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Sample records for ionizzanti di bologna

  1. The microsatellite research program at Università di Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, P.; Troiani, E.

    2005-04-01

    In the II Faculty of Engineering of the University of Bologna, the Aerospace Group in Forlì has started a new microsatellite research program. The first step consists of the design and setup of an amateur radio ground station, recently installed and implemented in the University laboratories. At the same time, researchers, Ph.D. and graduate students are directly involved in the satellite design. The microsatellite weighs about 20 kg and consists of a cubical prism, 300 mm side, with a modular structure made of six shop-machined Al trays, kept together by eight stainless steel bars. Four Al/Al honeycomb sandwich lateral panels, which are the support structure of glued solar panels, complete the satellite structure. This architecture has been selected in order to have a multi-purpose bus, to be used with minor changes for several missions, accommodating payloads with different volume and power requirements. This paper reports on the current status of the ground station implementation and microsatellite bus design and manufacturing.

  2. [Quality control at the Istituto di Anatomia e Istologia patologica at the Università di Bologna].

    PubMed

    Alampi, G; Baroni, R; Berti, E; Ceccarelli, C; Dina, R; Eusebi, V; Giangaspero, F; Grigioni, F W; Lecce, S; Losi, L

    1994-04-01

    The growing importance in medical practice of a standardized diagnosis in cyto- and histopathology and the recent recommendations for the adoption of standardized schemes for quality control in anatomic pathology by International Committees stimulated the medical staff of the Institute of Anatomic Pathology of the University of Bologna to adopt a pertinent method. The method used by the Department of Pathology of the Yale University (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) was chosen. A Committee for the quality control was appointed and two kinds of controls were set up: an External Quality Assessment (review of the difficult cases by external experts, slide seminars) and an Internal Quality Assessment performed by the members of the Committee on the diagnostic and laboratory routine of the Institute. Such a survey is periodically monitored during the monthly meetings of the Committee and described in the monthly reports. The present paper illustrates the method adopted and the preliminary results obtained in order to stimulate the discussion of such a critical theme in contemporary Anatomic Pathology at a national level.

  3. Physical Science in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, Giorgio; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2013-03-01

    We provide a guide to Bologna, Italy, focusing particularly on sites of interest to physicists. Our first tour is in the city center; it begins in the Piazza Maggiore at the Palazzo d'Accursio, the Basilica di San Petronio, and the Archiginnasio (Old University) and then proceeds to the Two Towers and the Palazzo Poggi, which houses the Astronomical Observatory Museum and other important instrument and art collections; it concludes at the Physics Museum, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Our second tour again begins in the Piazza Maggiore but goes to sites beyond the city center where famous Bolognese physicists and other scientists were born, lived, and are buried. Finally, we point out important museums and other institutions on the outskirts of Bologna.

  4. Humboldt Meets Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsena, Svein

    2010-01-01

    The compatibility between the Humboldtian principles and the Bologna reform programme is essentially contested. The article traces debates on the Humboldtian university and the Bologna process and explores theoretical, methodological and normative aspects of these debates and the relations between the Bologna process and the Humboldtian ideals.…

  5. Microbiology of Lebanon Bologna

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James L.; Palumbo, Samuel A.

    1973-01-01

    Various aspects of the microbiology of the Lebanon bologna process were studied. Manufacture of Lebanon bologna appeared to be similar to that of summer sausage and other fermented sausages and consisted of a lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli accompanied by the production of cured meat color from the reduction of nitrate by micrococci. The traditional process consists of aging coarse ground beef at 5 C for several days. Aging the beef for about 10 days was necessary to allow development of lactic acid bacteria; for successful fermentation, the concentration of lactic acid producers must be 104/g or more. At least 3% NaCl was necessary to suppress the development of pseudomonads during the aging period; higher concentrations of salt suppress the development of the lactic acid-producing flora. During aging, in the presence of salt, the predominant flora developing on the meat consisted of catalase-positive, gram-positive rods and cocci; during fermentation at 35 C, the predominant flora became catalase-negative, gram-positive rods with characteristics of lactobacilli. Lebanon bologna could be made from frozen beef if the meat was thawed, salted, and aged. However, bolognas could not be made from unaged beef unless a lactic acid starter culture was used. The microflora of several commercial bolognas is reported also. PMID:4796166

  6. Equity of the Bologna System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jung-Eun

    2008-01-01

    Since 29 European ministers of higher education announced the Bologna declaration in 1999, the Bologna reform has spread to all parts of Europe. The number of participating countries has grown to 46. In other words, most European countries have joined the Bologna process, which is to form a "European higher education area" (EHEA) by…

  7. A bunch of Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padman, Rachel

    2009-08-01

    As your news story "Europe's education experiment" (June pp12-13) reported, the UK government may well view the country as now being compliant with the Bologna process, which aims to create a common European higher-education system. This is because the government persuaded the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) to agree that Bologna recognition should be based on learning outcomes, and then it established the (UK) Framework for Higher Education Qualifications, which purports to demonstrate this compliance. The argument is fundamentally that students in England can accomplish in four (short) years what in other systems requires five (long) ones.

  8. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  9. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  10. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  11. Epidemiology and the Bologna Saga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Alberto; Magalhaes, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the driving forces behind the Bologna process, its advantages and possible negative effects. It also analyses the dangers that may result in commoditisation of the European higher education systems, in emergence of rigid accreditation systems and of a centralised bureaucracy that will impair innovation and creativity. The…

  12. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  13. Higher Education and the Bologna Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senashenko, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bologna transformations. The Bologna transformations represent a phenomenon that is strictly European, and they are supposed to result in solutions to a number of chiefly economic problems that confront the leading countries of Central Europe. The author discusses the positive and negative consequences of Russia's…

  14. The Bologna Process: The Spiritual Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sazonova, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Europe, the cradle of university education and university science, has come out with an initiative to organize the diversity of higher education in the countries of Europe into a unified, interconnected educational space. One result of this initiative has been the formation and development of the Bologna movement. The Bologna Process has resulted…

  15. Bologna, the Netherlands and Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Mackenzie Owen, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of the department of Information Studies at the Universiteit van Amsterdam over the years and especially the impact of the Bologna Agreement on the content and educational form of the curriculum. It includes both outlines of the programmes as well as reflection on the educational methods. The accreditation…

  16. The Bologna Process: 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motova, Galina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic documents adopted by the ministers of education of the country participants in the Bologna Process at their latest meeting in Yerevan, Armenia. It identifies the problems and challenges facing national education systems during the present stage of development, and explores the priorities and obligations of these…

  17. The Bologna Process: 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motova, Galina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic documents adopted by the ministers of education of the country participants in the Bologna Process at their latest meeting in Yerevan, Armenia. It identifies the problems and challenges facing national education systems during the present stage of development, and explores the priorities and obligations of these…

  18. Bologna, the Netherlands and Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Mackenzie Owen, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of the department of Information Studies at the Universiteit van Amsterdam over the years and especially the impact of the Bologna Agreement on the content and educational form of the curriculum. It includes both outlines of the programmes as well as reflection on the educational methods. The accreditation…

  19. The Bologna Process: Opinions and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Marina Nikolaevna; Solomennikov, Vladimir Sergeevich

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss the need to balance the unique history of Russian higher education, preserving and developing those areas in which the country has traditionally excelled and competed successfully at the international level, with the country's signatory acceptance of the Bologna Agreement for European educational integration. While apprehensive…

  20. The Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha; Kantola, Mauri

    2006-01-01

    This study identifies the responsibilities of the bodies and institutions involved in the implementation of the Bologna Process. They include the levels of Europe, nations, higher education institutions, departments, degree programmes, teachers and students. The future planning is analysed using the Balanced Scorecard approach designed for the…

  1. The Bologna Process and medical education.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Leif

    2004-11-01

    The Bologna Process designates the ongoing activities whereby the Ministers responsible for Higher Education in Europe attempt to change and harmonize fundamental aspects of all higher education in the many countries involved. This grand scheme is gaining momentum. The number of participating countries is increasing, more aspects of higher education are included and the number of activities and projects is growing. Medical education has so far been neglected in the process and awareness of the development at medical schools has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Bologna Process, its background, objectives and main activities and to draw attention to some of the challenges medical education will probably have to face in the near future such as a structure based on two main cycles, undergraduate and graduate, a system of easily readable and comparable degrees and European cooperation in quality assurance including a system of accreditation, certification or comparable procedures. The position of medical education towards the Bologna Process is essential.

  2. Teacher Perceptions of Bologna Reforms in Armenian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; Van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The perceptions of the implementation of the Bologna reforms in Armenian higher education were examined in a questionnaire study with 279 university teachers, revealing how eight leading higher education institutions have adapted to the political directive to create alignment with the Bologna principles. The literature on educational change is…

  3. The Bologna Accord: A Model of Cooperation and Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ross H.; Dunn, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of transformation of higher education in Europe in response to the 1999 Bologna Accord. The "action lines" of the Bologna Process are described with particular attention to their influence on higher education in other countries, including the United States. The changes in Europe and the "external…

  4. The Bologna Accord: A Model of Cooperation and Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ross H.; Dunn, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of transformation of higher education in Europe in response to the 1999 Bologna Accord. The "action lines" of the Bologna Process are described with particular attention to their influence on higher education in other countries, including the United States. The changes in Europe and the "external…

  5. Re-Contextualization of the Bologna Process in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Zelvys, Rimantas; Zenkiene, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the implementation of selected Bologna action lines in Lithuanian higher education institutions (HEIs). The study is carried out from an organizational perspective on national re-contextualization, drawing upon sociological institutionalism. The Bologna process is likely to be normatively accepted by institutions in the context…

  6. National Evaluation of Bologna Implementation in Finland: Procedures and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Finland has performed, as one of the first Bologna countries, a national evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of the Bologna process. The evaluation was organized by the Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council and performed by an independent expert group during 2010. In general, the reform was conceived as a significant development…

  7. Finnish Higher Education Policy and the Ongoing Bologna Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari; Mesikammen, Jani

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bologna Process (a European-wide project to create a European Higher Education Area and harmonize degree structures), examining how educational policy has reached a stage for considering a European Higher Education Area that examines concepts of harmonization and the Bologna Process. Discusses future scenarios, highlighting why…

  8. The "Bologna-München" Tandem--Experiencing Interculturality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Martino, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the "Bologna-München" Tandem, a cross-border collaboration which began in 2011. The aim of the collaboration is to give students studying Italian at the Ludwig- Maximilians-University in Munich and students studying German at the University of Bologna the opportunity to experience interculturality through…

  9. Re-Contextualization of the Bologna Process in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Zelvys, Rimantas; Zenkiene, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the implementation of selected Bologna action lines in Lithuanian higher education institutions (HEIs). The study is carried out from an organizational perspective on national re-contextualization, drawing upon sociological institutionalism. The Bologna process is likely to be normatively accepted by institutions in the context…

  10. The Interpretation and Implementation of the Bologna Process in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despotovic, Miomir

    2011-01-01

    This paper neither attacks nor defends the Bologna Declaration; rather, it attempts a critical assessment of its implementation in Serbia. Review of the available data shows that the higher education system in Serbia is inefficient and in profound need of reform. Analysis of some of the reform processes shows that the Bologna Declaration as a…

  11. The Bologna Historical Archives on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peperoni, Laura; Zuccoli, Marina

    The historical archives of the Department of Astronomy of Bologna collect papers from 1696 to 1958. The documents refer to the scientific activity of local astronomers, including letters, drawings, projects and manuscripts of their works. Our article describes the re-organization of the archives and its inventory, together with the project of availability on the Web. In fact, since the archives are often attended by foreign scholars, due to the wide-range relationships of the Bolognese astronomers throughout times, the best solution for an electronic availability seems to be the Internet. The project includes both string queries and sequence approach to the archives, together with hypertext links to the local museum and some iconography.

  12. CosmoBolognaLib: C++ libraries for cosmological calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, F.; Veropalumbo, A.; Moresco, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the CosmoBolognaLib, a large set of Open Source C++ numerical libraries for cosmological calculations. CosmoBolognaLib is a living project aimed at defining a common numerical environment for cosmological investigations of the large-scale structure of the Universe. In particular, one of the primary focuses of this software is to help in handling astronomical catalogues, both real and simulated, measuring one-point, two-point and three-point statistics in configuration space, and performing cosmological analyses. In this paper, we discuss the main features of this software, providing an overview of all the available C++ classes implemented up to now. Both the CosmoBolognaLib and their associated doxygen documentation can be freely downloaded at https://github.com/federicomarulli/CosmoBolognaLib. We provide also some examples to explain how these libraries can be included in either C++ or Python codes.

  13. [Syphilis in sixteenth-century in Bologna. Health care and social assistance (Part one)].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, S

    2006-03-01

    Syphilis arrived in Bologna in the summer of 1495, after Fornovo's battle on the Taro where Charles VIII's army, following the invasion of Naples, fought against the anti-French league who faced up to the invaders as they withdrew. It was the battle-weary Bolognesi, prisoners, deserters and probably some prostitutes following the French and mercenary army who introduced the infection into the city. At the beginning of the syphilis epidemic, the disease was very aggressive with particularly visible symptoms and many resulting deaths. Subsequently, contemporaries mention an abatement of this aggressivity in time spans that varied, but in no cases exceeded 60 years. In 1507 Bologna lost its political autonomy, becoming dependent on Rome. This was symptomatic of the upheavals throughout Italy in the sixteenth century. In this situation of economic and institutional crisis the Bolognesi were able to react with decision to the epidemic, re-converting the municipal hospital dedicated to S. Maria dei Guarini during the sixteenth century. This hospital, specializing in treating syphilis, was called "Ospedale di San Giobbe". It was closed in 1798, after the entry of the French army into Bologna. In 1560 the Bolognesi, realising that the most important causes of the spread of syphilis were social degradation, prostitution and poverty, founded another institution for the poor and for the prevention of prostitution. This institution was developed by the Opera dei Mendicanti and provided hospitality during the 1590 famine, in a city of 55,000 inhabitants, for as many as 1400 poor and sick. We also present the cure (guaiac and mercury) that they used at the time against syphilis. In such a difficult historical period beset with political and economic problems, the Bolognesi established two important institutions and showed that social solidarity is a value for the whole population.

  14. [Syphilis in sixteenth-century in Bologna. Health care and social assistance (part two)].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, S

    2006-06-01

    Syphilis arrived in Bologna in the summer of 1495, after Fornovo's battle on the Taro where Charles VIII's army, following the invasion of Naples, fought against the anti-French league who faced up to the invaders as they withdrew. It was the battle-weary Bolognesi, prisoners, deserters and probably some prostitutes following the French and mercenary army who introduced the infection into the city. At the beginning of the syphilis epidemic, the disease was very aggressive with particularly visible symptoms and many resulting deaths. Subsequently, contemporaries mention an abatement of this aggressivity in time spans that varied, but in no cases exceeded 60 years. In 1507 Bologna lost its political autonomy, becoming dependent on Rome. This was symptomatic of the upheavals throughout Italy in the sixteenth century. In this situation of economic and institutional crisis the Bolognesi were able to react with decision to the epidemic, re-converting the municipal hospital dedicated to S. Maria dei Guarini during the sixteenth century. This hospital, specializing in treating syphilis, was called "Ospedale di San Giobbe". It was closed in 1798, after the entry of the French army into Bologna. In 1560 the Bolognesi, realising that the most important causes of the spread of syphilis were social degradation, prostitution and poverty, founded another institution for the poor and for the prevention of prostitution. This institution was developed by the Opera dei Mendicanti and provided hospitality during the 1590 famine, in a city of 55,000 inhabitants, for as many as 1400 poor and sick. We also present the cure (guaiac and mercury) that they used at the time against syphilis. In such a difficult historical period beset with political and economic problems, the Bolognesi established two important institutions and showed that social solidarity is a value for the whole population.

  15. Phenological trends in Northern Italy (Bologna)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puppi, G.; Zanotti, A. L.

    2009-04-01

    Phenological behaviour of some common woody species have been recorded during about 3 decades (1975-2008) in the city centre of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy) and in several hillside stations in the neighbourhood of the town. The dates of start and full flowering have been analysed in relation with time and temperature changes. Both winter (hazel) and spring flowerings (ash tree and chestnut tree) show slight negative trends (an advance of 2-4 days per decade) along the period. In the last 40 years of the 20th century, in Emilia-Romagna region, the winter and spring temperatures have shown an increase of 0,2- 0,4°C per decade (Tomozeiu et al. 2006, Clim. Res. 31) and a further increase of about 0,2- 0,3°C per decade has been predicted, by means of a downscaling technique, in the 21th century (Tomozeiu el al. 2007, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 90). Since the flowering days of the observed species show significant correlations with the mean temperature of the preceding months (3-5 days of earlier start per degree of increasing temperature), in the future earlier flowerings can be expected to occur.

  16. Bologna Process between Prague and Berlin. Report to the Ministers of Education of the Signatory Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgaga, Pavel

    In Bologna, Italy, in 1999 a declaration was signed that spelled out the beginnings of a common European Higher Education Area. At a summit in Prague, Czech Republic, in 2001, the idea initiated in Bologna was clearly endorsed. In the successive period from 2001 to 2003, awareness of the importance of the Bologna process and the real need for the…

  17. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  18. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on University-Level Chemical Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Bologna Process, an effort by a consortium of nearly 50 European countries trying to standardize the higher education system in Europe. Starting from a nonbinding agreement (the 1999 Bologna Declaration), the Bologna Process involves a voluntary joint venture for the construction of a European higher education area…

  19. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on University-Level Chemical Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Bologna Process, an effort by a consortium of nearly 50 European countries trying to standardize the higher education system in Europe. Starting from a nonbinding agreement (the 1999 Bologna Declaration), the Bologna Process involves a voluntary joint venture for the construction of a European higher education area…

  20. Normative Influence of the Bologna Process on French-Speaking African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croche, Sarah; Charlier, Jean-Emile

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process experienced a rapidly growing and an unexpected level of support. The authors revisit the key moments of the strategic promotion of the Bologna model and address the issue of the advantages other countries from other continents might gain from lining up with versions of the Bologna model. During the first years, the Process…

  1. Normative Influence of the Bologna Process on French-Speaking African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croche, Sarah; Charlier, Jean-Emile

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process experienced a rapidly growing and an unexpected level of support. The authors revisit the key moments of the strategic promotion of the Bologna model and address the issue of the advantages other countries from other continents might gain from lining up with versions of the Bologna model. During the first years, the Process…

  2. The Bologna Process and the Czech System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan

    2005-01-01

    The Czech system of education has been through several years of relatively intensive transformation efforts reflecting the international processes of transformation of higher education the Czech Republic joined. The most important external stimulus directing the transformation process is the so-called Bologna process. These complex and…

  3. The Bologna Process: The Democracy-Bureaucracy Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukland, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The Bologna Process was aimed at making a Europe of Knowledge possible, but the standardisation process following the development of the European Higher Education Authority challenged its democratic values; the autonomy of the bureaucratic part of higher education institutions has been strengthened while their faculty members have less formal…

  4. The Bologna Process, Globalisation and Engineering Education Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the Bologna Process in the light of globalisation and examine how it affects curriculum and engineering education developments. Design/methodology/approach: The growing need for creative competitiveness and the striving for specific profiles of engineering qualifications that are of high quality…

  5. "Bildung", the Bologna Process and Kierkegaard's Concept of Subjective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindal, Solveig M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Framework for higher education has agreed on three "cycle descriptors"--knowledge, skill and general competence--which are to constitute the learning outcomes and credit ranges for the three cycles of higher education: The Bachelor, the Master and the PhD. In connection with the implementations of the national qualification…

  6. Bologna Process Principles Integrated into Education System of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessipbayeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fulfillment of the parameters of the Bologna Process in the education system of Kazakhstan. The author gives short review of higher education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan with necessary data. And the weaknesses of the system of higher education are identified. Moreover, implementing…

  7. Bologna Network: A New Sociopolitical Area in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croche, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The project of the Bologna process to create a "European Higher Education Area" (EHEA) has established the necessary conditions for the emergence of a new sociopolitical space of higher education in Europe. This space has become a cooperation/competition area that changes the European and national balance of power: the relations the…

  8. The Bologna Process, Globalisation and Engineering Education Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the Bologna Process in the light of globalisation and examine how it affects curriculum and engineering education developments. Design/methodology/approach: The growing need for creative competitiveness and the striving for specific profiles of engineering qualifications that are of high quality…

  9. The Role of the Bologna Process in Defining Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The question of what Europe is remains under-explored in the literature on European matters, and this suggests a need to formulate a definition of "Europe". This paper suggests that it is not possible to resolve the problem of the meaning of Europe without considering its higher education developments. The Bologna Process is a recent…

  10. "Running the Gauntlet": The Bologna Process in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Greece has not been among the signatory countries that rushed enthusiastically into the implementation of the Bologna process; it has only gradually and grudgingly managed to adopt some of its provisions over the past decade. This paper sheds light on the forces and factors that have put obstacles in its way, including: (1) the epistemological…

  11. Blueprint for Bologna: University of Prishtina and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Juanita Ross; Epp, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Countries hoping to demonstrate an adequate educational infrastructure need a national framework that meets Bologna requirements, a national accreditation agency which sets out the approved framework, and national accreditation processes by which individual institutions can be measured against the standards set by the national accreditation…

  12. E-Assessment within the Bologna Paradigm: Evidence from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrao, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration brought reforms into higher education that imply changes in teaching methods, didactic materials and textbooks, infrastructures and laboratories, etc. Statistics and mathematics are disciplines that traditionally have the worst success rates, particularly in non-mathematics core curricula courses. This research project,…

  13. The first geodetic VLBI experiment with the Bologna radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, P.; Mantovani, F.; Ambrosini, R.; Bombonati, A.; Grueff, G.

    1988-04-01

    The use of the Medicina VLBI station for geodetic observations was demonstrated. The Medicina-Wettzel and the Medicina-HartRAO (Hartebeesthoek Radio Astrophysical Observatory) baselines were determined as well as the Medicina (Bologna) antenna position. It is concluded that longer experiments are needed with more baselines involved to get a better solution for the Medicina position.

  14. "Bildung", the Bologna Process and Kierkegaard's Concept of Subjective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindal, Solveig M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Framework for higher education has agreed on three "cycle descriptors"--knowledge, skill and general competence--which are to constitute the learning outcomes and credit ranges for the three cycles of higher education: The Bachelor, the Master and the PhD. In connection with the implementations of the national qualification…

  15. E-Assessment within the Bologna Paradigm: Evidence from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrao, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration brought reforms into higher education that imply changes in teaching methods, didactic materials and textbooks, infrastructures and laboratories, etc. Statistics and mathematics are disciplines that traditionally have the worst success rates, particularly in non-mathematics core curricula courses. This research project,…

  16. Developing the European Researcher: "Extended" Professionality within the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, doctoral education has become a key feature within the remit of the Bologna Process. Perceived as a crucial link between the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area, it is perceived as the cornerstone upon which will be built Europe's future world-class research excellence. Yet consideration of how European…

  17. Blueprint for Bologna: University of Prishtina and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Juanita Ross; Epp, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Countries hoping to demonstrate an adequate educational infrastructure need a national framework that meets Bologna requirements, a national accreditation agency which sets out the approved framework, and national accreditation processes by which individual institutions can be measured against the standards set by the national accreditation…

  18. Problems of Russia's Entry into the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobren'kova, Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2008-01-01

    Accomplishing the tasks spelled out in the 1999 Bologna Declaration requires reforming the structures of higher education in the countries of Europe to bring them into closer harmony, while preserving fundamental values and traditions in education that have been formed in each country. The author discusses fundamental differences between the…

  19. Survey on the Implementation of the Bologna Process in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For several years Portuguese higher education institutions have been waiting for the legislation framework necessary for the implementation of the Bologna process. Such legislation was passed quite recently (2006) and has resulted in an unexpected flood of proposals presented at very short notice by higher education institutions to the Ministry.…

  20. The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jose Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

  1. Bologna--Realising Old or New Ideals of Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano-Velarde, Kathia; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the meanings of quality in the Humboldtian university ideal and in the Bologna process, especially related to issues of institutional autonomy, academic freedom and the integration of teaching and research. The article gives an overview of current practices associated with quality and quality assurance in Germany and Norway.…

  2. The Role of the Bologna Process in Defining Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The question of what Europe is remains under-explored in the literature on European matters, and this suggests a need to formulate a definition of "Europe". This paper suggests that it is not possible to resolve the problem of the meaning of Europe without considering its higher education developments. The Bologna Process is a recent…

  3. Global Impacts of the Bologna Process: International Perspectives, Local Particularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmas, Aristotelis

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the transfer of the Bologna Process (BP) outside Europe, focusing on its "external dimension" and dynamics in global settings. It argues that the BP impacts on the internationalisation activities of universities, especially with regard to cross-border transparency of qualifications, transnational improvement of quality…

  4. Student Assessment in Portugal: Academic Practice and Bologna Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Manatos, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional policies and academic practices of student assessment in four Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs) in the wake of European policy developments driven by the Bologna Process. Specifically, it examines the correspondence between European policy recommendations related to student assessment (promotion…

  5. The Bologna Master Degree in Search of an Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to analyse variances between some emerging projections for the master degree at high policy level and the diverse interpretations and forms observed in its implementation in the aftermath of the Bologna Process reforms. It thus examines European and national-level discourses regarding the master's place and purpose and,…

  6. Survey on the Implementation of the Bologna Process in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For several years Portuguese higher education institutions have been waiting for the legislation framework necessary for the implementation of the Bologna process. Such legislation was passed quite recently (2006) and has resulted in an unexpected flood of proposals presented at very short notice by higher education institutions to the Ministry.…

  7. The Bologna Process and the European Gain: Africa's Development Demise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawa, Lester Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a fundamental restructuring of higher education in Europe, of which the introduction of three cycles: bachelor's, master's and doctorate, in lieu of the traditional long program is the single most important feature. Its objectives are to increase the employability of European citizens and the competitiveness and…

  8. Bologna Trends 2010: The Implementation of the Bologna Process and a Move towards a "New Global Regionalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The European University Association, whose members include European higher educations institutions across 46 countries, just published Trends 2010, the sixth in the Trends series, its flagship pan-European report. The principal aim of the 2010 report is to situate and analyse the implementation of the Bologna Process, an initiative to create a…

  9. Bologna Trends 2010: The Implementation of the Bologna Process and a Move towards a "New Global Regionalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The European University Association, whose members include European higher educations institutions across 46 countries, just published Trends 2010, the sixth in the Trends series, its flagship pan-European report. The principal aim of the 2010 report is to situate and analyse the implementation of the Bologna Process, an initiative to create a…

  10. Using the Bologna Score to assess normal delivery healthcare.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Isaiane da Silva; Brito, Rosineide Santana de

    2016-01-01

    Describing the obstetric care provided in public maternity hospitals during normal labour using the Bologna Score in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. A quantitative cross-sectional study conducted with 314 puerperal women. Data collection was carried out consecutively during the months of March to July 2014. Prenatal care was provided to 95.9% of the mothers, beginning around the 1st trimester of pregnancy (72.3%) and having seven or more consultations (51%). Spontaneous vaginal delivery was planned for 88.2% women. All laboring women were assisted by a health professional, mostly by a physician (80.6%), and none of them obtained 5 points on the Bologna Score due to the small percentage of births in non-supine position (0.3%) and absence of a partogram (2.2%). A higher number of episiotomies were observed among primiparous women (75.5%). The score obtained using the Bologna Index was low. Thus, it is necessary to improve and readjust the existing obstetrical model. Descrever a assistência obstétrica prestada em maternidades públicas municipais durante o parto normal na cidade de Natal, Nordeste do Brasil, com uso do Índice de Bologna. Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido com 314 puérperas. A coleta de dados processou-se de forma consecutiva durante os meses de março a julho de 2014. A assistência pré-natal foi prestada a 95,9% das puérperas, com início em torno do 1º trimestre de gestação (72,3%) e realização de sete ou mais consultas (51%). O parto vaginal espontâneo foi planejado para 88,2% mulheres. Todas as parturientes foram assistidas por um profissional de saúde, especialmente pelo médico (80,6%) e nenhuma obteve 5 pontos no Índice de Bologna em virtude dos baixos percentuais de partos em posição não supina (0,3%) e ausência do partograma (2,2%). Houve maior número de episiotomias em primíparas (75,5%). A pontuação obtida por meio do Índice de Bologna foi baixa. Desse modo, é preciso melhorar e

  11. The Bologna process, medical education and integrated learning.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration, signed in 1999 by all European Ministers of Education and currently in a phase of active implementation in Europe, specifies a three-cycle degree structure - Bachelor's, Master's, Doctorate - for all disciplines in Higher Education. The application of this model to medical education has been opposed on various grounds. In particular, a 'Ba/Ma' model for undergraduate medical degrees has been viewed as undoing recent progress towards fully integrated learning of basic and clinical medical sciences. However, this can be overcome by the use of a learning outcomes framework, agreed at European level, that reinforces the primarily medical nature of both degrees and which requires integrated teaching, learning and assessment at every stage. With this proviso, application of the Bologna principles to medicine can help to drive educational development and quality enhancement in European medical education.

  12. BOLOGNA MODEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION-UTOPIA OR REALITY.

    PubMed

    Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-07-24

    Higher education in Europe and in the Balkan's countries is undergoing major reforms. The Bologna Process was a major reform created with the claimed goal of providing responses to issues such as the public responsibility for higher education and research, higher education governance, the social dimension of higher education and research, and the values and roles of higher education and research in modern, globalized, and increasingly complex societies with the most demanding qualification needs. Changes in the curricula, modernization of facilities and their alignment with the programs of other European universities, employment of a larger number of assistants, especially in the clinical courses at our universities are necessary. Also, it is necessary to continue to conduct further detailed analysis and evaluation of teaching content and outcomes in the future. In this review authors expressed their views and experience of using Bologna model of education in the Balkan's countries with emphasis on Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia.

  13. The Bologna agreement is not suitable for medical education: a German view

    PubMed Central

    Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Central elements of the Bologna declaration have been implemented in a huge variety of curricula in humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and engineering sciences at German universities. Overall the results have been nothing less than disastrous. Surprisingly, this seems to be the perfect time for German universities to talk about introducing a curriculum that is fully compatible with the Bologna declaration for medical education as well. However, German medical education does not have problems the Bologna declaration is intended to solve, such as quality, mobility, internationalization and employability. It is already in the Post-Bologna age. PMID:21818201

  14. Efficiency of Implementation of the Bologna Process at Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: At the moment at Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, simultaneously exist two systems of teaching process, the old (pre-Bologna) and Bologna process. Goal: To show efficiency and justification of use of Bologna process at Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, through the prism of actual beneficiaries of this process, students, assessment of quality of medical education, and comparison of results of the teaching process evaluation between students studying according to the Bologna process and the old system. Materials and Methods: The study included period from 2012 to 2014, and had prospective character. Students of final (sixth) year were included, the last three generations of pre-Bologna, and three generations of the Bologna process, which completed their studies successfully. The study included 365 students (177 under the old system and 188 under the Bologna process), who had answered prepared questionnaire. Results: The presence of large number of female students, in both systems is significant. There were significant differences in opinion of students regarding the quality of space for administration and labor administration, informatization of the teaching process, the opinion of the objectivity of teachers in the assessment of the examination, and on-line access to their content. (p <0.05). Discussion: The Bologna process, with all its guidelines, was never to the maximum implemented in the teaching faculties, mostly because of the lack of funds and infrastructure that couldn’t fully comply with all the privileges of the Bologna process. Conclusion: Bologna process on this principle, has brought mediocrity, of which we have tried to escape. New school year, brings, and the new Bologna process, a new curriculum, a large number of new classes, systematization of the material, with simultaneous correction necessary in one hand in teaching, and in other hand in students themselves. PMID:25870534

  15. Only a Matter of Education Policy Ideals? German Professors' Perception of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brändle, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been discussed how actors at universities perceive the Bologna Process. However, there is a lack of understanding about the determinants influencing attitudes towards the reform. In particular, the relation between education policy ideals and perceptions of the Bologna Process has gone unobserved. Based on a survey at three…

  16. The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

  17. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Europe: Bologna and Its Implications for Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wastl-Walter, Doris; Wintzer, Jeannine

    2012-01-01

    In the following article, we would first like to present the Bologna Process to create a European Higher Education Area and to show its importance as a framework for higher education in Europe and beyond. Second, we would like to raise questions about the consequences of the Bologna Process for postgraduate education especially for the…

  18. A Different View of the Bologna Process: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, integration with the Western world has been a determining driver of higher education policies, as well as many other policy areas in Turkey. Becoming a signatory country of the Bologna Process in 2001 brought a new impulse to the higher education policies in this direction. The Bologna Process reforms…

  19. The Impact of the Bologna Reform on the Productivity of Swiss Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bolli, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna reform aims to enhance several dimensions of the universities' activities, by favouring mobility and mutual recognition of higher education degrees across Europe, with the objective to create a European Higher Education Area. The radical changes induced by the Bologna Process affect universities' productivity both directly (for…

  20. The Emergent European Educational Policies under Scrutiny: The Bologna Process from a Central European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the Bologna Process and the European Research Area are viewed as the two sides of the same coin: that of the redefinition of the missions of the institution of the university. The Bologna Process is viewed as relatively closed to global developments: as largely inward-looking, focused on European regional problems (and European…

  1. Only a Matter of Education Policy Ideals? German Professors' Perception of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brändle, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been discussed how actors at universities perceive the Bologna Process. However, there is a lack of understanding about the determinants influencing attitudes towards the reform. In particular, the relation between education policy ideals and perceptions of the Bologna Process has gone unobserved. Based on a survey at three…

  2. Reflections on the Bologna Process: The Making of an Asia Pacific Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Brisbane Communiqué's goals and initiatives seem to follow the Bologna Process' normative path towards the creation of a common regional higher education space. However, comparing demography, socio-economics, student mobility, political economy framework and the initiatives undertaken by both the Brisbane Communiqué and the Bologna Process…

  3. The Bologna Process Policy Implementation in Russia and Ukraine: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchinskaya, Daria; Ovchynnikova, Olena

    2011-01-01

    The recent establishment of the European Higher Education Area and the ongoing monitoring carried out by the Bologna Follow-up Group raises the question: to what extent have the objectives of the Bologna Process been implemented in the varied higher education systems of the 47 signatory states, including the former Soviet Union states? This…

  4. The Bologna Process Policy Implementation in Russia and Ukraine: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchinskaya, Daria; Ovchynnikova, Olena

    2011-01-01

    The recent establishment of the European Higher Education Area and the ongoing monitoring carried out by the Bologna Follow-up Group raises the question: to what extent have the objectives of the Bologna Process been implemented in the varied higher education systems of the 47 signatory states, including the former Soviet Union states? This…

  5. Setting Policy Agenda for the Social Dimension of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Since 1999, the Bologna Process has been suggesting a series of reforms relating to structural and normative aspects of higher education, one of which is the social dimension. The social dimension entered into the Bologna Process as an ambiguous action area in 2001 and has remained so in terms of its policy measures. Despite this ambiguity and…

  6. Regional Higher Education Reform Initiatives in Africa: A Comparative Analysis with the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Jonck, Petronella; Goujon, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Europe's Bologna Process has been identified as a pioneering approach in regional cooperation with respect to the area of higher education. To address the challenges of African higher education, policymakers are recommending regional cooperation that uses the Bologna Process as a model. Based on these recommendations, the African Union Commission…

  7. A Troubled Adolescence: What the Fifteenth Birthday of the Bologna Process Means for Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Conceived in Paris in 1998 and born in 1999 in Bologna, the European higher education reform initiative known as the Bologna Process approaches its fifteenth birthday. As is the case with some adolescents, there are problems. If we were to plan a party for the occasion, we might encounter diverse reflections. First, we would be proud of what our…

  8. A Troubled Adolescence: What the Fifteenth Birthday of the Bologna Process Means for Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Conceived in Paris in 1998 and born in 1999 in Bologna, the European higher education reform initiative known as the Bologna Process approaches its fifteenth birthday. As is the case with some adolescents, there are problems. If we were to plan a party for the occasion, we might encounter diverse reflections. First, we would be proud of what our…

  9. Towards 2010 (and Then Beyond)--The Context of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwistle, Tim

    2009-01-01

    While 2010 was originally stated as being the end point for the creation of the European Higher Education Area through the Bologna Process, it is in fact a point along the way. The journey from Sorbonne (1998) to Bologna (1999) towards 2010 has seen an expansion of the number of signatory states (from 4 to 29 to 46) and a broadening of the…

  10. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Higher Education in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laszlo, Bela

    2008-01-01

    "The Bologna process is named after the Bologna Declaration. The primary goal of the accord is the coordination and harmonization of the various European higher education systems without losing their colorful diversity and individual features, thereby making European higher education even more attractive for students and scholars all over the…

  11. Suggestion for the Implementation of the Bologna Declaration in Hungary in Engineering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Karoly; Jobbagy, Akos

    2004-01-01

    The countries that signed the Bologna Declaration need also to modify their engineering programmes accordingly. In Hungary some modifications are necessary independently of the Bologna Declaration. The number of students has increased by a factor of three during the past decade without an increase in the number of staff. The consequence is…

  12. Reflections on the Bologna Process: The Making of an Asia Pacific Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Brisbane Communiqué's goals and initiatives seem to follow the Bologna Process' normative path towards the creation of a common regional higher education space. However, comparing demography, socio-economics, student mobility, political economy framework and the initiatives undertaken by both the Brisbane Communiqué and the Bologna Process…

  13. Managing the Bologna Process at the European Level: Institution and Actor Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazetic, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the work of the Bologna Follow Up Group as the main institution of the Bologna Process and the perceptions of the policy actors involved concerning the character of the process in terms of its functioning in contrast to similar multi-level multi-actor European processes, its modes of communication and consensus seeking, as…

  14. Bologna at the Finish Line: An Account of Ten Years of European Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Daniela; Bjerke, Christian Hemmestad; Blattler, Andrea; Deca, Ligia; Gielis, Inge; Karlsson, Solvi; Nielsen, Kristine Bak; Pall, Allan; Rytkonen, Petri; Santa, Robert; Szabo, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    The European Students' Union (ESU) has been writing about the student perspective on the Bologna Process since it get formally involved in it. Four editions of the students' independent stocktaking report "Bologna With Student Eyes" between 2003 and 2009 shed light on the perception of those stakeholders, which are probably mostly…

  15. Setting Policy Agenda for the Social Dimension of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Since 1999, the Bologna Process has been suggesting a series of reforms relating to structural and normative aspects of higher education, one of which is the social dimension. The social dimension entered into the Bologna Process as an ambiguous action area in 2001 and has remained so in terms of its policy measures. Despite this ambiguity and…

  16. The Bologna Process for U.S. Eyes: Re-learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2009-01-01

    The title of this document is a deliberate play on the title of the biennial reports on the progress of Bologna produced by the European Students' Union, "Bologna With Student Eyes." It is a way of paying tribute to student involvement in the Bologna reforms, and marking a parallel student working participation in the state system…

  17. Removable partial denture education in Portugal following the Bologna Process.

    PubMed

    Figueiral, M H; Fonseca, P; Campos, J C R; Correia, A R; Fernandes, M S; Branco, F J M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current guidelines used for the undergraduate course subject Removable Partial Denture in Portuguese Dental Schools following the Bologna Process. All Dental Schools were sent a questionnaire, divided into the following areas: (I) organization and syllabus; (II) teaching methods; (III) materials and techniques; Answers about organization and syllabus of course subjects showed the most variability; teaching methods were identical regarding principal textbook and live demonstrations of laboratory/clinical procedures; the same techniques and materials are used in all the schools' dental clinics. The majority of Dental Schools present similar guidelines for removable partial dentures.

  18. BOLOGNA MODEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION–UTOPIA OR REALITY

    PubMed Central

    Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in Europe and in the Balkan’s countries is undergoing major reforms. The Bologna Process was a major reform created with the claimed goal of providing responses to issues such as the public responsibility for higher education and research, higher education governance, the social dimension of higher education and research, and the values and roles of higher education and research in modern, globalized, and increasingly complex societies with the most demanding qualification needs. Changes in the curricula, modernization of facilities and their alignment with the programs of other European universities, employment of a larger number of assistants, especially in the clinical courses at our universities are necessary. Also, it is necessary to continue to conduct further detailed analysis and evaluation of teaching content and outcomes in the future. In this review authors expressed their views and experience of using Bologna model of education in the Balkan’s countries with emphasis on Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia. PMID:27698610

  19. Reduced-fat bologna sausages with improved lipid fraction.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; García-Íñiguez de Ciriano, Mikel; Navarro-Blasco, Íñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-15

    This applied research was done in order to obtain cooked products (bologna sausages) with significantly lower amounts of energy, total fat and saturated fat and higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids than conventional ones. Two subsequent experiments were performed. Experiment 1 aimed at pork back-fat reduction and enabled sausages to be obtained with 84 g kg⁻¹ fat and 1334 kcal kg⁻¹, without significant negative effects on sensory quality. Carrageenan was used as fat replacer. Experiment 2 aimed at improving the lipid profile of the 'energy-reduced' sausages previously developed, by a partial substitution of the pork back-fat with a linseed oil-in water emulsion (substitution levels: 25-100%). Using the 100% substitution level gave rise to products with 27 g kg⁻¹ α-linolenic acid, and low saturated fat content (13.5 g kg⁻¹), showing good sensory results regarding taste, smell and texture. The use of antioxidant maintained low TBARs (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values in all formulations. It is possible to obtain cooked meat products (bologna sausages) with low energy, low saturated fat and a high amount of ω-3 fatty acids simultaneously, applying a combination of the use of carrageenan, linseed oil emulsion and increment of water, without significant effects on sensory quality. Functional products, interesting from a nutritional standpoint, were achieved. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Bologna process: the quiet revolution in nursing higher education.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ruth

    2008-11-01

    This paper will trace the history and continuing development of the 'Bologna Process' whose aim is to create convergence of higher education across the European Union by 2010. It will identify how this will have profound implications for graduate nurse education and present opportunities for students, graduate nurses, teachers and researchers in terms of mobility and employment as well as collaborative research. Although supportive, the paper questions whether these reforms will provide the much-needed impetus to raise the educational status of the vast majority of European nurses from diploma to graduate level. Barriers to achieving the ideal of an all-graduate EU nursing workforce are discussed in an economic and political context. The main thrust of the paper is that, if this were achieved, it would have a positive impact on the health care systems and populations of participating countries as well as their economies.

  1. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  2. Bologna process, more or less: nursing education in the European economic area: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Palese, Alvisa; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Bergin, Michael; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gasser, Catherine; Pajnkihar, Majda; Jackson, Christine

    2014-04-02

    The Bologna Declaration and the subsequent processes is the single most important reform of higher education taking place in Europe in the last 30 years. Signed in 1999, it includes 46 European Union countries and aimed to create, a more coherent, compatible, comparable and competitive European Higher Education Area. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Bologna Declaration achievements in nursing education at 2010 within eight countries that first signed the Declaration on 1999. Researchers primarily identified national laws, policy statements, guidelines and grey literature; then, a literature review on Bologna Declaration implementation in nursing was conducted on the Medline and CINAHL databases. Critical analyses of these documents were performed by expert nurse educators. Structural, organizational, functional and cultural obstacles are hindering full Bologna Process implementation in nursing education within European Economic Area. A call for action is offered in order to achieve a functionally unified system within nursing.

  3. The Actual (Un)usefulness of the Bologna System in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo has officially started working on 22.11.1944, and is the oldest faculty in the medical field in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the same time there are two systems of organization of the teaching process, the old system and the Bologna system. Aim: To analyze the implementation of the Bologna system, and making an overview of its justification. Material and methods: Answers from questionnaires from total of 459 students were analyzed (197 who had studied under the old system and 262 who studied under the Bologna system), so total of four generations of the Bologna system. They filled out a questionnaire in which they evaluated the teaching process. Student’s opinion about quality of medical education was measured by modified Lickert scale. Results: Students of old system are older than students of the Bologna process, whose average age is increasing from generation to generation, given the growing number of students who repeat a year. All students of old system repeated an academic year once or several times (p <0.05). Analysis of average grades showed statistically significant difference (p <0.05), where students in the Bologna system had higher averages than students who were studying under the old system. The presence of large number of female students, in both systems is significant (p <0.05). Out of 33 questions about satisfaction of class, 15 were answered with better average grade from students of the Bologna system. A slight improvement in the Bologna system is in terms of the evaluation of the quality of the educational process (teachers, methods, effects). The only significant progress has been proven in terms of rating the degree of computerization of the educational process–general records on enrolled students (old system vs Bologna system–3,44 vs 3,63), record of attendance (3,47 vs 3,73), obtaining certificates (3,08 vs 3,84), method of registration of exam (2,98 vs 3,71), method of practical

  4. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital.

  5. Toxicology has to use opportunities given by Bologna reform of higher education.

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana

    2009-10-28

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the past, current and future state of education in toxicology. Curricula in toxicology and environmental sciences at some European Universities are presented and discussed in the light of the 1999 Bologna reform. One of the key points in the Bologna reform is establishing a European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). An ECTS credit should reflect the expected learning outcomes of a student and should also be prospective of the value of lifelong learning. The Bologna reform encourages cooperation among institutions of higher education, recognition of variety of types of formal and informal education, implementation of lifelong education, joint programs and mobility. The other important point of Bologna reform is introduction of a new Master's level curricula for professional specialization which should be adapted to the specific skills demanded by the society. Such Master's level with competence based curriculum is a turning point in organizing toxicological education, which is necessary for the development of the profession. In addition, promotion of European cooperation and quality assurance within higher education could significantly benefit to toxicological education. The new Bologna education scheme appears to be suitable to direct toxicology toward a modern interdisciplinary profession capable of dealing with present and future challenges.

  6. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries (2009-2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, the Bologna Process has expanded from the European Union towards the neighbouring countries and the Bologna Declaration has by now been signed by 47 countries. In addition, an increasing number of countries have shown their interest in the process by implementing most of its recommendations and tools on a…

  7. Still the Main Show in Town? Assessing Political Saliency of the Bologna Process across Time and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina; Jungblut, Jens; Elken, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies focused on the linkages between the Bologna Process and system--as well as organizational-level changes--implying significance of the process for higher education policy dynamics. However, what has been lacking is a closer examination of the political importance of Bologna for the different actors involved and whether this varies…

  8. The Doctorate of the Bologna Process Third Cycle: Mapping the Dimensions and Impact of the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan; Fazey, John; Gonzalez Geraldo, Jose Luis; Trevitt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Bologna Process is a significant agent for internationalization of education. Acknowledging fiscal and political drivers, this article shows that Bologna inclusion of the doctoral degree offers potential for enhanced doctoral experience. Interest in transferability of doctoral education across national borders, standardization…

  9. The Doctorate of the Bologna Process Third Cycle: Mapping the Dimensions and Impact of the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan; Fazey, John; Gonzalez Geraldo, Jose Luis; Trevitt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Bologna Process is a significant agent for internationalization of education. Acknowledging fiscal and political drivers, this article shows that Bologna inclusion of the doctoral degree offers potential for enhanced doctoral experience. Interest in transferability of doctoral education across national borders, standardization…

  10. The Development of a System of Study Credits in Ukraine: The Case of Policy Layering in the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The Bologna Process is an intergovernmental initiative aimed to make higher education degrees compatible in Europe. Previous research into the implementation of the Bologna objectives (or action lines) views the influence of the context as a challenge. This article suggests a different approach for analysing the implementation of the Bologna…

  11. [On the borderline of the national demographic scene: the case of Bologna].

    PubMed

    Pasquini, L

    1990-01-01

    The author describes population decline in Bologna, Italy. "Since the first half of the seventies the population of Bologna has undergone a continuous decrease caused by the natural and migratory balance deficit. This has deeply changed the age composition of the population: a drastic decrease in the number of [those aged less than] fourteen years and an increase in the number of [those] older. Assuming that, in the [next] ten years, [fertility] and mortality keep constant and the migratory balance becomes negative, a further reduction of the resident population of Bologna may be foreseen together with [more changes] in the demographic pattern." The consequences will include a large increase in the demand for health services, as well as increased employment opportunities. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  12. [Quality characterization of several bolognas in Mexico. III. Sensorial evaluation by an untrained panel].

    PubMed

    Esparza, M; Domínguez, R; González-Méndez, N; Pacheco, R; Ramos, E

    1988-06-01

    In a study on the quality evaluation of bologna, the major processed meat product of greater consumption in Sonora, Mexico, the quality of commercial brands, available in local markets, was investigated. As part of it, the sensory or organoleptic aspect of factors influencing the acceptance of bologna by consumers was included. The factors considered were: flavor, texture, appearance and color. The acceptance-preference of each product was determined using a hedonic scale and a balanced incomplete block design. The results were then statistically analyzed by the F-test for difference among treatments. Student's "t" test for population means, and multiple range for acceptance and frequency of preference. Findings revealed there were differences in flavor, texture and appearance among the bologna brands. The most relevant factors causing these differences were: saltiness, fluor flavor, stickiness, dryness, and uniformity of color. Significant differences in the color scores among the different brands were also detected, but this was not the case for overall color.

  13. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. III. A spectroscopic metallicity scale for the Revised Bologna Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2009-12-01

    de los Muchachos of the IAC, with the William Herschel Telescope of the Isaac Newton Group and with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of INAF. Also based on observations made with the G.B. Cassini Telescope at Loiano (Italy), operated by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna (INAF). Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. What the Instructors and Administrators of Russia's Higher Educational Institutions Think about the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing integration of national educational systems, in particular in Europe, is giving rise to conflict among traditional forms of instruction, curricula, pedagogical norms and values, and firmly established standards of education. The center of this conflict now, which was catalyzed by Russia's joining the Bologna process, consists of the…

  15. The Impact of the Bologna Process in Ibero-America: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Alejandro Tiana

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the major developments to have taken place in higher education in recent centuries. It has had an impact beyond European borders and repercussions in other parts of the world. Ibero-America has also sat up and taken note, even though scholars agree that there would be difficulties with its direct implementation in the…

  16. The Bologna Process as a New Public Management Tool in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štech, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    This essentially polemical article questions whether the Bologna Process (BP) is necessary (and desirable) in the adaptation of universities to the new social conditions or whether it is a Trojan horse sent out to introduce neo-liberal changes in the field of higher education. First, it addresses the circumstances surrounding the origins of the…

  17. The US Response to Bologna: Expanding Knowledge, First Steps of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The roads of incoming information to the US higher education system about the Bologna Process are varied and numerous. They include not only the on-line and traditional trade press, but also conferences of national organisations. Whether anyone remembers much of that information, on the other hand, is an open question, as a limited survey…

  18. Bologna and Quality Assurance: Progress Made or Pulling the Wrong Cart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution looks critically at the achievements regarding the Bologna action line "European cooperation in quality assurance". Much has been realised but most of the visible achievements are at the supranational level: the development of the European Standards and Guidelines, the launch of the European Network of Quality Assurance…

  19. Higher Romanian Education Post-Bologna: Required Changes, Instruments and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrisor, Alexandru-Ionut

    2011-01-01

    In 1999 Romania became part of the Bologna process, focused on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, design to increase the compatibility of European universities, ensuring the mobility of students and professors in the context of re-orienting education to the formation of competences continuously adapted to market requirements.…

  20. The European Higher Education Area in 2012: Bologna Process Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Horvath, Anna; Kerpanova, Viera; Kocanova, Daniela; Parveva, Teodora; Dalferth, Simon; Orr, Dominic; Mejer, Lene; Reis, Fernando; Rauhvargers, Andrejs

    2012-01-01

    The report, which reflects the framework of the Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Communique, is the result of a joint effort by Eurostat, Eurydice as well as by Eurostudent and has been overseen by the Bologna Follow-up Group and more specifically by a working group established by the latter. In line with the specific mission and methodology of the…

  1. Aligning Seminars with Bologna Requirements: Reciprocal Peer Tutoring, the Solo Taxonomy and Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer…

  2. Focus on Higher Education in Europe 2010: The Impact of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Dalferth, Simon; Parveva, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of the "Focus" report has been prepared for the European Ministerial Conference in Budapest/Vienna, 11-12 March 2010, that officially launches the European Higher Education Area. The report has been developed as a fully collaborative exercise between the Eurydice Network and the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG), with the…

  3. [Foundation and organization of the University of Bologna from the XII century to the Renaissance].

    PubMed

    Romero-y Huesca, Andrés; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; Ponce-Landín, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Rojas, Juan Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The University of Bologna was founded in 1150 and was the first European University to establish this educational trend. The combination of structured teaching and student associations marked the origin of the studium generale. The presence of teaching legists encouraged teachers in others fields to come to Bologna. Ars dictaminis, grammar, logic, philosophy, mathematics and especially medicine were taught there by the middle of the thirteenth century. The university offered advanced instruction in law, medicine, and theology and had a minimum of six to eight professors teaching civil law, canonical law, medicine, logic, natural philosophy and usually rhetoric. Many professors bearing local names were learned scholars and commanding figures in medicine and surgery. Taddeo Alderotti (1210-1295) began to teach medicine in Bologna in about 1260. He soon raised medicine to a prestigious position in the university. The geographical distribution demonstrates the international distribution of the student body: 73% were Italians and 26% non-Italians. The decision of the legislature of Bologna to take control of the university from the students by paying professors was probably the most important decision in the history of Italian universities. Examination of the distribution of professors offers a detailed picture of the faculty. In 1370 the university had 11 professors of civil law, 7 professors of canonical law, 3 professors of medical theory, 2 professors of medical practice (specifically of diagnosis and treatment), and 1 professor of surgery. After growing steadily, the numbers of teachers stabilized at 85 to 110 until the year 1530.

  4. The Regional University: Paths of Integration in the Framework of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, G.; Martynenko, O.

    2006-01-01

    The development of international systems of education is opening the way to accomplish tasks in the sphere of higher education that are common to the world community. The Bologna Process, in the framework of which the educational systems of Europe are becoming integrated, makes it possible for Russia to make a choice of the forms of its…

  5. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Academic Staff in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2012-01-01

    Academic staff in Ukraine face a convergence of institutional and professional pressures precipitated by a national economic crisis, projected declines in enrolment and dramatic changes to institutional procedures as institutions implement the Bologna Process. This article examines the extent to which these pressures are reshaping the way academic…

  6. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on Higher Education at Russia's Margins: The Case of Kaliningrad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzle, Stefan; Meister, Stefan; King, Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Embracing the Russian Federation since 2003, the Bologna process is no longer exclusively confined to western European countries. As early as 1999, Vladimir Putin declared the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, wedged between Lithuania and Poland, as a potential pilot region for intensified cooperation between Russia and the EU on a number of policy…

  7. The Devil in the Detail: Contradictory National Requirements and Bologna Master Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article compares the national-level requirements for master degree provision in England, Denmark and Portugal following the implementation of the Bologna Process, and ponders upon the reconcilability of these requirements in cross-national initiatives (e.g. joint degrees). In all three countries, master degrees have to comply with the…

  8. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin…

  9. Bologna through Ontario Eyes: The Case of the Advanced Diploma in Architectural Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Amy D.; Feltham, Mark; Trotter, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Ontario's burgeoning interest in postsecondary student mobility, this article examines how elements of Europe's Bologna Process can help bridge the college--university divide of Ontario's postsecondary system. Via discourse analysis of relevant qualification frameworks and program standards, it argues that the current system…

  10. The Open Method of Coordination and the Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors argue that the use of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the implementation of the Bologna process presents coordination problems that do not allow for the full coherence of the results. As the process is quite complex, involving three different levels (European, national and local) and as the final actors in the…

  11. The Bologna Declaration as a Tool to Enhance Learning and Instruction at the University of Helsinki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Hamalainen, Kauko

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, as in other European countries, the Bologna Declaration is having a profound impact on the structure of degrees, and consequently on teaching and learning. Until now, most graduates in Finland completed a Master's without having to take a Bachelor's degree first. The Ministry of Education has set a high objective for the reform of…

  12. Aligning Seminars with Bologna Requirements: Reciprocal Peer Tutoring, the Solo Taxonomy and Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer…

  13. The Bologna Process and Higher Education in Mercosur: Regionalization or Europeanization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Azevedo, Mário Luiz Neves

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades regional agreements have become more significant in educational and training. This paper situates and analyses the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), the Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy and explores their influence on the integration of higher education systems in Mercosur (the Southern Common Market of…

  14. The Bologna Process and Higher Education in Mercosur: Regionalization or Europeanization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Azevedo, Mário Luiz Neves

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades regional agreements have become more significant in educational and training. This paper situates and analyses the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), the Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy and explores their influence on the integration of higher education systems in Mercosur (the Southern Common Market of…

  15. The Governance of Higher Education Regionalisation: Comparative Analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Hermo, Javier Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR-Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of their uneven evolution and implementation. We…

  16. Rethinking the Research-Teaching Nexus in Undergraduate Education: Spanish Laws Pre- and Post-Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraldo, Jose Luis Gonzalez; Trevitt, Chris; Carter, Susan; Fazey, John

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, under the roof of the Bologna process, the emerging concept of the "knowledge-based society" has its pillars in the so-called European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the European Research Area (ERA). This new kind of society demands a new role for the universities and associated stakeholders, and could provide an ideal…

  17. Future Challenges in Higher Education--Bologna Experts' Community Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results from systematic analysis of the challenges for the future of higher education in European and neighboring countries as it was extracted from the Bologna experts and Higher Education Reform experts' opinions. Opinions of more than 100 experts from 35 countries were documented and analyzed. Significant differences in the…

  18. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  19. The Impact of the Bologna Process in Ibero-America: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Alejandro Tiana

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the major developments to have taken place in higher education in recent centuries. It has had an impact beyond European borders and repercussions in other parts of the world. Ibero-America has also sat up and taken note, even though scholars agree that there would be difficulties with its direct implementation in the…

  20. Chapter 1: Redefining Short-Cycle Higher Education across Europe--The Challenges of Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the impact of the Bologna Process on the development of short-cycle higher education in Europe, noting that the integration of short-cycle qualifications within the Qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area, combined with the critical place allotted to those programs in national lifelong learning…

  1. The Devil in the Detail: Contradictory National Requirements and Bologna Master Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article compares the national-level requirements for master degree provision in England, Denmark and Portugal following the implementation of the Bologna Process, and ponders upon the reconcilability of these requirements in cross-national initiatives (e.g. joint degrees). In all three countries, master degrees have to comply with the…

  2. Language Education at the University of Aveiro before and after Bologna: Practices and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Susana; Araújo e Sá, Maria Helena

    2013-01-01

    Higher education plays a fundamental role in the construction of a European citizenship that demands the development of plurilingual competences. Although the Bologna Process highlights that development (relating it to mobility, employability and lifelong learning), language education does not seem to be a priority in the agenda of higher…

  3. Looking for Synergies: Education for Sustainable Development and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadeeva, Zinaida; Galkute, Laima

    2012-01-01

    In defining quality of higher education, competences achieved by graduates are interpreted as essential criteria. There are two political processes in education dealing, among other issues, with competence development: the Bologna Process in European Higher Education Area and a global process--the United Nations (UN) Decade (2005-2014) of…

  4. Working on the Bologna Declaration: Promoting Integrated Curriculum Development and Fostering Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colet, Nicole Rege; Durand, Natacha

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses ongoing work at the University of Geneva to reform programs to fit the principles of the Bologna Declaration. Analysis of the national context addresses how Swiss universities are currently building a Swiss area of higher education along similar lines to the European Area of Higher Education. Focus is put on the role of the…

  5. A Critical Analysis of the Barriers to Achieving the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade higher education reforms in most European countries have been oriented towards creating a European Higher Education Area which is envisaged in the "Bologna Declaration." Based on an illustration of a variety of difficulties encountered higher education institutions in a wide range of participating countries, this…

  6. The Bologna Process and Its Achievements in Europe 1999-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinalda, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Bologna Process (BP), which since its creation in 1999 has deeply influenced European higher education: What is it? How did it come into being? How far has it come? The BP is both a political phenomenon and a reform taking place in European higher education. As a political phenomenon it consists of a series of…

  7. "Rationalized Myths" in European Higher Education: The Construction and Diffusion of the Bologna Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the so-called Bologna process and the historically unprecedented diffusion of an abstract model for the restructuring and harmonization of higher education studies and degrees across Europe it has fuelled. This process is interpreted here as a particular example of much larger processes of world-level interconnection and…

  8. The Bologna Process in Higher Education: An Exploratory Case Study in a Russian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esyutina, Maria; Fearon, Colm; Leatherbarrow, Nicky

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current article is to discuss the role of the Bologna process in enabling quality of educational change, internationalisation and greater mobility using an example case study of a Russian university. Some discussion is provided to offer insights and inform future research and practice. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  9. The European Higher Education Area in 2012: Bologna Process Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Horvath, Anna; Kerpanova, Viera; Kocanova, Daniela; Parveva, Teodora; Dalferth, Simon; Orr, Dominic; Mejer, Lene; Reis, Fernando; Rauhvargers, Andrejs

    2012-01-01

    The report, which reflects the framework of the Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Communique, is the result of a joint effort by Eurostat, Eurydice as well as by Eurostudent and has been overseen by the Bologna Follow-up Group and more specifically by a working group established by the latter. In line with the specific mission and methodology of the…

  10. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin…

  11. Using Problem-Based Learning to Help Portuguese Students Make the Bologna Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Manuel Cabral; Peres, Emanuel; Morais, Raul; Escola, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration has opened a stage of big and deep changes in the internal university organization, external cooperation, teaching models and methods, among other., all over the European countries. Here we will present and discuss a pilot experience conducted at the Engineering Department of the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro,…

  12. The Bologna Process and Its Achievements in Europe 1999-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinalda, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Bologna Process (BP), which since its creation in 1999 has deeply influenced European higher education: What is it? How did it come into being? How far has it come? The BP is both a political phenomenon and a reform taking place in European higher education. As a political phenomenon it consists of a series of…

  13. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on Higher Education at Russia's Margins: The Case of Kaliningrad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzle, Stefan; Meister, Stefan; King, Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Embracing the Russian Federation since 2003, the Bologna process is no longer exclusively confined to western European countries. As early as 1999, Vladimir Putin declared the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, wedged between Lithuania and Poland, as a potential pilot region for intensified cooperation between Russia and the EU on a number of policy…

  14. The Bologna Process in Higher Education: An Exploratory Case Study in a Russian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esyutina, Maria; Fearon, Colm; Leatherbarrow, Nicky

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current article is to discuss the role of the Bologna process in enabling quality of educational change, internationalisation and greater mobility using an example case study of a Russian university. Some discussion is provided to offer insights and inform future research and practice. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  15. The US Response to Bologna: Expanding Knowledge, First Steps of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The roads of incoming information to the US higher education system about the Bologna Process are varied and numerous. They include not only the on-line and traditional trade press, but also conferences of national organisations. Whether anyone remembers much of that information, on the other hand, is an open question, as a limited survey…

  16. The Governance of Higher Education Regionalisation: Comparative Analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Hermo, Javier Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR-Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of their uneven evolution and implementation. We…

  17. [Teaching of medicine of the University of Bologna in the Reinaissance].

    PubMed

    Romero y Huesca, Andrés; Moreno-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; Ponce-Landín, Francisco Javier; Hernández, Daniel Alejandro; Ramírez-Bollas, Julio

    2006-01-01

    The foundation date of the University of Bologna was 1150, was the first European University and set the pattern. The combination of structured teaching and students association marked the origin of the studium generale. The presence of teaching legists encouraged teachers in others fields to come to Bologna. Ars dictaminis, grammar, logic, philosophy, mathematical arts and especially medicine were taught there by the middle of the thirteenth century. The university had to offer advanced instruction in law, medicine, and theology, had a minimum of six to eight professors teaching civil law, canon law, medicine, logic, natural philosophy and usually rhetoric. Many professors bearing local names were able scholars and commanding figures in medicine and surgery. Taddeo Alderotti (1210-95) began to teach medicine in Bologna about 1260. He soon raised medicine to a prestigious position in the university. The geographical distribution demonstrates the international character of the student body 73% were Italians and 26% non Italians. The decision of the commune of Bologna to wrest control of the university from the students by paying professors was probably the most important decision in the history of Italian universities. Examination of the distribution of professors offers a detailed picture of the faculty. In 1370 the university had 11 professors of civil law, seven professors of canon law, three professors of medical theory, two of medical practice (the specific of diagnosis and treatment), and one professor of surgery. After growing steadily the numbers of teachers stabilized at 85 to 110 until 1530.

  18. The Bologna Process as a New Public Management Tool in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štech, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    This essentially polemical article questions whether the Bologna Process (BP) is necessary (and desirable) in the adaptation of universities to the new social conditions or whether it is a Trojan horse sent out to introduce neo-liberal changes in the field of higher education. First, it addresses the circumstances surrounding the origins of the…

  19. Rethinking the Research-Teaching Nexus in Undergraduate Education: Spanish Laws Pre- and Post-Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraldo, Jose Luis Gonzalez; Trevitt, Chris; Carter, Susan; Fazey, John

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, under the roof of the Bologna process, the emerging concept of the "knowledge-based society" has its pillars in the so-called European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the European Research Area (ERA). This new kind of society demands a new role for the universities and associated stakeholders, and could provide an ideal…

  20. Reception of the Quality Assurance Commitments of the Bologna Process in Finnish Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Va¨ha¨la¨, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Finnish higher education institutions' reception of the implementation of the new quality assurance systems that governments participating in the Bologna Process have committed to establishing in the Berlin Communique´ of 2003. The data were collected using a web survey and the respondents were classified with a cluster…

  1. From the States. Tomorrow the World: Learning Outcomes and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter T.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and intriguing developments in higher education in the world today is the so-called Bologna process in Europe. An initiative of the European Union, this process began in June 1999 when twenty-nine ministers in charge of higher education met to begin creating a European higher education area within which the comparability…

  2. Live birth rates in the different combinations of the Bologna criteria poor ovarian responders: a validation study.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Giulini, Simone; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Tirelli, Alessandra; Argento, Cindy; Re, Claudia; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Marsella, Tiziana; Sunkara, Sesh Kamal

    2015-06-01

    to compare the baseline characteristics and chance of live birth in the different categories of poor responders identified by the combinations of the Bologna criteria and establish whether these groups comprise a homogenous population. database containing clinical and laboratory information on IVF treatment cycles carried out at the Mother-Infant Department of the University Hospital of Modena between year 2007 and 2011 was analysed. This data was collected prospectively and recorded in the registered database of the fertility centre. Eight hundred and thirty women fulfilled the inclusion/ exclusion criteria of the study and 210 women fulfilled the Bologna criteria definition for poor ovarian response (POR). Five categories of poor responders were identified by different combinations of the Bologna criteria. There were no significant differences in female age, AFC, AMH, cycle cancellation rate and number of retrieved oocytes between the five groups. The live birth rate ranged between 5.5 and 7.4 % and was not statistically different in the five different categories of women defined as poor responders according to the Bologna criteria. The study demonstrates that the different groups of poor responders based on the Bologna criteria have similar IVF outcomes. This information validates the Bologna criteria definition as women having a uniform poor prognosis and also demonstrates that the Bologna criteria poor responders in the various subgroups represent a homogenous population with similar pre-clinical and clinical outcomes.

  3. Use of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: sensory and color characteristics of low-fat Turkey bologna.

    PubMed

    Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2012-07-01

    The potential of using poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient to substitute either soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna was investigated. PPI was prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat using pH-shift technology and the prepared PPI was added to turkey bologna at 2 different concentrations (1.5% and 2% dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared with those prepared with the addition of 2% SPI, 11% meat protein (control-1), or 13% meat protein (control-2). All the 5 treatments were subjected to sensory analysis to evaluate aroma, appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, firmness, and overall acceptability of the turkey bologna samples using 9-point hedonic scales. A turkey bologna control sample with 11% meat protein appeared to be softer compared to other treatments as revealed by texture profile analysis while purge loss during storage in a retail display case was significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to other treatments. Lightness (L*) value of the products decreased during 4 wk of retail storage. A turkey bologna control sample with 13% meat protein appeared to be darker and more reddish compared to other treatments. Replacing meat protein with protein isolates caused increase in yellowish color of turkey bologna. Sensory analysis concluded that 1.5% PPI and 2% PPI could be used as substitute of SPI or lean meat and the treatments could be improved by increasing saltiness and decreasing firmness. The study revealed that with slight modifications in saltiness, turkey bologna can be prepared with the addition of poultry protein isolates as an acceptable substitute for soy protein isolate or meat protein. This will help to avoid usage of nonmeat ingredients (as SPI substitute) and to reduce the cost of production (as meat protein substitute) of low-fat turkey bologna. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Impact of different visible light spectra on oxygen absorption and surface discoloration of bologna sausage.

    PubMed

    Böhner, Nadine; Rieblinger, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several visible light spectra in various intensities on the oxygen absorption and surface color of sliced bologna. Sausage samples were stored in a gastight model packaging system and illuminated at 5°C with six single-colored LEDs covering the main part of the visible light spectrum. The initial oxygen level was set at 0.5% in order to simulate common residual oxygen amounts in conventional packaging. The oxygen absorption and the discoloration measured as changes in CIE a*-value were dependent from the applied light intensity. The color stability of bologna was differently affected by light of various wavelengths. The results show that the use of suitable LEDs with specific spectra for display illumination can help to reduce the light induced deterioration of cured sausages in retail markets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The 4th Bologna Winter School: Hot Topics in Structural Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The 4th Bologna Winter School on Biotechnologies was held on 9–15 February 2003 at the University of Bologna, Italy, with the specific aim of discussing recent developments in bioinformatics. The school provided an opportunity for students and scientists to debate current problems in computational biology and possible solutions. The course, co-supported (as last year) by the European Science Foundation program on Functional Genomics, focused mainly on hot topics in structural genomics, including recent CASP and CAPRI results, recent and promising genomewide predictions, protein–protein and protein–DNA interaction predictions and genome functional annotation. The topics were organized into four main sections (http://www.biocomp.unibo.it). PMID:18629078

  6. Gian Domenico Cassini in Bologna and his contributions to the assessment of the planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccesi, A.

    1998-10-01

    G. D. Cassini was hired as a professor of astronomy in Bologna in 1649, at the age of only 24, and left for Paris in 1669, when he was 44. We will outline in this Paper his major contributions to astronomy during those year according to the judgement of the scholars : the demonstration of the physical inequality of the Suns motion using the meridian line he had built in the church of S. Petronio and the discovery of Mars and Jupiter rotation. The first result unequivocally dismissed Aristotles celestial mechanics based on uniform circular motions, pointing to the unity of the terrestrial and celestial worlds; the second contributed to renew the debate on whether the dynamical structure of the planetary system was Ptolemaic or Copernican. In this respect, some recently discovered lessons, which Cassini gave in Bologna in the year 1666, appear enlightening. Excerpts are reported and commented upon.

  7. Lemon albedo as a new source of dietary fiber: Application to bologna sausages.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ginés, J M; Fernández-López, J; Sayas-Barberá, E; Sendra, E; Pérez-Álvarez, J A

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of lemon albedo in bologna sausages. Two types of albedo (raw and cooked) and five concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) were added to sausages. Chemical, physicochemical and sensory analyses were made. The addition of albedo to bologna sausages represents an improvement in their nutritional properties and may have beneficial effects, possibly due to the presence of active biocompounds which induce a decrease in residual nitrite levels. The formulations which gave products with sensory properties similar to conventional sausages were sausages with 2.5% and 5% raw albedo and 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% cooked albedo.

  8. Prognosis and cost-effectiveness of IVF in poor responders according to the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Busnelli, Andrea; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2017-09-12

    Poor ovarian response (POR) to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the most challenging issue in the field of reproductive medicine. However, even if improving IVF outcome in poor responders (PORs) represents a main priority, the lack of a unique definition of POR has hampered research in this area. In order to overcome this impediment, an ESHRE Campus Workshop was organized in Bologna in 2010 and reached a consensus on the criteria for the diagnosis of POR ('Bologna criteria'). In this review we aimed to estimate the prognostic potential of the ESHRE definition, to elucidate its possible weaknesses and to analyze the economic aspects of IVF in a population of poor responders (PORs). Available evidence confirmed that the Bologna criteria are able to select a population with a poor IVF prognosis thus supporting their validity. Nonetheless, different aspects of the definition have been criticized. The main points of debate concern the homogeneity of the population identified, the cut-off values chosen for the ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) and the risks factors other than age associated with POR. Data concerning the economic profile of IVF in PORs are scanty. The only published study on the argument showed that IVF in these cases is not cost-effective. However, considering the potential substantial impact of cost-effectiveness analyses on public health policies, there is the need for further and independent validations.

  9. Bologna in Medicine Anno 2012: experiences of European medical schools that implemented a Bologna two-cycle curriculum--an AMEE-MEDINE2 survey.

    PubMed

    Patricio, Madalena; de Burbure, Claire; Costa, Manuel João; Schirlo, Christian; ten Cate, Olle

    2012-01-01

    The 1999 Bologna Agreement implies a European harmonization of higher education using three cycles: bachelor and master before doctorate. Undergraduate medical programmes were restructured in only seven of the 47 countries. Given the debate about a two-cycle system in undergraduate medical education, providing an overview of experiences in medical schools that applied this structure was the purpose of this investigation. In 2009, an AMEE-MEDINE2 survey was carried out among all the 32 medical schools that applied the two-cycle system in medicine. At the end of 2011, a member-check validation using a draft manuscript was carried out to complete an accurate up-to-date impression. All the 32 schools responded initially; 26 schools responded to the second round. All schools had implemented the two-cycle system (all but one in a 3 + 3 year model) with hardly any problems. All reported smaller or larger curriculum improvements, often triggered, but not caused, by the two-cycle system. No school reported that introducing the system interfered with any desired curriculum development, particularly horizontal or vertical integration. In 32 of the 442 medical schools in Bologna signatory countries, introducing a two-cycle model for basic medical education was successfully completed. However, harmonization of medical training in Europe requires further international collaboration.

  10. Trends in young adult mortality in three European cities: Barcelona, Bologna and Munich, 1986-1995

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Pasarin, M; Cirera, E; Klutke, P; Pipitone, E; Plasencia, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—In recent decades, in most European countries young adult mortality has risen, or at best has remained stable. The aim of this study was to describe trends in mortality attributable to the principal causes of death: AIDS, drug overdose, suicide and motor vehicle traffic accidents, among adults aged between 15 and 34 years in three European cities (Barcelona, Bologna and Munich), over the period 1986 to 1995.
METHODS—The population studied consisted of all deaths that occurred between 1986 and 1995 among residents of Barcelona, Bologna and Munich aged from 15 to 34 years. Information about deaths was obtained from mortality registers. The study variables were sex, age, the underlying cause of death and year of death. Causes of death studied were: drug overdose, AIDS, suicide and motor vehicle traffic accidents. Age standardised mortality rates (direct adjustment) were obtained in all three cities for the age range 15-34. To investigate trends in mortality over the study period Poisson regression models were fitted, obtaining the average relative risk (RR) associated with a one year increment.
RESULTS—Young adult mortality increased among men in Barcelona and Bologna (RR per year: 1.04, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 1.03, 1.06 in Barcelona and RR:1.03, 95%CI:1.01, 1.06 in Bologna) and among women in Barcelona (RR:1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04), with a change in the pattern of the main causes of death attributable to the increase in AIDS and drug overdose mortality. In Munich, the pattern did not change as much, suicides being the main cause of death during the 10 years studied, although they have been decreasing since 1988 (RR:0.92, 95%CI:0.88, 0.96 for men and 0.81, 95%CI: 0.75-0.87 for women).
CONCLUSION—The increase in AIDS mortality observed in the three European cities in the mid-80s and mid-90s has yielded to substantial changes in the pattern of the main causes of death at young ages in Barcelona and Bologna. Munich

  11. Striving for Uniformity, Hoping for Innovation and Diversification: A Critical Review Concerning the Bologna Process--Providing an Overview and Reflecting on the Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wihlborg, Monne; Teelken, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the Bologna Process (BP) did not go as smoothly as the Bologna Follow-Up evaluations suggest, and the consequences of the BP for the various European higher education systems and universities are much more diverse than represented in these various studies. Relatively few research and policy documents taking a more critical…

  12. Striving for Uniformity, Hoping for Innovation and Diversification: A Critical Review Concerning the Bologna Process--Providing an Overview and Reflecting on the Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wihlborg, Monne; Teelken, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the Bologna Process (BP) did not go as smoothly as the Bologna Follow-Up evaluations suggest, and the consequences of the BP for the various European higher education systems and universities are much more diverse than represented in these various studies. Relatively few research and policy documents taking a more critical…

  13. To What Extent Does Transnational Communication Drive Cross-National Policy Convergence? The Impact of the Bologna-Process on Domestic Higher Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voegtle, Eva M.; Knill, Christoph; Dobbins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates if transnational communication in the context of the Bologna Process (BP) has led to the convergence of higher education (HE) policies. The country sample includes both Bologna participants and non-participants, for which systematic knowledge about the implications of the BP is absent so far. We investigate study structures…

  14. The Challenge of Bologna: What United States Higher Education Has to Learn from Europe, and Why It Matters That We Learn It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, a declaration formalizing "the European process" was signed at and informally named for Europe's oldest university: Bologna. "The Bologna Process" has transformed higher education in Europe. This book is essential reading for anyone concerned about the ability of America's higher education system to position the…

  15. Effects and interactions of sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and pediocin on the thermal inactivation of starved cells of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of bologna

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects and interactions of temperature (56.3-60C) sodium lactate (SL; 0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SDA; 0-2.5%), and pediocin (0-10,000 AU) on starved Listeria monocytogenes on bologna were investigated. Bologna slices containing SL and SDA in the formulation were dipped in pediocin, surface inoc...

  16. [Implementation of the Bologna system in medical education. Current status and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Lobato, R D; Lagares, A; Alén, J F; Alday, R

    2010-04-01

    The implementation of the European Higher Education Area, (EEES in Spanish) inspired in the Bologna Declaration, pursues the introduction of new teaching and learning paradigms which require deep changes in the frame of superior education and university goals. However, in spite that the main purpose of the EEES is convergence and harmonization of curricula contents and titles throughout Europe in order to facilitate circulation of students and professionals, this goal is far from been reached when we are approaching the deadline for its implementation (year 2010). In addition, this process has led to reduce the total duration of the majority of degrees excepting for medicine and few more. In this article we analyze the underdevelopment of the so called Bologna Process in medical education as compared to other careers. Implementation of curricular innovations seems particularly restrained or threatened in Spain because of legal improvisation, lack of funding, and the chronic apathy of national bodies in medical education. As a consequence, and in contrast with other European countries where deep curricular changes have been already arranged, the majority of Spanish Faculties are at risk of introducing little more than cosmetic modifications in their medicine curricula.

  17. Reforms of the pre-graduate curriculum for medical students: the Bologna process and beyond.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-André

    2012-12-17

    For several years, all five medical faculties of Switzerland have embarked on a reform of their training curricula for two reasons: first, according to a new federal act issued in 2006 by the administration of the confederation, faculties needed to meet international standards in terms of content and pedagogic approaches; second, all Swiss universities and thus all medical faculties had to adapt the structure of their curriculum to the frame and principles which govern the Bologna process. This process is the result of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999 which proposes and requires a series of reforms to make European Higher Education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for Europeans students. The present paper reviews some of the results achieved in the field, focusing on several issues such as the shortage of physicians and primary care practitioners, the importance of public health, community medicine and medical humanities, and the implementation of new training approaches including e-learning and simulation. In the future, faculties should work on several specific challenges such as: students' mobility, the improvement of students' autonomy and critical thinking as well as their generic and specific skills and finally a reflection on how to improve the attractiveness of the academic career, for physicians of both sexes.

  18. LCA of integrated MSW management systems: Case study of the Bologna District

    SciTech Connect

    Buttol, P. Masoni, P.; Bonoli, A.; Goldoni, S.; Belladonna, V.; Cavazzuti, C.

    2007-07-01

    LCA as a decision-supporting tool in planning integrated municipal solid waste management is not, as yet, widely used in Italy. This paper presents a study concerning the application of the LCA methodology to support the development of the new waste management plan for the Bologna District. The main goal of the study was to show decision-makers at the political level the benefits obtainable with the use of LCA, in terms of the identification and quantification of the potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies. The integrated waste management system of the Bologna District includes waste collection and transport, sorting, recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. Three scenarios, referring to 2006 and assuming the presence of 950,000 inhabitants and the production of {approx}566,000 t of waste in the district, have been compared. A detailed model has been developed in order to capture effects related to the waste fraction from separated collection and to the different waste treatments. The discussion of the results has focussed in particular on the greenhouse effect and the acidification potential. On the basis of the results obtained, the analysis of an additional scenario characterised by a further increase in separated collection has been put forward.

  19. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a large city of southeastern Po Valley (Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Tositti, L; Brattich, E; Masiol, M; Baldacci, D; Ceccato, D; Parmeggiani, S; Stracquadanio, M; Zappoli, S

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the results of an experimental research project carried out in Bologna, a midsize town in central Po valley, with the aim at characterizing local aerosol chemistry and tracking the main source emissions of airborne particulate matter. Chemical speciation based upon ions, trace elements, and carbonaceous matter is discussed on the basis of seasonal variation and enrichment factors. For the first time, source apportionment was achieved at this location using two widely used receptor models (principal component analysis/multi-linear regression analysis (PCA/MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF)). Four main aerosol sources were identified by PCA/MLRA and interpreted as: resuspended particulate and a pseudo-marine factor (winter street management), both related to the coarse fraction, plus mixed combustions and secondary aerosol largely associated to traffic and long-lived species typical of the fine fraction. The PMF model resolved six main aerosol sources, interpreted as: mineral dust, road dust, traffic, secondary aerosol, biomass burning and again a pseudo-marine factor. Source apportionment results from both models are in good agreement providing a 30 and a 33% by weight respectively for PCA-MLRA and PMF for the coarse fraction and 70% (PCA-MLRA) and 67% (PMF) for the fine fraction. The episodic influence of Saharan dust transport on PM10 exceedances in Bologna was identified and discussed in term of meteorological framework, composition, and quantitative contribution.

  20. Impact of the Bologna process in Bachelor nursing programmes: The Swedish case.

    PubMed

    Ohlén, Joakim; Furåker, Carina; Jakobsson, Eva; Bergh, Ingrid; Hermansson, Evelyn

    2011-02-01

    The higher education reform in Europe known as the "Bologna Process" implies further harmonisation and integration of nursing programmes into the higher education system. This study explores this process in Sweden, where the development of nursing education into an undergraduate programme started in 1977. The aim of this study was to analyse characteristics of the major subject and its relationship to other subject areas, such as medical sciences and social sciences, in Bachelor level nursing programmes in Sweden following initial implementation of the Bologna process. A constructivist approach and descriptive content analysis were employed to analyse the 2008 nursing curricula and syllabi of 27 undergraduate programmes at 26 Swedish universities and university colleges. The results revealed variation in terms and concepts used for the major subject as well as its scientific foundation, demarcation between the major subject and other subjects included in the study programmes and its relationship to the profession. These variations are linked to the variety of research orientations under debate in the Scandinavian countries: Nursing Science and Caring Science; representing different knowledge domains, focus, challenges and visions for the discipline. Potential implications of basing curricula on a major subject other than Nursing Science in a Bachelor level nursing programme are highlighted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistence and distribution of pesticide residues in fresh agricultural food consumed in the province of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Girotti, Stefano; Ferri, Elida N; Errani, Ermanno

    2009-02-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fresh vegetables and fruit have been qualitatively and quantitatively determined at the laboratories of the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), Division of the Province of Bologna. More than 1,700 samples have been tested by routine analyses. The possible risks for consumers have been evaluated by various parameters. The most important ones were: the amount of each residue; the respective ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) limit; the contemporary presence of different residues; an estimation of the daily intake, based on the amount of fruit and vegetables consumed per person. It has been possible to evaluate that the daily intake of pesticide residues in the province of Bologna during the period 2003-06 resulted lower than the ADI limits concerning the vegetables. According to the information on fruit consumption the daily intake of omethoate (O,O-dimethyl S-methylcarbamoylmethyl phosphorothioate) resulted higher than its ADI limit, of dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(trichloromethyl)benzenemethanol) very close to the admitted limit, under the respective limits for all the other residues.

  2. BoGEMMS: the Bologna Geant4 multi-mission simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Malaguti, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.

    2012-07-01

    BoGEMMS, (Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator) is a software project for fast simulation of payload on board of scientific satellites for prompt background evaluation that has been developed at the INAF/IASF Bologna. By exploiting the Geant4 set of libraries, BoGEMMS allows to interactively set the geometrical and physical parameters (e.g. physics list, materials and thicknesses), recording the interactions (e.g. energy deposit, position, interacting particle) in NASA FITS and CERN root format output files and filtering the output as a real observation in space, to finally produce the background detected count rate and spectra. Four different types of output can be produced by the BoGEMMS capturing different aspects of the interactions. The simulator can also run in parallel jobs and store the results in a centralized server via xrootd protocol. The BoGEMMS is a multi-mission tool, generally designed to be applied to any high-energy mission for which the shielding and instruments performances analysis is required.

  3. Design of the Curriculum for a Second-Cycle Course in Civil Engineering in the Context of the Bologna Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the curriculum for a Master of Engineering programme in civil engineering at University College Dublin. The revised programme was established to meet the requirements of the Bologna process and this paper specifically considers the design of a new, second-cycle master's component of the programme. In addition to…

  4. The Bologna Process as a Hegemonic Tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE): The Case of Chilean and Mexican Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Francis Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two "hegemonic tools": the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as…

  5. Teacher Education Curricula after the Bologna Process--A Comparative Analysis of Written Curricula in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakku-Sihvonen, Ritva; Tissari, Varpu; Ots, Aivar; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    During the Bologna process, from 2003 to 2006, degree programmes, including teacher education curricula, were developed in line with the two-tier system--the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and modularization. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the development of teacher education profiling measures by…

  6. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  7. Organizational Culture in the Adoption of the Bologna Process: A Study of Academic Staff at a Ukrainian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2013-01-01

    The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a state-centred model of higher education. The…

  8. Initial Science Teacher Education in Portugal: The Thoughts of Teacher Educators about the Effects of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Between the 1980s and 2007, Portugal used to have one-stage (5-year period) initial teacher education (ITE) programs. In 2007 and consistent with the Bologna process guidelines, Portuguese teacher education moved toward a two-stage model, which includes a 3-year undergraduate program of subject matter that leads to a "licenciatura" (or…

  9. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  10. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  11. The Bologna Process as a Hegemonic Tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE): The Case of Chilean and Mexican Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Francis Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two "hegemonic tools": the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as…

  12. Changing Meanings of "The Europe of Knowledge" and "Modernizing the University," from Bologna to the "New Lisbon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how the meaning of the phrases "Europe of Knowledge" and "modernization of the University" have changed since the Bologna Declaration. In terms of the former, the Europe of Knowledge is now seen essentially as a regionally based and governed space of innovation, which includes, but is by no…

  13. Has the Bologna Process Been Worthwhile? An Analysis of the Learning Society-Adapted Outcome Index through Quantile Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Sainz, A.; García-Merino, J. D.; Urionabarrenetxea, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to discover whether the performance of university students has improved in the wake of the changes in higher education introduced by the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and the construction of the European Higher Education Area. A principal component analysis is used to construct a multi-dimensional performance variable called the…

  14. Towards the Two-Cycle Degree Structure: Bologna, Reform and Path Dependency in German and Norwegian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara M.; Michelsen, Svein; Vabo, Agnete

    2010-01-01

    This article describes and analyses changes made in the organisation of higher education studies in Germany and Norway, following the recommendations of the Bologna Declaration. In both countries, the characteristic modes of university study have been circumscribed by the tradition of Humboldtian values and ideals, albeit to a different extent. On…

  15. Changing Meanings of "The Europe of Knowledge" and "Modernizing the University," from Bologna to the "New Lisbon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how the meaning of the phrases "Europe of Knowledge" and "modernization of the University" have changed since the Bologna Declaration. In terms of the former, the Europe of Knowledge is now seen essentially as a regionally based and governed space of innovation, which includes, but is by no…

  16. Design of the Curriculum for a Second-Cycle Course in Civil Engineering in the Context of the Bologna Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the curriculum for a Master of Engineering programme in civil engineering at University College Dublin. The revised programme was established to meet the requirements of the Bologna process and this paper specifically considers the design of a new, second-cycle master's component of the programme. In addition to…

  17. Bologna in Context: A Horizontal Perspective on the Dynamics of Governance Sites for a Europe of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornitzka, Ase

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a horizontal perspective on the dynamics of governance sites currently active for the European of Knowledge and places the Bologna process in this wider European level context. It introduces two dynamics of change in political organisation: (a) institutional differentiation and specialisation and (b) the interaction between…

  18. Bologna in Context: A Horizontal Perspective on the Dynamics of Governance Sites for a Europe of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornitzka, Ase

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a horizontal perspective on the dynamics of governance sites currently active for the European of Knowledge and places the Bologna process in this wider European level context. It introduces two dynamics of change in political organisation: (a) institutional differentiation and specialisation and (b) the interaction between…

  19. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  20. Benzene, an experimental multipotential carcinogen: results of the long-term bioassays performed at the Bologna Institute of Oncology.

    PubMed Central

    Maltoni, C; Ciliberti, A; Cotti, G; Conti, B; Belpoggi, F

    1989-01-01

    In 1976, a systematic and integrated project of long-term carcinogenicity bioassays began at the Bentivoglio Experimental Unit of the Bologna Institute of Oncology. The Bologna experiments proved for the first time that benzene is an experimental carcinogen. These experiments demonstrated that benzene is carcinogenic when administered by ingestion and by inhalation and that it cause tumors in the various tested animal models (Sprague-Dawley rats, Wistar rats, Swiss mice, and RF/J mice). They also showed that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen, as it produces a variety of neoplasias in one or more of the tested animal models, including Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, nasal cavities, skin, forestomach, and mammary glands, as well as angiosarcomas of the liver, hemolymphoreticular neoplasias, tumors of the lung, and possibly hepatomas. The Bologna experiments also indicated a clear-cut dose-response relationship in benzene carcinogenesis. This report presents the up-to-date results of the Bologna project. The need for more experimental research aimed at assessing the carcinogenic effects of low doses of benzene, of chemical mixtures containing benzene, and of benzene substitutes is emphasized. Also recommended are more comprehensive epidemiological investigations, extended to all types of malignancies, with particular regard to lung carcinomas. PMID:2792037

  1. Making Higher Education More European through Student Mobility? Revisiting EU Initiatives in the Context of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of student mobility in the EU as a means to stimulate convergence of diverse higher education systems. The argument is based on official texts and other texts of political communication of the European Commission. The following discussion is placed within the current context of the Bologna process and its aim to…

  2. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  3. Has the Bologna Process Been Worthwhile? An Analysis of the Learning Society-Adapted Outcome Index through Quantile Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Sainz, A.; García-Merino, J. D.; Urionabarrenetxea, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to discover whether the performance of university students has improved in the wake of the changes in higher education introduced by the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and the construction of the European Higher Education Area. A principal component analysis is used to construct a multi-dimensional performance variable called the…

  4. Global References, Local Translation: Adaptation of the Bologna Process Degree Structure and Credit System at Universities in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor; Vubo, Emmanuel Yenshu

    2016-01-01

    This article uses temporal comparison and thematic analytical approaches to analyse text documents and interviews, examining the adaptation of the Bologna Process degree structure and credit system in two sub-systems of education in Cameroon: the Anglo-Saxon and the French systems. The central aim is to verify whether such adaptation has replaced,…

  5. From Voluntary Participation to Monitored Coordination: Why European Countries Feel Increasingly Bound by Their Commitment to the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravinet, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in the year 2000, higher education policies all over Europe were transformed by the launching and evolution of the Bologna Process, otherwise known as the process of creating a European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Initially, this process was flexible and informal, which makes the rapidity and scope of the changes it brought about…

  6. Global References, Local Translation: Adaptation of the Bologna Process Degree Structure and Credit System at Universities in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor; Vubo, Emmanuel Yenshu

    2016-01-01

    This article uses temporal comparison and thematic analytical approaches to analyse text documents and interviews, examining the adaptation of the Bologna Process degree structure and credit system in two sub-systems of education in Cameroon: the Anglo-Saxon and the French systems. The central aim is to verify whether such adaptation has replaced,…

  7. Initial Science Teacher Education in Portugal: The Thoughts of Teacher Educators about the Effects of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Between the 1980s and 2007, Portugal used to have one-stage (5-year period) initial teacher education (ITE) programs. In 2007 and consistent with the Bologna process guidelines, Portuguese teacher education moved toward a two-stage model, which includes a 3-year undergraduate program of subject matter that leads to a "licenciatura" (or…

  8. From Voluntary Participation to Monitored Coordination: Why European Countries Feel Increasingly Bound by Their Commitment to the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravinet, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in the year 2000, higher education policies all over Europe were transformed by the launching and evolution of the Bologna Process, otherwise known as the process of creating a European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Initially, this process was flexible and informal, which makes the rapidity and scope of the changes it brought about…

  9. [Potentially avoidable hospitalisation in Bologna, 1997-2000: temporal trend and differences by income level].

    PubMed

    Pirani, Monica; Schifano, Patrizia; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina; Caranci, Nicola; Perucci, Carlo Alberto

    2006-01-01

    To describe the temporal trend of hospitalisations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs) from 1997 to 2000 in Bologna (Italy) and to analyze the association with the income level. We have selected two panels of ACSCs: eight conditions for the paediatric/young population (<20 years of age) and fourteen for the adult population (> or =20 years of age). All discharges for ACSCs of residents in Bologna from Emilia-Romagna hospitals have been selected in the years 1997-2000. An indicator of social position was computed: the median per capita equivalent income by census block, obtained through record linkage between the Italian Tax Register (income earned in 1998) and the Population Register of Bologna. The direct age-standardized rates and the rate ratio by income level have been calculated. The Poisson regression model has been used to calculate the relative risk (RR) of hospitalizations for ACSCs. 2359 (17.6% of the total) hospitalisations have been selected among the paediatric/young population and 27822 (11.1% of the total) among the adult population. The annual age-adjusted rate of ACSC is 122.68 per 10000 persons among children and 176.60 among adults. The hospitalisation forACSCs among children is associated with a middle-low level of income (RR 1.55; CI 95% 1.35-1.78 for the lowest level vs. highest level), male gender and age <5 years old. In the adult population the risk of hospitalisation for ACSCs is higher among those with lower levels of income (RR 1.80; CI 95% 1.66-1.95 for the lowest level vs. highest level), moreover the RR is higher for men at every age. The admissions forACSCs among adults show a decreasing temporal trend. The disadvantaged groups of the population experience the highest risk of hospitalisation for ACSCs, with differences by gender and age groups. Although it is difficult to specifically identify the mechanisms potentially involved in the relationship between socioeconomic status and excess of hospitalisation, the

  10. Techniques and methods to guarantee Bologna-conform higher education in GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna Declaration is aiming for student-centered, outcome-related, and competence-based teaching. In order to fulfill these demands, deep level learning techniques should be used to meet the needs of adult-compatible and self-determined learning. The presentation will summarize selected case studies carried out in the framework of the lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" of the Geodetic Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruhe, Germany). The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The lecture course was migrated starting from a classically designed geodetic lecture course, which consisted of a well-adapted combination of teacher-centered classroom lectures and practical training (e.g., field exercises). The recent Bologna-conform blended learning concepts supports and motivates students to learn more sustainable using online and classroom learning methods. Therefore, an appropriate combination of - classroom lectures: Students and teacher give lectures - practical training: Students select topics individually - online learning: ILIAS (learning management system) is used as data, result, and communication platform. The framing didactical method is based on the so-called anchored instruction approach. Within this approach, an up-to-date scientific GNSS-related paper dealing with the large-scale geodetic project "Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link" is used as anchor. The students have to read the paper individually in the beginning of the semester. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them. At the end of the

  11. The PHARMINE study on the impact of the European Union directive on sectoral professions and of the Bologna declaration on pharmacy education in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart

    The Bologna declaration and the European Union (EU) directive 2005/36/EC on the recognition of professional qualifications influence the mobility of pharmacy students and pharmacy professionals, respectively. In addition the Bologna declaration aims at tuning higher education degrees including pharmacy throughout the EU in order to prepare for a harmonised European Higher Education Area. The directive outlines the knowledge, skills and qualifications required for the pursuit of the professional activity of a pharmacy in the EU. The PHARMINE project (Pharmacy Education in Europe, www.pharmine.org) looked at how the Bologna declaration and the directive influence modern-day pharmacy education and training in Europe. PMID:24198855

  12. Reproductive behavior during the pre-transitional period: evidence from rural Bologna.

    PubMed

    Rettaroli, Rosella; Scalone, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal, micro-level study of the effect of socioeconomic transformations on fertility mechanisms in the rural hinterland of Bologna between 1818 and 1900 (the beginning of the demographic transition) demonstrates that the premature death of a last-born child reduces the interval between two consecutive childbirths. Thus does it confirm the importance of breast-feeding in determining birth spacing. Women living in complex sharecropping households experienced a significantly higher risk of childbirth than did women in families headed by daily wage earners. In addition, the reproductive behavior of sharecroppers seemed to be substantially invariant to short-term ºuctuations in prices, whereas the laborers' group experienced a negative price effect. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses indicate a slight and gradual decrease in fertility levels during the period in question.

  13. 4th European Seminars in Virology on Oncogenic and Oncolytic Viruses, in Bertinoro (Bologna), Italy.

    PubMed

    Reale, Alberto; Messa, Lorenzo; Vitiello, Adriana; Loregian, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    The 4th European Seminars in Virology (EuSeV), which was focused on oncogenic and oncolytic viruses, was held in Bertinoro (Bologna), Italy, from June 10 to 12, 2016. This article summarizes the plenary lectures and aims to illustrate the main topics discussed at 4th EuSeV, which brought together knowledge and expertise in the field of oncogenic and oncolytic viruses from all over the world. The meeting was divided in two parts, "Mechanisms of Viral Oncogenesis" and "Viral Oncolysis and Immunotherapy," which were both focused on dissecting the complex and multi-factorial interplay between cancer and human viruses and on exploring new anti-cancer strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2641-2648, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. European nursing students' academic success or failure: a post-Bologna Declaration systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dante, Angelo; Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the available evidence in the European scientific literature produced after the Bologna Declaration and to evaluate studies that quantify and examine the factors associated with the academic success or failure of nursing students. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Major health literature databases were searched for studies published from 2000 to 2011. This review includes only European observational studies that were submitted to a quality assessment by two researchers before inclusion. Only five studies were included in this review. There are discordant results regarding the predictors of success or failure, which were common objects of study (gender, age, qualification on entry, ethnic group). other factors were studied individually (student personality, gendered view of nursing careers, intention to leave, family commitments, working while on course, student performance, clinical learning environment) need to be confirmed in additional studies. Although the predictors may be relevant at the local level, given their low external validity and the conflicting results, it is not possible to state with certainty that these factors are effectively predictive of success or failure in the context of post-Bologna Declaration Europe. This review showed that over the last ten years, in the European context, only a few high-quality observational studies have been performed. In this regard, given the small number and heterogeneity of the available studies, there is little useful evidence available for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to effectively address the problem. In the future, European researchers should focus not only on the documentation of the predictors but also on the documentation of the outcomes produced by the HEI strategies that have been implemented to prevent avoidable academic failure and contain physiological academic failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Dominic G.; Davidson, Jane W.; Nair, Chenicheri S.

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  16. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Dominic G; Davidson, Jane W; Nair, Chenicheri S

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  17. Urology at the European university: adaptations to the Bologna Plan. The model of the Autonomous University of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Vela-Navarrete, R; Carballido, J; Gonzalez-Enguita, C; Olivier Gómez, C; Rodríguez de Betancourt, F

    2015-09-01

    The fundamental objective of the Convergence Plan of Bologna is to normalize, harmonize and standardize the teaching of medicine in European medical schools by implementing a similar curriculum. This objective assumes the presence of Urology as a university discipline in all European medical schools. At the same time, the teaching techniques and subject distributions have been modified, emphasizing practical teaching and active participation of the student in the acquisition of expertise and skills. This approach enhances the curricular presence of Urology and requires increased dedication from the teaching staff. These staff members, with limited face-to-face and classroom time, must inform and educate medical students on the broad healthcare commitment of urology as a surgical/medical specialty. The adaptation of the numerous European medical schools to the Bologna Plan raises a number of problems that can be easily overcome, as can be seen in the plan designed by the Faculty of Medicine at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.

  18. Anthropometric variables, lifestyle and sports in school-age children: comparison between the cities of Bologna and Crotone.

    PubMed

    Toselli, S; Brasili, P; Iuliano, T; Spiga, F

    2014-12-01

    Weight disorders are rapidly increasing in childhood. In Italy a strong geographic North-South gradient of overweight and obesity has been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine anthropometric variables, physical activity and lifestyles in school-age children in the cities of Bologna and Crotone. The sample consists of 963 children attending primary schools, aged 6-10 years. Height, weight, triceps, and subscapular skinfolds were measured for each child; body mass index (BMI) and percentage of fat mass were calculated. Physical activity was determined through an interview with each child. Another questionnaire was submitted to parents, in order to obtain information on sleep duration, means of transport and type of physical activity. In the city of Bologna, the mean values of anthropometric variables were: height (boys - 1,335 mm, girls - 1,332 mm), BMI (boys - 17.8 kg/m(2), girls - 17.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 20.6%, girls - 12.7%. In Crotone the mean values were: height (boys - 1,275 mm, girls - 1,265 mm), BMI (boys - 19.4 kg/m(2), girls - 19.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 46.7%, girls - 49.0%. The results have demonstrated significant correlations of lifestyle and physical activity with children's weight status. In Crotone there is a larger variation of weight disorders with higher percentages of overweight children than in Bologna. The children in Crotone are engaged in sedentary activities for a significantly longer time than children in Bologna, who are more physically active. The data show a strong North-South gradient concerning not only distribution of weight status, but also lifestyles especially including participation in sports and sedentary behavior. Our study also provides meaningful suggestions how to define lifestyles in order to achieve an optimal health status during growth.

  19. Initial Science Teacher Education in Portugal: The Thoughts of Teacher Educators About the Effects of the Bologna Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2016-12-01

    Between the 1980s and 2007, Portugal used to have one-stage (5-year period) initial teacher education (ITE) programs. In 2007 and consistent with the Bologna process guidelines, Portuguese teacher education moved toward a two-stage model, which includes a 3-year undergraduate program of subject matter that leads to a licenciatura (or bachelor) degree and a 3-year professional master in the teaching of a subject. The way that teacher educators perceive the ITE programs effects the education of prospective teachers and consequently the future of science education. This paper aims at analyzing how science teacher educators perceived the changes that took place in this formal way of educating junior school (7th-9th grades) and high school (10th-12th grades) science teachers in Portugal, due to the implementation of the Bologna guidelines. To attain the objectives of the study, 33 science teacher educators including science specialists and science education specialists answered an open-ended online questionnaire, which focused on the strengths and weaknesses of the pre- and post-Bologna ITE programs, the overall quality of teacher education and measures for improving ITE. The results indicate that science teacher educators were quite happy with all of the ITE models, but they expressed the belief that both the science and the teaching practice components should be strengthened in the post-Bologna masters in teaching. Meanwhile, changes were introduced in Portuguese educational laws, and they proved to be consistent with the opinions of the participants. However, the professional development of teacher educators along with evidence-based ITE programs seems to be necessary conditions for overcoming the challenges that teacher education is still facing in Portugal and worldwide.

  20. Balancing Bologna: opportunities for university teaching that integrates academic and practical learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Lorenz; Pflug, Verena; Brandenburg, Christiane; Guggenberger, Thomas; Mentler, Axel; Wurzinger, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the Bologna Process, the quality of university teaching has become more prominent in the discourse on higher education. More attention is now paid to didactics and methods and learner-oriented modes of teaching are introduced. The application of knowledge, practical skills and in consequence the employability of university graduates have become requirements for university teaching. Yet, the lecture-style approach still dominates European universities, although empirical evidence confirms that student-centred, interdisciplinary and experiential learning is more effective. Referring to the learning taxonomy introduced by Bloom, we argue that standard approaches rarely move beyond the learning level of comprehension and fail to reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Considering the rapid changes and multiple challenges society faces today, responsible practitioners and scientists who can improve the current management of natural resources are urgently needed. Universities are expected to equip their graduates with the necessary skills to reflect and evaluate their actions when addressing 'real world' problems in order to improve impact and relevance of their work. Higher education thus faces the challenge of providing multi-level learning opportunities for students with diverse practical and theoretical learning needs. In this study, we reflect on three cases of university teaching attempting to bridge theory and practice and based on the principles of systemic, problem based learning. The described courses focus on organic farming, rural development and landscape planning and take place in Uganda, Nicaragua and Italy. We show that being part of a real-world community of stakeholders requires hands-on learning and the reflection and evaluation of actions. This prepares students in a more effective and realistic way for their future roles as responsible decision makers in complex social, economic and ecological systems. We

  1. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    PubMed

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  2. The Bologna-Oxford total ankle replacement: a mid-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A; Martinelli, N; Sartorelli, E; Malerba, F

    2012-06-01

    The Bologna-Oxford (BOX) total ankle replacement (TAR) was developed with the aim of achieving satisfactory pain-free movement of the ankle. To date, only one single multicentre study has reported its clinical results. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent review of its mid-term results. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 60 prospectively followed patients in whom 62 BOX TARs had been implanted between 2004 and 2008. We used the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score to assess the clinical results. Standardised radiographs taken at the time of final follow-up were analysed by two observers. The overall survival was 91.9% at a mean follow-up of 42.5 months (24 to 71). The mean AOFAS score had improved from 35.1 points (sd 16.6; 4 to 73) pre-operatively to 78.0 (sd 10.7; 57 to 100) at final follow-up (p < 0.01). Tibial radiolucencies < 2 mm in width were seen around 16 TARs. Talar radiolucencies < 2 mm were seen around four TARs. A total of 47 patients (78.3%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. Five patients required revision for functional limitation or continuing pain.

  3. Report of the MEDINE2 Bachelor of Medicine (Bologna First Cycle) tuning project.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael T; Nikolić, Nebojša; Peeraer, Griet; Murt, Ahmet; Kroiča, Juta; Elcin, Melih; Hope, David; Cumming, Allan D

    2014-04-01

    European Higher Education institutions are expected to adopt a three-cycle system of Bachelor, Master and Doctor degrees as part of the Bologna Process. Tuning methodology was previously used by the MEDINE Thematic Network to gain consensus on core learning outcomes (LO) for primary medical degrees (Master of Medicine) across Europe. The current study, undertaken by the MEDINE2 Thematic Network, sought to explore stakeholder opinions on core LO for Bachelor of Medicine degrees. Key stakeholders were invited to indicate, on a Likert scale, to what extent they thought students should have achieved each of the Master of Medicine LO upon successful completion of the first three years of university education in medicine (Bachelor of Medicine). There were 560 responses to the online survey, representing medical students, academics, graduates, employers, patients, and virtually all EU countries. There was broad consensus between respondents that all LO previously defined for primary medical degrees should be achieved to some extent by the end of the first three years. The findings promote integration of undergraduate medical curricula, and also offer a common framework and terminology for discussing what a European Bachelor of Medicine graduate can and cannot do, promoting mobility, graduate employability and patient safety.

  4. The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of "social and communicative competencies" (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students' cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment.

  5. Risk of psychosis and internal migration: Results from the Bologna First Episode Psychosis study.

    PubMed

    Tarricone, Ilaria; Boydell, Jane; Kokona, Arnisa; Triolo, Federico; Gamberini, Lisa; Sutti, Enrico; Marchetta, Michela; Menchetti, Marco; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig; Berardi, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Incidence of psychotic disorders is higher in many migrant groups; however little is known about internal migrants (IM). This study aims to describe the IR in natives (NA), IM and external migrants (EM). All patients aged 18-64years, with First Episode Psychosis (FEP), who made contact with the Bologna West psychiatric services, between 2002 and 2010, were included. 187 cases were included. Age and sex adjusted IR of psychosis per 100,000per year were: 12.6 for NA, 25.3 for IM and 21.4 for EM. The IRR was 1.93 (1.19-3.13, P=0.007) for IM and 1.79 (1.06-3.02, P=0.03) for EM compared to NA. Rates of psychosis were significantly elevated in IM as well as in EM. This result adds evidence as to the role of migration itself (versus ethnicity) on the risk of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment. PMID:24062811

  7. Measurements @ Sub-Mm Spectroscopy Laboratory of Bologna: Rotational Spectroscopy Applied to Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzzarini, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    The physico-chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere has been one of the main subjects of studies over last years. In particular, the composition of the atmosphere is indeed very important to understand chemical processes linked to depletion of stratospheric ozone and greenhouse effect. The vertical concentration profiles of atmospheric gases can be provided by remote sensing measurements, but they require the accurate knowledge of the parameters involved: line positions, transition intensities, pressure-broadened half-widths, pressure-induced frequency shifts and their temperature dependence. In particular, the collisional broadening parameters have a crucial influence on the accuracy of spectra calculations and on reduction of remote sensing data. Rotational spectroscopy, thanks to its intrinsic high resolution, is a powerful tool for providing most of the information mentioned above: accurate or even very accurate rotational transition frequencies, accurate spectroscopic as well as hyperfine parameters, accurate pressure-broadening coefficients and their temperature dependence. With respect to collisional phenomena and line shape analysis studies, by applying the source frequency modulation technique it has been found that rotational spectroscopy may provide very good results: not only this technique does not produce uncontrollable instrumental distortions or broadenings, but also, having an high sensitivity, it is particularly suitable for this kind of investigations. A number of examples will be presented to illustrate the work carried out at the Laboratory of Millimeter/submillimeter-wave Spectroscopy of Bologna in the field of atmospheric studies.

  8. Chymical Exotica in the Seventeenth Century, or, How to Make the Bologna Stone.

    PubMed

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2016-05-01

    The Bologna Stone, a mineral that became luminescent after chymical treatment, represents one of several "chymical exotica" eagerly sought by natural philosophers of the seventeenth century. Curiously, by mid-century the way to make it luminescent was considered a "lost secret" even though several methods had been repeatedly published. This disconnect between published recipes and experimental failures was explained in part by the investigations of Wilhelm Homberg (1653-1715), later the leading chymist of the Académie Royale des Sciences, and in part by the present author's modern reproduction of Homberg's process. This paper describes both endeavours, and explores the often-overlooked difficulties presented by even "trivial" materials involved in experimentation, and how practical reproduction of historical processes (including visits to important locales) can provide a deeper and more vivid understanding of texts as part of our project to better understand the past. It concludes by reflecting on the importance of maintaining a balance between the material and the intellectual when writing the history of chemistry.

  9. Collaboration Between Mental Health Services and Primary Care: The Bologna Project

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, Domenico; Leggieri, Giuseppe; Menchetti, Marco; Ferrari, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    Overview: Management of anxiety and depressive disorders within the community necessitates collaboration between mental health services and primary care. While cooperative projects do exist in many countries, Italy's National Health System does not have a program designed to address this issue. In Bologna, a cooperative project arose as a spontaneous undertaking between mental health professionals and primary care physicians. A model of collaboration was designed specifically for the Italian National Health System, consisting of a network of primary care liaison services (PCLSs) instituted within the community mental health services. PCLSs are managed by a staff of specially trained mental health care professionals and are designed to facilitate communication between physicians, and they provide continual and multifaceted support consisting of diagnostic assessment and focused clinical intervention. PCLSs also provide formal consultation-liaison meetings and a telephone consultation service designed to promote communication and enrich diagnostic assessment and treatment. Discussion: PCLSs are innovative, not only because they represent one of the first collaborative efforts in Italy to date, but also because of their innovative design, which is specific for the Italian National Health System. Overall, the project yielded a good result. Primary care physicians utilized the service extensively, and together with psychiatric personnel were satisfied with the outcome. These results, when compared with the traditional separation between the 2 services, are encouraging. Our model could be adapted for most communities in Italy, but must be preceded by shared recognition of local need. PMID:15014669

  10. Risk of infection associated with microbiological quality of public swimming pools in Bologna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Leoni, E; Legnani, P; Guberti, E; Masotti, A

    1999-09-01

    Twelve public swimming pools in Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) were investigated for the microbiological quality of water and surfaces of the pool edges, showers and changing rooms. At the same time a cross-sectional study was carried out on the health of 238 users (bathers) compared with 238 controls who practised sports other than swimming. Data regarding duration and frequency of exposure, behaviour and recent medical history were gathered by means of a questionnaire. All participants also underwent a medical examination. Compliance of the pool water to the microbiological standards set by Italian regulations was generally good; compliance was total when free chlorine residual was within the recommended limits. However, when analysis was extended to the various surfaces, potentially pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were isolated. Eye burning and diarrhoea were the only declared symptoms and verrucas the only diagnosed disease showing statistically significant differences between bathers and controls. Verrucas tended to increase in proportion to exposure. Athlete's foot had a very high prevalence among both bathers (34 %) and controls (27.3%) and controls (27%). The environmental and epidemiological investigations both confirmed the risk of infection, mainly associated with the contamination of surfaces.

  11. Palliative Care Training and Research: The Development in Europe and the Bologna Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, Deborah; Brighi, Nicole; Muciarelli, Pier-Angelo; Biasco, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Development of palliative care (PC) culture spur the need of proper and formal training. Palliative medicine is not fully recognized as an academic medical discipline due to its humanistic influences, and studies show that physicians declare to be not prepared to provide care and pain management to dying patients. Nowadays, despite leading countries in PC being considered more innovative than other countries,such as Italy, facts show that the achievement of acknowledged discipline went through a long process. In Italy,professionals from about 450 PC units and organizations need to receive a proper and homogeneous training. In Italy, palliative medicine official certification is an undergoing process advocated by a few organizations and in Bologna the Academy of the Sciences of Palliative Medicine operates since 2007 with the defined mission of developing PC culture, also within the University. In order to be as much effective in pursuing its mission, the Academy has strengthened several international cooperation programs and today is leader in PC professional training and research in Italy. The recent law and its feasibility is fastening the process of development of Palliative Care Culture in Italy even if training is not properly regulated and official certification for physician is under evaluation. In Europe, the European Association of Palliative Care is stressing the need for training programs in palliative medicine and the outcomes of the dedicated task force on official certification and specialty in Palliative Medicine will remarkably force policy makers and national councils to officially recognize the discipline. PMID:23766591

  12. Bioclimatic characterisation of an urban area: a case study in Bologna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Tibaldi, Stefano; Scotto, Fabiana; Lauriola, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Summer bioclimatic discomfort is a significant public health problem. Bioclimatic characterisations of populations living in urban areas are usually very poor, although the risks are relatively higher in cities because of the phenomenon known as the "urban heat island". We compared airport, rural, and urban bioclimatic conditions in terms of apparent temperature, Thom index, and temperature alone in several sites within a radius of approximately 25 km from the city of Bologna (Italy). The comparison between meteorological monitoring stations within and near the urban area showed the large impact of the urban heat island effect. Nighttime data showed the largest differences among the investigated sites. Minimum apparent temperatures at rural stations were about 3.5 degrees C lower than the urban 30 m reference station, and 6 degrees C lower than the 2 m urban site. The 2 m apparent temperature values within the urban area were several degrees higher (typically 2 degrees C) than those taken above the roof, both for minimum and maximum values. Temporal trends in the different sites were highly correlated (generally above 0.90), but regression residuals were sometimes quite large. Finally, epidemiological implications are briefly addressed.

  13. A retrospective evaluation of prognosis and cost-effectiveness of IVF in poor responders according to the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Busnelli, Andrea; Papaleo, Enrico; Del Prato, Diana; La Vecchia, Irene; Iachini, Eleonora; Paffoni, Alessio; Candiani, Massimo; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2015-02-01

    Do the Bologna criteria for poor responders successfully identify women with poor IVF outcome? The Bologna criteria effectively identify a population with a uniformly low chance of success. Women undergoing IVF who respond poorly to ovarian hyper-stimulation have a low chance of success. Even if improving IVF outcome in this population represents a main priority, the lack of a unique definition of the condition has hampered research in this area. To overcome this impediment, a recent expert meeting in Bologna proposed a new definition of poor responders ('Bologna criteria'). However, data supporting the relevance of this definition in clinical practice are scanty. Retrospective study of women undergoing IVF-ICSI between January 2010 and December 2012 in two independent infertility units. Women could be included if they fulfilled the definition of poor ovarian response (POR) according to Bologna criteria prior to initiation of the cycle. Women were included only for one cycle. The main outcome was the live birth rate per started cycle. The perspective of the cost analysis was the one of the health provider. Three-hundred sixty-two women from two independent Infertility Units were selected. A binomial distribution model was used to calculate the 95% CI of the rate of success. Characteristics of women who did and did not obtain a live birth were compared. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for confounders. The economic analysis included costs for pharmacological compounds and for the IVF procedure. The benefits were estimated on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). To develop the model, we used the local life-expectancy tables, we applied a 3% discount of life years gained and we used a 0.07 improvement in quality of life associated with parenthood. Sensitivity analyses were performed varying the improvement of the quality of life and including/excluding the male partner. The reference values for cost-effectiveness were the Italian and the local (Lombardy

  14. Skeletal evidence of tuberculosis in a modern identified human skeletal collection (Certosa cemetery, Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Valentina; Zuppello, Micol; Pedrosi, Maria Elena; Bettuzzi, Matteo; Brancaccio, Rosa; Peccenini, Eva; Morigi, Maria Pia; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in osteoarcheological series relies on the identification of osseous lesions caused by the disease. The study of identified skeletal collections provides the opportunity to investigate the distribution of skeletal lesions in relation to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the skeletal evidence for TB in late adolescent and adult individuals from the identified human collection of the Certosa cemetery of Bologna (Italy, 19th-20th c.). The sample group consists of 244 individuals (138 males, 106 females) ranging from 17 to 88 years of age. The sample was divided into three groups on the basis of the recorded cause of death: TB (N = 64), pulmonary non-TB (N = 29), and other diseases (N = 151). Skeletal lesions reported to be related to TB were analyzed. The vertebral lesions were classified into three types: enlarged foramina (EnF, vascular foramina with diameter of 3-5 mm), erosions (ER), and other foramina (OtF, cavities of various shapes > 3 mm). A CT scan analysis was also performed on vertebral bodies. Some lesions were seldom present in our sample (e.g., tuberculous arthritis). OtF (23.7%) and subperiosteal new bone formation on ribs (54.2%) are significantly more frequent in the TB group with respect to the other groups. The CT scan analysis showed that the vertebrae of individuals who have died of TB may have internal cavities in the absence of external lesions. These traits represent useful elements in the paleopathological diagnosis of TB.

  15. Effect of biofilm dryness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms grown on stainless steel to bologna and hard salami.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes continues to be a major cause of class I food recalls in the United States. Very little is known about its transfer and cross-contamination in processing scenarios. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydration level on L. monocytogenes biofilms grown on stainless steel and its effect on the biofilm transfer to foods. Biofilms were grown on stainless steel in diluted tryptic soy broth 1:20 for 48 h at 32 degrees C. After this, biofilms were equilibrated over saturated salt solutions at 20 degrees C for 24 h (94, 75, 58, and 33% relative humidity; % RH) prior to transferring. Transfer experiments were conducted from inoculated stainless steel to bologna and hard salami at a constant pressure (45 kPa) and time (30 s) with a universal testing machine. The experiment was designed with a factorial design 4 x 2 (biofilms equilibrated at 4% RH and two foods) and duplicated every day, and the whole experiment was repeated nine times. The results were analyzed with an analysis of variance by SAS Statistical Analysis Software. Our results showed that more bacteria were transferred to bologna (mean efficiency of transfer [EOT] = 3.0) than to hard salami (mean EOT = 0.35, P < 0.01). As biofilms became drier, the transfer of Listeria from stainless steel to both foods increased (P < 0.05). The EOT increased from 2 to 3.8 and from 0.2 to 0.51 upon transfer when drying the biofilm for bologna and hard salami, respectively. This study may be an indication that as biofilms were dried, the cell-cell and cell-surface interactions became weaker, and bacterial transfer increased. This phenomenon was enhanced in foods containing higher water activity levels. We hypothesize that this increased in transfer was due to the presence of capillary forces in the food.

  16. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an "active" or "in remission with treatment" form of NFLE. Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7-4.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.8-3.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 11-13 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. This epidemiologic study establishes that NFLE is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Two-cycle curriculum - bachelor-master structure according to the Bologna agreement: the Swiss experience in Basle

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Hedwig J; Kiessling, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In the autumn of 2006, the first cohort of students started with the bachelor programme in Basle. The whole curriculum had to be changed from the old system to the new two-cycle system. The implementation of the Bologna reform in Switzerland has been successful especially with regard to the very tight time schedule. Ongoing evaluation will detect fields for improvement which will of course arise in such a fundamental process of change. A major challenge for the future will be the sustainable consolidation of high quality in medical education. PMID:21818200

  18. Prevalence of Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy in the Adult Population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Setting: Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Participants: Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an “active” or “in remission with treatment” form of NFLE. Measurements and Results: Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7–4.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.8–3.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 11–13 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. Conclusions: This epidemiologic study establishes that nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. Citation: Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Giovannini G, Licchetta L, Naldi I, Mostacci B, Rubboli G, Provini F, Tinuper P, Meletti S. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and

  19. Comparison of Quality of Bologna Sausage Manufactured by Electron Beam or X-Ray Irradiated Ground Pork

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Ground lean pork was irradiated by an electron beam or X-rays to compare the effects of two types of radiation generated by a linear accelerator on the quality of Bologna sausage as a model meat product. Raw ground lean pork was vacuum packaged at a thickness of 1.5 cm and irradiated at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 kGy by an electron beam (2.5 MeV) or X-rays (5 MeV). Solubility of myofibrillar proteins, bacterial counts, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were determined for raw meat samples. Bologna sausage was manufactured using the irradiated lean pork, and total bacterial counts, TBARS values, and quality properties (color differences, cooking yield, texture, and palatability) were determined. Irradiation increased the solubility of myofibrillar proteins in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Bacterial contamination of the raw meat was reduced as the absorbed dose increased, and the reduction was the same for both radiation types. Differences were observed only between irradiated and non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). X-ray irradiation may serve as an alternative to gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation. PMID:26761284

  20. Comparison of Quality of Bologna Sausage Manufactured by Electron Beam or X-Ray Irradiated Ground Pork.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mee-Hye; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yoon, Young-Min; Kim, Jong Heon; Moon, Byeong-Geum; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Ground lean pork was irradiated by an electron beam or X-rays to compare the effects of two types of radiation generated by a linear accelerator on the quality of Bologna sausage as a model meat product. Raw ground lean pork was vacuum packaged at a thickness of 1.5 cm and irradiated at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 kGy by an electron beam (2.5 MeV) or X-rays (5 MeV). Solubility of myofibrillar proteins, bacterial counts, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were determined for raw meat samples. Bologna sausage was manufactured using the irradiated lean pork, and total bacterial counts, TBARS values, and quality properties (color differences, cooking yield, texture, and palatability) were determined. Irradiation increased the solubility of myofibrillar proteins in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Bacterial contamination of the raw meat was reduced as the absorbed dose increased, and the reduction was the same for both radiation types. Differences were observed only between irradiated and non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). X-ray irradiation may serve as an alternative to gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation.

  1. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages.

  2. Production of healthier bologna type sausages using pork skin and green banana flour as a fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho Dos Santos; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2016-11-01

    The effect of pork skin (PS) and green banana flour (GBF) on the physicochemical, technological, microbiological, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages was assessed. For this propose, six batches were manufactured: control (formulated with 20% fat) and five treatments replacing 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of pork-fat by a mixture of PS, water, and GBF (1:2:2). Fat contents significantly (P<0.05) decreased, while moisture, resistant starch and ash levels significantly (P<0.05) increased with the addition of PS and GBF gel. Lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability (P<0.05) were observed in the modified treatments. No difference was observed between the treatments for the microbiological quality. The substitution of up to 60% fat did not influence (P>0.05) on color (L*, a*, b*, and whiteness), texture parameters, and sensory acceptability. Therefore, healthier Bologna type sausages could be produced by replacing up to 60% of the fat with a mixture of PS, water, and GBF without depreciating product's quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the Bologna and Ingelman-Sundberg procedures for stress incontinence associated with genital prolapse: prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Debodinance, P; Querleu, D

    1993-11-01

    It is difficult to make a choice among the many surgical procedures designed for the correction of stress urinary incontinence by the vaginal route because their results have not been correctly compared. The Bologna (B) operation uses two flaps from the anterior vaginal wall that are anchored to the abdominal wall; the Ingelman-Sundberg (IS) operation is a suburethral sling made from two transplants from the pubococcygeus muscle. A prospective randomized study has been carried out in order to compare these two procedures. A selection of cases has been based upon the presence of genuine or potential stress incontinence, genital prolapse and available tissues (anterior vaginal wall excess and palpable pubococcygeus muscles) for both procedures. No significant difference was noted for clinical results (91.7% and 93.7% of patients cured by the B and IS operations, respectively) or for transmission rate gain at 3 months and 1 year. Maximum urethral closing pressure was maintained in both treatment arms. No significant postoperative complication or persistent dysuria occurred. The Bologna procedure is best indicated in case of frank anterior vaginal excess, and the Ingelman-Sundberg procedure when strong anterior parts of pubococcygeus muscles are available. Both are excellent in the cure of stress incontinence associated with genital prolapse.

  4. [Determinants of occupational injuries in the construction of the "high speed train" Bologna-Florence].

    PubMed

    Pavone, Venere Leda Mara; Lisi, Catiuscia; Cinti, Danilo; Cervino, Daniela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Forastiere, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    to study determinants of occupational injuries in tunnel construction using data from the surveillance system which had been implemented in order to monitor accidents during the construction of the "high speed train tracks in the Italian Regions Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany. retrospective cohort study. 16 sites for the construction of 14 tunnels of the high speed railway-tract Bologna-Firenze, in Italy. 1,602 workers (of 3,000 employed in the underground tunnelling), aged 18 - 67 years, operating during excavation with traditional method in 1999-2002. A total of 549 injuries occurred among 385 workers. The number of worked hours were used as time at risk. incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals for all injuries, serious injuries and first injuries were considered in separate multiple regression analyses (Poisson). residence, task and working phase were taken into consideration. An increased risk was found for younger workers, for carpenters (IRR "all-events" = 2.33; 95% CI=1.85-2.94; IRR" first-events" = 2.12; 95% CI 1.62-2.77) and miners (IRR "all-events" = 1.76; 95% CI 1.39-2.24; IRR"first-events" = 1.71; 95% CI 1.30-2.24) vs. machinery operators. Construction of inverted arch turns out to have an incidence rate ratio three times higher than digging out (IRR "all-events" = 2.79; 95% CI 2.27-3.43; IRR "firsts-event = 2.98; 95% CI 2.33-3.81). The probability of "serious" injuries (>30 days) is higher for miners (IRR=2.45; 95% CI 1.65-3.64) and for carpenters (IRR=2.31; 95% CI 1.53-3.49). this study pointed out to indicate some determinants (age, task and work phase) of injuries in tunneling about which little had been published previously. These results are useful for addressing preventive measures, for control and prevention activities and point to the need to explore the effect of experience and to study, through a case crossover design, transient working and individual risk factors for traumatic injury within these working sites.

  5. Normal modes of oscillation of the Asinelli and Garisenda towers in Bologna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Azzara, R. M.; Cavaliere, A.; Zaccarelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Asinelli and Garisenda medieval towers represent the best-know city landmark in Bologna. Asinelli is also known to physics historians for early experiments on free fall of bodies for the first measurements of g (Giovanni Battista Riccioli, ca. 1650) and proof of Earth rotation (Giovanni Battista Guglielmini, 1791). The Two Towers (as they are commonly known) are essentially tall, square cross-section hollow masonry cuboids. Taller Asinelli, built between 1109 and 1119, is 97 m high, with an overhang of 2.2 m, while more seriously leaning Garisenda has an overhang of 3.2 m with a heigth of 48 m. During the summer of 2012 -- in the aftermath of two M≈6 earthquakes occurred in the proximity of the city -- the permanent engineering monitoring system of the towers has been temporarily supplemented by 6 seismometric stations installed at different levels inside the masonry buildings, to study their dynamical response to induced vibrations. We have thus been able to observe and measure the oscillation of the two towers excited by ambient noise, mostly due to city traffic. The two towers show similar behaviour, more clear in taller Asinelli. The first three flexural normal modes of oscillation, and the first torsional mode, can easily be detected. Their frequencies are split because of the asymmetry due to leaning of the tower. This asymmetry produces slightly different frequencies of oscillation in two orthogonal directions, quite consistent with preliminary dynamical modeling. Horizontal particle-motion polarization plots clearly show the cyclic energy transfer between these two degrees of freedom of the system. Oscillations of taller Asinelli influence its close sister, such that the Asinelli spectral signature can also be easily recognized in the motion recorded at the base of Garisenda, overimposed over Garisenda own free oscillations. Horizontal component polarization analysis done simultaneously at the two ground-level stations often point to a nearby common

  6. Teaching Biochemistry at Lisbon University--Facing the Challenge of the Bologna Declaration in the 25th Anniversary of the Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2007-01-01

    The biochemistry degree has been taught at Lisbon University for 25 years. Since its creation, the curriculum is characterized for being widely eclectic and multidisciplinary. The adoption of the concepts proposed in Europe by the Declaration of Bologna and incorporation of these ideas at Lisbon University is discussed here for the biochemistry…

  7. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

  8. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

  9. The Impact on Education for Librarianship and Information Studies of the Bologna Process and Related European Commission Programmes--and Some Outstanding Issues in Europe and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration of 1999 is the basis for continuing reforms in higher education intended to support international mobility in employment within the European Union. This paper describes the standardised structure and nomenclature for courses that have been implemented, together with a credit transfer system, a quality assurance regime, and…

  10. ReProTool Version 2.0: Re-Engineering Academic Curriculum Using Learning Outcomes, ECTS and Bologna Process Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyioutas, Philippos; Gjermundrod, Harald; Dionysiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present ReProTool Version 2.0, a software tool that is used for the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the Bologna Process re-engineering of academic programmes. The tool is the result of an 18 months project (February 2012-July 2013) project, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund…

  11. ReProTool Version 2.0: Re-Engineering Academic Curriculum Using Learning Outcomes, ECTS and Bologna Process Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyioutas, Philippos; Gjermundrod, Harald; Dionysiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present ReProTool Version 2.0, a software tool that is used for the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the Bologna Process re-engineering of academic programmes. The tool is the result of an 18 months project (February 2012-July 2013) project, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund…

  12. The Impact on Education for Librarianship and Information Studies of the Bologna Process and Related European Commission Programmes--and Some Outstanding Issues in Europe and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration of 1999 is the basis for continuing reforms in higher education intended to support international mobility in employment within the European Union. This paper describes the standardised structure and nomenclature for courses that have been implemented, together with a credit transfer system, a quality assurance regime, and…

  13. On Process, Progress, Success and Methodology or the Unfolding of the Bologna Process as It Appears to Two Reasonably Benign Observers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Amaral, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Bologna Process from two main perspectives: as a dynamic strategy as well as the unfolding of the methodology employed. It argues that the latter was largely determined by the former. Three phases of development are identified; the first two of which shows that the methodology was largely determined by the need to bestow…

  14. On Process, Progress, Success and Methodology or the Unfolding of the Bologna Process as It Appears to Two Reasonably Benign Observers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Amaral, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Bologna Process from two main perspectives: as a dynamic strategy as well as the unfolding of the methodology employed. It argues that the latter was largely determined by the former. Three phases of development are identified; the first two of which shows that the methodology was largely determined by the need to bestow…

  15. Conformity or Confusion? Changing Higher Education Grading Scales as a Part of the Bologna Process: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Bettina; Lien, Eirik; Lindberg-Sand, Asa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Bologna Process is to make higher education systems across Europe more transparent. It is crucial for this purpose that confusion concerning the characteristics of the systems should be replaced by conformity. But, as we will show, conformity brought about at one level may create confusion at another. The curricular aspect of the…

  16. Similarities, Divergence, and Incapacity in the Bologna Process Reform Implementation by the Former-Socialist Countries: The Self-Defeat of State Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative analysis describes the socialist legacy in the governance of higher education within the former Soviet-led member countries that entered the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) between 2001 and 2010. In joining the EHEA these countries signed on for the Bologna Process (BP), but are not members of the European Union. The…

  17. Conformity or Confusion? Changing Higher Education Grading Scales as a Part of the Bologna Process: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Bettina; Lien, Eirik; Lindberg-Sand, Asa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Bologna Process is to make higher education systems across Europe more transparent. It is crucial for this purpose that confusion concerning the characteristics of the systems should be replaced by conformity. But, as we will show, conformity brought about at one level may create confusion at another. The curricular aspect of the…

  18. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  19. Spirits and liqueurs in European traditional medicine: Their history and ethnobotany in Tuscany and Bologna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Palazón, José Antonio

    2015-12-04

    Fermented drinks, often alcoholic, are relevant in many nutritional, medicinal, social, ritual and religious aspects of numerous traditional societies. The use of alcoholic drinks of herbal extracts is documented in classical pharmacy since the 1st century CE and it is often recorded in ethnobotanical studies in Europe, particularly in Italy, where are used for a wide range of medicinal purposes. Formulations and uses represent a singular tradition which responds to a wide range of environmental and cultural factors. This research has two overarching aims To determine how long ancient uses, recipes and formulas for medicinal liqueurs from the pharmacopoeias and herbals of the 18th century persisted in later periods and their role in present ethnobotanical knowledge in areas of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy). To trace other possible relationships among ancient and recent recipes of alcoholic beverages, from both popular and 'classic' (learned) sources in N-C Italy and neighboring areas. The review of herbals and classical pharmacopoeias, and ethnobotanical field work in Alta Valle del Reno (Tuscany and Emilia Romagna, Italy) were followed of a systematic study of ingredients and medicinal uses with multivariate analysis techniques. The multivariate analysis clearly shows six different styles of preparing medicinal alcoholic beverages: 1. The medicinal wine formulae by Dioscorides (1st century CE). 2. The pharmacopoeias of Florence and Bologna in the 18th century CE. 3. The formularies of Santa Maria Novella and Castiglione (19th and early 20th centuries CE). 4. The ethnobotanical data from Appennino Tosco-Emiliano; home-made formulations based almost exclusively on the use of local resources. 5. Traditional recipes from NE Italy and Austria. 6. Traditional recipes from NW Italy, Emilia, and Provence (France). A total of 54 ingredients (29 fruits) from 48 species are used in different combinations and proportions in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) to produce

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Revised Bologna Catalog of M31 clusters, V.3 Galleti+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Federici, L.; Buzzoni, A.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2007-11-01

    The imager/spectrograph DoLoRes at the 3.52m TNG telescope in La Palma (Canary Island, Spain) was used in service mode in various nights during the period October-December, 2005 (Run 1), and in visitor mode in the nights of October 10-15, 2006 (Run 2), to acquire long slit spectra of 38 M 31 CGCs. Long slit spectra for 16 CGCs in M 31 were obtained with the low resolution spectrograph BFOSC mounted at the 1.52m Cassini Telescope of the Loiano Observatory, near Bologna (Italy), during several runs in 2006: August 19-22 (Run 1), September 1-2 (Run 2), October 25-27 (Run 3), and November 22-23 (Run 4). (3 data files).

  1. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi

    2010-10-15

    Previously the five dimensional S{sup 1}-rotating black rings have been superposed in a concentric way by some solitonic methods, and regular systems of two S{sup 1}-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions 'black di-rings'). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings is shown, in which both isothermality and isorotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  2. Evaluation of the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from stainless steel and high-density polyethylene to Bologna and American cheese.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors involved in the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from surfaces to foods. We evaluated the influence of surface type (stainless steel and high-density polyethylene), inoculation method (biofilm growth and attached cells), hydration level (visibly dry and wet), and food type (bologna and American cheese). Each experiment included all 16 combinations and was repeated 11 times. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes was used to inoculate stainless steel and high-density polyethylene either as growing biofilms or attached cells. Slides were placed on a universal testing machine and brought into contact with food at a constant pressure (45 kPa) and time (30 s). Food slices were blended, the number of transferred cells was determined by plating, and the efficiency of transfer (EOT) was calculated. The results strongly suggest that stainless steel surfaces transferred more L. monocytogenes to foods than did polyethylene (P = 0.05). Independent of the surface, biofilms tended to transfer more L. monocytogenes to foods (EOT = 0.57) than did attached cells (EOT = 0.16). Among foods, L. monocytogenes was transferred to bologna more easily than to cheese (P < 0.05). The impact of hydration on transfer was significantly higher for dried biofilms growing on stainless steel (P < 0.05). No significant differences for hydration were seen under other conditions (P > 0.05). We hypothesize that drying weakens cell-to-cell interactions in biofilms and cell-to-surface interactions of biofilms and thus allows increased transfer of cells to food products.

  3. [Clinical practice quality in BNC (Bachelor of Nursing Course). Evaluation of students' satisfaction in the Italian Red Cross School of Nursing, University of Bologna].

    PubMed

    Scalorbi, Sandra; Burrai, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    This study is linked to the previous our "UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 quality system. Project and application at BNC (Bachelor of nursing Course), University of Bologna: degree of satisfaction of third year's students". The aim of this study, carried on in 2006, were to find out how satisfied second (n=61) and third years (n=95) nursing bachelor course students, University of Bologna, were with their clinical practice, about each essential element in this kind of learning. The data were collected using a questionnaire purposely made, with 48 items in 9 fields. 279 questionnaires returned ,79 by second year students and 190 by third year students. Results suggest a general satisfaction of students about their clinical practice experiences. Also in this study, the intermediate evaluation, very important in nursing clinical learning, is a critical variable.

  4. On the Utility of ICT in the European Higher Education Area: The Bologna Process and Its Implications in the Innovation of the Teaching and Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, Pablo Murta Baião; Armendáriz-Iñigo, José Enrique

    Europe is pursuing a real union and one of its milestones is education. The appearance of the European High Education Area (the Bologna Process) supposes a major change in the teaching process at universities from the knowledge-based to the skills learning-based. It is a common belief that ICT could be the driving force in this change of paradigm. However, ICT itself is not the exclusive solution to the education problem; although it is part if the solution since it is very innovative further considerations have to be taken into account. In this paper we discuss the adoption of ICT in the Bologna Process focused on the particular case of Spain. We provide the current state of the art, discuss some drawbacks and point out some possible solutions.

  5. A combined approach to decrease the technological and sensory defects caused by fat and sodium reduction in Bologna-type sausages.

    PubMed

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Cichoski, Alexandre José

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the addition of fructooligosaccharides, transglutaminase, disodium inosinate, and disodium guanylate on some technological and sensory parameters of low-fat and low-salt Bologna-type sausages was evaluated. In the first experiment, sausages with a 25% and 50% fat reduction containing 0, 3%, or 6% fructooligosaccharides were manufactured. Fat reduction adversely affected the emulsion stability, hardness, and sensory properties; however, the addition of 6% fructooligosaccharides reduced the loss of quality associated with a lower fat content. In the second experiment, sausages with a 50% fat reduction containing 6% fructooligosaccharides were produced. Additionally, the salt content was reduced by 50% and transglutaminase, disodium inosinate, and disodium guanylate were added. The combination of transglutaminase (1%), disodium inosinate (0.03%), and disodium guanylate (0.03%) was efficient to supress the technological and sensory defects caused by NaCl reduction in low-fat Bologna-type sausages.

  6. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ≤3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ≤3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  7. Effect of non-meat proteins, soy protein isolate and sodium caseinate, on the textural properties of chicken bologna.

    PubMed

    Yusof, S C; Babji, A S

    1996-07-01

    Nine formulations were processed into bologna with different ratios of soy protein isolate (SPI):sodium caseinate (SCA), i.e. 1:1, 1:2.5, 1:5, 5:1, 5:2.5, 5:5, 10:1, 10:2.5 and 10:5. The products were evaluated for yields, emulsion stability, physical measurements (shearforce-kgf and folding test) and taste panel evaluation. Formulations with 5:1 and 5:5 SPI:SCA had lower liquid loss resulting in higher yields while the others had poor emulsion stability and high liquid loss. Firmer texture was exhibited by formulations 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 SPI:SCA but formulation with 1:1 SPI:SCA showed better gelation followed by 1:2.5, 1:5, 5:1, and 5:2.5. The other formulations had poor gelation and binding properties, especially formulation with 10:5 SPI:SCA. Sensory evaluation was carried out using 30 untrained panelists. Attributes evaluated were aroma, texture, chewiness, juiciness, saltiness, chicken taste and overall acceptance. Formulation with 5:1 SPI:SCA was more acceptable for texture, chicken taste and overall acceptance while formulation with 1:1 SPI:SCA was more acceptable for the chewiness, juiciness and saltiness attributes. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in aroma attribute, for all formulations.

  8. Five-year surveillance of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in Bologna, Italy: an underestimated problem.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, G; Botti, I; Pacciarini, M L; Boniotti, M B; Roncarati, G; Dal Monte, P

    2017-09-07

    Human tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis surveillance is affected by a lack of data. The aims of the present study were: (i) to estimate the proportion of human TB caused by M. bovis over a period of 5 years in Bologna, Northern Italy, which, like most Western European countries, has been declared bovine TB-free; (ii) to compare the genetic profiles of M. bovis strains identified in humans with those circulating in cattle in the last 15 years in Italy. Among 511 TB patients, the proportion of human TB caused by M. bovis was 1·76%, significantly associated to extra-pulmonary localization (P = 0·004) and to being elderly (P < 0·001) and Italy-born (P = 0·036). The molecular epidemiology analysis by spoligotyping and Multilocus Variable Tandem Repeat Analysis confirmed that most M. bovis strains from Italy-born patients matched those circulating in cattle herds in Italy between 2001 and 2016. Two cases of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection were also characterized. In conclusion, the rate of human TB caused by M. bovis was not negligible, highlighting the relevance of molecular typing in evaluating the effectiveness of programmes designed to eradicate TB in cattle in Italy.

  9. Quality evaluation of low fat bologna-type meat product with a nutritional profile designed for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Padilla, Elizabeth; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martín; Camou, Juan Pedro; Sebranek, Joseph G; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro; Dávila-Ramírez, José Luis; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German; González-Ríos, Humberto

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of a bologna-type meat product designed for the elderly. Treatments were: control, without addition of cranberries (C), prunes (P), pecan nuts (N) or flaxseed (F); NP, with 5% N+5% P; FC, with 5% F+5% C; NC, with 5% N+5% C; FP, with 5% F+5% P. These formulations resulted in a product with high protein, low SFA and high antioxidant activity. Treatments with pecan nuts had higher MUFA while those with flaxseed had higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Treatments with pecan nuts and flaxseed had higher PUFA/SFA ratios, but only those with flaxseed had very low n6/n3 ratios when compared to the control. Although treatments showed acceptable scores (>5.4), they were lower than the control. A combination of these non-traditional ingredients could be used to develop a meat product for older adults to provide a better nutritional profile with acceptable sensory properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. From Documentation Images to Restauration Support Tools: a Path Following the Neptune Fountain in Bologna Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Ballabeni, M.; Bertacchi, S.; Fallavollita, F.; Foschi, R.; Gaiani, M.

    2017-05-01

    The sixteenth-century Fountain of Neptune is one of Bologna's most renowned landmarks. During the recent restoration activities of the monumental sculpture group, consisting in precious marbles and highly refined bronzes with water jets, a photographic campaign has been carried out exclusively for documentation purposes of the current state of preservation of the complex. Nevertheless, the highquality imagery was used for a different use, namely to create a 3D digital model accurate in shape and color by means of automated photogrammetric techniques and a robust customized pipeline. This 3D model was used as basic tool to support many and different activities of the restoration site. The paper describes the 3D model construction technique used and the most important applications in which it was used as support tool for restoration: (i) reliable documentation of the actual state; (ii) surface cleaning analysis; (iii) new water system and jets; (iv) new lighting design simulation; (v) support for preliminary analysis and projectual studies related to hardly accessible areas; (vi) structural analysis; (vii) base for filling gaps or missing elements through 3D printing; (viii) high-quality visualization and rendering and (ix) support for data modelling and semantic-based diagrams.

  11. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- benzimidazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  12. Temporal changes of flavour and texture in cooked bologna type sausages as affected by fat and salt content.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, Sonia; Puolanne, Eero; Tuorila, Hely

    2010-07-01

    Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptive profiles of sausages were determined. Release of volatiles was analysed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and an instrumental texture analysis was also performed. Chromatographic results obtained for 1-octen-3-ol were strongly correlated with the intensity perception of the linked odour and flavour (mushroom). Modifications of sausages matrix in terms of fat and salt content differently affected the dynamic perception of mushroom flavour, saltiness and juiciness. NaCl contributed to increasing release of 1-octen-3-ol (salting-out effect) confirmed by SPME analysis as well as the intensity and duration of the related flavour (mushroom) evaluated by TI. Similarly, NaCl increased the temporal perception of both saltines and juiciness of sausages. Increase in fat content led to a higher retention of 1-octen-3-ol (lipophilic compound) and thus to a less intense and shorter duration of mushroom flavour. Moreover, fat contributed to a more intense and a longer juiciness of sausages. These results highlight the feasibility of TI technique to evaluate changes in the temporal flavour and texture perception of sausages caused by modification of matrix composition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal Mode Analysis of Ambient-Noise Induced Free Oscillations of a Slender Medieval Masonry Tower in Bologna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Azzara, R. M.; Cavaliere, A.; Zaccarelli, L.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of the oscillations of buildings — either excited by earthquakes or by ambient noise — has become an effective tool to evaluate the response of such structures to strong ground motion, and hence to assess their seismic vulnerability. Response to small-amplitude ground motion may also provide crucial information on the elastic and anelastic properties of a structure — essential in the case of historical buildings — and constrain numerical full dynamic structural analyses. We report about an analysis carried out for a tall medieval monumental building in the urban center of the Norther Italian city of Bologna. Seismic monitoring, carried on for six months using field seismic instrumentation, has revealed the response to ambient noise, and has allowed to reconstruct, with high detail, the free oscillation modes of the tower. At 97 meters, the XII-century tower of the Asinelli is the tallest masonry building in Europe, and the most slender. We measured the fundamental, and several higher-order, flexural normal modes of oscillation, as well as the fundamental torsional mode. Asymmetry due to non-coincidence of centers of mass and of stiffness produces slightly different modal frequencies of oscillation in two orthogonal directions, consistently with dynamical modeling. Horizontal particle-motion polarization plots show the cyclic energy transfer between two degrees of freedom of the system. The Asinelli spectral signature can also be easily recognized in the motion recorded at the base of nearby Garisenda. We verify that there is correlation of spectral amplitudes with time of the day — in agreement with expected time-variance of anthropic disturbance —- but also with wind velocity and, intriguingly, with temperature variations inside the buidings. We are using these data to adjust the numerical dynamical models of the buildings, to examine time variations of behavior, and to identify the origin of anthropogenic sources of vibration in view of their

  14. Multi-Source 3d Models Supporting Ultrasonic Test to Investigate AN Egyptian Sculpture of the Archaeological Museum in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pietra, V.; Donadio, E.; Picchi, D.; Sambuelli, L.; Spanò, A.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the workflow and the results of an ultrasonic 3D investigation and a 3D survey application aimed at the assessment of the internal integrity of an ancient sculpture. The work aimed at highlighting the ability of methods devoted to the 3D geometry acquisition of small objects when applied to diagnosis performed by geophysical investigation. In particular, two methods widely applied for small objects modelling are considered and compared, the digital Photogrammetry with the Structure from Motion (SFM) technique and hand-held 3D scanners. The study concludes with the aim to enhance the final graphical representation of the tomographic results and to subject the obtained results to a quantitative analysis. The survey is applied to the Egyptian naophorous statue of Amenmes and Reshpu, which dates to the reign of Ramses II (1279-1213 BC) or later and is now preserved in the Civic Archaeological Museum in Bologna. In order to evaluate the internal persistency of fractures and visible damages, a 3D Ultrasonic Tomographic Imaging (UTI) test has been performed and a multi-sensor survey (image and range based) was conducted, in order to evaluate the locations of the source and receiver points as accurate as possible The presented test allowed to evaluate the material characteristics, its porosity and degradation state, which particularly affect the lower part of the statue. More in general, the project demonstrated how solution coming from the field of 3D modelling of Cultural Heritage allow the application of 3D ultrasonic tomography also on objects with complex shapes, in addition to the improved representation of the obtained results.

  15. Trasforiiazioni Termoelastiche Finite di Solidi Incomprimibili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, A.

    Queste lezlioni hanno come direttiva una sintesi di quanto si trova sistematicamente sviluppato in una mia Memoria sulle trasformazioni termoelastiche finite di solidi incomprimibili, in corso di stampa negli Annali di Matematica pura e applicata t. XXXIX ( 1955) pp. 147-201 , Verranno anche esposti, come necessaria premessa, alcuni d ei risultati di due precedenti Memorie degli stessi Annali. Invece, per motivo di brevità, non potrò dare neppure un cenno delle ulteriori ricerche svilup pate dal prof. T. Manacorda in tre recentissimi suoi lavori:

  16. Biomedical engineering education at Politecnico di Milano: development and recent changes.

    PubMed

    Baselli, G

    2009-05-01

    The biomedical engineering (BME) programme at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) is characterized by a strong interdisciplinary background in a broad range of engineering subjects applied to biology and medicine. Accordingly, the undergraduate level (3 years) provides a general education, which includes mechanics, chemistry and materials, electronics, and information technology both in the context of general engineering and within BME foundations. In contrast, the postgraduate programme (2 years) offers a broad choice of specializations in BME fields in close connection with the BME research activities and laboratories of the campus and with active interchange with the other engineering disciplines. The history of BME development at POLIMI is briefly recalled, together with the characteristics of educational and research work, which is strongly biased by a large polytechnic university with no medical school within the same campus; points of strength and weakness due to this background are discussed. The introduction of a double cycle (undergraduate and postgraduate) according to the Bologna process (2000) and the effects on the programme structure is considered. An early phase in which professional education was emphasized at undergraduate level is recalled, which was followed by the actual revision fostering basic engineering and BME education at the first level while leaving in-depth specialization to postgraduate studies or to on-the-job training.

  17. Organic acids and their salts as dipping solutions to control listeria monocytogenes inoculated following processing of sliced pork bologna stored at 4 degrees C in vacuum packages.

    PubMed

    Samelis, J; Sofos, J N; Kain, M L; Scanga, J A; Belk, K E; Smith, G C

    2001-11-01

    Postprocessing contamination of cured meats with Listeria monocytogenes has become a major concern for the meat processing industry and an important food safety issue. This study evaluated aqueous dipping solutions of organic acids (2.5 or 5% lactic or acetic acid) or salts (2.5 or 5% sodium acetate or sodium diacetate, 5 or 10% sodium lactate, 5% potassium sorbate or potassium benzoate) to control L. monocytogenes on sliced, vacuum-packaged bologna stored at 4 degrees C for up to 120 days. Organic acids and salts were applied by immersing (1 min) in each solution inoculated (10(2) to 10(3) CFU/cm2) slices of bologna before vacuum packaging. Growth of L. monocytogenes (PALCAM agar) on inoculated bologna slices without treatment exceeded 7 log CFU/cm2 (P < 0.05) at 20 days of storage. No significant (P > 0.05) increase in L. monocytogenes populations occurred on bologna slices treated with 2.5 or 5% acetic acid, 5% sodium diacetate, or 5% potassium benzoate from day 0 to 120. Products treated with 5% potassium sorbate and 5% lactic acid were stored for 50 and 90 days, respectively, before a significant (P < 0.05) increase in L. monocytogenes occurred. All other treatments permitted growth of the pathogen at earlier days of storage, with sodium lactate (5 or 10%) permitting growth within 20 to 35 days. Extent of bacterial growth on trypticase soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract (TSAYE) was similar to that on PALCAM, indicating that the major part of total bacteria grown on TSAYE agar plates incubated at 30 degrees C was L. monocytogenes. Further studies are needed to evaluate organic acids and salts as dipping solutions at abusive temperatures of retail storage, to optimize their concentrations in terms of product sensory quality, and to evaluate their effects against various other types of microorganisms and on product shelf life. In addition, technologies for the commercial application of postprocessing antimicrobial solutions in meat plants need to be developed.

  18. Effects of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to stainless steel and high-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-06-01

    The influence of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to processing surfaces (stainless steel and polyethylene) was assessed. Slices of bologna (14 g) were inoculated with Listeria at different levels, from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm2. Transfer experiments were done at a constant contact time (30 s) and pressure (45 kPa) with a universal testing machine. After transfer, cells that had been transferred to sterile stainless steel and polyethylene were removed and counted, and the efficiency of transfer (EOT) was calculated. As the inoculation level increased from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm(2), the absolute level of transfer increased in a similar fashion. By calculating EOTs, the data were normalized, and the initial inoculation level had no effect on the transfer (P > 0.05). The influence of hydration level on stainless steel, high-density polyethylene, and material type was investigated, and the EOTs ranged from 0.1 to 1 under all the conditions tested. Our results show that transfers to wetted processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.43) were no different from dried processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.35) (P > 0.05). Material type was shown to be a significant factor, with greater numbers of Listeria transferring from bologna to stainless steel (mean EOT = 0.49) than from bologna to polyethylene (mean EOT = 0.28) (P < 0.01). Stainless steel with three different surface roughness (Ra) values of <0.8 microm (target Ra = 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 Vmicrom) and two different finishes (mechanically polished versus mechanically polished and further electropolished) was used to evaluate its effect on the transfer. The surface roughness and finish on the stainless steel did not have any effect on the transfer of Listeria (P > 0.05). Our results showed that when evaluating the transfer of Listeria, the use of EOTs rather than the absolute transfer values is essential to allow comparisons of

  19. [Planning and application of a valutation methodology in UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 quality system, for the analysis satisfaction level of third-year student University of Bologna, Bachelor of Nursing Course, CRI School of Nursing formative section].

    PubMed

    Bernardi, M G; Scalorbi, Sandra; Burrai, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The quality of nursing assistance is closely related to the quality of training. In the certification UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 in 2004 of the Bologna nursing school regarding Planning and performance of theoretical-practical nursing training a continual improvement of the product/service is implicit. A method was therefore devised to evaluate the degree of satisfaction in third-year nursing students in Bologna which demonstrated a medium/high level of satisfaction regarding all teaching-related procedures. By monitoring satisfaction levels , it is possible to identify any critical areas and to implement improvement where needed.

  20. [Progress in c-di-GMP inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xuwen; Liu, Xingyu; Tao, Hui; Cui, Zining; Zhang, Lianhui

    2017-09-25

    The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP is known as an important second messenger in bacteria, which controls various important cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, biofilm formation and virulence factors production. It is extremely vital for the development of new antibacterial agents by virtue of blocking c-di-GMP signal conduction. Current research indicates that there are three potential targets for discovering new antibacterial agents based on c-di-GMP regulated signal pathway, which are c-di-GMP synthases, c-di-GMP degrading enzymes and c-di-GMP receptors. Herein, we review small molecules that have been developed to inhibit c-di-GMP related enzymes and indicate perspectives of c-di-GMP inhibitors.

  1. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) adipate ; CASRN 103 - 23 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  2. A short history of two nineteenth century German instruments at the Bologna Observatory: The 16-cm Steinheil refractor and the Ertel & Sohn meridian circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppi, Francesco; Bònoli, Fabrizio; Gualandi, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    Recent work to restore and set up the materials exhibited at the Museo della Specola of the University of Bologna provided an opportunity to review the history of two important German instruments from the mid-nineteenth century, an Ertel & Sohn meridian circle and a Steinheil refractor. Purchased by the directors of the Bologna Observatory to revitalise local astronomical research, which had gradually declined over the years, both instruments have intriguing histories because, despite the fact that they were essentially underused, they also contributed to two important research projects. Lorenzo Respighi used one of them - the Ertel & Sohn meridian circle - for an experiment in physical optics related to the debate on whether light was undulatory or corpuscular, and it was essentially a forerunner of ‘water-filled telescopes’. The other, a Steinheil refractor to which a Tauber spectroscope was attached, was the largest and most important instrument used by the Italian expedition to India, organised by Pietro Tacchini to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun in 1874.

  3. Health status of users of the Bologna local health authority drug addiction treatment services: a study of hospital admissions in the period 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Pavarin, Raimondo Maria; Gambini, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the health status of the users of the services for drug addiction (SERT) in the metropolitan area of Bologna by analysing the hospital discharge records (SDO). For the period 2004-2013, among the residents of the metropolitan areas aged 15-64, we compared the trend in hospital admissions of SERT users with that of the general population. We calculated the standardised rates of hospitalisation and the likelihood of admission. Over the period in question the standardised hospitalisation rates decreased, with a larger drop among SERT users (330.17 males per 10,000 inhabitants in 2004, 215.91 in 2013; 547.60 females per 10,000 inhabitants in 2004, 283.20 in 2013) as compared with the general population (109.49 males in 2004, 82.16 in 2013; 161.40 females in 2004, 124.38 in 2013). Admission likelihood was always higher for SERT users, but was lower in 2013 than in 2004, especially for infectious diseases and psychic disorders. The results highlight the effectiveness of Bologna's local system of services in taking care of aspects connected to addiction, as well as health-related disorders.

  4. Use of Landsat imagery to detect land cover changes for monitoring soil sealing; case study: Bologna province (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciere, Rossella; Franci, Francesca; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Landsat archives (made accessible by USGS at no charge since 2011) have made available to the scientific community a large amount of satellite multispectral images, providing new opportunities for environmental information, such as the analysis of land use/cover changes, which represent important tools for planning and sustainable land management. Processing a time series images, the creation of land cover maps has been improved in order to analyze phenomena such as the soil sealing. The main topic of this work is in fact the detection of roads and buildings construction or everything that involve soil removing. This subject is highly relevant, given the impact of the phenomenon on land use planning, environmental sustainability, agricultural policies and urban runoff. The analysis, still in progress, has been applied to Bologna Province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy) that covers 3703 Km2. This area is strongly urbanized: 8,9% of the total surface is sealed against a national value of 6,7%, with the soil sealing rate which has been defined from recent studies as the fourth Italian value in the 2001/2011 period. Other information available for this territory derive from CORINE Land Cover and Copernicus Projects. In the first one, the minimum mapping unit is 25 ha and the one for change is 5 ha; these values are too large for an accurate detection of the soil sealing dynamics. On the other hand, the Copernicus Project provides an imperviousness layer with a better resolution (20x20 m2), but its maps start from 2006. Therefore, the potential of multispectral remote sensing analysis over large areas and the multitemporal Landsat availability have been combined for a better knowledge about land cover changes. For this work, Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images have been acquired between 1987 and 2013, according to basic requirements as low cloud cover and a common acquisition season (summer). A supervised pixel-based classification has been performed, with maximum likelihood

  5. The Introduction of Two-Tiered Study Structures in the Context of the Bologna Process: A Theoretical Framework for an International Comparative Study of Change in Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework for an encompassing international comparative study of a central aspect of the Bologna process; the introduction of two-tiered study structures (TTSS), often referred to as "Bachelor and Master". The framework is tailored to understand and explain the patterns of TTSS that currently emerge in…

  6. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  7. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  8. The "Bestie di Satana" murders.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Jutta; Candelli, Chiara; Zeroli, Stefania; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, satanic groups have been responsible for various types and degrees of crimes. We report the case of a number of murders committed in Italy by a group of young people calling themselves the "Bestie di Satana". Forensic psychiatric assessment of the members of a satanic sect charged with the crime revealed that all the young people had a fragile, immature personality, a very low level of education and were socially disadvantaged. The trial of the members of the "Bestie di Satana" sect was concluded with the verdict of deliberate murder, and all the members were given long jail sentences. This report should lead us to explore social and cultural responses to juvenile satanism, statistically shown to be a relatively rare phenomenon but with a high criminal potential. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Introduzione al Laboratorio di Fisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Giuseppe

    La Fisica (dal greco τὰ ϕυσικὰ: le cose naturali) si pone l'obiettivo di descrivere e prevedere il comportamento dei fenomeni naturali, nonché degli apparati e degli strumenti, che hanno reso e rendono la nostra vita più comoda ed efficiente. Tale obiettivo viene perseguito mediante un'attenta osservazione dei fenomeni, con una conseguente schematizzazione dell'osservazione, per fornire una conoscenza della realtà oggettiva, affidabile, verificabile e condivisibile.

  10. Ambienti Circumstellari ed Interstellari di Supernovae di vario Tipo ed Applicazioni Astrofisiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Francesca R.

    Nella presente tesi vengono studiati gli ambienti circumstellari ed interstellari di supernovae (anche SNe; singolare SN) di vario tipo. In particolare si descrivono alcune applicazioni astrofisiche, relative a questi ambienti, che permettono di desumere informazioni sui sistemi stellari progenitori delle supernovae o di determinare le distanze a tali oggetti. L' emissione radio da supernovae, prodotta nell' ambiente circumstellare ad opera dell'interazione idrodinamica del gas di SN con l' ambiente circostante, puo' essere impiegata come mezzo di indagine del sistema di pre-supernova. In particolare si e' introdotta l'idea che tale emissione possa essere impiegata nel caso delle SNe di tipo Ia come test dei sistemi progenitori di tipo simbiotico. Il test e' stato effettuato sulla SN 1986G, per la quale avevamo ottenuto limiti superiori a lunghezze d'onda radio. Nel caso che un sistema simbiotico sia responsabile di una SN Ia, l'interazione tra l' ejecta e una shell circumstellare origina, in un'epoca molto prossima al massimo di luce, un'emissione radio rivelabile con strumenti tipo Very Large Array. Inoltre l'emissione radio fornisce informazioni circa gli stadi di pre-supernova nel caso di altri tipi di supernova. In questo lavoro di tesi vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti nel caso delle SNe di tipo II 1984E e 1986E. Queste due SNe non mostrano emissione radio: la prima, in prossimita del massimo ottico, stava interagendo con una shell circumstellare prodotta da un episodio di perdita di massa di breve durata in fase di pre-supernova; la seconda, invece e' la prima SN ``vecchia'' ad essere rivelata nell' ottico ma non nel radio (l' oggetto non ha ancora iniziato la fase di supernova remnant ed emette radiazione ottica prodotta ancora per interazione circumstellare). In ambiente circum-interstellare, gli echi di luce, prodotti dallo scattering della luce della supernova ad opera della polvere presente, possono essere utilizzati per determinare le distanze

  11. Photogrammetry Driven Tools to Support the Restoration of Open-Air Bronze Surfaces of Sculptures: AN Integrated Solution Starting from the Experience of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Gaiani, M.; Basilissi, W.; Rivaroli, L.

    2017-02-01

    Checking the irreversible process of clean-up is a delicate task that requires a work of synthesis between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, to define an effective operating protocol on a limited patch area to be extended later to the entire artefact's surface. In this paper, we present a new, quick, semi-automated 3D photogrammetry-based solution to support restorers in the open-air bronze artwork cleaning from corrosion and weathering decay. The solution allows the conservators to assess in real time and with a high level of fidelity in colour and shape, the `surfaces' to be cleaned before, during and after the clear-out treatment. The solution besides allows an effective and valuable support tool for restorers to identify the original layer of the bronze surface, developed and validated during the ongoing restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna.

  12. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)).

  13. The evolution of midwifery education at the master's level: a study of Swedish midwifery education programmes after the implementation of the Bologna process.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Evelyn; Mårtensson, Lena B

    2013-08-01

    In Europe, midwifery education has undergone a number of reforms in the past few decades. In several countries, it has shifted from vocational training to academic education. The higher education reform, known as the "Bologna process" aimed to create convergence in higher education among a number of European countries and enhance opportunities for mobility, employment and collaborative research. It also indicated a transparent and easily compared system of academic degrees, generating a new educational system in three cycles. This study explores the implementation of the process in Sweden when the midwifery education was transferred from diploma to postgraduate or master's level. The aim of this study was to analyse how the implementation of the Bologna process in the Swedish higher education system has impacted midwifery education programmes in the country. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were employed to analyse 32 questionnaire responses from teachers and the 2009-2010 curricula and syllabi of 11 postgraduate midwifery education programmes at Swedish universities and university colleges. The results revealed variations among the universities at the major subject into the three disciplines; midwifery, nursing and caring with different conceptualisations, even when the content was identical in the curricula to that of the midwifery professional knowledge base. Implementation of the new reform not only has accelerated the academisation process, but also puts higher demand on the students and requires higher competencies among teachers to involve more evidence-based knowledge, seminars, independent studies and a postgraduate degree project in the major subject. Thus the students earn not only a diploma in midwifery, but also a master's degree in the major subject, which affords the opportunity for an academic career. But still there is a tension between professional and academic education.

  14. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    PubMed

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  15. The Bologna Process Implementation and its Consequent Changes in the Teaching/Learning Model—the Industrial Management and Engineering Degree Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luísa Soares, Ana; Costa, Elga; Ferreira, Luís Pinto

    2009-11-01

    The present paper aims to present a Project included in a diversified programme and consequent implementation of a new Teaching/Learning model adapted to the Industrial Management and Engineering Degree (IMED) of the Management and Industrial Studies School (O'Porto Polytechnic Institute). Owning particular and specific characteristics, this model is based on the graduates' professional profile as well as on the work market dynamics, placing the student in the centre of the Learning Process, in opposition to the `teacher centred' method (as conceived by the Bologna Treat). Diverse in the approach, the model includes differentiating factors when compared to the project based traditional model. Through the development and conception of practical Interdisciplinary Projects, centring knowledges and techniques from the different Industrial Management and Engineering areas, we seek a new way of implementing the `Project Led Education' (PLE) bases, according to the Active Learning paradigm. This teaching/learning model aims to contribute to the Industrial Management and Engineering graduates' formation focused on a high level of performance and professional rectitude, to induce students' enthusiasm and motivation for acquiring scientific and technical knowledge, as well as to satisfy the diverse interest groups' expectations and promote the regional development.

  16. Measurement of Regional Environmental Noise by Use of a Pc-Based System. A Application to the Noise Near Airport ``G. Marconi'' in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, H.; Sato, S.; Prodi, N.; Pompoli, R.

    2001-03-01

    Measurements of aircraft noise were made at the airport "G. Marconi" in Bologna by using a measurement system for regional environmental noise. The system is based on the model of the human auditory-brain system, which is based on the interplay of autocorrelators and an interaural cross-correlator acting on the pressure signals arriving at the ear entrances, and takes into account the specialization of left and right human cerebral hemispheres (see reference [8]). Measurements were taken through dual microphones at ear entrances of a dummy head. The aircraft noise was characterized with the following physical factors calculated from the autocorrelation function (ACF) and interaural cross-correlation function (IACF) for binaural signals. From the ACF analysis, (1) energy represented at the origin of delay,Φ (0), (2) effective duration of the envelope of the normalized ACF, τe, (3) the delay time of the first peak, τ1, and (4) its amplitude, φ1were extracted. From the IACF analysis, (5) IACC, (6) interaural delay time at which the IACC is defined, τIACC, and (7) width of the IACF at the τIACC, WIACCwere extracted. The factorΦ (0) can be represented as the geometrical mean of the energies at both ears. A noise source may be identified by these factors as timbre.

  17. Severe dystrophy in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rózsai, Barnabás; Kiss, Akos; Csábi, Györgyi; Czakó, Márta; Decsi, Tamás

    2009-03-21

    We present the case history of a 3-year-old girl who was examined because of severe dystrophy. In the background, cow's milk allergy was found, but her body weight was unchanged after eliminating milk from her diet. Other types of malabsorption were excluded. Based on nasal regurgitation and facial dysmorphisms, the possibility of DiGeorge syndrome was suspected and was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The authors suggest a new feature associated with DiGeorge syndrome.

  18. [Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro è un fattore di rischio di ridotta densità minerale ossea in donne in menopausa. Uno studio pilota].

    PubMed

    Niolu, Cinzia; Bianciardi, Emanuela; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Nicolai, Sara; Celi, Monica; Ribolsi, Michele; Pietropolli, Adalgisa; Ticconi, Carlo; Tarantino, Umberto; Siracusano, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Introduzione. La depressione maggiore (MD) e l'osteoporosi sono malattie ad alta prevalenza nel genere femminile, associate a morbosità e mortalità. Sebbene alcuni studi abbiano dimostrato un'associazione tra MD, ridotta densità minerale ossea (BMD) e osteoporosi, non sono stati chiariti i meccanismi causali. Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro è stato messo in relazione con la patogenesi e il decorso di malattie croniche come la MD e le malattie cardiovascolari. Obiettivo di questo studio pilota è esplorare la relazione tra MD e BMD. Si ipotizza che lo stile di attaccamento possa agire da mediatore. Metodi. Il campione è formato da 101 donne in menopausa, 49 con MD e 52 controlli sani. La diagnosi di MD è stata formulata con l'intervista clinica e la Beck Depression Inventory. Lo stile di attaccamento è stato esplorato usando il Relationship Questionnaire, la BMD con la Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata con tecnica DXA (Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry). Risultati. L'analisi univariata ha mostrato che le donne con MD avevano valori di BMD inferiori rispetto ai controlli sani. Nelle analisi di regressione multipla la MD non è emersa come predittore significativo di ridotta BMD. Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro "preoccupato" è risultato un predittore significativo di ridotta BMD in tutti i siti scheletrici misurati con la DXA: colonna vertebrale lombare (p=0,008) e segmenti femorali: "femoral neck" (p=0,011), "total hip" (p=0,002). Conclusioni. Questo è il primo studio che esplora il possibile ruolo di MD e stile di attaccamento sulla BMD. Lo stile di attaccamento è risultato un predittore di ridotta BMD, indipendentemente dalla MD. L'attaccamento insicuro potrebbe avere un ruolo nella patogenesi dell'osteoporosi anche indipendente dalla MD. Se questi risultati saranno confermati, gli interventi terapeutici focalizzati sullo stile di attaccamento potrebbero contribuire al miglioramento della comorbilità psichiatrica e medica legata all'osteoporosi.

  19. Exclusive e+e-, di-photon and di-jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Terashi, Koji; /Rockefeller U.

    2007-05-01

    Results from studies on exclusive production of electron-position pair, di-photon, and dijet production at CDF in proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented. THe first observation and cross section measurements of exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and di-jet production in hadron-hadron collisions are emphasized.

  20. The Bolognese surgeon Giuseppe Ruggi: how and why the aseptic surgery was introduced in Bologna in the middle half of the XIX century.

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Catena, Fausto; Neri, Flavia; Vallicelli, Carlo; Ansaloni, Luca; Sartelli, Massimo; Coccolini, Federico; Di Saverio, Salomone; Catena, Rodolfo; Lazzareschi, Daniel; Tarasconi, Antonio; Abongwa, Hariscine K; De Simone, Belinda; Pinna, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The first reliable statistic data about perioperatory mortality were published in 1841 by the French Joseph-Francois Malgaigne (1806-1863): he referred to a mean mortality of 60% for amputations and this bad result was to be attributed mainly to hospital acquired diseases. The idea of "hospital acquired disease" although vague, included five infective nosologic entities, which at that time were diagnosed more frequently: erysipelas, tetan, pyemia, septicemia, and gangrene. Nonetheless, the suppuration with pus production was considered from most of the surgeons and doctors of that time as a necessary and unavoidable step in the process of wound healing. During the end of the eighteenth century, hospitals of the main European cities were transforming into aggregations of several wards, where the high concentration of patients created poor sanitary conditions and a consistent increase of perioperatory mortality. In 1865, Lister applied his first antiseptic dressing on the surface of an exposed fracture. These experimental attempts lead to an effective reduction of wound infections respect to the dressing with strings used previously. Lister's innovations in the field of wound treatment were based on two brand new concepts: germs causing rot were ubiquitarious and the wound infection was not a normal step in the process of wound healing. The concept of antisepsis was hardly accepted in the European surgical world: "Of all countries, Italy is the most indifferent and uninterested in experimenting this method, which has been so favorably judged from the greatest surgical societies in Germany". This quotation from the young surgeon Giuseppe Ruggi (1844-1925) from Bologna comes from his article where he presented his first experiences on aseptic medications started the previous year in the Surgical Department of Maggiore Hospital in Bologna. In his report, Ruggi described the adopted technique and suggested that the medication should be extended to all the surgical

  1. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  2. [Survey on sports practice and physical activity of primary school children living in the area of Bologna Local Health Unit in relation with some individual and environmental variables].

    PubMed

    Leoni, E; Beltrami, P; Poletti, G; Baldi, E; Sacchetti, R; Garulli, A; Masotti, A; Bianco, L; Ventura, F A M; Pandolfi, P; Guberti, E

    2008-01-01

    A randomized stratified sample of 522 children attending the third class of primary schools within the area of Bologna Local Health Unit was analysed for physical activity and sports practice. Information about the children's habits and availability of facilities for physical and sports activities were collected by means of structured questionnaires completed by children (507 respondents), parents (491), reference teachers for physical education (26) and class teachers (46) during the school year 2006-07. At the same time, the children's heights and weights were measured in order to calculate BMI values. Regular sports activity is practised by 80.1% of children (males: 82.4%, females: 77.6%), with significant diferences between genders only in children with at least one non-Italian parent (M>F, p < 0.05); the practice of sports is influenced by the area of residence (metropolitan > plain and hills, p < 0.05) and nationality (Italians > non-Italians, p < 0.01). Children with at least one actively sports practising parent are involved more frequently in sports activities (p < 0.001). In free time, sedentary activities are prevalent for both sports-practising children and not. However children not involved in regular sports activities tend to practise outdoor physical activities with a frequency significantly higher than children involved in sports (17.3% vs 10.4% of respondents). The percentage of completely sedentary children, who stated that they practise neither sports nor physical activity in their free time, is 7.3% (metropolitan area: 4.5%, hills: 8.7%, plain: 10.6%). The prevalence of overweight is 24.4%, of obesity 9.7%, with a better distribution of BMI values in the metropolitan area where there is the highest occurrence of positive conditions and behaviours: availability of sports facilities, the highest prevalence of sports practice, and the lowest prevalence of completely sedentary children.

  3. Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays on industrial chemicals and man-made mineral fibers, at the Bentivoglio (BT) laboratories of the Bologna Institute of Oncology: premises, programs, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Maltoni, C.; Minardi, F.; Soffritti, M.; Lefemine, G. )

    1991-09-01

    After having stressed the need of primary prevention in the strategy for cancer control, the crucial role of the long-term carcinogenicity bioassays in providing scientific support to primary prevention has been focused. The state-of-the-art, the present inadequacies, the necessity of implementation, and the perspectives of the long-term carcinogenicity bioassays have been briefly reviewed. The performed and ongoing programs of carcinogenicity bioassays at the Bentivoglio (BT) Laboratories of the Bologna Institute of Oncology have been presented, together with the currently available results on several compounds of industrial and commercial relevance.

  4. Die Schokoladen-Diät

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    Schlankheitskuren sind einerseits ein soziales Phänomen, aber auch ein großer Zweig der Nahrungsmittelindustrie. Die Industrie bietet dabei verschiedene Produkte an, wie Diätlebensmittel, Nahrungsergänzungsmittel, Sportkleidung und -ausrüstung, Übungsvideos und -bücher, usw. Allerdings ist es bekanntermaßen sehr schwer, das einmal erreichte Wunschgewicht auch langfristig zu halten. Häufig tritt dabei der so genannte Jojo-Effekt auf, so dass man schließlich nach der Diät mehr wiegt als vorher.

  5. URINARY BIOMARKERS OF DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a mixture of various branched-chain dialkyl phthalates mainly containing ninecarbon alkyl isomers. At high doses in rodents, DiNP is a carcinogen, and a developmental toxicant. After exposure, the diester isomers are de-esterified to for...

  6. URINARY BIOMARKERS OF DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a mixture of various branched-chain dialkyl phthalates mainly containing ninecarbon alkyl isomers. At high doses in rodents, DiNP is a carcinogen, and a developmental toxicant. After exposure, the diester isomers are de-esterified to for...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3940 - Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3940 Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate). Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate) containing not more than 22 parts per million ethylene and/or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate). 178.3940...

  8. Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Adam J.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a signaling molecule that has been shown to play important roles in bacterial physiology and infections. Currently, c-di-AMP detection and quantification relies mostly on the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed, which utilizes a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) and a newly commercialized c-di-AMP derivative. With this new method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. Furthermore, this assay is much more efficient than current methods as it requires less overall cost and training while processing many samples at once. Therefore, this assay can be extensively used in research into c-di-AMP signaling. PMID:25239824

  9. RTI & DI (Response to Intervention & Differentiated Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Helene M.

    2014-01-01

    In today's diverse and inclusive classrooms, teachers face the challenge of delivering instruction that is effective and accessible to students with a wide range of needs, abilities, and learning styles. Newly updated for 2014, "RTI & DI: Response to Intervention & Differentiated Instruction," by Helene Hanson, shows teachers how…

  10. Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) ; CASRN 117 - 81 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  11. N-Nitroso-di-n-butylamine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    N - Nitroso - di - n - butylamine ; CASRN 924 - 16 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  12. Biopreservation of Fior di Latte cheese.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Zambrini, A V; Del Nobile, M A

    2014-09-01

    In this study a new biopreservation system consisting of an active sodium alginate coating containing Lactobacillus reuteri applied to Fior di Latte cheese was studied. The final aim was to extend cheese shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin. Experimental trials were carried out with and without glycerol. How the fermentation time could improve the production of reuterin, enabling Fior di Latte shelf life, was also assessed. To this aim, the experimental analyses were conducted in 2 different trials, using 2 different production batches of samples. In the first one, Fior di Latte samples were dipped into the active sodium alginate solution prepared on the same day of their production, whereas in the second trial, samples were dipped into the active solution prepared 48h before their production to allow a proper fermentation of the inoculated microorganism. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to prove the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. In the first trial, the combination of the probiotic microorganism with glycerol improved the microbial quality by 1 d compared with the same active solution without glycerol, whereas the 48-h-fermented active alginate solution (second trial) showed a further improved microbial quality. The application of an active coating enriched with L. reuteri and glycerol to Fior di Latte cheese is an optimal and innovative way to preserve the product and at the same time, with a combination of an optimal fermentation time, to prolong its microbial quality and thus its shelf life.

  13. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; et. al.,

    2014-10-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  14. BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1) and BUGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0) - Generation Methodology and Preliminary Testing of two ENEA-Bologna Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescarini, Massimo; Sinitsa, Valentin; Orsi, Roberto; Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    Two broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format, dedicated to LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry applications, were generated following the methodology recommended by the US ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009) standard. These libraries, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, are respectively based on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data and adopt the same broad-group energy structure (47 n + 20 γ) of the ORNL BUGLE-96 similar library. They were respectively obtained from the ENEA-Bologna VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB libraries in AMPX format for nuclear fission applications through problem-dependent cross section collapsing with the ENEA-Bologna 2007 revision of the ORNL SCAMPI nuclear data processing system. Both previous libraries are based on the Bondarenko self-shielding factor method and have the same AMPX format and fine-group energy structure (199 n + 42 γ) as the ORNL VITAMIN-B6 similar library from which BUGLE-96 was obtained at ORNL. A synthesis of a preliminary validation of the cited BUGLE-type libraries, performed through 3D fixed source transport calculations with the ORNL TORT-3.2 SN code, is included. The calculations were dedicated to the PCA-Replica 12/13 and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes in LWR shielding and radiation damage analyses.

  15. Production and testing of the ENEA-Bologna VITJEFF32.BOLIB (JEFF-3.2) multi-group (199 n + 42 γ) cross section library in AMPX format for nuclear fission applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescarini, Massimo; Orsi, Roberto; Frisoni, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    The ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group produced the VITJEFF32.BOLIB multi-group coupled neutron/photon (199 n + 42 γ) cross section library in AMPX format, based on the OECD-NEA Data Bank JEFF-3.2 evaluated nuclear data library. VITJEFF32.BOLIB was conceived for nuclear fission applications as European counterpart of the ORNL VITAMIN-B7 similar library (ENDF/B-VII.0 data). VITJEFF32.BOLIB has the same neutron and photon energy group structure as the former ORNL VITAMIN-B6 reference library (ENDF/B-VI.3 data) and was produced using similar data processing methodologies, based on the LANL NJOY-2012.53 nuclear data processing system for the generation of the nuclide cross section data files in GENDF format. Then the ENEA-Bologna 2007 Revision of the ORNL SCAMPI nuclear data processing system was used for the conversion into the AMPX format. VITJEFF32.BOLIB contains processed cross section data files for 190 nuclides, obtained through the Bondarenko (f-factor) method for the treatment of neutron resonance self-shielding and temperature effects. Collapsed working libraries of self-shielded cross sections in FIDO-ANISN format, used by the deterministic transport codes of the ORNL DOORS system, can be generated from VITJEFF32.BOLIB through the cited SCAMPI version. This paper describes the methodology and specifications of the data processing performed and presents some results of the VITJEFF32.BOLIB validation.

  16. Bologna Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction (ASBO): 2010 Evidence-Based Guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is no consensus on diagnosis and management of ASBO. Initial conservative management is usually safe, however proper timing for discontinuing non operative treatment is still controversial. Open surgery or laparoscopy are used without standardized indications. Methods A panel of 13 international experts with interest and background in ASBO and peritoneal diseases, participated in a consensus conference during the 1st International Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery and 9th Peritoneum and Surgery Society meeting, in Bologna, July 1-3, 2010, for developing evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of ASBO. Whenever was a lack of high-level evidence, the working group formulated guidelines by obtaining consensus. Recommendations In absence of signs of strangulation and history of persistent vomiting or combined CT scan signs (free fluid, mesenteric oedema, small bowel faeces sign, devascularized bowel) patients with partial ASBO can be managed safely with NOM and tube decompression (either with long or NG) should be attempted. These patients are good candidates for Water Soluble Contrast Medium (WSCM) with both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The appearance of water-soluble contrast in the colon on X-ray within 24 hours from administration predicts resolution. WSCM may be administered either orally or via NGT (50-150 ml) both immediately at admission or after an initial attempt of conservative treatment of 48 hours. The use of WSCM for ASBO is safe and reduces need for surgery, time to resolution and hospital stay. NOM, in absence of signs of strangulation or peritonitis, can be prolonged up to 72 hours. After 72 hours of NOM without resolution surgery is recommended. Patients treated non-operatively have shorter hospital stay, but higher recurrence rate and shorter time to re-admission, although the risk of new surgically treated episodes of ASBO is unchanged. Risk factors for recurrences are age <40 years and

  17. The effects of fresh embryo transfers and elective frozen/thawed embryo transfers on pregancy outcomes in poor ovarian responders as defined by the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Serdar; Turgut, Niyazi Emre; Yağmur, Erbil; Boynukalın, Kübra; Çelik, Dilek Cengiz; Fındıklı, Necati; Purisa, Sevim; Bahçeci, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    To compare the effects of fresh embryo transfers (ET) and elective frozen/thawed embryo transfers (eFET) on implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates in poor ovarian responders, as defined by the Bologna criteria. All electronic databases of embryo transfers between January 2011 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred fifty-nine of all the fresh ET and 96 of all eFET were included into the study. An antagonist protocol with letrozole was used for the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in all participants. The mean age was 36.9 years (range, 21-43 years) in the fresh ET arm and 37.2 years (range, 21-43 years) in the eFET arm (p=0.45). The clinical pregnancy rate was 35% (90/259) versus 29% (28/96); the abortion rate was 27% (20/75) versus 36% (9/25); and the live birth rate was 21% (55/259) versus 17% (16/99). There were no significant differences between groups and p values were 0.32, 0.52, and 0.42, respectively. The mean E2 level was 389 (range, 50-2055 pg/mL) in the fresh ET group (on hCG day) and 418 pg/mL (range, 121-3073 pg/mL) in the eFET group (on day 14 of cycle) (p=0.122). No differences were found between the two groups with respect to the total number of retrieved oocytes (p=0.55) and number of metaphase II (MII) oocytes (p=0.81). The number of embryo transfers was statistically different (p=0.005). The effects of age, total number of retrieved oocytes, number of MII oocytes, type of treatment, number of ET, and the day of ET and E2 level to live birth outcomes were investigated using binary logistic regresion analyses, and no stastical effect was determined by any of the parameters. P values were p=0.50, 0.66, 0.45, 0.30, 0.30, 0.08, and 0.90, respectively. E2 levels tend to be lower in poor responders, thus the receptivity of the endometrium may be damaged less than normal, which may explain why pregnancy results are the same between eFET and ET groups.

  18. The effects of fresh embryo transfers and elective frozen/thawed embryo transfers on pregancy outcomes in poor ovarian responders as defined by the Bologna criteria

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Serdar; Turgut, Niyazi Emre; Yağmur, Erbil; Boynukalın, Kübra; Çelik, Dilek Cengiz; Fındıklı, Necati; Purisa, Sevim; Bahçeci, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of fresh embryo transfers (ET) and elective frozen/thawed embryo transfers (eFET) on implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates in poor ovarian responders, as defined by the Bologna criteria. Materials and Methods: All electronic databases of embryo transfers between January 2011 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred fifty-nine of all the fresh ET and 96 of all eFET were included into the study. An antagonist protocol with letrozole was used for the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in all participants. Results: The mean age was 36.9 years (range, 21-43 years) in the fresh ET arm and 37.2 years (range, 21-43 years) in the eFET arm (p=0.45). The clinical pregnancy rate was 35% (90/259) versus 29% (28/96); the abortion rate was 27% (20/75) versus 36% (9/25); and the live birth rate was 21% (55/259) versus 17% (16/99). There were no significant differences between groups and p values were 0.32, 0.52, and 0.42, respectively. The mean E2 level was 389 (range, 50-2055 pg/mL) in the fresh ET group (on hCG day) and 418 pg/mL (range, 121-3073 pg/mL) in the eFET group (on day 14 of cycle) (p=0.122). No differences were found between the two groups with respect to the total number of retrieved oocytes (p=0.55) and number of metaphase II (MII) oocytes (p=0.81). The number of embryo transfers was statistically different (p=0.005). The effects of age, total number of retrieved oocytes, number of MII oocytes, type of treatment, number of ET, and the day of ET and E2 level to live birth outcomes were investigated using binary logistic regresion analyses, and no stastical effect was determined by any of the parameters. P values were p=0.50, 0.66, 0.45, 0.30, 0.30, 0.08, and 0.90, respectively. Conclusion: E2 levels tend to be lower in poor responders, thus the receptivity of the endometrium may be damaged less than normal, which may explain why pregnancy results are the same between eFET and ET groups. PMID

  19. [Research strategies and application of reference Dao-di herbs].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Ti-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Yu-Yang

    2017-07-01

    Establishing evaluation system of Dao-di herbs has been a problem to be solved in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and is also a difficult problem in restricting the realization of TCM quality. On the basis of national drug standard substance requirements, this paper puts forward to set up reference Dao-di herbs in the first step of the evaluation system of Dao-di herbs, and discusses the properties, evaluation index system and its development requirements of reference Dao-di herbs, aiming at supporting the modern research and characteristics identification of Dao-di herbs in the future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari.

  1. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  2. Toluidine blue-O is a Nissl bright-field counterstain for lipophilic fluorescent tracers Di-ASP, DiI and DiO.

    PubMed

    Chelvanayagam, D K; Beazley, L D

    1997-03-01

    The stain toluidine blue-O (tol blue), applied to sections of neural tissue, is shown to be compatible with the vivid fluorescent lipophilic neural tracers 4-(4-dihexadecylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (Di-ASP), 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO) and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). As with other Nissl stains, toluidine blue-O fluoresces in the red end of the spectrum but such fluorescence quenches upon binding with tissue. Moreover, progressive staining occurs at concentrations low enough to minimise any background fluorescence attributable to non-specific residence of the stain. The bright yellow Di-ASP and vivid green DiO signals are spectrally removed from the red fluorescence of toluidine blue-O. With toluidine blue-O counterstaining, Di-ASP generally offers contrast superior to that with DiI, however, the latter is improved by viewing in a polarised green bright field. Visible Di-ASP emission, although broad, peaks at a more film-sensitive region of the spectrum than that for DiI, thus reducing the photographic exposure required.

  3. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  4. Biomaterial based sulphur di oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Sarkar, A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials are getting importance in the present research field of sensors. In this present paper performance of biomaterial based gas sensor made of gum Arabica and garlic extract had been studied. Extract of garlic clove with multiple medicinal and chemical utility can be proved to be useful in sensing Sulphur di Oxide gas. On exposure to Sulphur di Oxide gas the material under observation suffers some temporary structural change, which can be observed in form of amplified potentiometric change through simple electronic circuitry. Exploiting this very property a potentiometric gas sensor of faster response and recovery time can be designed. In this work sensing property of the said material has been studied through DC conductance, FTIR spectrum etc.

  5. Design type air engine Di Pietro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw

    The article presents a pneumatic engine constructed by Angelo Di Pietro. 3D solid models of pneumatic engine components were presented therein. A directional valve is a key element of the control system. The valve functions as a camshaft distributing air to particular engine chambers. The construction designed by Angelo Di Pietro is modern and innovative. A pneumatic engine requires low pressure to start rotary movement. With the use of CFD software, the fields of velocity vectors' distribution were determined. Moreover, the author determined the distribution of pressure values in engine inlet and outlet channels. CFD model studies on engine operation were conducted for chosen stages of operating cycles. On the basis of simulation tests that were conducted, the values of flow rates for the engine were determined. The distribution of pressure values made it possible to evaluate the torque value on the rotating shaft.

  6. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    PubMed

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  7. The X-ray view of EROs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Daddi, E.; Cimatti, A.; Vignali, C.

    (1) Dip. Astronomia Bologna University, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna ITALY (2) INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna ITALY (3) ESO - European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen Germany (4) INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-55025 Firenze, Italy (5) Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA

  8. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Pair of hadrons (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complements single-hadron SIDIS. The study of di-hadrons allow us to study higher twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs (f 1, g 1, h 1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations which provide direct and unique insights into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  9. Cyclic di-nucleotide signaling enters the eukaryote domain.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Pauline

    2013-11-01

    Cyclic (c-di-GMP) is the prevalent intracellular signaling intermediate in bacteria. It triggers a spectrum of responses that cause bacteria to shift from a swarming motile phase to sessile biofilm formation. However, additional functions for c-di-GMP and roles for related molecules, such as c-di-AMP and c-AMP-GMP continue to be uncovered. The first usage of cyclic-di-nucleotide (c-di-NMP) signaling in the eukaryote domain emerged only recently. In dictyostelid social amoebas, c-di-GMP is a secreted signal that induces motile amoebas to differentiate into sessile stalk cells. In humans, c-di-NMPs, which are either produced endogenously in response to foreign DNA or by invading bacterial pathogens, trigger the innate immune system by activating the expression of interferon genes. STING, the human c-di-NMP receptor, is conserved throughout metazoa and their closest unicellular relatives, suggesting protist origins for human c-di-NMP signaling. Compared to the limited number of conserved protein domains that detect the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, the domains that detect the c-di-NMPs are surprisingly varied.

  10. Cyclic Di-AMP Impairs Potassium Uptake Mediated by a Cyclic Di-AMP Binding Protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yinlan; Yang, Jun; Zarrella, Tiffany M.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play important roles as a second messenger in bacterial physiology and infections. However, understanding of how the signal is transduced is still limited. Previously, we have characterized a diadenylate cyclase and two c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we identified a c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) in S. pneumoniae using c-di-AMP affinity chromatography. We demonstrated that CabP specifically bound c-di-AMP and that this interaction could not be interrupted by competition with other nucleotides, including ATP, cAMP, AMP, phosphoadenylyl adenosine (pApA), and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). By using a bacterial two-hybrid system and genetic mutagenesis, we showed that CabP directly interacted with a potassium transporter (SPD_0076) and that both proteins were required for pneumococcal growth in media with low concentrations of potassium. Interestingly, the interaction between CabP and SPD_0076 and the efficiency of potassium uptake were impaired by elevated c-di-AMP in pneumococci. These results establish a direct c-di-AMP-mediated signaling pathway that regulates pneumococcal potassium uptake. PMID:24272783

  11. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  12. Identification of rice Di19 family reveals OsDi19-4 involved in drought resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Yu, Changchun; Chen, Cong; He, Chunlan; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2014-12-01

    The OsDi19 proteins functioned as transcription factors and played crucial roles in response to abiotic stress. Overexpression of OsDi19-4 in rice increased drought tolerance by enhancing ROS-scavenging activity. Many transcription factors play crucial roles in plant responses to abiotic stress. Here, comprehensive sequence analysis suggested that the drought-induced 19 (Di19) gene family in rice genome contain seven members, and these proteins contained a well-conserved zinc-finger Di19 domain. Most OsDi19 proteins were mainly targeted to the nucleus and have transactivation activity in yeast. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that most OsDi19 proteins could form protein dimers. Expression analysis demonstrated that the OsDi19 genes were differentially and abundantly expressed in vegetative tissues, but expressed little in reproductive tissues and some of the OsDi19 genes were markedly induced by abiotic stresses and hormones in qRT-PCR analysis and microarray data. Overexpression of one stress-responsive gene, OsDi19-4, in rice resulted in significantly increased tolerance to drought stress compared with the wild type plants. Moreover, obviously increased ROS-scavenging ability was detected in the OsDi19-4-overexpressing plants under normal and drought stress conditions. These results suggested that the increased stress tolerance of OsDi19-4-overexpressing plants may be attributable to the enhanced ROS-scavenging activity. Taken together, these studies provide a detailed overview of the rice Di19 gene family, and suggest that the OsDi19 family may play crucial roles in the plant response to abiotic stress.

  13. Distribution of DI*A and DI*B Allele Frequencies and Comparisons among Central Thai and Other Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nathalang, Oytip; Panichrum, Puangpaka; Intharanut, Kamphon; Thattanon, Phatchira; Nathalang, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Alloantibodies to the Diego (DI) blood group system, anti-Dia and anti-Dib are clinically significant in causing hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), especially in Asian populations with Mongolian ancestry. This study aimed to report the frequency of the DI*A and DI*B alleles in a Central Thai population and to compare them with those of other populations previously published. Altogether, 1,011 blood samples from unrelated healthy blood donors at the National Blood Centre, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok were included. Only 391 samples were tested with anti-Dia by conventional tube technique. All samples were genotyped for DI*A and DI*B alleles using an in-house polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) technique. The DI phenotyping and genotyping results were in 100% concordance. The DI*A and DI*B allele frequencies among 1,011 Central Thais were 0.0183 (37/2,022) and 0.9817 (1,985/2,022), respectively. Allele frequencies were compared between Central Thai and other populations. Our data shows that DI*A and DI*B allele frequencies are similar to Southeast Asian, Brazilian, Southern Brazilian and American Native populations; whereas, these frequencies significantly differ from those reported in East Asian, Italian, Alaska Native/Aleut, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and Filipino populations (P<0.05), corresponding to the results of a matrix of geometric genetic distances. This study confirms that the prevalence of DI*A and DI*B alleles among Central Thais is similar to Southeast Asians and different to others populations of the world. A PCR-based identification of DI genotyping should overcome some of the serological limitations in transfusion medicine and provides a complementary tool for further population-genetic studies. PMID:27764238

  14. Thermal and optical studies of some di-methyl-di-alkyl ammonium bromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witko, Waclaw; Godlewska, Malgorzata; Dynarowicz, Patrycja

    1998-01-01

    Phase situation of homologous series of di-alkyl-di-methyl ammonium bromides represented by the general formula: 2CnN+2C1Br-, with n equals 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy methods in the temperature range 20-180 degrees C. A more complex polymorphism as already reported was detected. All the compounds studied show at least tow anomalies on the DSC curves. The high-temperature phase which appears below the isotropic phase has lancet-like dendritic texture which can be attributed to SmB phase. The enthalpy changes at the transitions were calculated.

  15. DI: An interactive debugging interpreter for applicative languages

    SciTech Connect

    Skedzielewski, S.K.; Yates, R.K.; Oldehoeft, R.R.

    1987-03-12

    The DI interpreter is both a debugger and interpreter of SISLAL programs. Its use as a program interpreter is only a small part of its role; it is designed to be a tool for studying compilation techniques for applicative languages. DI interprets dataflow graphs expressed in the IF1 and IF2 languages, and is heavily instrumented to report the activity of dynamic storage activity, reference counting, copying and updating of structured data values. It also aids the SISAL language evaluation by providing an interim execution vehicle for SISAL programs. DI provides determinate, sequential interpretation of graph nodes for sequential and parallel operations in a canonical order. As a debugging aid, DI allows tracing, breakpointing, and interactive display of program data values. DI handles creation of SISAL and IF1 error values for each data type and propagates them according to a well-defined algebra. We have begun to implement IF1 optimizers and have measured the improvements with DI.

  16. Absent Aortic Valve in DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Elizabeth C; Minturn, Lucy; Gotteiner, Nina L; Ernst, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    A 20-week-old fetus with the 22q11.2 deletion characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome is described with vertebral segmentation abnormalities and complex cardiovascular anomalies including an absent aortic valve. This is only the second known case of absent aortic valve in association with DiGeorge syndrome. We discuss the association of absent aortic valve with other conotruncal defects and the utility of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome.

  17. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  18. Optogenetic Manipulation of Cyclic Di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Levels Reveals the Role of c-di-GMP in Regulating Aerotaxis Receptor Activity in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Lindsey; Ryu, Min-Hyung; Gomelsky, Mark; Alexandre, Gladys

    2017-09-15

    Bacterial chemotaxis receptors provide the sensory inputs that inform the direction of navigation in changing environments. Recently, we described the bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) as a novel regulator of a subclass of chemotaxis receptors. In Azospirillum brasilense, c-di-GMP binds to a chemotaxis receptor, Tlp1, and modulates its signaling function during aerotaxis. Here, we further characterize the role of c-di-GMP in aerotaxis using a novel dichromatic optogenetic system engineered for manipulating intracellular c-di-GMP levels in real time. This system comprises a red/near-infrared-light-regulated diguanylate cyclase and a blue-light-regulated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. It allows the generation of transient changes in intracellular c-di-GMP concentrations within seconds of irradiation with appropriate light, which is compatible with the time scale of chemotaxis signaling. We provide experimental evidence that binding of c-di-GMP to the Tlp1 receptor activates its signaling function during aerotaxis, which supports the role of transient changes in c-di-GMP levels as a means of adjusting the response of A. brasilense to oxygen gradients. We also show that intracellular c-di-GMP levels in A. brasilense change with carbon metabolism. Our data support a model whereby c-di-GMP functions to imprint chemotaxis receptors with a record of recent metabolic experience, to adjust their contribution to the signaling output, thus allowing the cells to continually fine-tune chemotaxis sensory perception to their metabolic state.IMPORTANCE Motile bacteria use chemotaxis to change swimming direction in response to changes in environmental conditions. Chemotaxis receptors sense environmental signals and relay sensory information to the chemotaxis machinery, which ultimately controls the swimming pattern of cells. In bacteria studied to date, differential methylation has been known as a mechanism to control the activity of chemotaxis receptors and modulates

  19. DBU-catalyzed transprotection of N-Fmoc-cysteine di- and tripeptides into S-Fm-cysteine di- and tripeptides.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Abo-Dya, Nader E; Abdelmajeid, Abdelmotaal; Tala, Srinivasa R; Amine, M S; El-Feky, Said A

    2011-01-21

    The transprotection of N-Fmoc-cysteine containing di- and tripeptides possessing a free SH group to produce the corresponding S-Fm-cysteine di- and tripeptides bearing a free amino group is accomplished efficiently with DBU in dry THF. The N-Fmoc to S-Fm transformation mechanism is discussed. S-Fm-Cysteine di- and tripeptides readily form amide bonds on coupling with N-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)benzotriazoles and N-(Pg-α-dipeptidoyl)benzotriazoles to give larger peptides.

  20. [Attenzione per i dettagli in genitori di nazionalità italiana di donne affette da anoressia nervosa: uno studio comparativo].

    PubMed

    Chinello, Alessandro; Zappa, Luigi; Pastori, Miriam; Crocamo, Cristina; Ricciardelli, Paola; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. È noto come l'anoressia nervosa (AN) e il disturbo dello spetto autistico (ASD) condividano alcuni tratti, come la rigidità mentale e l'attenzione per i dettagli, che potrebbero essere diffusi a livello familiare. Questo studio ha lo scopo di confrontare la distribuzione di tratti autistici in genitori con figlie affette da disturbo alimentare ED (anoressia - AN o bulimia nervosa - BN) con genitori appartenenti a un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Sono stati coinvolti 40 genitori con figlie affette da disturbo alimentare (60% con anoressia, 40% con bulimia nervosa) e 33 genitori di controllo. Tutti i genitori hanno compilato questionari specifici riguardanti il quoziente di spettro autistico (AQ) e le stime cognitive (CET). Inoltre, sono stati somministrati EAT-26 e SCL-90-R al fine di escludere la presenza di disturbi psichiatrici o alimentari nel gruppo sperimentale. Risultati. Le analisi su AQ mostrano una differenza tra i due gruppi per un tratto autistico specifico, evidenziando una riduzione significativa dell'attenzione per i dettagli nel gruppo sperimentale (ED), in particolare nei genitori di figlie affette da AN. Discussione. Questi dati suggeriscono una preferenza per un'elaborazione globale delle informazioni nei genitori AN in contrasto a quanto trovato in pazienti con AN. La presenza di aspetti depressivi, ansiosi e di disturbi alimentari è stata esclusa nei genitori nel gruppo sperimentale tramite SCL-90-R e EAT-26. Infine, la capacità di prendere decisioni, misurata dal CET, è stata esclusa dalle nostre analisi. Conclusione. Nei genitori con figlie affette da AN emerge una peculiare preferenza per un'elaborazione cognitiva globale, suggerendo il ruolo dell'attenzione per i dettagli come nuovo fattore da considerare nelle valutazione cliniche di pazienti con AN e nei loro familiari. Considerando i limiti dello studio, ulteriori approfondimenti in merito sono necessari.

  1. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-08-02

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  2. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2017-07-04

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  3. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-09-13

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Group VIII metal and a crystalline alumina support.

  4. DiTour 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Thomas A.

    2015-06-30

    There is a need for software that allows a tour guide to present different tracks of slides and then return to the default slide show automatically upon completion. A mobile solution is needed for trade shows. DiTour is an iPad/iPhone app that pulls presentation content from a website, stores it on the device and presents it on a connected display. A tour guide can select a track to present and it will automatically return to the default track after a timeout. It offers a mobile solution which is ideal for trade shows.

  5. The cyclic di-nucleotide c-di-AMP is an allosteric regulator of metabolic enzyme function

    PubMed Central

    Precit, Mimi; Delince, Matthieu; Pensinger, Daniel; Huynh, TuAnh Ngoc; Jurado, Ashley R.; Goo, Young Ah; Sadilek, Martin; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Sauer, John-Demian; Tong, Liang; Woodward, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a broadly conserved second messenger required for bacterial growth and infection. However, the molecular mechanisms of c-di-AMP signaling are still poorly understood. Using a chemical proteomics screen for c-di-AMP interacting proteins in the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, we identified several broadly conserved protein receptors, including the central metabolic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (LmPC). Biochemical and crystallographic studies of the LmPC-c-di-AMP interaction revealed a previously unrecognized allosteric regulatory site 25 Å from the active site. Mutations in this site disrupted c-di-AMP binding and affected enzyme catalysis of LmPC as well as PC from pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis. C-di-AMP depletion resulted in altered metabolic activity in L. monocytogenes. Correction of this metabolic imbalance rescued bacterial growth, reduced bacterial lysis, and resulted in enhanced bacterial burdens during infection. These findings greatly expand the c-di-AMP signaling repertoire and reveal a central metabolic regulatory role for a cyclic di-nucleotide. PMID:25215494

  6. A new di-O-prenylated isoflavone from Tephrosia tinctoria.

    PubMed

    Khalivulla, Shaik Ibrahim; Reddy, Bandi Anil Kumar; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Blond, Alain; Bodo, Bernard; Murthy, Madugula Marthanda; Rao, Tadikimalli Prabhakar

    2008-01-01

    A new di-O-prenylated isoflavone, 5,7-di-O-prenylbiochanin A (1), together with three known compounds, 7-O-methylglabranin (2), tephrowatsin C (3) and flemichapparin B (4), were isolated from the stems of Tephrosia tinctoria. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive 2D NMR spectral studies.

  7. What's in a Diary? Di-EL First Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nott, Pauline; Brown, P. Margaret; Cowan, Rogert; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Children with hearing loss and their families are now presenting for early intervention support and guidance at increasingly younger ages. At present there is a paucity of research that informs teachers about early language development in the child with hearing loss. Di-EL First Words (Di-EL) is a diary technique through which parents record their…

  8. Interdisciplinary investigations in support of project DI-MOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1991-01-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations in support of project DI-MOD are discussed. The following subject areas were covered: (1) potential extensions of Project DI-MOD to additional sites in Central America; (2) human migration patterns and their impact on malaria transmission; and (3) an investigation into possible computer-based approaches to the analysis of remotely sensed multispectral data.

  9. Synthesis and anticancer activity of di(3-thienyl)methanol and di(3-thienyl)methane.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kim, Hong Seon; Chae, Young June; Lee, Young Nam; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, In Tae

    2012-09-27

    Di(3-thienyl)methanol (2) and di(3-thienyl)methane (3) have been synthesized and screened against the T98G (brain cancer) cell line. Treatment induced cell death (MTT and macro-colony assay), growth inhibition, cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation), were studied as cellular response parameters. Treatment with the compounds enhanced growth inhibition and cell death in a concentration dependent manner in both T98G and HEK (normal) cell lines. At higher concentrations (>20 µg/mL) the cytotoxic effects of the compounds were highly significant. The effect on clonogenic capacity and micronuclei formation observed after treatment of cells. Amongst the compounds, compound 2 exhibited potent activity against T98G brain cancer cells. Despite potent in vitro activity, both compounds exhibited less cytotoxicity against normal human HEK cells at all effective concentrations.

  10. Sul foro nella stanza di Nicola Cusano al castello di Andraz: un'ipotesi astronomica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Donà, G.

    2011-02-01

    Nicolas Krebs (Kues 1401 - Todi 1464), also called Nicola Cusano, or Nicholas of Cusa - reached the Castello di Andraz (BL, Italy), where he lived for a long period. In a wall of his room there is a hole representing a possible astronomical function. In this paper, the author illustrates the orientation of the hole and suggests that it is been created by the great German thinker to correct the Julian calendar.

  11. Appunti sulle osservazioni telescopiche di Galilei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanin, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    The author inspects the telescopic observations performed by Galileo Galilei beginning since 1609. In the first part he examines the attribution to Galileo of the instruments now in Florence in the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza (IMSS). In the second part he considers the observative and optical analyses realized in this century about the telescopes. In the final part he exposes the observations carried out with an instrument very similar to those Galileo had, the "Project STAR" Scope. The author concludes the IMSS instruments represent very well those used by Galileo and, in particular, they are among the best utilized by Italian scientists. The author is also convinced since 1612 Galileo employed a telescope with 5" resolution power.

  12. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Progress Reports 1994, Volume 32, June 1995

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    MOVEMENT ANALYSIS A. Cappozzo; F. Catani; U. Delia Croce; M.G. Benedetti; A. Leardini htituto di Fisiologia Umana, University of Sassari, Italy...Biomechanics Laboratory, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy; Istituto di Fisiologia Umana, University "La Sapienza" Roma, Italy Sponsor...Benedetti; A. Leardini Istituto di Fisiologia Vmana, University of Sassari, Italy; Biomechanics Laboratory, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna

  13. Limb anomalies in DiGeorge and CHARGE syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, C.; Quackenbush, E.J.; Whiteman, D.; Korf, B.

    1997-01-20

    Limb anomalies are not common in the DiGeorge or CHARGE syndromes. We describe limb anomalies in two children, one with DiGeorge and the other with CHARGE syndrome. Our first patient had a bifid left thumb, Tetralogy of Fallot, absent thymus, right facial palsy, and a reduced number of T-cells. A deletion of 22q11 was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The second patient, with CHARGE syndrome, had asymmetric findings that included right fifth finger clinodactyly, camptodactyly, tibial hemimelia and dimpling, and severe club-foot. The expanded spectrum of the DiGeorge and CHARGE syndromes includes limb anomalies. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Identification of c-di-GMP-Responsive Riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Johann; Soutourina, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is an important signaling molecule for community behavior control, cell morphogenesis, and virulence in bacteria. In addition to protein effectors, this second messenger binds RNA molecules that act as riboswitches to control target gene expression. In this chapter, we describe a method for experimental validation of the functionality of c-di-GMP-responsive riboswitches and the analysis of c-di-GMP control of target gene expression by qRT-PCR and Northern blot. This procedure can be used for the studies of in silico-predicted riboswitch candidates, as well as a targeted experimental approach for exploring the data from next-generation sequencing. The examples on the analysis of type I and type II c-di-GMP-responsive riboswitches in Clostridium difficile are provided to illustrate the application of the method.

  15. Vibrational frequencies and structural determinations of di-vinyl sulfone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellzy, Michael W.; Jensen, James O.; Kay, Jack G.

    2003-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the structure and infrared spectra of di-vinyl sulfone. The vibrational frequencies of the di-vinyl sulfone molecule were analyzed using standard quantum chemical techniques. Frequencies were calculated at the MP2 and DFT levels of theory using the standard 6-311G* basis set. The structural transformation of the chemical agent bis(2-chloroehtyl) sulfide (HD, mustard gas) and the related symmetry to a previously study compounds [Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55 (1999) 121; Spectrochim. Acta Part A 57 (2001) 2417] makes the symmetry of the di-vinyl sulfone molecule an interesting candidate for study. The molecule exists normally in a C2 configuration. High-energy forms of di-vinyl sulfone with CS and C1 symmetries also exist.

  16. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  17. Upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier-Daire, V.; Iserin, L.; Sidi, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on upper limb anomalies in two children with a complete DiGeorge sequence: conotruncal defects, hypocalcemia, thymic aplasia, and facial anomalies. One child had preaxial polydactyly, and the other had club hands with hypoplastic first metacarpal. In both patients, molecular analysis documented a 22q11 deletion. To our knowledge, limb anomalies have rarely been reported in DiGeorge syndrome, and they illustrate the variable clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  18. [Structure and function of c-di-GMP riboswitches].

    PubMed

    Li, Xinfeng; Chen, Fang; Xiao, Jinfeng; He, Jin

    2017-09-25

    Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous nucleotide second messenger present in a wide variety of bacteria. It regulates many important bacterial physiological functions such as biofilm formation, motility, adhesion, virulence and extracellular polysaccharide synthesis. It binds with many different proteins or RNA receptors, one of which is called riboswitch that is usually located at the 5'-untranslational region (5'-UTR) in some mRNA. Riboswitch usually comprises a specific ligand-binding (sensor) domain (named aptamer domain, AD), as well as a variable domain, termed expression platform (EP), to regulate expression of downstream coding sequences. When a specific metabolite concentration exceeds its threshold level, it will bind to its cognate riboswitch receptor to induce a conformational change of 5'-UTR, leading to modulation of downstream gene expression. Two classes of c-di-GMP-binding riboswitches (c-di-GMP-Ⅰ and c-di-GMP-Ⅱ) have been discovered that bind with this second messenger with high affinity to regulate diverse downstream genes, underscoring the importance of this unique RNA receptor in this pathway. Class Ⅰ c-di-GMP riboswitches are present in a wide variety of bacteria, and are most common in the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, while class Ⅱ c-di-GMP riboswitches typically function as allosteric ribozymes, binding to c-di-GMP to induce folding changes at atypical splicing site junctions to modulate downstream gene expression. This review introduces the discovery, classification, function, and also the affected downstream genes of c-di-GMP riboswitches.

  19. Divertor materials evaluation system (DiMES)

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.; Bastasz, R.J.; Brooks, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    1997-12-31

    The mission of the Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES) in DIII-D is to establish an integrated data base from measurements in the divertor of a tokamak in order to address some of the ITER and fusion power reactor plasma material interaction issues. Carbon and metal coatings of Be, W, V, and Mo were exposed to the steady-state outer strike point on DIII-D for 4--18 s. These short exposure times ensure controlled exposure conditions, and the extensive arrays of DIII-D divertor diagnostics provide a well-characterized plasma for modeling efforts. Post-exposure analysis provides a direct measure of surface material erosion rates and the amount of retained deuterium. For carbon, these results match closely with the results of accumulated carbon deposition and erosion, and the corresponding deuterium retention of long term exposure tiles in DIII-D. Under the carbon-contaminated background plasma of DIII-D, metal coatings of Be, V, Mo, and W were exposed to the steady-state outer strike point under ELMing and ELM-free H-mode discharges. The rate of material erosion and deuterium retention were measured. As expected, W shows the lowest erosion rate at 0.1 mm/s and the lowest deuterium uptake of 2 {times} 10{sup 20}/m{sup 2}.

  20. Metabolite and mineral profiling of "Violetto di Niscemi" and "Spinoso di Menfi" globe artichokes by (1)H-NMR and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Albergamo, Ambrogina; Rotondo, Archimede; Salvo, Andrea; Pellizzeri, Vito; Bua, Daniel G; Maggio, Antonella; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-05-01

    Globe artichoke has been long considered a nutraceutical food for its valuable content of bioactive compounds. However, beside a well-known polyphenol profile, poor information is available about its metabolite and mineral composition. The aim of this study was to investigate edible parts of Sicilian artichokes, 'Spinoso di Menfi' and 'Violetto di Niscemi', by (1)H NMR and ICP-MS for elucidating these compositional aspects. Although bracts and hearts of both artichokes shared a very similar metabolite pattern, 'Spinoso di Menfi' showed a higher number of metabolites, such as amino acids and polyphenols, than 'Violetto di Niscemi'. 'Spinoso di Menfi' was also marked by higher levels of macro- and microelements when compared to 'Violetto di Niscemi'. Also, artichoke heart demonstrated to accumulate higher mineral levels than bracts. (1)H NMR and ICP-MS successfully profiled metabolites and metals in such plant food, partially covering the lack of literature data about 'Spinoso di Menfi' and 'Violetto di Niscemi' artichokes.

  1. Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger represents a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors and is of key importance for driving the lifestyle switch between motile loner cells and biofilm formers. This review provides an up-to-date compendium of c-di-GMP pathways connected to biofilm formation, biofilm-associated motilities, and other functionalities in the ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium is frequently adopted as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. Importantly, its versatility and adaptation capabilities are linked with a broad range of complex regulatory networks, including a large set of genes involved in c-di-GMP biosynthesis, degradation, and transmission. PMID:27129226

  2. Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Martina; Filloux, Alain

    2016-06-10

    The cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger represents a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors and is of key importance for driving the lifestyle switch between motile loner cells and biofilm formers. This review provides an up-to-date compendium of c-di-GMP pathways connected to biofilm formation, biofilm-associated motilities, and other functionalities in the ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa This bacterium is frequently adopted as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. Importantly, its versatility and adaptation capabilities are linked with a broad range of complex regulatory networks, including a large set of genes involved in c-di-GMP biosynthesis, degradation, and transmission.

  3. An experiment of formation of charmoni states in annihilation P-Pbarra. Un esperimento di formazione di stati del charmonio in annichilazione P-Pbarra

    SciTech Connect

    Pallavicini, Marco

    1995-01-01

    Oggetto di questa tesi e la misura di alcune caratteristiche fisiche (massa, larghezza, e larghezza parziale in p - $\\bar{p}$) degli stati 3P1 e 3P2 del charmonio, -ovvero del sistema legato di un quark "charm" e del suo antiquark-, nell'amito dell'esperimento E-760, installato nell'accumulatore di antiprotoni del Fermilab.

  4. Case report: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of pancreatic origin in a patient with down syndrome: The role of diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, M; Di Renzo, D; Persico, A; Chiesa, P Lelli

    2011-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Il tumore miofibroblastico infiammatorio (TIM) è un tumore solido benigno, di incerta eziologia. MATERIALI E METODI: Riportiamo un case-report di un bambino (4 anni, sindrome di Down), con massa pancreatica identificata all’ultrasonografia (US) e confermata da TC. RISULTATI: Il monitoraggio del TIM è stato effettuato con US seriate. Il follow-up a 4 anni dalla diagnosi è senza recidive. DISCUSSIONE: Il paziente, data l’impossibilità dell’exeresi chirurgica radicale, è stato trattato con successo con terapia medica (FANS). Abbiamo deciso di monitorizzare la lesione con ultrasonografie seriate, riducendo il numero di esami TC ai quali il paziente avrebbe dovuto sottoporsi, evitando così l’esposizione a radiazioni ionizzanti. La letteratura, infatti, riporta ampiamente come l’esecuzione di ripetuti esami TC si accompagni ad una importante radioesposizione con conseguente rischio cancerogeno, dato assolutamente non trascurabile in età pediatrica.

  5. CUB DI (Deionization) column control system

    SciTech Connect

    K. C. Seino

    1999-07-02

    For the old MR (Main Ring), deionization was done with two columns in CUB, using an ion exchange process. Typically 65 GPM of LCW flew through a column, and the resistivity was raised from 3 Mohm-cm to over 12 Mohm-cm. After a few weeks, columns lost their effectiveness and had to be regenerated in a process involving backwashing and adding hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. For normal MR operations, LCW returned from the ring and passed through the two columns in parallel for deionization, although the system could have been operated satisfactorily with only one in use. A 3000 gallon reservoir (the Spheres) provided a reserve of LCW for allowing water leaks and expansions in the MR. During the MI (Main Injector) construction period, the third DI column was added to satisfy requirements for the MI. When the third column was added, the old regeneration controller was replaced with a new controller based on an Allen-Bradley PLC (i.e., SLC-5/04). The PLC is widely used and well documented, and therefore it may allow us to modify the regeneration programs in the future. In addition to the above regeneration controller, the old control panels (which were used to manipulate pumps and valves to supply LCW in Normal mode and to do Int. Recir. (Internal Recirculation) and Makeup) were replaced with a new control system based on Sixtrak Gateway and I/O modules. For simplicity, the new regeneration controller is called as the US Filter system, and the new control system is called as the Fermilab system in this writing.

  6. Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES)

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.; Bastasz, R.J.; Brooks, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    1997-11-01

    The mission of the Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES) in DIII-D is to establish an integrated data base from measurements in the divertor of a tokamak in order to address some of the ITER and fusion power reactor plasma material interaction issues. Carbon and metal coatings of Be, W, V, and Mo were exposed to the steady-state outer strike point on DIII-D for 4-18 s. These short exposure times ensure controlled exposure conditions, and the extensive arrays of DIII-D divertor diagnostics provide a well-characterized plasma for modeling efforts. Postexposure analysis provides a direct measure of surface material erosion rates and the amount of retained deuterium. For carbon, these results match closely with the results of accumulated carbon deposition and erosion, and the corresponding deuterium retention of long term exposure tiles in DIII-D. Deuterium retention of different materials was measured using the {sup 3}He(d,p) {sup 4}He nuclear reaction. For carbon, these measurements showed peak deuterium areal density of about 8 {times} 10 {sup 18} D/cm{sup 2} in a co-deposited layer about 6 {micro}m deep, mainly at the usually detached inboard divertor leg. That layer of carbon near the inner divertor strike point has an atomic saturation concentration of D/C {approx} 0.25, which is not significantly lower than the laboratory-measured saturation retention of 0.4. Under the carbon contaminated background plasma of DIII-D, metal coatings of Be, V, Mo, and W were exposed to the steady state outer strike point under ELMing and ELM-free H-mode discharges. The rate of material erosion and tritium retention were measured. As expected, W shows the lowest erosion rate at 0.1 nm/s and the lowest deuterium uptake.

  7. Diffractive interference optical analyzer (DiOPTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Harish; Prasad, Vishnu; Pal, Parama; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-03-01

    This report demonstrates a method for high-resolution refractometric measurements using, what we have termed as, a Diffractive Interference Optical Analyzer (DiOpter). The setup consists of a laser, polarizer, a transparent diffraction grating and Si-photodetectors. The sensor is based on the differential response of diffracted orders to bulk refractive index changes. In these setups, the differential read-out of the diffracted orders suppresses signal drifts and enables time-resolved determination of refractive index changes in the sample cell. A remarkable feature of this device is that under appropriate conditions, the measurement sensitivity of the sensor can be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to interference between multiply reflected diffracted orders. A noise-equivalent limit of detection (LoD) of 6x10-7 RIU was achieved in glass. This work focuses on devices with integrated sample well, made on low-cost PDMS. As the detection methodology is experimentally straightforward, it can be used across a wide array of applications, ranging from detecting changes in surface adsorbates via binding reactions to estimating refractive index (and hence concentration) variations in bulk samples. An exciting prospect of this technique is the potential integration of this device to smartphones using a simple interface based on transmission mode configuration. In a transmission configuration, we were able to achieve an LoD of 4x10-4 RIU which is sufficient to explore several applications in food quality testing and related fields. We are envisioning the future of this platform as a personal handheld optical analyzer for applications ranging from environmental sensing to healthcare and quality testing of food products.

  8. Migration of Di- and Tri-Interstitials in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, Matthias; Gao, Fei; Zwicker, D

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The results are compared with data from the literature and the implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed.

  9. Analysis of lustred ceramics of the Galleria Regionale di Palazzo Bellomo di Siracusa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politi, Giuseppe; Bouquillon, Anne; Aucouturier, Marc; Gueli, Anna; Troja, Sebastiano Olindo; Vella, Carmela; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Moignard, Brice; Lemasson, Quentin

    2014-07-01

    Several fragments of lustred pottery coming from the collection of the Galleria Regionale di Palazzo Bellomo and excavated in Siracusa, were studied through non-invasive ion beam techniques in the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France in Paris. Up to now only aesthetic and stylistic analysis were available for these objects, and their provenances and dating were unknown or uncertain; moreover, the question concerning a possible local production was still debated. Compositions of pottery and glazed parts were thus obtained by Particle Induced X-ray Emission analysis, while the depth distribution of element of the lustre was analyzed by the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry technique. The obtained results provided important information on possible origin and production period of the objects.

  10. Bis(2,3-di­chloro­phen­yl) di­sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Osorio-Yáñez, Rebeca Nayely; Crisóstomo-Lucas, Carmela; Santacruz-Juárez, Ericka; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C12H6Cl4S2, features an S—S bond [2.0252 (8) Å] that bridges two 2,3-di­chloro­phenyl rings with a C—S—S—C torsion angle of 88.35 (11)°. The benzene rings are normal one to the other with a dihedral angle of 89.83 (11)°. The crystal structure features inter­molecular Cl⋯Cl [3.4763 (11) Å] and π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.696 (1) and 3.641 (2) Å]. Intra­molecular C—H⋯S inter­actions are also observed. PMID:24860342

  11. Tetrakis(2,6-di-methyl-pyridinium) di-hydrogen deca-vanadate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Rakovský, Erik; Krivosudský, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    The structure of the title compound, (C7H10N)4[H2V10O28]·2H2O, was solved from a non-merohedrally twinned crystal (ratio of twin components ∼0.6:0.4). The asymmetric unit consists of one-half deca-vanadate anion (the other half completed by inversion symmetry), two 2,6-di-methyl-pyridinium cations and one water mol-ecule of crystallization. In the crystal, the components are connected by strong N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a supra-molecular chain along the b-axis direction. There are weak C-H⋯O inter-actions between the chains.

  12. Luminescence properties of dysprosium doped di-calcium di-aluminium silicate phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Geetanjali; Brahme, Nameeta; Sharma, Ravi; Bisen, D. P.; Sao, Sanjay K.; Tigga, Shalinta

    2016-08-01

    A Dysprosium doped di-calcium di-aluminium silicate phosphor emitting long-lasting white light was prepared and investigated. Phosphors were synthesized by combustion-assisted method. The effect of doping concentration on the crystal structure and luminescence properties of Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphors were investigated. The phase structure, surface morphology, particle size, elemental analysis was analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles showed that all peaks could be attributed to the tetragonal Ca2Al2SiO7 phase when the sample was annealed at 1100 °C. The increase in TL intensity indicates that the concentration of traps increases with UV irradiation. Under the UV-excitation, the Thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra of Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphor shows the characteristic emission of Dy3+ peaking at 484 nm (blue), 583 nm (yellow) and 680 nm (red), originating from the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2. Photoluminescence (PL) decay has also reported and it indicates that Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphor contains fast decay and slow decay process. The peak of Mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity increases linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. The possible mechanism of Thermoluminescence (TL), Photoluminescence (PL) and Mechanoluminescence (ML) of this white light emitting long lasting phosphor is also investigated.

  13. Quantification of the asymmetric migration of the lipophilic dyes, DiO and DiD, in homotypic co-cultures of chondrosarcoma SW-1353 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Tomasz P.; Juzwa, Wojciech; Filipiak, Krystyna; Sujka-Kordowska, Patrycja; Zabel, Maciej; Głowacki, Jakub; Głowacki, Maciej; Jagodziński, Paweł P.

    2016-01-01

    DiO and DiD are lipophilic cell labelling dyes used in the staining of cells in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the present study was to quantify the asymmetrical distribution of dyes in co-cultured cells and to measure the intercellular transfer of DiO and DiD. DiO and DiD were applied separately to stain two identical populations of SW-1353 human chondrosarcoma cells that were subsequently co-cultured (homotypic co-culture). The intercellular migration of dyes in the co-cultured cells was measured by flow cytometry and recorded under a fluorescent microscope. DiD and DiO caused no effect on the proliferation of cells, the degradation rate of the two dyes was comparable and crossover effects between dyes were negligible. The results of the present study suggested that asymmetrical intercellular migration of DiD and DiO was responsible for the asymmetrical distribution of these dyes in co-cultured cells. To take advantage of the lipophilic dyes migration in the double-stained co-cultured cells we suggest to apply mixed-dyes controls prior to the flow cytometric analysis. These controls are performed by staining cells with a 1:1 mix of the two dyes and would enable the estimation of the intensity of intercellular contact in co-culture systems. A 1:1 premix of DiO and DiD was applied to estimate cellular effect on intercellular exchange of lipid dyes in co-cultures incubated with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B. The cellular effect contributed 6–7% of intercellular migration of the lipophilic dyes, DiO and DiD. The majority of the observed intercellular transfer of these dyes was due to non-cellular, passive transfer. PMID:27748852

  14. A case of DiGeorge syndrome in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Chikovani, M; Kutubidze, T; Khvedeliani, N; Pagava, K

    2011-04-01

    Patient 6 - year- old boy, with history of recurrent otitis, cleft palate, was admitted to the hospital for fever, abdominal pain; He had high ESR,CRP, low T lymphocytes, VSD. Peritoneal fluid was positive for pseudomona aeroginoza. Diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome was confirmed by further genetical study. Immune deficiencies should be considered when infections are severe, persistent resistant to standard treatment, or caused by opportunistic organisms. Treatments can often correct many of the critical and immediate problems associated with DiGeorge syndrome such as heart defects, calcium defects, poor immune system functions and cleft palate. People who had poor immune function as children due to small or missing thymus, may have an increased risk of autoimmune disorders, such as a rheumatoid arthritis and Graves disease. Because DiGeorge syndrome can result in so many disorders, a number of specialists should be involved in diagnosing specific conditions, recommending treatments and providing care.

  15. Placental lesions in a case of DiGeorge sequence.

    PubMed

    Fulcheri, E; Gualco, M; Delfino, F; Pantarotto, M F

    2006-01-01

    This work describes some placental alterations found in a partial form of DiGeorge sequence, namely, hypoplasia of a cord artery with internal calcification of an extensive endoluminal thrombosis, and widespread calcification of microthrombi in the arteries of the second and third order villous branches. Hypoplasia of a cord artery is a relatively rare event, and is also associated with malformations of the gastroenteric and cardiovascular system, as sometimes described in the DiGeorge sequence. Interesting placental alterations are reported and their likely physiopathologic basis and pathogenic correlation discussed in order to give a better and more comprehensive picture of the DiGeorge sequence in which the correlated placental alterations are not sufficiently known.

  16. DiGeorge sequence with hypogammaglobulinemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chu, Shau-Yin; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2002-09-01

    The most common immunodeficiency in DiGeorge sequence patients is defects in T-cell production due to insufficient thymic tissue. However, because T-lymphocytes are important in regulating antibody responses, DiGeorge sequence is no longer regarded as a pure deficiency of cellular immunity but also a form of variable-combined immunodeficiency. Here we presented a 4-month-old male infant with characteristic facial dysmorphism, thymus dysplasia, tetralogy of Fallot, and documented deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 who had decrease B-lymphocyte numbers and hypogammaglobulinemia. The mitogen responses of T-lymphocytes function were normal with adequate number of CD4+ lymphocytes. This case report highlights the importance of evaluating not only the cellular but also the humoral immune function in patients with DiGeorge sequence.

  17. Bis(μ-N,N-di-allyl-dithio-carbamato)bis[(N,N-di-allyl-dithio-carbamato)cadmium].

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Hrubaru, Madalina; Hosten, Eric C; Arderne, Charmaine

    2017-09-01

    The title compound, [Cd2(C7H10NS2)4], is a neutral dinuclear cadmium(II) complex bearing four bis N,N-di-allyl-di-thio-carbamate ligands coordinating to two Cd(II) cations. In each of the monomeric subunits, there are four S atoms of two di-thio-carbamate ligands [Cd-S = 2.5558 (3), 2.8016 (3), 2.6050 (3) and 2.5709 (3) Å] that coordinate to one Cd(II) atom in a bidentate mode. The dimers are located over an inversion centre bridged by two additional bridging Cd-S bonds [2.6021 (3) Å], leading to a substantial distortion of the geometry of the monomeric subunit from the expected square-planar geometry. The five-coordinate environment around each of the Cd(II) ions in the dimer is best described as substanti-ally tetra-gonally distorted square pyramidal. The di-thio-carbamate groups are themselves planar and are also coplanar with the Cd(II) ions. The negative charge on these groups is delocalized by resonance across the S atoms bound to the Cd(II) cation. This delocalization of the π electrons in the di-thio-carbamate groups also extends to the C-N bonds as they reveal significant double bond character [C-N = 1.3213 (16) and 1.3333 (15) Å].

  18. DiGeorge syndrome: part of CATCH 22.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D I; Burn, J; Scambler, P; Goodship, J

    1993-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) comprises thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcaemia, outflow tract defects of the heart, and dysmorphic facies. It results in almost all cases from a deletion within chromosome 22q11. We report the clinical findings in 44 cases. We propose that DiGeorge syndrome should be seen as the severe end of the clinical spectrum embraced by the acronym CATCH 22 syndrome; Cardiac defects, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, Cleft palate, and Hypocalcaemia resulting from 22q11 deletions. Images PMID:8230162

  19. Target Search and Selection for the DI/EPOXI Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chesley, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Upon completion of the Hartley 2 flyby in November 2010, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft resided in a solar orbit without possibility for gravity assist with any large body. Conservative estimates of remaining fuel were enough to provide only an 18 m/s impulse on the spacecraft. We present our method and results of our systematic scan of potential small body encounters for DI, and our criteria to narrow the selection to the asteroid 2002 GT as the target flyby body. The mission profile has two deterministic maneuvers to achieve the encounter, the first of which executed on November 25, 2011.

  20. Target Search & Selection for the DI/EPOXI Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chesley, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Upon completion of the Hartley 2 flyby in November 2010, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft resided in a solar orbit without possibility for gravity assist with any large body. Conservative estimates of remaining fuel were enough to provide only an 18 m/s impulse on the spacecraft. We present our method and results of our systematic scan of potential small body encounters for DI, and our criteria to narrow the selection to the asteroid 2002 GT as the target flyby body. The mission profile has two deterministic maneuvers to achieve the encounter, the first of which executed on November 25, 2011.

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions from Specchio di Venere, Pantelleria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Mariana P. Jácome; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Vita, Fabio; Pecoraino, Giovanella

    2016-04-01

    We have mapped the diffuse CO2 efflux from the Specchio di Venere Lake area using the accumulation chamber method. We calculated a CO2 emission of 43 ± 5 t day-1 for the area studied, accounting for both diffuse degassing from soil and bubbling through the lake. We also present data on the water composition of Specchio di Venere Lake, the Polla 3 spring, and Liuzza well. On the basis of water chemistry, two physical-chemical processes, evaporation and mineral precipitation of carbonate species, are invoked to explain the CO2 degassing for the lake area.

  2. Synthesis and photochemical properties of 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-propanol, 1,3-di-9-anthrylacetone, and related propano-linked anthracenes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.D.; Amin, K.A. )

    1989-06-23

    9-anthryllithium reacts with epichlorohydrin to give 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-propanol via 3-(9-anthryl)-1-chloro-2-hydroxypropane and 3-(9-anthryl)-1,2-epoxypropane. Oxidation of dianthryl-2-propanol with Dess-Martin reagent gave 1,3-di-9-anthrylacetone. Various other 1,3-bichromophoric anthracenes were synthesized by way of C-methylation of dianthrylacetone, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-1-propanone, and 1,3-di-9-anthrylpropenone. 9-Anthrylacetone, formed as byproduct in the reaction of anthryllithium with epichlorohydrin, was prepared from 9-anthrylacetaldehyde by Grignard reaction with methylmagnesium iodide and subsequent oxidation. The excited-state properties of dianthryl-2-propanol, dianthrylacetone, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-methyl-1-propanone, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-methyl-2-propanol, diastereomeric 1,3-di-9-anthryl-1-butanols, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-butanone, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-1-butanone, and diastereomeric 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-methyl-1-butanones have been evaluated by fluorescence quantum yields, and by quantum yields for the isomerization by intramolecular 4{pi} + 4{pi} cycloaddition. Dianthryl-2-propanol, 1,3-di-9-antrhyl-2-methyl-2-propanol, dianthrylacetone, diastereomeric 1,3-di-9-anthryl-1-butanols, and 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-butanone isomerize in their excited singlet state with quantum yields of 0.046, 0.021, 0.25, 0.23, and 0.22, respectively. The photochemical isomerization of those 1,3-bichromophoric anthrancenes which are characterized by a 9-anthroyl chromophore involves the excited triplet state, and the cyclization quantum yield may be as high as 0.72.

  3. Integrated methodologies for the 3d survey and the structural monitoring of industrial archaeology: the case of the Casalecchio di Reno Dyke, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Girelli, Valentina A.; Vittuari, Luca; Zanutta, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The concept of "Industrial Archaeology" was introduced in the 1950s in England in order to consider the branch of Archaeology that, in integration with engineering, architecture and economics, studies the industrial past, with the purpose of document, protect and exploite the industrial-cultural heritage. The systematic study of this kind of structures and artefacts need a wide range approach, that starts from the investigation about the object historic fonts until its complete qualitative and quantitative description, also considering the characteristics of the surrounding territory. This task often needs the integration of different survey techniques for data capturing and processing, in order to perform the 3D modeling and to analize the structural deformations of manufactured articles. The paper presents the surveying and monitoring activities on the important structure of the Casalecchio di Reno dyke, near Bologna. The first historic notes on the dyke are very old; they are dated back to the I millenium A. D. and report the news of a wooden barrage of the Reno canal. The construction of the actual structure is in the period 1360-1367 and suffered during the centuries numerous interventions and restores. The surveying activities on the dyke were realized in 2005-2006 and 2009 and involved different techniques (classical topography, high precision geometric levelling, range-based method by terrestrial laser scanning, digital photogrammetry, thermal imagery) integrated together in a unique local reference system, in order to study the stability and the movements of the structure in a established period of time and to realize a 3D model. Together with detail surveys on the single parts of the structure, an analysis at a larger territorial scale was performed by aerial photogrammetry, either using current imagery and historical data. The topographic measurements with traditional differential techniques have achieved a very high level precision and the realized

  4. Immunoglobulin deficiencies: the B-lymphocyte side of DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kiran; Akhter, Javeed; Kobrynski, Lisa; Benjamin Gathmann, M A; Gathman, Benjamin; Davis, Onika; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2012-11-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a T-lymphocyte immunodeficiency. The prevalence of hypogammaglobulinemia has not been reported. We found that 3% of patients with DiGeorge syndrome were receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy and 6% of patients over the age of 3 years had hypogammaglobulinemia. We conclude that DiGeorge syndrome is associated with significant humoral immune deficiency.

  5. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting under...

  9. Molecular organization in perylene tetracarboxylic di-imide solid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, K.; Aroca, R.; Hort, A. M.; Loutfy, R. O.

    The vibrational spectra of thin solid films of three perylene tetracarboxylic di-imide derivatives (phenyl, methyl, and unsubstituted) are reported. A preferred molecular orientation in the evaporated solid films emerged for all three perylene derivatives from the i.r. data. Raman spectra obtained in resonance with the absorption band were characteristic of scattering via a Herzberg—Teller mechanism.

  10. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  11. PLCs, DI, & RTI: A Tapestry for School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoehr, Judy; Banks, Maria; Allen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Rather than buying individual books about professional learning communities (PLCs), differentiated instruction (DI), and Response to Intervention (RTI), invest wisely in one resource that synthesizes all three. The text uses a tapestry analogy to weave together these critical topics to form a comprehensive framework for achieving continuous school…

  12. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  13. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  14. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  15. 21 CFR 178.3940 - Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate). 178.3940 Section 178.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3940 - Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate). 178.3940 Section 178.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3940 - Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate). 178.3940 Section 178.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND...

  18. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  19. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  20. Synthesis and Chemistry of Organic Geminal Di- and Triazides.

    PubMed

    Häring, Andreas P; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2015-11-06

    This review recapitulates all available literature dealing with the synthesis and reactivity of geminal organic di- and triazides. These compound classes are, to a large extent, unexplored despite their promising chemical properties and their simple preparation. In addition, the chemistry of carbonyl diazide (2) and tetraazidomethane (105) is described in separate sections.

  1. Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Silvia; Radici, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest access to the poorly known twist-3 parton distribution e( x) , which is intimately related to the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. When sensitive to details of transverse-momentum dynamics of partons, the di-hadron fragmentation functions for a longitudinally polarized quark can be connected to the longitudinal jet handedness to explore possible effects due to CP -violation of the QCD vacuum. In this review, we outline the formalism of di-hadron fragmentation functions, we discuss different observables where they appear and we present measurements and future worldwide plans.

  2. Clinical Phenotype of DiGeorge Syndrome with Negative Genetic Tests: A Case of DiGeorge-Like Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Laccetta, Gianluigi; Toschi, Benedetta; Fogli, Antonella; Bertini, Veronica; Valetto, Angelo; Consolini, Rita

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of DiGeorge-like syndrome in which immunodeficiency coexisting with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, congenital heart disease, delay in emergence of language and in motor milestones, feeding and growing problems, enamel hypoplasia, mild skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms are associated with no abnormalities found on genetic tests.

  3. Clinical Phenotype of DiGeorge Syndrome with Negative Genetic Tests: A Case of DiGeorge-Like Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Laccetta, Gianluigi; Toschi, Benedetta; Fogli, Antonella; Bertini, Veronica; Valetto, Angelo; Consolini, Rita

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of DiGeorge-like syndrome in which immunodeficiency coexisting with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, congenital heart disease, delay in emergence of language and in motor milestones, feeding and growing problems, enamel hypoplasia, mild skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms are associated with no abnormalities found on genetic tests. PMID:26793401

  4. Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Barashkov, Nikolay; Heath, Jerry; Sisk, Wade N.

    2006-06-01

    Polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dye photodegradation is investigated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity as a function of 532 nm laser pulses. Anaerobically irradiated polymer-dye films exhibited an accelerated decrease in fluorescence intensity, which was partially recovered upon exposure to oxygen. Decelerated photodegradation rates were observed for perylene di-imide ethanol solutions upon the addition of a singlet oxygen quenching antioxidant. These observations suggest reversible photoreduction and type II photo-oxidation as important photodegradation mechanisms. Type II photo-oxidation for perylene red 532 nm irradiation is supported by a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.09±0.03, determined via detection of time-resolved O2 (a1Δg —> X3∑g-) infrared phosphorescence.

  5. Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dyes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Barashkov, Nikolay; Heath, Jerry; Sisk, Wade N

    2006-06-01

    Polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dye photodegradation is investigated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity as a function of 532 nm laser pulses. Anaerobically irradiated polymer-dye films exhibited an accelerated decrease in fluorescence intensity, which was partially recovered upon exposure to oxygen. Decelerated photodegradation rates were observed for perylene di-imide ethanol solutions upon the addition of a singlet oxygen quenching antioxidant. These observations suggest reversible photoreduction and type II photo-oxidation as important photodegradation mechanisms. Type II photo-oxidation for perylene red 532 nm irradiation is supported by a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.09+/-0.03, determined via detection of time-resolved O2 (a1delta(g) --> X3sigma(g)-) infrared phosphorescence.

  6. Thymus transplantation in complete DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Markert, M Louise; Devlin, Blythe H; Chinn, Ivan K; McCarthy, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Complete DiGeorge anomaly is characterized by athymia, congenital heart disease, and hypoparathyroidism. This congenital disease is fatal by age 2 years unless immune reconstitution is successful. There are multiple underlying syndromes associated with complete DiGeorge anomaly including 22q11 hemizygosity in approximately 50%, CHARGE association in approximately 25%, and diabetic embryopathy in approximately 15%. Approximately one-third of patients present with rash and lymphadenopathy associated with oligoclonal "host" T cells. This condition resembles Omenn syndrome. Immunosuppression is necessary to control the oligoclonal T cells. The results of thymus transplantation are reported for a series of 50 patients, of whom 36 survive. The survivors develop naïve T cells and a diverse T cell repertoire.

  7. Dental aspects in patients with DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toka, Okan; Karl, Matthias; Dittrich, Sven; Holst, Stefan; Holst, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, which is caused by a microdeletion of 1.5 to 3.0 megabases on the long arm of chromosome 22, has an incidence of approximately 1:4,000 to 1:5,000 live births. The phenotypic spectrum of this disorder includes congenital heart defects, immunodeficiency due to thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, transient or permanent hypocalcemia due to parathyroid hypoplasia or aplasia, developmental retardation, and psychiatric disorders. Dental aspects in these patients include skeletal malformations, velopharyngeal insufficiency with or without cleft palate, small mouth, and hypotonus orofacial musculature, as well as impaired salivary flow. Enamel aberrations related to hypocalcemia may result in a higher frequency of dental caries. Based on a series of five patients, the medical and dental aspects that have to be considered in the care of patients with DiGeorge syndrome are presented.

  8. Braccio di Ferro: a new haptic workstation for neuromotor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Maura; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Morasso, Pietro G; Arrichiello, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    This technical note describes a new robotic workstation for neurological rehabilitation, shortly named Braccio di Ferro. It has been designed by having in mind the range of forces and the frequency bandwidth that characterize the interaction between a patient and a physical therapist, as well as a number of requirements that we think are essential for allowing a natural haptic interaction: back-driveability, very low friction and inertia, mechanical robustness, the possibility to operate in different planes, and an open software environment, which allows the operator to add new functionalities and design personalized rehabilitation protocols. Braccio di Ferro is an open system and, in the spirit of open source design, is intended to foster the dissemination of robot therapy. Moreover, its combination of features is not present in commercially available systems.

  9. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet. Raw data file from our published studies on DIBP specifically requested (6/14/2016) by NCEA scientists for analysis and inclusion in their assessment of this chemical.

  10. Dilated cardiomyopathy: a preventable presentation of DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A; Smith, C J

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiac failure require careful evaluation to determine the precise nature of the cause of their illness. Genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy are well known but inherited conditions may lead to unexpected consequences through intermediate mechanisms not readily recognised as a feature of the inherited disorder. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy resulting from prolonged hypocalcaemia due to previously undiagnosed hypoparathyroidism resulting from DiGeorge Syndrome and describe the features of this case and the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.

  11. [The Istituto di Storia della Medicina archive and video collection].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro; De Angelis, Elio

    2006-01-01

    The Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University was to a certain extent a one-man achievement. Founded by Adalberto Pazzini in 1937, its collections comprehended books, objects, as well as photographs, movies, and other didactic video. The Istituto was also a center for publications, conferences and meetings. The archival sources that document its activity have been re-evaluated and restored in recent years, together with the collections housed in the Library and in the Museum.

  12. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet. Raw data file from our published studies on DIBP specifically requested (6/14/2016) by NCEA scientists for analysis and inclusion in their assessment of this chemical.

  13. DiGeorge syndrome who developed lymphoproliferative mediastinal mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Ji Ae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Dong Soo

    2015-03-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficient disease associated with abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches. As a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 occurs, various clinical phenotypes are shown with a broad spectrum. Conotruncal cardiac anomalies, hypoplastic thymus, and hypocalcemia are the classic triad of DiGeorge syndrome. As this syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, there are missing thymic shadow on their plain chest x-ray. Immunodeficient patients are traditionally known to be at an increased risk for malignancy, especially lymphoma. We experienced a 7-year-old DiGeorge syndrome patient with mediastinal mass shadow on her plain chest x-ray. She visited Severance Children's Hospital hospital with recurrent pneumonia, and throughout her repeated chest x-ray, there was a mass like shadow on anterior mediastinal area. We did full evaluation including chest computed tomography, chest ultrasonography, and chest magnetic resonance imaging. To rule out malignancy, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done. Final diagnosis of the mass which was thought to be malignancy, was lymphoproliferative lesion.

  14. Complexation of di-amides of dipicolinic acid with neodymium

    SciTech Connect

    Lapka, J.L.; Paulenova, A.

    2013-07-01

    Di-amides have undergone significant studies as possible ligands for use in the partitioning of trivalent minor actinides and lanthanides. The binding affinities of three isomeric ligands with neodymium in acetonitrile solution have been investigated. The stability constants of the metal-ligand complexes formed between different isomers of N,N'-diethyl-N,N'- ditolyl-di-picolinamide (EtTDPA) and trivalent neodymium in acetonitrile have been determined by spectrophotometric and calorimetric methods. Each isomer of EtTDPA has been found to be capable of forming three complexes with trivalent neodymium, Nd(EtTDPA), Nd(EtTDPA){sub 2}, and Nd(EtTDPA){sub 3}. Values from spectrophotometric and calorimetric titrations are within reasonable agreement with each other. The order of stability constants for each metal:ligand complex decreases in the order Et(m)TDPA > Et(p)TDPA > Et(o)TDPA. The obtained values are comparable to other di-amidic ligands obtained under similar system conditions and mirror previously obtained solvent extraction data for EtTDPA at low ionic strengths. (authors.

  15. 4-Bromo-N-(di-n-propyl-carbamothioyl)-benzamide.

    PubMed

    Binzet, Gün; Flörke, Ulrich; Külcü, Nevzat; Arslan, Hakan

    2009-02-04

    The synthesis of the title compound, C(14)H(19)BrN(2)OS, involves the reaction of 4-bromo-benzoyl chloride with potassium thio-cyanate in acetone followed by condensation of the resulting 4-bromo-benzoyl isothio-cyanate with di-n-propyl-amine. Typical thio-urea carbonyl and thio-carbonyl double bonds, as well as shortened C-N bonds, are observed in the title compound. The short C-N bond lengths in the centre of the mol-ecule reveal the effects of resonance in this part of the mol-ecule. The asymmetric unit of the title compound contains two crystallographically independent mol-ecules, A and B. There is very little difference between the bond lengths and angles of these mol-ecules. In mol-ecule B, one di-n-propyl group is twisted in a -anti-periplanar conformation with C-C-C-H = -179.1 (3)° and the other adopts a -synclinal conformation with C-C-C-H = -56.7 (4)°; in mol-ecule A the two di-n-propyl groups are twisted in + and -anti-periplanar conformations, with C-C-C-H = -179.9 (3) and 178.2 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked into dimeric pairs via pairs of N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds.

  16. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  17. DiGeorge syndrome with vertebral and rib dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Puno-Cocuzza, C.; David, K.; Kogekar, N.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome results from defect in the development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and is characterized by conotruncal heart defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of thymus and parathyroid glands resulting in immune deficiency and hypocalcemia. Other associated abnormalities include renal, thyroid and diaphragmatic defects, oral clefting, etc. Etiologically, it is heterogeneous, with a microdeletion of 22q11 present in over 80% of cases. Our patient was born following a pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent gestational diabetes. There was truncus arteriosus type 2, absense of thymic shadow on CXR with severe deficiency of T cell function, and persistent hypocalcemia with low parathormone. Right kidney was absent. Dysplastic ribs including fused and bifid ribs were noted. Hypoplastic vertebrae and hemivertebrae were present through thoracic and lumbar regions. Chromosome analysis was normal, and metaphase FISH analysis with probe N25 representing locus D22S75 did not show any deletion of 22q11.2. The skeletal findings similar to these have not been previously reported in association with DiGeorge syndrome to our knowledge. Vertebral and rib abnormalities are known to occur with pregestational maternal diabetes. Maternal diabetes has also been suggested to be a possible etiology in a very small proportion of DiGeorge syndrome cases. It is possible that these findings occured together on account of gestational maternal diabetes in our case.

  18. VS2DI: Model use, calibration, and validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Essaid, Hedeff I.

    2012-01-01

    VS2DI is a software package for simulating water, solute, and heat transport through soils or other porous media under conditions of variable saturation. The package contains a graphical preprocessor for constructing simulations, a postprocessor for displaying simulation results, and numerical models that solve for flow and solute transport (VS2DT) and flow and heat transport (VS2DH). Flow is described by the Richards equation, and solute and heat transport are described by advection-dispersion equations; the finite-difference method is used to solve these equations. Problems can be simulated in one, two, or three (assuming radial symmetry) dimensions. This article provides an overview of calibration techniques that have been used with VS2DI; included is a detailed description of calibration procedures used in simulating the interaction between groundwater and a stream fed by drainage from agricultural fields in central Indiana. Brief descriptions of VS2DI and the various types of problems that have been addressed with the software package are also presented.

  19. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721..., reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721..., reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721..., reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine (PMN...

  3. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  4. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  5. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  6. Bile Acids and Bicarbonate Inversely Regulate Intracellular Cyclic di-GMP in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in aquatic reservoirs and causes the diarrheal disease cholera upon entry into a human host. V. cholerae employs the second messenger molecule 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to transition between these two distinct lifestyles. c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. Bacteria typically encode many different DGCs and PDEs within their genomes. Presumably, each enzyme senses and responds to cognate environmental cues by alteration of enzymatic activity. c-di-GMP represses the expression of virulence factors in V. cholerae, and it is predicted that the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is low during infection. Contrary to this model, we found that bile acids, a prevalent constituent of the human proximal small intestine, increase intracellular c-di-GMP in V. cholerae. We identified four c-di-GMP turnover enzymes that contribute to increased intracellular c-di-GMP in the presence of bile acids, and deletion of these enzymes eliminates the bile induction of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation. Furthermore, this bile-mediated increase in c-di-GMP is quenched by bicarbonate, the intestinal pH buffer secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. Our results lead us to propose that V. cholerae senses distinct microenvironments within the small intestine using bile and bicarbonate as chemical cues and responds by modulating the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. PMID:24799624

  7. [L'ortoressia nervosa in un campione di popolazione universitaria italiana].

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Massimetti, Gabriele; Pini, Stefano; Rivetti, Luigi; Gorrasi, Federica; Tognetti, Rosalba; Ricca, Valdo; Carmassi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Valutare la frequenza e le caratteristiche dei comportamenti ortoressici in una vasta popolazione universitaria. Metodi. Un totale di 2826 individui hanno volontariamente completato in forma anonima l'ORTO-15 presente online, questionario autosomministrabile disegnato e validato con lo scopo di valutare la sintomatologia ortoressica. Come già fatto in studi precedenti, un punteggio totale all'ORTO-15 inferiore a 35 è stato utilizzato come soglia ottimale per evidenziare una tendenza per l'ortoressia nervosa. Inoltre, è stata anche usata una scheda specifica per raccogliere le variabili socio-demografiche. Risultati. Sono stati valutati, nel complesso, 2130 studenti e 696 dipendenti universitari appartenenti all'Università di Pisa. I sintomi ortoressici si sono presentati con una frequenza del 32,7%. Le femmine presentavano una percentuale significativamente maggiore di punteggi sopra-soglia all'ORTO-15, un BMI minore, una maggiore presenza di condizione "sottopeso" e di stile di alimentazione vegano/vegetariano rispetto ai maschi. Discussione. L'ortoressia nervosa, definita come una "fissazione per il mangiare sano", non è inclusa formalmente nel DSM-5. L'emergere di questa condizione come un nuovo possibile prodromo di una sindrome psicologica è stato recentemente enfatizzato dal numero sempre crescente di articoli scientifici. Dal nostro campione di popolazione universitaria emerge che l'essere vegetariani o vegani, la condizione sottopeso, l'appartenere al sesso femminile, l'essere studenti e interessati al presente studio sia significativamente predittivo di un'inclinazione verso l'ortoressia. Conclusioni. I nostri dati contribuiscono a definire la nuova concettualizzazione dell'ortoressia nervosa. Saranno necessari sicuramente altri studi per esplorare i confine diagnostici di questa sindrome, il suo decorso, "l'outcome" e le possibili implicazioni cliniche.

  8. Di-μ-bromido-bis-[bromido(di-2-pyridylmethane-diol-κN,N')copper(II)] dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Barry L; Kopp-Vaughn, Kristin M; Daniels, Lee M; Zeller, Matthias

    2008-08-06

    The centrosymmetric title complex, [Cu(2)Br(4)(C(11)H(10)N(2)O(2))(2)]·2H(2)O, was one of three complexes isolated by slow evaporation of an acetonitrile reaction mixture of CuBr(2) with di-2-pyridyl ketone (1:1 molar ratio). The title complex contains a 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio of copper(II) with the hydrated form of the ligand di-2-pyridylmethane-diol. The copper centers are bridged by bromide donors, leading to a Cu-Cu distance of 4.090 (6) Å. The crystals form as non-merohedral twins with two components related by a 180° rotation around the normal to [100]; the selected sample had a twin ratio of 0.63:0.37.

  9. The Bologna Process and Private Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dima, Ana-Maria

    2009-01-01

    Privatisation in higher education is not a new phenomenon for Western European countries. Authors like Geiger (1986), Levy (2008) and Altbach (1999) made challenging predictions in the 1970s and early 1980s that the private sector would inexorably diminish in size and significance. These predictions were triggered by globalisation and the…

  10. Employability Deconstructed: Perceptions of Bologna Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Neave, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses employability as a floating signifier--a construct that accommodates different and often contending meanings. A preliminary analysis of scholarly literature identifies two opposed interpretations of employability--an individual responsibility versus a comprehensive context-aware construct. These are subsequently applied to the…

  11. Animal electricity from Bologna to Boston.

    PubMed

    Goldensohn, E S

    1998-02-01

    This is an appreciation of 3 scientists who made historic contributions toward understanding bio-electrical activity. The discoveries of Galvani and Volta, who were contemporaries two hundred years ago, continue as basic supports in advancing the strength and health of all mankind. They, nevertheless, had political and scientific disagreements that still linger. The third scientist was our contemporary, Alexander Forbes who, throughout most of the 20th century, continued to increase our understanding of electrical activity in the nervous system.

  12. Employability Deconstructed: Perceptions of Bologna Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Neave, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses employability as a floating signifier--a construct that accommodates different and often contending meanings. A preliminary analysis of scholarly literature identifies two opposed interpretations of employability--an individual responsibility versus a comprehensive context-aware construct. These are subsequently applied to the…

  13. Application of Synthetic Peptide Arrays To Uncover Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Juliane; Bense, Sarina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwede, Frank; Morr, Michael; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Jänsch, Lothar; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Frank, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High levels of the universal bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) promote the establishment of surface-attached growth in many bacteria. Not only can c-di-GMP bind to nucleic acids and directly control gene expression, but it also binds to a diverse array of proteins of specialized functions and orchestrates their activity. Since its development in the early 1990s, the synthetic peptide array technique has become a powerful tool for high-throughput approaches and was successfully applied to investigate the binding specificity of protein-ligand interactions. In this study, we used peptide arrays to uncover the c-di-GMP binding site of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein (PA3740) that was isolated in a chemical proteomics approach. PA3740 was shown to bind c-di-GMP with a high affinity, and peptide arrays uncovered LKKALKKQTNLR to be a putative c-di-GMP binding motif. Most interestingly, different from the previously identified c-di-GMP binding motif of the PilZ domain (RXXXR) or the I site of diguanylate cyclases (RXXD), two leucine residues and a glutamine residue and not the charged amino acids provided the key residues of the binding sequence. Those three amino acids are highly conserved across PA3740 homologs, and their singular exchange to alanine reduced c-di-GMP binding within the full-length protein. IMPORTANCE In many bacterial pathogens the universal bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP governs the switch from the planktonic, motile mode of growth to the sessile, biofilm mode of growth. Bacteria adapt their intracellular c-di-GMP levels to a variety of environmental challenges. Several classes of c-di-GMP binding proteins have been structurally characterized, and diverse c-di-GMP binding domains have been identified. Nevertheless, for several c-di-GMP receptors, the binding motif remains to be determined. Here we show that the use of a synthetic peptide array allowed the identification of a c-di-GMP binding motif of a putative c-di

  14. Cost-effective isobaric tagging for quantitative phosphoproteomics using DiART reagents.

    PubMed

    Ramsubramaniam, Nikhil; Tao, Feng; Li, Shuwei; Marten, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    We describe the use of an isobaric tagging reagent, Deuterium isobaric Amine Reactive Tag (DiART), for quantitative phosphoproteomic experiments. Using DiART tagged custom mixtures of two phosphorylated peptides from alpha casein and their non-phosphorylated counterparts, we demonstrate the compatibility of DiART with TiO2 affinity purification of phosphorylated peptides. Comparison of theoretical vs. experimental reporter ion ratios reveals accurate quantification of phosphorylated peptides over a dynamic range of more than 15-fold. Using DiART labelling and TiO2 enrichment (DiART-TiO2) with large quantities of proteins (8 mg) from the cell lysate of model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we quantified 744 unique phosphopeptides. Overlap of median values of TiO2 enriched phosphopeptides with theoretical values indicates accurate trends. Altogether these findings confirm the feasibility of performing quantitative phosphoproteomic experiments in a cost-effective manner using isobaric tagging reagents, DiART.

  15. Three clinical cases of the DiGeorge syndrome manifested with the biliary system disease.

    PubMed

    Tabutsadze, T; Pachkoria, Kh; Atuashvili, G

    2007-11-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a rare congenital disease that affects the baby's immune system. Its symptoms vary greatly between individuals but commonly include a history of recurrent infection, heart defects, and characteristic facial features. Few cases of DiGeorge syndrome have been reported in adults. The article describes rare (three cases of DiGeorge syndrome) in adults (18, 32 and 34 years old patients) in Georgia (Caucasus). In clinical practice DiGeorge syndrome may proceed under the course of gastroenterologic, endocrine, nervous and surgical symptoms. 3 cases of DiGeorge syndrome are reported in the article. The authors describe DiGeroge syndrome as a multidisciplinary disorder; it is masqueraded by acute surgical diseases; with sharp immunodeficiency and endocrine, cardiologic and neurologic semiotics.

  16. Hadfield holds bubble detectors for the RaDI-N Experiment in the Columbus Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-25

    ISS034-E-034506 (25 Jan. 2013) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, Expedition 34 flight engineer, holds bubble detectors for the RaDI-N experiment in the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory. RaDI-N measures neutron radiation levels onboard the space station. RaDI-N uses bubble detectors as neutron monitors which have been designed to only detect neutrons and ignore all other radiation.

  17. Structural Basis of Ligand Binding by a C-di-GMP Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Lipchock, S; Ames, T; Wang, J; Breaker, R; Strobel, S

    2009-01-01

    The second messenger signaling molecule bis-(3{prime}-5{prime})-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates many processes in bacteria, including motility, pathogenesis and biofilm formation. c-di-GMP-binding riboswitches are important downstream targets in this signaling pathway. Here we report the crystal structure, at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution, of a c-di-GMP riboswitch aptamer from Vibrio cholerae bound to c-di-GMP, showing that the ligand binds within a three-helix junction that involves base-pairing and extensive base-stacking. The symmetric c-di-GMP is recognized asymmetrically with respect to both the bases and the backbone. A mutant aptamer was engineered that preferentially binds the candidate signaling molecule c-di-AMP over c-di-GMP. Kinetic and structural data suggest that genetic regulation by the c-di-GMP riboswitch is kinetically controlled and that gene expression is modulated through the stabilization of a previously unidentified P1 helix, illustrating a direct mechanism for c-di-GMP signaling.

  18. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5): interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, E.G.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C/sub 3/-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C/sub 3/-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending in the degree of polarization. The results show that a mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biologicl membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C/sub 3/-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  19. DiO-C3-(5) and DiS-C3-(5): Interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Guillet, E G; Kimmich, G A

    1981-03-15

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C3-(5) and diS-C3-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C3-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C3-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C3-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending on the degree of polarization. The results show that mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biological membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C3-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C3-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  20. The Dusty View of DI from ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Locurto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Rauer, H.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.

    Around the time of the impact of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission at comet 9P/Tempel 1, in total 6 telescopes with altogether 7 different instruments, located at the La Silla (LSO) and Paranal (VLT) Observatories of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, were used to characterize the dust properties before and after the event. The ejecta cloud expanded at an average speed of about 200 ms-1during the first hours after the event. It reached stagnation distance of 25000 km about 3 days after impact. The pre-impact dust jet and fan activity (`porcupine' pattern) remained undisturbed after impact. In our measurements the jet activity can be traced to a few 100 km nucleus distance. In total 9 comastructures are identified which may originate from at least 4 regions of enhanced dust emission on the nucleus - one of this region may in fact be multiple. No obvious signatures of a new active region created by DI are found. The overall dust production during the impact compares to about 5-10 h of normal activity. The global expansion geometry of the DI cloud is compatible with a majority of dust grains in the micron size range. Indications exist for asymmetric brightness and colour distributions of the dust in the ejecta cloud. The dust temperature rose from about 280-290 K before to 330 K one day after the event and fell to pre-impact level the day thereafter. The dust reflected sunlight was found to be linearly polarized at about 7.5% in the visible and near-IR, at constant level within about 4000 km from the nucleus. No circular polarization of the dust is detected.

  1. Crystal structure of di-aqua-bis-(2,6-di-methyl-pyrazine-κN (4))bis-(thio-cyanato-κN)cobalt(II) 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Suckert, Stefan; Wöhlert, Susanne; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2015-12-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Co(NCS)2(C6H8N2)2(H2O)2]·C6H8N2, the Co(II) cation is coordinated by the N atoms of two terminal thio-cyanate anions, the O atoms of two water mol-ecules and two N atoms of two 2,6-di-methyl-pyrazine ligands. The coordination sphere of the resulting discrete complex is that of a slightly distorted octa-hedron. The asymmetric unit comprises a Co(II) cation and half of a 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine ligand, both of which are located on centres of inversion, and a water ligand, a 2,6-di--methyl-pyrazine ligand and one thio-cyanate anion in general positions. In the crystal, the discrete complexes are arranged in such a way that cavities are formed in which the 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine solvent mol-ecules are located. The coordination of the 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine mol-ecules to the metal is apparently hindered due to the bulky methyl groups in vicinal positions to the N atoms, leading to a preferential coordination of the 2,6-di-methyl-pyrazine ligands. The discrete complexes are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between one water H atom and the non-coordinating N atom of the 2,6-di-methyl-pyrazine ligands. The remaining water H atom is hydrogen bonded to one N atom of the 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine solvent mol-ecule. This arrangement leads to the formation of a two-dimensional network extending parallel to (010).

  2. Synthesis and study of conjugated polymers containing Di- or Triphenylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sukwattanasinitt, M.

    1996-06-21

    This thesis consists of two separate parts. The first part addresses the synthesis and study of conjugated polymers containing di- or triphenylamine. Two types of polymers: linear polymers and dendrimers, were synthesized. The polymers were characterized by NMR, IR, UV, GPC, TGA and DSC. Electronic and optical properties of the polymers were studied through the conductivity measurements and excitation- emission spectra. the second part of this thesis deals with a reaction of electron-rich acetylenes with TCNE. The discovery of the reaction from charge transfer complex studies and the investigation of this reaction on various electron-rich acetylenes are presented.

  3. Line plotting program using DI-3000/Grafmaker routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppen, William A., Jr.; Smith-Taylor, Rudeen

    1986-01-01

    A line plotting program has been developed using the DI-3000 graphics libraries and incorporates Grafmaker subroutines. The program allows multiple lines on a frame and multiple frames per run. Options such as automatic scaling, linear or single-cycle log graphs, and plot text such as titles, legends and axis labels are incorporated in the program. Greek and other fonts can be used in the plot text as well as upper and lower case text. Plot inputs are specified through a control file. The program also allows display of multiple independent data sets on a single graph.

  4. Dynamic optical nonlinearities in di-furfuryl ether solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, C. R.; Barbosa Neto, N. M.; Batista, P. S.; de Souza, M. F.; Zilio, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    Dynamic nonlinear refraction and absorption of di-furfuryl ether dissolved in dichloro-methane are investigated with a frequency-doubled Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear absorption presents a strong reverse saturation that seems promising for use in optical limiting devices. Three contributions are observed for the nonlinear refraction: one fast process related to the singlet population, and two slow accumulative contributions arising from the triplet population and thermal lensing. The time evolution of the optical nonlinearities, modeled by means of a five-energy-level diagram, allows the determination of excited state cross-sections as well as the intersystem crossing lifetime.

  5. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  6. Epigenetic Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that, in addition to genetic changes, environmental pollutants can affect human health through altering epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA expression. There is evidence in animals and humans of an association of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure and developmental and reproductive toxicity. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic changes occur upon in utero exposures to several phthalates including DEHP. This poster will be presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society (EMGS).

  7. Epigenetic Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that, in addition to genetic changes, environmental pollutants can affect human health through altering epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA expression. There is evidence in animals and humans of an association of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure and developmental and reproductive toxicity. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic changes occur upon in utero exposures to several phthalates including DEHP. This poster will be presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society (EMGS).

  8. Expanding the scope of sulfur-centered Arbuzov rearrangement in diethyl/di-n-propyl sulfite for the synthesis of mixed-ligand di-n-butyltin alkanesulfonates.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ravi; Singh, Atul Pratap; Upreti, Shailesh

    2006-11-13

    A one-pot reaction between di-n-butyltin oxide and diethyl/di-n-propyl sulfite in the presence of an equimolar amount of alkyl iodide proceeds via sulfur-centered Arbuzov rearrangement to afford the corresponding di-n-butyltin (alkoxy)alkanesulfonates n-Bu2Sn(OR')OS(O)2R [R = R' = Et (1), n-Pr (2); R = Me, R' = Et (3), n-Pr (4)]. The compounds 1 and 3 react with methylphosphonic acid under mild conditions to give [n-Bu2Sn(OS(O)2R)OP(O)(OH)Me]n [R = Et (5), Me (6), respectively].

  9. Crystal structure of di-aqua-bis-(2,6-di-methyl-pyrazine-κN)bis-(thio-cyanato-κN)cobalt(II) 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine tris-olvate.

    PubMed

    Suckert, Stefan; Wöhlert, Susanne; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2015-12-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Co(NCS)2(C6H8N2)2(H2O)2]·3C6H8N2, the Co(II) cation is coordinated by two terminally N-bound thio-cyanate anions, two water mol-ecules and two 2,6-di-methyl-pyrazine ligands, forming a discrete complex with a slightly distorted octa-hedral N4O2 coordination environment. The asymmetric unit contains one Co(II) cation and three halves of 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine solvate mol-ecules, all entities being completed by inversion symmetry, as well as one thio-cyanate anion, an aqua ligand and a 2,6-di-methyl-pyrazine ligand, all in general positions. In the crystal, discrete complexes are arranged in a way that cavities are formed where the noncoordinating 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine mol-ecules are located. The coordination of the latter to the metal is prevented due to the bulky methyl groups in vicinal positions to the N atoms, leading to a preferential coordination through the 2,6-di-methyl-pyrazine ligands. The complex mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the water H atoms and the N atoms of 2,5-di-methyl-pyrazine solvent mol-ecules, leading to a layered structure extending parallel to (100).

  10. Occurrence of Cyclic di-GMP-Modulating Output Domains in Cyanobacteria: an Illuminating Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, Marco; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.; Williams, Barry L.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms use a variety of metabolites to respond to external stimuli, including second messengers that amplify primary signals and elicit biochemical changes in a cell. Levels of the second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) are regulated by a variety of environmental stimuli and play a critical role in regulating cellular processes such as biofilm formation and cellular motility. Cyclic di-GMP signaling systems have been largely characterized in pathogenic bacteria; however, proteins that can impact the synthesis or degradation of c-di-GMP are prominent in cyanobacterial species and yet remain largely underexplored. In cyanobacteria, many putative c-di-GMP synthesis or degradation domains are found in genes that also harbor light-responsive signal input domains, suggesting that light is an important signal for altering c-di-GMP homeostasis. Indeed, c-di-GMP-associated domains are often the second most common output domain in photoreceptors—outnumbered only by a histidine kinase output domain. Cyanobacteria differ from other bacteria regarding the number and types of photoreceptor domains associated with c-di-GMP domains. Due to the widespread distribution of c-di-GMP domains in cyanobacteria, we investigated the evolutionary origin of a subset of genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that c-di-GMP signaling systems were present early in cyanobacteria and c-di-GMP genes were both vertically and horizontally inherited during their evolution. Finally, we compared intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in two cyanobacterial species under different light qualities, confirming that light is an important factor for regulating this second messenger in vivo. PMID:23943760

  11. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K. . E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu

    2006-12-20

    Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles.

  12. Critical cleaning agents for Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Mya; Archuleta, Kim M.

    2013-08-01

    It is required that Di-2-ethylhexyl Sebacate oil, also commonly known as Dioctyl Sebacate oil, be thoroughly removed from certain metals, in this case stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces. Dioctyl Sebacate oil is a synthetic oil with a low compressibility. As such, it is ideally used for high pressure calibrations. The current method to remove the Dioctyl Sebacate from stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces is a labor-intensive, multi-step process, including a detergent clean, a deionized (DI) water rinse, and several solvent rinses, to achieve a nonvolatile residue of 0.04 mg per 50 mL rinse effluent. This study was undertaken to determine a superior detergent/solvent cleaning method for the oil to reduce cleaning time and/or the amount of detergent/solvent used. It was determined that while some detergent clean the oil off the metal better than the current procedure, using only solvents obtained the best result. In addition, it can be inferred, based on elevated temperature test results, that raising the temperature of the oil-contaminated stainless steel parts to approximately 50ÀC will provide for improved cleaning efficacy.

  13. Photodissociation of HI and DI: Polarization of atomic photofragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alex

    2005-02-01

    The complete angular momentum distributions and vector correlation coefficients (orientation and alignment) of ground state I(P3/22) and excited state I(P1/22) atoms resulting from the photodissociation of HI have been computed as a function of photolysis energy. The orientation and alignment parameters aQ(K)(p) that describe the coherent and incoherent contributions to the angular momentum distributions from the multiple electronic states accessed by parallel and perpendicular transitions are determined using a time-dependent wave packet treatment of the dissociation dynamics. The dynamics are based on potential energy curves and transition dipole moments that have been reported previously [R. J. LeRoy, G. T. Kraemer, and S. Manzhos, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 9353 (2002)] and used to successfully model the scalar (total cross section and branching fraction) and lowest order vector (anisotropy parameter β) properties of the photodissociation. Predictions of the aQ(K)(p), parameters for the isotopically substituted species DI are reported and contrasted to the analogous HI results. The resulting polarization for the corresponding H/D partners are also determined and demonstrate that both H and D atoms produced can be highly spin polarized. Comparison of these predictions for HI and DI with experimental measurement will provide the most stringent test of the current model for the electronic structure and the interpretation of the dissociation based on noncoupled excited state dynamics.

  14. Photodissociation dynamics of HI and DI at 157 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyan; Lu, I.-Chung; Yuan, Kaijun; Cheng, Yuan; Wu, Malcom; Parker, David H.; Yang, Xueming

    2007-11-01

    Photodissociation dynamics of HI and DI have been studied at 157 nm using the H atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. The photofragment translational energy distribution spectra and angular distributions of H/D atom products have been measured. Both the I( 2P 3/2) and I( 2P 1/2) products come almost exclusively from a perpendicular transition at 157 nm dissociation process, in agreement with the prediction of LeRoy's model [R.J. LeRoy, G.T. Kraemer, S. Manzhos, J. Chem. Phys. 117 (2002) 9353]. However, the branching ratios of I ∗/I measured in the experiment suggests that weak coupling may take place between the potential energy curves, which is noticeably different from the photodissociation of HI in the UV region. The experimental result in this work also suggests that the repulsive state, which has little contribution to the A-band absorption (33 000-53 000 cm -1), plays a greater role in the dissociation of HI and DI at 157 nm.

  15. Photodissociation of HI and DI: polarization of atomic photofragments.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex

    2005-02-22

    The complete angular momentum distributions and vector correlation coefficients (orientation and alignment) of ground state I((2)P(32)) and excited state I((2)P(12)) atoms resulting from the photodissociation of HI have been computed as a function of photolysis energy. The orientation and alignment parameters a(Q) ((K))(p) that describe the coherent and incoherent contributions to the angular momentum distributions from the multiple electronic states accessed by parallel and perpendicular transitions are determined using a time-dependent wave packet treatment of the dissociation dynamics. The dynamics are based on potential energy curves and transition dipole moments that have been reported previously [R. J. LeRoy, G. T. Kraemer, and S. Manzhos, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 9353 (2002)] and used to successfully model the scalar (total cross section and branching fraction) and lowest order vector (anisotropy parameter beta) properties of the photodissociation. Predictions of the a(Q) ((K))(p), parameters for the isotopically substituted species DI are reported and contrasted to the analogous HI results. The resulting polarization for the corresponding H/D partners are also determined and demonstrate that both H and D atoms produced can be highly spin polarized. Comparison of these predictions for HI and DI with experimental measurement will provide the most stringent test of the current model for the electronic structure and the interpretation of the dissociation based on noncoupled excited state dynamics.

  16. Di-boson signatures as standard candles for partial compositeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying; Ferretti, Gabriele; Flacke, Thomas; Parolini, Alberto; Serodio, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Composite Higgs Models are often constructed including fermionic top partners with a mass around the TeV scale, with the top partners playing the role of stabilizing the Higgs potential and enforcing partial compositeness for the top quark. A class of models of this kind can be formulated in terms of fermionic strongly coupled gauge theories. A common feature they all share is the presence of specific additional scalar resonances, namely two neutral singlets and a colored octet, described by a simple effective Lagrangian. We study the phenomenology of these scalars, both in a model independent and model dependent way, including the bounds from all the available searches in the relevant channels with di-boson and di-top final states. We develop a generic framework which can be used to constrain any model containing pseudo-scalar singlets or octets. Using it, we find that such signatures provide strong bounds on the compositeness scale complementary to the traditional EWPT and Higgs couplings deviations. In many cases a relatively light scalar can be on the verge of discovery as a first sign of new physics.

  17. Riverine Carbon and the Sedimentary Record on the Continental Shelves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-30

    formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Gobetti, 101 40129 Bologna, Italy phone: +39 (051) 6398880 Fax. +39 (051...Geologia Marina,,(formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina),Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche,, Via Gobetti, 101,40129 Bologna, Italy, , 8. PERFORMING...Tesi T. 2004. Dispersione del carbonio organico di origine fluviale sul lato occidentale della piattaforma continentale adriatica. Ciclo del Carbonio

  18. Riverine Carbon and the Sedimentary Record on the Continental Shelves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Geologia Marina (formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Gobetti, 101 40129 Bologna, Italy phone: +39 (051...Marine, Sezione Geologia Marina,(formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina),Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Gobetti, 101,40129 Bologna, Italy, , 8...continentale adriatica. Ciclo del Carbonio e Risorse del mare Workshop dell’Istituto di Scienze Marine ISMAR, CNR, Roma, 10-11 maggio 2004. Miserocchi S

  19. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  20. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  1. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  2. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  3. Brucella melitensis cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase BpdA controls expression of flagellar genes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Erik; Chaudhuri, Pallab; Gourley, Chris; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Brucella melitensis encounters a variety of conditions and stimuli during its life cycle--including environmental growth, intracellular infection, and extracellular dissemination--which necessitates flexibility of bacterial signaling to promote virulence. Cyclic-di-GMP is a bacterial secondary signaling molecule that plays an important role in adaptation to changing environments and altering virulence in a number of bacteria. To investigate the role of cyclic-di-GMP in B. melitensis, all 11 predicted cyclic-di-GMP-metabolizing proteins were separately deleted and the effect on virulence was determined. Three of these cyclic-di-GMP-metabolizing proteins were found to alter virulence. Deletion of the bpdA and bpdB genes resulted in attenuation of virulence of the bacterium, while deletion of the cgsB gene produced a hypervirulent strain. In a Vibrio reporter system to monitor apparent alteration in levels of cyclic-di-GMP, both BpdA and BpdB displayed a phenotype consistent with cyclic-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, while CgsB displayed a cyclic-di-GMP synthase phenotype. Further analysis found that deletion of bpdA resulted in a dramatic decrease in flagellar promoter activities, and a flagellar mutant showed similar phenotypes to the bpdA and bpdB mutant strains in mouse models of infection. These data indicate a potential role for regulation of flagella in Brucella melitensis via cyclic-di-GMP.

  4. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Elizabeth A.; Sultan, Syed Z.; Motaleb, Md. A.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases) and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any) c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:24822172

  5. Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Han, Yun-Joung

    2011-06-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and manifests with variable clinical findings. Aspiration pneumonia can be a perioperative complication of great concern in this syndrome. In this report, we present a case of a 16-month old child with DiGeorge syndrome undergoing cranioplasty. He developed perioperative aspiration pneumonia but was managed successfully.

  6. The cutaneous manifestations of atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome: a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Selim, Maria Angelica; Markert, Mary L; Burchette, James L; Herman, Christopher M; Turner, John W

    2008-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a congenital anomaly with a constellation of findings that includes thymic hypoplasia. Only a small subset of patients with DiGeorge syndrome has complete athymia, classified as complete DiGeorge anomaly; one third of these patients show an eczematous dermatitis, oligoclonal T-cells and lymphadenopathy, known as atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. Six biopsies from six patients with the distinctive clinical phenotype of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly were studied. Every biopsy showed exocytosis (100%), parakeratosis, often confluent and spongiosis (100%). Neutrophilic abscesses (50%), dyskeratosis (67%) and satellite cell necrosis (50%) were seen. Perieccrine and perivascular inflammation were seen in half of the cases. Eosinophils were identified (83%); most commonly in both the epidermis and dermis. All of lymphocytes were CD3 positive. Most (83%) of cases contained T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) positive cells. Special testing of the selected patients using spectratyping identified oligoclonal T-cell populations. The presence of dyskeratotic keratinocytes, satellite cell necrosis and parakeratotic scale with neutrophils characterizes the cutaneous rash seen in this subset of complete DiGeorge syndrome patients. Such skin lesions from patients with DiGeorge anomaly should alert the pathologist to the potential diagnosis of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. The pathophysiologic role of the oligoclonal T-cells in this entity requires additional study.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9675 - Titanate [Ti6O13 (2-)], di-po-tas-sium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanate , di-po-tas-sium. 721.9675 Section 721.9675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... Substances § 721.9675 Titanate , di-po-tas-sium. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  8. c-di-GMP induction of Dictyostelium cell death requires the polyketide DIF-1.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; Giusti, Corinne; Golstein, Pierre

    2015-02-15

    Cell death in the model organism Dictyostelium, as studied in monolayers in vitro, can be induced by the polyketide DIF-1 or by the cyclical dinucleotide c-di-GMP. c-di-GMP, a universal bacterial second messenger, can trigger innate immunity in bacterially infected animal cells and is involved in developmental cell death in Dictyostelium. We show here that c-di-GMP was not sufficient to induce cell death in Dictyostelium cell monolayers. Unexpectedly, it also required the DIF-1 polyketide. The latter could be exogenous, as revealed by a telling synergy between c-di-GMP and DIF-1. The required DIF-1 polyketide could also be endogenous, as shown by the inability of c-di-GMP to induce cell death in Dictyostelium HMX44A cells and DH1 cells upon pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DIF-1 biosynthesis. In these cases, c-di-GMP-induced cell death was rescued by complementation with exogenous DIF-1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that c-di-GMP could trigger cell death in Dictyostelium only in the presence of the DIF-1 polyketide or its metabolites. This identified another element of control to this cell death and perhaps also to c-di-GMP effects in other situations and organisms.

  9. Identification of c-di-AMP-Binding Proteins Using Magnetic Beads.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Jan; Gundlach, Jan; Herzberg, Christina; Treffon, Katrin; Stülke, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    To identify cytosolic proteins that bind to cyclic di-AMP, a biotinylated analog of the nucleotide is used for protein pull-down experiments. In this approach, biotinylated c-di-AMP is coupled to Streptactin-covered beads. After protein separation using standard SDS-PAGE, the protein(s) of interest are identified by mass spectrometric analyses.

  10. Trigger phosphodiesterases as a novel class of c-di-GMP effector proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP controls bacterial biofilm formation, motility, cell cycle progression, development and virulence. It is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (with GGDEF domains), degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs, with EAL of HD-GYP domains) and sensed by a wide variety of c-di-GMP-binding effectors that control diverse targets. c-di-GMP-binding effectors can be riboswitches as well as proteins with highly diverse structures and functions. The latter include ‘degenerate’ GGDEF/EAL domain proteins that are enzymatically inactive but still able to bind c-di-GMP. Surprisingly, two enzymatically active ‘trigger PDEs’, the Escherichia coli proteins PdeR and PdeL, have recently been added to this list of c-di-GMP-sensing effectors. Mechanistically, trigger PDEs are multifunctional. They directly and specifically interact with a macromolecular target (e.g. with a transcription factor or directly with a promoter region), whose activity they control by their binding and degradation of c-di-GMP—their PDE activity thus represents the c-di-GMP sensor or effector function. In this process, c-di-GMP serves as a regulatory ligand, but in contrast to classical allosteric control, this ligand is also degraded. The resulting kinetics and circuitry of control are ideally suited for trigger PDEs to serve as key components in regulatory switches. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672149

  11. Cyclic-di-GMP levels affect Pseudomonas aeruginosa fitness in the presence of imipenem.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Gianlucca G; Kaihami, Gilberto H; Pereira, Thays O; Meireles, Diogo A; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Déziel, Eric; Baldini, Regina L

    2014-05-01

    A large number of genes coding for enzymes predicted to synthesize and degrade 3'-5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) is found in most bacterial genomes and this dinucleotide emerged as an intracellular signal-controlling bacterial behaviour. An association between high levels of c-di-GMP and antibiotic resistance may be expected because c-di-GMP regulates biofilm formation and this mode of growth leads to enhanced antibiotic resistance. However, a clear understanding of this correlation has not been established. We found that increased levels of c-di-GMP in Pseudomonas aeruginosa improve fitness in the presence of imipenem, even when grown as planktonic cells. P. aeruginosa post-transcriptionally regulates the amounts of five porins in response to c-di-GMP, including OprD, responsible for imipenem uptake. Cells with low c-di-GMP levels are consequently more sensitive to this antibiotic. Main efflux pumps or β-lactamase genes did not show altered mRNA levels in P. aeruginosa strains with modified different c-di-GMP concentrations. Together, our findings show that c-di-GMP levels modulate fitness of planktonic cultures in the presence of imipenem. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Efficient hydrogenation of biomass-derived cyclic di-esters to 1,2-diols.

    PubMed

    Balaraman, Ekambaram; Fogler, Eran; Milstein, David

    2012-01-28

    The unprecedented homogeneous hydrogenation of cyclic di-esters, in particular biomass-derived glycolide and lactide, to the corresponding 1,2-diols is catalyzed by Ru(II) PNN (1) and Ru(II) CNN (2) pincer complexes under mild hydrogen pressure and (in the case of 1) neutral conditions. No racemization was observed when a chiral di-ester was used.

  13. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  14. Growth and antioxidant defense responses of wheat seedlings to di-n-butyl phthalate and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minling; Dong, Youming; Zhang, Ze; Song, Wenhua; Qi, Yun

    2017-04-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are vital environmental hormone-like chemicals that are noxious to plants, animals, and human beings. In this study, the influences of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the seed germination, root morphology, and various physiological changes of wheat seedlings were investigated by analyzing superoxide anion (O2(-)) accumulation, antioxidant enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation. DBP and DEHP were found to obviously inhibit germination only at high concentrations, but significantly affected root morphology even at lower concentrations. Their toxic effects were the most severe on root elongation, followed by shoot elongation, and were the least severe on germination rate, indicating that root elongation was the best index for evaluating DBP and DEHP eco-toxicity. DBP and DEHP also enhanced O2(-) and malondialdehyde levels and membrane permeability, as well as produced changes in the antioxidant status and PAE content in the stem and leaf (combined tissues, hereafter shoot) and root tissues. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase increased at low and medium DBP and DEHP concentrations, but declined at high PAE concentrations. These results indicated that PAEs could exert oxidative damage in the early development stage of wheat, particularly at higher concentrations. DBP and DEHP accumulation was higher in the roots than in the shoot tissues, and their levels in these tissues increased with increasing PAE concentrations, supporting their more-serious toxic effects on roots than those on shoots. Further, the physicochemical properties of DBP rendered it more harmful than DEHP.

  15. Chronic toxicity of di-n-butyl and di-n-octyl phthalate to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Whitmore, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicities of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were assessed by measuring the effect of exposure to these compounds on the fecundity of Daphnia magna and on the hatching and survival of the early life stages of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. For D. magna, exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP or 1.0 mg/L DOP caused a significant reduction in reproduction. Doses of 0.56 mg/L DBP or 0.32 mg/L DOP had no significant effect in decreasing reproduction. Survival of fathead minnow embryos was decreased by exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP; none of the embryos exposed to this dose hatched successfully. Hatching and larval survival were affected by exposure to 1.0 mg/L DBP, but not to 0.56 mg/L. Exposure to DOP did not affect survival of either early embryos or larvae of the fathead minnow at doses up to 10 mg/L (the highest dose tested). Hatching of the embryos was significantly decreased at 10 mg/L, but not at 3.2 mg/L DOP. 26 references, 4 figures, 11 tables.

  16. The ins and outs of cyclic di-GMP signaling in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Conner, Jenna G; Zamorano-Sánchez, David; Park, Jin Hwan; Sondermann, Holger; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2017-04-01

    The second messenger nucleotide cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) governs many cellular processes in the facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. This organism copes with changing environmental conditions in aquatic environments and during transitions to and from human hosts. Modulation of c-di-GMP allows V. cholerae to shift between motile and sessile stages of life, thus allowing adaptation to stressors and environmental conditions during its transmission cycle. The V. cholerae genome encodes a large set of proteins predicted to degrade and produce c-di-GMP. A subset of these enzymes has been demonstrated to control cellular processes - particularly motility, biofilm formation, and virulence - through transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and translational mechanisms. Recent studies have identified and characterized enzymes that modulate or sense c-di-GMP levels and have led towards mechanistic understanding of c-di-GMP regulatory circuits in V. cholerae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions of the c-di-GMP riboswitch with its second messenger ligand

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathryn D.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The c-di-GMP riboswitch is a macromolecular target in the c-di-GMP second messenger signaling pathway. It regulates many genes related to c-di-GMP metabolism as well as genes involved in bacterial motility, virulence and biofilm formation. The riboswitch makes asymmetric contacts to the bases and phosphate backbone of this symmetric dinucleotide. The phylogenetics suggested and mutagenesis has confirmed that this is a flexible motif where variants can make alternative interactions with each of the guanine bases of c-di-GMP. A mutant riboswitch has been designed that can bind a related molecule, c-di-AMP, confirming the most important contacts made to the ligand. The binding kinetics reveal that this is a kinetically controlled riboswitch and mutations to the riboswitch lead to increases in the off-rate. This riboswitch is therefore flexible in sequence as well as kinetic properties. PMID:21428955

  18. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo.

  19. DiSCuS: an open platform for (not only) virtual screening results management.

    PubMed

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Siedlecki, Paweł

    2014-01-27

    DiSCuS, a "Database System for Compound Selection", has been developed. The primary goal of DiSCuS is to aid researchers in the steps subsequent to generating high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) results, such as selection of compounds for further study, purchase, or synthesis. To do so, DiSCuS provides (1) a storage facility for ligand-receptor complexes (generated with external programs), (2) a number of tools for validating these complexes, such as scoring functions, potential energy contributions, and med-chem features with ligand similarity estimates, and (3) powerful searching and filtering options with logical operators. DiSCuS supports multiple receptor targets for a single ligand, so it can be used either to evaluate different variants of an active site or for selectivity studies. DiSCuS documentation, installation instructions, and source code can be found at http://discus.ibb.waw.pl .

  20. An Extended Cyclic Di-GMP Network in the Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Or; Nesper, Jutta; Borovok, Ilya; Gorovits, Rena; Kolot, Mikhail; Pasternak, Zohar; Shin, Irina; Glatter, Timo; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Jenal, Urs

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the course of the last 3 decades the role of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) as a master regulator of bacterial physiology was determined. Although the control over c-di-GMP levels via synthesis and breakdown and the allosteric regulation of c-di-GMP over receptor proteins (effectors) and riboswitches have been extensively studied, relatively few effectors have been identified and most are of unknown functions. The obligate predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus has a peculiar dimorphic life cycle, in which a phenotypic transition from a free-living attack phase (AP) to a sessile, intracellular predatory growth phase (GP) is tightly regulated by specific c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases. B. bacteriovorus also bears one of the largest complement of defined effectors, almost none of known functions, suggesting that additional proteins may be involved in c-di-GMP signaling. In order to uncover novel c-di-GMP effectors, a c-di-GMP capture-compound mass-spectroscopy experiment was performed on wild-type AP and host-independent (HI) mutant cultures, the latter serving as a proxy for wild-type GP cells. Eighty-four proteins were identified as candidate c-di-GMP binders. Of these proteins, 65 did not include any recognized c-di-GMP binding site, and 3 carried known unorthodox binding sites. Putative functions could be assigned to 59 proteins. These proteins are included in metabolic pathways, regulatory circuits, cell transport, and motility, thereby creating a potentially large c-di-GMP network. False candidate effectors may include members of protein complexes, as well as proteins binding nucleotides or other cofactors that were, respectively, carried over or unspecifically interacted with the capture compound during the pulldown. Of the 84 candidates, 62 were found to specifically bind the c-di-GMP capture compound in AP or in HI cultures, suggesting c-di-GMP control over the whole-cell cycle of the bacterium. High affinity and

  1. Remote Sensing Global Surface Air Pressure Using Differential Absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    Tropical storms and severe weathers are listed as one of core events that need improved observations and predictions in World Meteorological Organization and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) documents and have major impacts on public safety and national security. This effort tries to observe surface air pressure, especially over open seas, from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at the 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 4 millibars (approximately 1 millibar under all weather conditions). With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts of severe weathers such as hurricanes will be significantly improved. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, NASA Langley DiBAR research team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. The feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. The team has developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with the instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on global extreme weather and climate conditions.

  2. Cyclic Di-GMP modulates the disease progression of Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Adam C; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous intracellular signal molecule known to regulate various cellular processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is inversely governed by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively. The role of c-di-GMP in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora has not been studied previously. Here we demonstrate that three of the five predicted DGC genes in E. amylovora (edc genes, for Erwinia diguanylate cyclase), edcA, edcC, and edcE, are active diguanylate cyclases. We show that c-di-GMP positively regulates the secretion of the main exopolysaccharide in E. amylovora, amylovoran, leading to increased biofilm formation, and negatively regulates flagellar swimming motility. Although amylovoran secretion and biofilm formation are important for the colonization of plant xylem tissues and the development of systemic infections, deletion of the two biofilm-promoting DGCs increased tissue necrosis in an immature-pear infection assay and an apple shoot infection model, suggesting that c-di-GMP negatively regulates virulence. In addition, c-di-GMP inhibited the expression of hrpA, a gene encoding the major structural component of the type III secretion pilus. Our results are the first to describe a role for c-di-GMP in E. amylovora and suggest that downregulation of motility and type III secretion by c-di-GMP during infection plays a key role in the coordination of pathogenesis.

  3. Enhanced healing of full-thickness burn wounds using di-rhamnolipid

    PubMed Central

    Stipcevic, Tamara; Piljac, Ante; Piljac, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of di-rhamnolipid [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1–2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-3-hydroxydecanoyl-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, also referred to as di-rhamnolipid BAC-3] relating to the process of cutaneous wound healing. Di-rhamnolipid was prepared in a eucerin ointment and applied topically on full-thickness burn wounds in normal Sprague–Dawley rats covering 5% of the total body surface area. The rate of wound closure was measured over the period of 45 days. The collagen content was evaluated microscopically, by performing densitometric analysis on Verhoeff’s stained histopathological slides of wound biopsies taken at the end of 45th day of di-rhamnolipid treatment. Di-rhamnolipid toxicity was assessed with the subcutaneous multi-dose study in Swiss–Webster mice. The treatment of full-thickness-burn wounds with topical 0.1% di-rhamnolipid accelerated the closure of wounds on day 21 of the treatment by 32% compared to the control ( p < 0.05). On day 35, the wounds closed in all animals-treated with 0.1% di-rhamnolipid ointment while some rats in the control group had open wounds on days 35 and even 45. Histologic comparisons have shown that di-rhamnolipid significantly decreased collagen content in burn wounds (47.5%, p < 0.05) as compared to the vehicle-treated (control) wounds. Di-rhamnolipid was well-tolerated. The results of this study raise the possibility of potential efficacy of di-rhamnolipid in accelerating normal wound healing and perhaps in overcoming defects associated with healing failure in chronic wounds. PMID:16380213

  4. Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Zorraquino, Violeta; García, Begoña; Latasa, Cristina; Echeverz, Maite; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Valle, Jaione

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a secondary messenger that controls a variety of cellular processes, including the switch between a biofilm and a planktonic bacterial lifestyle. This nucleotide binds to cellular effectors in order to exert its regulatory functions. In Salmonella, two proteins, BcsA and YcgR, both of them containing a c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain, are the only known c-di-GMP receptors. BcsA, upon c-di-GMP binding, synthesizes cellulose, the main exopolysaccharide of the biofilm matrix. YcgR is dedicated to c-di-GMP-dependent inhibition of motility through its interaction with flagellar motor proteins. However, previous evidences indicate that in the absence of YcgR, there is still an additional element that mediates motility impairment under high c-di-GMP levels. Here we have uncovered that cellulose per se is the factor that further promotes inhibition of bacterial motility once high c-di-GMP contents drive the activation of a sessile lifestyle. Inactivation of different genes of the bcsABZC operon, mutation of the conserved residues in the RxxxR motif of the BcsA PilZ domain, or degradation of the cellulose produced by BcsA rescued the motility defect of ΔycgR strains in which high c-di-GMP levels were reached through the overexpression of diguanylate cyclases. High c-di-GMP levels provoked cellulose accumulation around cells that impeded flagellar rotation, probably by means of steric hindrance, without affecting flagellum gene expression, exportation, or assembly. Our results highlight the relevance of cellulose in Salmonella lifestyle switching as an architectural element that is both essential for biofilm development and required, in collaboration with YcgR, for complete motility inhibition. PMID:23161026

  5. Near-infrared Light Responsive Synthetic c-di-GMP Module for Optogenetic Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enormous potential of cell-based therapeutics is hindered by the lack of effective means to control genetically engineered cells in mammalian tissues. Here, we describe a synthetic module for remote photocontrol of engineered cells that can be adapted for such applications. The module involves photoactivated synthesis of cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), a stable small molecule that is not produced by higher eukaryotes and therefore is suitable for orthogonal regulation. The key component of the photocontrol module is an engineered bacteriophytochrome diguanylate cyclase, which synthesizes c-di-GMP from GTP in a light-dependent manner. Bacteriophytochromes are particularly attractive photoreceptors because they respond to light in the near-infrared window of the spectrum, where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and also because their chromophore, biliverdin IXα, is naturally available in mammalian cells. The second component of the photocontrol module, a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, maintains near-zero background levels of c-di-GMP in the absence of light, which enhances the photodynamic range of c-di-GMP concentrations. In the E. coli model used in this study, the intracellular c-di-GMP levels could be upregulated by light by >50-fold. Various c-di-GMP-responsive proteins and riboswitches identified in bacteria can be linked downstream of the c-di-GMP-mediated photocontrol module for orthogonal regulation of biological activities in mammals as well as in other organisms lacking c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we linked the photocontrol module to a gene expression output via a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor and achieved a 40-fold photoactivation of gene expression. PMID:24926804

  6. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  7. Responses to elevated c-di-GMP levels in mutualistic and pathogenic plant-interacting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels.

  8. Bile acids and bicarbonate inversely regulate intracellular cyclic di-GMP in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in aquatic reservoirs and causes the diarrheal disease cholera upon entry into a human host. V. cholerae employs the second messenger molecule 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to transition between these two distinct lifestyles. c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. Bacteria typically encode many different DGCs and PDEs within their genomes. Presumably, each enzyme senses and responds to cognate environmental cues by alteration of enzymatic activity. c-di-GMP represses the expression of virulence factors in V. cholerae, and it is predicted that the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is low during infection. Contrary to this model, we found that bile acids, a prevalent constituent of the human proximal small intestine, increase intracellular c-di-GMP in V. cholerae. We identified four c-di-GMP turnover enzymes that contribute to increased intracellular c-di-GMP in the presence of bile acids, and deletion of these enzymes eliminates the bile induction of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation. Furthermore, this bile-mediated increase in c-di-GMP is quenched by bicarbonate, the intestinal pH buffer secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. Our results lead us to propose that V. cholerae senses distinct microenvironments within the small intestine using bile and bicarbonate as chemical cues and responds by modulating the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Cyclic di-GMP: the First 25 Years of a Universal Bacterial Second Messenger

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty-five years have passed since the discovery of cyclic dimeric (3′→5′) GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP). From the relative obscurity of an allosteric activator of a bacterial cellulose synthase, c-di-GMP has emerged as one of the most common and important bacterial second messengers. Cyclic di-GMP has been shown to regulate biofilm formation, motility, virulence, the cell cycle, differentiation, and other processes. Most c-di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways control the ability of bacteria to interact with abiotic surfaces or with other bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Cyclic di-GMP plays key roles in lifestyle changes of many bacteria, including transition from the motile to the sessile state, which aids in the establishment of multicellular biofilm communities, and from the virulent state in acute infections to the less virulent but more resilient state characteristic of chronic infectious diseases. From a practical standpoint, modulating c-di-GMP signaling pathways in bacteria could represent a new way of controlling formation and dispersal of biofilms in medical and industrial settings. Cyclic di-GMP participates in interkingdom signaling. It is recognized by mammalian immune systems as a uniquely bacterial molecule and therefore is considered a promising vaccine adjuvant. The purpose of this review is not to overview the whole body of data in the burgeoning field of c-di-GMP-dependent signaling. Instead, we provide a historic perspective on the development of the field, emphasize common trends, and illustrate them with the best available examples. We also identify unresolved questions and highlight new directions in c-di-GMP research that will give us a deeper understanding of this truly universal bacterial second messenger. PMID:23471616

  10. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iwarsson, E; Ahrlund-Richter, L; Inzunza, J; Fridström, M; Rosenlund, B; Hillensjö, T; Sjöblom, P; Nordenskjöld, M; Blennow, E

    1998-09-01

    We report the first case of preimplantation genetic diagnosis used in order to avoid chromosomal imbalance in the progeny of a woman mildly affected by DiGeorge syndrome and carrier of a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. In total, seven embryos were biopsied in three separate treatments and analysed by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Of these, four were carrying the deletion, two were normal and in one the analysis was inconclusive. The diagnostic procedure was performed within 5 h. This allowed the biopsied embryos to be transferred the same day as the biopsy was taken (day 3). Two embryos were transferred in the third treatment, but no pregnancy was established. Patients with a 22q11 microdeletion, who have a 50% risk of transmitting the deletion to their offspring, can now be offered preimplantation genetic diagnosis using FISH for the detection of a 22q11 deletion.

  11. Aqueous infrared carboxylate absorbances: Aliphatic di-acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; McVey, I.F.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of 18 aliphatic di-carboxylic acids are reported as a function of pH. The spectra show isosbestic points and intensity changes which indicate that Beer's law is obeyed, and peak frequencies lie within previously reported ranges for aqueous carboxylates and pure carboxylic acids. Intensity sharing from the symmetric carboxylate stretch is evident in many cases, so that bands which are nominally due to alkyl groups show increased intensity at higher pH. The asymmetric stretch of the HA- species is linearly related to the microscopic acidity constant of the H2A species, with ??pK 2 intervening atoms). The results suggest that aqueous ATR-FTIR may be able to estimate 'intrinsic' pKa values of carboxylic acids, in addition to providing quantitative estimates of ionization. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Forward di-jet production in dilute-dense collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreska, Elena

    2016-12-01

    We propose a factorization formula for the cross section for forward di-jet production in dilute-dense collisions. The new formula is applicable for an arbitrary value of the momentum imbalance of the two jets, kt. It unifies the previously derived transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization for small kt (of the order of the saturation scale), and the High Energy Factorization (HEF) for large kt (of the order of the momentum of the jets). We extend the previous TMD formula, first to finite Nc, and then to all ranges of kt by including off-shell matrix elements. We present previously unpublished analytical expressions for the TMD gluon distributions in the Golec-Biernat-Wusthoff model, and their perturbative behaviour in the McLerran-Venugopalan model. In addition, we show directly the equivalence of the HEF and the color glass condensate formulae in the dilute target approximation.

  13. Test and Analysis of Spliced DI-BSCCO HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Osabe, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    For some applications, short unit lengths of HTS wires should be spliced if longer lengths are necessary and short unit lengths of HTS wires should be utilize by applying the splice technology to reduce the total wire cost in the application. The splice technology has been developed for DI-BSCCO Type HT-CA tapes by Sumitomo Electric and spliced tapes were tested in Russian Cable Institute. The test program included: measurements of splice's resistance, critical current anisotropy, thermo cycling tolerance, mechanical properties, overload tests and magnetization measurements. In the paper the results of tests are presented and discussed. The test results demonstrated that splices can be used for cable production if twisting and bending limitations are taken into account.

  14. Study of viscosity of mono-, di-, and trialkylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Sindhe, R. G.; Patel, A. T.; Dave, J. P.; Patel, S. G.; Patel, B. M.

    1992-07-01

    Viscosities of several mono-, di-, and trialkylamines have been measured in the temperature range 298 to 333 K. It is observed that viscosities are highly dependent on shape, size, and association through H-bond or through dipole. Following the transition state theory, energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy of activation of viscous flow have been calculated. The values of expansion energy for these liquids have also been calculated using free volume theory, and subsequently amines have been classified as volume-restrained or energy-restrained liquids. The group contribution method of Van Velzen, Cardozo, and Langenkamp for estimating viscosity has been examined with the present and literature data, and the new group contribution increments ΔN i and ΔB i for amines have been evaluated.

  15. Research methodology in the "Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia Oncologica (AIRO)".

    PubMed

    Emiliani, E

    2000-01-01

    The research methodology in the "Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia (AIRO)" (The Italian Association of Radiation Oncology) is presented according to two interconnected aspects: the consensus research on similar projects with other Scientific Associations and the clinical research carried out in the ten years of life of the Association. The mechanism of the "Federazione Intersocietaria" (Federation of Associations) with the Radiology, Oncology and Physics Associations can be a stimulant to broaden the horizons and feasibility of cancer research which is one of the main causes of mortality and which is increasing due to the population aging. The results of three national multicentric trials on the clinical research on cancer of the rectum, oropharynx and in the elderly, are reported. The study methodology, based on the clinical evidence and multidisciplinarity, shows that the time is ripe for a development of research and, if coordinated by the Association, it would contribute to the prestige and importance of the Italian Radiotherapy.

  16. Metabolic studies with di(aziridin-i-yl) sulphoxide (diethyleneiminosulphoxide)

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A. W.; Jackson, H.; James, R. M. V.

    1963-01-01

    The work described was undertaken after the observation that the diuresis induced by several derivatives of ethyleneimine could be correlated with their content of ethyleneimine. The preparation of 35S-labelled di(aziridin-1-yl) sulphoxide (diethyleneiminosulphoxide) is described together with its metabolism in rat, mouse, rabbit and dog. The drug was completely metabolized in all species and, with the exception of the dog, most of the activity was excreted in the urine within 3 days. The main radioactive metabolite in all species was sulphate. In vitro studies demonstrated that the compound was slowly broken down to sulphite and free ethyleneimine; this hydrolysis was greatly accelerated in the presence of phosphate. PMID:14110758

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of DiI-C18(3) in a DPPC lipid bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Gullapalli, Ramachandra R.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a 40 ns simulation of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI-C18(3)) in a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) bilayer in order to facilitate interpretation of lipid dynamics and membrane structure from fluorescence lifetime, anisotropy, and fluorescence correlations spectroscopy (FCS). Incorporation of DiI of 1.6 to 3.2 mol% induced negligible changes in area per lipid but detectable increases in bilayer thickness, each of which are indicators of membrane structural perturbation. The DiI chromophore angle was 77 ± 17° with respect to the bilayer normal, consistent with rotational diffusion inferred from polarization studies. The DiI headgroup was located 0.63 nm below the lipid head group–water interface, a novel result in contrast to some popular cartoon representations of DiI but consistent with DiI’s increase in quantum yield when incorporated into lipid bilayers. Importantly, the fast component of rotational anisotropy matched published experimental results demonstrating that sufficient free volume exists at the sub-interfacial region to support fast rotations. Simulations with non-charged DiI head groups exhibited DiI flip-flop, demonstrating that the positively-charged chromophore stabilizes the orientation and location of DiI in a single monolayer. DiI induced detectable changes in interfacial properties of water ordering, electrostatic potential, and changes in P–N vector orientation of DPPC lipids. The diffusion coefficient of DiI (9.7 ± 0.02 × 10−8 cm2 s−1) was similar to the diffusion of DPPC molecules (10.7 ± 0.04 × 10−8 cm2 s−1), supporting the conclusion that DiI dynamics reflect lipid dynamics. These results provide the first atomistic level insight into DiI dynamics, results essential in elucidating lipid dynamics through single molecule fluorescence studies. PMID:18548161

  18. Optogenetic Module for Dichromatic Control of c-di-GMP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Min-Hyung; Fomicheva, Anastasia; Moskvin, Oleg V; Gomelsky, Mark

    2017-09-15

    Many aspects of bacterial physiology and behavior, including motility, surface attachment, and the cell cycle, are controlled by cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-dependent signaling pathways on the scale of seconds to minutes. Interrogation of such processes in real time requires tools for introducing rapid and reversible changes in intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Inducing the expression of genes encoding c-di-GMP-synthetic (diguanylate cyclases) and -degrading (c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase) enzymes by chemicals may not provide adequate temporal control. In contrast, light-controlled diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases can be quickly activated and inactivated. A red/near-infrared-light-regulated diguanylate cyclase, BphS, was engineered previously, yet a complementary light-activated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase has been lacking. In search of such a phosphodiesterase, we investigated two homologous proteins from Allochromatium vinosum and Magnetococcus marinus, designated BldP, which contain C-terminal EAL-BLUF modules, where EAL is a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase domain and BLUF is a blue light sensory domain. Characterization of the BldP proteins in Escherichia coli and in vitro showed that they possess light-activated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activities. Interestingly, light activation in both enzymes was dependent on oxygen levels. The truncated EAL-BLUF fragment from A. vinosum BldP lacked phosphodiesterase activity, whereas a similar fragment from M. marinus BldP, designated EB1, possessed such activity that was highly (>30-fold) upregulated by light. Following light withdrawal, EB1 reverted to the inactive ground state with a half-life of ∼6 min. Therefore, the blue-light-activated phosphodiesterase EB1 can be used in combination with the red/near-infrared-light-regulated diguanylate cyclase BphS for the bidirectional regulation of c-di-GMP-dependent processes in E. coli as well as other bacterial and nonbacterial cells.IMPORTANCE Regulation of motility

  19. Three-dimensional integration (3DI) of semiconductor circuit layers: New devices and fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehari, Babak E.

    1998-12-01

    The device density of Integrated Circuits (ICs) manufactured by current VLSI technology is reaching its theoretical limit. Nevertheless, the demand for integration of more devices per chip is growing. To accommodate this need three main possibilities can be explored: Wafer Scale Integration (WSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), and Three Dimensional Integration (3DI). A brief review of these techniques along with their comparative advantages and disadvantages is presented. It has been concluded that 3DI technology is superior to others. Therefore, an attempt is made to develop a viable fabrication process for this technology. This is done by first reviewing the current technologies that are utilized for fabrication of Integrated Circuits (ICs) and their compatibility with 3DI stringent requirements. Based on this review, a set of fabrication procedure for realization of 3DI technology, are presented in chapter 3. In Chapter 1 the compatibility of the currently used devices, such as BJTs and FETs, with 3DI technology is examined. Moreover, a new active device is developed for 3DI technology to replace BJTs and FETs in circuits. This new device is more compatible to the constrains of 3DI technology. Chapter 2 is devoted to solving the overall problems of 3DI circuits. The problem of heat and power dispassion and signal coupling (Cross-Talk) between the layers are reviewed, and an inter-layer shield is proposed to overcome these problems. The effectiveness of such a thin shield is considered theoretically. In Chapter 3 a fabrication process for 3DI technology is proposed. This is done after a short analysis of previous attempts in developing 3DI technologies. Chapter 4 focuses on analog extension of 3DI technology. Moreover, in this chapter microwave 3DI circuits or 3DI MMIC is investigated. Practical considerations in choice of material for the proposed device is the subject of study in Chapter 5. Low temperature ohmic contact and utilization of metal

  20. A new adjuvant delivery system 'cyclic di-GMP/YSK05 liposome' for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Hiroko; Hyodo, Mamoru; Nakamura, Takashi; Sato, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-06-28

    Cyclic dinucleotides are of importance in the field of microbiology and immunology. They function as second messengers and are thought to participate in the signal transduction of cytosolic DNA immune responses. One such dinucleotide, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), stimulates the immune system. It is thought that c-di-GMP is recognized by ATP dependent RNA helicase (DDX41) in the cytosol, forms a complex with the Stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING), triggers a signal via the tank binding kinase 1-interferon regulatory factor 3 (TBK1-IRF3) pathway and induces the production of type I interferons. Therefore c-di-GMP can be thought of as a new class of adjuvant. However, because c-di-GMP contains two phosphate groups, this prevents its use as an adjuvant because it cannot pass through the cell membrane, even though the target molecule of c-di-GMP is located in the cytoplasm. Our group has been developing a series of liposomal drug delivery systems and recently investigated YSK05 which is a synthetic, pH sensitive lipid that has a high fusogenicity. We utilized this lipid as a carrier to transport c-di-GMP into the cytosol to then use c-di-GMP as an adjuvant. Based on screening experiments, YSK05/POPE/cholesterol=40/25/35 was found to induce IFN-β in Raw264.7 cells. The induction of IFN-β from c-di-GMP liposomes was inhibited by adding BX795, a TBK1 inhibitor, indicating that the production of IFN-β caused the activation of the STING-TBK1 pathway. C-di-GMP liposomes also showed significantly higher levels of expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC class I. The c-di-GMP/YSK05 liposome facilitated antigen specific cytotoxic T cell activity and the inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse model. These findings indicate that c-di-GMP/YSK05 liposomes could be used, not only to transfer c-di-GMP to the cytosol and induce an innate immune system but also as a platform for investigating the mechanism of immune sensing with cyclic dinucleotides in vitro and in vivo.