, I. A.; Balagansky, A. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Utkin, A. V.
2006-07-28
Evolution of shock waves in self-bonded silicon carbide bars in the shape of 20 mm x 20 mm square prisms of varying lengths (20 mm, 40 mm, and 77.5 mm) is investigated. The density and porosity of the test specimens were 3.08 g/cm3 and 2%, respectively. Shock waves were generated by detonating a cylindrical shaped (d=40 mm and 1=40 mm) stabilized RDX high explosive charge of density 1.60 g/cm3. Embedded manganin gauges at various distances from the impact face were used to monitor the amplitude of shock pressure profiles. Propagation velocity of the stress pulse was observed to be equal to the elastic bar wave velocity of 11 km/s and was independent of the amplitude of the impact pulse. Strong fuzziness of the stress wave front is observed. This observation conforms to the theory on the instability of the shock formation in a finite size elastic body. This phenomenon of wave front fuzziness may be useful for desensitization of heterogeneous high explosives.
Generalized Sagdeev potential theory for shock waves modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2017-05-01
In this paper, we develop an innovative approach to study the shock wave propagation using the Sagdeev potential method. We also present an analytical solution for Korteweg de Vries Burgers (KdVB) and modified KdVB equation families with a generalized form of the nonlinearity term which agrees well with the numerical one. The novelty of the current approach is that it is based on a simple analogy of the particle in a classical potential with the variable particle energy providing one with a deeper physical insight into the problem and can easily be extended to more complex physical situations. We find that the current method well describes both monotonic and oscillatory natures of the dispersive-diffusive shock structures in different viscous fluid configurations. It is particularly important that all essential parameters of the shock structure can be deduced directly from the Sagdeev potential in small and large potential approximation regimes. Using the new method, we find that supercnoidal waves can decay into either compressive or rarefactive shock waves depending on the initial wave amplitude. Current investigation provides a general platform to study a wide range of phenomena related to nonlinear wave damping and interactions in diverse fluids including plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louis, Hélène; Odent, Vincent; Louvergneaux, Eric
2016-04-01
Shock waves are well-known nonlinear waves, displaying an abrupt discontinuity. Observation can be made in a lot of physical fields, as in water wave, plasma and nonlinear optics. Shock waves can either break or relax through either catastrophic or regularization phenomena. In this work, we restrain our study to dispersive shock waves. This regularization phenomenon implies the emission of dispersive waves. We demonstrate experimentally and numerically the generation of spatial dispersive shock waves in a nonlocal focusing media. The generation of dispersive shock wave in a focusing media is more problematic than in a defocusing one. Indeed, the modulational instability has to be frustrated to observe this phenomenon. In 2010, the dispersive shock wave was demonstrated experimentally in a focusing media with a partially coherent beam [1]. Another way is to use a nonlocal media [2]. The impact of nonlocality is more important than the modulational instability frustration. Here, we use nematic liquid crystals (NLC) as Kerr-like nonlocal medium. To achieve shock formation, we use the Riemann condition as initial spatial condition (edge at the beam entrance of the NLC cell). In these experimental conditions, we generate, experimentally and numerically, shock waves that relax through the emission of dispersive waves. Associated with this phenomenon, we evidence the emergence of a localized wave that travels through the transverse beam profile. The beam steepness, which is a good indicator of the shock formation, is maximal at the shock point position. This latter follows a power law versus the injected power as in [3]. Increasing the injected power, we found multiple shock points. We have good agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results. [1] W. Wan, D. V Dylov, C. Barsi, and J. W. Fleischer, Opt. Lett. 35, 2819 (2010). [2] G. Assanto, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A - At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 78, 1 (2008). [3] N. Ghofraniha, L. S
Wave diffraction in weak cosmic-ray-modified shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.
1992-01-01
Weakly multidirectional, long-wavelength cosmic-ray-modified shocks are studied via multiple scale perturbation techniques. The effects of diffraction are discussed in terms of Green's function solutions of the linearized 1 + 3D Burgers and 1 + 3D KdVB equations, and also in terms of solutions with singular Dirac delta initial distributions. The solutions show a monotonic decrease of the wave-front curvature with increasing time owing to the effects of wave diffraction. The shape of the wave surface is discussed in terms of solutions S to the wave eikonal equation corresponding to singular initial conditions. For the fast magnetosonic wave propagating in the positive x-direction, the wave phase surface S = 0 has elliptic cross sections with the planes x = constant and has a convex paraboloidal shape. Plane-wave solutions of the 1 + 3D KdVB equation are discussed.
Dense particle cloud dispersion by a shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellenberger, Mark Douglas
High-speed particle dispersion research is motivated by the energy release enhancement of explosives containing solid particles. In the initial explosive dispersal, a dense gas-solid flow can exist where the physics of phase interactions are not well understood. A dense particle flow is generated by the interaction of a shock wave with an initially stationary packed granular bed. The initial packed granular bed is produced by compressing loose aluminum oxide powder into a 6.35 mm thick wafer with a particle volume fraction of 0.48. The wafer is positioned inside the shock tube, uniformly filling the entire cross-section. This results in a clean experiment where no flow obstructing support structures are present. Through high-speed shadowgraph imaging and pressure measurements along the length of the channel, detailed information about the particle-shock interaction was obtained. Due to the limited strength of the Mach 2 incident shock wave, no transmitted shock wave is produced. The initial "solid-like" response of the particle wafer acceleration forms a series of compression waves that coalesce to form a shock wave. Breakup is initiated along the periphery of the wafer as the result of shear that forms due to the fixed boundary condition. Particle break-up starts at local failure sites that result in the formation of particle jets that extend ahead of the accelerating, largely intact, wafer core. In a circular tube the failure sites are uniformly distributed along the wafer circumference. In a square channel, the failure sites, and the subsequent particle jets, initially form at the corners due to the enhanced shear. The wafer breakup subsequently spreads to the edges forming a highly non-uniform particle cloud.
Solitary and shock waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma
Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song
2014-02-15
An Ohm's law for electron-positron (EP) plasma is obtained. In the framework of EP magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate nonrelativistic nonlinear waves' solutions in a magnetized EP plasma. In the collisionless limit, quasistationary propagating solitary wave structures for the magnetic field and the plasma density are obtained. It is found that the wave amplitude increases with the Mach number and the Alfvén speed. However, the dependence on the plasma temperature is just the opposite. Moreover, for a cold EP plasma, the existence range of the solitary waves depends only on the Alfvén speed. For a hot EP plasma, the existence range depends on the Alfvén speed as well as the plasma temperature. In the presence of collision, the electromagnetic fields and the plasma density can appear as oscillatory shock structures because of the dissipation caused by the collisions. As the collision frequency increases, the oscillatory shock structure becomes more and more monotonic.
Shock wave initiated by an ion passing through liquid water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'Yov, Andrey V.
2010-11-01
We investigate the shock wave produced by an energetic ion in liquid water. This wave is initiated by a rapid energy loss when the ion moves through the Bragg peak. The energy is transferred from the ion to secondary electrons, which then transfer it to the water molecules. The pressure in the overheated water increases by several orders of magnitude and drives a cylindrical shock wave on a nanometer scale. This wave eventually weakens as the front expands further; but before that, it may contribute to DNA damage due to large pressure gradients developed within a few nanometers from the ion’s trajectory. This mechanism of DNA damage may be a very important contribution to the direct chemical effects of low-energy electrons and holes.
Shock conditions and shock wave structures in a steady flow in a dissipative fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Germain, P.; Guiraud, J. P.
1983-01-01
More precisely, calling xi the reciprocal of the Reynolds number based on the shock wave curvature radius, the xi terms of the first order are systematically taken into account. The most important result is a system of formulas giving a correction of order xi for the various RANKINE-HUGONIOT conditions. The suggested formulas may for instance have to be used instead of the conventional ones to evaluate the loss of the total pressure across the detached shock wave which is found at the nose of a very small probe in supersonic flow.
Formation of shock waves in a cold dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, G. C.; Choudhury, Balen; Bora, M. P.
2012-04-01
In this brief report, we present our calculations leading to formation of coherent structures through shock waves, which is studied with the help of the Burger wave equation, in certain space plasmas contaminated by the massive cold dust grains. Burger equation, in an ideal Maxwellian complex plasma, is derived and results are reported, which could be relevant in case of different space and astrophysical plasmas including Saturn's spokes, F-ring, planetary nebulae, etc.
Frontiers in Anisotropic Shock-Wave Modeling
2012-02-01
involving impact. These applications cover a wide range of situations such as crashworthiness and protective armours in air and space vehicles and other...unidirectional glass /epoxy laminates, carbon fiber reinforced plastic [CFRP] laminates, woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates) were obtained (Found and Howard...Melville, New York, 1998. 13. Dandekar, D. P.; Hall, C. A.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Reinhart, W. D. Shock Response of a Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
Unsteady relativistic shock-wave diffraction by cylinders and spheres.
Tsai, I-Nan; Huang, Juan-Chen; Tsai, Shang-Shi; Yang, J Y
2012-02-01
The unsteady relativistic shock-wave diffraction patterns generated by a relativistic blast wave impinging on a circular cylinder and a sphere are numerically simulated using some high-resolution relativistic kinetic beam schemes in a general coordinate system for solving the relativistic Euler equations of gas dynamics. The diffraction patterns are followed through about 6 radii of travel of the incident shock past the body. The complete diffraction patterns, including regular reflection, transition from regular to Mach reflection, slip lines, and the complex shock-on-shock interaction at the wake region resulting from the Mach shocks collision behind the body are reported in detail. Computational results of several incident shock Mach numbers covering the near ultrarelativistic limit are studied. Various contours of flow properties including the Lorentz factor and velocity streamline plots are also presented to add a better understanding of the complex diffraction phenomena. The three-dimensional relieving effects of the sphere cases are evident and can be quantitatively evaluated as compared with the corresponding cylinder cases.
Stochastic electron acceleration during turbulent reconnection in strong shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Yosuke
2016-04-01
Acceleration of charged particles is a fundamental topic in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas. Very high energy particles are commonly found in the astrophysical and planetary shocks, and in the energy releases of solar flares and terrestrial substorms. Evidence for relativistic particle production during such phenomena has attracted much attention concerning collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection, respectively, as ultimate plasma energization mechanisms. While the energy conversion proceeds macroscopically, and therefore the energy mostly flows to ions, plasma kinetic instabilities excited in a localized region have been considered to be the main electron heating and acceleration mechanisms. We present that efficient electron energization can occur in a much larger area during turbulent magnetic reconnection from the intrinsic nature of a strong collisionless shock wave. Supercomputer simulations have revealed a multiscale shock structure comprising current sheets created via an ion-scale Weibel instability and resulting energy dissipation through magnetic reconnection. A part of the upstream electrons undergoes first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. The dynamics has shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves.
Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2016-01-01
The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.
Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.
Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2015-10-06
The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead.
Lithotripter shock wave interaction with a bubble near various biomaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Szeri, A. J.; Khoo, B. C.
2016-10-01
Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet. A few simulations are performed and compared with available experimental observations from Sankin and Zhong (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 046304). The collapses of cavitation bubbles (created by laser in the experiment) near an elastic membrane when hit by a lithotripter shock wave are correctly captured by the simulation. This is followed by a more systematic study of the effects involved concerning shockwave bubble biomaterial interactions. If a subsequent rarefaction wave hits the collapsed bubble, it will re-expand to a very large size straining the bio-materials nearby before collapsing once again. It is noted that, for hard bio-material like bone, reflection of the shock wave at the bone—water interface can affect the bubble dynamics. Also the initial size of the bubble has a significant effect. Large bubbles (˜1 mm) will split into smaller bubbles, while small bubbles collapse with a high speed jet in the travel direction of the shock wave. The numerical model offers a computationally efficient way of understanding the complex phenomena involving the interplay of a bubble, a shock wave, and a nearby bio-material.
Lithotripter shock wave interaction with a bubble near various biomaterials.
Ohl, S W; Klaseboer, E; Szeri, A J; Khoo, B C
2016-10-07
Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet. A few simulations are performed and compared with available experimental observations from Sankin and Zhong (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 046304). The collapses of cavitation bubbles (created by laser in the experiment) near an elastic membrane when hit by a lithotripter shock wave are correctly captured by the simulation. This is followed by a more systematic study of the effects involved concerning shockwave bubble biomaterial interactions. If a subsequent rarefaction wave hits the collapsed bubble, it will re-expand to a very large size straining the bio-materials nearby before collapsing once again. It is noted that, for hard bio-material like bone, reflection of the shock wave at the bone-water interface can affect the bubble dynamics. Also the initial size of the bubble has a significant effect. Large bubbles (∼1 mm) will split into smaller bubbles, while small bubbles collapse with a high speed jet in the travel direction of the shock wave. The numerical model offers a computationally efficient way of understanding the complex phenomena involving the interplay of a bubble, a shock wave, and a nearby bio-material.
Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.
Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei
2014-06-01
Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin.
Fundamental study of direct microporous process using laser shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Moon Suk; Ko, Jong Soo; Lee, Sang Mae; Shin, Bo Sung
2015-06-01
In this paper, the mechanism of micropore structures generated inside PP (polypropylene) polymer due to thermal shock propagation caused by a pulsed laser was studied. When a thermal shock wave radiated to the PP film, a stress shock wave was transmitted to the interior. When both the appropriate absorption coefficient of thermoplastic polymer and the rapid pressure drop were provided, micropores were generated due to the crystallization of PP and decrease in viscosity. The micropores generated inside PP film with a low absorption coefficient were observed by employing a copper plate as a heat-transfer medium. The thickness of the PP film and the wavelength of the UV-pulsed laser used in this experiment were 50 µm and 355 nm, respectively.
Shock wave refraction enhancing conditions on an extended interface
Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.
2013-04-15
We determined the law of shock wave refraction for a class of extended interfaces with continuously variable gradients. When the interface is extended or when the gas parameters vary fast enough, the interface cannot be considered as sharp or smooth and the existing calculation methods cannot be applied. The expressions we derived are general enough to cover all three types of the interface and are valid for any law of continuously varying parameters. We apply the equations to the case of exponentially increasing temperature on the boundary and compare the results for all three types of interfaces. We have demonstrated that the type of interface can increase or inhibit the shock wave refraction. Our findings can be helpful in understanding the results obtained in energy deposition experiments as well as for controlling the shock-plasma interaction in other settings.
Shock wave reflection over convex and concave wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitade, M.; Kosugi, T.; Yada, K.; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2001-04-01
It is well known that the transition criterion nearly agrees with the detachment criterion in the case of strong shocks, two-dimensional, and pseudosteady flow. However, when the shock wave diffracts over a wedge whose angle is below the detachment criterion, that is, in the domain of Mach reflection, precursory regular reflection (PRR) appears near the leading edge and as the shock wave propagates, the PRR is swept away by the overtaking corner signal (cs) that forces the transition to Mach reflection. It is clear that viscosity and thermal conductivity influences transition and the triple point trajectory. On the other hand, the reflection over concave and convex wedges is truly unsteady flow, and the effect of viscosity and thermal conductivity on transition and triple point trajectory has not been reported. This paper describes that influence of viscosity over convex and concave corners investigated both experiments and numerical simulations.
[Biochemical evaluation of renal lesions produced by electrohydraulic shock waves].
Rodriguez Vela, L; Abadia Bayona, T; Lazaro Castillo, J; Guallar Labrador, A; Rioja Sanz, C; Rioja Sanz, L A
1995-01-01
The authors present a biochemical study of the renal lesions produced during extracorporeal electrohydraulic shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The sequential variation (before and after ESWL) of various biochemical parameters of the blood and 24-hour urine was analysed in 50 patients. A significant increase of urinary N-Acetyl-Glucosaminidase (NAG), urinary NAG/urinary creatinine quotient, proteinuria, serum creatinine and potassium was detected during the 24 hours following ESWL. A significant fall in creatinine clearance, urinary osmolarity and uric acid clearance was also detected. A positive correlation was observed between these alterations, the number of shocks and the kilovoltage used. On the 7th and 15th days, no significant difference was observed compared to the baseline values before ESWL. This can be explained by the fact that the lesions caused by shock waves are already in the repair phase.
Shock wave compression and metallization of simple molecules
Ross, M.; Radousky, H.B.
1988-03-01
In this paper we combine shock wave studies and metallization of simple molecules in a single overview. The unifying features are provided by the high shock temperatures which lead to a metallic-like state in the rare gases and to dissociation of diatomic molecules. In the case of the rare gases, electronic excitation into the conduction band leads to a metallic-like inert gas state at lower than metallic densities and provides information regarding the closing of the band gap. Diatomic dissociation caused by thermal excitation also leads to a final metallic-like or monatomic state. Ina ddition, shock wave data can provide information concerning the short range intermolecular force of the insulator that can be useful for calculating the metallic phase transition as for example in the case of hydrogen. 69 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs.
The optical emission from oscillating white dwarf radiative shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imamura, James N.; Rashed, Hussain; Wolff, Michael T.
1991-01-01
The hypothesis that quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are due to the oscillatory instability of radiative shock waves discovered by Langer et al. (1981, 1092) is examined. The time-dependent optical spectra of oscillating radiative shocks produced by flows onto magnetic white dwarfs are calculated. The results are compared with the observations of the AM Her QPO sources V834 Cen, AN UMa, EF Eri, and VV Pup. It is found that the shock oscillation model has difficulties with aspects of the observations for each of the sources. For VV Pup, AN UMa, and V834 Cen, the cyclotron luminosities for the observed magnetic fields of these systems, based on our calculations, are large. The strong cyclotron emission probably stabilizes the shock oscillations. For EF Eri, the mass of the white dwarf based on hard X-ray observations is greater than 0.6 solar mass.
Shock waves and particle acceleration in clusters of galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung; Ha, Ji-Hoon
2017-01-01
During the formation of the large-scale structure of the universe, intracluster media (ICMs), which fills the volume of galaxy clusters and is composed of hot, high-beta plasma, are continuously disturbed by major and minor mergers of clumps as well as infall along filaments of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Such activities induce shock waves, which are observed in radio and X-ray mostly in cluster outskirts. These shocks are collisionless, as in other astrophysical environments, and are thought to accelerate cosmic rays (CRs) via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. Here, we present the properties of shocks in ICMs and their roles in the generation of nonthermal particles, studied with high-resolution simulations. We also discuss the implications on the observations of diffuse radio emission from galaxy clusters, such as radio relics.
Principles and application of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
Robinson, S N; Crane, V S; Jones, D G; Cochran, J S; Williams, O B
1987-04-01
The physics, instrumentation, and patient-care aspects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of kidney stone disease are described. The kidney stone is located through the use of two integrated roentgenographic imaging systems. The x-ray tubes, fixed on either side of a tub of water in which the patient is partially immersed, are directed upward. The patient is maneuvered until the imaging systems indicate the kidney stone is within the second focus of the reflector and within the 1.5-cu cm target area. Once within this alignment, the stone is ready for shock wave treatment; general or regional anesthesia is used to immobilize the patient so that the position of the stone can be maintained within the focus of the shock wave. When the stone is repeatedly subjected to this high-energy force, it begins to disintegrate until fragments of less than 1 mm are left. ESWL can (1) disintegrate kidney stones of all types, (2) be efficiently transmitted over distances that allow the shock wave source to be outside the body, (3) safely pass through living tissue, and (4) be precisely controlled and focused into a small target area. ESWL is a safe, effective, and cost-saving treatment that can be used for 90% of all kidney stone disease that previously required surgery.
Shock waves and Birkhoff's theorem in Lovelock gravity
Gravanis, E.
2010-11-15
Spherically symmetric shock waves are shown to exist in Lovelock gravity. They amount to a change of branch of the spherically symmetric solutions across a null hypersurface. The implications of their existence for the status of Birkhoff's theorem in the theory is discussed.
Internal structure of shock waves in disparate mass mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Chan-Hong; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Jeng, Duen-Ren; Penko, Paul F.
1992-01-01
The detailed flow structure of a normal shock wave for a gas mixture is investigated using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo method. A variable diameter hard-sphere (VDHS) model is employed to investigate the effect of different viscosity temperature exponents (VTE) for each species in a gas mixture. Special attention is paid to the irregular behavior in the density profiles which was previously observed in a helium-xenon experiment. It is shown that the VTE can have substantial effects in the prediction of the structure of shock waves. The variable hard-sphere model of Bird shows good agreement, but with some limitations, with the experimental data if a common VTE is chosen properly for each case. The VDHS model shows better agreement with the experimental data without adjusting the VTE. The irregular behavior of the light-gas component in shock waves of disparate mass mixtures is observed not only in the density profile, but also in the parallel temperature profile. The strength of the shock wave, the type of molecular interactions, and the mole fraction of heavy species have substantial effects on the existence and structure of the irregularities.
Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.
2004-01-01
Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.
Prognostic factors of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for tendinopathies.
Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Fiore, A; Margiotta, C; Pesce, V; Moretti, B
2016-04-01
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is very widely used for the management of tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis. The aim of the study is to determine whether there are prognostic factors that may influence the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for these diseases. Three hundred fifty-five patients were analyzed 2 months after shock wave treatment for rotator cuff tendinitis, epicondylitis, Achilles tendinopathy, trocanteritis, jumper's knee or plantar fasciitis. We recorded the epidemiological, clinical and treatment protocol, and these data were correlated with treatment outcome. Clinical improvement was achieved in 45.9 % of these patients. We discovered that laterality different to the dominant limb (p < 0.0001) and repeated shock wave treatments (p = 0.004) are prognostic factors in an unsuccessful therapy, while being male (p = 0.015) and a high body mass index (p = 0.004) are factors for success. We found no differences in relation to age, diet, blood type, work or sport activity, presence of co-morbidities, drugs, type of tendinopathy, density of energy delivered and other physiotherapy treatment. Knowledge of these prognostic factors may lead to improved insight for physicians and physiotherapists to predict the extent of the recovery and adjust rehabilitation and patient expectations accordingly.
Numerical computations of turbulence amplification in shock wave interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Bushnell, D. M.
1983-01-01
Numerical computations are presented which illustrate and test various effects pertinent to the amplification and generation of turbulence in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions. Several fundamental physical mechanisms are identified. Idealizations of these processes are examined by nonlinear numerical calculations. The results enable some limits to be placed on the range of validity of existing linear theories.
Treatment of Renal Calculi with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Eberwein, P. M.; Denstedt, J. D.
1992-01-01
In 12 years, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has replaced other treatment techniques for most surgical calculi in the upper urinary tract. Worldwide clinical series have documented its efficacy. Technological advances and modifications have significantly expanded the clinical applications of this technique. Imagesp1673-aFigure 3 PMID:21221368
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... Section 876.5990 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney..., control console, imaging/localization system, and patient table. Prior to treatment, the urinary stone...
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... Section 876.5990 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... focuses ultrasonic shock waves into the body to noninvasively fragment urinary calculi within the kidney..., control console, imaging/localization system, and patient table. Prior to treatment, the urinary stone...
Internal structure of shock waves in disparate mass mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Chan-Hong; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Jeng, Duen-Ren; Penko, Paul F.
1992-01-01
The detailed flow structure of a normal shock wave for a gas mixture is investigated using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo method. A variable diameter hard-sphere (VDHS) model is employed to investigate the effect of different viscosity temperature exponents (VTE) for each species in a gas mixture. Special attention is paid to the irregular behavior in the density profiles which was previously observed in a helium-xenon experiment. It is shown that the VTE can have substantial effects in the prediction of the structure of shock waves. The variable hard-sphere model of Bird shows good agreement, but with some limitations, with the experimental data if a common VTE is chosen properly for each case. The VDHS model shows better agreement with the experimental data without adjusting the VTE. The irregular behavior of the light-gas component in shock waves of disparate mass mixtures is observed not only in the density profile, but also in the parallel temperature profile. The strength of the shock wave, the type of molecular interactions, and the mole fraction of heavy species have substantial effects on the existence and structure of the irregularities.
Treatment of chronic plantar fasciopathy with extracorporeal shock waves (review)
2013-01-01
There is an increasing interest by doctors and patients in extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for chronic plantar fasciopathy (PF), particularly in second generation radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (RSWT). The present review aims at serving this interest by providing a comprehensive overview on physical and medical definitions of shock waves and a detailed assessment of the quality and significance of the randomized clinical trials published on ESWT and RSWT as it is used to treat chronic PF. Both ESWT and RSWT are safe, effective, and technically easy treatments for chronic PF. The main advantages of RSWT over ESWT are the lack of need for any anesthesia during the treatment and the demonstrated long-term treatment success (demonstrated at both 6 and 12 months after the first treatment using RSWT, compared to follow-up intervals of no more than 12 weeks after the first treatment using ESWT). In recent years, a greater understanding of the clinical outcomes in ESWT and RSWT for chronic PF has arisen in relationship not only in the design of studies, but also in procedure, energy level, and shock wave propagation. Either procedure should be considered for patients 18 years of age or older with chronic PF prior to surgical intervention. PMID:24004715
Yang, Ming-Yu; Chiang, Yuan-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chien-Chang; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Wang, Ching-Jen; Kuo, Yur-Ren
2014-01-01
Previous studies have demonstrated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a significant positive effect on accelerating diabetic wound healing. However, the systemic effect after therapy is still unclear. This study investigated the plasma protein expression in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group and diabetic controls using proteomic study. A dorsal skin defect (6 × 5 cm) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rat model was used. Diabetic rats receiving either no therapy or extracorporeal shock wave therapy after wounding were analyzed. The spots of interest were subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to elucidate the peptide mass fingerprints. The mass spectrometric characteristics of the identified proteins, including their theoretical isoelectric points, molecular weights, sequence coverage, and Mascot score, were analyzed. Protein expression was validated using immunohistochemical analysis of topical periwounding tissues. The proteomic study revealed that at days 3 and 10 after therapy rats had significantly higher abundance of haptoglobin and significantly lower levels of the vitamin D-binding protein precursor as compared with the diabetic controls. Immunohistochemical staining of topical periwounding tissue also revealed significant upregulation of haptoglobin and downregulation of vitamin D-binding protein expression in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group, which was consistent with the systemic proteome study. Proteome analyses demonstrated an upregulation of haptoglobin and a downregulation of vitamin D-binding protein in extracorporeal shock wave therapy-enhanced diabetic wound healing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortov, Vladimir E.
2007-04-01
The physical properties of hot dense matter over a broad domain of the phase diagram are of immediate interest in astrophysics, planetary physics, power engineering, controlled thermonuclear fusion, impulse technologies, enginery, and several special applications. The use of intense shock waves in dynamic physics and high-pressure chemistry has made the exotic high-energy-density states of matter a subject of laboratory experiments and enabled advancing by many orders of magnitude along the pressure scale to range into the megabars and even gigabars. The present report reviews the latest experimental research involving shock waves in nonideal plasmas under conditions of strong collective interparticle interaction. The results of investigations into the thermodynamic, transport, and optical properties of strongly compressed hot matter, as well as into its composition and conductivity, are discussed. Experimental techniques for high energy density cumulation, the drivers of intense shock waves, and methods for the fast diagnostics of high-energy plasma are considered. Also discussed are compression-stimulated physical effects: pressure-induced ionization, plasma phase transitions, the deformation of bound states, plasma blooming ('transparentization' of plasma), etc. Suggestions for future research are put forward.
Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.
2015-01-01
Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities 200 km s(exp -1) for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of approximately 2 compared to those of Jones et al. (1996), who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of approximately 3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of approximately 2-3 Gyr. These increases, while not able resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step towards understanding the origin, and evolution of dust in the ISM.
Regularized Moment Equations and Shock Waves for Rarefied Granular Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob
2016-11-01
It is well-known that the shock structures predicted by extended hydrodynamic models are more accurate than the standard Navier-Stokes model in the rarefied regime, but they fail to predict continuous shock structures when the Mach number exceeds a critical value. Regularization or parabolization is one method to obtain smooth shock profiles at all Mach numbers. Following a Chapman-Enskog-like method, we have derived the "regularized" version 10-moment equations ("R10" moment equations) for inelastic hard-spheres. In order to show the advantage of R10 moment equations over standard 10-moment equations, the R10 moment equations have been employed to solve the Riemann problem of plane shock waves for both molecular and granular gases. The numerical results are compared between the 10-moment and R10-moment models and it is found that the 10-moment model fails to produce continuous shock structures beyond an upstream Mach number of 1 . 34 , while the R10-moment model predicts smooth shock profiles beyond the upstream Mach number of 1 . 34 . The density and granular temperature profiles are found to be asymmetric, with their maxima occurring within the shock-layer.
Alinejad, H.; Tribeche, M.
2010-12-15
A weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to investigate the properties of dust ion-acoustic shock waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with vortexlike electron distribution. We use the ionization model, hot ions with equilibrium streaming speed and a trapped electron charging current derived from the well-known orbit limited motion theory. A new modified Burger equation is derived. Besides nonlinear trapping, this equation involves two kinds of dissipation (the anomalous one inherent to nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and the one due to the particle loss and ionization). These two kinds of dissipation can act concurrently. The traveling wave solution has been acquired by employing the modified extended tanh-function method. The shocklike solution is numerically analyzed based on the typical numerical data from laboratory dusty plasma devices. It is found that ion temperature, trapped particles, and weak dissipations significantly modify the shock structures.
Shock Wave Structure in the Presence of Energetic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostafavi, Parisa; Zank, Gary P.; Webb, Gary M.
2017-09-01
Energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions (PUIs), anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs)) can modify the structure of collisionless shock waves. This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM) where observations of shock waves in the e.g., the inner heliosphere show that the energetic particle component pressure is greater than the both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure (Lario et al., 2015). Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model (Axford et al., (1982)), we note that the presence of viscosity at least formally eliminates the need of a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the heliospheric termination shock (HTS), we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1. We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.
Comparison of geometrical shock dynamics and kinematic models for shock-wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridoux, J.; Lardjane, N.; Monasse, L.; Coulouvrat, F.
2017-09-01
Geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) is a simplified model for nonlinear shock-wave propagation, based on the decomposition of the shock front into elementary ray tubes. Assuming small changes in the ray tube area, and neglecting the effect of the post-shock flow, a simple relation linking the local curvature and velocity of the front, known as the A{-}M rule, is obtained. More recently, a new simplified model, referred to as the kinematic model, was proposed. This model is obtained by combining the three-dimensional Euler equations and the Rankine-Hugoniot relations at the front, which leads to an equation for the normal variation of the shock Mach number at the wave front. In the same way as GSD, the kinematic model is closed by neglecting the post-shock flow effects. Although each model's approach is different, we prove their structural equivalence: the kinematic model can be rewritten under the form of GSD with a specific A{-}M relation. Both models are then compared through a wide variety of examples including experimental data or Eulerian simulation results when available. Attention is drawn to the simple cases of compression ramps and diffraction over convex corners. The analysis is completed by the more complex cases of the diffraction over a cylinder, a sphere, a mound, and a trough.
Shock wave properties of anorthosite and gabbro
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.
1984-01-01
Hugoniot data on San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbro to 11 GPA are presented. Release paths in the stress-density plane and sound velocities are reported as determined from particl velocity data. Electrical interference effects precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the gabbro. Because of the loss of shear strength in the shocked state, the plastic behavior exhibited by anorthosite indicates that calculations of energy partitioning due to impact onto planetary surfaces based on elastic-plastic models may underestimate the amount of internal energy deposited in the impacted surface material.
Optical emission from a fast shock wave - The remnants of Tycho's supernova and SN 1006
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chevalier, R. A.; Raymond, J. C.
1978-01-01
The faint optical filaments in Tycho's supernova remnant appear to be emission from a shock front moving at 5600 km/s. The intensity of the hydrogen lines, the absence of forbidden lines of heavy elements in the spectrum, and the width of the filaments are explained by a model in which a collisionless shock wave is moving into partially neutral gas. The presence of the neutral gas can be used to set an upper limit of approximately 5 x 10 to the 47th power ergs to the energy in ionizing radiation emitted by a Type I supernova. The patchy neutral gas is probably part of the warm neutral component of the interstellar medium. The existing information on the remnant of SN 1006 indicates that its emission is similar in nature to that from Tycho's remnant.
Incoherent shock waves in long-range optical turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, G.; Garnier, J.; Faccio, D.; Trillo, S.; Picozzi, A.
2016-10-01
Considering the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation as a representative model, we report a unified presentation of different forms of incoherent shock waves that emerge in the long-range interaction regime of a turbulent optical wave system. These incoherent singularities can develop either in the temporal domain through a highly noninstantaneous nonlinear response, or in the spatial domain through a highly nonlocal nonlinearity. In the temporal domain, genuine dispersive shock waves (DSW) develop in the spectral dynamics of the random waves, despite the fact that the causality condition inherent to the response function breaks the Hamiltonian structure of the NLS equation. Such spectral incoherent DSWs are described in detail by a family of singular integro-differential kinetic equations, e.g. Benjamin-Ono equation, which are derived from a nonequilibrium kinetic formulation based on the weak Langmuir turbulence equation. In the spatial domain, the system is shown to exhibit a large scale global collective behavior, so that it is the fluctuating field as a whole that develops a singularity, which is inherently an incoherent object made of random waves. Despite the Hamiltonian structure of the NLS equation, the regularization of such a collective incoherent shock does not require the formation of a DSW - the regularization is shown to occur by means of a different process of coherence degradation at the shock point. We show that the collective incoherent shock is responsible for an original mechanism of spontaneous nucleation of a phase-space hole in the spectrogram dynamics. The robustness of such a phase-space hole is interpreted in the light of incoherent dark soliton states, whose different exact solutions are derived in the framework of the long-range Vlasov formalism.
Influence of Shock Wave on Turbulence in SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Li, Xingwen; Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Lijun
2010-02-01
Influence of the shock wave on the turbulence in a supersonic nozzle was investigated for a SF6 puffer circuit breaker interruption process. Turbulence is enlarged through the shock wave. Baroclinic generation of vortex causes flow separation and broadening of the arc cross section. V-I characteristics are slightly modified due to the shock wave's influence.
The role of plasma wave turbulence in the formation of shock waves in collisionless plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellott, M. M.
1987-01-01
A data set containing measurements for approximately 100 shock crossings was compiled, and plasma wave profiles were plotted in conjunction with magnetic field data. Three emissions analyzed include upstream electron plasma oscillations, ion acoustic noise, and low frequency electromagnetic noise. The data demonstrate that the observed waves are consistent with generation by the kinetic cross-field streaming instability. Reanalysis of shock overshoots prompted by the presence of plasma feet upstream of nominally subcritical shocks leads to the conclusion that no firm evidence exists for a sharp subcritical supercritical transition. Electron plasma oscillations persist up to the ramps of subcritical shocks and begin decaying at the front edge of the feet of supercritical shocks. Their intensity is anticorrelated with the amplitude of the foot ion acoustic noise. Wave measurements support the predicted predominance of lower hybrid-like modes over ion acoustic noise in the production of resistive (plasma) heating. Evidence for variable shock normal angles is seen upstream from nominally quasiparallel shocks. The first cases of very strong electron heating observed at the terrestrial bow shock were discovered.
A study of the liquefaction shock wave structure
Saltz, D.; Guelen, S.C.
1996-05-01
The system of shock wave-induced vapor condensation in fluids of large heat capacity has been investigated theoretically. The wave structure is governed by differences in the time scales associated with various relaxation mechanisms and their coupling to the macroscopic flow. In the low to moderate Mach number range, the viscous and heat-conducting forces are localized within a discontinuous forerunner wave, while the slower nucleation and droplet growth processes are resolved inside a trailing condensation wave. A time-dependent analysis of the fluid motion is required because the phase transition can occur too slowly for the system to reach a steady state on the laboratory time scale. In the high Mach number regime, a steady-state motion is rapidly attained, but the analysis requires a simultaneous treatment of nucleation, viscosity, and heat conduction. It appears that instability mechanisms similar to the ones found in ZND detonation waves are responsible for the shock-front irregularities observed in high Mach-number flows. Based on the rapidity of the supersaturating shock compression and the time delay of nucleation, it is anticipated that metastable states near the vapor spinodal are attainable, especially at high temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
A study of the liquefaction shock wave structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saltz, D.; Gülen, S. C.
1996-05-01
The system of shock wave-induced vapor condensation in fluids of large heat capacity has been investigated theoretically. The wave structure is governed by differences in the time scales associated with various relaxation mechanisms and their coupling to the macroscopic flow. In the low to moderate Mach number range, the viscous and heat-conducting forces are localized within a discontinuous forerunner wave, while the slower nucleation and droplet growth processes are resolved inside a trailing condensation wave. A time-dependent analysis of the fluid motion is required because the phase transition can occur too slowly for the system to reach a steady state on the laboratory time scale. In the high Mach number regime, a steady-state motion is rapidly attained, but the analysis requires a simultaneous treatment of nucleation, viscosity, and heat conduction. It appears that instability mechanisms similar to the ones found in ZND detonation waves are responsible for the shock-front irregularities observed in high Mach-number flows. Based on the rapidity of the supersaturating shock compression and the time delay of nucleation, it is anticipated that metastable states near the vapor spinodal are attainable, especially at high temperatures.
Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma
Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2015-10-15
The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.
Energetic Particle Transport in Strong Compressive Wave Turbulence Near Shocks
Le Roux, J.A.; Zank, G.P.; Li, G.; Webb, G.M.
2005-08-01
Strong interplanetary coronal mass ejection driven shocks are often accompanied by high levels of low frequency compressive wave turbulence. This might require a non-linear kinetic theory approach to properly describe energetic particle transport in their vicinity. We present a non-linear diffusive kinetic theory for suprathermal particle transport and stochastic acceleration along the background magnetic field in strong compressive dynamic wave turbulence to which small-scale Alfven waves are coupled. Our theory shows that the standard cosmic-ray transport equation must be revised for low suprathermal particle energies to accommodate fundamental changes in spatial diffusion (standard diffusion becomes turbulent diffusion) as well as modifications to particle convection, and adiabatic energy changes. In addition, a momentum diffusion term, which generates accelerated suprathermal particle spectra with a hard power law, must be added. Such effective first stage acceleration possibly leads to efficient injection of particles into second stage diffusive shock acceleration as described by standard theory.
Peculiarities of evolution of shock waves generated by boiling coolant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, M. V.; Vozhakov, I. S.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.
2016-11-01
Simulation of compression wave generation and evolution at the disk target was performed for the case of explosive-type boiling of coolant; the boiling is initiated by endwall rupture of a high-pressure pipeline. The calculations were performed for shock wave amplitude at different times and modes of pipe rupture. The simulated pressure of a target-reflected shock wave is different from the theoretical value for ideal gas; this discrepancy between simulation and theory becomes lower at higher distances of flow from the nozzle exit. Comparative simulation study was performed for flow of two-phase coolant with account for slip flow effect and for different sizes of droplets. Simulation gave the limiting droplet size when the single-velocity homogeneous flow model is valid, i.e., the slip flow effect is insignificant.
Plasmonic shock waves and solitons in a nanoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koshelev, K. L.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.; Titov, M.; Shur, M. S.
2017-01-01
We apply the hydrodynamic theory of electron liquid to demonstrate that a circularly polarized radiation induces the diamagnetic, helicity-sensitive dc current in a ballistic nanoring. This current is dramatically enhanced in the vicinity of plasmonic resonances. The resulting magnetic moment of the nanoring represents a giant increase of the inverse Faraday effect. With increasing radiation intensity, linear plasmonic excitations evolve into the strongly nonlinear plasma shock waves. These excitations produce a series of the well-resolved peaks at the THz frequencies. We demonstrate that the plasmonic wave dispersion transforms the shock waves into solitons. The predicted effects should enable multiple applications in a wide frequency range (from the microwave to terahertz band) using optically controlled ultralow-loss electric, photonic, and magnetic devices.
Linear problem of the shock wave disturbance in a non-classical case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenko, Evgeny V.
2017-06-01
A linear problem of the shock wave disturbance for a special (non-classical) case, where both pre-shock and post-shock flows are subsonic, is considered. The phase transition for the van der Waals gas is an example of this problem. Isentropic solutions are constructed. In addition, the stability of the problem is investigated and the known result is approved: the only neutral stability case occurs here. A strictly algebraic representation of the solution in the plane of the Fourier transform is obtained. This representation allows the solution to be studied both analytically and numerically. In this way, any solution can be decomposed into a sum of acoustic and vorticity waves and into a sum of initial (generated by initial perturbations), transmitted (through the shock) and reflected (from the shock) waves. Thus, the wave incidence/refraction/reflection is investigated. A principal difference of the refraction/reflection from the classical case is found, namely, the waves generated by initial pre-shock perturbations not only pass through the shock (i.e., generate post-shock transmitted waves) but also are reflected from it (i.e., generate pre-shock reflected waves). In turn, the waves generated by the initial post-shock perturbation are not only reflected from the shock (generate post-shock reflected waves) but also pass through it (generate pre-shock transmitted waves).
Shock-wave-induced mixing enhancement in scramjet combustors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, S.
1989-01-01
An experimental study of the interaction between a weak shock wave and a supersonic shear layer was carried out to determine the possibility of shock-induced mixing enhancement. A supersonic (Mach 2.5) stream of nitrogen was mixed with a sonic helium jet downstream of a rearward-facing step to simulate the mixing region in the vicinity of a SCRAMJET flameholder. A small wedge was used to generate an oblique shock wave that impinges on the mixing layer. Schlieren flow visualization and Rayleigh scattering concentration measurements were carried out. The results indicate that significant spreading of the shear layer may occur downstream of the shock/shear layer interaction region. Further study is required to determine the mechanism of the observed spreading and the extent of the increase in mixing efficiency. Since there are shock-induced losses, an optimum mixing enhancement configuration will have to be determined before the method can be validated and successfully implemented in a SCRAMJET combustor.
Simulations of Shock Wave Interaction with a Particle Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.'Bala'
2016-11-01
Simulations of a shock wave interacting with a cloud of particles are performed in an attempt to understand similar phenomena observed in dispersal of solid particles under such extreme environment as an explosion. We conduct numerical experiments in which a particle curtain fills only 87% of the shock tube from bottom to top. As such, the particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In this study, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. In these simulations we use a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions of the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the particle curtain with respect to the initial conditions is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Studies of Shock Wave Interactions with Homogeneous and Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Briassulis, G.; Agui, J.; Watkins, C. B.; Andreopoulos, Y.
1998-01-01
A nearly homogeneous nearly isotropic compressible turbulent flow interacting with a normal shock wave has been studied experimentally in a large shock tube facility. Spatial resolution of the order of 8 Kolmogorov viscous length scales was achieved in the measurements of turbulence. A variety of turbulence generating grids provide a wide range of turbulence scales. Integral length scales were found to substantially decrease through the interaction with the shock wave in all investigated cases with flow Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 and shock Mach numbers from 1.2 to 1.6. The outcome of the interaction depends strongly on the state of compressibility of the incoming turbulence. The length scales in the lateral direction are amplified at small Mach numbers and attenuated at large Mach numbers. Even at large Mach numbers amplification of lateral length scales has been observed in the case of fine grids. In addition to the interaction with the shock the present work has documented substantial compressibility effects in the incoming homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow. The decay of Mach number fluctuations was found to follow a power law similar to that describing the decay of incompressible isotropic turbulence. It was found that the decay coefficient and the decay exponent decrease with increasing Mach number while the virtual origin increases with increasing Mach number. A mechanism possibly responsible for these effects appears to be the inherently low growth rate of compressible shear layers emanating from the cylindrical rods of the grid.
Acoustic field of a ballistic shock wave therapy device.
Cleveland, Robin O; Chitnis, Parag V; McClure, Scott R
2007-08-01
Shock wave therapy (SWT) refers to the use of focused shock waves for treatment of musculoskeletal indications including plantar fascitis and dystrophic mineralization of tendons and joint capsules. Measurements were made of a SWT device that uses a ballistic source. The ballistic source consists of a handpiece within which compressed air (1-4 bar) is used to fire a projectile that strikes a metal applicator placed on the skin. The projectile generates stress waves in the applicator that transmit as pressure waves into tissue. The acoustic fields from two applicators were measured: one applicator was 15 mm in diameter and the surface slightly convex and the second was 12 mm in diameter the surface was concave. Measurements were made in a water tank and both applicators generated a similar pressure pulse consisting of a rectangular positive phase (4 micros duration and up to 8 MPa peak pressure) followed by a predominantly negative tail (duration of 20 micros and peak negative pressure of -6 MPa), with many oscillations. The rise times of the waveforms were around 1 micros and were shown to be too long for the pulses to be considered shock waves. Measurements of the field indicated that region of high pressure was restricted to the near-field (20-40 mm) of the source and was consistent with the Rayleigh distance. The measured acoustic field did not display focusing supported by calculations, which demonstrated that the radius of curvature of the concave surface was too large to effect a focusing gain. Other SWT devices use electrohydraulic, electromagnetic and piezoelectric sources that do result in focused shock waves. This difference in the acoustic fields means there is potentially a significant mechanistic difference between a ballistic source and other SWT devices.
Study of a tissue protecting system for clinical applications of underwater shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S. H. R.; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2005-04-01
Applications of underwater shock waves have been extended to various clinical therapies during the past two decades. Besides the successful contribution of extracorporeal shock waves, tissue damage especially to the vasculature has been reported. These side effects are believed to be due to the shock wave-tissue interaction and cavitation. In the present research in order to minimize shock wave induced damage a shock wave attenuating system was designed and studied. The attenuating system consisted of thin gas packed layers immersed in water, which could attenuate more than 90% of shock waves overpressure. Silver azide micro-pellets (10 mg) were ignited by irradiation of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to generate shock waves. Pressure histories were measured with fiber optic probe and PVDF needle hydrophones. The strength of incident shock waves was changed by adjusting the distance between the pellets and the layers. The whole sequences of the shock wave attenuation due to the interaction of shock waves with the dissipating layers were quantitatively visualized by double exposure holographic interferometry and time resolved high speed photography. The attenuated shock had overpressure less than threshold damage of brain tissue evaluated from histological examination of the rat brain treated by shock waves.
Experimental research on dust lifting by propagating shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Żydak, P.; Oleszczak, P.; Klemens, R.
2017-03-01
The aim of the presented work was to study the dust lifting process from a layer of dust behind a propagating shock wave. The experiments were conducted with the use of a shock tube and a specially constructed, five-channel laser optical device enabling measurements at five positions located in one vertical plane along the height of the tube. The system enabled measurements of the delay in lifting up of the dust from the layer, and the vertical velocity of the dust cloud was calculated from the dust concentration measurements. The research was carried out for various initial conditions and for three fractions of black coal dust. In the presented tests, three shock wave velocities: 450, 490 and 518 m/s and three dust layer thicknesses, equal to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm, were taken into consideration. On the grounds of the obtained experimental results, it was assumed that the vertical component of the lifted dust velocity is a function of the dust particle diameter, the velocity of the air flow in the channel, the layer thickness and the dust bulk density. It appeared, however, that lifting up of the dust from the thick layers, thicker than 1 mm, is a more complex process than that from thin layers and still requires further research. A possible explanation is that the shock wave action upon the thick layer results in its aggregation in the first stage of the dispersing process, which suppresses the dust lifting process.
Applications of Shock Wave Research to Developments of Therapeutic Devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2007-06-01
Underwater shock wave research applied to medicine started in 1980 by exploding micro lead azide pellets in water. Collaboration with urologists in the School of Medicine, Tohoku University at the same time was directed to disintegration of kidney stones by controlling shock waves. We initially proposed a miniature truncated ellipsoidal cavity for generating high-pressures enough to disintegrate the stone but gave up the idea, when encountering the Dornie Systems' invention of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Then we confirmed its effectiveness by using 10 mg silver azide pellets and constructed our own lithotripter, which was officially approved for a clinical use in 1987. Tissue damage during ESWL was attributable to bubble collapse and we convinced it could be done in a controlled fashion. In 1996, we used 160 mJ pulsed Ho:YAG laser beam focusing inside a catheter for shock generation and applied it to the revascularization of cerebral embolism, which is recently expanded to the treatment of pulmonary infarction. Micro water jets discharged in air were so effective to dissect soft tissues preserving small blood vessels. Animal experiments are successfully performed with high frequency water jets driven by an actuator-assisted micro-pump. A metal foil is deformed at high speed by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam loading. We used this technique to project micro-particles or dry drugs attached on its reverse side and extended it to a laser ablation assisted dry drug delivery or DNA introductory system.
Iron sound velocities in shock wave experiments
Holmes, N C; Nguyen, J H
1999-08-20
We have performed a series of sound velocity measurements in iron at earth's core pressures. Experiments were carried out at shock pressures as high as 400 GPa, with particular emphasis on the pressure range between 175 GPa and 275 GPa. The measured sound velocities of iron at elevated pressures exhibit a single discontinuity near 250 GPa, corresponding to the vanishing of shear strength as the iron melts. A second discontinuity reported by Brown and McQueen in their previous iron sound velocity studies was not observed in our study. Our results are consistent with their data otherwise. Experimental details and error propagation techniques essential to determining the melting point will also be discussed.
Shock wave structure using nonlinear model Boltzmann equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Segal, Ben Maurice
1971-01-01
The structure of a strong plane shock wave in a monatomic rarefied perfect gas is one of the simplest problems able to be posed in kinetic theory, and one of the hardest to solve. Its simplicity lies in the absence of solid boundaries, geometrical complications, or internal molecular energy. Its difficulty arises from the great departure of the gas from equilibrium within the shock, which invalidates many of the techniques used successfully elsewhere in kinetic theory. In addition to this theoretical challenge, the modern development of ballistics and hypersonic flight has helped to stimulate extensive theoretical and experimental interest in the shock problem. The experimenters in turn have encountered great difficulties on account of the very small physical dimensions of shocks. In fact, until very recently indeed, any close comparisons of theoretical and experimental shock structure results have been rather unprofitable due to the inadequacies of both theory and experiment. During the last few years this situation has been appreciably improved by development of the Monte Carlo method. This allows idealized 'experiments' to be performed on large computers instead of in wind tunnels, using a known intermolecular force law. The most developed of these methods has been shown to be equivalent theoretically to the Boltzmann equation and to give results which agree extremely closely with measurements of high accuracy. Thus Monte Carlo results not only form the soundest basis for our present theoretical knowledge of shock wave structure, but, for purposes of developing other theories, can also be considered a very valuable experimental resource. However, such results remain very expensive to obtain. In this thesis we develop more economical kinetic theory methods for the approximate prediction of shock structure, and compare our results with those of the Monte Carlo method.
Role of Shear and Longitudinal Waves in Stone Comminution by Lithotripter Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Michael R.; Maxwell, Adam D.; MacConaghy, Brian; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Crum, Lawrence A.
2006-05-01
Mechanisms of stone fragmentation by lithotripter shock waves were studied. Numerically, an isotropic-medium, elastic-wave model was employed to isolate and assess the importance of individual mechanisms in stone comminution. Experimentally, cylindrical U-30 cement stones were treated in an HM-3-style research lithotripter. Baffles were used to block specific waves responsible for spallation, squeezing, or shear. Surface cracks were added to stones to simulate the effect of cavitation, and then tested in water and glycerol (a cavitation suppressive medium). The calculated location of maximum stress compared well with the experimental observations of where cracks naturally formed. Shear waves from the shock wave in the fluid traveling along the stone surface (a kind of dynamic squeezing) led to the largest stresses in the cylindrical stones and the fewest shock waves to fracture. Reflection of the longitudinal wave from the back of the stone — spallation — and bubble-jet impact on the proximal and distal faces of the stone produced lower stresses and required more shock waves to fracture stones, but cavitation stresses become comparable in small stone pieces. Surface cracks accelerated fragmentation when created near the location where the maximum stress was predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, A.
Shock viscous stress can be defined as the stress differences between the stress on Rayleigh line and the equilibrium stress at the same strain. The shock viscous stress is one of the important parameters with respect to rising times of elastic and plastic shock wave fronts [1]. Swegle and Grady took the routine program of the shock viscous stress into their one-dimensional finite difference wave code, and they predicted the shock wave rise times occurred in several kind of materials with relatively small stress impacts [2]. Their numerical results seemed to represent the experimental results measured by the velocity interferometer system (VISAR). Strictly speaking, however, their method was not sufficiently accurate because their expression of the shock viscous stress was the stress differences between Rayleigh line and Hugoniot. Recently, we had proposed a new analytical method to get temperature in steady shock wave fronts and the effects were ascertained for a ceramic material and some metals [3-6]. When we derive the temperature in shock wave fronts by our method, we can also get the quasistatic (equilibrium) stresses. Therefore, it is possible to obtain the shock viscous stress analytically. The structured variations in the shock wave rising process are closely related to the dissipative processes in the material, and it is interesting to investigate these structured characteristics.
Multiple scales of shock waves in dissipative laminate materials.
Franco Navarro, Pedro; Benson, David J; Nesterenko, Vitali F
2016-09-01
The shock waves generated by a plate impact are numerically investigated in Al-W laminates with different mesostructures. The main characteristic time scales (and the corresponding spatial scales) related to the formation of the stationary shock are identified: the duration (width) of the leading front, the time (distance) from the impact required to establish a stationary profile, and the shock front width, identified as a time span (distance) from the initial state to the final quasiequilibrium state. It is demonstrated that the width of the leading front and the maximum strain rates are determined by the dispersive and the nonlinear parameters of the laminate and not by the dissipation, as is the case for uniform solids. The characteristic spatial scale of the leading front is related to the spatial scale observed on solitarylike waves, which are satisfactorily described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) approximation, as well as the speed of the wave and the ratio of maximum to final strain. The dissipation affects the width of the transition distance (shock front width) where multiple loading-unloading cycles bring the laminate into the final quasiequilibrium state. This spatial scale is of the same order of magnitude as the distance to form stationary shock wave. The period of fast decaying oscillations is well described by the KdV approach and scales linearly with the cell size. The rate of the decay of the oscillations in the numerical calculations does not scale with the square of the cell size as expected from the dissipative KdV approach that assumes a constant viscosity. This is due to the different mechanisms of dissipation in high-amplitude compression pulses.
Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review
Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2015-01-01
The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed ‘acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics–bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave–bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the ‘resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave–bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead. PMID:26442143
Shock Tube Simulation of Low Mach Number Blast Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, R. G.; Gildfind, D. E.
The underground mining environment has always been high risk due to the presence of solid and gaseous flammables, and the potential for the creation of detonablemixtures. Following explosions in confined spaces, shock waves are generated and may propagate through the tunnel system, causing injuries and possibly initiating further combusting or detonating events. The ability to generate the conditions which exist post shock is a useful experimental tool for the study of such processes, and for the evaluation of techniques to control and limit propagation.
'Thunder' - Shock waves in pre-biological organic synthesis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Nun, A.; Tauber, M. E.
1972-01-01
Theoretical study of the gasdynamics and chemistry of lightning-produced shock waves in a postulated primordial reducing atmosphere. It is shown that the conditions are similar to those encountered in a previously performed shock-tube experiment which resulted in 36% of the ammonia in the original mixture being converted into amino acids. The calculations give the (very large) energy rate of about 0.4 cal/sq cm/yr available for amino acid production, supporting previous hypotheses that 'thunder' could have been responsible for efficient large-scale production of organic molecules serving as precursors of life.