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  1. [Quality control at the Istituto di Anatomia e Istologia patologica at the Università di Bologna].

    PubMed

    Alampi, G; Baroni, R; Berti, E; Ceccarelli, C; Dina, R; Eusebi, V; Giangaspero, F; Grigioni, F W; Lecce, S; Losi, L

    1994-04-01

    The growing importance in medical practice of a standardized diagnosis in cyto- and histopathology and the recent recommendations for the adoption of standardized schemes for quality control in anatomic pathology by International Committees stimulated the medical staff of the Institute of Anatomic Pathology of the University of Bologna to adopt a pertinent method. The method used by the Department of Pathology of the Yale University (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) was chosen. A Committee for the quality control was appointed and two kinds of controls were set up: an External Quality Assessment (review of the difficult cases by external experts, slide seminars) and an Internal Quality Assessment performed by the members of the Committee on the diagnostic and laboratory routine of the Institute. Such a survey is periodically monitored during the monthly meetings of the Committee and described in the monthly reports. The present paper illustrates the method adopted and the preliminary results obtained in order to stimulate the discussion of such a critical theme in contemporary Anatomic Pathology at a national level.

  2. Physical Science in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, Giorgio; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2013-03-01

    We provide a guide to Bologna, Italy, focusing particularly on sites of interest to physicists. Our first tour is in the city center; it begins in the Piazza Maggiore at the Palazzo d'Accursio, the Basilica di San Petronio, and the Archiginnasio (Old University) and then proceeds to the Two Towers and the Palazzo Poggi, which houses the Astronomical Observatory Museum and other important instrument and art collections; it concludes at the Physics Museum, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Our second tour again begins in the Piazza Maggiore but goes to sites beyond the city center where famous Bolognese physicists and other scientists were born, lived, and are buried. Finally, we point out important museums and other institutions on the outskirts of Bologna.

  3. Microbiology of Lebanon Bologna

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James L.; Palumbo, Samuel A.

    1973-01-01

    Various aspects of the microbiology of the Lebanon bologna process were studied. Manufacture of Lebanon bologna appeared to be similar to that of summer sausage and other fermented sausages and consisted of a lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli accompanied by the production of cured meat color from the reduction of nitrate by micrococci. The traditional process consists of aging coarse ground beef at 5 C for several days. Aging the beef for about 10 days was necessary to allow development of lactic acid bacteria; for successful fermentation, the concentration of lactic acid producers must be 104/g or more. At least 3% NaCl was necessary to suppress the development of pseudomonads during the aging period; higher concentrations of salt suppress the development of the lactic acid-producing flora. During aging, in the presence of salt, the predominant flora developing on the meat consisted of catalase-positive, gram-positive rods and cocci; during fermentation at 35 C, the predominant flora became catalase-negative, gram-positive rods with characteristics of lactobacilli. Lebanon bologna could be made from frozen beef if the meat was thawed, salted, and aged. However, bolognas could not be made from unaged beef unless a lactic acid starter culture was used. The microflora of several commercial bolognas is reported also. PMID:4796166

  4. Equity of the Bologna System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jung-Eun

    2008-01-01

    Since 29 European ministers of higher education announced the Bologna declaration in 1999, the Bologna reform has spread to all parts of Europe. The number of participating countries has grown to 46. In other words, most European countries have joined the Bologna process, which is to form a "European higher education area" (EHEA) by…

  5. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  6. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  7. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  8. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  9. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  10. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  11. Epidemiology and the Bologna Saga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Alberto; Magalhaes, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the driving forces behind the Bologna process, its advantages and possible negative effects. It also analyses the dangers that may result in commoditisation of the European higher education systems, in emergence of rigid accreditation systems and of a centralised bureaucracy that will impair innovation and creativity. The…

  12. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  13. The Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha; Kantola, Mauri

    2006-01-01

    This study identifies the responsibilities of the bodies and institutions involved in the implementation of the Bologna Process. They include the levels of Europe, nations, higher education institutions, departments, degree programmes, teachers and students. The future planning is analysed using the Balanced Scorecard approach designed for the…

  14. The Bologna Process: Opinions and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Marina Nikolaevna; Solomennikov, Vladimir Sergeevich

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss the need to balance the unique history of Russian higher education, preserving and developing those areas in which the country has traditionally excelled and competed successfully at the international level, with the country's signatory acceptance of the Bologna Agreement for European educational integration. While apprehensive…

  15. The Bologna Process: 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motova, Galina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic documents adopted by the ministers of education of the country participants in the Bologna Process at their latest meeting in Yerevan, Armenia. It identifies the problems and challenges facing national education systems during the present stage of development, and explores the priorities and obligations of these…

  16. Bologna, the Netherlands and Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Mackenzie Owen, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of the department of Information Studies at the Universiteit van Amsterdam over the years and especially the impact of the Bologna Agreement on the content and educational form of the curriculum. It includes both outlines of the programmes as well as reflection on the educational methods. The accreditation…

  17. The Bologna Process and medical education.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Leif

    2004-11-01

    The Bologna Process designates the ongoing activities whereby the Ministers responsible for Higher Education in Europe attempt to change and harmonize fundamental aspects of all higher education in the many countries involved. This grand scheme is gaining momentum. The number of participating countries is increasing, more aspects of higher education are included and the number of activities and projects is growing. Medical education has so far been neglected in the process and awareness of the development at medical schools has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Bologna Process, its background, objectives and main activities and to draw attention to some of the challenges medical education will probably have to face in the near future such as a structure based on two main cycles, undergraduate and graduate, a system of easily readable and comparable degrees and European cooperation in quality assurance including a system of accreditation, certification or comparable procedures. The position of medical education towards the Bologna Process is essential.

  18. The "Bologna-München" Tandem--Experiencing Interculturality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Martino, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the "Bologna-München" Tandem, a cross-border collaboration which began in 2011. The aim of the collaboration is to give students studying Italian at the Ludwig- Maximilians-University in Munich and students studying German at the University of Bologna the opportunity to experience interculturality through…

  19. The Interpretation and Implementation of the Bologna Process in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despotovic, Miomir

    2011-01-01

    This paper neither attacks nor defends the Bologna Declaration; rather, it attempts a critical assessment of its implementation in Serbia. Review of the available data shows that the higher education system in Serbia is inefficient and in profound need of reform. Analysis of some of the reform processes shows that the Bologna Declaration as a…

  20. The Bologna Accord: A Model of Cooperation and Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ross H.; Dunn, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of transformation of higher education in Europe in response to the 1999 Bologna Accord. The "action lines" of the Bologna Process are described with particular attention to their influence on higher education in other countries, including the United States. The changes in Europe and the "external…

  1. Finnish Higher Education Policy and the Ongoing Bologna Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari; Mesikammen, Jani

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bologna Process (a European-wide project to create a European Higher Education Area and harmonize degree structures), examining how educational policy has reached a stage for considering a European Higher Education Area that examines concepts of harmonization and the Bologna Process. Discusses future scenarios, highlighting why…

  2. Re-Contextualization of the Bologna Process in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Zelvys, Rimantas; Zenkiene, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the implementation of selected Bologna action lines in Lithuanian higher education institutions (HEIs). The study is carried out from an organizational perspective on national re-contextualization, drawing upon sociological institutionalism. The Bologna process is likely to be normatively accepted by institutions in the context…

  3. The Bologna Historical Archives on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peperoni, Laura; Zuccoli, Marina

    The historical archives of the Department of Astronomy of Bologna collect papers from 1696 to 1958. The documents refer to the scientific activity of local astronomers, including letters, drawings, projects and manuscripts of their works. Our article describes the re-organization of the archives and its inventory, together with the project of availability on the Web. In fact, since the archives are often attended by foreign scholars, due to the wide-range relationships of the Bolognese astronomers throughout times, the best solution for an electronic availability seems to be the Internet. The project includes both string queries and sequence approach to the archives, together with hypertext links to the local museum and some iconography.

  4. CosmoBolognaLib: C++ libraries for cosmological calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, F.; Veropalumbo, A.; Moresco, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the CosmoBolognaLib, a large set of Open Source C++ numerical libraries for cosmological calculations. CosmoBolognaLib is a living project aimed at defining a common numerical environment for cosmological investigations of the large-scale structure of the Universe. In particular, one of the primary focuses of this software is to help in handling astronomical catalogues, both real and simulated, measuring one-point, two-point and three-point statistics in configuration space, and performing cosmological analyses. In this paper, we discuss the main features of this software, providing an overview of all the available C++ classes implemented up to now. Both the CosmoBolognaLib and their associated doxygen documentation can be freely downloaded at https://github.com/federicomarulli/CosmoBolognaLib. We provide also some examples to explain how these libraries can be included in either C++ or Python codes.

  5. Bologna Process between Prague and Berlin. Report to the Ministers of Education of the Signatory Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgaga, Pavel

    In Bologna, Italy, in 1999 a declaration was signed that spelled out the beginnings of a common European Higher Education Area. At a summit in Prague, Czech Republic, in 2001, the idea initiated in Bologna was clearly endorsed. In the successive period from 2001 to 2003, awareness of the importance of the Bologna process and the real need for the…

  6. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on University-Level Chemical Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Bologna Process, an effort by a consortium of nearly 50 European countries trying to standardize the higher education system in Europe. Starting from a nonbinding agreement (the 1999 Bologna Declaration), the Bologna Process involves a voluntary joint venture for the construction of a European higher education area…

  7. Normative Influence of the Bologna Process on French-Speaking African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croche, Sarah; Charlier, Jean-Emile

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process experienced a rapidly growing and an unexpected level of support. The authors revisit the key moments of the strategic promotion of the Bologna model and address the issue of the advantages other countries from other continents might gain from lining up with versions of the Bologna model. During the first years, the Process…

  8. The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jose Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

  9. Survey on the Implementation of the Bologna Process in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For several years Portuguese higher education institutions have been waiting for the legislation framework necessary for the implementation of the Bologna process. Such legislation was passed quite recently (2006) and has resulted in an unexpected flood of proposals presented at very short notice by higher education institutions to the Ministry.…

  10. The Role of the Bologna Process in Defining Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The question of what Europe is remains under-explored in the literature on European matters, and this suggests a need to formulate a definition of "Europe". This paper suggests that it is not possible to resolve the problem of the meaning of Europe without considering its higher education developments. The Bologna Process is a recent…

  11. Global Impacts of the Bologna Process: International Perspectives, Local Particularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmas, Aristotelis

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the transfer of the Bologna Process (BP) outside Europe, focusing on its "external dimension" and dynamics in global settings. It argues that the BP impacts on the internationalisation activities of universities, especially with regard to cross-border transparency of qualifications, transnational improvement of quality…

  12. E-Assessment within the Bologna Paradigm: Evidence from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrao, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration brought reforms into higher education that imply changes in teaching methods, didactic materials and textbooks, infrastructures and laboratories, etc. Statistics and mathematics are disciplines that traditionally have the worst success rates, particularly in non-mathematics core curricula courses. This research project,…

  13. "Bildung", the Bologna Process and Kierkegaard's Concept of Subjective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindal, Solveig M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Framework for higher education has agreed on three "cycle descriptors"--knowledge, skill and general competence--which are to constitute the learning outcomes and credit ranges for the three cycles of higher education: The Bachelor, the Master and the PhD. In connection with the implementations of the national qualification…

  14. The Bologna Process, Globalisation and Engineering Education Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the Bologna Process in the light of globalisation and examine how it affects curriculum and engineering education developments. Design/methodology/approach: The growing need for creative competitiveness and the striving for specific profiles of engineering qualifications that are of high quality…

  15. Blueprint for Bologna: University of Prishtina and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Juanita Ross; Epp, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Countries hoping to demonstrate an adequate educational infrastructure need a national framework that meets Bologna requirements, a national accreditation agency which sets out the approved framework, and national accreditation processes by which individual institutions can be measured against the standards set by the national accreditation…

  16. The Bologna Process and the Czech System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan

    2005-01-01

    The Czech system of education has been through several years of relatively intensive transformation efforts reflecting the international processes of transformation of higher education the Czech Republic joined. The most important external stimulus directing the transformation process is the so-called Bologna process. These complex and…

  17. The Bologna Master Degree in Search of an Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to analyse variances between some emerging projections for the master degree at high policy level and the diverse interpretations and forms observed in its implementation in the aftermath of the Bologna Process reforms. It thus examines European and national-level discourses regarding the master's place and purpose and,…

  18. The Bologna Process and the European Gain: Africa's Development Demise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawa, Lester Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a fundamental restructuring of higher education in Europe, of which the introduction of three cycles: bachelor's, master's and doctorate, in lieu of the traditional long program is the single most important feature. Its objectives are to increase the employability of European citizens and the competitiveness and…

  19. Bologna Trends 2010: The Implementation of the Bologna Process and a Move towards a "New Global Regionalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The European University Association, whose members include European higher educations institutions across 46 countries, just published Trends 2010, the sixth in the Trends series, its flagship pan-European report. The principal aim of the 2010 report is to situate and analyse the implementation of the Bologna Process, an initiative to create a…

  20. BOLOGNA MODEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION-UTOPIA OR REALITY.

    PubMed

    Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-07-24

    Higher education in Europe and in the Balkan's countries is undergoing major reforms. The Bologna Process was a major reform created with the claimed goal of providing responses to issues such as the public responsibility for higher education and research, higher education governance, the social dimension of higher education and research, and the values and roles of higher education and research in modern, globalized, and increasingly complex societies with the most demanding qualification needs. Changes in the curricula, modernization of facilities and their alignment with the programs of other European universities, employment of a larger number of assistants, especially in the clinical courses at our universities are necessary. Also, it is necessary to continue to conduct further detailed analysis and evaluation of teaching content and outcomes in the future. In this review authors expressed their views and experience of using Bologna model of education in the Balkan's countries with emphasis on Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia.

  1. Setting Policy Agenda for the Social Dimension of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Since 1999, the Bologna Process has been suggesting a series of reforms relating to structural and normative aspects of higher education, one of which is the social dimension. The social dimension entered into the Bologna Process as an ambiguous action area in 2001 and has remained so in terms of its policy measures. Despite this ambiguity and…

  2. Bologna at the Finish Line: An Account of Ten Years of European Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Daniela; Bjerke, Christian Hemmestad; Blattler, Andrea; Deca, Ligia; Gielis, Inge; Karlsson, Solvi; Nielsen, Kristine Bak; Pall, Allan; Rytkonen, Petri; Santa, Robert; Szabo, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    The European Students' Union (ESU) has been writing about the student perspective on the Bologna Process since it get formally involved in it. Four editions of the students' independent stocktaking report "Bologna With Student Eyes" between 2003 and 2009 shed light on the perception of those stakeholders, which are probably mostly…

  3. The Bologna Process Policy Implementation in Russia and Ukraine: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchinskaya, Daria; Ovchynnikova, Olena

    2011-01-01

    The recent establishment of the European Higher Education Area and the ongoing monitoring carried out by the Bologna Follow-up Group raises the question: to what extent have the objectives of the Bologna Process been implemented in the varied higher education systems of the 47 signatory states, including the former Soviet Union states? This…

  4. Reflections on the Bologna Process: The Making of an Asia Pacific Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Brisbane Communiqué's goals and initiatives seem to follow the Bologna Process' normative path towards the creation of a common regional higher education space. However, comparing demography, socio-economics, student mobility, political economy framework and the initiatives undertaken by both the Brisbane Communiqué and the Bologna Process…

  5. The Emergent European Educational Policies under Scrutiny: The Bologna Process from a Central European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the Bologna Process and the European Research Area are viewed as the two sides of the same coin: that of the redefinition of the missions of the institution of the university. The Bologna Process is viewed as relatively closed to global developments: as largely inward-looking, focused on European regional problems (and European…

  6. Regional Higher Education Reform Initiatives in Africa: A Comparative Analysis with the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Jonck, Petronella; Goujon, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Europe's Bologna Process has been identified as a pioneering approach in regional cooperation with respect to the area of higher education. To address the challenges of African higher education, policymakers are recommending regional cooperation that uses the Bologna Process as a model. Based on these recommendations, the African Union Commission…

  7. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Higher Education in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laszlo, Bela

    2008-01-01

    "The Bologna process is named after the Bologna Declaration. The primary goal of the accord is the coordination and harmonization of the various European higher education systems without losing their colorful diversity and individual features, thereby making European higher education even more attractive for students and scholars all over the…

  8. A Troubled Adolescence: What the Fifteenth Birthday of the Bologna Process Means for Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Conceived in Paris in 1998 and born in 1999 in Bologna, the European higher education reform initiative known as the Bologna Process approaches its fifteenth birthday. As is the case with some adolescents, there are problems. If we were to plan a party for the occasion, we might encounter diverse reflections. First, we would be proud of what our…

  9. Only a Matter of Education Policy Ideals? German Professors' Perception of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brändle, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been discussed how actors at universities perceive the Bologna Process. However, there is a lack of understanding about the determinants influencing attitudes towards the reform. In particular, the relation between education policy ideals and perceptions of the Bologna Process has gone unobserved. Based on a survey at three…

  10. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Europe: Bologna and Its Implications for Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wastl-Walter, Doris; Wintzer, Jeannine

    2012-01-01

    In the following article, we would first like to present the Bologna Process to create a European Higher Education Area and to show its importance as a framework for higher education in Europe and beyond. Second, we would like to raise questions about the consequences of the Bologna Process for postgraduate education especially for the…

  11. Managing the Bologna Process at the European Level: Institution and Actor Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazetic, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the work of the Bologna Follow Up Group as the main institution of the Bologna Process and the perceptions of the policy actors involved concerning the character of the process in terms of its functioning in contrast to similar multi-level multi-actor European processes, its modes of communication and consensus seeking, as…

  12. A Different View of the Bologna Process: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, integration with the Western world has been a determining driver of higher education policies, as well as many other policy areas in Turkey. Becoming a signatory country of the Bologna Process in 2001 brought a new impulse to the higher education policies in this direction. The Bologna Process reforms…

  13. Removable partial denture education in Portugal following the Bologna Process.

    PubMed

    Figueiral, M H; Fonseca, P; Campos, J C R; Correia, A R; Fernandes, M S; Branco, F J M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current guidelines used for the undergraduate course subject Removable Partial Denture in Portuguese Dental Schools following the Bologna Process. All Dental Schools were sent a questionnaire, divided into the following areas: (I) organization and syllabus; (II) teaching methods; (III) materials and techniques; Answers about organization and syllabus of course subjects showed the most variability; teaching methods were identical regarding principal textbook and live demonstrations of laboratory/clinical procedures; the same techniques and materials are used in all the schools' dental clinics. The majority of Dental Schools present similar guidelines for removable partial dentures.

  14. The Bologna Process for U.S. Eyes: Re-learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2009-01-01

    The title of this document is a deliberate play on the title of the biennial reports on the progress of Bologna produced by the European Students' Union, "Bologna With Student Eyes." It is a way of paying tribute to student involvement in the Bologna reforms, and marking a parallel student working participation in the state system…

  15. BOLOGNA MODEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION–UTOPIA OR REALITY

    PubMed Central

    Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in Europe and in the Balkan’s countries is undergoing major reforms. The Bologna Process was a major reform created with the claimed goal of providing responses to issues such as the public responsibility for higher education and research, higher education governance, the social dimension of higher education and research, and the values and roles of higher education and research in modern, globalized, and increasingly complex societies with the most demanding qualification needs. Changes in the curricula, modernization of facilities and their alignment with the programs of other European universities, employment of a larger number of assistants, especially in the clinical courses at our universities are necessary. Also, it is necessary to continue to conduct further detailed analysis and evaluation of teaching content and outcomes in the future. In this review authors expressed their views and experience of using Bologna model of education in the Balkan’s countries with emphasis on Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia. PMID:27698610

  16. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  17. The Bologna process: the quiet revolution in nursing higher education.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ruth

    2008-11-01

    This paper will trace the history and continuing development of the 'Bologna Process' whose aim is to create convergence of higher education across the European Union by 2010. It will identify how this will have profound implications for graduate nurse education and present opportunities for students, graduate nurses, teachers and researchers in terms of mobility and employment as well as collaborative research. Although supportive, the paper questions whether these reforms will provide the much-needed impetus to raise the educational status of the vast majority of European nurses from diploma to graduate level. Barriers to achieving the ideal of an all-graduate EU nursing workforce are discussed in an economic and political context. The main thrust of the paper is that, if this were achieved, it would have a positive impact on the health care systems and populations of participating countries as well as their economies.

  18. Bologna process, more or less: nursing education in the European economic area: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Palese, Alvisa; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Bergin, Michael; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gasser, Catherine; Pajnkihar, Majda; Jackson, Christine

    2014-04-02

    The Bologna Declaration and the subsequent processes is the single most important reform of higher education taking place in Europe in the last 30 years. Signed in 1999, it includes 46 European Union countries and aimed to create, a more coherent, compatible, comparable and competitive European Higher Education Area. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Bologna Declaration achievements in nursing education at 2010 within eight countries that first signed the Declaration on 1999. Researchers primarily identified national laws, policy statements, guidelines and grey literature; then, a literature review on Bologna Declaration implementation in nursing was conducted on the Medline and CINAHL databases. Critical analyses of these documents were performed by expert nurse educators. Structural, organizational, functional and cultural obstacles are hindering full Bologna Process implementation in nursing education within European Economic Area. A call for action is offered in order to achieve a functionally unified system within nursing.

  19. The Actual (Un)usefulness of the Bologna System in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo has officially started working on 22.11.1944, and is the oldest faculty in the medical field in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the same time there are two systems of organization of the teaching process, the old system and the Bologna system. Aim: To analyze the implementation of the Bologna system, and making an overview of its justification. Material and methods: Answers from questionnaires from total of 459 students were analyzed (197 who had studied under the old system and 262 who studied under the Bologna system), so total of four generations of the Bologna system. They filled out a questionnaire in which they evaluated the teaching process. Student’s opinion about quality of medical education was measured by modified Lickert scale. Results: Students of old system are older than students of the Bologna process, whose average age is increasing from generation to generation, given the growing number of students who repeat a year. All students of old system repeated an academic year once or several times (p <0.05). Analysis of average grades showed statistically significant difference (p <0.05), where students in the Bologna system had higher averages than students who were studying under the old system. The presence of large number of female students, in both systems is significant (p <0.05). Out of 33 questions about satisfaction of class, 15 were answered with better average grade from students of the Bologna system. A slight improvement in the Bologna system is in terms of the evaluation of the quality of the educational process (teachers, methods, effects). The only significant progress has been proven in terms of rating the degree of computerization of the educational process–general records on enrolled students (old system vs Bologna system–3,44 vs 3,63), record of attendance (3,47 vs 3,73), obtaining certificates (3,08 vs 3,84), method of registration of exam (2,98 vs 3,71), method of practical

  20. Modeling the growth of Enterococcus faecium in bologna sausage.

    PubMed Central

    Zanoni, B; Garzaroli, C; Anselmi, S; Rondinini, G

    1993-01-01

    A study to set up mathematical models which allow the prediction of Enterococcus faecium growth in bologna sausage (mortadella) was carried out. Growth curves were obtained at different temperatures (5, 6, 12, 15, 25, 32, 35, 37, 42, 46, 50, 52, and 55 degrees C). The Gompertz and logistic models, modified by Zwietering, were found to fit with the representation of experimental curves. The variations of the parameters A (i.e., the asymptotic value reached by the relative population during the stationary growth phase), mu m (i.e., the maximum specific growth rate during the exponential growth phase), and lambda (i.e., the lag time) with temperature were then modeled. The variation of A with temperature can be described by an empirical polynomial model, whereas the variation of mu m and lambda can be described by the Ratkowsky model modified by Zwietering and the Adair model, respectively. Data processing of these models has shown that the minimum growth temperature for E. faecium is 0.1 degrees C, the maximum growth temperature is 53.4 degrees C, and the optimal growth temperature is 42 to 45 degrees C. PMID:8250562

  1. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital.

  2. Toxicology has to use opportunities given by Bologna reform of higher education.

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana

    2009-10-28

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the past, current and future state of education in toxicology. Curricula in toxicology and environmental sciences at some European Universities are presented and discussed in the light of the 1999 Bologna reform. One of the key points in the Bologna reform is establishing a European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). An ECTS credit should reflect the expected learning outcomes of a student and should also be prospective of the value of lifelong learning. The Bologna reform encourages cooperation among institutions of higher education, recognition of variety of types of formal and informal education, implementation of lifelong education, joint programs and mobility. The other important point of Bologna reform is introduction of a new Master's level curricula for professional specialization which should be adapted to the specific skills demanded by the society. Such Master's level with competence based curriculum is a turning point in organizing toxicological education, which is necessary for the development of the profession. In addition, promotion of European cooperation and quality assurance within higher education could significantly benefit to toxicological education. The new Bologna education scheme appears to be suitable to direct toxicology toward a modern interdisciplinary profession capable of dealing with present and future challenges.

  3. The Doctorate of the Bologna Process Third Cycle: Mapping the Dimensions and Impact of the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan; Fazey, John; Gonzalez Geraldo, Jose Luis; Trevitt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Bologna Process is a significant agent for internationalization of education. Acknowledging fiscal and political drivers, this article shows that Bologna inclusion of the doctoral degree offers potential for enhanced doctoral experience. Interest in transferability of doctoral education across national borders, standardization…

  4. [On the borderline of the national demographic scene: the case of Bologna].

    PubMed

    Pasquini, L

    1990-01-01

    The author describes population decline in Bologna, Italy. "Since the first half of the seventies the population of Bologna has undergone a continuous decrease caused by the natural and migratory balance deficit. This has deeply changed the age composition of the population: a drastic decrease in the number of [those aged less than] fourteen years and an increase in the number of [those] older. Assuming that, in the [next] ten years, [fertility] and mortality keep constant and the migratory balance becomes negative, a further reduction of the resident population of Bologna may be foreseen together with [more changes] in the demographic pattern." The consequences will include a large increase in the demand for health services, as well as increased employment opportunities. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  5. [Quality characterization of several bolognas in Mexico. III. Sensorial evaluation by an untrained panel].

    PubMed

    Esparza, M; Domínguez, R; González-Méndez, N; Pacheco, R; Ramos, E

    1988-06-01

    In a study on the quality evaluation of bologna, the major processed meat product of greater consumption in Sonora, Mexico, the quality of commercial brands, available in local markets, was investigated. As part of it, the sensory or organoleptic aspect of factors influencing the acceptance of bologna by consumers was included. The factors considered were: flavor, texture, appearance and color. The acceptance-preference of each product was determined using a hedonic scale and a balanced incomplete block design. The results were then statistically analyzed by the F-test for difference among treatments. Student's "t" test for population means, and multiple range for acceptance and frequency of preference. Findings revealed there were differences in flavor, texture and appearance among the bologna brands. The most relevant factors causing these differences were: saltiness, fluor flavor, stickiness, dryness, and uniformity of color. Significant differences in the color scores among the different brands were also detected, but this was not the case for overall color.

  6. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. III. A spectroscopic metallicity scale for the Revised Bologna Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2009-12-01

    de los Muchachos of the IAC, with the William Herschel Telescope of the Isaac Newton Group and with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of INAF. Also based on observations made with the G.B. Cassini Telescope at Loiano (Italy), operated by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna (INAF). Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. The Impact of the Bologna Process in Ibero-America: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Alejandro Tiana

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the major developments to have taken place in higher education in recent centuries. It has had an impact beyond European borders and repercussions in other parts of the world. Ibero-America has also sat up and taken note, even though scholars agree that there would be difficulties with its direct implementation in the…

  8. The US Response to Bologna: Expanding Knowledge, First Steps of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The roads of incoming information to the US higher education system about the Bologna Process are varied and numerous. They include not only the on-line and traditional trade press, but also conferences of national organisations. Whether anyone remembers much of that information, on the other hand, is an open question, as a limited survey…

  9. Working on the Bologna Declaration: Promoting Integrated Curriculum Development and Fostering Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colet, Nicole Rege; Durand, Natacha

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses ongoing work at the University of Geneva to reform programs to fit the principles of the Bologna Declaration. Analysis of the national context addresses how Swiss universities are currently building a Swiss area of higher education along similar lines to the European Area of Higher Education. Focus is put on the role of the…

  10. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin…

  11. The Bologna Process in Higher Education: An Exploratory Case Study in a Russian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esyutina, Maria; Fearon, Colm; Leatherbarrow, Nicky

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current article is to discuss the role of the Bologna process in enabling quality of educational change, internationalisation and greater mobility using an example case study of a Russian university. Some discussion is provided to offer insights and inform future research and practice. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  12. Rethinking the Research-Teaching Nexus in Undergraduate Education: Spanish Laws Pre- and Post-Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraldo, Jose Luis Gonzalez; Trevitt, Chris; Carter, Susan; Fazey, John

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, under the roof of the Bologna process, the emerging concept of the "knowledge-based society" has its pillars in the so-called European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the European Research Area (ERA). This new kind of society demands a new role for the universities and associated stakeholders, and could provide an ideal…

  13. Future Challenges in Higher Education--Bologna Experts' Community Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results from systematic analysis of the challenges for the future of higher education in European and neighboring countries as it was extracted from the Bologna experts and Higher Education Reform experts' opinions. Opinions of more than 100 experts from 35 countries were documented and analyzed. Significant differences in the…

  14. The European Higher Education Area in 2012: Bologna Process Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Horvath, Anna; Kerpanova, Viera; Kocanova, Daniela; Parveva, Teodora; Dalferth, Simon; Orr, Dominic; Mejer, Lene; Reis, Fernando; Rauhvargers, Andrejs

    2012-01-01

    The report, which reflects the framework of the Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Communique, is the result of a joint effort by Eurostat, Eurydice as well as by Eurostudent and has been overseen by the Bologna Follow-up Group and more specifically by a working group established by the latter. In line with the specific mission and methodology of the…

  15. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  16. The Bologna Process and Higher Education in Mercosur: Regionalization or Europeanization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Azevedo, Mário Luiz Neves

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades regional agreements have become more significant in educational and training. This paper situates and analyses the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), the Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy and explores their influence on the integration of higher education systems in Mercosur (the Southern Common Market of…

  17. The Governance of Higher Education Regionalisation: Comparative Analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Hermo, Javier Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR-Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of their uneven evolution and implementation. We…

  18. [Foundation and organization of the University of Bologna from the XII century to the Renaissance].

    PubMed

    Romero-y Huesca, Andrés; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; Ponce-Landín, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Rojas, Juan Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The University of Bologna was founded in 1150 and was the first European University to establish this educational trend. The combination of structured teaching and student associations marked the origin of the studium generale. The presence of teaching legists encouraged teachers in others fields to come to Bologna. Ars dictaminis, grammar, logic, philosophy, mathematics and especially medicine were taught there by the middle of the thirteenth century. The university offered advanced instruction in law, medicine, and theology and had a minimum of six to eight professors teaching civil law, canonical law, medicine, logic, natural philosophy and usually rhetoric. Many professors bearing local names were learned scholars and commanding figures in medicine and surgery. Taddeo Alderotti (1210-1295) began to teach medicine in Bologna in about 1260. He soon raised medicine to a prestigious position in the university. The geographical distribution demonstrates the international distribution of the student body: 73% were Italians and 26% non-Italians. The decision of the legislature of Bologna to take control of the university from the students by paying professors was probably the most important decision in the history of Italian universities. Examination of the distribution of professors offers a detailed picture of the faculty. In 1370 the university had 11 professors of civil law, 7 professors of canonical law, 3 professors of medical theory, 2 professors of medical practice (specifically of diagnosis and treatment), and 1 professor of surgery. After growing steadily, the numbers of teachers stabilized at 85 to 110 until the year 1530.

  19. The Regional University: Paths of Integration in the Framework of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, G.; Martynenko, O.

    2006-01-01

    The development of international systems of education is opening the way to accomplish tasks in the sphere of higher education that are common to the world community. The Bologna Process, in the framework of which the educational systems of Europe are becoming integrated, makes it possible for Russia to make a choice of the forms of its…

  20. What the Instructors and Administrators of Russia's Higher Educational Institutions Think about the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing integration of national educational systems, in particular in Europe, is giving rise to conflict among traditional forms of instruction, curricula, pedagogical norms and values, and firmly established standards of education. The center of this conflict now, which was catalyzed by Russia's joining the Bologna process, consists of the…

  1. The Bologna Process and Its Achievements in Europe 1999-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinalda, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Bologna Process (BP), which since its creation in 1999 has deeply influenced European higher education: What is it? How did it come into being? How far has it come? The BP is both a political phenomenon and a reform taking place in European higher education. As a political phenomenon it consists of a series of…

  2. "Rationalized Myths" in European Higher Education: The Construction and Diffusion of the Bologna Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the so-called Bologna process and the historically unprecedented diffusion of an abstract model for the restructuring and harmonization of higher education studies and degrees across Europe it has fuelled. This process is interpreted here as a particular example of much larger processes of world-level interconnection and…

  3. The Devil in the Detail: Contradictory National Requirements and Bologna Master Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article compares the national-level requirements for master degree provision in England, Denmark and Portugal following the implementation of the Bologna Process, and ponders upon the reconcilability of these requirements in cross-national initiatives (e.g. joint degrees). In all three countries, master degrees have to comply with the…

  4. Language Education at the University of Aveiro before and after Bologna: Practices and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Susana; Araújo e Sá, Maria Helena

    2013-01-01

    Higher education plays a fundamental role in the construction of a European citizenship that demands the development of plurilingual competences. Although the Bologna Process highlights that development (relating it to mobility, employability and lifelong learning), language education does not seem to be a priority in the agenda of higher…

  5. Looking for Synergies: Education for Sustainable Development and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadeeva, Zinaida; Galkute, Laima

    2012-01-01

    In defining quality of higher education, competences achieved by graduates are interpreted as essential criteria. There are two political processes in education dealing, among other issues, with competence development: the Bologna Process in European Higher Education Area and a global process--the United Nations (UN) Decade (2005-2014) of…

  6. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on Higher Education at Russia's Margins: The Case of Kaliningrad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzle, Stefan; Meister, Stefan; King, Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Embracing the Russian Federation since 2003, the Bologna process is no longer exclusively confined to western European countries. As early as 1999, Vladimir Putin declared the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, wedged between Lithuania and Poland, as a potential pilot region for intensified cooperation between Russia and the EU on a number of policy…

  7. Higher Romanian Education Post-Bologna: Required Changes, Instruments and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrisor, Alexandru-Ionut

    2011-01-01

    In 1999 Romania became part of the Bologna process, focused on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, design to increase the compatibility of European universities, ensuring the mobility of students and professors in the context of re-orienting education to the formation of competences continuously adapted to market requirements.…

  8. Bologna through Ontario Eyes: The Case of the Advanced Diploma in Architectural Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Amy D.; Feltham, Mark; Trotter, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Ontario's burgeoning interest in postsecondary student mobility, this article examines how elements of Europe's Bologna Process can help bridge the college--university divide of Ontario's postsecondary system. Via discourse analysis of relevant qualification frameworks and program standards, it argues that the current system…

  9. Aligning Seminars with Bologna Requirements: Reciprocal Peer Tutoring, the Solo Taxonomy and Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer…

  10. Reception of the Quality Assurance Commitments of the Bologna Process in Finnish Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Va¨ha¨la¨, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Finnish higher education institutions' reception of the implementation of the new quality assurance systems that governments participating in the Bologna Process have committed to establishing in the Berlin Communique´ of 2003. The data were collected using a web survey and the respondents were classified with a cluster…

  11. From the States. Tomorrow the World: Learning Outcomes and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter T.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and intriguing developments in higher education in the world today is the so-called Bologna process in Europe. An initiative of the European Union, this process began in June 1999 when twenty-nine ministers in charge of higher education met to begin creating a European higher education area within which the comparability…

  12. The Bologna Process as a New Public Management Tool in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štech, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    This essentially polemical article questions whether the Bologna Process (BP) is necessary (and desirable) in the adaptation of universities to the new social conditions or whether it is a Trojan horse sent out to introduce neo-liberal changes in the field of higher education. First, it addresses the circumstances surrounding the origins of the…

  13. The 4th Bologna Winter School: Hot Topics in Structural Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The 4th Bologna Winter School on Biotechnologies was held on 9–15 February 2003 at the University of Bologna, Italy, with the specific aim of discussing recent developments in bioinformatics. The school provided an opportunity for students and scientists to debate current problems in computational biology and possible solutions. The course, co-supported (as last year) by the European Science Foundation program on Functional Genomics, focused mainly on hot topics in structural genomics, including recent CASP and CAPRI results, recent and promising genomewide predictions, protein–protein and protein–DNA interaction predictions and genome functional annotation. The topics were organized into four main sections (http://www.biocomp.unibo.it). PMID:18629078

  14. Lemon albedo as a new source of dietary fiber: Application to bologna sausages.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ginés, J M; Fernández-López, J; Sayas-Barberá, E; Sendra, E; Pérez-Álvarez, J A

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of lemon albedo in bologna sausages. Two types of albedo (raw and cooked) and five concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) were added to sausages. Chemical, physicochemical and sensory analyses were made. The addition of albedo to bologna sausages represents an improvement in their nutritional properties and may have beneficial effects, possibly due to the presence of active biocompounds which induce a decrease in residual nitrite levels. The formulations which gave products with sensory properties similar to conventional sausages were sausages with 2.5% and 5% raw albedo and 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% cooked albedo.

  15. Gian Domenico Cassini in Bologna and his contributions to the assessment of the planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccesi, A.

    1998-10-01

    G. D. Cassini was hired as a professor of astronomy in Bologna in 1649, at the age of only 24, and left for Paris in 1669, when he was 44. We will outline in this Paper his major contributions to astronomy during those year according to the judgement of the scholars : the demonstration of the physical inequality of the Suns motion using the meridian line he had built in the church of S. Petronio and the discovery of Mars and Jupiter rotation. The first result unequivocally dismissed Aristotles celestial mechanics based on uniform circular motions, pointing to the unity of the terrestrial and celestial worlds; the second contributed to renew the debate on whether the dynamical structure of the planetary system was Ptolemaic or Copernican. In this respect, some recently discovered lessons, which Cassini gave in Bologna in the year 1666, appear enlightening. Excerpts are reported and commented upon.

  16. Trends in young adult mortality in three European cities: Barcelona, Bologna and Munich, 1986-1995

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Pasarin, M; Cirera, E; Klutke, P; Pipitone, E; Plasencia, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—In recent decades, in most European countries young adult mortality has risen, or at best has remained stable. The aim of this study was to describe trends in mortality attributable to the principal causes of death: AIDS, drug overdose, suicide and motor vehicle traffic accidents, among adults aged between 15 and 34 years in three European cities (Barcelona, Bologna and Munich), over the period 1986 to 1995.
METHODS—The population studied consisted of all deaths that occurred between 1986 and 1995 among residents of Barcelona, Bologna and Munich aged from 15 to 34 years. Information about deaths was obtained from mortality registers. The study variables were sex, age, the underlying cause of death and year of death. Causes of death studied were: drug overdose, AIDS, suicide and motor vehicle traffic accidents. Age standardised mortality rates (direct adjustment) were obtained in all three cities for the age range 15-34. To investigate trends in mortality over the study period Poisson regression models were fitted, obtaining the average relative risk (RR) associated with a one year increment.
RESULTS—Young adult mortality increased among men in Barcelona and Bologna (RR per year: 1.04, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 1.03, 1.06 in Barcelona and RR:1.03, 95%CI:1.01, 1.06 in Bologna) and among women in Barcelona (RR:1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04), with a change in the pattern of the main causes of death attributable to the increase in AIDS and drug overdose mortality. In Munich, the pattern did not change as much, suicides being the main cause of death during the 10 years studied, although they have been decreasing since 1988 (RR:0.92, 95%CI:0.88, 0.96 for men and 0.81, 95%CI: 0.75-0.87 for women).
CONCLUSION—The increase in AIDS mortality observed in the three European cities in the mid-80s and mid-90s has yielded to substantial changes in the pattern of the main causes of death at young ages in Barcelona and Bologna. Munich

  17. Striving for Uniformity, Hoping for Innovation and Diversification: A Critical Review Concerning the Bologna Process--Providing an Overview and Reflecting on the Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wihlborg, Monne; Teelken, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the Bologna Process (BP) did not go as smoothly as the Bologna Follow-Up evaluations suggest, and the consequences of the BP for the various European higher education systems and universities are much more diverse than represented in these various studies. Relatively few research and policy documents taking a more critical…

  18. The Challenge of Bologna: What United States Higher Education Has to Learn from Europe, and Why It Matters That We Learn It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, a declaration formalizing "the European process" was signed at and informally named for Europe's oldest university: Bologna. "The Bologna Process" has transformed higher education in Europe. This book is essential reading for anyone concerned about the ability of America's higher education system to position the…

  19. To What Extent Does Transnational Communication Drive Cross-National Policy Convergence? The Impact of the Bologna-Process on Domestic Higher Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voegtle, Eva M.; Knill, Christoph; Dobbins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates if transnational communication in the context of the Bologna Process (BP) has led to the convergence of higher education (HE) policies. The country sample includes both Bologna participants and non-participants, for which systematic knowledge about the implications of the BP is absent so far. We investigate study structures…

  20. Effects and interactions of sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and pediocin on the thermal inactivation of starved cells of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of bologna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of temperature (56.3-60C) sodium lactate (SL; 0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SDA; 0-2.5%), and pediocin (0-10,000 AU) on starved Listeria monocytogenes on bologna were investigated. Bologna slices containing SL and SDA in the formulation were dipped in pediocin, surface inoc...

  1. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a large city of southeastern Po Valley (Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Tositti, L; Brattich, E; Masiol, M; Baldacci, D; Ceccato, D; Parmeggiani, S; Stracquadanio, M; Zappoli, S

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the results of an experimental research project carried out in Bologna, a midsize town in central Po valley, with the aim at characterizing local aerosol chemistry and tracking the main source emissions of airborne particulate matter. Chemical speciation based upon ions, trace elements, and carbonaceous matter is discussed on the basis of seasonal variation and enrichment factors. For the first time, source apportionment was achieved at this location using two widely used receptor models (principal component analysis/multi-linear regression analysis (PCA/MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF)). Four main aerosol sources were identified by PCA/MLRA and interpreted as: resuspended particulate and a pseudo-marine factor (winter street management), both related to the coarse fraction, plus mixed combustions and secondary aerosol largely associated to traffic and long-lived species typical of the fine fraction. The PMF model resolved six main aerosol sources, interpreted as: mineral dust, road dust, traffic, secondary aerosol, biomass burning and again a pseudo-marine factor. Source apportionment results from both models are in good agreement providing a 30 and a 33% by weight respectively for PCA-MLRA and PMF for the coarse fraction and 70% (PCA-MLRA) and 67% (PMF) for the fine fraction. The episodic influence of Saharan dust transport on PM10 exceedances in Bologna was identified and discussed in term of meteorological framework, composition, and quantitative contribution.

  2. LCA of integrated MSW management systems: Case study of the Bologna District

    SciTech Connect

    Buttol, P. Masoni, P.; Bonoli, A.; Goldoni, S.; Belladonna, V.; Cavazzuti, C.

    2007-07-01

    LCA as a decision-supporting tool in planning integrated municipal solid waste management is not, as yet, widely used in Italy. This paper presents a study concerning the application of the LCA methodology to support the development of the new waste management plan for the Bologna District. The main goal of the study was to show decision-makers at the political level the benefits obtainable with the use of LCA, in terms of the identification and quantification of the potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies. The integrated waste management system of the Bologna District includes waste collection and transport, sorting, recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. Three scenarios, referring to 2006 and assuming the presence of 950,000 inhabitants and the production of {approx}566,000 t of waste in the district, have been compared. A detailed model has been developed in order to capture effects related to the waste fraction from separated collection and to the different waste treatments. The discussion of the results has focussed in particular on the greenhouse effect and the acidification potential. On the basis of the results obtained, the analysis of an additional scenario characterised by a further increase in separated collection has been put forward.

  3. BoGEMMS: the Bologna Geant4 multi-mission simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Malaguti, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.

    2012-07-01

    BoGEMMS, (Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator) is a software project for fast simulation of payload on board of scientific satellites for prompt background evaluation that has been developed at the INAF/IASF Bologna. By exploiting the Geant4 set of libraries, BoGEMMS allows to interactively set the geometrical and physical parameters (e.g. physics list, materials and thicknesses), recording the interactions (e.g. energy deposit, position, interacting particle) in NASA FITS and CERN root format output files and filtering the output as a real observation in space, to finally produce the background detected count rate and spectra. Four different types of output can be produced by the BoGEMMS capturing different aspects of the interactions. The simulator can also run in parallel jobs and store the results in a centralized server via xrootd protocol. The BoGEMMS is a multi-mission tool, generally designed to be applied to any high-energy mission for which the shielding and instruments performances analysis is required.

  4. Persistence and distribution of pesticide residues in fresh agricultural food consumed in the province of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Girotti, Stefano; Ferri, Elida N; Errani, Ermanno

    2009-02-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fresh vegetables and fruit have been qualitatively and quantitatively determined at the laboratories of the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), Division of the Province of Bologna. More than 1,700 samples have been tested by routine analyses. The possible risks for consumers have been evaluated by various parameters. The most important ones were: the amount of each residue; the respective ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) limit; the contemporary presence of different residues; an estimation of the daily intake, based on the amount of fruit and vegetables consumed per person. It has been possible to evaluate that the daily intake of pesticide residues in the province of Bologna during the period 2003-06 resulted lower than the ADI limits concerning the vegetables. According to the information on fruit consumption the daily intake of omethoate (O,O-dimethyl S-methylcarbamoylmethyl phosphorothioate) resulted higher than its ADI limit, of dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(trichloromethyl)benzenemethanol) very close to the admitted limit, under the respective limits for all the other residues.

  5. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  6. The Bologna Process as a Hegemonic Tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE): The Case of Chilean and Mexican Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Francis Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two "hegemonic tools": the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as…

  7. Design of the Curriculum for a Second-Cycle Course in Civil Engineering in the Context of the Bologna Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the curriculum for a Master of Engineering programme in civil engineering at University College Dublin. The revised programme was established to meet the requirements of the Bologna process and this paper specifically considers the design of a new, second-cycle master's component of the programme. In addition to…

  8. Benzene, an experimental multipotential carcinogen: results of the long-term bioassays performed at the Bologna Institute of Oncology.

    PubMed Central

    Maltoni, C; Ciliberti, A; Cotti, G; Conti, B; Belpoggi, F

    1989-01-01

    In 1976, a systematic and integrated project of long-term carcinogenicity bioassays began at the Bentivoglio Experimental Unit of the Bologna Institute of Oncology. The Bologna experiments proved for the first time that benzene is an experimental carcinogen. These experiments demonstrated that benzene is carcinogenic when administered by ingestion and by inhalation and that it cause tumors in the various tested animal models (Sprague-Dawley rats, Wistar rats, Swiss mice, and RF/J mice). They also showed that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen, as it produces a variety of neoplasias in one or more of the tested animal models, including Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, nasal cavities, skin, forestomach, and mammary glands, as well as angiosarcomas of the liver, hemolymphoreticular neoplasias, tumors of the lung, and possibly hepatomas. The Bologna experiments also indicated a clear-cut dose-response relationship in benzene carcinogenesis. This report presents the up-to-date results of the Bologna project. The need for more experimental research aimed at assessing the carcinogenic effects of low doses of benzene, of chemical mixtures containing benzene, and of benzene substitutes is emphasized. Also recommended are more comprehensive epidemiological investigations, extended to all types of malignancies, with particular regard to lung carcinomas. PMID:2792037

  9. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  10. Organizational Culture in the Adoption of the Bologna Process: A Study of Academic Staff at a Ukrainian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2013-01-01

    The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a state-centred model of higher education. The…

  11. Initial Science Teacher Education in Portugal: The Thoughts of Teacher Educators about the Effects of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Between the 1980s and 2007, Portugal used to have one-stage (5-year period) initial teacher education (ITE) programs. In 2007 and consistent with the Bologna process guidelines, Portuguese teacher education moved toward a two-stage model, which includes a 3-year undergraduate program of subject matter that leads to a "licenciatura" (or…

  12. Global References, Local Translation: Adaptation of the Bologna Process Degree Structure and Credit System at Universities in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor; Vubo, Emmanuel Yenshu

    2016-01-01

    This article uses temporal comparison and thematic analytical approaches to analyse text documents and interviews, examining the adaptation of the Bologna Process degree structure and credit system in two sub-systems of education in Cameroon: the Anglo-Saxon and the French systems. The central aim is to verify whether such adaptation has replaced,…

  13. Making Higher Education More European through Student Mobility? Revisiting EU Initiatives in the Context of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of student mobility in the EU as a means to stimulate convergence of diverse higher education systems. The argument is based on official texts and other texts of political communication of the European Commission. The following discussion is placed within the current context of the Bologna process and its aim to…

  14. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  15. Bologna in Context: A Horizontal Perspective on the Dynamics of Governance Sites for a Europe of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornitzka, Ase

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a horizontal perspective on the dynamics of governance sites currently active for the European of Knowledge and places the Bologna process in this wider European level context. It introduces two dynamics of change in political organisation: (a) institutional differentiation and specialisation and (b) the interaction between…

  16. Changing Meanings of "The Europe of Knowledge" and "Modernizing the University," from Bologna to the "New Lisbon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how the meaning of the phrases "Europe of Knowledge" and "modernization of the University" have changed since the Bologna Declaration. In terms of the former, the Europe of Knowledge is now seen essentially as a regionally based and governed space of innovation, which includes, but is by no…

  17. Has the Bologna Process Been Worthwhile? An Analysis of the Learning Society-Adapted Outcome Index through Quantile Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Sainz, A.; García-Merino, J. D.; Urionabarrenetxea, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to discover whether the performance of university students has improved in the wake of the changes in higher education introduced by the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and the construction of the European Higher Education Area. A principal component analysis is used to construct a multi-dimensional performance variable called the…

  18. From Voluntary Participation to Monitored Coordination: Why European Countries Feel Increasingly Bound by Their Commitment to the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravinet, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in the year 2000, higher education policies all over Europe were transformed by the launching and evolution of the Bologna Process, otherwise known as the process of creating a European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Initially, this process was flexible and informal, which makes the rapidity and scope of the changes it brought about…

  19. Techniques and methods to guarantee Bologna-conform higher education in GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna Declaration is aiming for student-centered, outcome-related, and competence-based teaching. In order to fulfill these demands, deep level learning techniques should be used to meet the needs of adult-compatible and self-determined learning. The presentation will summarize selected case studies carried out in the framework of the lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" of the Geodetic Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruhe, Germany). The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The lecture course was migrated starting from a classically designed geodetic lecture course, which consisted of a well-adapted combination of teacher-centered classroom lectures and practical training (e.g., field exercises). The recent Bologna-conform blended learning concepts supports and motivates students to learn more sustainable using online and classroom learning methods. Therefore, an appropriate combination of - classroom lectures: Students and teacher give lectures - practical training: Students select topics individually - online learning: ILIAS (learning management system) is used as data, result, and communication platform. The framing didactical method is based on the so-called anchored instruction approach. Within this approach, an up-to-date scientific GNSS-related paper dealing with the large-scale geodetic project "Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link" is used as anchor. The students have to read the paper individually in the beginning of the semester. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them. At the end of the

  20. Reproductive behavior during the pre-transitional period: evidence from rural Bologna.

    PubMed

    Rettaroli, Rosella; Scalone, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal, micro-level study of the effect of socioeconomic transformations on fertility mechanisms in the rural hinterland of Bologna between 1818 and 1900 (the beginning of the demographic transition) demonstrates that the premature death of a last-born child reduces the interval between two consecutive childbirths. Thus does it confirm the importance of breast-feeding in determining birth spacing. Women living in complex sharecropping households experienced a significantly higher risk of childbirth than did women in families headed by daily wage earners. In addition, the reproductive behavior of sharecroppers seemed to be substantially invariant to short-term ºuctuations in prices, whereas the laborers' group experienced a negative price effect. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses indicate a slight and gradual decrease in fertility levels during the period in question.

  1. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Dominic G; Davidson, Jane W; Nair, Chenicheri S

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  2. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Dominic G.; Davidson, Jane W.; Nair, Chenicheri S.

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  3. Urology at the European university: adaptations to the Bologna Plan. The model of the Autonomous University of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Vela-Navarrete, R; Carballido, J; Gonzalez-Enguita, C; Olivier Gómez, C; Rodríguez de Betancourt, F

    2015-09-01

    The fundamental objective of the Convergence Plan of Bologna is to normalize, harmonize and standardize the teaching of medicine in European medical schools by implementing a similar curriculum. This objective assumes the presence of Urology as a university discipline in all European medical schools. At the same time, the teaching techniques and subject distributions have been modified, emphasizing practical teaching and active participation of the student in the acquisition of expertise and skills. This approach enhances the curricular presence of Urology and requires increased dedication from the teaching staff. These staff members, with limited face-to-face and classroom time, must inform and educate medical students on the broad healthcare commitment of urology as a surgical/medical specialty. The adaptation of the numerous European medical schools to the Bologna Plan raises a number of problems that can be easily overcome, as can be seen in the plan designed by the Faculty of Medicine at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.

  4. Initial Science Teacher Education in Portugal: The Thoughts of Teacher Educators About the Effects of the Bologna Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2016-12-01

    Between the 1980s and 2007, Portugal used to have one-stage (5-year period) initial teacher education (ITE) programs. In 2007 and consistent with the Bologna process guidelines, Portuguese teacher education moved toward a two-stage model, which includes a 3-year undergraduate program of subject matter that leads to a licenciatura (or bachelor) degree and a 3-year professional master in the teaching of a subject. The way that teacher educators perceive the ITE programs effects the education of prospective teachers and consequently the future of science education. This paper aims at analyzing how science teacher educators perceived the changes that took place in this formal way of educating junior school (7th-9th grades) and high school (10th-12th grades) science teachers in Portugal, due to the implementation of the Bologna guidelines. To attain the objectives of the study, 33 science teacher educators including science specialists and science education specialists answered an open-ended online questionnaire, which focused on the strengths and weaknesses of the pre- and post-Bologna ITE programs, the overall quality of teacher education and measures for improving ITE. The results indicate that science teacher educators were quite happy with all of the ITE models, but they expressed the belief that both the science and the teaching practice components should be strengthened in the post-Bologna masters in teaching. Meanwhile, changes were introduced in Portuguese educational laws, and they proved to be consistent with the opinions of the participants. However, the professional development of teacher educators along with evidence-based ITE programs seems to be necessary conditions for overcoming the challenges that teacher education is still facing in Portugal and worldwide.

  5. Anthropometric variables, lifestyle and sports in school-age children: comparison between the cities of Bologna and Crotone.

    PubMed

    Toselli, S; Brasili, P; Iuliano, T; Spiga, F

    2014-12-01

    Weight disorders are rapidly increasing in childhood. In Italy a strong geographic North-South gradient of overweight and obesity has been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine anthropometric variables, physical activity and lifestyles in school-age children in the cities of Bologna and Crotone. The sample consists of 963 children attending primary schools, aged 6-10 years. Height, weight, triceps, and subscapular skinfolds were measured for each child; body mass index (BMI) and percentage of fat mass were calculated. Physical activity was determined through an interview with each child. Another questionnaire was submitted to parents, in order to obtain information on sleep duration, means of transport and type of physical activity. In the city of Bologna, the mean values of anthropometric variables were: height (boys - 1,335 mm, girls - 1,332 mm), BMI (boys - 17.8 kg/m(2), girls - 17.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 20.6%, girls - 12.7%. In Crotone the mean values were: height (boys - 1,275 mm, girls - 1,265 mm), BMI (boys - 19.4 kg/m(2), girls - 19.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 46.7%, girls - 49.0%. The results have demonstrated significant correlations of lifestyle and physical activity with children's weight status. In Crotone there is a larger variation of weight disorders with higher percentages of overweight children than in Bologna. The children in Crotone are engaged in sedentary activities for a significantly longer time than children in Bologna, who are more physically active. The data show a strong North-South gradient concerning not only distribution of weight status, but also lifestyles especially including participation in sports and sedentary behavior. Our study also provides meaningful suggestions how to define lifestyles in order to achieve an optimal health status during growth.

  6. Balancing Bologna: opportunities for university teaching that integrates academic and practical learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Lorenz; Pflug, Verena; Brandenburg, Christiane; Guggenberger, Thomas; Mentler, Axel; Wurzinger, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the Bologna Process, the quality of university teaching has become more prominent in the discourse on higher education. More attention is now paid to didactics and methods and learner-oriented modes of teaching are introduced. The application of knowledge, practical skills and in consequence the employability of university graduates have become requirements for university teaching. Yet, the lecture-style approach still dominates European universities, although empirical evidence confirms that student-centred, interdisciplinary and experiential learning is more effective. Referring to the learning taxonomy introduced by Bloom, we argue that standard approaches rarely move beyond the learning level of comprehension and fail to reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Considering the rapid changes and multiple challenges society faces today, responsible practitioners and scientists who can improve the current management of natural resources are urgently needed. Universities are expected to equip their graduates with the necessary skills to reflect and evaluate their actions when addressing 'real world' problems in order to improve impact and relevance of their work. Higher education thus faces the challenge of providing multi-level learning opportunities for students with diverse practical and theoretical learning needs. In this study, we reflect on three cases of university teaching attempting to bridge theory and practice and based on the principles of systemic, problem based learning. The described courses focus on organic farming, rural development and landscape planning and take place in Uganda, Nicaragua and Italy. We show that being part of a real-world community of stakeholders requires hands-on learning and the reflection and evaluation of actions. This prepares students in a more effective and realistic way for their future roles as responsible decision makers in complex social, economic and ecological systems. We

  7. Chymical Exotica in the Seventeenth Century, or, How to Make the Bologna Stone.

    PubMed

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2016-05-01

    The Bologna Stone, a mineral that became luminescent after chymical treatment, represents one of several "chymical exotica" eagerly sought by natural philosophers of the seventeenth century. Curiously, by mid-century the way to make it luminescent was considered a "lost secret" even though several methods had been repeatedly published. This disconnect between published recipes and experimental failures was explained in part by the investigations of Wilhelm Homberg (1653-1715), later the leading chymist of the Académie Royale des Sciences, and in part by the present author's modern reproduction of Homberg's process. This paper describes both endeavours, and explores the often-overlooked difficulties presented by even "trivial" materials involved in experimentation, and how practical reproduction of historical processes (including visits to important locales) can provide a deeper and more vivid understanding of texts as part of our project to better understand the past. It concludes by reflecting on the importance of maintaining a balance between the material and the intellectual when writing the history of chemistry.

  8. Palliative Care Training and Research: The Development in Europe and the Bologna Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, Deborah; Brighi, Nicole; Muciarelli, Pier-Angelo; Biasco, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Development of palliative care (PC) culture spur the need of proper and formal training. Palliative medicine is not fully recognized as an academic medical discipline due to its humanistic influences, and studies show that physicians declare to be not prepared to provide care and pain management to dying patients. Nowadays, despite leading countries in PC being considered more innovative than other countries,such as Italy, facts show that the achievement of acknowledged discipline went through a long process. In Italy,professionals from about 450 PC units and organizations need to receive a proper and homogeneous training. In Italy, palliative medicine official certification is an undergoing process advocated by a few organizations and in Bologna the Academy of the Sciences of Palliative Medicine operates since 2007 with the defined mission of developing PC culture, also within the University. In order to be as much effective in pursuing its mission, the Academy has strengthened several international cooperation programs and today is leader in PC professional training and research in Italy. The recent law and its feasibility is fastening the process of development of Palliative Care Culture in Italy even if training is not properly regulated and official certification for physician is under evaluation. In Europe, the European Association of Palliative Care is stressing the need for training programs in palliative medicine and the outcomes of the dedicated task force on official certification and specialty in Palliative Medicine will remarkably force policy makers and national councils to officially recognize the discipline. PMID:23766591

  9. The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment. PMID:24062811

  10. The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund: Mit der Umstellung auf die Bachelor-/Masterstruktur wurde in Basel (Schweiz) ein longitudinales Curriculum „soziale und Kommunikative Kompetenzen“ (SOKO) in das Medizinstudium implementiert. Projektbeschreibung: Ziel ist es, den Studierenden grundlegende Techniken einer patientenzentrierten Kommunikation in dem Sinne zu vermitteln, dass die Studierenden in der Lage sind, Informationen zu erheben und Informationen an Patientinnen und Patienten weiterzugeben, um sie als gut informierte Partner am Entscheidungsprozess zu beteiligen. Das SOKO Curriculum umfasst aus Sicht der Studierenden 57 Unterrichtsstunden. In Vorlesungen und kleinen Gruppen kommen vom 1. bis 3. Bachelor- und im 1. Masterstudienjahr Rollenspiele, Videofeedback, Simulationspatienten und der Kontakt mit realen Patienten als didaktische Methoden zum Einsatz. Die Lernziele werden in den summativen klinisch-praktischen OSCE-Prüfungen abgeprüft.Schlussfolgerungen: In Basel konnte mit der Umstellung auf die Bologna-Struktur ein longitudinales SOKO-Curriculum implementiert werden, das kumulatives Lernen erlaubt, auf die Inhalte des sonstigen Studiums Bezug nimmt und regelmäßig in den OSCEs abgeprüft wird. Zurzeit wird ein Großteil der Lehre durch die Psychosomatik des Unispital Basels geleistet. Für die Zukunft wird entscheidend sein, nachhaltige Strukturen in der gesamten Fakultät und im gesamten Unispital zu verankern, um dauerhaft eine hohe Qualität des Unterrichts und der Prüfungen sicherzustellen.

  11. Collaboration Between Mental Health Services and Primary Care: The Bologna Project

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, Domenico; Leggieri, Giuseppe; Menchetti, Marco; Ferrari, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    Overview: Management of anxiety and depressive disorders within the community necessitates collaboration between mental health services and primary care. While cooperative projects do exist in many countries, Italy's National Health System does not have a program designed to address this issue. In Bologna, a cooperative project arose as a spontaneous undertaking between mental health professionals and primary care physicians. A model of collaboration was designed specifically for the Italian National Health System, consisting of a network of primary care liaison services (PCLSs) instituted within the community mental health services. PCLSs are managed by a staff of specially trained mental health care professionals and are designed to facilitate communication between physicians, and they provide continual and multifaceted support consisting of diagnostic assessment and focused clinical intervention. PCLSs also provide formal consultation-liaison meetings and a telephone consultation service designed to promote communication and enrich diagnostic assessment and treatment. Discussion: PCLSs are innovative, not only because they represent one of the first collaborative efforts in Italy to date, but also because of their innovative design, which is specific for the Italian National Health System. Overall, the project yielded a good result. Primary care physicians utilized the service extensively, and together with psychiatric personnel were satisfied with the outcome. These results, when compared with the traditional separation between the 2 services, are encouraging. Our model could be adapted for most communities in Italy, but must be preceded by shared recognition of local need. PMID:15014669

  12. Measurements @ Sub-Mm Spectroscopy Laboratory of Bologna: Rotational Spectroscopy Applied to Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzzarini, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    The physico-chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere has been one of the main subjects of studies over last years. In particular, the composition of the atmosphere is indeed very important to understand chemical processes linked to depletion of stratospheric ozone and greenhouse effect. The vertical concentration profiles of atmospheric gases can be provided by remote sensing measurements, but they require the accurate knowledge of the parameters involved: line positions, transition intensities, pressure-broadened half-widths, pressure-induced frequency shifts and their temperature dependence. In particular, the collisional broadening parameters have a crucial influence on the accuracy of spectra calculations and on reduction of remote sensing data. Rotational spectroscopy, thanks to its intrinsic high resolution, is a powerful tool for providing most of the information mentioned above: accurate or even very accurate rotational transition frequencies, accurate spectroscopic as well as hyperfine parameters, accurate pressure-broadening coefficients and their temperature dependence. With respect to collisional phenomena and line shape analysis studies, by applying the source frequency modulation technique it has been found that rotational spectroscopy may provide very good results: not only this technique does not produce uncontrollable instrumental distortions or broadenings, but also, having an high sensitivity, it is particularly suitable for this kind of investigations. A number of examples will be presented to illustrate the work carried out at the Laboratory of Millimeter/submillimeter-wave Spectroscopy of Bologna in the field of atmospheric studies.

  13. The Bologna-Oxford total ankle replacement: a mid-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A; Martinelli, N; Sartorelli, E; Malerba, F

    2012-06-01

    The Bologna-Oxford (BOX) total ankle replacement (TAR) was developed with the aim of achieving satisfactory pain-free movement of the ankle. To date, only one single multicentre study has reported its clinical results. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent review of its mid-term results. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 60 prospectively followed patients in whom 62 BOX TARs had been implanted between 2004 and 2008. We used the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score to assess the clinical results. Standardised radiographs taken at the time of final follow-up were analysed by two observers. The overall survival was 91.9% at a mean follow-up of 42.5 months (24 to 71). The mean AOFAS score had improved from 35.1 points (sd 16.6; 4 to 73) pre-operatively to 78.0 (sd 10.7; 57 to 100) at final follow-up (p < 0.01). Tibial radiolucencies < 2 mm in width were seen around 16 TARs. Talar radiolucencies < 2 mm were seen around four TARs. A total of 47 patients (78.3%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. Five patients required revision for functional limitation or continuing pain.

  14. Skeletal evidence of tuberculosis in a modern identified human skeletal collection (Certosa cemetery, Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Valentina; Zuppello, Micol; Pedrosi, Maria Elena; Bettuzzi, Matteo; Brancaccio, Rosa; Peccenini, Eva; Morigi, Maria Pia; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in osteoarcheological series relies on the identification of osseous lesions caused by the disease. The study of identified skeletal collections provides the opportunity to investigate the distribution of skeletal lesions in relation to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the skeletal evidence for TB in late adolescent and adult individuals from the identified human collection of the Certosa cemetery of Bologna (Italy, 19th-20th c.). The sample group consists of 244 individuals (138 males, 106 females) ranging from 17 to 88 years of age. The sample was divided into three groups on the basis of the recorded cause of death: TB (N = 64), pulmonary non-TB (N = 29), and other diseases (N = 151). Skeletal lesions reported to be related to TB were analyzed. The vertebral lesions were classified into three types: enlarged foramina (EnF, vascular foramina with diameter of 3-5 mm), erosions (ER), and other foramina (OtF, cavities of various shapes > 3 mm). A CT scan analysis was also performed on vertebral bodies. Some lesions were seldom present in our sample (e.g., tuberculous arthritis). OtF (23.7%) and subperiosteal new bone formation on ribs (54.2%) are significantly more frequent in the TB group with respect to the other groups. The CT scan analysis showed that the vertebrae of individuals who have died of TB may have internal cavities in the absence of external lesions. These traits represent useful elements in the paleopathological diagnosis of TB.

  15. Effect of biofilm dryness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms grown on stainless steel to bologna and hard salami.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes continues to be a major cause of class I food recalls in the United States. Very little is known about its transfer and cross-contamination in processing scenarios. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydration level on L. monocytogenes biofilms grown on stainless steel and its effect on the biofilm transfer to foods. Biofilms were grown on stainless steel in diluted tryptic soy broth 1:20 for 48 h at 32 degrees C. After this, biofilms were equilibrated over saturated salt solutions at 20 degrees C for 24 h (94, 75, 58, and 33% relative humidity; % RH) prior to transferring. Transfer experiments were conducted from inoculated stainless steel to bologna and hard salami at a constant pressure (45 kPa) and time (30 s) with a universal testing machine. The experiment was designed with a factorial design 4 x 2 (biofilms equilibrated at 4% RH and two foods) and duplicated every day, and the whole experiment was repeated nine times. The results were analyzed with an analysis of variance by SAS Statistical Analysis Software. Our results showed that more bacteria were transferred to bologna (mean efficiency of transfer [EOT] = 3.0) than to hard salami (mean EOT = 0.35, P < 0.01). As biofilms became drier, the transfer of Listeria from stainless steel to both foods increased (P < 0.05). The EOT increased from 2 to 3.8 and from 0.2 to 0.51 upon transfer when drying the biofilm for bologna and hard salami, respectively. This study may be an indication that as biofilms were dried, the cell-cell and cell-surface interactions became weaker, and bacterial transfer increased. This phenomenon was enhanced in foods containing higher water activity levels. We hypothesize that this increased in transfer was due to the presence of capillary forces in the food.

  16. Two-cycle curriculum - bachelor-master structure according to the Bologna agreement: the Swiss experience in Basle

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Hedwig J; Kiessling, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In the autumn of 2006, the first cohort of students started with the bachelor programme in Basle. The whole curriculum had to be changed from the old system to the new two-cycle system. The implementation of the Bologna reform in Switzerland has been successful especially with regard to the very tight time schedule. Ongoing evaluation will detect fields for improvement which will of course arise in such a fundamental process of change. A major challenge for the future will be the sustainable consolidation of high quality in medical education. PMID:21818200

  17. Prevalence of Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy in the Adult Population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Setting: Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Participants: Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an “active” or “in remission with treatment” form of NFLE. Measurements and Results: Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7–4.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.8–3.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 11–13 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. Conclusions: This epidemiologic study establishes that nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. Citation: Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Giovannini G, Licchetta L, Naldi I, Mostacci B, Rubboli G, Provini F, Tinuper P, Meletti S. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and

  18. Comparison of Quality of Bologna Sausage Manufactured by Electron Beam or X-Ray Irradiated Ground Pork

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Ground lean pork was irradiated by an electron beam or X-rays to compare the effects of two types of radiation generated by a linear accelerator on the quality of Bologna sausage as a model meat product. Raw ground lean pork was vacuum packaged at a thickness of 1.5 cm and irradiated at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 kGy by an electron beam (2.5 MeV) or X-rays (5 MeV). Solubility of myofibrillar proteins, bacterial counts, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were determined for raw meat samples. Bologna sausage was manufactured using the irradiated lean pork, and total bacterial counts, TBARS values, and quality properties (color differences, cooking yield, texture, and palatability) were determined. Irradiation increased the solubility of myofibrillar proteins in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Bacterial contamination of the raw meat was reduced as the absorbed dose increased, and the reduction was the same for both radiation types. Differences were observed only between irradiated and non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). X-ray irradiation may serve as an alternative to gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation. PMID:26761284

  19. Comparison of the Bologna and Ingelman-Sundberg procedures for stress incontinence associated with genital prolapse: prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Debodinance, P; Querleu, D

    1993-11-01

    It is difficult to make a choice among the many surgical procedures designed for the correction of stress urinary incontinence by the vaginal route because their results have not been correctly compared. The Bologna (B) operation uses two flaps from the anterior vaginal wall that are anchored to the abdominal wall; the Ingelman-Sundberg (IS) operation is a suburethral sling made from two transplants from the pubococcygeus muscle. A prospective randomized study has been carried out in order to compare these two procedures. A selection of cases has been based upon the presence of genuine or potential stress incontinence, genital prolapse and available tissues (anterior vaginal wall excess and palpable pubococcygeus muscles) for both procedures. No significant difference was noted for clinical results (91.7% and 93.7% of patients cured by the B and IS operations, respectively) or for transmission rate gain at 3 months and 1 year. Maximum urethral closing pressure was maintained in both treatment arms. No significant postoperative complication or persistent dysuria occurred. The Bologna procedure is best indicated in case of frank anterior vaginal excess, and the Ingelman-Sundberg procedure when strong anterior parts of pubococcygeus muscles are available. Both are excellent in the cure of stress incontinence associated with genital prolapse.

  20. Comparison of Quality of Bologna Sausage Manufactured by Electron Beam or X-Ray Irradiated Ground Pork.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mee-Hye; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yoon, Young-Min; Kim, Jong Heon; Moon, Byeong-Geum; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Ground lean pork was irradiated by an electron beam or X-rays to compare the effects of two types of radiation generated by a linear accelerator on the quality of Bologna sausage as a model meat product. Raw ground lean pork was vacuum packaged at a thickness of 1.5 cm and irradiated at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 kGy by an electron beam (2.5 MeV) or X-rays (5 MeV). Solubility of myofibrillar proteins, bacterial counts, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were determined for raw meat samples. Bologna sausage was manufactured using the irradiated lean pork, and total bacterial counts, TBARS values, and quality properties (color differences, cooking yield, texture, and palatability) were determined. Irradiation increased the solubility of myofibrillar proteins in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Bacterial contamination of the raw meat was reduced as the absorbed dose increased, and the reduction was the same for both radiation types. Differences were observed only between irradiated and non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). X-ray irradiation may serve as an alternative to gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation.

  1. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages.

  2. On Process, Progress, Success and Methodology or the Unfolding of the Bologna Process as It Appears to Two Reasonably Benign Observers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Amaral, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Bologna Process from two main perspectives: as a dynamic strategy as well as the unfolding of the methodology employed. It argues that the latter was largely determined by the former. Three phases of development are identified; the first two of which shows that the methodology was largely determined by the need to bestow…

  3. ReProTool Version 2.0: Re-Engineering Academic Curriculum Using Learning Outcomes, ECTS and Bologna Process Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyioutas, Philippos; Gjermundrod, Harald; Dionysiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present ReProTool Version 2.0, a software tool that is used for the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the Bologna Process re-engineering of academic programmes. The tool is the result of an 18 months project (February 2012-July 2013) project, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund…

  4. Teaching Biochemistry at Lisbon University--Facing the Challenge of the Bologna Declaration in the 25th Anniversary of the Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2007-01-01

    The biochemistry degree has been taught at Lisbon University for 25 years. Since its creation, the curriculum is characterized for being widely eclectic and multidisciplinary. The adoption of the concepts proposed in Europe by the Declaration of Bologna and incorporation of these ideas at Lisbon University is discussed here for the biochemistry…

  5. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

  6. The Impact on Education for Librarianship and Information Studies of the Bologna Process and Related European Commission Programmes--and Some Outstanding Issues in Europe and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration of 1999 is the basis for continuing reforms in higher education intended to support international mobility in employment within the European Union. This paper describes the standardised structure and nomenclature for courses that have been implemented, together with a credit transfer system, a quality assurance regime, and…

  7. Conformity or Confusion? Changing Higher Education Grading Scales as a Part of the Bologna Process: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Bettina; Lien, Eirik; Lindberg-Sand, Asa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Bologna Process is to make higher education systems across Europe more transparent. It is crucial for this purpose that confusion concerning the characteristics of the systems should be replaced by conformity. But, as we will show, conformity brought about at one level may create confusion at another. The curricular aspect of the…

  8. Similarities, Divergence, and Incapacity in the Bologna Process Reform Implementation by the Former-Socialist Countries: The Self-Defeat of State Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative analysis describes the socialist legacy in the governance of higher education within the former Soviet-led member countries that entered the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) between 2001 and 2010. In joining the EHEA these countries signed on for the Bologna Process (BP), but are not members of the European Union. The…

  9. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Revised Bologna Catalog of M31 clusters, V.3 Galleti+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Federici, L.; Buzzoni, A.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2007-11-01

    The imager/spectrograph DoLoRes at the 3.52m TNG telescope in La Palma (Canary Island, Spain) was used in service mode in various nights during the period October-December, 2005 (Run 1), and in visitor mode in the nights of October 10-15, 2006 (Run 2), to acquire long slit spectra of 38 M 31 CGCs. Long slit spectra for 16 CGCs in M 31 were obtained with the low resolution spectrograph BFOSC mounted at the 1.52m Cassini Telescope of the Loiano Observatory, near Bologna (Italy), during several runs in 2006: August 19-22 (Run 1), September 1-2 (Run 2), October 25-27 (Run 3), and November 22-23 (Run 4). (3 data files).

  11. Evaluation of the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from stainless steel and high-density polyethylene to Bologna and American cheese.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors involved in the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from surfaces to foods. We evaluated the influence of surface type (stainless steel and high-density polyethylene), inoculation method (biofilm growth and attached cells), hydration level (visibly dry and wet), and food type (bologna and American cheese). Each experiment included all 16 combinations and was repeated 11 times. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes was used to inoculate stainless steel and high-density polyethylene either as growing biofilms or attached cells. Slides were placed on a universal testing machine and brought into contact with food at a constant pressure (45 kPa) and time (30 s). Food slices were blended, the number of transferred cells was determined by plating, and the efficiency of transfer (EOT) was calculated. The results strongly suggest that stainless steel surfaces transferred more L. monocytogenes to foods than did polyethylene (P = 0.05). Independent of the surface, biofilms tended to transfer more L. monocytogenes to foods (EOT = 0.57) than did attached cells (EOT = 0.16). Among foods, L. monocytogenes was transferred to bologna more easily than to cheese (P < 0.05). The impact of hydration on transfer was significantly higher for dried biofilms growing on stainless steel (P < 0.05). No significant differences for hydration were seen under other conditions (P > 0.05). We hypothesize that drying weakens cell-to-cell interactions in biofilms and cell-to-surface interactions of biofilms and thus allows increased transfer of cells to food products.

  12. On the Utility of ICT in the European Higher Education Area: The Bologna Process and Its Implications in the Innovation of the Teaching and Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, Pablo Murta Baião; Armendáriz-Iñigo, José Enrique

    Europe is pursuing a real union and one of its milestones is education. The appearance of the European High Education Area (the Bologna Process) supposes a major change in the teaching process at universities from the knowledge-based to the skills learning-based. It is a common belief that ICT could be the driving force in this change of paradigm. However, ICT itself is not the exclusive solution to the education problem; although it is part if the solution since it is very innovative further considerations have to be taken into account. In this paper we discuss the adoption of ICT in the Bologna Process focused on the particular case of Spain. We provide the current state of the art, discuss some drawbacks and point out some possible solutions.

  13. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ≤3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ≤3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  14. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- benzimidazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  15. Multi-Source 3d Models Supporting Ultrasonic Test to Investigate AN Egyptian Sculpture of the Archaeological Museum in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pietra, V.; Donadio, E.; Picchi, D.; Sambuelli, L.; Spanò, A.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the workflow and the results of an ultrasonic 3D investigation and a 3D survey application aimed at the assessment of the internal integrity of an ancient sculpture. The work aimed at highlighting the ability of methods devoted to the 3D geometry acquisition of small objects when applied to diagnosis performed by geophysical investigation. In particular, two methods widely applied for small objects modelling are considered and compared, the digital Photogrammetry with the Structure from Motion (SFM) technique and hand-held 3D scanners. The study concludes with the aim to enhance the final graphical representation of the tomographic results and to subject the obtained results to a quantitative analysis. The survey is applied to the Egyptian naophorous statue of Amenmes and Reshpu, which dates to the reign of Ramses II (1279-1213 BC) or later and is now preserved in the Civic Archaeological Museum in Bologna. In order to evaluate the internal persistency of fractures and visible damages, a 3D Ultrasonic Tomographic Imaging (UTI) test has been performed and a multi-sensor survey (image and range based) was conducted, in order to evaluate the locations of the source and receiver points as accurate as possible The presented test allowed to evaluate the material characteristics, its porosity and degradation state, which particularly affect the lower part of the statue. More in general, the project demonstrated how solution coming from the field of 3D modelling of Cultural Heritage allow the application of 3D ultrasonic tomography also on objects with complex shapes, in addition to the improved representation of the obtained results.

  16. Effects of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to stainless steel and high-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-06-01

    The influence of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to processing surfaces (stainless steel and polyethylene) was assessed. Slices of bologna (14 g) were inoculated with Listeria at different levels, from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm2. Transfer experiments were done at a constant contact time (30 s) and pressure (45 kPa) with a universal testing machine. After transfer, cells that had been transferred to sterile stainless steel and polyethylene were removed and counted, and the efficiency of transfer (EOT) was calculated. As the inoculation level increased from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm(2), the absolute level of transfer increased in a similar fashion. By calculating EOTs, the data were normalized, and the initial inoculation level had no effect on the transfer (P > 0.05). The influence of hydration level on stainless steel, high-density polyethylene, and material type was investigated, and the EOTs ranged from 0.1 to 1 under all the conditions tested. Our results show that transfers to wetted processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.43) were no different from dried processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.35) (P > 0.05). Material type was shown to be a significant factor, with greater numbers of Listeria transferring from bologna to stainless steel (mean EOT = 0.49) than from bologna to polyethylene (mean EOT = 0.28) (P < 0.01). Stainless steel with three different surface roughness (Ra) values of <0.8 microm (target Ra = 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 Vmicrom) and two different finishes (mechanically polished versus mechanically polished and further electropolished) was used to evaluate its effect on the transfer. The surface roughness and finish on the stainless steel did not have any effect on the transfer of Listeria (P > 0.05). Our results showed that when evaluating the transfer of Listeria, the use of EOTs rather than the absolute transfer values is essential to allow comparisons of

  17. [Planning and application of a valutation methodology in UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 quality system, for the analysis satisfaction level of third-year student University of Bologna, Bachelor of Nursing Course, CRI School of Nursing formative section].

    PubMed

    Bernardi, M G; Scalorbi, Sandra; Burrai, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The quality of nursing assistance is closely related to the quality of training. In the certification UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 in 2004 of the Bologna nursing school regarding Planning and performance of theoretical-practical nursing training a continual improvement of the product/service is implicit. A method was therefore devised to evaluate the degree of satisfaction in third-year nursing students in Bologna which demonstrated a medium/high level of satisfaction regarding all teaching-related procedures. By monitoring satisfaction levels , it is possible to identify any critical areas and to implement improvement where needed.

  18. Biomedical engineering education at Politecnico di Milano: development and recent changes.

    PubMed

    Baselli, G

    2009-05-01

    The biomedical engineering (BME) programme at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) is characterized by a strong interdisciplinary background in a broad range of engineering subjects applied to biology and medicine. Accordingly, the undergraduate level (3 years) provides a general education, which includes mechanics, chemistry and materials, electronics, and information technology both in the context of general engineering and within BME foundations. In contrast, the postgraduate programme (2 years) offers a broad choice of specializations in BME fields in close connection with the BME research activities and laboratories of the campus and with active interchange with the other engineering disciplines. The history of BME development at POLIMI is briefly recalled, together with the characteristics of educational and research work, which is strongly biased by a large polytechnic university with no medical school within the same campus; points of strength and weakness due to this background are discussed. The introduction of a double cycle (undergraduate and postgraduate) according to the Bologna process (2000) and the effects on the programme structure is considered. An early phase in which professional education was emphasized at undergraduate level is recalled, which was followed by the actual revision fostering basic engineering and BME education at the first level while leaving in-depth specialization to postgraduate studies or to on-the-job training.

  19. Trasforiiazioni Termoelastiche Finite di Solidi Incomprimibili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, A.

    Queste lezlioni hanno come direttiva una sintesi di quanto si trova sistematicamente sviluppato in una mia Memoria sulle trasformazioni termoelastiche finite di solidi incomprimibili, in corso di stampa negli Annali di Matematica pura e applicata t. XXXIX ( 1955) pp. 147-201 , Verranno anche esposti, come necessaria premessa, alcuni d ei risultati di due precedenti Memorie degli stessi Annali. Invece, per motivo di brevità, non potrò dare neppure un cenno delle ulteriori ricerche svilup pate dal prof. T. Manacorda in tre recentissimi suoi lavori:

  20. A short history of two nineteenth century German instruments at the Bologna Observatory: The 16-cm Steinheil refractor and the Ertel & Sohn meridian circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppi, Francesco; Bònoli, Fabrizio; Gualandi, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    Recent work to restore and set up the materials exhibited at the Museo della Specola of the University of Bologna provided an opportunity to review the history of two important German instruments from the mid-nineteenth century, an Ertel & Sohn meridian circle and a Steinheil refractor. Purchased by the directors of the Bologna Observatory to revitalise local astronomical research, which had gradually declined over the years, both instruments have intriguing histories because, despite the fact that they were essentially underused, they also contributed to two important research projects. Lorenzo Respighi used one of them - the Ertel & Sohn meridian circle - for an experiment in physical optics related to the debate on whether light was undulatory or corpuscular, and it was essentially a forerunner of ‘water-filled telescopes’. The other, a Steinheil refractor to which a Tauber spectroscope was attached, was the largest and most important instrument used by the Italian expedition to India, organised by Pietro Tacchini to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun in 1874.

  1. Use of Landsat imagery to detect land cover changes for monitoring soil sealing; case study: Bologna province (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciere, Rossella; Franci, Francesca; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Landsat archives (made accessible by USGS at no charge since 2011) have made available to the scientific community a large amount of satellite multispectral images, providing new opportunities for environmental information, such as the analysis of land use/cover changes, which represent important tools for planning and sustainable land management. Processing a time series images, the creation of land cover maps has been improved in order to analyze phenomena such as the soil sealing. The main topic of this work is in fact the detection of roads and buildings construction or everything that involve soil removing. This subject is highly relevant, given the impact of the phenomenon on land use planning, environmental sustainability, agricultural policies and urban runoff. The analysis, still in progress, has been applied to Bologna Province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy) that covers 3703 Km2. This area is strongly urbanized: 8,9% of the total surface is sealed against a national value of 6,7%, with the soil sealing rate which has been defined from recent studies as the fourth Italian value in the 2001/2011 period. Other information available for this territory derive from CORINE Land Cover and Copernicus Projects. In the first one, the minimum mapping unit is 25 ha and the one for change is 5 ha; these values are too large for an accurate detection of the soil sealing dynamics. On the other hand, the Copernicus Project provides an imperviousness layer with a better resolution (20x20 m2), but its maps start from 2006. Therefore, the potential of multispectral remote sensing analysis over large areas and the multitemporal Landsat availability have been combined for a better knowledge about land cover changes. For this work, Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images have been acquired between 1987 and 2013, according to basic requirements as low cloud cover and a common acquisition season (summer). A supervised pixel-based classification has been performed, with maximum likelihood

  2. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) adipate ; CASRN 103 - 23 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  3. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  4. Photogrammetry Driven Tools to Support the Restoration of Open-Air Bronze Surfaces of Sculptures: AN Integrated Solution Starting from the Experience of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Gaiani, M.; Basilissi, W.; Rivaroli, L.

    2017-02-01

    Checking the irreversible process of clean-up is a delicate task that requires a work of synthesis between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, to define an effective operating protocol on a limited patch area to be extended later to the entire artefact's surface. In this paper, we present a new, quick, semi-automated 3D photogrammetry-based solution to support restorers in the open-air bronze artwork cleaning from corrosion and weathering decay. The solution allows the conservators to assess in real time and with a high level of fidelity in colour and shape, the `surfaces' to be cleaned before, during and after the clear-out treatment. The solution besides allows an effective and valuable support tool for restorers to identify the original layer of the bronze surface, developed and validated during the ongoing restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna.

  5. Introduzione al Laboratorio di Fisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Giuseppe

    La Fisica (dal greco τὰ ϕυσικὰ: le cose naturali) si pone l'obiettivo di descrivere e prevedere il comportamento dei fenomeni naturali, nonché degli apparati e degli strumenti, che hanno reso e rendono la nostra vita più comoda ed efficiente. Tale obiettivo viene perseguito mediante un'attenta osservazione dei fenomeni, con una conseguente schematizzazione dell'osservazione, per fornire una conoscenza della realtà oggettiva, affidabile, verificabile e condivisibile.

  6. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)).

  7. The evolution of midwifery education at the master's level: a study of Swedish midwifery education programmes after the implementation of the Bologna process.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Evelyn; Mårtensson, Lena B

    2013-08-01

    In Europe, midwifery education has undergone a number of reforms in the past few decades. In several countries, it has shifted from vocational training to academic education. The higher education reform, known as the "Bologna process" aimed to create convergence in higher education among a number of European countries and enhance opportunities for mobility, employment and collaborative research. It also indicated a transparent and easily compared system of academic degrees, generating a new educational system in three cycles. This study explores the implementation of the process in Sweden when the midwifery education was transferred from diploma to postgraduate or master's level. The aim of this study was to analyse how the implementation of the Bologna process in the Swedish higher education system has impacted midwifery education programmes in the country. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were employed to analyse 32 questionnaire responses from teachers and the 2009-2010 curricula and syllabi of 11 postgraduate midwifery education programmes at Swedish universities and university colleges. The results revealed variations among the universities at the major subject into the three disciplines; midwifery, nursing and caring with different conceptualisations, even when the content was identical in the curricula to that of the midwifery professional knowledge base. Implementation of the new reform not only has accelerated the academisation process, but also puts higher demand on the students and requires higher competencies among teachers to involve more evidence-based knowledge, seminars, independent studies and a postgraduate degree project in the major subject. Thus the students earn not only a diploma in midwifery, but also a master's degree in the major subject, which affords the opportunity for an academic career. But still there is a tension between professional and academic education.

  8. Ambienti Circumstellari ed Interstellari di Supernovae di vario Tipo ed Applicazioni Astrofisiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Francesca R.

    Nella presente tesi vengono studiati gli ambienti circumstellari ed interstellari di supernovae (anche SNe; singolare SN) di vario tipo. In particolare si descrivono alcune applicazioni astrofisiche, relative a questi ambienti, che permettono di desumere informazioni sui sistemi stellari progenitori delle supernovae o di determinare le distanze a tali oggetti. L' emissione radio da supernovae, prodotta nell' ambiente circumstellare ad opera dell'interazione idrodinamica del gas di SN con l' ambiente circostante, puo' essere impiegata come mezzo di indagine del sistema di pre-supernova. In particolare si e' introdotta l'idea che tale emissione possa essere impiegata nel caso delle SNe di tipo Ia come test dei sistemi progenitori di tipo simbiotico. Il test e' stato effettuato sulla SN 1986G, per la quale avevamo ottenuto limiti superiori a lunghezze d'onda radio. Nel caso che un sistema simbiotico sia responsabile di una SN Ia, l'interazione tra l' ejecta e una shell circumstellare origina, in un'epoca molto prossima al massimo di luce, un'emissione radio rivelabile con strumenti tipo Very Large Array. Inoltre l'emissione radio fornisce informazioni circa gli stadi di pre-supernova nel caso di altri tipi di supernova. In questo lavoro di tesi vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti nel caso delle SNe di tipo II 1984E e 1986E. Queste due SNe non mostrano emissione radio: la prima, in prossimita del massimo ottico, stava interagendo con una shell circumstellare prodotta da un episodio di perdita di massa di breve durata in fase di pre-supernova; la seconda, invece e' la prima SN ``vecchia'' ad essere rivelata nell' ottico ma non nel radio (l' oggetto non ha ancora iniziato la fase di supernova remnant ed emette radiazione ottica prodotta ancora per interazione circumstellare). In ambiente circum-interstellare, gli echi di luce, prodotti dallo scattering della luce della supernova ad opera della polvere presente, possono essere utilizzati per determinare le distanze

  9. The Bologna Process Implementation and its Consequent Changes in the Teaching/Learning Model—the Industrial Management and Engineering Degree Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luísa Soares, Ana; Costa, Elga; Ferreira, Luís Pinto

    2009-11-01

    The present paper aims to present a Project included in a diversified programme and consequent implementation of a new Teaching/Learning model adapted to the Industrial Management and Engineering Degree (IMED) of the Management and Industrial Studies School (O'Porto Polytechnic Institute). Owning particular and specific characteristics, this model is based on the graduates' professional profile as well as on the work market dynamics, placing the student in the centre of the Learning Process, in opposition to the `teacher centred' method (as conceived by the Bologna Treat). Diverse in the approach, the model includes differentiating factors when compared to the project based traditional model. Through the development and conception of practical Interdisciplinary Projects, centring knowledges and techniques from the different Industrial Management and Engineering areas, we seek a new way of implementing the `Project Led Education' (PLE) bases, according to the Active Learning paradigm. This teaching/learning model aims to contribute to the Industrial Management and Engineering graduates' formation focused on a high level of performance and professional rectitude, to induce students' enthusiasm and motivation for acquiring scientific and technical knowledge, as well as to satisfy the diverse interest groups' expectations and promote the regional development.

  10. Measurement of Regional Environmental Noise by Use of a Pc-Based System. A Application to the Noise Near Airport ``G. Marconi'' in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, H.; Sato, S.; Prodi, N.; Pompoli, R.

    2001-03-01

    Measurements of aircraft noise were made at the airport "G. Marconi" in Bologna by using a measurement system for regional environmental noise. The system is based on the model of the human auditory-brain system, which is based on the interplay of autocorrelators and an interaural cross-correlator acting on the pressure signals arriving at the ear entrances, and takes into account the specialization of left and right human cerebral hemispheres (see reference [8]). Measurements were taken through dual microphones at ear entrances of a dummy head. The aircraft noise was characterized with the following physical factors calculated from the autocorrelation function (ACF) and interaural cross-correlation function (IACF) for binaural signals. From the ACF analysis, (1) energy represented at the origin of delay,Φ (0), (2) effective duration of the envelope of the normalized ACF, τe, (3) the delay time of the first peak, τ1, and (4) its amplitude, φ1were extracted. From the IACF analysis, (5) IACC, (6) interaural delay time at which the IACC is defined, τIACC, and (7) width of the IACF at the τIACC, WIACCwere extracted. The factorΦ (0) can be represented as the geometrical mean of the energies at both ears. A noise source may be identified by these factors as timbre.

  11. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    PubMed

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  12. Severe dystrophy in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rózsai, Barnabás; Kiss, Akos; Csábi, Györgyi; Czakó, Márta; Decsi, Tamás

    2009-03-21

    We present the case history of a 3-year-old girl who was examined because of severe dystrophy. In the background, cow's milk allergy was found, but her body weight was unchanged after eliminating milk from her diet. Other types of malabsorption were excluded. Based on nasal regurgitation and facial dysmorphisms, the possibility of DiGeorge syndrome was suspected and was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The authors suggest a new feature associated with DiGeorge syndrome.

  13. [Survey on sports practice and physical activity of primary school children living in the area of Bologna Local Health Unit in relation with some individual and environmental variables].

    PubMed

    Leoni, E; Beltrami, P; Poletti, G; Baldi, E; Sacchetti, R; Garulli, A; Masotti, A; Bianco, L; Ventura, F A M; Pandolfi, P; Guberti, E

    2008-01-01

    A randomized stratified sample of 522 children attending the third class of primary schools within the area of Bologna Local Health Unit was analysed for physical activity and sports practice. Information about the children's habits and availability of facilities for physical and sports activities were collected by means of structured questionnaires completed by children (507 respondents), parents (491), reference teachers for physical education (26) and class teachers (46) during the school year 2006-07. At the same time, the children's heights and weights were measured in order to calculate BMI values. Regular sports activity is practised by 80.1% of children (males: 82.4%, females: 77.6%), with significant diferences between genders only in children with at least one non-Italian parent (M>F, p < 0.05); the practice of sports is influenced by the area of residence (metropolitan > plain and hills, p < 0.05) and nationality (Italians > non-Italians, p < 0.01). Children with at least one actively sports practising parent are involved more frequently in sports activities (p < 0.001). In free time, sedentary activities are prevalent for both sports-practising children and not. However children not involved in regular sports activities tend to practise outdoor physical activities with a frequency significantly higher than children involved in sports (17.3% vs 10.4% of respondents). The percentage of completely sedentary children, who stated that they practise neither sports nor physical activity in their free time, is 7.3% (metropolitan area: 4.5%, hills: 8.7%, plain: 10.6%). The prevalence of overweight is 24.4%, of obesity 9.7%, with a better distribution of BMI values in the metropolitan area where there is the highest occurrence of positive conditions and behaviours: availability of sports facilities, the highest prevalence of sports practice, and the lowest prevalence of completely sedentary children.

  14. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  15. Exclusive e+e-, di-photon and di-jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Terashi, Koji; /Rockefeller U.

    2007-05-01

    Results from studies on exclusive production of electron-position pair, di-photon, and dijet production at CDF in proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented. THe first observation and cross section measurements of exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and di-jet production in hadron-hadron collisions are emphasized.

  16. [Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro è un fattore di rischio di ridotta densità minerale ossea in donne in menopausa. Uno studio pilota].

    PubMed

    Niolu, Cinzia; Bianciardi, Emanuela; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Nicolai, Sara; Celi, Monica; Ribolsi, Michele; Pietropolli, Adalgisa; Ticconi, Carlo; Tarantino, Umberto; Siracusano, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Introduzione. La depressione maggiore (MD) e l'osteoporosi sono malattie ad alta prevalenza nel genere femminile, associate a morbosità e mortalità. Sebbene alcuni studi abbiano dimostrato un'associazione tra MD, ridotta densità minerale ossea (BMD) e osteoporosi, non sono stati chiariti i meccanismi causali. Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro è stato messo in relazione con la patogenesi e il decorso di malattie croniche come la MD e le malattie cardiovascolari. Obiettivo di questo studio pilota è esplorare la relazione tra MD e BMD. Si ipotizza che lo stile di attaccamento possa agire da mediatore. Metodi. Il campione è formato da 101 donne in menopausa, 49 con MD e 52 controlli sani. La diagnosi di MD è stata formulata con l'intervista clinica e la Beck Depression Inventory. Lo stile di attaccamento è stato esplorato usando il Relationship Questionnaire, la BMD con la Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata con tecnica DXA (Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry). Risultati. L'analisi univariata ha mostrato che le donne con MD avevano valori di BMD inferiori rispetto ai controlli sani. Nelle analisi di regressione multipla la MD non è emersa come predittore significativo di ridotta BMD. Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro "preoccupato" è risultato un predittore significativo di ridotta BMD in tutti i siti scheletrici misurati con la DXA: colonna vertebrale lombare (p=0,008) e segmenti femorali: "femoral neck" (p=0,011), "total hip" (p=0,002). Conclusioni. Questo è il primo studio che esplora il possibile ruolo di MD e stile di attaccamento sulla BMD. Lo stile di attaccamento è risultato un predittore di ridotta BMD, indipendentemente dalla MD. L'attaccamento insicuro potrebbe avere un ruolo nella patogenesi dell'osteoporosi anche indipendente dalla MD. Se questi risultati saranno confermati, gli interventi terapeutici focalizzati sullo stile di attaccamento potrebbero contribuire al miglioramento della comorbilità psichiatrica e medica legata all'osteoporosi.

  17. Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays on industrial chemicals and man-made mineral fibers, at the Bentivoglio (BT) laboratories of the Bologna Institute of Oncology: premises, programs, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Maltoni, C.; Minardi, F.; Soffritti, M.; Lefemine, G. )

    1991-09-01

    After having stressed the need of primary prevention in the strategy for cancer control, the crucial role of the long-term carcinogenicity bioassays in providing scientific support to primary prevention has been focused. The state-of-the-art, the present inadequacies, the necessity of implementation, and the perspectives of the long-term carcinogenicity bioassays have been briefly reviewed. The performed and ongoing programs of carcinogenicity bioassays at the Bentivoglio (BT) Laboratories of the Bologna Institute of Oncology have been presented, together with the currently available results on several compounds of industrial and commercial relevance.

  18. Die Schokoladen-Diät

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    Schlankheitskuren sind einerseits ein soziales Phänomen, aber auch ein großer Zweig der Nahrungsmittelindustrie. Die Industrie bietet dabei verschiedene Produkte an, wie Diätlebensmittel, Nahrungsergänzungsmittel, Sportkleidung und -ausrüstung, Übungsvideos und -bücher, usw. Allerdings ist es bekanntermaßen sehr schwer, das einmal erreichte Wunschgewicht auch langfristig zu halten. Häufig tritt dabei der so genannte Jojo-Effekt auf, so dass man schließlich nach der Diät mehr wiegt als vorher.

  19. BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1) and BUGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0) - Generation Methodology and Preliminary Testing of two ENEA-Bologna Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescarini, Massimo; Sinitsa, Valentin; Orsi, Roberto; Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    Two broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format, dedicated to LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry applications, were generated following the methodology recommended by the US ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009) standard. These libraries, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, are respectively based on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data and adopt the same broad-group energy structure (47 n + 20 γ) of the ORNL BUGLE-96 similar library. They were respectively obtained from the ENEA-Bologna VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB libraries in AMPX format for nuclear fission applications through problem-dependent cross section collapsing with the ENEA-Bologna 2007 revision of the ORNL SCAMPI nuclear data processing system. Both previous libraries are based on the Bondarenko self-shielding factor method and have the same AMPX format and fine-group energy structure (199 n + 42 γ) as the ORNL VITAMIN-B6 similar library from which BUGLE-96 was obtained at ORNL. A synthesis of a preliminary validation of the cited BUGLE-type libraries, performed through 3D fixed source transport calculations with the ORNL TORT-3.2 SN code, is included. The calculations were dedicated to the PCA-Replica 12/13 and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes in LWR shielding and radiation damage analyses.

  20. Bologna Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction (ASBO): 2010 Evidence-Based Guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is no consensus on diagnosis and management of ASBO. Initial conservative management is usually safe, however proper timing for discontinuing non operative treatment is still controversial. Open surgery or laparoscopy are used without standardized indications. Methods A panel of 13 international experts with interest and background in ASBO and peritoneal diseases, participated in a consensus conference during the 1st International Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery and 9th Peritoneum and Surgery Society meeting, in Bologna, July 1-3, 2010, for developing evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of ASBO. Whenever was a lack of high-level evidence, the working group formulated guidelines by obtaining consensus. Recommendations In absence of signs of strangulation and history of persistent vomiting or combined CT scan signs (free fluid, mesenteric oedema, small bowel faeces sign, devascularized bowel) patients with partial ASBO can be managed safely with NOM and tube decompression (either with long or NG) should be attempted. These patients are good candidates for Water Soluble Contrast Medium (WSCM) with both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The appearance of water-soluble contrast in the colon on X-ray within 24 hours from administration predicts resolution. WSCM may be administered either orally or via NGT (50-150 ml) both immediately at admission or after an initial attempt of conservative treatment of 48 hours. The use of WSCM for ASBO is safe and reduces need for surgery, time to resolution and hospital stay. NOM, in absence of signs of strangulation or peritonitis, can be prolonged up to 72 hours. After 72 hours of NOM without resolution surgery is recommended. Patients treated non-operatively have shorter hospital stay, but higher recurrence rate and shorter time to re-admission, although the risk of new surgically treated episodes of ASBO is unchanged. Risk factors for recurrences are age <40 years and

  1. Biopreservation of Fior di Latte cheese.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Zambrini, A V; Del Nobile, M A

    2014-09-01

    In this study a new biopreservation system consisting of an active sodium alginate coating containing Lactobacillus reuteri applied to Fior di Latte cheese was studied. The final aim was to extend cheese shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin. Experimental trials were carried out with and without glycerol. How the fermentation time could improve the production of reuterin, enabling Fior di Latte shelf life, was also assessed. To this aim, the experimental analyses were conducted in 2 different trials, using 2 different production batches of samples. In the first one, Fior di Latte samples were dipped into the active sodium alginate solution prepared on the same day of their production, whereas in the second trial, samples were dipped into the active solution prepared 48h before their production to allow a proper fermentation of the inoculated microorganism. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to prove the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. In the first trial, the combination of the probiotic microorganism with glycerol improved the microbial quality by 1 d compared with the same active solution without glycerol, whereas the 48-h-fermented active alginate solution (second trial) showed a further improved microbial quality. The application of an active coating enriched with L. reuteri and glycerol to Fior di Latte cheese is an optimal and innovative way to preserve the product and at the same time, with a combination of an optimal fermentation time, to prolong its microbial quality and thus its shelf life.

  2. Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) ; CASRN 117 - 81 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  3. N-Nitroso-di-n-butylamine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    N - Nitroso - di - n - butylamine ; CASRN 924 - 16 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  4. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; et. al.,

    2014-10-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  5. URINARY BIOMARKERS OF DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a mixture of various branched-chain dialkyl phthalates mainly containing ninecarbon alkyl isomers. At high doses in rodents, DiNP is a carcinogen, and a developmental toxicant. After exposure, the diester isomers are de-esterified to for...

  6. Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Adam J.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a signaling molecule that has been shown to play important roles in bacterial physiology and infections. Currently, c-di-AMP detection and quantification relies mostly on the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed, which utilizes a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) and a newly commercialized c-di-AMP derivative. With this new method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. Furthermore, this assay is much more efficient than current methods as it requires less overall cost and training while processing many samples at once. Therefore, this assay can be extensively used in research into c-di-AMP signaling. PMID:25239824

  7. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari.

  8. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  9. Toluidine blue-O is a Nissl bright-field counterstain for lipophilic fluorescent tracers Di-ASP, DiI and DiO.

    PubMed

    Chelvanayagam, D K; Beazley, L D

    1997-03-01

    The stain toluidine blue-O (tol blue), applied to sections of neural tissue, is shown to be compatible with the vivid fluorescent lipophilic neural tracers 4-(4-dihexadecylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (Di-ASP), 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO) and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). As with other Nissl stains, toluidine blue-O fluoresces in the red end of the spectrum but such fluorescence quenches upon binding with tissue. Moreover, progressive staining occurs at concentrations low enough to minimise any background fluorescence attributable to non-specific residence of the stain. The bright yellow Di-ASP and vivid green DiO signals are spectrally removed from the red fluorescence of toluidine blue-O. With toluidine blue-O counterstaining, Di-ASP generally offers contrast superior to that with DiI, however, the latter is improved by viewing in a polarised green bright field. Visible Di-ASP emission, although broad, peaks at a more film-sensitive region of the spectrum than that for DiI, thus reducing the photographic exposure required.

  10. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  11. Biomaterial based sulphur di oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Sarkar, A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials are getting importance in the present research field of sensors. In this present paper performance of biomaterial based gas sensor made of gum Arabica and garlic extract had been studied. Extract of garlic clove with multiple medicinal and chemical utility can be proved to be useful in sensing Sulphur di Oxide gas. On exposure to Sulphur di Oxide gas the material under observation suffers some temporary structural change, which can be observed in form of amplified potentiometric change through simple electronic circuitry. Exploiting this very property a potentiometric gas sensor of faster response and recovery time can be designed. In this work sensing property of the said material has been studied through DC conductance, FTIR spectrum etc.

  12. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    PubMed

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  13. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Pair of hadrons (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complements single-hadron SIDIS. The study of di-hadrons allow us to study higher twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs (f 1, g 1, h 1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations which provide direct and unique insights into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  14. Cyclic di-nucleotide signaling enters the eukaryote domain.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Pauline

    2013-11-01

    Cyclic (c-di-GMP) is the prevalent intracellular signaling intermediate in bacteria. It triggers a spectrum of responses that cause bacteria to shift from a swarming motile phase to sessile biofilm formation. However, additional functions for c-di-GMP and roles for related molecules, such as c-di-AMP and c-AMP-GMP continue to be uncovered. The first usage of cyclic-di-nucleotide (c-di-NMP) signaling in the eukaryote domain emerged only recently. In dictyostelid social amoebas, c-di-GMP is a secreted signal that induces motile amoebas to differentiate into sessile stalk cells. In humans, c-di-NMPs, which are either produced endogenously in response to foreign DNA or by invading bacterial pathogens, trigger the innate immune system by activating the expression of interferon genes. STING, the human c-di-NMP receptor, is conserved throughout metazoa and their closest unicellular relatives, suggesting protist origins for human c-di-NMP signaling. Compared to the limited number of conserved protein domains that detect the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, the domains that detect the c-di-NMPs are surprisingly varied.

  15. Thermal and optical studies of some di-methyl-di-alkyl ammonium bromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witko, Waclaw; Godlewska, Malgorzata; Dynarowicz, Patrycja

    1998-01-01

    Phase situation of homologous series of di-alkyl-di-methyl ammonium bromides represented by the general formula: 2CnN+2C1Br-, with n equals 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy methods in the temperature range 20-180 degrees C. A more complex polymorphism as already reported was detected. All the compounds studied show at least tow anomalies on the DSC curves. The high-temperature phase which appears below the isotropic phase has lancet-like dendritic texture which can be attributed to SmB phase. The enthalpy changes at the transitions were calculated.

  16. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  17. Distribution of DI*A and DI*B Allele Frequencies and Comparisons among Central Thai and Other Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nathalang, Oytip; Panichrum, Puangpaka; Intharanut, Kamphon; Thattanon, Phatchira; Nathalang, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Alloantibodies to the Diego (DI) blood group system, anti-Dia and anti-Dib are clinically significant in causing hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), especially in Asian populations with Mongolian ancestry. This study aimed to report the frequency of the DI*A and DI*B alleles in a Central Thai population and to compare them with those of other populations previously published. Altogether, 1,011 blood samples from unrelated healthy blood donors at the National Blood Centre, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok were included. Only 391 samples were tested with anti-Dia by conventional tube technique. All samples were genotyped for DI*A and DI*B alleles using an in-house polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) technique. The DI phenotyping and genotyping results were in 100% concordance. The DI*A and DI*B allele frequencies among 1,011 Central Thais were 0.0183 (37/2,022) and 0.9817 (1,985/2,022), respectively. Allele frequencies were compared between Central Thai and other populations. Our data shows that DI*A and DI*B allele frequencies are similar to Southeast Asian, Brazilian, Southern Brazilian and American Native populations; whereas, these frequencies significantly differ from those reported in East Asian, Italian, Alaska Native/Aleut, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and Filipino populations (P<0.05), corresponding to the results of a matrix of geometric genetic distances. This study confirms that the prevalence of DI*A and DI*B alleles among Central Thais is similar to Southeast Asians and different to others populations of the world. A PCR-based identification of DI genotyping should overcome some of the serological limitations in transfusion medicine and provides a complementary tool for further population-genetic studies. PMID:27764238

  18. DI: An interactive debugging interpreter for applicative languages

    SciTech Connect

    Skedzielewski, S.K.; Yates, R.K.; Oldehoeft, R.R.

    1987-03-12

    The DI interpreter is both a debugger and interpreter of SISLAL programs. Its use as a program interpreter is only a small part of its role; it is designed to be a tool for studying compilation techniques for applicative languages. DI interprets dataflow graphs expressed in the IF1 and IF2 languages, and is heavily instrumented to report the activity of dynamic storage activity, reference counting, copying and updating of structured data values. It also aids the SISAL language evaluation by providing an interim execution vehicle for SISAL programs. DI provides determinate, sequential interpretation of graph nodes for sequential and parallel operations in a canonical order. As a debugging aid, DI allows tracing, breakpointing, and interactive display of program data values. DI handles creation of SISAL and IF1 error values for each data type and propagates them according to a well-defined algebra. We have begun to implement IF1 optimizers and have measured the improvements with DI.

  19. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  20. Absent Aortic Valve in DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Elizabeth C; Minturn, Lucy; Gotteiner, Nina L; Ernst, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    A 20-week-old fetus with the 22q11.2 deletion characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome is described with vertebral segmentation abnormalities and complex cardiovascular anomalies including an absent aortic valve. This is only the second known case of absent aortic valve in association with DiGeorge syndrome. We discuss the association of absent aortic valve with other conotruncal defects and the utility of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome.

  1. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-08-02

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  2. DiTour 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Thomas A.

    2015-06-30

    There is a need for software that allows a tour guide to present different tracks of slides and then return to the default slide show automatically upon completion. A mobile solution is needed for trade shows. DiTour is an iPad/iPhone app that pulls presentation content from a website, stores it on the device and presents it on a connected display. A tour guide can select a track to present and it will automatically return to the default track after a timeout. It offers a mobile solution which is ideal for trade shows.

  3. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-09-13

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Group VIII metal and a crystalline alumina support.

  4. DBU-catalyzed transprotection of N-Fmoc-cysteine di- and tripeptides into S-Fm-cysteine di- and tripeptides.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Abo-Dya, Nader E; Abdelmajeid, Abdelmotaal; Tala, Srinivasa R; Amine, M S; El-Feky, Said A

    2011-01-21

    The transprotection of N-Fmoc-cysteine containing di- and tripeptides possessing a free SH group to produce the corresponding S-Fm-cysteine di- and tripeptides bearing a free amino group is accomplished efficiently with DBU in dry THF. The N-Fmoc to S-Fm transformation mechanism is discussed. S-Fm-Cysteine di- and tripeptides readily form amide bonds on coupling with N-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)benzotriazoles and N-(Pg-α-dipeptidoyl)benzotriazoles to give larger peptides.

  5. Interdisciplinary investigations in support of project DI-MOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1991-01-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations in support of project DI-MOD are discussed. The following subject areas were covered: (1) potential extensions of Project DI-MOD to additional sites in Central America; (2) human migration patterns and their impact on malaria transmission; and (3) an investigation into possible computer-based approaches to the analysis of remotely sensed multispectral data.

  6. A new di-O-prenylated isoflavone from Tephrosia tinctoria.

    PubMed

    Khalivulla, Shaik Ibrahim; Reddy, Bandi Anil Kumar; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Blond, Alain; Bodo, Bernard; Murthy, Madugula Marthanda; Rao, Tadikimalli Prabhakar

    2008-01-01

    A new di-O-prenylated isoflavone, 5,7-di-O-prenylbiochanin A (1), together with three known compounds, 7-O-methylglabranin (2), tephrowatsin C (3) and flemichapparin B (4), were isolated from the stems of Tephrosia tinctoria. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive 2D NMR spectral studies.

  7. What's in a Diary? Di-EL First Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nott, Pauline; Brown, P. Margaret; Cowan, Rogert; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Children with hearing loss and their families are now presenting for early intervention support and guidance at increasingly younger ages. At present there is a paucity of research that informs teachers about early language development in the child with hearing loss. Di-EL First Words (Di-EL) is a diary technique through which parents record their…

  8. Synthesis and anticancer activity of di(3-thienyl)methanol and di(3-thienyl)methane.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kim, Hong Seon; Chae, Young June; Lee, Young Nam; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, In Tae

    2012-09-27

    Di(3-thienyl)methanol (2) and di(3-thienyl)methane (3) have been synthesized and screened against the T98G (brain cancer) cell line. Treatment induced cell death (MTT and macro-colony assay), growth inhibition, cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation), were studied as cellular response parameters. Treatment with the compounds enhanced growth inhibition and cell death in a concentration dependent manner in both T98G and HEK (normal) cell lines. At higher concentrations (>20 µg/mL) the cytotoxic effects of the compounds were highly significant. The effect on clonogenic capacity and micronuclei formation observed after treatment of cells. Amongst the compounds, compound 2 exhibited potent activity against T98G brain cancer cells. Despite potent in vitro activity, both compounds exhibited less cytotoxicity against normal human HEK cells at all effective concentrations.

  9. Appunti sulle osservazioni telescopiche di Galilei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanin, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    The author inspects the telescopic observations performed by Galileo Galilei beginning since 1609. In the first part he examines the attribution to Galileo of the instruments now in Florence in the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza (IMSS). In the second part he considers the observative and optical analyses realized in this century about the telescopes. In the final part he exposes the observations carried out with an instrument very similar to those Galileo had, the "Project STAR" Scope. The author concludes the IMSS instruments represent very well those used by Galileo and, in particular, they are among the best utilized by Italian scientists. The author is also convinced since 1612 Galileo employed a telescope with 5" resolution power.

  10. Limb anomalies in DiGeorge and CHARGE syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, C.; Quackenbush, E.J.; Whiteman, D.; Korf, B.

    1997-01-20

    Limb anomalies are not common in the DiGeorge or CHARGE syndromes. We describe limb anomalies in two children, one with DiGeorge and the other with CHARGE syndrome. Our first patient had a bifid left thumb, Tetralogy of Fallot, absent thymus, right facial palsy, and a reduced number of T-cells. A deletion of 22q11 was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The second patient, with CHARGE syndrome, had asymmetric findings that included right fifth finger clinodactyly, camptodactyly, tibial hemimelia and dimpling, and severe club-foot. The expanded spectrum of the DiGeorge and CHARGE syndromes includes limb anomalies. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Vibrational frequencies and structural determinations of di-vinyl sulfone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellzy, Michael W.; Jensen, James O.; Kay, Jack G.

    2003-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the structure and infrared spectra of di-vinyl sulfone. The vibrational frequencies of the di-vinyl sulfone molecule were analyzed using standard quantum chemical techniques. Frequencies were calculated at the MP2 and DFT levels of theory using the standard 6-311G* basis set. The structural transformation of the chemical agent bis(2-chloroehtyl) sulfide (HD, mustard gas) and the related symmetry to a previously study compounds [Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55 (1999) 121; Spectrochim. Acta Part A 57 (2001) 2417] makes the symmetry of the di-vinyl sulfone molecule an interesting candidate for study. The molecule exists normally in a C2 configuration. High-energy forms of di-vinyl sulfone with CS and C1 symmetries also exist.

  12. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  13. Upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier-Daire, V.; Iserin, L.; Sidi, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on upper limb anomalies in two children with a complete DiGeorge sequence: conotruncal defects, hypocalcemia, thymic aplasia, and facial anomalies. One child had preaxial polydactyly, and the other had club hands with hypoplastic first metacarpal. In both patients, molecular analysis documented a 22q11 deletion. To our knowledge, limb anomalies have rarely been reported in DiGeorge syndrome, and they illustrate the variable clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger represents a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors and is of key importance for driving the lifestyle switch between motile loner cells and biofilm formers. This review provides an up-to-date compendium of c-di-GMP pathways connected to biofilm formation, biofilm-associated motilities, and other functionalities in the ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium is frequently adopted as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. Importantly, its versatility and adaptation capabilities are linked with a broad range of complex regulatory networks, including a large set of genes involved in c-di-GMP biosynthesis, degradation, and transmission. PMID:27129226

  15. Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Martina; Filloux, Alain

    2016-06-10

    The cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger represents a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors and is of key importance for driving the lifestyle switch between motile loner cells and biofilm formers. This review provides an up-to-date compendium of c-di-GMP pathways connected to biofilm formation, biofilm-associated motilities, and other functionalities in the ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa This bacterium is frequently adopted as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. Importantly, its versatility and adaptation capabilities are linked with a broad range of complex regulatory networks, including a large set of genes involved in c-di-GMP biosynthesis, degradation, and transmission.

  16. Metabolite and mineral profiling of "Violetto di Niscemi" and "Spinoso di Menfi" globe artichokes by (1)H-NMR and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Albergamo, Ambrogina; Rotondo, Archimede; Salvo, Andrea; Pellizzeri, Vito; Bua, Daniel G; Maggio, Antonella; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-05-01

    Globe artichoke has been long considered a nutraceutical food for its valuable content of bioactive compounds. However, beside a well-known polyphenol profile, poor information is available about its metabolite and mineral composition. The aim of this study was to investigate edible parts of Sicilian artichokes, 'Spinoso di Menfi' and 'Violetto di Niscemi', by (1)H NMR and ICP-MS for elucidating these compositional aspects. Although bracts and hearts of both artichokes shared a very similar metabolite pattern, 'Spinoso di Menfi' showed a higher number of metabolites, such as amino acids and polyphenols, than 'Violetto di Niscemi'. 'Spinoso di Menfi' was also marked by higher levels of macro- and microelements when compared to 'Violetto di Niscemi'. Also, artichoke heart demonstrated to accumulate higher mineral levels than bracts. (1)H NMR and ICP-MS successfully profiled metabolites and metals in such plant food, partially covering the lack of literature data about 'Spinoso di Menfi' and 'Violetto di Niscemi' artichokes.

  17. Diffractive interference optical analyzer (DiOPTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Harish; Prasad, Vishnu; Pal, Parama; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-03-01

    This report demonstrates a method for high-resolution refractometric measurements using, what we have termed as, a Diffractive Interference Optical Analyzer (DiOpter). The setup consists of a laser, polarizer, a transparent diffraction grating and Si-photodetectors. The sensor is based on the differential response of diffracted orders to bulk refractive index changes. In these setups, the differential read-out of the diffracted orders suppresses signal drifts and enables time-resolved determination of refractive index changes in the sample cell. A remarkable feature of this device is that under appropriate conditions, the measurement sensitivity of the sensor can be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to interference between multiply reflected diffracted orders. A noise-equivalent limit of detection (LoD) of 6x10-7 RIU was achieved in glass. This work focuses on devices with integrated sample well, made on low-cost PDMS. As the detection methodology is experimentally straightforward, it can be used across a wide array of applications, ranging from detecting changes in surface adsorbates via binding reactions to estimating refractive index (and hence concentration) variations in bulk samples. An exciting prospect of this technique is the potential integration of this device to smartphones using a simple interface based on transmission mode configuration. In a transmission configuration, we were able to achieve an LoD of 4x10-4 RIU which is sufficient to explore several applications in food quality testing and related fields. We are envisioning the future of this platform as a personal handheld optical analyzer for applications ranging from environmental sensing to healthcare and quality testing of food products.

  18. CUB DI (Deionization) column control system

    SciTech Connect

    K. C. Seino

    1999-07-02

    For the old MR (Main Ring), deionization was done with two columns in CUB, using an ion exchange process. Typically 65 GPM of LCW flew through a column, and the resistivity was raised from 3 Mohm-cm to over 12 Mohm-cm. After a few weeks, columns lost their effectiveness and had to be regenerated in a process involving backwashing and adding hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. For normal MR operations, LCW returned from the ring and passed through the two columns in parallel for deionization, although the system could have been operated satisfactorily with only one in use. A 3000 gallon reservoir (the Spheres) provided a reserve of LCW for allowing water leaks and expansions in the MR. During the MI (Main Injector) construction period, the third DI column was added to satisfy requirements for the MI. When the third column was added, the old regeneration controller was replaced with a new controller based on an Allen-Bradley PLC (i.e., SLC-5/04). The PLC is widely used and well documented, and therefore it may allow us to modify the regeneration programs in the future. In addition to the above regeneration controller, the old control panels (which were used to manipulate pumps and valves to supply LCW in Normal mode and to do Int. Recir. (Internal Recirculation) and Makeup) were replaced with a new control system based on Sixtrak Gateway and I/O modules. For simplicity, the new regeneration controller is called as the US Filter system, and the new control system is called as the Fermilab system in this writing.

  19. Case report: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of pancreatic origin in a patient with down syndrome: The role of diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, M; Di Renzo, D; Persico, A; Chiesa, P Lelli

    2011-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Il tumore miofibroblastico infiammatorio (TIM) è un tumore solido benigno, di incerta eziologia. MATERIALI E METODI: Riportiamo un case-report di un bambino (4 anni, sindrome di Down), con massa pancreatica identificata all’ultrasonografia (US) e confermata da TC. RISULTATI: Il monitoraggio del TIM è stato effettuato con US seriate. Il follow-up a 4 anni dalla diagnosi è senza recidive. DISCUSSIONE: Il paziente, data l’impossibilità dell’exeresi chirurgica radicale, è stato trattato con successo con terapia medica (FANS). Abbiamo deciso di monitorizzare la lesione con ultrasonografie seriate, riducendo il numero di esami TC ai quali il paziente avrebbe dovuto sottoporsi, evitando così l’esposizione a radiazioni ionizzanti. La letteratura, infatti, riporta ampiamente come l’esecuzione di ripetuti esami TC si accompagni ad una importante radioesposizione con conseguente rischio cancerogeno, dato assolutamente non trascurabile in età pediatrica.

  20. Migration of Di- and Tri-Interstitials in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, Matthias; Gao, Fei; Zwicker, D

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The results are compared with data from the literature and the implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed.

  1. Tetrakis(2,6-di-methyl-pyridinium) di-hydrogen deca-vanadate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Rakovský, Erik; Krivosudský, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    The structure of the title compound, (C7H10N)4[H2V10O28]·2H2O, was solved from a non-merohedrally twinned crystal (ratio of twin components ∼0.6:0.4). The asymmetric unit consists of one-half deca-vanadate anion (the other half completed by inversion symmetry), two 2,6-di-methyl-pyridinium cations and one water mol-ecule of crystallization. In the crystal, the components are connected by strong N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a supra-molecular chain along the b-axis direction. There are weak C-H⋯O inter-actions between the chains.

  2. Bis(2,3-di­chloro­phen­yl) di­sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Osorio-Yáñez, Rebeca Nayely; Crisóstomo-Lucas, Carmela; Santacruz-Juárez, Ericka; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C12H6Cl4S2, features an S—S bond [2.0252 (8) Å] that bridges two 2,3-di­chloro­phenyl rings with a C—S—S—C torsion angle of 88.35 (11)°. The benzene rings are normal one to the other with a dihedral angle of 89.83 (11)°. The crystal structure features inter­molecular Cl⋯Cl [3.4763 (11) Å] and π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.696 (1) and 3.641 (2) Å]. Intra­molecular C—H⋯S inter­actions are also observed. PMID:24860342

  3. Luminescence properties of dysprosium doped di-calcium di-aluminium silicate phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Geetanjali; Brahme, Nameeta; Sharma, Ravi; Bisen, D. P.; Sao, Sanjay K.; Tigga, Shalinta

    2016-08-01

    A Dysprosium doped di-calcium di-aluminium silicate phosphor emitting long-lasting white light was prepared and investigated. Phosphors were synthesized by combustion-assisted method. The effect of doping concentration on the crystal structure and luminescence properties of Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphors were investigated. The phase structure, surface morphology, particle size, elemental analysis was analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles showed that all peaks could be attributed to the tetragonal Ca2Al2SiO7 phase when the sample was annealed at 1100 °C. The increase in TL intensity indicates that the concentration of traps increases with UV irradiation. Under the UV-excitation, the Thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra of Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphor shows the characteristic emission of Dy3+ peaking at 484 nm (blue), 583 nm (yellow) and 680 nm (red), originating from the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2. Photoluminescence (PL) decay has also reported and it indicates that Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphor contains fast decay and slow decay process. The peak of Mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity increases linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. The possible mechanism of Thermoluminescence (TL), Photoluminescence (PL) and Mechanoluminescence (ML) of this white light emitting long lasting phosphor is also investigated.

  4. A case of DiGeorge syndrome in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Chikovani, M; Kutubidze, T; Khvedeliani, N; Pagava, K

    2011-04-01

    Patient 6 - year- old boy, with history of recurrent otitis, cleft palate, was admitted to the hospital for fever, abdominal pain; He had high ESR,CRP, low T lymphocytes, VSD. Peritoneal fluid was positive for pseudomona aeroginoza. Diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome was confirmed by further genetical study. Immune deficiencies should be considered when infections are severe, persistent resistant to standard treatment, or caused by opportunistic organisms. Treatments can often correct many of the critical and immediate problems associated with DiGeorge syndrome such as heart defects, calcium defects, poor immune system functions and cleft palate. People who had poor immune function as children due to small or missing thymus, may have an increased risk of autoimmune disorders, such as a rheumatoid arthritis and Graves disease. Because DiGeorge syndrome can result in so many disorders, a number of specialists should be involved in diagnosing specific conditions, recommending treatments and providing care.

  5. Placental lesions in a case of DiGeorge sequence.

    PubMed

    Fulcheri, E; Gualco, M; Delfino, F; Pantarotto, M F

    2006-01-01

    This work describes some placental alterations found in a partial form of DiGeorge sequence, namely, hypoplasia of a cord artery with internal calcification of an extensive endoluminal thrombosis, and widespread calcification of microthrombi in the arteries of the second and third order villous branches. Hypoplasia of a cord artery is a relatively rare event, and is also associated with malformations of the gastroenteric and cardiovascular system, as sometimes described in the DiGeorge sequence. Interesting placental alterations are reported and their likely physiopathologic basis and pathogenic correlation discussed in order to give a better and more comprehensive picture of the DiGeorge sequence in which the correlated placental alterations are not sufficiently known.

  6. DiGeorge sequence with hypogammaglobulinemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chu, Shau-Yin; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2002-09-01

    The most common immunodeficiency in DiGeorge sequence patients is defects in T-cell production due to insufficient thymic tissue. However, because T-lymphocytes are important in regulating antibody responses, DiGeorge sequence is no longer regarded as a pure deficiency of cellular immunity but also a form of variable-combined immunodeficiency. Here we presented a 4-month-old male infant with characteristic facial dysmorphism, thymus dysplasia, tetralogy of Fallot, and documented deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 who had decrease B-lymphocyte numbers and hypogammaglobulinemia. The mitogen responses of T-lymphocytes function were normal with adequate number of CD4+ lymphocytes. This case report highlights the importance of evaluating not only the cellular but also the humoral immune function in patients with DiGeorge sequence.

  7. Quantification of the asymmetric migration of the lipophilic dyes, DiO and DiD, in homotypic co-cultures of chondrosarcoma SW-1353 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Tomasz P.; Juzwa, Wojciech; Filipiak, Krystyna; Sujka-Kordowska, Patrycja; Zabel, Maciej; Głowacki, Jakub; Głowacki, Maciej; Jagodziński, Paweł P.

    2016-01-01

    DiO and DiD are lipophilic cell labelling dyes used in the staining of cells in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the present study was to quantify the asymmetrical distribution of dyes in co-cultured cells and to measure the intercellular transfer of DiO and DiD. DiO and DiD were applied separately to stain two identical populations of SW-1353 human chondrosarcoma cells that were subsequently co-cultured (homotypic co-culture). The intercellular migration of dyes in the co-cultured cells was measured by flow cytometry and recorded under a fluorescent microscope. DiD and DiO caused no effect on the proliferation of cells, the degradation rate of the two dyes was comparable and crossover effects between dyes were negligible. The results of the present study suggested that asymmetrical intercellular migration of DiD and DiO was responsible for the asymmetrical distribution of these dyes in co-cultured cells. To take advantage of the lipophilic dyes migration in the double-stained co-cultured cells we suggest to apply mixed-dyes controls prior to the flow cytometric analysis. These controls are performed by staining cells with a 1:1 mix of the two dyes and would enable the estimation of the intensity of intercellular contact in co-culture systems. A 1:1 premix of DiO and DiD was applied to estimate cellular effect on intercellular exchange of lipid dyes in co-cultures incubated with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B. The cellular effect contributed 6–7% of intercellular migration of the lipophilic dyes, DiO and DiD. The majority of the observed intercellular transfer of these dyes was due to non-cellular, passive transfer. PMID:27748852

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions from Specchio di Venere, Pantelleria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Mariana P. Jácome; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Vita, Fabio; Pecoraino, Giovanella

    2016-04-01

    We have mapped the diffuse CO2 efflux from the Specchio di Venere Lake area using the accumulation chamber method. We calculated a CO2 emission of 43 ± 5 t day-1 for the area studied, accounting for both diffuse degassing from soil and bubbling through the lake. We also present data on the water composition of Specchio di Venere Lake, the Polla 3 spring, and Liuzza well. On the basis of water chemistry, two physical-chemical processes, evaporation and mineral precipitation of carbonate species, are invoked to explain the CO2 degassing for the lake area.

  9. DiGeorge syndrome: part of CATCH 22.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D I; Burn, J; Scambler, P; Goodship, J

    1993-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) comprises thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcaemia, outflow tract defects of the heart, and dysmorphic facies. It results in almost all cases from a deletion within chromosome 22q11. We report the clinical findings in 44 cases. We propose that DiGeorge syndrome should be seen as the severe end of the clinical spectrum embraced by the acronym CATCH 22 syndrome; Cardiac defects, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, Cleft palate, and Hypocalcaemia resulting from 22q11 deletions. Images PMID:8230162

  10. Synthesis and photochemical properties of 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-propanol, 1,3-di-9-anthrylacetone, and related propano-linked anthracenes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.D.; Amin, K.A. )

    1989-06-23

    9-anthryllithium reacts with epichlorohydrin to give 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-propanol via 3-(9-anthryl)-1-chloro-2-hydroxypropane and 3-(9-anthryl)-1,2-epoxypropane. Oxidation of dianthryl-2-propanol with Dess-Martin reagent gave 1,3-di-9-anthrylacetone. Various other 1,3-bichromophoric anthracenes were synthesized by way of C-methylation of dianthrylacetone, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-1-propanone, and 1,3-di-9-anthrylpropenone. 9-Anthrylacetone, formed as byproduct in the reaction of anthryllithium with epichlorohydrin, was prepared from 9-anthrylacetaldehyde by Grignard reaction with methylmagnesium iodide and subsequent oxidation. The excited-state properties of dianthryl-2-propanol, dianthrylacetone, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-methyl-1-propanone, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-methyl-2-propanol, diastereomeric 1,3-di-9-anthryl-1-butanols, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-butanone, 1,3-di-9-anthryl-1-butanone, and diastereomeric 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-methyl-1-butanones have been evaluated by fluorescence quantum yields, and by quantum yields for the isomerization by intramolecular 4{pi} + 4{pi} cycloaddition. Dianthryl-2-propanol, 1,3-di-9-antrhyl-2-methyl-2-propanol, dianthrylacetone, diastereomeric 1,3-di-9-anthryl-1-butanols, and 1,3-di-9-anthryl-2-butanone isomerize in their excited singlet state with quantum yields of 0.046, 0.021, 0.25, 0.23, and 0.22, respectively. The photochemical isomerization of those 1,3-bichromophoric anthrancenes which are characterized by a 9-anthroyl chromophore involves the excited triplet state, and the cyclization quantum yield may be as high as 0.72.

  11. Integrated methodologies for the 3d survey and the structural monitoring of industrial archaeology: the case of the Casalecchio di Reno Dyke, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Girelli, Valentina A.; Vittuari, Luca; Zanutta, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The concept of "Industrial Archaeology" was introduced in the 1950s in England in order to consider the branch of Archaeology that, in integration with engineering, architecture and economics, studies the industrial past, with the purpose of document, protect and exploite the industrial-cultural heritage. The systematic study of this kind of structures and artefacts need a wide range approach, that starts from the investigation about the object historic fonts until its complete qualitative and quantitative description, also considering the characteristics of the surrounding territory. This task often needs the integration of different survey techniques for data capturing and processing, in order to perform the 3D modeling and to analize the structural deformations of manufactured articles. The paper presents the surveying and monitoring activities on the important structure of the Casalecchio di Reno dyke, near Bologna. The first historic notes on the dyke are very old; they are dated back to the I millenium A. D. and report the news of a wooden barrage of the Reno canal. The construction of the actual structure is in the period 1360-1367 and suffered during the centuries numerous interventions and restores. The surveying activities on the dyke were realized in 2005-2006 and 2009 and involved different techniques (classical topography, high precision geometric levelling, range-based method by terrestrial laser scanning, digital photogrammetry, thermal imagery) integrated together in a unique local reference system, in order to study the stability and the movements of the structure in a established period of time and to realize a 3D model. Together with detail surveys on the single parts of the structure, an analysis at a larger territorial scale was performed by aerial photogrammetry, either using current imagery and historical data. The topographic measurements with traditional differential techniques have achieved a very high level precision and the realized

  12. Riverine Carbon and the Sedimentary Record on the Continental Shelves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Geologia Marina (formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Gobetti, 101 40129 Bologna, Italy phone: +39 (051...Marine, Sezione Geologia Marina,(formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina),Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche,Via Gobetti, 101,40129 Bologna, Italy, , 8

  13. Riverine Carbon and the Sedimentary Record on the Continental Shelves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-30

    Riverine Carbon and the Sedimentary Record on the Continental Shelves Stefano Miserocchi Istituto Scienze Marine, Sezione Geologia Marina...formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Gobetti, 101 40129 Bologna, Italy phone: +39 (051) 6398880 Fax. +39 (051... Geologia Marina,,(formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina),Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche,,Via Gobetti, 101,40129 Bologna, Italy, , 8. PERFORMING

  14. 21 CFR 178.3940 - Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate). 178.3940 Section 178.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  15. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  16. PLCs, DI, & RTI: A Tapestry for School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoehr, Judy; Banks, Maria; Allen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Rather than buying individual books about professional learning communities (PLCs), differentiated instruction (DI), and Response to Intervention (RTI), invest wisely in one resource that synthesizes all three. The text uses a tapestry analogy to weave together these critical topics to form a comprehensive framework for achieving continuous school…

  17. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  18. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  19. Molecular organization in perylene tetracarboxylic di-imide solid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, K.; Aroca, R.; Hort, A. M.; Loutfy, R. O.

    The vibrational spectra of thin solid films of three perylene tetracarboxylic di-imide derivatives (phenyl, methyl, and unsubstituted) are reported. A preferred molecular orientation in the evaporated solid films emerged for all three perylene derivatives from the i.r. data. Raman spectra obtained in resonance with the absorption band were characteristic of scattering via a Herzberg—Teller mechanism.

  20. Synthesis and Chemistry of Organic Geminal Di- and Triazides.

    PubMed

    Häring, Andreas P; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2015-11-06

    This review recapitulates all available literature dealing with the synthesis and reactivity of geminal organic di- and triazides. These compound classes are, to a large extent, unexplored despite their promising chemical properties and their simple preparation. In addition, the chemistry of carbonyl diazide (2) and tetraazidomethane (105) is described in separate sections.

  1. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  5. Immunoglobulin deficiencies: the B-lymphocyte side of DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kiran; Akhter, Javeed; Kobrynski, Lisa; Benjamin Gathmann, M A; Gathman, Benjamin; Davis, Onika; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2012-11-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a T-lymphocyte immunodeficiency. The prevalence of hypogammaglobulinemia has not been reported. We found that 3% of patients with DiGeorge syndrome were receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy and 6% of patients over the age of 3 years had hypogammaglobulinemia. We conclude that DiGeorge syndrome is associated with significant humoral immune deficiency.

  6. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  7. Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Silvia; Radici, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest access to the poorly known twist-3 parton distribution e( x) , which is intimately related to the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. When sensitive to details of transverse-momentum dynamics of partons, the di-hadron fragmentation functions for a longitudinally polarized quark can be connected to the longitudinal jet handedness to explore possible effects due to CP -violation of the QCD vacuum. In this review, we outline the formalism of di-hadron fragmentation functions, we discuss different observables where they appear and we present measurements and future worldwide plans.

  8. Clinical Phenotype of DiGeorge Syndrome with Negative Genetic Tests: A Case of DiGeorge-Like Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Laccetta, Gianluigi; Toschi, Benedetta; Fogli, Antonella; Bertini, Veronica; Valetto, Angelo; Consolini, Rita

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of DiGeorge-like syndrome in which immunodeficiency coexisting with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, congenital heart disease, delay in emergence of language and in motor milestones, feeding and growing problems, enamel hypoplasia, mild skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms are associated with no abnormalities found on genetic tests.

  9. Clinical Phenotype of DiGeorge Syndrome with Negative Genetic Tests: A Case of DiGeorge-Like Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Laccetta, Gianluigi; Toschi, Benedetta; Fogli, Antonella; Bertini, Veronica; Valetto, Angelo; Consolini, Rita

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of DiGeorge-like syndrome in which immunodeficiency coexisting with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, congenital heart disease, delay in emergence of language and in motor milestones, feeding and growing problems, enamel hypoplasia, mild skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms are associated with no abnormalities found on genetic tests. PMID:26793401

  10. Animal electricity from Bologna to Boston.

    PubMed

    Goldensohn, E S

    1998-02-01

    This is an appreciation of 3 scientists who made historic contributions toward understanding bio-electrical activity. The discoveries of Galvani and Volta, who were contemporaries two hundred years ago, continue as basic supports in advancing the strength and health of all mankind. They, nevertheless, had political and scientific disagreements that still linger. The third scientist was our contemporary, Alexander Forbes who, throughout most of the 20th century, continued to increase our understanding of electrical activity in the nervous system.

  11. Employability Deconstructed: Perceptions of Bologna Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Neave, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses employability as a floating signifier--a construct that accommodates different and often contending meanings. A preliminary analysis of scholarly literature identifies two opposed interpretations of employability--an individual responsibility versus a comprehensive context-aware construct. These are subsequently applied to the…

  12. Braccio di Ferro: a new haptic workstation for neuromotor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Maura; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Morasso, Pietro G; Arrichiello, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    This technical note describes a new robotic workstation for neurological rehabilitation, shortly named Braccio di Ferro. It has been designed by having in mind the range of forces and the frequency bandwidth that characterize the interaction between a patient and a physical therapist, as well as a number of requirements that we think are essential for allowing a natural haptic interaction: back-driveability, very low friction and inertia, mechanical robustness, the possibility to operate in different planes, and an open software environment, which allows the operator to add new functionalities and design personalized rehabilitation protocols. Braccio di Ferro is an open system and, in the spirit of open source design, is intended to foster the dissemination of robot therapy. Moreover, its combination of features is not present in commercially available systems.

  13. Thymus transplantation in complete DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Markert, M Louise; Devlin, Blythe H; Chinn, Ivan K; McCarthy, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Complete DiGeorge anomaly is characterized by athymia, congenital heart disease, and hypoparathyroidism. This congenital disease is fatal by age 2 years unless immune reconstitution is successful. There are multiple underlying syndromes associated with complete DiGeorge anomaly including 22q11 hemizygosity in approximately 50%, CHARGE association in approximately 25%, and diabetic embryopathy in approximately 15%. Approximately one-third of patients present with rash and lymphadenopathy associated with oligoclonal "host" T cells. This condition resembles Omenn syndrome. Immunosuppression is necessary to control the oligoclonal T cells. The results of thymus transplantation are reported for a series of 50 patients, of whom 36 survive. The survivors develop naïve T cells and a diverse T cell repertoire.

  14. Dental aspects in patients with DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toka, Okan; Karl, Matthias; Dittrich, Sven; Holst, Stefan; Holst, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, which is caused by a microdeletion of 1.5 to 3.0 megabases on the long arm of chromosome 22, has an incidence of approximately 1:4,000 to 1:5,000 live births. The phenotypic spectrum of this disorder includes congenital heart defects, immunodeficiency due to thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, transient or permanent hypocalcemia due to parathyroid hypoplasia or aplasia, developmental retardation, and psychiatric disorders. Dental aspects in these patients include skeletal malformations, velopharyngeal insufficiency with or without cleft palate, small mouth, and hypotonus orofacial musculature, as well as impaired salivary flow. Enamel aberrations related to hypocalcemia may result in a higher frequency of dental caries. Based on a series of five patients, the medical and dental aspects that have to be considered in the care of patients with DiGeorge syndrome are presented.

  15. Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Barashkov, Nikolay; Heath, Jerry; Sisk, Wade N.

    2006-06-01

    Polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dye photodegradation is investigated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity as a function of 532 nm laser pulses. Anaerobically irradiated polymer-dye films exhibited an accelerated decrease in fluorescence intensity, which was partially recovered upon exposure to oxygen. Decelerated photodegradation rates were observed for perylene di-imide ethanol solutions upon the addition of a singlet oxygen quenching antioxidant. These observations suggest reversible photoreduction and type II photo-oxidation as important photodegradation mechanisms. Type II photo-oxidation for perylene red 532 nm irradiation is supported by a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.09±0.03, determined via detection of time-resolved O2 (a1Δg —> X3∑g-) infrared phosphorescence.

  16. Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dyes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Barashkov, Nikolay; Heath, Jerry; Sisk, Wade N

    2006-06-01

    Polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dye photodegradation is investigated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity as a function of 532 nm laser pulses. Anaerobically irradiated polymer-dye films exhibited an accelerated decrease in fluorescence intensity, which was partially recovered upon exposure to oxygen. Decelerated photodegradation rates were observed for perylene di-imide ethanol solutions upon the addition of a singlet oxygen quenching antioxidant. These observations suggest reversible photoreduction and type II photo-oxidation as important photodegradation mechanisms. Type II photo-oxidation for perylene red 532 nm irradiation is supported by a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.09+/-0.03, determined via detection of time-resolved O2 (a1delta(g) --> X3sigma(g)-) infrared phosphorescence.

  17. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet. Raw data file from our published studies on DIBP specifically requested (6/14/2016) by NCEA scientists for analysis and inclusion in their assessment of this chemical.

  18. [The Istituto di Storia della Medicina archive and video collection].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro; De Angelis, Elio

    2006-01-01

    The Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University was to a certain extent a one-man achievement. Founded by Adalberto Pazzini in 1937, its collections comprehended books, objects, as well as photographs, movies, and other didactic video. The Istituto was also a center for publications, conferences and meetings. The archival sources that document its activity have been re-evaluated and restored in recent years, together with the collections housed in the Library and in the Museum.

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy: a preventable presentation of DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A; Smith, C J

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiac failure require careful evaluation to determine the precise nature of the cause of their illness. Genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy are well known but inherited conditions may lead to unexpected consequences through intermediate mechanisms not readily recognised as a feature of the inherited disorder. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy resulting from prolonged hypocalcaemia due to previously undiagnosed hypoparathyroidism resulting from DiGeorge Syndrome and describe the features of this case and the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.

  20. Complexation of di-amides of dipicolinic acid with neodymium

    SciTech Connect

    Lapka, J.L.; Paulenova, A.

    2013-07-01

    Di-amides have undergone significant studies as possible ligands for use in the partitioning of trivalent minor actinides and lanthanides. The binding affinities of three isomeric ligands with neodymium in acetonitrile solution have been investigated. The stability constants of the metal-ligand complexes formed between different isomers of N,N'-diethyl-N,N'- ditolyl-di-picolinamide (EtTDPA) and trivalent neodymium in acetonitrile have been determined by spectrophotometric and calorimetric methods. Each isomer of EtTDPA has been found to be capable of forming three complexes with trivalent neodymium, Nd(EtTDPA), Nd(EtTDPA){sub 2}, and Nd(EtTDPA){sub 3}. Values from spectrophotometric and calorimetric titrations are within reasonable agreement with each other. The order of stability constants for each metal:ligand complex decreases in the order Et(m)TDPA > Et(p)TDPA > Et(o)TDPA. The obtained values are comparable to other di-amidic ligands obtained under similar system conditions and mirror previously obtained solvent extraction data for EtTDPA at low ionic strengths. (authors.

  1. 4-Bromo-N-(di-n-propyl-carbamothioyl)-benzamide.

    PubMed

    Binzet, Gün; Flörke, Ulrich; Külcü, Nevzat; Arslan, Hakan

    2009-02-04

    The synthesis of the title compound, C(14)H(19)BrN(2)OS, involves the reaction of 4-bromo-benzoyl chloride with potassium thio-cyanate in acetone followed by condensation of the resulting 4-bromo-benzoyl isothio-cyanate with di-n-propyl-amine. Typical thio-urea carbonyl and thio-carbonyl double bonds, as well as shortened C-N bonds, are observed in the title compound. The short C-N bond lengths in the centre of the mol-ecule reveal the effects of resonance in this part of the mol-ecule. The asymmetric unit of the title compound contains two crystallographically independent mol-ecules, A and B. There is very little difference between the bond lengths and angles of these mol-ecules. In mol-ecule B, one di-n-propyl group is twisted in a -anti-periplanar conformation with C-C-C-H = -179.1 (3)° and the other adopts a -synclinal conformation with C-C-C-H = -56.7 (4)°; in mol-ecule A the two di-n-propyl groups are twisted in + and -anti-periplanar conformations, with C-C-C-H = -179.9 (3) and 178.2 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked into dimeric pairs via pairs of N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds.

  2. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  3. DiGeorge syndrome who developed lymphoproliferative mediastinal mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Ji Ae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Dong Soo

    2015-03-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficient disease associated with abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches. As a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 occurs, various clinical phenotypes are shown with a broad spectrum. Conotruncal cardiac anomalies, hypoplastic thymus, and hypocalcemia are the classic triad of DiGeorge syndrome. As this syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, there are missing thymic shadow on their plain chest x-ray. Immunodeficient patients are traditionally known to be at an increased risk for malignancy, especially lymphoma. We experienced a 7-year-old DiGeorge syndrome patient with mediastinal mass shadow on her plain chest x-ray. She visited Severance Children's Hospital hospital with recurrent pneumonia, and throughout her repeated chest x-ray, there was a mass like shadow on anterior mediastinal area. We did full evaluation including chest computed tomography, chest ultrasonography, and chest magnetic resonance imaging. To rule out malignancy, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done. Final diagnosis of the mass which was thought to be malignancy, was lymphoproliferative lesion.

  4. DiGeorge syndrome with vertebral and rib dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Puno-Cocuzza, C.; David, K.; Kogekar, N.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome results from defect in the development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and is characterized by conotruncal heart defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of thymus and parathyroid glands resulting in immune deficiency and hypocalcemia. Other associated abnormalities include renal, thyroid and diaphragmatic defects, oral clefting, etc. Etiologically, it is heterogeneous, with a microdeletion of 22q11 present in over 80% of cases. Our patient was born following a pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent gestational diabetes. There was truncus arteriosus type 2, absense of thymic shadow on CXR with severe deficiency of T cell function, and persistent hypocalcemia with low parathormone. Right kidney was absent. Dysplastic ribs including fused and bifid ribs were noted. Hypoplastic vertebrae and hemivertebrae were present through thoracic and lumbar regions. Chromosome analysis was normal, and metaphase FISH analysis with probe N25 representing locus D22S75 did not show any deletion of 22q11.2. The skeletal findings similar to these have not been previously reported in association with DiGeorge syndrome to our knowledge. Vertebral and rib abnormalities are known to occur with pregestational maternal diabetes. Maternal diabetes has also been suggested to be a possible etiology in a very small proportion of DiGeorge syndrome cases. It is possible that these findings occured together on account of gestational maternal diabetes in our case.

  5. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  6. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721..., reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721..., reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721..., reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine (PMN...

  10. [L'ortoressia nervosa in un campione di popolazione universitaria italiana].

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Massimetti, Gabriele; Pini, Stefano; Rivetti, Luigi; Gorrasi, Federica; Tognetti, Rosalba; Ricca, Valdo; Carmassi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Valutare la frequenza e le caratteristiche dei comportamenti ortoressici in una vasta popolazione universitaria. Metodi. Un totale di 2826 individui hanno volontariamente completato in forma anonima l'ORTO-15 presente online, questionario autosomministrabile disegnato e validato con lo scopo di valutare la sintomatologia ortoressica. Come già fatto in studi precedenti, un punteggio totale all'ORTO-15 inferiore a 35 è stato utilizzato come soglia ottimale per evidenziare una tendenza per l'ortoressia nervosa. Inoltre, è stata anche usata una scheda specifica per raccogliere le variabili socio-demografiche. Risultati. Sono stati valutati, nel complesso, 2130 studenti e 696 dipendenti universitari appartenenti all'Università di Pisa. I sintomi ortoressici si sono presentati con una frequenza del 32,7%. Le femmine presentavano una percentuale significativamente maggiore di punteggi sopra-soglia all'ORTO-15, un BMI minore, una maggiore presenza di condizione "sottopeso" e di stile di alimentazione vegano/vegetariano rispetto ai maschi. Discussione. L'ortoressia nervosa, definita come una "fissazione per il mangiare sano", non è inclusa formalmente nel DSM-5. L'emergere di questa condizione come un nuovo possibile prodromo di una sindrome psicologica è stato recentemente enfatizzato dal numero sempre crescente di articoli scientifici. Dal nostro campione di popolazione universitaria emerge che l'essere vegetariani o vegani, la condizione sottopeso, l'appartenere al sesso femminile, l'essere studenti e interessati al presente studio sia significativamente predittivo di un'inclinazione verso l'ortoressia. Conclusioni. I nostri dati contribuiscono a definire la nuova concettualizzazione dell'ortoressia nervosa. Saranno necessari sicuramente altri studi per esplorare i confine diagnostici di questa sindrome, il suo decorso, "l'outcome" e le possibili implicazioni cliniche.

  11. Application of Synthetic Peptide Arrays To Uncover Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Juliane; Bense, Sarina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwede, Frank; Morr, Michael; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Jänsch, Lothar; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Frank, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High levels of the universal bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) promote the establishment of surface-attached growth in many bacteria. Not only can c-di-GMP bind to nucleic acids and directly control gene expression, but it also binds to a diverse array of proteins of specialized functions and orchestrates their activity. Since its development in the early 1990s, the synthetic peptide array technique has become a powerful tool for high-throughput approaches and was successfully applied to investigate the binding specificity of protein-ligand interactions. In this study, we used peptide arrays to uncover the c-di-GMP binding site of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein (PA3740) that was isolated in a chemical proteomics approach. PA3740 was shown to bind c-di-GMP with a high affinity, and peptide arrays uncovered LKKALKKQTNLR to be a putative c-di-GMP binding motif. Most interestingly, different from the previously identified c-di-GMP binding motif of the PilZ domain (RXXXR) or the I site of diguanylate cyclases (RXXD), two leucine residues and a glutamine residue and not the charged amino acids provided the key residues of the binding sequence. Those three amino acids are highly conserved across PA3740 homologs, and their singular exchange to alanine reduced c-di-GMP binding within the full-length protein. IMPORTANCE In many bacterial pathogens the universal bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP governs the switch from the planktonic, motile mode of growth to the sessile, biofilm mode of growth. Bacteria adapt their intracellular c-di-GMP levels to a variety of environmental challenges. Several classes of c-di-GMP binding proteins have been structurally characterized, and diverse c-di-GMP binding domains have been identified. Nevertheless, for several c-di-GMP receptors, the binding motif remains to be determined. Here we show that the use of a synthetic peptide array allowed the identification of a c-di-GMP binding motif of a putative c-di

  12. Three clinical cases of the DiGeorge syndrome manifested with the biliary system disease.

    PubMed

    Tabutsadze, T; Pachkoria, Kh; Atuashvili, G

    2007-11-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a rare congenital disease that affects the baby's immune system. Its symptoms vary greatly between individuals but commonly include a history of recurrent infection, heart defects, and characteristic facial features. Few cases of DiGeorge syndrome have been reported in adults. The article describes rare (three cases of DiGeorge syndrome) in adults (18, 32 and 34 years old patients) in Georgia (Caucasus). In clinical practice DiGeorge syndrome may proceed under the course of gastroenterologic, endocrine, nervous and surgical symptoms. 3 cases of DiGeorge syndrome are reported in the article. The authors describe DiGeroge syndrome as a multidisciplinary disorder; it is masqueraded by acute surgical diseases; with sharp immunodeficiency and endocrine, cardiologic and neurologic semiotics.

  13. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5): interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, E.G.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C/sub 3/-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C/sub 3/-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending in the degree of polarization. The results show that a mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biologicl membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C/sub 3/-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  14. DiO-C3-(5) and DiS-C3-(5): Interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Guillet, E G; Kimmich, G A

    1981-03-15

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C3-(5) and diS-C3-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C3-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C3-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C3-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending on the degree of polarization. The results show that mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biological membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C3-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C3-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  15. The Dusty View of DI from ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Locurto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Rauer, H.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.

    Around the time of the impact of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission at comet 9P/Tempel 1, in total 6 telescopes with altogether 7 different instruments, located at the La Silla (LSO) and Paranal (VLT) Observatories of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, were used to characterize the dust properties before and after the event. The ejecta cloud expanded at an average speed of about 200 ms-1during the first hours after the event. It reached stagnation distance of 25000 km about 3 days after impact. The pre-impact dust jet and fan activity (`porcupine' pattern) remained undisturbed after impact. In our measurements the jet activity can be traced to a few 100 km nucleus distance. In total 9 comastructures are identified which may originate from at least 4 regions of enhanced dust emission on the nucleus - one of this region may in fact be multiple. No obvious signatures of a new active region created by DI are found. The overall dust production during the impact compares to about 5-10 h of normal activity. The global expansion geometry of the DI cloud is compatible with a majority of dust grains in the micron size range. Indications exist for asymmetric brightness and colour distributions of the dust in the ejecta cloud. The dust temperature rose from about 280-290 K before to 330 K one day after the event and fell to pre-impact level the day thereafter. The dust reflected sunlight was found to be linearly polarized at about 7.5% in the visible and near-IR, at constant level within about 4000 km from the nucleus. No circular polarization of the dust is detected.

  16. Epigenetic Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that, in addition to genetic changes, environmental pollutants can affect human health through altering epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA expression. There is evidence in animals and humans of an association of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure and developmental and reproductive toxicity. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic changes occur upon in utero exposures to several phthalates including DEHP. This poster will be presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society (EMGS).

  17. Line plotting program using DI-3000/Grafmaker routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppen, William A., Jr.; Smith-Taylor, Rudeen

    1986-01-01

    A line plotting program has been developed using the DI-3000 graphics libraries and incorporates Grafmaker subroutines. The program allows multiple lines on a frame and multiple frames per run. Options such as automatic scaling, linear or single-cycle log graphs, and plot text such as titles, legends and axis labels are incorporated in the program. Greek and other fonts can be used in the plot text as well as upper and lower case text. Plot inputs are specified through a control file. The program also allows display of multiple independent data sets on a single graph.

  18. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  19. Dynamic optical nonlinearities in di-furfuryl ether solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, C. R.; Barbosa Neto, N. M.; Batista, P. S.; de Souza, M. F.; Zilio, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    Dynamic nonlinear refraction and absorption of di-furfuryl ether dissolved in dichloro-methane are investigated with a frequency-doubled Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear absorption presents a strong reverse saturation that seems promising for use in optical limiting devices. Three contributions are observed for the nonlinear refraction: one fast process related to the singlet population, and two slow accumulative contributions arising from the triplet population and thermal lensing. The time evolution of the optical nonlinearities, modeled by means of a five-energy-level diagram, allows the determination of excited state cross-sections as well as the intersystem crossing lifetime.

  20. Synthesis and study of conjugated polymers containing Di- or Triphenylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sukwattanasinitt, M.

    1996-06-21

    This thesis consists of two separate parts. The first part addresses the synthesis and study of conjugated polymers containing di- or triphenylamine. Two types of polymers: linear polymers and dendrimers, were synthesized. The polymers were characterized by NMR, IR, UV, GPC, TGA and DSC. Electronic and optical properties of the polymers were studied through the conductivity measurements and excitation- emission spectra. the second part of this thesis deals with a reaction of electron-rich acetylenes with TCNE. The discovery of the reaction from charge transfer complex studies and the investigation of this reaction on various electron-rich acetylenes are presented.

  1. Expanding the scope of sulfur-centered Arbuzov rearrangement in diethyl/di-n-propyl sulfite for the synthesis of mixed-ligand di-n-butyltin alkanesulfonates.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ravi; Singh, Atul Pratap; Upreti, Shailesh

    2006-11-13

    A one-pot reaction between di-n-butyltin oxide and diethyl/di-n-propyl sulfite in the presence of an equimolar amount of alkyl iodide proceeds via sulfur-centered Arbuzov rearrangement to afford the corresponding di-n-butyltin (alkoxy)alkanesulfonates n-Bu2Sn(OR')OS(O)2R [R = R' = Et (1), n-Pr (2); R = Me, R' = Et (3), n-Pr (4)]. The compounds 1 and 3 react with methylphosphonic acid under mild conditions to give [n-Bu2Sn(OS(O)2R)OP(O)(OH)Me]n [R = Et (5), Me (6), respectively].

  2. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K. . E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu

    2006-12-20

    Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles.

  3. Photodissociation of HI and DI: polarization of atomic photofragments.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex

    2005-02-22

    The complete angular momentum distributions and vector correlation coefficients (orientation and alignment) of ground state I((2)P(32)) and excited state I((2)P(12)) atoms resulting from the photodissociation of HI have been computed as a function of photolysis energy. The orientation and alignment parameters a(Q) ((K))(p) that describe the coherent and incoherent contributions to the angular momentum distributions from the multiple electronic states accessed by parallel and perpendicular transitions are determined using a time-dependent wave packet treatment of the dissociation dynamics. The dynamics are based on potential energy curves and transition dipole moments that have been reported previously [R. J. LeRoy, G. T. Kraemer, and S. Manzhos, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 9353 (2002)] and used to successfully model the scalar (total cross section and branching fraction) and lowest order vector (anisotropy parameter beta) properties of the photodissociation. Predictions of the a(Q) ((K))(p), parameters for the isotopically substituted species DI are reported and contrasted to the analogous HI results. The resulting polarization for the corresponding H/D partners are also determined and demonstrate that both H and D atoms produced can be highly spin polarized. Comparison of these predictions for HI and DI with experimental measurement will provide the most stringent test of the current model for the electronic structure and the interpretation of the dissociation based on noncoupled excited state dynamics.

  4. Critical cleaning agents for Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Mya; Archuleta, Kim M.

    2013-08-01

    It is required that Di-2-ethylhexyl Sebacate oil, also commonly known as Dioctyl Sebacate oil, be thoroughly removed from certain metals, in this case stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces. Dioctyl Sebacate oil is a synthetic oil with a low compressibility. As such, it is ideally used for high pressure calibrations. The current method to remove the Dioctyl Sebacate from stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces is a labor-intensive, multi-step process, including a detergent clean, a deionized (DI) water rinse, and several solvent rinses, to achieve a nonvolatile residue of 0.04 mg per 50 mL rinse effluent. This study was undertaken to determine a superior detergent/solvent cleaning method for the oil to reduce cleaning time and/or the amount of detergent/solvent used. It was determined that while some detergent clean the oil off the metal better than the current procedure, using only solvents obtained the best result. In addition, it can be inferred, based on elevated temperature test results, that raising the temperature of the oil-contaminated stainless steel parts to approximately 50ÀC will provide for improved cleaning efficacy.

  5. Di-boson signatures as standard candles for partial compositeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying; Ferretti, Gabriele; Flacke, Thomas; Parolini, Alberto; Serodio, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Composite Higgs Models are often constructed including fermionic top partners with a mass around the TeV scale, with the top partners playing the role of stabilizing the Higgs potential and enforcing partial compositeness for the top quark. A class of models of this kind can be formulated in terms of fermionic strongly coupled gauge theories. A common feature they all share is the presence of specific additional scalar resonances, namely two neutral singlets and a colored octet, described by a simple effective Lagrangian. We study the phenomenology of these scalars, both in a model independent and model dependent way, including the bounds from all the available searches in the relevant channels with di-boson and di-top final states. We develop a generic framework which can be used to constrain any model containing pseudo-scalar singlets or octets. Using it, we find that such signatures provide strong bounds on the compositeness scale complementary to the traditional EWPT and Higgs couplings deviations. In many cases a relatively light scalar can be on the verge of discovery as a first sign of new physics.

  6. Trigger phosphodiesterases as a novel class of c-di-GMP effector proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP controls bacterial biofilm formation, motility, cell cycle progression, development and virulence. It is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (with GGDEF domains), degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs, with EAL of HD-GYP domains) and sensed by a wide variety of c-di-GMP-binding effectors that control diverse targets. c-di-GMP-binding effectors can be riboswitches as well as proteins with highly diverse structures and functions. The latter include ‘degenerate’ GGDEF/EAL domain proteins that are enzymatically inactive but still able to bind c-di-GMP. Surprisingly, two enzymatically active ‘trigger PDEs’, the Escherichia coli proteins PdeR and PdeL, have recently been added to this list of c-di-GMP-sensing effectors. Mechanistically, trigger PDEs are multifunctional. They directly and specifically interact with a macromolecular target (e.g. with a transcription factor or directly with a promoter region), whose activity they control by their binding and degradation of c-di-GMP—their PDE activity thus represents the c-di-GMP sensor or effector function. In this process, c-di-GMP serves as a regulatory ligand, but in contrast to classical allosteric control, this ligand is also degraded. The resulting kinetics and circuitry of control are ideally suited for trigger PDEs to serve as key components in regulatory switches. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672149

  7. c-di-GMP induction of Dictyostelium cell death requires the polyketide DIF-1.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; Giusti, Corinne; Golstein, Pierre

    2015-02-15

    Cell death in the model organism Dictyostelium, as studied in monolayers in vitro, can be induced by the polyketide DIF-1 or by the cyclical dinucleotide c-di-GMP. c-di-GMP, a universal bacterial second messenger, can trigger innate immunity in bacterially infected animal cells and is involved in developmental cell death in Dictyostelium. We show here that c-di-GMP was not sufficient to induce cell death in Dictyostelium cell monolayers. Unexpectedly, it also required the DIF-1 polyketide. The latter could be exogenous, as revealed by a telling synergy between c-di-GMP and DIF-1. The required DIF-1 polyketide could also be endogenous, as shown by the inability of c-di-GMP to induce cell death in Dictyostelium HMX44A cells and DH1 cells upon pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DIF-1 biosynthesis. In these cases, c-di-GMP-induced cell death was rescued by complementation with exogenous DIF-1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that c-di-GMP could trigger cell death in Dictyostelium only in the presence of the DIF-1 polyketide or its metabolites. This identified another element of control to this cell death and perhaps also to c-di-GMP effects in other situations and organisms.

  8. 40 CFR 721.9675 - Titanate [Ti6O13 (2-)], di-po-tas-sium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanate , di-po-tas-sium. 721.9675 Section 721.9675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... Substances § 721.9675 Titanate , di-po-tas-sium. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  9. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  10. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  11. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  12. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  13. Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Han, Yun-Joung

    2011-06-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and manifests with variable clinical findings. Aspiration pneumonia can be a perioperative complication of great concern in this syndrome. In this report, we present a case of a 16-month old child with DiGeorge syndrome undergoing cranioplasty. He developed perioperative aspiration pneumonia but was managed successfully.

  14. The cutaneous manifestations of atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome: a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Selim, Maria Angelica; Markert, Mary L; Burchette, James L; Herman, Christopher M; Turner, John W

    2008-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a congenital anomaly with a constellation of findings that includes thymic hypoplasia. Only a small subset of patients with DiGeorge syndrome has complete athymia, classified as complete DiGeorge anomaly; one third of these patients show an eczematous dermatitis, oligoclonal T-cells and lymphadenopathy, known as atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. Six biopsies from six patients with the distinctive clinical phenotype of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly were studied. Every biopsy showed exocytosis (100%), parakeratosis, often confluent and spongiosis (100%). Neutrophilic abscesses (50%), dyskeratosis (67%) and satellite cell necrosis (50%) were seen. Perieccrine and perivascular inflammation were seen in half of the cases. Eosinophils were identified (83%); most commonly in both the epidermis and dermis. All of lymphocytes were CD3 positive. Most (83%) of cases contained T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) positive cells. Special testing of the selected patients using spectratyping identified oligoclonal T-cell populations. The presence of dyskeratotic keratinocytes, satellite cell necrosis and parakeratotic scale with neutrophils characterizes the cutaneous rash seen in this subset of complete DiGeorge syndrome patients. Such skin lesions from patients with DiGeorge anomaly should alert the pathologist to the potential diagnosis of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. The pathophysiologic role of the oligoclonal T-cells in this entity requires additional study.

  15. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Elizabeth A.; Sultan, Syed Z.; Motaleb, Md. A.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases) and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any) c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:24822172

  16. Brucella melitensis cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase BpdA controls expression of flagellar genes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Erik; Chaudhuri, Pallab; Gourley, Chris; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Brucella melitensis encounters a variety of conditions and stimuli during its life cycle--including environmental growth, intracellular infection, and extracellular dissemination--which necessitates flexibility of bacterial signaling to promote virulence. Cyclic-di-GMP is a bacterial secondary signaling molecule that plays an important role in adaptation to changing environments and altering virulence in a number of bacteria. To investigate the role of cyclic-di-GMP in B. melitensis, all 11 predicted cyclic-di-GMP-metabolizing proteins were separately deleted and the effect on virulence was determined. Three of these cyclic-di-GMP-metabolizing proteins were found to alter virulence. Deletion of the bpdA and bpdB genes resulted in attenuation of virulence of the bacterium, while deletion of the cgsB gene produced a hypervirulent strain. In a Vibrio reporter system to monitor apparent alteration in levels of cyclic-di-GMP, both BpdA and BpdB displayed a phenotype consistent with cyclic-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, while CgsB displayed a cyclic-di-GMP synthase phenotype. Further analysis found that deletion of bpdA resulted in a dramatic decrease in flagellar promoter activities, and a flagellar mutant showed similar phenotypes to the bpdA and bpdB mutant strains in mouse models of infection. These data indicate a potential role for regulation of flagella in Brucella melitensis via cyclic-di-GMP.

  17. Efficient hydrogenation of biomass-derived cyclic di-esters to 1,2-diols.

    PubMed

    Balaraman, Ekambaram; Fogler, Eran; Milstein, David

    2012-01-28

    The unprecedented homogeneous hydrogenation of cyclic di-esters, in particular biomass-derived glycolide and lactide, to the corresponding 1,2-diols is catalyzed by Ru(II) PNN (1) and Ru(II) CNN (2) pincer complexes under mild hydrogen pressure and (in the case of 1) neutral conditions. No racemization was observed when a chiral di-ester was used.

  18. Growth and antioxidant defense responses of wheat seedlings to di-n-butyl phthalate and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minling; Dong, Youming; Zhang, Ze; Song, Wenhua; Qi, Yun

    2017-04-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are vital environmental hormone-like chemicals that are noxious to plants, animals, and human beings. In this study, the influences of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the seed germination, root morphology, and various physiological changes of wheat seedlings were investigated by analyzing superoxide anion (O2(-)) accumulation, antioxidant enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation. DBP and DEHP were found to obviously inhibit germination only at high concentrations, but significantly affected root morphology even at lower concentrations. Their toxic effects were the most severe on root elongation, followed by shoot elongation, and were the least severe on germination rate, indicating that root elongation was the best index for evaluating DBP and DEHP eco-toxicity. DBP and DEHP also enhanced O2(-) and malondialdehyde levels and membrane permeability, as well as produced changes in the antioxidant status and PAE content in the stem and leaf (combined tissues, hereafter shoot) and root tissues. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase increased at low and medium DBP and DEHP concentrations, but declined at high PAE concentrations. These results indicated that PAEs could exert oxidative damage in the early development stage of wheat, particularly at higher concentrations. DBP and DEHP accumulation was higher in the roots than in the shoot tissues, and their levels in these tissues increased with increasing PAE concentrations, supporting their more-serious toxic effects on roots than those on shoots. Further, the physicochemical properties of DBP rendered it more harmful than DEHP.

  19. Chronic toxicity of di-n-butyl and di-n-octyl phthalate to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Whitmore, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicities of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were assessed by measuring the effect of exposure to these compounds on the fecundity of Daphnia magna and on the hatching and survival of the early life stages of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. For D. magna, exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP or 1.0 mg/L DOP caused a significant reduction in reproduction. Doses of 0.56 mg/L DBP or 0.32 mg/L DOP had no significant effect in decreasing reproduction. Survival of fathead minnow embryos was decreased by exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP; none of the embryos exposed to this dose hatched successfully. Hatching and larval survival were affected by exposure to 1.0 mg/L DBP, but not to 0.56 mg/L. Exposure to DOP did not affect survival of either early embryos or larvae of the fathead minnow at doses up to 10 mg/L (the highest dose tested). Hatching of the embryos was significantly decreased at 10 mg/L, but not at 3.2 mg/L DOP. 26 references, 4 figures, 11 tables.

  20. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo.

  1. Interactions of the c-di-GMP riboswitch with its second messenger ligand

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathryn D.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The c-di-GMP riboswitch is a macromolecular target in the c-di-GMP second messenger signaling pathway. It regulates many genes related to c-di-GMP metabolism as well as genes involved in bacterial motility, virulence and biofilm formation. The riboswitch makes asymmetric contacts to the bases and phosphate backbone of this symmetric dinucleotide. The phylogenetics suggested and mutagenesis has confirmed that this is a flexible motif where variants can make alternative interactions with each of the guanine bases of c-di-GMP. A mutant riboswitch has been designed that can bind a related molecule, c-di-AMP, confirming the most important contacts made to the ligand. The binding kinetics reveal that this is a kinetically controlled riboswitch and mutations to the riboswitch lead to increases in the off-rate. This riboswitch is therefore flexible in sequence as well as kinetic properties. PMID:21428955

  2. An Extended Cyclic Di-GMP Network in the Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Or; Nesper, Jutta; Borovok, Ilya; Gorovits, Rena; Kolot, Mikhail; Pasternak, Zohar; Shin, Irina; Glatter, Timo; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Jenal, Urs

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the course of the last 3 decades the role of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) as a master regulator of bacterial physiology was determined. Although the control over c-di-GMP levels via synthesis and breakdown and the allosteric regulation of c-di-GMP over receptor proteins (effectors) and riboswitches have been extensively studied, relatively few effectors have been identified and most are of unknown functions. The obligate predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus has a peculiar dimorphic life cycle, in which a phenotypic transition from a free-living attack phase (AP) to a sessile, intracellular predatory growth phase (GP) is tightly regulated by specific c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases. B. bacteriovorus also bears one of the largest complement of defined effectors, almost none of known functions, suggesting that additional proteins may be involved in c-di-GMP signaling. In order to uncover novel c-di-GMP effectors, a c-di-GMP capture-compound mass-spectroscopy experiment was performed on wild-type AP and host-independent (HI) mutant cultures, the latter serving as a proxy for wild-type GP cells. Eighty-four proteins were identified as candidate c-di-GMP binders. Of these proteins, 65 did not include any recognized c-di-GMP binding site, and 3 carried known unorthodox binding sites. Putative functions could be assigned to 59 proteins. These proteins are included in metabolic pathways, regulatory circuits, cell transport, and motility, thereby creating a potentially large c-di-GMP network. False candidate effectors may include members of protein complexes, as well as proteins binding nucleotides or other cofactors that were, respectively, carried over or unspecifically interacted with the capture compound during the pulldown. Of the 84 candidates, 62 were found to specifically bind the c-di-GMP capture compound in AP or in HI cultures, suggesting c-di-GMP control over the whole-cell cycle of the bacterium. High affinity and

  3. Responses to elevated c-di-GMP levels in mutualistic and pathogenic plant-interacting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels.

  4. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  5. Cyclic Di-GMP modulates the disease progression of Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Adam C; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous intracellular signal molecule known to regulate various cellular processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is inversely governed by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively. The role of c-di-GMP in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora has not been studied previously. Here we demonstrate that three of the five predicted DGC genes in E. amylovora (edc genes, for Erwinia diguanylate cyclase), edcA, edcC, and edcE, are active diguanylate cyclases. We show that c-di-GMP positively regulates the secretion of the main exopolysaccharide in E. amylovora, amylovoran, leading to increased biofilm formation, and negatively regulates flagellar swimming motility. Although amylovoran secretion and biofilm formation are important for the colonization of plant xylem tissues and the development of systemic infections, deletion of the two biofilm-promoting DGCs increased tissue necrosis in an immature-pear infection assay and an apple shoot infection model, suggesting that c-di-GMP negatively regulates virulence. In addition, c-di-GMP inhibited the expression of hrpA, a gene encoding the major structural component of the type III secretion pilus. Our results are the first to describe a role for c-di-GMP in E. amylovora and suggest that downregulation of motility and type III secretion by c-di-GMP during infection plays a key role in the coordination of pathogenesis.

  6. Remote Sensing Global Surface Air Pressure Using Differential Absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    Tropical storms and severe weathers are listed as one of core events that need improved observations and predictions in World Meteorological Organization and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) documents and have major impacts on public safety and national security. This effort tries to observe surface air pressure, especially over open seas, from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at the 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 4 millibars (approximately 1 millibar under all weather conditions). With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts of severe weathers such as hurricanes will be significantly improved. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, NASA Langley DiBAR research team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. The feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. The team has developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with the instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on global extreme weather and climate conditions.

  7. Near-infrared Light Responsive Synthetic c-di-GMP Module for Optogenetic Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enormous potential of cell-based therapeutics is hindered by the lack of effective means to control genetically engineered cells in mammalian tissues. Here, we describe a synthetic module for remote photocontrol of engineered cells that can be adapted for such applications. The module involves photoactivated synthesis of cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), a stable small molecule that is not produced by higher eukaryotes and therefore is suitable for orthogonal regulation. The key component of the photocontrol module is an engineered bacteriophytochrome diguanylate cyclase, which synthesizes c-di-GMP from GTP in a light-dependent manner. Bacteriophytochromes are particularly attractive photoreceptors because they respond to light in the near-infrared window of the spectrum, where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and also because their chromophore, biliverdin IXα, is naturally available in mammalian cells. The second component of the photocontrol module, a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, maintains near-zero background levels of c-di-GMP in the absence of light, which enhances the photodynamic range of c-di-GMP concentrations. In the E. coli model used in this study, the intracellular c-di-GMP levels could be upregulated by light by >50-fold. Various c-di-GMP-responsive proteins and riboswitches identified in bacteria can be linked downstream of the c-di-GMP-mediated photocontrol module for orthogonal regulation of biological activities in mammals as well as in other organisms lacking c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we linked the photocontrol module to a gene expression output via a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor and achieved a 40-fold photoactivation of gene expression. PMID:24926804

  8. Cyclic di-GMP: the First 25 Years of a Universal Bacterial Second Messenger

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty-five years have passed since the discovery of cyclic dimeric (3′→5′) GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP). From the relative obscurity of an allosteric activator of a bacterial cellulose synthase, c-di-GMP has emerged as one of the most common and important bacterial second messengers. Cyclic di-GMP has been shown to regulate biofilm formation, motility, virulence, the cell cycle, differentiation, and other processes. Most c-di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways control the ability of bacteria to interact with abiotic surfaces or with other bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Cyclic di-GMP plays key roles in lifestyle changes of many bacteria, including transition from the motile to the sessile state, which aids in the establishment of multicellular biofilm communities, and from the virulent state in acute infections to the less virulent but more resilient state characteristic of chronic infectious diseases. From a practical standpoint, modulating c-di-GMP signaling pathways in bacteria could represent a new way of controlling formation and dispersal of biofilms in medical and industrial settings. Cyclic di-GMP participates in interkingdom signaling. It is recognized by mammalian immune systems as a uniquely bacterial molecule and therefore is considered a promising vaccine adjuvant. The purpose of this review is not to overview the whole body of data in the burgeoning field of c-di-GMP-dependent signaling. Instead, we provide a historic perspective on the development of the field, emphasize common trends, and illustrate them with the best available examples. We also identify unresolved questions and highlight new directions in c-di-GMP research that will give us a deeper understanding of this truly universal bacterial second messenger. PMID:23471616

  9. Forward di-jet production in dilute-dense collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreska, Elena

    2016-12-01

    We propose a factorization formula for the cross section for forward di-jet production in dilute-dense collisions. The new formula is applicable for an arbitrary value of the momentum imbalance of the two jets, kt. It unifies the previously derived transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization for small kt (of the order of the saturation scale), and the High Energy Factorization (HEF) for large kt (of the order of the momentum of the jets). We extend the previous TMD formula, first to finite Nc, and then to all ranges of kt by including off-shell matrix elements. We present previously unpublished analytical expressions for the TMD gluon distributions in the Golec-Biernat-Wusthoff model, and their perturbative behaviour in the McLerran-Venugopalan model. In addition, we show directly the equivalence of the HEF and the color glass condensate formulae in the dilute target approximation.

  10. Study of viscosity of mono-, di-, and trialkylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Sindhe, R. G.; Patel, A. T.; Dave, J. P.; Patel, S. G.; Patel, B. M.

    1992-07-01

    Viscosities of several mono-, di-, and trialkylamines have been measured in the temperature range 298 to 333 K. It is observed that viscosities are highly dependent on shape, size, and association through H-bond or through dipole. Following the transition state theory, energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy of activation of viscous flow have been calculated. The values of expansion energy for these liquids have also been calculated using free volume theory, and subsequently amines have been classified as volume-restrained or energy-restrained liquids. The group contribution method of Van Velzen, Cardozo, and Langenkamp for estimating viscosity has been examined with the present and literature data, and the new group contribution increments ΔN i and ΔB i for amines have been evaluated.

  11. Aqueous infrared carboxylate absorbances: Aliphatic di-acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; McVey, I.F.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of 18 aliphatic di-carboxylic acids are reported as a function of pH. The spectra show isosbestic points and intensity changes which indicate that Beer's law is obeyed, and peak frequencies lie within previously reported ranges for aqueous carboxylates and pure carboxylic acids. Intensity sharing from the symmetric carboxylate stretch is evident in many cases, so that bands which are nominally due to alkyl groups show increased intensity at higher pH. The asymmetric stretch of the HA- species is linearly related to the microscopic acidity constant of the H2A species, with ??pK 2 intervening atoms). The results suggest that aqueous ATR-FTIR may be able to estimate 'intrinsic' pKa values of carboxylic acids, in addition to providing quantitative estimates of ionization. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Test and Analysis of Spliced DI-BSCCO HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Osabe, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    For some applications, short unit lengths of HTS wires should be spliced if longer lengths are necessary and short unit lengths of HTS wires should be utilize by applying the splice technology to reduce the total wire cost in the application. The splice technology has been developed for DI-BSCCO Type HT-CA tapes by Sumitomo Electric and spliced tapes were tested in Russian Cable Institute. The test program included: measurements of splice's resistance, critical current anisotropy, thermo cycling tolerance, mechanical properties, overload tests and magnetization measurements. In the paper the results of tests are presented and discussed. The test results demonstrated that splices can be used for cable production if twisting and bending limitations are taken into account.

  13. Metabolic studies with di(aziridin-i-yl) sulphoxide (diethyleneiminosulphoxide)

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A. W.; Jackson, H.; James, R. M. V.

    1963-01-01

    The work described was undertaken after the observation that the diuresis induced by several derivatives of ethyleneimine could be correlated with their content of ethyleneimine. The preparation of 35S-labelled di(aziridin-1-yl) sulphoxide (diethyleneiminosulphoxide) is described together with its metabolism in rat, mouse, rabbit and dog. The drug was completely metabolized in all species and, with the exception of the dog, most of the activity was excreted in the urine within 3 days. The main radioactive metabolite in all species was sulphate. In vitro studies demonstrated that the compound was slowly broken down to sulphite and free ethyleneimine; this hydrolysis was greatly accelerated in the presence of phosphate. PMID:14110758

  14. Research methodology in the "Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia Oncologica (AIRO)".

    PubMed

    Emiliani, E

    2000-01-01

    The research methodology in the "Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia (AIRO)" (The Italian Association of Radiation Oncology) is presented according to two interconnected aspects: the consensus research on similar projects with other Scientific Associations and the clinical research carried out in the ten years of life of the Association. The mechanism of the "Federazione Intersocietaria" (Federation of Associations) with the Radiology, Oncology and Physics Associations can be a stimulant to broaden the horizons and feasibility of cancer research which is one of the main causes of mortality and which is increasing due to the population aging. The results of three national multicentric trials on the clinical research on cancer of the rectum, oropharynx and in the elderly, are reported. The study methodology, based on the clinical evidence and multidisciplinarity, shows that the time is ripe for a development of research and, if coordinated by the Association, it would contribute to the prestige and importance of the Italian Radiotherapy.

  15. A new adjuvant delivery system 'cyclic di-GMP/YSK05 liposome' for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Hiroko; Hyodo, Mamoru; Nakamura, Takashi; Sato, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-06-28

    Cyclic dinucleotides are of importance in the field of microbiology and immunology. They function as second messengers and are thought to participate in the signal transduction of cytosolic DNA immune responses. One such dinucleotide, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), stimulates the immune system. It is thought that c-di-GMP is recognized by ATP dependent RNA helicase (DDX41) in the cytosol, forms a complex with the Stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING), triggers a signal via the tank binding kinase 1-interferon regulatory factor 3 (TBK1-IRF3) pathway and induces the production of type I interferons. Therefore c-di-GMP can be thought of as a new class of adjuvant. However, because c-di-GMP contains two phosphate groups, this prevents its use as an adjuvant because it cannot pass through the cell membrane, even though the target molecule of c-di-GMP is located in the cytoplasm. Our group has been developing a series of liposomal drug delivery systems and recently investigated YSK05 which is a synthetic, pH sensitive lipid that has a high fusogenicity. We utilized this lipid as a carrier to transport c-di-GMP into the cytosol to then use c-di-GMP as an adjuvant. Based on screening experiments, YSK05/POPE/cholesterol=40/25/35 was found to induce IFN-β in Raw264.7 cells. The induction of IFN-β from c-di-GMP liposomes was inhibited by adding BX795, a TBK1 inhibitor, indicating that the production of IFN-β caused the activation of the STING-TBK1 pathway. C-di-GMP liposomes also showed significantly higher levels of expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC class I. The c-di-GMP/YSK05 liposome facilitated antigen specific cytotoxic T cell activity and the inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse model. These findings indicate that c-di-GMP/YSK05 liposomes could be used, not only to transfer c-di-GMP to the cytosol and induce an innate immune system but also as a platform for investigating the mechanism of immune sensing with cyclic dinucleotides in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Three-dimensional integration (3DI) of semiconductor circuit layers: New devices and fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehari, Babak E.

    1998-12-01

    The device density of Integrated Circuits (ICs) manufactured by current VLSI technology is reaching its theoretical limit. Nevertheless, the demand for integration of more devices per chip is growing. To accommodate this need three main possibilities can be explored: Wafer Scale Integration (WSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), and Three Dimensional Integration (3DI). A brief review of these techniques along with their comparative advantages and disadvantages is presented. It has been concluded that 3DI technology is superior to others. Therefore, an attempt is made to develop a viable fabrication process for this technology. This is done by first reviewing the current technologies that are utilized for fabrication of Integrated Circuits (ICs) and their compatibility with 3DI stringent requirements. Based on this review, a set of fabrication procedure for realization of 3DI technology, are presented in chapter 3. In Chapter 1 the compatibility of the currently used devices, such as BJTs and FETs, with 3DI technology is examined. Moreover, a new active device is developed for 3DI technology to replace BJTs and FETs in circuits. This new device is more compatible to the constrains of 3DI technology. Chapter 2 is devoted to solving the overall problems of 3DI circuits. The problem of heat and power dispassion and signal coupling (Cross-Talk) between the layers are reviewed, and an inter-layer shield is proposed to overcome these problems. The effectiveness of such a thin shield is considered theoretically. In Chapter 3 a fabrication process for 3DI technology is proposed. This is done after a short analysis of previous attempts in developing 3DI technologies. Chapter 4 focuses on analog extension of 3DI technology. Moreover, in this chapter microwave 3DI circuits or 3DI MMIC is investigated. Practical considerations in choice of material for the proposed device is the subject of study in Chapter 5. Low temperature ohmic contact and utilization of metal

  17. Cytotoxic Activity and Apoptosis-Inducing Potential of Di-spiropyrrolidino and Di-spiropyrrolizidino Oxindole Andrographolide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Abhijit; Naskar, Subhendu; Nandy, Abhishek; Munda, Rudra Narayan; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Mondal, Nirup Bikash; Banerjee, Sukdeb; Saha, Krishna Das

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer role of andrographolide is well documented. To find novel potent derivatives with improved cytotoxicity than andrographolide on cancer cells, two series of di-spiropyrrolidino- and di-spiropyrrolizidino oxindole andrographolide derivatives prepared by cyclo-addition of azomethine ylide along with sarcosine or proline (viz. sarcosine and proline series respectively) and substitution of different functional groups (-CH3, -OCH3 and halogens) were examined for their cytotoxic effect on a panel of six human cancer cell lines (colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells, pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 cells, hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, lung carcinoma A549 and melanoma A375 cells). Except halogen substituted derivatives of proline series (viz. CY2, CY14 and CY15 for Br, Cl and I substitution respectively), none of the other derivatives showed improved cytotoxicity than andrographolide in the cancer cell lines examined. Order of cytotoxicity of the potent compounds is CY2>CY14>CY15>andrographolide. Higher toxicity was observed in HCT116, MiaPaCa-2 and HepG2 cells. CY2, induced death of HCT116 (GI50 10.5), MiaPaCa-2 (GI50 11.2) and HepG2 (GI50 16.6) cells were associated with cell rounding, nuclear fragmentation and increased percentage of apoptotic cells, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, ROS generation, and involvement of mitochondrial pathway. Upregulation of Bax, Bad, p53, caspases-3,-9 and cleaved PARP; downregulation of Bcl-2, cytosolic NF-κB p65, PI3K and p-Akt; translocation of P53/P21, NF-κB p65 were seen in CY2 treated HCT116 cells. Thus, three halogenated di-spiropyrrolizidino oxindole derivatives of andrographolide are found to be more cytotoxic than andrographolide in some cancer cells. The most potent derivative, CY2 induced death of the cancer cells involves ROS dependent mitochondrial pathway like andrographolide. PMID:23472133

  18. Functional Characterization of Core Components of the Bacillus subtilis Cyclic-Di-GMP Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaohui; Mukherjee, Sampriti; Matthews, Paige M.; Hammad, Loubna A.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is an intracellular second messenger that regulates adaptation processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we have characterized the core components of a c-di-GMP signaling pathway in the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Specifically, we have directly identified and characterized three active diguanylate cyclases, DgcP, DgcK, and DgcW (formerly YtrP, YhcK, and YkoW, respectively), one active c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, PdeH (formerly YuxH), and a cyclic-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) receptor, DgrA (formerly YpfA). Furthermore, elevation of c-di-GMP levels in B. subtilis led to inhibition of swarming motility, whereas biofilm formation was unaffected. Our work establishes paradigms for Gram-positive c-di-GMP signaling, and we have shown that the concise signaling system identified in B. subtilis serves as a powerful heterologous host for the study of c-di-GMP enzymes from bacteria predicted to possess larger, more-complex signaling systems. PMID:23893111

  19. Second Messenger Signaling in Bacillus subtilis: Accumulation of Cyclic di-AMP Inhibits Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gundlach, Jan; Rath, Hermann; Herzberg, Christina; Mäder, Ulrike; Stülke, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis produces the essential second messenger signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP. In B. subtilis and other bacteria, c-di-AMP has been implicated in diverse functions such as control of metabolism, cell division and cell wall synthesis, and potassium transport. To enhance our understanding of the multiple functions of this second messenger, we have studied the consequences of c-di-AMP accumulation at a global level by a transcriptome analysis. C-di-AMP accumulation affected the expression of about 700 genes, among them the two major operons required for biofilm formation. The expression of both operons was severely reduced both in the laboratory and a non-domesticated strain upon accumulation of c-di-AMP. In excellent agreement, the corresponding strain was unable to form complex colonies. In B. subtilis, the transcription factor SinR controls the expression of biofilm genes by binding to their promoter regions resulting in transcription repression. Inactivation of the sinR gene restored biofilm formation even at high intracellular c-di-AMP concentrations suggesting that the second messenger acts upstream of SinR in the signal transduction pathway. As c-di-AMP accumulation did not affect the intracellular levels of SinR, we conclude that the nucleotide affects the activity of SinR. PMID:27252699

  20. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunjal, Ankush; Walunj, Manisha; Aghera, Hetal; Nariya, Mukesh; Goyal, Mandip R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triphalādi kvātha is well known herbal Ayurvedic formulation used in Prameha (~type 2 diabetes mellitus). In the present study, kvātha was converted into granules and assessed for its hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Triphalādi granules (650 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered in normal albino mice for assessment of hypoglycemic activity. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules was assessed in glucose (5 g/kg, p.o.) solution overloaded mice. The blood sugar level (BSL) was measured with the help of one touch easy glucometer. Results: Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease in blood glucose level after one hour in comparison to initial values while decreasing BSL by 27.92% in comparison to control group in normal albino mice. In hyperglycemic study, Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease the BSL after 2 hr. of administration compared to control group. Conclusion: Triphalādi granules have significant hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with minimal effect on BSL below normal range. The studies suggest the potential role of Triphalādi granules as an alternative adjuvant therapy in diabetic individuals for the control of the blood glucose level. PMID:27621517

  1. DiI staining of fine branches of Bonghan ducts on surface of rat abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Jhang, Seong-Uk; Choi, Jae-Hong; Lee, So-Yeong; Ryu, Pan-Dong; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2009-12-01

    Novel thread-like structures and corpuscles, designated Bonghan ducts (BHDs) and corpuscles (BHCs), are known to form a system of networked channels. Here, we tested the effectiveness of a fluorescent carbocyanine dye, DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate), in staining BHDs and BHCs. DiI solution was infused into a BHC on the surface of a rat abdominal organ at a steady rate and the resulting labeling of neighboring BHCs connected via BHDs was examined, as identified by the red fluorescence of DiI. BHDs diameters tapered away from BHCs and formed tree-like branches with fine arborizations embedded in the membranous tissues at their terminal parts. In the proximal parts, DiI fluorescence appeared as continuous lines within BHDs, but a large portion of BHDs remained unstained. In the distal parts of BHDs, discontinuous elongated DiI microparticles were identified along the sinuses within BHDs. The results showed that inner spaces within the BHDs allowed DiI to flow and that BHDs have tree-like branches and terminal arborizations. In conclusion, DiI can be used in visualizing BHDs fine structures.

  2. Crystal structure of a c-di-AMP riboswitch reveals an internally pseudo-dimeric RNA

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher P; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a second messenger that is essential for growth and homeostasis in bacteria. A recently discovered c-di-AMP-responsive riboswitch controls the expression of genes in a variety of bacteria, including important pathogens. To elucidate the molecular basis for specific binding of c-di-AMP by a gene-regulatory mRNA domain, we have determined the co-crystal structure of this riboswitch. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals an internally pseudo-symmetric RNA in which two similar three-helix-junction elements associate head-to-tail, creating a trough that cradles two c-di-AMP molecules making quasi-equivalent contacts with the riboswitch. The riboswitch selectively binds c-di-AMP and discriminates exquisitely against other cyclic dinucleotides, such as c-di-GMP and cyclic-AMP-GMP, via interactions with both the backbone and bases of its cognate second messenger. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments indicate that global folding of the riboswitch is induced by the two bound cyclic dinucleotides, which bridge the two symmetric three-helix domains. This structural reorganization likely couples c-di-AMP binding to gene expression. PMID:25271255

  3. The Mucosal Adjuvant Cyclic di-AMP Exerts Immune Stimulatory Effects on Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Libanova, Rimma; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic di-nucleotide bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a candidate mucosal adjuvant with proven efficacy in preclinical models. It was shown to promote specific humoral and cellular immune responses following mucosal administration. To date, there is only fragmentary knowledge on the cellular and molecular mode of action of c-di-AMP. Here, we report on the identification of dendritic cells and macrophages as target cells of c-di-AMP. We show that c-di-AMP induces the cell surface up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory molecules as well as the production of interferon-β. Those responses were characterized by in vitro experiments with murine and human immune cells and in vivo studies in mice. Analyses of dendritic cell subsets revealed conventional dendritic cells as principal responders to stimulation by c-di-AMP. We discuss the impact of the reported antigen presenting cell activation on the previously observed adjuvant effects of c-di-AMP in mouse immunization studies. PMID:24755640

  4. Di-sulfated Keratan Sulfate as a Novel Biomarker for Mucopolysaccharidosis II, IVA, and IVB.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tomatsu, Shunji; Mason, Robert W; Yasuda, Eriko; Mackenzie, William G; Hossain, Jobayer; Shibata, Yuniko; Montaño, Adriana M; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is a storage material in mucopolysaccharidosis IV (MPS IV). However, no detailed analysis has been reported on subclasses of KS: mono-sulfated KS and di-sulfated KS. We established a novel method to distinguish and quantify mono- and di-sulfated KS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and measured both KS levels in various specimens.Di-sulfated KS was dominant in shark cartilage and rat serum, while mono-sulfated KS was dominant in bovine cornea and human serum. Levels of both mono- and di-sulfated KS varied with age in the blood and urine from control subjects and patients with MPS II and IVA. The mean levels of both forms of KS in the plasma/serum from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB were elevated compared with that in age-matched controls. Di-sulfated KS provided more significant difference between MPS IVA and the age-matched controls than mono-sulfated KS. The ratio of di-sulfated KS to total KS in plasma/serum increased with age in control subjects and patients with MPS II but was age independent in MPS IVA patients. Consequently, this ratio can discriminate younger MPS IVA patients from controls. Levels of mono- and di-sulfated KS in urine of MPS IVA and IVB patients were all higher than age-matched controls for all ages studied.In conclusion, the level of di-sulfated KS and its ratio to total KS can distinguish control subjects from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB, indicating that di-sulfated KS may be a novel biomarker for these disorders.

  5. Cyclic di-GMP-dependent Signaling Pathways in the Pathogenic Firmicute Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Hong; Köseoğlu, Volkan K.; Güvener, Zehra T.; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Reed, Joseph M.; D'Orazio, Sarah E. F.; Miller, Kurt W.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We characterized key components and major targets of the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, identified a new c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide responsible for motility inhibition, cell aggregation, and enhanced tolerance to disinfectants and desiccation, and provided first insights into the role of c-di-GMP signaling in listerial virulence. Genome-wide genetic and biochemical analyses of c-di-GMP signaling pathways revealed that L. monocytogenes has three GGDEF domain proteins, DgcA (Lmo1911), DgcB (Lmo1912) and DgcC (Lmo2174), that possess diguanylate cyclase activity, and three EAL domain proteins, PdeB (Lmo0131), PdeC (Lmo1914) and PdeD (Lmo0111), that possess c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. Deletion of all phosphodiesterase genes (ΔpdeB/C/D) or expression of a heterologous diguanylate cyclase stimulated production of a previously unknown exopolysaccharide. The synthesis of this exopolysaccharide was attributed to the pssA-E (lmo0527-0531) gene cluster. The last gene of the cluster encodes the fourth listerial GGDEF domain protein, PssE, that functions as an I-site c-di-GMP receptor essential for exopolysaccharide synthesis. The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. The exopolysaccharide and another, as yet unknown c-di-GMP-dependent target, drastically decrease listerial invasiveness in enterocytes in vitro, and lower pathogen load in the liver and gallbladder of mice infected via an oral route, which suggests that elevated c-di-GMP levels play an overall negative role in listerial virulence. PMID:25101646

  6. Intrafibrillar Mineral May be Absent in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II (DI-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A.

    2001-03-29

    High-resolution synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were performed on normal and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) teeth. Three normal and three DI-II human third molars were used in this study. The normal molars were unerupted and had intact enamel; donors were female and ranged in age from 18-21y. The DI-II specimens, which were also unerupted with intact enamel, came from a single female donor age 20y. SRCT showed that the mineral concentration was 33% lower on average in the DI-II dentin with respect to normal dentin. The SAXS spectra from normal dentin exhibited low-angle diffraction peaks at harmonics of 67.6 nm, consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within gaps in the collagen fibrils (intrafibrillar mineralization). In contrast, the low-angle peaks were almost nonexistent in the DI-II dentin. Crystallite thickness was independent of location in both DI-II and normal dentin, although the crystallites were significantly thicker in DI-II dentin (6.8 nm (s.d. = 0.5) vs 5.1 nm (s.d. = 0.6)). The shape factor of the crystallites, as determined by SAXS, showed a continuous progression in normal dentin from roughly one-dimensional (needle-like) near the pulp to two-dimensional (plate-like) near the dentin-enamel junction. The crystallites in DI-II dentin, on the other hand, remained needle-like throughout. The above observations are consistent with an absence of intrafibrillar mineral in DI-II dentin.

  7. Interaction of potassium mono and di phosphates with bovine serum albumin studied by fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Bakkialakshmi, S; Shanthi, B; Chandrakala, D

    2011-03-01

    The interactions between potassium mono and di phosphates and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). The experimental results showed that the potassium mono and di phosphates could insert into the BSA and quench the inner fluorescence of BSA by forming the potassium mono phosphate-BSA and pottassium di phosphate-BSA complexes. It was found that the static quenching was the main reason leading to the fluorescence quenching. It was conformed by XRD and SEM techniques.

  8. Cyclic Di-GMP Regulates Type IV Pilus-Dependent Motility in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicka, Dorota; Petters, Tobias; Heering, Jan; Hoppert, Michael; Kaever, Volkhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nucleotide-based second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is involved in regulating a plethora of processes in bacteria that are typically associated with lifestyle changes. Myxococcus xanthus undergoes major lifestyle changes in response to nutrient availability, with the formation of spreading colonies in the presence of nutrients and spore-filled fruiting bodies in the absence of nutrients. Here, we investigated the function of c-di-GMP in M. xanthus and show that this bacterium synthesizes c-di-GMP during growth. Manipulation of the c-di-GMP level by expression of either an active, heterologous diguanylate cyclase or an active, heterologous phosphodiesterase correlated with defects in type IV pilus (T4P)-dependent motility, whereas gliding motility was unaffected. An increased level of c-di-GMP correlated with reduced transcription of the pilA gene (which encodes the major pilin of T4P), reduced the assembly of T4P, and altered cell agglutination, whereas a decreased c-di-GMP level correlated with altered cell agglutination. The systematic inactivation of the 24 genes in M. xanthus encoding proteins containing GGDEF, EAL, or HD-GYP domains, which are associated with c-di-GMP synthesis, degradation, or binding, identified three genes encoding proteins important for T4P-dependent motility, whereas all mutants had normal gliding motility. Purified DmxA had diguanylate cyclase activity, whereas the hybrid histidine protein kinases TmoK and SgmT, each of which contains a GGDEF domain, did not have diguanylate cyclase activity. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP is important for T4P-dependent motility in M. xanthus. IMPORTANCE We provide the first direct evidence that M. xanthus synthesizes c-di-GMP and demonstrate that c-di-GMP is important for T4P-dependent motility, whereas we did not obtain evidence that c-di-GMP regulates gliding motility. The data presented uncovered a novel mechanism for regulation of T4P

  9. Simple, Efficient and Controllable Synthesis of Iodo/Di-iodoarenes via Ipsoiododecarboxylation/Consecutive Iodination Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Lijuan; Deng, Guo-Jun; Gong, Hang

    2017-01-01

    A practical, efficient, and operationally simple strategy for the ipsoiododecarboxylation and di-iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids using the low-cost commercial reagent succinimide (NIS) as iodine source is reported. This iodination or di-iodination process can be easily controlled through reaction conditions, thereby providing corresponding iodination or di-iodination products with high yields. Furthermore, these two reactions can be easily scaled up to gram-scale by using palladium catalyst (0.66 mol%), which provides high isolated yield.

  10. Simple, Efficient and Controllable Synthesis of Iodo/Di-iodoarenes via Ipsoiododecarboxylation/Consecutive Iodination Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Lijuan; Deng, Guo-Jun; Gong, Hang

    2017-01-01

    A practical, efficient, and operationally simple strategy for the ipsoiododecarboxylation and di-iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids using the low-cost commercial reagent succinimide (NIS) as iodine source is reported. This iodination or di-iodination process can be easily controlled through reaction conditions, thereby providing corresponding iodination or di-iodination products with high yields. Furthermore, these two reactions can be easily scaled up to gram-scale by using palladium catalyst (0.66 mol%), which provides high isolated yield. PMID:28091536

  11. Targeted killing of myofibroblasts by biosurfactant di-rhamnolipid suggests a therapy against scar formation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chong; Jiang, Lifang; Shao, Huawei; You, Chuangang; Zhang, Guoliang; Ding, Sitong; Bian, Tingwei; Han, Chunmao; Meng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Pathological myofibroblasts are often involved in skin scarring via generating contractile force and over-expressing collagen fibers, but no compound has been found to inhibit the myofibroblasts without showing severe toxicity to surrounding physiological cells. Here we report that di-rhamnolipid, a biosurfactant secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showed potent effects on scar therapy via a unique mechanism of targeted killing the myofibroblasts. In cell culture, the fibroblasts-derived myofibroblasts were more sensitive to di-rhamnolipid toxicity than fibroblasts at a concentration-dependent manner, and could be completely inhibited of their specific functions including α-SMA expression and collagen secretion/contraction. The anti-fibrotic function of di-rhamnolipid was further verified in rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models by presenting the significant reduction of scar elevation index, type I collagen fibers and α-SMA expression. In this regard, di-rhamnolipid treatment could be suggested as a therapy against skin scarring. PMID:27901027

  12. Combination of diOlistic labeling with retrograde tract tracing and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Neely, M Diana; Stanwood, Gregg D; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2009-11-15

    Neuronal staining techniques have played a crucial role in the analysis of neuronal function. Several different staining techniques have been developed to allow morphological analyses of neurons. DiOlistic labeling, in which beads are coated with a lipophilic dye and then ballistically ejected onto brain tissue, has recently been introduced as a useful and simple means to label neurons and glia in their entirety. Although diOlistic labeling provides detailed information on the morphology of neurons, combining this approach with other staining methods is a significant advance. We have developed protocols that result in high quality diOlistically- and retrogradely-labeled or diOlistically-immunohistochemically labeled neurons. These dual-label methods require modification of fixation parameters and the restricted use of detergents for tissue permeabilization, and are readily applicable to a wide range of tracers and antibodies.

  13. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI- AND TETRACHLOROETHANE AND DICHLOROPROPANE IN EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI- AND TETRACHLOROETHANE AND DICHLOROPROPANE IN EMBRYO CULTURE. JE Andrews, H Nichols, and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    Disinfection of drinking water with chlorine results in numerous chlorinated byprodu...

  14. Pancreatic Panniculitis in an 18-Month-Old with Complete DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aivaz, Ohara; Radfar, Arash; Kirkorian, Anna Yasmine

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis, characterized by tender, erythematous subcutaneous nodules occurring most commonly on the lower extremities, occurs in 2% of cases of pancreatic disease. We present a rare case of pancreatic panniculitis in a child with complete DiGeorge syndrome.

  15. Isolation of a zinc finger gene consistently deleted in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aubry, M; Demczuk, S; Desmaze, C; Aikem, M; Aurias, A; Julien, J P; Rouleau, G A

    1993-10-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a human developmental disorder resulting in hypoplasia of the thymus and parathyroids, and conotruncal heart defects. We recently isolated four genes with zinc finger DNA binding motifs mapping to chromosome 22q11.2 DiGeorge critical region. We now report that one of them, ZNF74 gene, is hemizygously deleted in 23 out of 24 DiGeorge syndrome patients tested. ZNF74 mRNA transcripts are detected in human and mouse embryos but not in adult tissues. Sequence analysis of a corresponding cDNA reveals an an open reading frame encoding 12 zinc finger motifs of the Kruppel/TFIIIA type as well as N-terminal and C-terminal non-zinc finger domains. These results suggest that changes in the dosage of a putative transcription factor through ZNF74 hemizygous deletion may be critical for DiGeorge developmental anomalies.

  16. Characterization of factors that transform linoleic acid into di- and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids in mash.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hisao; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Kaneda, Hirotaka; Watari, Junji; Takashio, Masachika

    2002-01-01

    The qualities of beer are deteriorated by the presence of either di- or trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids, which reduce the beer 'head' and produce an astringent flavor. In this study we found that native extracts of malt mash transformed linoleic acid into di- and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids, but this transforming activity and lipoxygenase activity were inactivated by heating the mash at 70 degrees C for 30 min. Recombinant barley lipoxygenase 1 was not able to transform linoleic acid into di- and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids. The transforming activity of mash extract heated at 70 degrees C for 30 min could be restored by the addition of recombinant barley lipoxygenase 1; in contrast, the activity of boiled mash extract was not substantially restored by the recombinant enzyme. These results indicate that di- and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids are generated from linoleic acid by both lipoxygenase and a heat-stable enzymatic factor present in the mash.

  17. Expression and Genetic Activation of Cyclic Di-GMP-Specific Phosphodiesterases in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Alberto; Hee, Chee-Seng; Ozaki, Shogo; Mazur, Adam; Boehm, Alex; Schirmer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) are controlled by antagonistic activities of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. The phosphodiesterase PdeH was identified as a key regulator of motility in Escherichia coli, while deletions of any of the other 12 genes encoding potential phosphodiesterases did not interfere with motility. To analyze the roles of E. coli phosphodiesterases, we demonstrated that most of these proteins are expressed under laboratory conditions. We next isolated suppressor mutations in six phosphodiesterase genes, which reinstate motility in the absence of PdeH by reducing cellular levels of c-di-GMP. Expression of all mutant alleles also led to a reduction of biofilm formation. Thus, all of these proteins are bona fide phosphodiesterases that are capable of interfering with different c-di-GMP-responsive output systems by affecting the global c-di-GMP pool. This argues that E. coli possesses several phosphodiesterases that are inactive under laboratory conditions because they lack appropriate input signals. Finally, one of these phosphodiesterases, PdeL, was studied in more detail. We demonstrated that this protein acts as a transcription factor to control its own expression. Motile suppressor alleles led to a strong increase of PdeL activity and elevated pdeL transcription, suggesting that enzymatic activity and transcriptional control are coupled. In agreement with this, we showed that overall cellular levels of c-di-GMP control pdeL transcription and that this control depends on PdeL itself. We thus propose that PdeL acts both as an enzyme and as a c-di-GMP sensor to couple transcriptional activity to the c-di-GMP status of the cell. IMPORTANCE Most bacteria possess multiple diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. Genetic studies have proposed that these enzymes show signaling specificity by contributing to distinct cellular processes without much cross talk. Thus, spatial

  18. Competition in di- and tri-trophic food web modules.

    PubMed

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2014-02-21

    Competition in di- and tri-trophic food web modules with many competing species is studied. The food web modules considered are apparent competition between n species sharing a single predator and a diamond-like food web with a single resource, a single top predator and many competing middle species. The predators have either fixed preferences for their prey, or they switch between available prey in a way that maximizes their fitness. Dependence of these food web dynamics on environmental carrying capacity and food web connectance is studied. The results predict that optimal flexible foraging strongly weakens apparent competition and promotes species coexistence. Food web robustness (defined here as the proportion of surviving species) does not decrease with increased connectance in these food-webs. Moreover, it is shown that flexible prey switching leads to the same population equilibria as in corresponding food webs with highly specialized predators. The results show that flexible foraging behavior by predators can have very strong impact on species richness, as well as the response of communities to changes in resource enrichment and food-web connectance when compared to the same food-web topology with inflexible top predators. Several results on global stability using Lyapunov functions are provided.

  19. Forward di-jet production in dilute-dense collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreska, E.; Kotko, P.; Kutak, K.; Marquet, C.; Sapeta, S.; van Hameren, A.

    2016-03-01

    We derive a factorization formula for forward production of two jets in dilutedense collisions that is valid for an arbitrary value of the momentum imbalance of the jets, kt. This generalizes the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization formula that has been derived before by Dominguez et al. Their formula is valid only for small values of the transverse momentum of the small-x gluon from the target; it has kt dependent TMD gluon distributions, but on-shell hard matrix elements. We extend the TMD formula to all ranges of kt by including off-shell matrix elements. We also add finite Nc corrections. The new formula encompasses both, the TMD factorization for small kt on the order of the saturation scale, and the High Energy Factorization (HEF) for large kt on the order of the momentum of the jets. The TMD and HEF factorizations can be derived from the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) formula for forward di-jet production in the appropriate limits. We show explicitly the equivalence of HEF and CGC in the dilute target approximation.

  20. Biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Hayton, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following intravascular administration. Methyl-esterified metabolites were identified using rodent-derived standards and non-linear gradient elution HPLC; metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography. Similarities between the biotransformation of DEHP by rainbow trout and mammalian species included (a) mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) appeared to be the obligatory first step in DEHP metabolism; (b) the phthalate ring was not oxidized; (c) phthalic acid was a minor metabolite; and (d) several metabolites contained multiple oxidations of the 2-ethylhexyl moiety of MEHP. No metabolites unique to rainbow trout were identified. However, fewer oxidized metabolites were identified in rainbow trout than in mammalian species, possibly due to limited mitochondrial metabolism of MEHP in rainbow trout. The amount of biliary MEHP glucuronide after intravascular administration of DEHP was substantially less than reported in rainbow trout exposed to DEHP via the water. Results confirmed that DEHP metabolism in rainbow trout proceeds by initial rapid formation of MEHP, followed by excretion or extensive oxidation by microsomal P450.

  1. Francium sources at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Veronesi, S.; Corradi, L.; Atutov, S.N.; Calabrese, R.; Dainelli, A.; Mariotti, E.; Moi, L.; Sanguinetti, S.; Tomassetti, L.

    2006-03-15

    A facility for the production of radioactive francium is operating at the laboratories of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Legnaro, Italy. The goal is to collect a cold sample of radioactive atoms in a magneto-optical trap for studies in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. Production of francium is achieved via the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 197}Au({sup 18}O,kn){sup 215-k}Fr generated by a {approx}100-MeV {sup 18}O{sup 6+} beam on a thick gold target. The production target is heated to {approx}1200 K and kept at a potential of +3 kV to enhance Fr diffusion and surface desorption. Average production rates are 0.7x10{sup 6} ions/s for {sup 210}Fr with a primary beam flux of 10{sup 12} particles/s, with peaks of 2x10{sup 6} ions/s. Details are given on the design and construction of the production targets and on the measurements that characterize their performance.

  2. Thermochromic transitions in poly(di- n-hexylsilane) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, N. I.; Zaika, V.; Suto, S.; Watanabe, A.

    2004-07-01

    The spectra of absorption (77-398 K) and luminescence (5 K) of poly(di- n-hexylsilane) films are studied in relation to the heating of the films above the phase transition temperature. Two new absorption bands in the region of the band of the gauche conformation are found. The position and intensity of these bands depend on the annealing temperature, annealing regime, and sample thickness. These bands are assumed to be associated with the appearance of a liquid crystalline phase in the polymer, which is determined by intermolecular interactions between neighboring polymer chains. The appearance of the liquid crystalline phase in the heat-treated polymer films is confirmed by the increase in their birefringence in comparison with the birefringence of the initial films and by the observation of a stable orientation of an E 7 nematic liquid crystal applied to the surface of an annealed sample. In addition, the absorption spectra of the films cooled after the annealing exhibit many new bands in comparison with the spectra of the initial samples. These bands are associated with the appearance in the polymer of defect states and longer segments as a result of orientation of polymer chains. The appearance of longer segments is consistent with the observation of a long-wavelength band in the luminescence spectra of the annealed samples.

  3. Absence of genomic imprinting at the DiGeorge locus

    SciTech Connect

    Theophile, D.; Berube, D.; Auge, J.; Vekemans, M.

    1994-09-01

    In situ hybridization with fluorescence probes (FISH) on interphase nuclei allows evaluation of the stage of DNA replication. For example, in a diploid cell in G1, unreplicated DNA gives two single dots of hybridization whereas in a diploid cell in G2, for loci which have already replicated, the hybridization signal is seen as two pairs of doublets. In contrast, sequences which have an asynchronous replication are characterized by one double hybridization signal and one single hybridization signal. It has been shown recently that sequences subject to genomic imprinting have an asynchronous replication, i.e., the two homologous alleles have a different pattern of replication. We have tested the replication pattern of different sequences of the DiGeorge critical region using FISH. The results obtained with probes 48F8, C350, C237 and COS40 show no evidence of asynchronous replication. This suggests that these loci are not subject to imprinting. These results are in agreement with recent observation of cases of uniparental disomy of chromosome 22 without phenotypic features. Further studies are necessary to exclude other regions of chromosome 22 which might be subject to genomic imprinting.

  4. Clinical and molecular study of DiGeorge sequence.

    PubMed

    Levy-Mozziconacci, A; Wernert, F; Scambler, P; Rouault, F; Metras, D; Kreitman, B; Depetris, D; Mattei, M G; Philip, N

    1994-11-01

    DiGeorge sequence (DGS) is a developmental field defect of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches. The cardinal features of the syndrome are hypo- or aplasia of the thymus and parathyroids, congenital heart defect of the conotruncal type and characteristic facial dysmorphism. Such a pattern of malformations has been associated with various conditions but it is now well established that most cases of DGS are due to haplo-insufficiency of the chromosome 22q11 region. We report here a series of 16 patients, including a familial case. Minimal criteria for inclusion in this series were two or more of the following features: conotruncal heart defect, hypocalcaemia, hypoplastic/absent thymus and typical facial dysmorphism. Molecular analysis with specific probes of the 22q11 region was conducted in all patients according to two methods, fluorescent in situ hybridization and DNA dosage analysis. A deletion was found at the molecular level in all patients. We emphasize the fact that clinical analysis remains an important step of the diagnosis. The implication of these molecular techniques on diagnosis, prognosis and genetic counselling of DGS are discussed.

  5. The prokaryote messenger c-di-GMP triggers stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2012-08-30

    Cyclic di-(3′:5′)-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a major prokaryote signalling intermediate that is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases and triggers sessility and biofilm formation. We detected the first eukaryote diguanylate cyclases in all major groups of Dictyostelia. On food depletion, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas collect into aggregates, which first transform into migrating slugs and then into sessile fruiting structures. These structures consist of a spherical spore mass that is supported by a column of stalk cells and a basal disk. A polyketide, DIF-1, which induces stalk-like cells in vitro, was isolated earlier. However, its role in vivo proved recently to be restricted to basal disk formation. Here we show that the Dictyostelium diguanylate cyclase, DgcA, produces c-di-GMP as the morphogen responsible for stalk cell differentiation. Dictyostelium discoideum DgcA synthesized c-di-GMP in a GTP-dependent manner and was expressed at the slug tip, which is the site of stalk cell differentiation. Disruption of the DgcA gene blocked the transition from slug migration to fructification and the expression of stalk genes. Fructification and stalk formation were restored by exposing DgcA-null slugs to wild-type secretion products or to c-di-GMP. Moreover, c-di-GMP, but not cyclic di-(3′:5′)-adenosine monophosphate, induced stalk gene expression in dilute cell monolayers. Apart from identifying the long-elusive stalk-inducing morphogen, our work also identifies a role for c-di-GMP in eukaryotes.

  6. Monitoring Changes of Tropical Extreme Rainfall Events Using Differential Absorption Barometric Radar (DiBAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, R. Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    This work studies the potential of monitoring changes in tropical extreme rainfall events such as tropical storms from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band to remotely measure sea surface air pressure. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 5 millibars (approximately 1 millibar) under all weather conditions. With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts, analyses and understanding of these extreme events in both short and long time scales can be improved. Severe weathers, especially hurricanes, are listed as one of core areas that need improved observations and predictions in WCRP (World Climate Research Program) and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) and have major impacts on public safety and national security through disaster mitigation. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, our team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. Our feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. We have developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with our instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on tropical extreme rainfall weather and climate conditions.

  7. BrlR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jacob R; Liao, Julie; Schurr, Michael J; Sauer, Karin

    2014-05-01

    The transcriptional regulator BrlR is a member of the MerR family of multidrug transport activators that contributes to the high-level drug tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. While MerR regulators are known to activate both the expression of multidrug efflux pump genes and their own transcription upon inducer binding, little is known about BrlR activation. We demonstrate using promoter reporter strains, in vivo and in vitro DNA-binding assays combined with 5'RACE, that BrlR binds to its own promoter, likely via a MerR-like palindromic sequence. Unlike known MerR multidrug transport activators, BrlR and brlR expression are not activated by multidrug transporter substrates. Instead, BrlR-DNA binding was enhanced by the secondary messenger c-di-GMP. In addition to enhanced BrlR-DNA binding, c-di-GMP levels contributed to PbrlR promoter activity in initial attached cells with elevated c-di-GMP levels correlating with increased expression of brlR. While not harbouring amino acid motifs resembling previously defined c-di-GMP-binding domains, BrlR was found to bind c-di-GMP in vitro at a ratio of one c-di-GMP per two BrlR. Cross-linking assays confirmed dimer formation to be enhanced in the presence of elevated c-di-GMP levels. Our findings demonstrate BrlR to be an unusual MerR-family member in that BrlR function and expression require the secondary messenger c-di-GMP.

  8. Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yun-Joung

    2011-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and manifests with variable clinical findings. Aspiration pneumonia can be a perioperative complication of great concern in this syndrome. In this report, we present a case of a 16-month old child with DiGeorge syndrome undergoing cranioplasty. He developed perioperative aspiration pneumonia but was managed successfully. PMID:21738851

  9. BrlR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Jacob R.; Liao, Julie; Schurr, Michael J.; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator BrlR is a member of the MerR family of multidrug transport activators that contributes to the high-level drug tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. While MerR regulators are known to activate both the expression of multidrug efflux pump genes and their own transcription upon inducer-binding, little is known about BrlR activation. We demonstrate using promoter reporter strains, in vivo and in vitro DNA-binding assays combined with 5’RACE, that BrlR binds to its own promoter, likely via a MerR-like palindromic sequence. Unlike known MerR multidrug transport activators, BrlR and brlR expression are not activated by multidrug transporter substrates. Instead, BrlR-DNA binding was enhanced by the secondary messenger c-di-GMP. In addition to enhanced BrlR-DNA binding, c-di-GMP levels contributed to PbrlR promoter activity in initial attached cells with elevated c-di-GMP levels correlating with increased expression of brlR. While not harboring amino acid motifs resembling previously defined c-di-GMP-binding domains, BrlR was found to bind c-di-GMP in vitro at a ratio of one c-di-GMP per two BrlR. Crosslinking assays confirmed dimer formation to be enhanced in the presence of elevated c-di-GMP levels. Our findings demonstrate BrlR to be an unusual MerR-family member in that BrlR function and expression require the secondary messenger c-di-GMP. PMID:24612375

  10. Cyclic-di-GMP signalling regulates motility and biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Federico; Ha, Dae-Gon; O'Toole, George A.; Hozbor, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The signalling molecule bis-(3′–5′)-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of diverse cellular functions, including motility, biofilm formation, cell cycle progression and virulence, in bacteria. Multiple diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase-domain-containing proteins (GGDEF and EAL/HD-GYP, respectively) modulate the levels of the second messenger c-di-GMP to transmit signals and obtain such specific cellular responses. In the genus Bordetella this c-di-GMP network is poorly studied. In this work, we evaluated the expression of two phenotypes in Bordetella bronchiseptica regulated by c-di-GMP, biofilm formation and motility, under the influence of ectopic expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins with EAL or GGDEF domains that regulates the c-di-GMP level. In agreement with previous reports for other bacteria, we observed that B. bronchiseptica is able to form biofilm and reduce its motility only when GGDEF domain protein is expressed. Moreover we identify a GGDEF domain protein (BB3576) with diguanylate cyclase activity that participates in motility and biofilm regulation in B. bronchiseptica. These results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, the presence of c-di-GMP regulatory signalling in B. bronchiseptica. PMID:23475948

  11. Bacterial Signal Transduction by Cyclic Di-GMP and Other Nucleotide Second Messengers

    PubMed Central

    Gründling, Angelika; Jenal, Urs; Ryan, Robert; Yildiz, Fitnat

    2015-01-01

    The first International Symposium on c-Di-GMP Signaling in Bacteria (22 to 25 March 2015, Harnack-Haus, Berlin, Germany) brought together 131 molecular microbiologists from 17 countries to discuss recent progress in our knowledge of bacterial nucleotide second messenger signaling. While the focus was on signal input, synthesis, degradation, and the striking diversity of the modes of action of the current second messenger paradigm, i.e., cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), “classics” like cAMP and (p)ppGpp were also presented, in novel facets, and more recent “newcomers,” such as c-di-AMP and c-AMP-GMP, made an impressive appearance. A number of clear trends emerged during the 30 talks, on the 71 posters, and in the lively discussions, including (i) c-di-GMP control of the activities of various ATPases and phosphorylation cascades, (ii) extensive cross talk between c-di-GMP and other nucleotide second messenger signaling pathways, and (iii) a stunning number of novel effectors for nucleotide second messengers that surprisingly include some long-known master regulators of developmental pathways. Overall, the conference made it amply clear that second messenger signaling is currently one of the most dynamic fields within molecular microbiology, with major impacts in research fields ranging from human health to microbial ecology. PMID:26055111

  12. Synthesis, structures and charge-transfer complexations of 1,n-di-[3,6-di-(9-carbazolyl)-9-carbazolyl]alkanes with tetracyanoethylene and tetranitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgün, Selin; Asker, Erol; Zeybek, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis and charge-transfer (CT) complexations of amorphous 3,6-di-(9-carbazolyl)-9-ethylcarbazole, 3,6-di-(9-carbazolyl)-9-hexylcarbazole and a series of 1,n-di-[3,6-di-(9-carbazolyl)-9-carbazolyl]alkanes (n = 1-5) with electron acceptors tetracyanoethylene and tetranitromethane are reported. The molar extinction coefficients (ε), equilibrium constants (Keq), enthalpies (ΔH) and entropies (ΔS) of complexations have been determined. The low Keq values (1.83-3.82 M-1 for carbazole-TCNE and 0.28-0.45 M-1 for carbazole-TNM complexes) show weak donor-acceptor associations. The negative values of ΔH determined to be between -2.09 ± 0.08 and -3.10 ± 0.21 kcal mol-1 for carbazole-TCNE complexes and -0.91 ± 0.08 and -3.31 ± 0.28 kcal mol-1 for carbazole-TNM complexes indicate that complexations are driven by the exothermic enthalpies. Computational analysis using semi-empirical and DFT methods were applied to clarify the structures of the synthesized molecules and the nature of their CT complexations.

  13. Crystal structure of creatininium 5-(2,4-di-nitro-phen-yl)-1,3-di-methyl-barbiturate monohydrate: a potential anti-convulsant agent.

    PubMed

    Poornima Devi, Ponnusamy; Kalaivani, Doraisamyraja

    2016-05-01

    In the anion of the title hydrated mol-ecular salt, C4H8N3O(+)·C12H9N4O7 (-)·H2O [systematic name: 2-amino-1-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-di-hydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium 5-(2,4-di-nitro-phen-yl)-1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydro-pyrimidin-4-olate monohydrate], the 2,4-di-nitro-phenyl ring is inclined to the mean plane of the pyrimidine ring [r.m.s. deviation = 0.37 Å] by 43.24 (8)°. The five-membered ring of the creatininium cation (2-amino-1-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-di-hydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium) is essentially planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.015 Å. In the crystal, the anions and cations are linked via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming sheets parallel to the ab plane. The sheets are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecule, forming a three-dimensional framework. Within the framework, there are C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. The title mol-ecular salt displays anti-convulsant and hypnotic activities.

  14. Boosted di-boson from a mixed heavy stop

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Diptimoy

    2013-12-01

    The lighter mass eigenstate ($\\widetilde{t}_1$) of the two top squarks, the scalar superpartners of the top quark, is extremely difficult to discover if it is almost degenerate with the lightest neutralino ($\\widetilde{\\chi}_1^0$), the lightest and stable supersymmetric particle in the R-parity conserving supersymmetry. The current experimental bound on $\\widetilde{t}_1$ mass in this scenario stands only around 200 GeV. For such a light $\\widetilde{t}_1$, the heavier top squark ($\\widetilde{t}_2$) can also be around the TeV scale. Moreover, the high value of the higgs ($h$) mass prefers the left and right handed top squarks to be highly mixed allowing the possibility of a considerable branching ratio for $\\widetilde{t}_2 \\to \\widetilde{t}_1 h$ and $\\widetilde{t}_2 \\to \\widetilde{t}_1 Z$. In this paper, we explore the above possibility together with the pair production of $\\widetilde{t}_2$ $\\widetilde{t}_2^*$ giving rise to the spectacular di-boson + missing transverse energy final state. For an approximately 1 TeV $\\widetilde{t}_2$ and a few hundred GeV $\\widetilde{t}_1$ the final state particles can be moderately boosted which encourages us to propose a novel search strategy employing the jet substructure technique to tag the boosted $h$ and $Z$. The reconstruction of the $h$ and $Z$ momenta also allows us to construct the stransverse mass $M_{T2}$ providing an additional efficient handle to fight the backgrounds. We show that a 4--5$\\sigma$ signal can be observed at the 14 TeV LHC for $\\sim$ 1 TeV $\\widetilde{t}_2$ with 100 fb$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity.

  15. [Relationship between geopolitical political structure and distribution of dao-di herbs in frontier provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Dao-di herbs have both natural and humanistic attribute. Geopolitical political structure of Northeast, Mongolian, Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces form frontier inland of China were summarized in this paper. The relationship between distribution of the Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure in above-mentioned provinces were described. In a strict sense, humanistic attribute of Dao-di herbs belonged to medical culture of Han Nationality. Distribution range of Dao-di herbs was determined by sphere of influence of central plains dynasty. Development of Dao-di herbs in the frontier inland area was unbalanced. The relationship between distribution of Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure proofed that natural attribute and humanistic attribute were inseparable. Recognition of this relationship is helpful to understand and develop genuine medicinal materials in frontier provinces.

  16. 3,6-diHydroxyflavone/bovine serum albumin interaction in cyclodextrin medium: Absorption and emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicescu, Mariana; Bandula, Rodica

    2015-03-01

    Photophysical properties of a bioactive flavonol which can be used as a model for polyhydroxylated natural flavonols, 3,6-diHydroxyflavone (3,6-diHF) in cyclodextrins (CDs)/bovine serum albumin (BSA) systems have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The influence of CDs nature and of the different molar ratios BSA/CDs on the fluorescent characteristics of 3,6-diHF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process were studied. Quantitative information on the interaction between 3,6-diHF and BSA in CDs medium, were estimated. The influence of temperature (25-60 °C range) on the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in 3,6-diHF/BSA/CDs systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3,6-diHF as a potential sensitive fluorescence probe in the systems of biological interest.

  17. Replenishing the cyclic-di-AMP pool: regulation of diadenylate cyclase activity in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Huong; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Marcellin, Esteban; Turner, Mark S

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria can sense environmental cues and alter their physiology accordingly through the use of signal transduction pathways involving second messenger nucleotides. One broadly conserved second messenger is cyclic-di-AMP (c-di-AMP) which regulates a range of processes including cell wall homeostasis, potassium uptake, DNA repair, fatty acid synthesis, biofilm formation and central metabolism in bacteria. The intracellular pool of c-di-AMP is maintained by the activities of diadenylate cyclase (DAC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, as well as possibly via c-di-AMP export. Whilst extracellular stimuli regulating c-di-AMP levels in bacteria are poorly understood, recent work has identified effector proteins which directly interact and alter the activity of DACs. These include the membrane bound CdaR and the phosphoglucosamine mutase GlmM which both bind directly to the membrane bound CdaA DAC and the recombination protein RadA which binds directly to the DNA binding DisA DAC. The genes encoding these multiprotein complexes are co-localised in many bacteria providing further support for their functional connection. The roles of GlmM in peptidoglycan synthesis and RadA in Holliday junction intermediate processing suggest that c-di-AMP synthesis by DACs will be responsive to these cellular activities. In addition to these modulatory interactions, permanent dysregulation of DAC activity due to suppressor mutations can occur during selection to overcome growth defects, rapid cell lysis and osmosensitivity. DACs have also been investigated as targets for the development of new antibiotics and several small compound inhibitors have recently been identified. This review aims to provide an overview of how c-di-AMP synthesis by DACs can be regulated.

  18. Structural and biochemical determinants of ligand binding by the c-di-GMP riboswitch†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathryn D.; Lipchock, Sarah V.; Livingston, Alison L.; Shanahan, Carly A.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP is used in many species to control essential processes that allow the organism to adapt to its environment. The c-di-GMP riboswitch (GEMM) is an important downstream target in this signaling pathway and alters gene expression in response to changing concentrations of c-di-GMP. The riboswitch selectively recognizes its second messenger ligand primarily through contacts with two critical nucleotides. However, these two nucleotides are not the most highly conserved residues within the riboswitch sequence. Instead, nucleotides that stack with c-di-GMP and that form tertiary RNA contacts are the most invariant. Biochemical and structural evidence reveals that the most common natural variants are able to make alternative pairing interactions with both guanine bases of the ligand. Additionally, a high resolution (2.3 Å) crystal structure of the native complex reveals that a single metal coordinates the c-di-GMP backbone. Evidence is also provided that after transcription of the first nucleotide on the 3′-side of the P1 helix, which is predicted to be the molecular switch, the aptamer is functional for ligand binding. Although large energetic effects occur when several residues in the RNA are altered, mutations at the most conserved positions, rather than at positions that base pair with c-di-GMP, have the most detrimental effects on binding. Many mutants retain sufficient c-di-GMP affinity for the RNA to remain biologically relevant, which suggests that this motif is quite resilient to mutation. PMID:20690679

  19. A C-di-GMP-proflavine-hemin supramolecular complex has peroxidase activity--implication for a simple colorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shizuka; Roelofs, Kevin; Lee, Vincent T; Sintim, Herman O

    2012-03-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that the bacterial signaling molecule, c-di-GMP, can enhance the peroxidation of hemin when proflavine is present. The c-di-GMP-proflavine-hemin nucleotidezyme can oxidize the colorless compound 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS, to the colored radical cation ABTS˙(+) and hence provides simple colorimetric detection of c-di-GMP at low micromolar concentrations.

  20. A jack of all trades: the multiple roles of the unique essential second messenger cyclic di-AMP.

    PubMed

    Commichau, Fabian M; Dickmanns, Achim; Gundlach, Jan; Ficner, Ralf; Stülke, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Second messengers are key components of many signal transduction pathways. In addition to cyclic AMP, ppGpp and cyclic di-GMP, many bacteria use also cyclic di-AMP as a second messenger. This molecule is synthesized by distinct classes of diadenylate cyclases and degraded by phosphodiesterases. The control of the intracellular c-di-AMP pool is very important since both a lack of this molecule and its accumulation can inhibit growth of the bacteria. In many firmicutes, c-di-AMP is essential, making it the only known essential second messenger. Cyclic di-AMP is implicated in a variety of functions in the cell, including cell wall metabolism, potassium homeostasis, DNA repair and the control of gene expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms behind these functions, targets of c-di-AMP have been identified and characterized. Interestingly, c-di-AMP can bind both proteins and RNA molecules. Several proteins that interact with c-di-AMP are required to control the intracellular potassium concentration. In Bacillus subtilis, c-di-AMP also binds a riboswitch that controls the expression of a potassium transporter. Thus, c-di-AMP is the only known second messenger that controls a biological process by interacting with both a protein and the riboswitch that regulates its expression. Moreover, in Listeria monocytogenes c-di-AMP controls the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, an enzyme that is required to replenish the citric acid cycle. Here, we review the components of the c-di-AMP signaling system.

  1. Comparison of anti-bacterial activity of three types of di-O-caffeoylquinic acids in Lonicera japonica flowers based on microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin; Lv, Qing-Yuan; Jin, Shi-Ying; Zhang, Tian-Tian; Jin, Shi-Xiao; Li, Xian-Yi; Yuan, Hai-Long

    2014-02-01

    The anti-bacterial activities of three types of di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) in Lonicera japonica flowers, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), on Bacillus shigae growth were investigated and compared by microcalorimetry. The three types of diCQAs were 3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3, 4-diCQA), 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3, 5-diCQA), and 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, 5-diCQA). Some qualitative and quantitative information of the effects of the three diCQAs on metabolic power-time curves, growth rate constant k, maximum heat-output power Pm, and the generation time tG, total heat output Qt, and growth inhibitory ratio I of B. shigae were calculated. In accordance with a thermo-kinetic model, the corresponding quantitative relationships of k, Pm, Qt, I and c were established. Also, the half-inhibitory concentrations of the drugs (IC50) were obtained by quantitative analysis. Based on the quantity-activity relationships and the IC50 values, the sequence of inhibitory activity was 3, 5-diCQA > 4, 5-diCQA > 3, 4-diCQA. The results illustrate the possibility that the caffeoyl ester group at C-5 is the principal group that has a higher affinity for the bacterial cell, and that the intramolecular distance of the two caffeoyl ester groups also has an important influence on the anti-bacterial activities of the diCQAs.

  2. A minimalist biosensor: Quantitation of cyclic di-GMP using the conformational change of a riboswitch aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Kellenberger, Colleen A; Sales-Lee, Jade; Pan, Yuchen; Gassaway, Madalee M; Herr, Amy E; Hammond, Ming C

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that is important in regulating bacterial physiology and behavior, including motility and virulence. Many questions remain about the role and regulation of this signaling molecule, but current methods of detection are limited by either modest sensitivity or requirements for extensive sample purification. We have taken advantage of a natural, high affinity receptor of c-di-GMP, the Vc2 riboswitch aptamer, to develop a sensitive and rapid electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for c-di-GMP quantitation that required minimal engineering of the RNA. PMID:26114964

  3. Identification of FleQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Jason W.; Harwood, Caroline S.

    2008-01-01

    High levels of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) supress motility and activate exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in a variety of bacterial species. In many bacteria part of the effect of c-di-GMP is on gene expression, but the mechanism involved is not known for any species. We have identified the protein FleQ as a c-di-GMP-responsive transcriptional regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FleQ is known to activate expression of flagella biosynthesis genes. Here we show that it also represses transcription of genes including the pel operon involved in EPS biosynthesis, and that this repression is relieved by c-di-GMP. Our in vivo data indicate that FleQ represses pel transcription and that pel transcription is not repressed when intracellular c-di-GMP levels are high. FleN, a known antiactivator of FleQ also participates in control of pel expression. In in vitro experiments we found that FleQ binds to pel promoter DNA and that this binding is inhibited by c-di-GMP. FleQ binds radiolabeled c-di-GMP in vitro. FleQ does not have amino acid motifs that resemble previously defined c-di-GMP binding domains. Our results show that FleQ is a new type of c-di-GMP binding protein that controls the transcriptional regulation of EPS biosynthesis genes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:18485075

  4. Liposomes loaded with a STING pathway ligand, cyclic di-GMP, enhance cancer immunotherapy against metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Miyabe, Hiroko; Hyodo, Mamoru; Sato, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-10-28

    Malignant melanomas escape immunosurveillance via the loss/down-regulation of MHC-I expression. Natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to function as essential effector cells for eliminating melanomas. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a ligand of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signal pathway, can be thought of as a new class of adjuvant against cancer. However, it is yet to be tested, because technologies for delivering c-di-GMP to the cytosol are required. Herein, we report that c-di-GMP efficiently activates NK cells and induces antitumor effects against malignant melanomas when loaded in YSK05 lipid containing liposomes, by assisting in the efficient delivery of c-di-GMP to the cytosol. The intravenous administration of c-di-GMP encapsulated within YSK05-liposomes (c-di-GMP/YSK05-Lip) into mice efficiently induced the production of type I interferon (IFN) as well as the activation of NK cells, resulting in a significant antitumor effect in a lung metastasis mouse model using B16-F10. This antitumor effect was dominated by NK cells. The infiltration of NK cells was observed in the lungs with B16-F10 melanomas. These findings indicate that the c-di-GMP/YSK05-Lip induces MHC-I non-restricted antitumor immunity mediated by NK cells. Consequently, c-di-GMP/YSK05-Lip represents a potentially new adjuvant system for use in immunotherapy against malignant melanomas.

  5. Studying distributed cognition of simulation-based team training with DiCoT.

    PubMed

    Rybing, Jonas; Nilsson, Heléne; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Bang, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Health care organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design.

  6. Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry - A Powerful Tool to Identify Novel c-di-GMP Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Laventie, Benoît-Joseph; Nesper, Jutta; Ahrné, Erik; Glatter, Timo; Schmidt, Alexander; Jenal, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made during the last decade towards the identification and characterization of enzymes involved in the synthesis (diguanylate cyclases) and degradation (phosphodiesterases) of the second messenger c-di-GMP. In contrast, little information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms and cellular components through which this signaling molecule regulates a diverse range of cellular processes. Most of the known effector proteins belong to the PilZ family or are degenerated diguanylate cyclases or phosphodiesterases that have given up on catalysis and have adopted effector function. Thus, to better define the cellular c-di-GMP network in a wide range of bacteria experimental methods are required to identify and validate novel effectors for which reliable in silico predictions fail. We have recently developed a novel Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS) based technology as a powerful tool to biochemically identify and characterize c-di-GMP binding proteins. This technique has previously been reported to be applicable to a wide range of organisms1. Here we give a detailed description of the protocol that we utilize to probe such signaling components. As an example, we use Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen in which c-di-GMP plays a critical role in virulence and biofilm control. CCMS identified 74% (38/51) of the known or predicted components of the c-di-GMP network. This study explains the CCMS procedure in detail, and establishes it as a powerful and versatile tool to identify novel components involved in small molecule signaling. PMID:25867682

  7. Bacterial c-di-GMP affects hematopoietic stem/progenitors and their niches through STING.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Chiharu I; Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Karigane, Daiki; Haeno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Sato, Taku; Ohteki, Toshiaki; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Barber, Glen N; Kurokawa, Mineo; Suda, Toshio; Takubo, Keiyo

    2015-04-07

    Upon systemic bacterial infection, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) migrate to the periphery in order to supply a sufficient number of immune cells. Although pathogen-associated molecular patterns reportedly mediate HSPC activation, how HSPCs detect pathogen invasion in vivo remains elusive. Bacteria use the second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) for a variety of activities. Here, we report that c-di-GMP comprehensively regulated both HSPCs and their niche cells through an innate immune sensor, STING, thereby inducing entry into the cell cycle and mobilization of HSPCs while decreasing the number and repopulation capacity of long-term hematopoietic stem cells. Furthermore, we show that type I interferon acted as a downstream target of c-di-GMP to inhibit HSPC expansion in the spleen, while transforming growth factor-β was required for c-di-GMP-dependent splenic HSPC expansion. Our results define machinery underlying the dynamic regulation of HSPCs and their niches during bacterial infection through c-di-GMP/STING signaling.

  8. Engineering a novel c-di-GMP-binding protein for biofilm dispersal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qun; Yang, Zhonghua; Pu, Mingming; Peti, Wolfgang; Wood, Thomas K

    2011-03-01

    Bacteria prefer to grow attached to themselves or an interface, and it is important for an array of applications to make biofilms disperse. Here we report simultaneously the discovery and protein engineering of BdcA (formerly YjgI) for biofilm dispersal using the universal signal 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP). The bdcA deletion reduced biofilm dispersal, and production of BdcA increased biofilm dispersal to wild-type level. Since BdcA increases motility and extracellular DNA production while decreasing exopolysaccharide, cell length and aggregation, we reasoned that BdcA decreases the concentration of c-di-GMP, the intracellular messenger that controls cell motility through flagellar rotation and biofilm formation through synthesis of curli and cellulose. Consistently, c-di-GMP levels increase upon deleting bdcA, and purified BdcA binds c-di-GMP but does not act as a phosphodiesterase. Additionally, BdcR (formerly YjgJ) is a negative regulator of bdcA. To increase biofilm dispersal, we used protein engineering to evolve BdcA for greater c-di-GMP binding and found that the single amino acid change E50Q causes nearly complete removal of biofilms via dispersal without affecting initial biofilm formation.

  9. Tetrameric c-di-GMP Mediates Effective Transcription Factor Dimerization to Control Streptomyces Development

    PubMed Central

    Tschowri, Natalia; Schumacher, Maria A.; Schlimpert, Susan; Chinnam, Naga babu; Findlay, Kim C.; Brennan, Richard G.; Buttner, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP is a signaling molecule with diverse functions in cellular physiology. Here, we report that c-di-GMP can assemble into a tetramer that mediates the effective dimerization of a transcription factor, BldD, which controls the progression of multicellular differentiation in sporulating actinomycete bacteria. BldD represses expression of sporulation genes during vegetative growth in a manner that depends on c-di-GMP-mediated dimerization. Structural and biochemical analyses show that tetrameric c-di-GMP links two subunits of BldD through their C-terminal domains, which are otherwise separated by ∼10 Å and thus cannot effect dimerization directly. Binding of the c-di-GMP tetramer by BldD is selective and requires a bipartite RXD-X8-RXXD signature. The findings indicate a unique mechanism of protein dimerization and the ability of nucleotide signaling molecules to assume alternative oligomeric states to effect different functions. PMID:25171413

  10. ANALYSIS OF SPIN-ORBIT MISALIGNMENT IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY DI HERCULIS

    SciTech Connect

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-05-10

    The eclipsing binary DI Herculis (DI Her) is known to exhibit anomalously slow apsidal precession below the rate predicted by general relativity. Recent measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect indicate that stellar spins in DI Her are almost orthogonal to the orbital angular momentum, which explains the anomalous precession in agreement with the earlier theoretical suggestion by Shakura. However, these measurements yield only projections of the spin-orbit angles onto the sky plane, leaving the spin projection onto our line of sight unconstrained. Here we describe a method for determining the full three-dimensional spin orientation of the binary components relying on the use of the gravity-darkening effect, which is significant for the rapidly rotating stars in DI Her. Gravity darkening gives rise to a nonuniform brightness distribution over the stellar surface, the pattern of which depends on the stellar spin orientation. Using archival photometric data obtained during multiple eclipses over several decades, we are able to constrain the unknown spin angles in DI Her with this method, finding that the spin axes of both stars lie close to the plane of the sky. Our procedure fully accounts for the precession of stellar spins over the long time span of observations.

  11. NXT:1980Di immersion scanner for 7nm and 5nm production nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Roelof; Weichselbaum, Stefan; Droste, Richard; McLaren, Matthew; Koek, Bert; de Boeij, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Immersion scanners remain the critical lithography workhorses in semiconductor device manufacturing. When progressing towards the 7nm device node for logic and D18 device node for DRAM production, pattern-placement and layer-to-layer overlay requirements keep progressively scaling down and consequently require system improvements in immersion scanners. The on-product-overlay requirements are approaching levels of only a few nanometers, imposing stringent requirements on the scanner tool design in terms of reproducibility, accuracy and stability. In this paper we report on the performance of the NXT:1980Di immersion scanner. The NXT:1980Di builds upon the NXT:1970Ci, that is widely used for 16nm, 14nm and 10nm high-volume manufacturing. We will discuss the NXT:1980Di system- and sub-system/module enhancements that drive the scanner overlay, focus and productivity performance. Overlay, imaging, focus, productivity and defectivity data will be presented for multiple tools. To further reduce the on-product overlay system performance, alignment sensor contrast improvements as well as active reticle temperature conditioning are implemented on the NXT:1980Di. Reticle temperature conditioning will reduce reticle heating overlay and the higher contrast alignment sensor will improve alignment robustness for processed alignment targets. Due to an increased usage of multiple patterning techniques, an increased number of immersion exposures is required. NXT:1980Di scanner design modifications raised productivity levels from 250wph to 275wph. This productivity enhancement provides lower cost of ownership (CoO) for customers using immersion technology.

  12. Theoretical study of the substituent effect on the intramolecular hydrogen bonds in di(4-hydroxycoumarin) derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaylov, Tzvetan; Georgieva, Ivelina; Bauer, Günther; Kostova, Irena; Manolov, Ilia; Trendafilova, Natasha

    Geometry optimization of ortho-, meta-, and para-pyridyl-substituted di(4-hydroxycoumarin) [di(4-HC)] was performed with the density functional theory (DFT) [B3LYP/6-31G(d)] method. Two asymmetrical intramolecular O bond H?O hydrogen bonds (HBs) stabilized the structures. The calculated single HB energies varied from -62.56 to -47.53 kJ mol-1 and pointed to a relative strong hydrogen bond in the systems studied. The 2- and 6-pyridyl substituents produced the largest geometrical changes in di(4-hydroxycoumarin) fragment. The highest total HB energy was found for 2-pyridyl-substituted and the lowest one for 6-pyridyl-substituted di(4-hydroxycoumarin). The HB energy variations were confirmed with rotational barrier method calculations. Both steric and electrostatic factors were found to be responsible for the HB asymmetry in the compounds studied. According to the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) calculations the most preferred reactive site for electrophilic attack of pyridyl-substituted di(4-hydroxycoumarin)s are the pyridine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygens, followed by the hydroxyl oxygens.

  13. MOZ regulates the Tbx1 locus, and Moz mutation partially phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voss, Anne K; Vanyai, Hannah K; Collin, Caitlin; Dixon, Mathew P; McLennan, Tamara J; Sheikh, Bilal N; Scambler, Peter; Thomas, Tim

    2012-09-11

    DiGeorge syndrome, caused by a 22q11 microdeletion or mutation of the TBX1 gene, varies in severity greatly, even among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic phenomena have been invoked to explain phenotypic differences in individuals of identical genetic composition, although specific chromatin modifications relevant to DiGeorge syndrome are elusive. Here we show that lack of the histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3/KAT6A) phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome, and the MOZ complex occupies the Tbx1 locus, promoting its expression and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation. Importantly, DiGeorge syndrome-like anomalies are present in mice with homozygous mutation of Moz and in heterozygous Moz mutants when combined with Tbx1 haploinsufficiency or oversupply of retinoic acid. Conversely, a Tbx1 transgene rescues the heart phenotype in Moz mutants. Our data reveal a molecular mechanism for a specific chromatin modification of the Tbx1 locus intersecting with an environmental determinant, modeling variability in DiGeorge syndrome.

  14. Risk assessment of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A hazard assessment of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a commonly used workplace chemical, was conducted in order to protect the occupational health of workers. A literature review, consisting of both domestic and international references, examined the chemical management system, working environment, level of exposure, and possible associated risks. This information may be utilized in the future to determine appropriate exposure levels in working environments. Methods Hazard assessment was performed using chemical hazard information obtained from international agencies, such as Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development-generated Screening Information Data Set and International Program on Chemical Safety. Information was obtained from surveys conducted by the Minister of Employment and Labor (“Survey on the work environment”) and by the Ministry of Environment (“Survey on the circulation amount of chemicals”). Risk was determined according to exposure in workplaces and chemical hazard. Results In 229 workplaces over the country, 831 tons of DEHP have been used as plasticizers, insecticides, and ink solvent. Calculated 50% lethal dose values ranged from 14.2 to 50 g/kg, as determined via acute toxicity testing in rodents. Chronic carcinogenicity tests revealed cases of lung and liver degeneration, shrinkage of the testes, and liver cancer. The no-observed-adverse-effect level and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level were determined to be 28.9 g/kg and 146.6 g/kg, respectively. The working environment assessment revealed the maximum exposure level to be 0.990 mg/m3, as compared to the threshold exposure level of 5 mg/m3. The relative risk of chronic toxicity and reproductive toxicity were 0.264 and 0.330, respectively, while the risk of carcinogenicity was 1.3, which is higher than the accepted safety value of one. Conclusions DEHP was identified as a carcinogen, and may be dangerous even at concentrations lower than the

  15. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  16. Systematic Identification of Cyclic-di-GMP Binding Proteins in Vibrio cholerae Reveals a Novel Class of Cyclic-di-GMP-Binding ATPases Associated with Type II Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xiaoran; Orr, Mona W.; Goodson, Jonathan R.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Lee, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates a variety of complex processes through a diverse set of c-di-GMP receptor proteins. We have utilized a systematic approach to identify c-di-GMP receptors from the pathogen Vibrio cholerae using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA). The DRaCALA screen identified a majority of known c-di-GMP binding proteins in V. cholerae and revealed a novel c-di-GMP binding protein, MshE (VC0405), an ATPase associated with the mannose sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) type IV pilus. The known c-di-GMP binding proteins identified by DRaCALA include diguanylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, PilZ domain proteins and transcription factors VpsT and VpsR, indicating that the DRaCALA-based screen of open reading frame libraries is a feasible approach to uncover novel receptors of small molecule ligands. Since MshE lacks the canonical c-di-GMP-binding motifs, a truncation analysis was utilized to locate the c-di-GMP binding activity to the N-terminal T2SSE_N domain. Alignment of MshE homologs revealed candidate conserved residues responsible for c-di-GMP binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of these candidate residues revealed that the Arg9 residue is required for c-di-GMP binding. The ability of c-di-GMP binding to MshE to regulate MSHA dependent processes was evaluated. The R9A allele, in contrast to the wild type MshE, was unable to complement the ΔmshE mutant for the production of extracellular MshA to the cell surface, reduction in flagella swimming motility, attachment to surfaces and formation of biofilms. Testing homologs of MshE for binding to c-di-GMP identified the type II secretion ATPase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14_29490) as a c-di-GMP receptor, indicating that type II secretion and type IV pili are both regulated by c-di-GMP. PMID:26506097

  17. Program Derivation by Proof Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    L6f’s theory of types. 178 REFERENCES In Atti Degli Incontri di Logica Mathematica, pages 299-325. Dipartimento di Matematica , Universiti di Siena, 1982...Congresso Logica e Filosfia della Scienza. oggi. San Gimignano, December 7-11, 1983, pages 95-138, Bologna, Italy, 1985. CLUEB. [Smi9l] Douglas R

  18. The First Case Report in Italy of Di George Syndrome Detected by Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Lapucci, Cristina; Pittalis, Maria Carla; Youssef, Aly; Farina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Panorama Plus (Natera), a single-nucleotide polymorphism- (SNP-) based approach that relies on the identification of maternal and fetal allele distributions, allows the detection of common aneuploidies and also incorporates a panel of 5 microdeletions including Di George syndrome. We report here the first case of Di George syndrome detected by NIPT in Italy; blood was drawn at 12 weeks' gestation. The patient had an amniocentesis to confirm the diagnosis by MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and an ultrasound aimed to detect the features associated with the syndrome. A right aortic arch and suspect of thymus atrophy were detected, but not other severe malformations typical of the disease. The patient terminated the pregnancy at 17 weeks. NIPT allowed an early screening of Di George syndrome. As the patient was at low risk, it is likely that an ultrasound would have missed the condition. PMID:26346617

  19. Supramolecular Hydrogels from Self-Assembly of di-Fmoc-L-lysine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Naas, Kinsey; Kundu, Santanu

    Mechanical properties and nanostructure of a supramolecular hydrogel formed by self-assembly of di-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-lysine (di-Fmoc-L-lysine) are reported here. Hydrogels were prepared by solvent switch technique in which water was added to a solution of di-Fmoc-L-lysine in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Mechanical properties of the gels were investigated using shear and cavitation rheology. The gels display strain-softening behavior at moderate strain values. Morphological investigations of the samples were conducted using FTIR and CD spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-assembled fibers with lateral dimensions ranging from 10 to 50 nm were captured in microscopy studies. FTIR results indicate β-sheet-like conformation of the peptides in the hydrogel.

  20. Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

  1. Anisotropic thermal transport in double-pancake coil wound with DI-BSCCO® tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, T.; Fujishiro, H.; Yamada, Y.

    2010-11-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of the thermal resistances Rr(T) and Rz(T) of the parallelepiped samples cut from a double-pancake coil along the radial (r) and the thickness (z) directions, respectively. The double-pancake coil was wound with DI-BSCCO® tape fabricated by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. DI-BSCCO is a (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x tape sheathed with silver. Both Rr(T) and Rz(T) increase monotonically with decreasing temperature. We analyze the thermal transport in the coil by use of the parallel and series heat current circuit of DI-BSCCO tapes and insulators.

  2. Thyratron characteristics under high di/dt and high-repetition-rate operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Hill, J.; Kan, T.

    1981-05-11

    Power conditioning systems for high peak and average power, high repetition rate discharge excited lasers involve operation of modulator components in unconventional regimes. Reliable operation of switches and energy storage elements under high voltage and high di/dt conditions is a pacing item for laser development at the present time. To test and evaluate these components a Modulator Component Test Facility (MCTF) was constructed. The MCTF consists of a command charge system, energy storage capacitors, thyratron switch with inverse thyratron protection, and a resistive load. The modulator has initially been operated at voltages up to 60 kV at 600 Hz. Voltage, current, and calorimetric diagnostics are provided for major modulator components. Measurements of thyratron characteristics under high di/dt operation are presented. Commutation energy loss and di/dt have been measured as functions of the tube hydrogen pressure.

  3. Inherited t(9;22) as the cause of DiGeorge syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shuib, Salwati; Abdul Latif, Zarina; Abidin, Nor Zarina Zainal; Akmal, Sharifah Noor; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2009-12-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is associated with microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. Most cases occur sporadically although vertical transmission has been documented. We report a rare case of DiGeorge syndrome in an 8-year-old girl. Blood sample of the patient was cultured and harvested following standard procedure. All of the 20 cells analysed showed a karyotype of 45, XX, -22, t (9;22) (p23; q11.2). Cytogenetic investigation done on the patient's mother revealed that she was the carrier for the translocation. Her karyotype was 46, XX, t (9;22) (p23; q11.2). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis using TUPLE1 and N25 (Vysis, USA) probes showed deletion of the 22q11.2 region in the patient, confirming the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome. FISH analysis showed no deletion of the region in the mother.

  4. GIL, a new c-di-GMP-binding protein domain involved in regulation of cellulose synthesis in enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Ahmad, Irfan; Blanka, Andrea; Schottkowski, Marco; Cimdins, Annika; Galperin, Michael Y; Römling, Ute; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to numerous enzymes involved in c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation in enterobacteria, only a handful of c-di-GMP receptors/effectors have been identified. In search of new c-di-GMP receptors, we screened the Escherichia coli ASKA overexpression gene library using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA) with fluorescently and radioisotope-labelled c-di-GMP. We uncovered three new candidate c-di-GMP receptors in E. coli and characterized one of them, BcsE. The bcsE gene is encoded in cellulose synthase operons in representatives of Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The purified BcsE proteins from E. coli, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae bind c-di-GMP via the domain of unknown function, DUF2819, which is hereby designated GIL, GGDEF I-site like domain. The RxGD motif of the GIL domain is required for c-di-GMP binding, similar to the c-di-GMP-binding I-site of the diguanylate cyclase GGDEF domain. Thus, GIL is the second protein domain, after PilZ, dedicated to c-di-GMP-binding. We show that in S. enterica, BcsE is not essential for cellulose synthesis but is required for maximal cellulose production, and that c-di-GMP binding is critical for BcsE function. It appears that cellulose production in enterobacteria is controlled by a two-tiered c-di-GMP-dependent system involving BcsE and the PilZ domain containing glycosyltransferase BcsA.

  5. c-di-GMP enhances protective innate immunity in a murine model of pertussis.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Shokrollah; Van Kessel, Jill; Kiros, Tedele G; Strom, Stacy; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Mamoru; Babiuk, Lorne A; Gerdts, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens in the respiratory tract. Innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and granulocytes contain specific pathogen-recognition molecules which induce the production of cytokines and subsequently activate the adaptive immune response. c-di-GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that stimulates innate immunity and regulates biofilm formation, motility and virulence in a diverse range of bacterial species with potent immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, c-di-GMP was used to enhance the innate immune response against pertussis, a respiratory infection mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Intranasal treatment with c-di-GMP resulted in the induction of robust innate immune responses to infection with B. pertussis characterized by enhanced recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. The immune responses were associated with an earlier and more vigorous expression of Th1-type cytokines, as well as an increase in the induction of nitric oxide in the lungs of treated animals, resulting in significant reduction of bacterial numbers in the lungs of infected mice. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP is a potent innate immune stimulatory molecule that can be used to enhance protection against bacterial respiratory infections. In addition, our data suggest that priming of the innate immune system by c-di-GMP could further skew the immune response towards a Th1 type phenotype during subsequent infection. Thus, our data suggest that c-di-GMP might be useful as an adjuvant for the next generation of acellular pertussis vaccine to mount a more protective Th1 phenotype immune response, and also in other systems where a Th1 type immune response is required.

  6. Biodegradation of diazinon by Serratia marcescens DI101 and its use in bioremediation of contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Abo-Amer, Aly

    2011-01-01

    Four diazinon-degrading bacteria were isolated from agricultural soil by using an enrichment technique. The biochemical analysis and molecular method including RFLP indicated that these isolates were identical, and one strain designated DI101 was selected for further study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that the strain DI101 clearly belongs to the Serratia marcescens group. The ability of the strain to utilize diazinon as a source of carbon and phosphorus was investigated under different culture conditions. The DI101 strain was able to completely degrade 50 mg/l diazinon in MSM within 11 days with a degradation rate of 0.226 day-1. The inoculation of sterilized soil treated with 100 mg/kg of diazinon with 10(6) CFU/g DI101 resulted in a faster degradation rate than was recorded in non-sterilized soil. The diazinon degradation rate by DI101 was efficient at temperatures from 25 to 30degrees C and at pHs from 7.0 to 8.0. The degradation rate of diazinon was not affected by the absence of a phosphorus supplement, and addition of other carbon sources (glucose or succinate) resulted in the slowing down of the degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate (Vmax) of diazinon was 0.292 day-1 and its saturation constant (Ks) was 11 mg/l, as determined by a Michaelis-Menten curve. The strain was able to degrade diethylthiophosphate-containing organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, and isazofos when provided as a source of carbon and phosphorus, but not ethoprophos, cadusafos, and fenamiphos. These results propose useful information for the potential application of the DI101 strain in bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated environments.

  7. C-Glycosyltransferases catalyzing the formation of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takamitsu; Fujimoto, Shunsuke; Suito, Fumiaki; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2017-04-02

    Citrus plants accumulate many kinds of flavonoids, including di-C-glucosyl flavonoids, which have attracted considerable attention owing to their health benefits. However, biosynthesis of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids has not been elucidated at the molecular level. Here, we identified the C-glycosyltransferases (CGTs) FcCGT (UGT708G1) and CuCGT (UGT708G2) as the primary enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids in the citrus plants kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), respectively. The amino acid sequences of these CGTs were 98% identical, indicating that CGT genes are highly conserved in the citrus family. The recombinant enzymes FcCGT and CuCGT utilized 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, and their mono-C-glucosides as sugar acceptors and produced corresponding di-C-glucosides. The Km and kcat values of FcCGT toward phloretin were <0.5 μM and 12.0 s(-1) , and those toward nothofagin (3'-C-glucosylphloretin) were 14.4 μM and 5.3 s(-1) , respectively; these values are comparable to those of other glycosyltransferases reported to date. Transcripts of both CGT genes were found to concentrate in various plant organs, and particularly in leaves. Our results suggest that di-C-glucosyl flavonoid biosynthesis proceeds via a single enzyme using either 2-hydroxyflavanones or phloretin as a substrate in citrus plants. In addition, Escherichia coli cells expressing CGT genes were found to be capable of producing di-C-glucosyl flavonoids, which is promising for commercial production of these valuable compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. (Di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium iodide–(di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methan­amine (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title structure, C3H11NOP+·I−·C3H10NOP, consists of one (di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanamine (dpma) mol­ecule, one (di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium (dpmaH) ion and one iodide counter-anion. In the crystal, medium–strong to weak N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds connect dpmaH cations and dpma mol­ecules into strands along [001]. The iodide counter-anions form only very weak hydrogen bonds. The crystal used for the diffraction study was found to be an inversion twin with a ratio of 0.83 (2):0.17 (2). The title structure is isotypic to that of dpmaH[ClO4]·dpma [Buhl et al. (2013 ▶). Crystals 3, 350–362]. PMID:24109340

  9. Crystal structure of tris­(di­methyl­amido-κN)­bis­(di­methyl­amine-κN)­zirconium(IV) iodide

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Wesley D.; Akurathi, Gopalakrishna; Valle, Henry U.; Hollis, T. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium amides have become increasingly popular and useful due to their widespread use as precursors to other zirconium complexes and their use in the production of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Herein we report the mol­ecular structure of tris­(di­methyl­amido)­bis­(di­methyl­amine)­zirconium(IV) iodide, [Zr(C2H6N)3(C2H7N)2]I. The bond lengths and bond angles are consistent with a slightly distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometry around the metal atom. N⋯I contacts of 3.6153 (15) and 3.5922 (14) Å are consistent with the presence of N—H⋯I inter­actions. These N—H⋯I inter­actions link the complex cations and iodide anions into extended chains that propagate parallel to the a axis. PMID:26870590

  10. DI2ADEM: an adaptive hypermedia designed to improve access to relevant medical information.

    PubMed

    Pagesy, R; Soula, G; Fieschi, M

    2000-01-01

    The World Wide Web (web) provides the same type of information to widely different users and these users must then find the information suitable for their use in the package offered. The authors present the DI2ADEM project designed to take the user into account and intended to provide this user with appropriate medical information. To do that, DI2ADEM is suggesting an adaptive hypermedia based on the management of a meta-knowledge of the user and a knowledge of the information that can be circulated. An adaptive hypermedia prototype devoted to paediatric oncology was implemented on the intranet network of a university hospital.

  11. Quasi-two-dimensional metallic hydrogen inside di-phosphide at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Mazur, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The method of mathematical modelling was used for the calculation of the structural, electronic, phononic, and other characteristics of various normal phases of phosphorus hydrides with stoichiometry PHk. It was shown that the di-phosphine may form 2D lattice of the metallic hydrogen in it, stabilized by phosphorus atoms under high hydrostatic pressure. The resulting structure with the elements of H-P-H has a locally stable (or metastable) phonon spectrum. The properties of di-phosphine were compared with the properties of similar structures such as the sulphur hydrides.

  12. Superheavyweight missions SI versus DI: Ascent flight design options and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    AFD has completed the trade study on Standard Insertion (SI) vs Direct Insertion (DI) for STS-50. RSOC Range Safety has developed acceptable DI targets from 130 n.mi. to 150 n.mi. and the corresponding performance assessment for these targets using STS-50 data has been completed. This mission has sufficient performance capability to perform this mission as a DI to 160 n.mi. A reduced OMS load corresponding to a DI mission is required for this option. The increase in altitude over the AFP baseline (SI to 145 n.mi.) is highly desirable for this mission. The orientation on orbit for the orbiter/USML-1 payload is such that orbital decay is maximized (maximum frontal cross-sectional area with vehicle normal to velocity vector). Increasing the operational altitude reduces the amount of vernier thruster firings necessary to maintain a constant gravity gradient. The results of this trade study can also be applied to other superheavyweight missions (EDO flights) and will allow for use of the DI technique for lower orbital altitudes, thereby eliminating the SI option for due east, low altitude missions. STSOC transmittal form no. 330-330-130, which documents the technical issues and assumptions used for this trade study effort in detail, should be referenced for further information. The main reason that a DI is desired for STS-50 and other superheavyweight flights (low altitude) is that ESMC range safety has expressed reservations about SI missions in general. The concern is that the current SI design underspeed exposes Africa and Madagascar to potential ET debris impact. In the past range safety has waived the requirement that these areas be protected in the event of an engine failure. With the advent of the pre-MECO OMS dump, the viability of DI and the high casualty expectations from the ACTA press to MECO hazard study, range safety has become more reluctant to approve SI flights. It is felt that to perform an SI mission there would have to be a large decrease in design

  13. Migration matrices and surnames in populations with different isolation patterns: Val di Lima (Italian Apennines), Val di Sole (Italian Alps), and La Cabrera (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Calboli, Federico C F; Blanco Villegas, Maria José; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Marcello G; Paoli, Giorgio; Cavicchi, Sandro; Pettener, Davide

    2006-01-01

    Biodemographic methods are widely used to infer the genetic structure of human populations. In this study, we revise and standardize the procedures required by the migration matrix model of Malécot ([1950] Ann Univ Lyon Sci [A] 13:37-60), testing it in large historical-demographic databases of 85 populations from three mountain valleys with different degrees of isolation: Val di Lima (Italian Apennines, 21 parishes), Val di Sole, (Italian Alps, 27 parishes), and La Cabrera (Spain, 37 parishes). An add-on package (Biodem) for the R program is proposed to perform all calculations. Results from migration matrices are compared with those obtained from isonymic relationships. Migration and isonymy matrices are derived from 22,781 marriage records. Matrices are analyzed using a nonlinear isolation-by-distance (IBD) model and multivariate techniques (multidimensional scaling, Procrustes rotation, and cluster analysis). Microdifferentiation levels (F(ST)) from the migration data agree with the observed inbreeding values: higher values are found in La Cabrera (F(ST) = 0.0082), the most isolated population; Val di Lima (F(ST) = 0.0015) and Val di Sole (F(ST) = 0.0012) have lower values due to the larger parish population sizes and greater mobility. Temporal changes of F(ST) and IBD are analyzed using the migration matrix approach. The populations show a marked decline in F(ST) values in time, together with increased population mobility and emigration rates. In all three valleys, marital migration and isonymy yield similar results, suggesting that geographic distance is the most important factor structuring the populations. However, isonymy shows a lower correlation with geographic distance than migration matrices do. This difference can be attributed to the differing sensitivity of the methods for past migration events, and to genetic drift.

  14. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  15. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  16. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  17. PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Nigel Noriega, Jonathan Furr, Christy Lambright, Vickie Wilson, L. Earl Gray Jr.

    The plasticizer Di (2-ethylhexyl) phtha...

  18. Utility of the 3Di Short Version for the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Compatibility with DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slappendel, Geerte; Mandy, William; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Sijde, Ad; Duvekot, Jorieke; Skuse, David; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Diagnostic Dimensional Interview-short version (3Di-sv) provides a brief standardized parental interview for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored its validity, and compatibility with DSM-5 ASD. 3Di-sv classifications showed good sensitivity but low specificity when compared to ADOS-2-confirmed clinical…

  19. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  20. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10482 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10482 Section 721.10482 Protection of... Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-430; CAS No....

  2. 40 CFR 721.10482 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10482 Section 721.10482 Protection of... Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-430; CAS No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.10483 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10483 Section 721.10483... Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a... Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10483 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10483 Section 721.10483... Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a... Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN...

  5. Utility of the 3Di Short Version for the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Compatibility with DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Slappendel, Geerte; Mandy, William; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Sijde, Ad; Duvekot, Jorieke; Skuse, David; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Diagnostic Dimensional Interview-short version (3Di-sv) provides a brief standardized parental interview for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored its validity, and compatibility with DSM-5 ASD. 3Di-sv classifications showed good sensitivity but low specificity when compared to ADOS-2-confirmed clinical diagnosis. Confirmatory factor analyses found a better fit against a DSM-5 model than a DSM-IV-TR model of ASD. Exploration of the content validity of the 3Di-sv for the DSM-5 revealed some construct underrepresentation, therefore we obtained data from a panel of 3Di-trained clinicians from ASD-specialized centers to recommend items to fill these gaps. Taken together, the 3Di-sv provides a solid basis to create a similar instrument suitable for DSM-5. Concrete recommendations are provided to improve DSM-5 compatibility.

  6. Regulation of biofilm formation and cellular buoyancy through modulating intracellular cyclic di-GMP levels in engineered cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Marco; Waters, Christopher M; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2016-02-01

    The second messenger cyclic dimeric (3'→5') GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP) has been implicated in the transition between motile and sessile lifestyles in bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that biofilm formation, cellular aggregation or flocculation, and cellular buoyancy are under the control of c-di-GMP in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) and Fremyella diplosiphon. Synechocystis is a unicellular cyanobacterium and displays lower levels of c-di-GMP; F. diplosiphon is filamentous and displays higher intracellular c-di-GMP levels. We transformed Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon with a plasmid for constitutive expression of genes encoding diguanylate cylase (DGC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) proteins from Vibrio cholerae or Escherichia coli, respectively. These engineered strains allowed us to modulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Biofilm formation and cellular deposition were induced in the DGC-expressing Synechocystis strain which exhibited high intracellular levels of c-di-GMP; whereas strains expressing PDE in Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon to drive low intracellular levels of c-di-GMP exhibited enhanced cellular buoyancy. In addition, the PDE-expressing F. diplosiphon strain showed elevated chlorophyll levels. These results imply roles for coordinating c-di-GMP homeostasis in regulating native cyanobacterial phenotypes. Engineering exogenous DGC or PDE proteins to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels represents an effective tool for uncovering cryptic phenotypes or modulating phenotypes in cyanobacteria for practical applications in biotechnology applicable in photobioreactors and in green biotechnologies, such as energy-efficient harvesting of cellular biomass or the treatment of metal-containing wastewaters.

  7. Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1996-01-01

    A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  8. Genetic Modifiers of the Physical Malformations in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome/DiGeorge Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that "Tbx1", a…

  9. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  10. Partial attenuation of Marek's disease virus by manipulation of Di-codon bias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All species studied to date demonstrate a preference for certain codons over other synonymous codons (codon bias), a preference which is also observed for pairs of codons (di-codon bias). Previous studies using poliovirus and influenza virus as models have demonstrated the ability to cause attenuat...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  12. MODULATION OF RAT LEYDIG CELL STEROIDOGENIC FUNCTION BY DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modulation of rat Leydig cell steroidogenic function by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

    Akingbemi BT, Youker RT, Sottas CM, Ge R, Katz E, Klinefelter GR, Zirkin BR, Hardy MP.

    Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, New York 10021, USA. benson@popcbr...

  13. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 178.2550 Section 178.2550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and...

  14. Di(phenylpropylamino)gossypol: a derivative of the dimeric natural product gossypol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Di(phenylpropylamino)gossypol [2,2'-bis(1,6-dihydroxy,-5-isopropyl,-8-methineaminopropylbenzene-3-methyl)-naphthylene-7-one, C48H52N2O6] is formed by reaction of the dimeric natural product gossypol with 3-phenyl-1-propylamine. When crystallized from diethyl ether, the compound has monoclinic (P21/c...

  15. Deoxythymidine 3', 5'-di-p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a synthetic substrate for bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Liao, T

    1975-05-25

    Bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease liberates p-nitrophenol from the 3'-group of deoxythymidine 3', 5'-di-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. A similar hydrolysis occurs with deoxythymidine 3'-p-nitrophenyl phosphate 5'-phsophate, but the rate is less than 2% of that with the di-p-nitrophenyl ester. The rate of formation of the p-nitrophenol, measured spectrophotometrically at 400 nm, varies linearly with DNase concentration. The binding of the substrate is not strong (K-m(app) in the 10 mM range), but the hydrolysis is rapid; 1 mug of DNase (free from other phosphodiesterases) can be assayed in 3 min after addition to a 10 mM substrate solution at pH 7.2, 10mM in MnCl2, and 1mM in CaCl2. All four bovine pancreatic DNases (A,B,C, and D) show the same relative activities toward DNA and toward the di-p-nitrophenyl ester; both activities are lost when DNase is inactivated by iodoacetate or by trypsin. The specificity of DNase toward the di-p-nitrophenyl substrate is different from that which has been established for the enzyme's predominant action on DNA or synthetic oligonucleotides, where a monoesterified phosphate group is formed at the 5'-position.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO Strain

    PubMed Central

    Chiumenti, Michela; Saponari, Maria; Donvito, Giacinto; Italiano, Alessandro; Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Cariddi, Corrado; Martelli, Giovanni Paolo; Saldarelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    We determined the draft genome sequence of the Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO strain, which has been isolated from olive plants in southern Italy (Apulia). It is associated with olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) and characterized by extensive scorching and desiccation of leaves and twigs. PMID:25676759

  17. Production technology and characterization of Fior di latte cheeses made from sheep and goat milks.

    PubMed

    Faccia, M; Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Caponio, F

    2015-03-01

    Innovation in the small ruminant dairy sector faces structural challenges because dairies are often involved in breeding and produce cheeses that appeal essentially to local markets using traditional technologies and facilities. An investigation was carried out to produce Fior di latte, a traditional, soft pasta filata cheese, from sheep and goat milks at the farm level. Fior di latte is an Italian high-moisture, round mozzarella currently produced from cow and water buffalo milks; it is very popular in Europe. Cheesemaking trials were performed and the most appropriate technology proved to be a combination of direct acidification and lactic fermentation, with some modifications to the milk coagulation phase. The gross composition of the experimental cheeses was similar to that of bovine Fior di latte, and the overall hygienic quality was satisfactory even though the milk had not been pasteurized. The new cheeses were similar in appearance to the bovine type, but some specific features were detected. Besides the typical "goaty" and "sheepy" flavors, some novel and distinctive descriptors of odor, flavor, and texture were noted. Our experiment showed that good quality Fior di latte cheese that complies with microbiological requirements of the European legislation can be obtained from sheep and goat milks by appropriately modifying the cheesemaking technology.

  18. Three new di-O-glycosyl-C-glucosyl flavones from the leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart..

    PubMed

    Nawwar, Mahmoud; El-Mousallami, Amani; Hussein, Sahar; Hashem, Amani; Mousa, Mona; Lindequist, Ulrike; Linscheid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Three hitherto unknown di-O-xylosyl-C-glycosyl flavones were isolated from the leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea. The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated by conventional methods and spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, as well as by HRESIMS.

  19. Dose Reconstruction of Di-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Using a Simple Pharmacokinetic Model [Manuscript

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background In 2005, eight adults provided full volumes and times of urine voids during one normal work week. These samples were analyzed for four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. Participants also provided diary information on their diet, driving, and out¬door a...

  20. Synthesis and comparative anion binding profiles of two di-aqua Eu(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Daniela; Giovenzana, Giovanni B; Law, Ga-Lai; Parker, David; Walton, James W

    2010-11-07

    Two di-aqua Eu(iii) complexes of heptadentate ligands are reported that show differing reactivity profiles towards various anions; a cationic complex with two azaxanthone moieties exhibits pronounced selectivity towards bicarbonate with an affinity constant, logK = 2.65 (295 K, 0.1 M NaCl).

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a novel cellular response to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure.

    PubMed

    Peropadre, Ana; Fernández Freire, Paloma; Pérez Martín, José Manuel; Herrero, Óscar; Hazen, María José

    2015-12-25

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is a high-production chemical widely used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride products. Due to its ubiquitous presence in environmental compartments and the constant exposure of the general population through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption, this compound has been subjected to extensive in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies. Despite the available information, research on the cytotoxicity of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in mammalian cells is relatively limited.In this paper, an in vitro multi-parametric approach was used to provide further mechanistic data on the toxic activity of this chemical in Vero and HaCaT cells. Our results reveal that a 24 h exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate causes, in both cell lines, an inhibition of cell proliferation that was linked to cell cycle delay at the G1 phase. Concomitantly, the tested compound induces mild endoplasmic reticulum stress which leads to an adaptive rather than a pro-apoptotic response in mammalian cells. These findings demonstrate that there are multiple potential cellular targets of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced toxicity and the need to develop further experimental studies for the risk assessment of this ubiquitous plasticizer.

  2. Polyphosphate, cyclic AMP, guanosine tetraphosphate, and c-di-GMP reduce in vitro Lon activity

    PubMed Central

    Osbourne, Devon O; Soo, Valerie WC; Konieczny, Igor; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Lon protease is conserved from bacteria to humans and regulates cellular processes by degrading different classes of proteins including antitoxins, transcriptional activators, unfolded proteins, and free ribosomal proteins. Since we found that Lon has several putative cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) binding sites and since Lon binds polyphosphate (polyP) and lipid polysaccharide, we hypothesized that Lon has an affinity for phosphate-based molecules that might regulate its activity. Hence we tested the effect of polyP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), c-di-GMP, and GMP on the ability of Lon to degrade α-casein. Inhibition of in vitro Lon activity occurred for polyP, cAMP, ppGpp, and c-di-GMP. We also demonstrated by HPLC that Lon is able to bind c-di-GMP. Therefore, four cell signals were found to regulate the activity of Lon protease. PMID:24874800

  3. Shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) for small irregular-shaped fields in the southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted using S3DI on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) rotations to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system. Drip tubing was installed in alternate row middles, strip tillage was used ...

  4. Yield and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) and furrow diking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) was installed yearly in conjunction with furrow diking to document yield and economic benefit of these techniques on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). This research was conducted for three years from 2005...

  5. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO DI-N-BUTYLTIN DICHLORIDE (DBTC): IMMUNOTOXIC AND NEUROTOXIC EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organotins are incorporated as stabilizers in PVC water supply pipe. Particularly when new, mono- and di-substituted methyl- and butyltins leach from the pipe and are thus of regulatory concern to EPA. These contaminants have adverse effects on both the immune and nervous systems...

  6. MECHANISTIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR HUMAN RELEVANCE OF CANCER HAZARD OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a peroxisome proliferator agent that is widely used as a plasticizer to soften polyvinylchloride plastics and non-polymers. Both occupational (e.g., by inhalation during its manufacture and use as a plasticizer of polyvinylchloride) and enviro...

  7. MONO-(3-CARBOXYPROPYL) PHTHALATE, A METABOLITE OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6–C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mo...

  8. VITELLOGENIN GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE FATHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used extensively in the plastics industry. DEHP has been shown to be ubiquitous in the environment and has been detected in ground and surface waters, sediment sludge and at several Superfund sites. Previous studies using rats ...

  9. c-di-GMP can form remarkably stable G-quadruplexes at physiological conditions in the presence of some planar intercalators.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shizuka; Kelsey, Ilana; Wang, Jingxin; Sintim, Herman O

    2011-04-28

    The ubiquitous bacterial biofilm regulator, c-di-GMP can form G-quadruplexes at physiological conditions in the presence of some aromatic compounds, such as acriflavine and proflavine. The fluorescence of these compounds is quenched upon c-di-GMP binding and some of the formed c-di-GMP G-quadruplexes are stable even at 75 °C.

  10. Cyclic Di-GMP Signaling Contributes to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Mediated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bis-(3′-5′) cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) controls the lifestyle transition between the sessile and motile states in many Gram-negative bacteria, including the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Under laboratory conditions, high concentrations of c-di-GMP decrease motility and promote biofilm formation, while low concentrations of c-di-GMP promote motility and decease biofilm formation. Here we sought to determine the contribution of c-di-GMP signaling to biofilm formation during P. aeruginosa-mediated catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Using a murine CAUTI model, a decrease in CFU was detected in the bladders and kidneys of mice infected with strains overexpressing the phosphodiesterases (PDEs) encoded by PA3947 and PA2133 compared to those infected with wild-type P. aeruginosa. Conversely, overexpression of the diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) encoded by PA3702 and PA1107 increased the number of bacteria in bladder and significantly increased dissemination of bacteria to the kidneys compared to wild-type infection. To determine which of the DGCs and PDEs contribute to c-di-GMP signaling during infection, a panel of PA14 in-frame deletion mutants lacking DGCs and PDEs were tested in the CAUTI model. Results from these infections revealed five mutants, three containing GGDEF domains (ΔPA14_26970, ΔPA14_72420, and ΔsiaD) and two containing dual GGDEF-EAL domains (ΔmorA and ΔPA14_07500), with decreased colonization of the bladder and dissemination to the kidneys. These results indicate that c-di-GMP signaling influences P. aeruginosa-mediated biofilms during CAUTI. IMPORTANCE Biofilm-based infections are an important cause of nosocomial infections, since they resist the immune response and traditional antibiotic treatment. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that promotes biofilm formation in many Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we determined the contribution of c-di

  11. Ultraviolet stimulated melanogenesis by human melanocytes is augmented by di-acyl glycerol but not TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Wren, F.E.; Matthews, J.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Epidermal melanocytes (MC) synthesize melanin in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The mechanisms mediating the UV-induced activation of melanogenesis are unknown but since UVR induces turnover of membrane phospholipids generating prostaglandins (PGs) and other products, it is possible that one of these might provide the activating signal. We have examined the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2, D2, F2 alpha, and di-acyl glycerol upon the UV-induced responses of cultured human MC and the Cloudman S91 melanoma cell line. The PGs had little effect on unirradiated cells and did not alter the response to UVR in either human MC or S91 melanoma cells. However, a synthetic analogue of di-acyl glycerol, 1-oleyl 2-acetyl glycerol (OAG), caused a significant (P less than 0.0001), dose-related augmentation of melanin content both in human MC (seven-fold) and S91 cells (three-fold). UVR caused a significant augmentation of the OAG-induced melanogenesis of both human MC and S91 cells. Since OAG is known to activate protein kinase C, it was possible that the observed modulation of the UVR signal could be via that pathway. Di-octanoyl glycerol, another di-acyl glycerol, which activates kinase C, caused a small (70%) increase in melanogenesis in MC which was not altered by UVR. However, 12-0 tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C, had no significant effect on either basal or UV-induced melanin synthesis in either cell type. These data suggest that the UV-induced signal activating melanogenesis could be mediated by di-acyl glycerol. Furthermore, they imply that the signal is transduced via an alternative, pathway that might be independent of protein kinase C.

  12. Analysis of tomographic mineralogical data using YaDiV—Overview and practical case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Karl-Ingo; Cichy, Sarah B.; Wolter, Franz-Erich; Botcharnikov, Roman E.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce the 3D-segmentation and -visualization software YaDiV to the mineralogical application of rock texture analysis. YaDiV has been originally designed to process medical DICOM datasets. But due to software advancements and additional plugins, this open-source software can now be easily used for the fast quantitative morphological characterization of geological objects from tomographic datasets. In this paper, we give a summary of YaDiV's features and demonstrate the advantages of 3D-stereographic visualization and the accuracy of 3D-segmentation for the analysis of geological samples. For this purpose, we present a virtual and a real use case (here: experimentally crystallized and vesiculated magmatic rocks, corresponding to the composition of the 1991-1995 Unzen eruption, Japan). Especially the spacial representation of structures in YaDiV allows an immediate, intuitive understanding of the 3D-structures, which may not become clear by only looking on 2D-images. We compare our results of object number density calculations with the established classical stereological 3D-correction methods for 2D-images and show that it was possible to achieve a seriously higher quality and accuracy. The methods described in this paper are not dependent on the nature of the object. The fact, that YaDiV is open-source and users with programming skills can create new plugins themselves, may allow this platform to become applicable to a variety of geological scenarios from the analysis of textures in tiny rock samples to the interpretation of global geophysical data, as long as the data are provided in tomographic form.

  13. Microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming polydisperse di-block copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Rajeev; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Sides, Scott W.; ...

    2015-02-03

    Despite the ubiquity of polydispersity in chain lengths of di-block copolymers, its effects on microphase separation in thin films have eluded a clear understanding. In this paper, we have studied effects of polydispersity on the microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming di-block copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT) and neutron reflectivity experiments. Di-block copolymers containing a polydisperse block of poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) connected to a near-monodisperse block poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-d6 azlactone) (PVDMA-d6) are considered in this work. Effects of chain length polydispersity, film thickness, substrate–monomer and monomer–monomer interactions on the microphase segregation are studied using SCFT. The theoretical study reveals thatmore » in comparison to a film created with monodisperse di-block copolymers, an increase in polydispersity tends to decrease the number of lamellar strata that can be packed in a film of given thickness. This is a direct consequence of an increase in lamellar domain spacing with an increase in polydispersity index. Furthermore, it is shown that polydispersity induces conformational asymmetry and an increase in the polydispersity index leads to an increase in the effective Kuhn segment length of the polydisperse blocks. It is shown that the conformational asymmetry effects, which are entropic in origin and of increasing importance as film thickness decreases, drive the polydisperse blocks to the middle of the films despite favorable substrate interactions. These predictions are verified by results from neutron reflectivity experiments on thin films made from moderately polydisperse PGMA-PVDMA-d6 di-block copolymer deposited on silicon substrates. In conclusion, results from SCFT are used to predict neutron reflectivity profiles, providing a facile and robust route to obtain useful physical insights into the structure of polydisperse diblock copolymers at interfaces.« less

  14. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, A S M Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases.

  15. Cyclic Di-GMP-Regulated Periplasmic Proteolysis of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type Vb Secretion System Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Richard B.; Smith, T. Jarrod; Leung, Wilfred; Tierney, Valerie; Borlee, Bradley R.; O'Toole, George A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously identified a second-messenger-regulated signaling system in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens which controls biofilm formation in response to levels of environmental inorganic phosphate. This system contains the transmembrane cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) receptor LapD and the periplasmic protease LapG. LapD regulates LapG and controls the ability of this protease to process a large cell surface adhesin protein, LapA. While LapDG orthologs can be identified in diverse bacteria, predictions of LapG substrates are sparse. Notably, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbors LapDG orthologs, but neither the substrate of LapG nor any associated secretion machinery has been identified to date. Here, we identified P. aeruginosa CdrA, a protein known to mediate cell-cell aggregation and biofilm maturation, as a substrate of LapG. We also demonstrated LapDG to be a minimal system sufficient to control CdrA localization in response to changes in the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. Our work establishes this biofilm signaling node as a regulator of a type Vb secretion system substrate in a clinically important pathogen. IMPORTANCE Here, the biological relevance of a conserved yet orphan signaling system in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is revealed. In particular, we identified the adhesin CdrA, the cargo of a two-partner secretion system, as a substrate of a periplasmic protease whose activity is controlled by intracellular c-di-GMP levels and a corresponding transmembrane receptor via an inside-out signaling mechanism. The data indicate a posttranslational control mechanism of CdrA via c-di-GMP, in addition to its established transcriptional regulation via the same second messenger. PMID:26100041

  16. Microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming polydisperse di-block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Sides, Scott W.; Chen, Jihua; Heller, William T.; Ankner, John F.; Browning, James F.; Kilbey, II, S. Michael; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2015-02-03

    Despite the ubiquity of polydispersity in chain lengths of di-block copolymers, its effects on microphase separation in thin films have eluded a clear understanding. In this paper, we have studied effects of polydispersity on the microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming di-block copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT) and neutron reflectivity experiments. Di-block copolymers containing a polydisperse block of poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) connected to a near-monodisperse block poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-d6 azlactone) (PVDMA-d6) are considered in this work. Effects of chain length polydispersity, film thickness, substrate–monomer and monomer–monomer interactions on the microphase segregation are studied using SCFT. The theoretical study reveals that in comparison to a film created with monodisperse di-block copolymers, an increase in polydispersity tends to decrease the number of lamellar strata that can be packed in a film of given thickness. This is a direct consequence of an increase in lamellar domain spacing with an increase in polydispersity index. Furthermore, it is shown that polydispersity induces conformational asymmetry and an increase in the polydispersity index leads to an increase in the effective Kuhn segment length of the polydisperse blocks. It is shown that the conformational asymmetry effects, which are entropic in origin and of increasing importance as film thickness decreases, drive the polydisperse blocks to the middle of the films despite favorable substrate interactions. These predictions are verified by results from neutron reflectivity experiments on thin films made from moderately polydisperse PGMA-PVDMA-d6 di-block copolymer deposited on silicon substrates. In conclusion, results from SCFT are used to predict neutron reflectivity profiles, providing a facile and robust route to obtain useful physical insights into the structure of polydisperse diblock copolymers at

  17. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, A. S. M. Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K.

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases. PMID:27073839

  18. Stimulatory actions of di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (di-8-ANEPPS), voltage-sensitive dye, on the BKCa channel in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ya-Jean

    2008-01-01

    Di-8-ANEPPS (4-{2-[6-(dibutylamino)-2-naphthalenyl]-ethenyl}-1-(3-sulfopropyl)pyridinium inner salt) has been used as a fast-response voltage-sensitive styrylpyridinium probe. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of di-8-ANEPPS actions on ion currents. In this study, the effects of this dye on ion currents were investigated in pituitary GH(3) cells. In whole-cell configuration, di-8-ANEPPS (10 microM) reversibly increased the amplitude of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current. In inside-out configuration, di-8-ANEPPS (10 microM) applied to the intracellular surface of the membrane caused no change in single-channel conductance; however, it did enhance the activity of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels with an EC(50) value of 7.5 microM. This compound caused a left shift in the activation curve of BK(Ca) channels with no change in the gating charge of these channels. A decrease in mean closed time of the channels was seen in the presence of this dye. In the cell-attached mode, di-8-ANEPPS applied on the extracellular side of the membrane also activated BK(Ca) channels. However, neither voltage-gated K(+) nor ether-à-go-go-related gene (erg)-mediated K(+) currents in GH(3) cells were affected by di-8-APPNES. Under current-clamp configuration, di-8-ANEPPS (10 microM) decreased the firing of action potentials in GH(3) cells. In pancreatic betaTC-6 cells, di-8-APPNES (10 microM) also increased BK(Ca)-channel activity. Taken together, this study suggests that during the exposure to di-8-ANEPPS, the stimulatory effects on BK(Ca) channels could be one of potential mechanisms through which it may affect cell excitability.

  19. A method to account for track overlap in CR-39 detectors.

    PubMed

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors are commonly used for the detection of indoor radon levels. However, despite numerous advantages, this technique still presents many unsolved problems. An important source of error is represented by the reduction in the detection efficiency due to overlapping tracks, which results in a sensible underestimation of the radon levels. This paper presents a new experimental procedure to address the effect of overlapping tracks by establishing a relationship between the detection efficiency and the number of detected tracks. Experimental data have been collected at the radon chamber of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), at the ENEA centre in Casaccia, using CR-39 detectors provided by Radosys Ltd. It has been proved that the method, applied to the experimental settings of this study, gives reliable results up to 7607 kBq h m(-3). Finally, the method has been validated through a Monte Carlo simulation, exploring a wide range of radon exposure.

  20. Study of ageing and fading in CR-39 detectors for different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso; Cardellini, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ageing and fading on PADC detector response, as a function of the storage time and temperature. Several groups of CR-39 detectors provided by Radosys, Ltd. were exposed at the reference radon chamber of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, at the ENEA centre in Casaccia. The results indicate that low-temperature storage inhibits the effect of both ageing and fading. Finally, the overall reduction in CR-39 sensitivity due to the combined ageing/fading effect was estimated. In particular, the sensitivity of the detectors continuously exposed in air at room temperature over 6 and 3 months was reduced, respectively, by 7.5 and 4 %.

  1. Structural and biochemical characterization of linear dinucleotide analogs bound to the c-di-GMP-I aptamer†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathryn D.; Lipchock, Sarah V.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP regulates lifestyle transitions in many bacteria, such as the change from a free motile state to a biofilm-forming community. Riboswitches that bind this second messenger are important downstream targets in this bacterial signaling pathway. The breakdown of c-di-GMP in the cell is accomplished enzymatically and results in the linear dinucleotide pGpG. The c-di-GMP-binding riboswitches must be able to discriminate between their cognate cyclic ligand and linear dinucleotides in order to be selective biological switches. It has been reported that the cdi-GMP-I riboswitch binds c-di-GMP five orders of magnitude better than the linear pGpG, but the cause of this large energetic difference in binding is unknown. Here we report binding data and crystal structures of several linear c-di-GMP analogs in complex with the c-di-GMP-I riboswitch. These data reveal the parameters for phosphate recognition and the structural basis of linear dinucleotide binding to the riboswitch. Additionally, the pH dependence of binding shows that exclusion of pGpG is not due to the additional negative charge on the ligand. These data reveal principles that, along with published work, will contribute to the design of c-di-GMP analogs with properties desirable for use as chemical tools and potential therapeutics. PMID:22148472

  2. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Whitney, John C; Whitfield, Gregory B; Marmont, Lindsey S; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D; Robinson, Howard; Ohman, Dennis E; Howell, P Lynne

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. These results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.

  3. Dimeric c-di-GMP Is Required for Post-translational Regulation of Alginate Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, John C.; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A. Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Robinson, Howard; Ohman, Dennis E.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. These results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa. PMID:25817996

  4. Intestinal GPS: bile and bicarbonate control cyclic di-GMP to provide Vibrio cholerae spatial cues within the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli to enable bacteria to transition between different lifestyles. Here we discuss our recent findings that the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae recognizes 2 host-specific signals, bile and bicarbonate, to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP. We have demonstrated that bile acids increase intracellular c-di-GMP to promote biofilm formation. We have also shown that this bile-mediated increase of intracellular c-di-GMP is negated by bicarbonate, and that this interaction is dependent on pH, suggesting that V. cholerae uses these 2 environmental cues to sense and adapt to its relative location in the small intestine. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP by bile is attributed to increased c-di-GMP synthesis by 3 diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and decreased expression of one phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the presence of bile. The molecular mechanisms by which bile controls the activity of the 3 DGCs and the regulators of bile-mediated transcriptional repression of the PDE are not yet known. Moreover, the impact of varying concentrations of bile and bicarbonate at different locations within the small intestine and the response of V. cholerae to these cues remains unclear. The native microbiome and pharmaceuticals, such as omeprazole, can impact bile and pH within the small intestine, suggesting these are potential unappreciated factors that may alter V. cholerae pathogenesis.

  5. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DOE PAGES

    Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Whitfield, Gregory B.; ...

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZmore » domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Moreover, calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. Our results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.« less

  6. The second messenger c-di-AMP inhibits the osmolyte uptake system OpuC in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Tommaso; Campeotto, Ivan; Corrigan, Rebecca M.; Freemont, Paul; Gründling, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important opportunistic human pathogen that is highly resistant to osmotic stresses. In order to survive an increase in osmolarity, bacteria immediately take up potassium and small organic compounds, also referred to as compatible solutes. The second messenger c-di-AMP binds to several receptor proteins, most of which are involved in ion and potassium uptake, that help bacteria cope with osmotic stress. In this study, we identified OpuCA, the ATPase component of an uptake system for the compatible solute carnitine, as a c-di-AMP target protein in S. aureus and found that a strain overproducing c-di-AMP showed reduced carnitine uptake. The CBS domains of OpuCA bound to c-di-AMP, and a crystal structure revealed a putative binding pocket for c-di-AMP in the cleft between the two CBS domains. Thus, c-di-AMP is involved in regulating both branches of osmoprotection (potassium uptake and compatible solute uptake), suggesting that c-di-AMP is a general osmotic stress regulator. PMID:27531650

  7. Protection of hepatocytes against death due to mitochondrial failure: effect of di-Calciphor on antimycin A-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Devlin, T M; Jones, D P

    1994-05-01

    Di-Calciphor is a synthetic derivative of prostaglandin B1 that protects against cerebral and cardiac ischemia apparently by preserving mitochondrial function. To determine whether di-Calciphor specifically protects against mitochondrial failure, we studied its effects on mitochondrial functions in hepatocytes treated with the specific mitochondrial poison, antimycin A. The results show that 1 microM di-Calciphor protects against cell death at concentrations of antimycin A that inhibited mitochondrial respiration and caused cellular ATP depletion. Di-Calciphor did not protect against loss of ATP but did protect against the loss of mitochondrial delta psi and delta pH. In addition, di-Calciphor protected against antimycin A-induced loading of phosphate into mitochondria and an associated mitochondrial swelling. Thus, these results show that di-Calciphor protects against a specific mitochondrial poison and support the interpretation that di-Calciphor is a mitochondrial protective agent. In addition, the results suggest that the protection of the mitochondria involves preservation of mitochondrial ionic and osmotic stability and does not involve improved ATP supply.

  8. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A. Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Ohman, Dennis E.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Moreover, calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. Our results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.

  9. DiPyMe in SDS Micelles: Artifacts and Their Implications in the Interpretation of Micellar Properties.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Michael; Hisko, Victoria; Henderson, Jason; Casier, Remi; Li, Lu; Thoma, Janine Lydia; Duhamel, Jean

    2015-11-10

    This study provides experimental evidence that di(1-pyrenylmethyl) ether or DiPyMe, a well-known fluorescent probe employed to determine the microviscosity of surfactant or polymeric micelles, is being hydrolyzed in the presence of water upon UV irradiation. This effect was established from a careful analysis of the fluorescence spectra and decays acquired with aqueous solutions of DiPyMe dissolved in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The size of the SDS micelles could be adjusted from an aggregation number (N(agg)) of 70 to 172 by increasing the ionic strength of the aqueous solution from 0.0 to 0.5 M NaCl. The hydrolysis of DiPyMe was much reduced in the larger SDS micelles. While the degradation of DiPyMe in aqueous solutions of SDS micelles affected the analysis of the fluorescence spectra, model-free analysis (MFA) of the fluorescence decays of DiPyMe could reliably retrieve the rate constant ⟨k⟩ of excimer formation for DiPyMe. After calibration with mixtures of organic solvents of known macroscopic viscosity, the ⟨k⟩ values obtained for DiPyMe yielded the microviscosity (μη) of the SDS micelles as a function of salt concentration. The μη was found to increase from 4.0 to 8.8 mPa·s as the salt concentration increased from 0.0 to 0.5 M. This study demonstrated that, regardless of the problem of its hydrolysis that jeopardizes its use in steady-state fluorescence experiments, DiPyMe remains an extremely valuable probe for describing the microviscosity of hydrophobic domains in aqueous solution as long as its decays are analyzed with a model that accounts for the presence of degradation products as the MFA does.

  10. Cohesive Properties of the Caulobacter crescentus Holdfast Adhesin Are Regulated by a Novel c-di-GMP Effector Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Kathrin S.; Hug, Isabelle; Nesper, Jutta; Potthoff, Eva; Mahi, Mohamed-Ali; Sangermani, Matteo; Kaever, Volkhard; Schwede, Torsten; Vorholt, Julia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown. Here we identify HfsK, a member of a versatile N-acetyltransferase family, as a novel c-di-GMP effector involved in holdfast biogenesis. Cells lacking HfsK form highly malleable holdfast structures with reduced adhesive strength that cannot support surface colonization. We present indirect evidence that HfsK modifies the polysaccharide component of holdfast to buttress its cohesive properties. HfsK is a soluble protein but associates with the cell membrane during most of the cell cycle. Coincident with peak c-di-GMP levels during the C. crescentus cell cycle, HfsK relocalizes to the cytosol in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Our results indicate that this c-di-GMP-mediated dynamic positioning controls HfsK activity, leading to its inactivation at high c-di-GMP levels. A short C-terminal extension is essential for the membrane association, c-di-GMP binding, and activity of HfsK. We propose a model in which c-di-GMP binding leads to the dispersal and inactivation of HfsK as part of holdfast biogenesis progression. PMID:28325767

  11. Identification of a cyclic-di-GMP-modulating response regulator that impacts biofilm formation in a model sulfate reducing bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric G.; Altenburg, Sara; Zane, Grant M.; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Catena, Michela; Keasling, Jay D.; Wall, Judy D.; Fields, Matthew W.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the eight putative cyclic-di-GMP-modulating response regulators (RRs) in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough that are predicted to function via two-component signaling. Using purified proteins, we examined cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) production or turnover in vitro of all eight proteins. The two RRs containing only GGDEF domains (DVU2067, DVU0636) demonstrated c-di-GMP production activity in vitro. Of the remaining proteins, three RRs with HD-GYP domains (DVU0722, DVUA0086, and DVU2933) were confirmed to be Mn2+-dependent phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in vitro and converted c-di-GMP to its linear form, pGpG. DVU0408, containing both c-di-GMP production (GGDEF) and degradation domains (EAL), showed c-di-GMP turnover activity in vitro also with production of pGpG. No c-di-GMP related activity could be assigned to the RR DVU0330, containing a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase HD-OD domain, or to the HD-GYP domain RR, DVU1181. Studies included examining the impact of overexpressed cyclic-di-GMP-modulating RRs in the heterologous host E. coli and led to the identification of one RR, DVU0636, with increased cellulose production. Evaluation of a transposon mutant in DVU0636 indicated that the strain was impaired in biofilm formation and demonstrated an altered carbohydrate:protein ratio relative to the D. vulgaris wild type biofilms. However, grown in liquid lactate/sulfate medium, the DVU0636 transposon mutant showed no growth impairment relative to the wild-type strain. Among the eight candidates, only the transposon disruption mutant in the DVU2067 RR presented a growth defect in liquid culture. Our results indicate that, of the two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) that function as part of two-component signaling, DVU0636 plays an important role in biofilm formation while the function of DVU2067 has pertinence in planktonic growth. PMID:25120537

  12. ASSOCIATION OF EXPOSURE TO DI-2-ETHYLHEXYLPHTHALATE (DEHP) REPLACEMENTS WITH INCREASED BLOOD PRESSURE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are environmental chemicals widely used in consumer and personal care products. In this study we examined associations of urinary phthalates with blood pressure, triglycerides and lipoproteins in children and adolescents, performing a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of US children 6–19 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between the years 2009–2012. We quantified exposure to common environmental phthalates, with a focus on the dietary contaminant di-2-ethylhexylphthalate and two increasingly used replacements, di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate, based on micromolar concentration of urinary metabolites. We assessed descriptive, univariate and multivariable associations with blood pressure and lipids. Controlling for an array of sociodemographic and behavioral factors, as well as diet and body mass, metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate , di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate were associated with higher age-, gender- and height-standardized blood pressure. For each log unit increase in di-isodecyl phthalate metabolites, a 0.105 standard deviation unit increase in systolic blood pressure z score was identified (p=0.004); for di-isononyl phthalate metabolites, a 0.113 standard deviation unit increment was identified (p=0.008). For di-2-ethylhexylphthalate metabolites, a 0.103 standard deviation unit increment (p=0.013) was detected. Metabolites of low molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and personal care products showed an association with blood pressure (≥90th percentile) in univariate analysis, but this was no longer significant in our full multivariable model, suggesting specificity. Phthalate metabolites were not associated with triglycerides or high-density lipoproteins. Further, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations, and to assess opportunities for intervention. PMID:26156503

  13. Substitutions of fluorine atoms and phenoxy groups in the synthesis of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Esther; Villar, Raquel; Burguete, Asunción; Solano, Beatriz; Ancizu, Saioa; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Monge, Antonio

    2008-01-18

    The unexpected substitution of fluorine atoms and phenoxy groups attached to quinoxaline or benzofuroxan rings is described. The synthesis of 2-benzyl- and 2-phenoxy-3-methylquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives was based on the classical Beirut reaction. The tendency of fluorine atoms linked to quinoxaline or benzofuroxan rings to be replaced by a methoxy group when dissolved in an ammonia saturated solution of methanol was clearly demonstrated. In addition, 2-phenoxyquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives became 2-aminoquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives in the presence of gaseous ammonia.

  14. Structural Insights into the Distinct Binding Mode of Cyclic Di-AMP with SaCpaA_RCK.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Liang, Juin-Ming; Yang, Jauo-Guey; Shih, Min-Shao; Tu, Zhi-Le; Wang, Yu-Chuang; Sun, Xing-Han; Hu, Nien-Jen; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2015-08-11

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a relatively new member of the family of bacterial cyclic dinucleotide second messengers. It has attracted significant attention in recent years because of the abundant roles it plays in a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. The structural features that allow diverse bacterial proteins to bind c-di-AMP are not fully understood. Here we report the biophysical and structural studies of c-di-AMP in complex with a bacterial cation-proton antiporter (CpaA) RCK (regulator of the conductance of K(+)) protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa). The crystal structure of the SaCpaA_RCK C-terminal domain (CTD) in complex with c-di-AMP was determined to a resolution of 1.81 Å. This structure revealed two well-liganded water molecules, each interacting with one of the adenine bases by a unique H2Olp-π interaction to stabilize the complex. Sequence blasting using the SaCpaA_RCK primary sequence against the bacterial genome database returned many CpaA analogues, and alignment of these sequences revealed that the active site residues are all well-conserved, indicating a universal c-di-AMP binding mode for CpaA_RCK. A proteoliposome activity assay using the full-length SaCpaA membrane protein indicated that c-di-AMP binding alters its antiporter activity by approximately 40%. A comparison of this structure to all other reported c-di-AMP-receptor complex structures revealed that c-di-AMP binds to receptors in either a "U-shape" or "V-shape" mode. The two adenine rings are stabilized in the inner interaction zone by a variety of CH-π, cation-π, backbone-π, or H2Olp-π interaction, but more commonly in the outer interaction zone by hydrophobic CH-π or π-π interaction. The structures determined to date provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which a single c-di-AMP can interact with a variety of receptor proteins, and how c-di-AMP binds receptor proteins in a special way different from that of c-di-GMP.

  15. THE STATE OF MANGANESE IN THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS. I. EXAFS STUDIES ON CHLOROPLASTS AND di-u-oxo BRIDGED di-MANGANESE MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J. A.; Robertson, A. S.; Smith, J. P.; Thompson, A. C.; Thompson, A. C.; Klein, M. P.

    1980-11-01

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) studies on the manganese contained in spinach chloroplasts and on certain di-u-oxo bridged manganese dimers of the form (X{sub 2}Mn)O{sub 2}(MnX{sub 2} (X=2,2'-bypyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline) are reported. From these studies, the manganese associated with photosynthetic oxygen evolution is suggested to occur as a bridged transition metal dimer with most likely another manganese. Extensive details on the analysis are included.

  16. Crystal structure of [N,N′-bis­(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1,2-di­phenyl­ethane-1,2-di­imine-κ2 N,N′]di­chlorido­palladium(II) methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Peñaloza, Alfredo; Fronczek, Frank R.; Isovitsch, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [PdCl2(C28H24N2)]·CH3OH, was pre­pared from the reaction of PdCl2(DMSO)2 (DMSO is di­methyl sulfoxide) and N,N′-bis­(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1,2-di­phenyl­ethane-1,2-di­imine in methanol. The chelating di­imine core of the title compound deviates slightly from planarity, with an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 5.3 (3)°. Delocalization in the di­imine core is indicated by N—C and C—C bonds that are, respectively, longer and shorter than those found in related nonchelating di­imines. The distorted square-planar coordination environment around the PdII atom is manifested as bond angles that are smaller and larger than 90°, and palladacycle torsion angles of −173.22 (16) and 167.06 (16)°. These deviations are attributed to the small bite angle of 79.13 (8)° of the di­imine chelate. The crystal packing exhibits weak inter­molecular hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving aromatic H atoms, Cl atoms and inter­calated methanol solvent mol­ecules, defining layers parallel to (010). PMID:26396867

  17. The soybean GmDi19-5 interacts with GmLEA3.1 and increases sensitivity of transgenic plants to abiotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhi-Juan; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Cui, Xi-Yan; Chen, Ming; Yang, Guang-Xiao; Ma, You-Zhi; He, Guang-Yuan; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Drought-induced (Di19) proteins played important roles in plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. In the present study, a total of seven Di19 genes were identified in soybean. Each soybean Di19 gene showed specific responses to salt, drought, oxidative, and ABA stresses based on expression profiles. With a relatively higher transcript level among Di19 members under four stress treatments, GmDi19-5 was selected for detailed analysis. Inhibitor assays revealed that ABA inhibitor (Fluridone) or H2O2 inhibitor (DMTU) was involved in the drought- or salt-induced transcription of GmDi19-5. The GUS activity driven by the GmDi19-5 promoter was induced by salt, PEG, ABA, and MV treatments and tended to be accumulated in the vascular bundles and young leaves. A subcellular localization assay showed that GmDi19-5 protein localized in the nucleus. Further investigation showed that GmDi19-5 protein was involved in the interaction with GmLEA3.1. Overexpression of GmDi19-5 increased sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis plants to salt, drought, oxidative, and ABA stresses and regulated expression of several ABA/stress-associated genes. This present investigation showed that GmDi19-5 functioned as a negative factor under abiotic stresses and was involved in ABA and SOS signaling pathway by altering transcription of stress-associated genes. PMID:25852726

  18. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  19. Assessing differences in toxicity and teratogenicity of three phthalates, Diethyl phthalate, Di-n-propyl phthalate, and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Steven T; Wood, Andrew T; Lester, Rachel; Onkst, Paitra E; Burnham, Nathaniel; Perygin, Donna H; Rayburn, James

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, the diethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DnPP), and di-n-butyl (DBP) phthalates were found to exert detrimental effects in both mammalian and non-mammalian studies, with toxic effects varying according to alkyl chain length. Embryos of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, have been used to assess toxicity and teratogenicity of several compounds and serves as a model for assessing adverse and teratogenic effects of ortho-phthalate esters. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for comparison of developmentally toxic effects of ortho-phthalate esters using Xenopus embryos. In this study developing Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP, DnPP, and DBP using the 96-h Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), with 96-h lethal concentrations, effective concentrations to induce malformations, teratogenic indices, and concentrations to inhibit growth determined. DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed enhanced toxicity with increasing ester length. Developing Xenopus laevis exposed to DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed similar malformations that also occurred at lower concentrations with increasing alkyl chain length. Teratogenic risk did not change markedly with alkyl chain length, with data showing only DBP to be teratogenic.

  20. Novel octahedral Pt(IV) complex with di-n-propyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoato ligand exerts potent immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Miljković, Djordje; Poljarević, Jelena M; Petković, Filip; Blaževski, Jana; Momčilović, Miljana; Nikolić, Ivana; Saksida, Tamara; Stošić-Grujičić, Stanislava; Grgurić-Šipka, Sanja; Sabo, Tibor J

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that a novel octahedral Pt(IV) complex with di-n-propyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoato ligand has a potent cytotoxic effect on glioma, melanoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines. In this work, we investigated the influence of the Pt(IV) compound on immune cells. We determined its effect on the viability of spleen cells and lymph node cells and on their capability to produce interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17. Also, we researched the compound's impact on peritoneal macrophages and generation of NO in these cells. Our results show that the complex has limited influence on cell viability of immune cells, but profound inhibitory effect on the production of examined immune mediators. These results are valuable as they show that the novel Pt(IV) complex applied in concentrations which are effective against tumor cells do not affect immune cell viability. Moreover, they also imply that the complex has immunomodulatory properties.

  1. Chamber studies on mass-transfer of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di- n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from emission sources into house dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schripp, Tobias; Fauck, Christian; Salthammer, Tunga

    2010-08-01

    For a number of phthalates and especially for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), surprisingly high house dust concentrations are reported in the literature. Therefore, the uptake of the most prominent compounds DEHP and di- n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from plasticized indoor materials into house dust samples of different organic content has been experimentally determined. The experiments have been performed within 45 days which is sufficient for the more volatile phthalate (DnBP) to reach equilibrium conditions. DnBP reaches considerably higher concentrations in the chamber air compared to real room measurements and, thus, also elevated dust concentrations. In contrast, the mass transfer of DEHP in the dust via the gas phase was significantly lower. However, small chamber experiments showed elevated mass transfer of DEHP in case of direct contact between emission source and sink. This aspect is experimentally determined using an plasticized PVC polymer with and without direct contact to house dust. A transfer into the dust could be observed in dependence of the initial concentration in the material. However, the results do not allow the differentiation between the two uptake mechanisms via capillary forces and contact to the material's boundary layer. The results illustrate that the reasons for elevated DEHP concentrations in dust indoors can be traced back to direct contact of source and sink, abrasion from the source, and transport via airborne particles.

  2. Synthesis and DFT calculation of a novel 5,17-di(2-antracenylazo)-25,27-di(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)-26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, A; Kart, H H; Elcin, S; Deligoz, H; Karabacak, M

    2015-02-05

    In this study, 5,17-di(2-antracenylazo)-25,27-di(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)-26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene has been synthesized from 2-aminoantracene and 25,27-dihydroxy-26,28-diethylacetate calix[4]arene. In order to identify the molecular structure and vibrational features of the prepared azocalix[4]arene, FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectral data have been used. FT-IR spectrum of the studied molecule is recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1). (1)H NMR spectrum is recorded for 0.1-0.2 M solutions in DMSO-d6 solution. The molecular geometry, infrared spectrum are calculated by the density functional method employing B3LYP level with different basis sets, including 6-31G(d) and LanL2DZ. The chemical shifts calculation for (1)H NMR of the title molecule is calculated by using by Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital method by utilizing the same basis sets. The total density of state, the partial density of state and the overlap population density of state diagram analysis are done via GaussSum 3.0 program. Frontier molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) and molecular electrostatic potential surface on the title molecule are carried out for various intramolecular interactions that are responsible for the stabilization of the molecule. The experimental results and theoretical calculations have been compared, and they are found to be in good agreement.

  3. Adsorption of di-l-alanine on Cu(110) investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stensgaard, I.

    2003-11-01

    Sub-monolayer growth of a small chiral peptide, di- L-alanine, on Cu(1 1 0) was investigated by variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At low coverage and for temperatures above ≈-220 K the molecules nucleate along the [ 3¯ 3 2] direction to form short, mainly one-dimensional islands. An increase in coverage leads to the formation of [ 3¯ 3 2]-directed, elongated islands. Images with sub-molecular resolution reveal that the orientation of the molecules within one particular island depends on the deposition temperature. At higher coverage, up to one monolayer, the islands coalesce, giving rise to phase boundaries between domains of opposite orientation. An atomic-scale model for di- L-alanine on Cu(1 1 0) is presented.

  4. Antiinflammatory 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(2-arylethenyl)phenols.

    PubMed

    Lazer, E S; Wong, H C; Possanza, G J; Graham, A G; Farina, P R

    1989-01-01

    A series of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(2-arylethenyl)phenols was prepared and examined for their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase in vitro and developing adjuvant arthritis in vivo in the rat. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. Among the best compounds is (E)-2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-[2-(3-pyridinyl)ethenyl]phenol (7d). It has an IC50 of 0.67 microM for cyclooxygenase and 2.7 microM for 5-lipoxygenase and an ED50 of 2.1 mg/kg in developing adjuvant arthritis. Additional in vivo data are reported for 7d.

  5. Di-Higgs decay of stoponium at a future photon-photon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hayato; Moroi, Takeo; Takaesu, Yoshitaro

    2016-05-01

    We study the detectability of the stoponium in the di-Higgs decay mode at the photon-photon collider option of the International e+e- Linear Collider, the center-of-mass energy of which is planned to reach ˜1 TeV . We find that 5 σ detection of the di-Higgs decay mode is possible with the integrated electron-beam luminosity of 1 ab-1 if the signal cross section, σ (γ γ →σt˜1→h h ) , of O (0.1 ) fb is realized for the stoponium mass smaller than ˜800 GeV at 1 TeV ILC. Such a value of the cross section can be realized in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with relatively large trilinear stop-stop-Higgs coupling constant. The implication of the stoponium cross section measurement for the minimal supersymmetric standard model stop sector is also discussed.

  6. Selective activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis of new quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Esther; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Lima, Lidia M; Ancizu, Saioa; Burguete, Asunción; Solano, Beatriz; Villar, Raquel; Aldana, Ignacio; Monge, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    New series of 3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide with selective activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been prepared and evaluated. Thirty-four of the seventy tested compounds showed an MIC value less than 0.2 microg/mL, a value on the order of the MIC of rifampicin. Furthermore, 45% of the evaluated derivatives showed a good in vitro activity/toxicity ratio. The most active and selective compounds carry a fluorine atom in the quinoxaline 7-position or in the phenyl substituent para-position. In conclusion, the potency, low cytotoxicity and selectivity of these compounds make them valid lead compounds for synthesizing new analogues, particularly compound 7-methyl-3-(4'-fluoro)phenylquinoxaline-2-carbonitrile 1,4-di-N-oxide (MIC <0.2 microg/mL and SI > 500).

  7. Contribution of di-SIA to mass transport in Fe-Cr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.; Pechenkin, V. A.; Molodtsov, V. L.; Terentyev, D.

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the diffusion characteristics of di-self interstitial atom (di-SIA) in BCC Fe-Cr alloys and corresponding mass transport of Fe and Cratoms in the temperature range 600-1000 K in the alloys with Cr content 5-25 at%, which is relevant for ferritic/martensitic steels. An original treatment is proposed in this work to account for a mixed migration mode composed of the diffusion of the cluster itself and break-up into a pair of independent SIAs. The ratio of self-diffusion coefficients of Cr and Fe is found to exceed unity in Fe-5Cr and Fe-10Cr alloys, which implies that under cascade-producing damage, 3D-migrating small SIA clusters will effectively contribute to the segregation of Cr to neutral and SIA-preferential sinks, eventually causing radiation induced segregation.

  8. Simultaneous di-oxygenation and denitrification in an internal circulation baffled bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Tang, Yingxia; Sun, Weihua; Yi, Na; Zhang, Yongming; Shi, Hanchang; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-03-04

    An internal circulation baffled bioreactor was employed to realize simultaneous di-oxygenation of phthalic acid (PA) and denitrification of nitrate, which require aerobic and anoxic conditions, respectively. Adding a small concentration of succinate as an exogenous electron donor stimulated PA di-oxygenation, which produced readily oxidizable downstream products whose oxidation also enhanced denitrification of nitrate; succinate addition also stimulated denitrification. Depending on the concentration of PA, addition of 0.17 mM succinate increased the PA removal rate by 25 and 42%, while the corresponding nitrate removal rate was increased by 73 and 51%. UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation of PA had the same effects as adding succinate, since succinate is generated by UV/H2O2; this acceleration effect was approximately equivalent to adding 0.17 mM succinate.

  9. MeDiA: Mean Distance Association and Its Applications in Nonlinear Gene Set Analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hesen; Ma, Junjie; Bai, Yun; Lu, Jianwei; Yu, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic association discovery aims at identifying the association between random vectors, regardless of number of variables involved or linear/nonlinear functional forms. Recently, applications in high-dimensional data have generated rising interest in probabilistic association discovery. We developed a framework based on functions on the observation graph, named MeDiA (Mean Distance Association). We generalize its property to a group of functions on the observation graph. The group of functions encapsulates major existing methods in association discovery, e.g. mutual information and Brownian Covariance, and can be expanded to more complicated forms. We conducted numerical comparison of the statistical power of related methods under multiple scenarios. We further demonstrated the application of MeDiA as a method of gene set analysis that captures a broader range of responses than traditional gene set analysis methods.

  10. Simulating water, solute, and heat transport in the subsurface with the VS2DI software package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    The software package VS2DI was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for simulating water, solute, and heat transport in variably saturated porous media. The package consists of a graphical preprocessor to facilitate construction of a simulation, a postprocessor for visualizing simulation results, and two numerical models that solve for flow and solute transport (VS2DT) and flow and heat transport (VS2DH). The finite-difference method is used to solve the Richards equation for flow and the advection-dispersion equation for solute or heat transport. This study presents a brief description of the VS2DI package, an overview of the various types of problems that have been addressed with the package, and an analysis of the advantages and limitations of the package. A review of other models and modeling approaches for studying water, solute, and heat transport also is provided. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. DiGeorge syndrome associated with solitary median maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huai-Chih; Shyur, Shyh-Dar; Huang, Li-Hsin; Chang, Yi-Chi; Wen, Da-Chin; Liang, Pei-Hsuan; Lin, Mao-Tsair

    2005-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by dysgenesis of the thymus and parathyroid glands, conotruncal cardiac anomalies, and other dysmorphic features. Although most patients have a common microscopic deletion in chromosome 22q11.2, marked clinical variability exists. A solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly which may be an isolated occurrence or associated with congenital nasal airway abnormalities or holoprosencephaly. We report a patient with DiGeorge syndrome who was diagnosed at nearly 1 month of age and was later found to have a solitary median central incisor. Initially, the patient presented with recurrent episodes of respiratory distress attributed to partial airway obstruction, one of the phenotypic features of SMMCI. A fluorescence in situ hybridization study showed a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion.

  12. [DiGeorge syndrome/velcardiofacial syndrome: oral and maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Pradel, W; Bartsch, O; Müller, R; Lauer, G; Eckelt, U

    2003-09-01

    The DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome is the most frequent chromosomal microdeletion syndrome. Partial deletion of chromosome 22q11 may lead to symptoms including facial dysmorphy, hypoparathyroidism, thymic aplasia, congenital heart disease, developmental retardation, and disturbance of speech development. According to the literature, 9% of patients have cleft palate, an additional 5% have a submucosal cleft, and a total of 32% show velopharyngeal insufficiency. We studied 64 children with a cleft, or with delayed speech development and a submucosal or occult cleft, for the presence of the 22q11deletion using fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Five patients had the 22q11 deletion. We conclude that patients presenting with nasal speech and additional anomalies should all be studied for the presence of submucosal or occult clefting and for the presence of the DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome.

  13. Preparation and structural elucidation of (-)-tetrahydroberberine-(+)-2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jin-Ming; Liu, Wei-Tao; Li, Man-Lin; Liu, Han-Wei; Zhang, Xing-Chang; Li, Zong-Xiao

    2008-12-01

    A new (2:1) complex of (-)-13a S-tetrahydroberberine [(-)-13a S-THB] with (+)-2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid (DTTA), i.e. 5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-9,10-dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxy- 6H dibenzo[a,g] quinolizine·2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid [2C 20H 20NO 4·C 20H 18O 8], as well as its optical active component (-)-THB, has been obtained from the resolution process of (±)-THB in methanol. The structures of this complex and an enantiomer (-)-13a S-THB have been characterized by CD, IR and NMR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray single crystal diffraction.

  14. On-line process analysis innovation: DiComp (tm) shunting dielectric sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Craig R.; Waldman, Frank A.

    1993-01-01

    The DiComp Shunting Dielectric Sensor (SDS) is a new patent-pending technology developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) for NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The incorporation of a shunt electrode into a conventional fringing field dielectric sensor makes the SDS uniquely sensitive to changes in material dielectric properties in the KHz to MHz range which were previously detectable only at GHz measurement frequencies. The initial NASA application of the SDS for Nutrient Delivery Control has demonstrated SDS capabilities for thickness and concentration measurement of Hoagland nutrient solutions. The commercial introduction of DiComp SDS technology for concentration and percent solids measurements in dispersions, emulsions and solutions represents a new technology for process measurements for liquids in a variety of industries.

  15. Carbon Nanofiber Incorporated Silica Based Aerogels with Di-Isocyanate Cross-Linking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivod, Stephanie L.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Capadona, Lynn A.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Clark, Nicholas; McCorkle, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight materials with excellent thermal insulating properties are highly sought after for a variety of aerospace and aeronautic applications. (1) Silica based aerogels with their high surface area and low relative densities are ideal for applications in extreme environments such as insulators for the Mars Rover battery. (2) However, the fragile nature of aerogel monoliths prevents their widespread use in more down to earth applications. We have shown that the fragile aerogel network can be cross-linked with a di-isocyanate via amine decorated surfaces to form a conformal coating. (3) This coating reinforces the neck regions between secondary silica particles and significantly strengthens the aerogels with only a small effect on density or porosity. Scheme 1 depicts the cross-linking reaction with the di-isocyanate and exhibits the stages that result in polymer cross-linked aerogel monoliths.

  16. Temperature-dependent photochemistry of 1,3-diphenylpropenes. The di-pi-methane reaction revisited.

    PubMed

    Lewis, F D; Zuo, X; Kalgutkar, R S; Wagner-Brennan, J M; Miranda, M A; Font-Sanchis, E; Perez-Prieto, J

    2001-12-05

    The temperature-dependent photochemical behavior of 1,3-diphenylpropene and several of its 3-substituted derivatives has been investigated over a wide temperature range. The singlet state is found to decay via two unactivated processes, fluorescence and intersystem crossing, and two activated processes, trans,cis isomerization and phenyl-vinyl bridging. The latter activated process yields a diradical intermediate which partitions between ground-state reactant and formation of the di-pi-methane rearrangement product. Kinetic modeling of temperature-dependent singlet decay times and quantum yields of fluorescence, isomerization, di-pi-methane rearrangement, and nonradiative decay provides rate constants and activation parameters for each of the primary and secondary processes. Substituents at the 3-position are found to have little effect on the electronic spectra or unactivated fluorescence and intersystem crossing pathways. However, they do effect the activated primary and secondary processes. Thus, the product ratios are highly temperature dependent.

  17. Higher Education in Europe 2009: Developments in the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Ruffio, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This report takes a partial look at the emerging European Higher Education Area (EHEA). It is partial in two ways--the selection of topics for consideration, and the type of information gathered for analysis. Rather than attempting to cover the full range of issues and challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the success of the EHEA, the…

  18. The Bologna Process and Integration Theory: Convergence and Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkholt, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on two theoretical frameworks of integration (neo-functionalism and liberal inter-governmentalism), exploring their implications for current trends of integration in European higher education: the marketization of and trade in educational services, the involvement of supranational institutions, and the focus on quality…

  19. A Soft Take-Off in the Direction of "Bologna"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casaravilla Gil, Ana; Cava, Maria Victoria Cuevas; del Rio Merino, Mercedes; Arrebola, Carmen Vinas

    2011-01-01

    In the 2009-2010 academic year, ten new degrees have begun to be taught at the UPM (Universidad Politecnica Madrid), which is the first group of degrees that this university will offer within the framework of the EHEA (European Higher Education Area). One of these new degrees is the Building Engineering Degree, which was implemented in September…

  20. Strategic Planning and Quality Assurance in the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha; Kantola, Mauri

    2007-01-01

    Strategic planning and quality management have been developed independently of each other, but they meet in practice in many kinds of organisations. Strategic planning and quality assurance integrate different aspects of higher education institutions (HEIs) to ensure high-quality educational outcomes. This paper investigates the role of these two…

  1. German Higher Education in the Framework of the Bologna Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Roland

    In 1997/98, the 16 German Länder tentatively agreed on the establishment of a new degree structure for German higher education in the form of Bachelors and Masters programmes. Moreover, the German government passed federal legislation that officially adopted accreditation as a new steering instrument to approve these newly established Bachelors and Masters programmes. Thus, since 1998 almost all universities, Fachhochschulen (FH), faculties, and especially the engineering departments have been busy designing new Bachelors and Masters degree programmes. On the other hand, accreditation of programmes as a means of quality assurance has become the new pre-requisite for state recognition, which is operated by an overarching national Accreditation Board that on it turn recognises agencies that accredit particular degree programmes. All these changes will be a challenge and are likely to change the overall structure of the traditional German higher education system severely.

  2. Higher Education in Kazakhstan and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piven, G.; Pak, I.U.

    2006-01-01

    The constantly rising role of higher education in the twenty-first century goes hand in hand with scientific and technical progress and the global technologization of the developed countries of the world. A country's level of technical and technological development determines its economic condition, its national security, and its role in the world…

  3. Financing Bologna: Which Country Will Pay for Foreign Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerard, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    In an integrated set of jurisdictions, where residents of one country may obtain higher education in another country and later return home (with some probability), the question arises of which country has to pay for higher education abroad - the country of origin of the student, which is likely to benefit from the education acquired abroad, or the…

  4. Achieving Bologna Convergence: Is ECTS Failing to Make the Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2004-01-01

    Transparent and consistent credit transfer procedures are essential if EU Universities are to successfully build the European Higher Education Area and thrive in the emerging global knowledge economy. Currently, the European Credit Transfer System is the most widely used mechanism to enable credit transfer between universities in different EU…

  5. Bologna Goes Global: A New Imperialism in the Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Eva

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that imperialism continues to exist today. It focuses on the ideational dimension of such power constellation and highlights the role of "educational diplomacy". Specifically, it examines norm-settings within international educational politics as a way of identifying shifts within what might be called benevolent…

  6. Genetic Modulation of c-di-GMP Turnover Affects Multiple Virulence Traits and Bacterial Virulence in Rice Pathogen Dickeya zeae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yufan; Lv, Mingfa; Liao, Lisheng; Gu, Yanfang; Liang, Zhibin; Shi, Zurong; Liu, Shiyin; Zhou, Jianuan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2016-01-01

    The frequent outbreaks of rice foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae have become a significant concern in rice planting regions and countries, but the regulatory mechanisms that govern the virulence of this important pathogen remain vague. Given that the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with modulation of various virulence-related traits in various microorganisms, here we set to investigate the role of the genes encoding c-di-GMP metabolism in the regulation of the bacterial physiology and virulence by construction all in-frame deletion mutants targeting the annotated c-di-GMP turnover genes in D. zeae strain EC1. Phenotype analyses identified individual mutants showing altered production of exoenzymes and phytotoxins, biofilm formation and bacterial motilities. The results provide useful clues and a valuable toolkit for further characterization and dissection of the regulatory complex that modulates the pathogenesis and persistence of this important bacterial pathogen. PMID:27855163

  7. Vibrio cholerae VpsT Regulates Matrix Production and Motility by Directly Sensing Cyclic di-GMP

    SciTech Connect

    Krasteva, P.; Fong, J; Shikuma, N; Beyhan, S; Navarro, M; Yildiz, F; Sondermann, H

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms can switch from a planktonic, free-swimming life-style to a sessile, colonial state, called a biofilm, which confers resistance to environmental stress. Conversion between the motile and biofilm life-styles has been attributed to increased levels of the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), yet the signaling mechanisms mediating such a global switch are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcriptional regulator VpsT from Vibrio cholerae directly senses c-di-GMP to inversely control extracellular matrix production and motility, which identifies VpsT as a master regulator for biofilm formation. Rather than being regulated by phosphorylation, VpsT undergoes a change in oligomerization on c-di-GMP binding.

  8. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono, Di and Trihalogenated DBPs - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Examination of bromine incorporation in emerging DBPs vs that of regulated DBPs Study of predominance of di- vs trihalogenated species in different DBP classes Better understand and characterize exposure to DBPs of health concern

  9. Spatial distributions of airborne di-carbonyls in urban and rural areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, K. H.; Dai, Wen-Ting; Chan, C. S.; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Jun-Ji; Lee, S. C.; Ho, K. F.

    2017-04-01

    Gaseous glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations were characterized in nine cities of China during 2010-2011. The average summer (winter) glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations were 36.4-178.4 (12.3-241.4) and 67.8-359.4 (28.4-530.0) ng/m3, respectively. In summer, the highest average glyoxal concentration was in Guangzhou (GZ), while the lowest was in Shanghai (SH). In winter, Xiamen (XM) showed the highest average methylglyoxal concentration and Yantai (YT) reported the lowest. Both di-carbonyls showed distinct seasonal variations. The maximum average methylglyoxal concentration was approximately twice as much as glyoxal, which is consistent with the results of other studies. Glyoxal-to-methylglyoxal ratios showed that there was a consistent direct source of emissions in remote areas such as Qinghai Lake and Lhasa in both seasons (r ≥ 0.9). Pearson's correlation analysis suggested possible similar sources formation (R ≥ 0.7) for the two di-carbonyls in winter. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that every 1 °C temperature increase could lead to a > 2% increase in the concentration of the di-carbonyls in both seasons. There was a greater percentage gain for glyoxal in winter than in summer for the same temperature increase. The northeast monsoon occurs in winter, and for every 1 ms- 1 increase in wind speed, > 20% of the di-carbonyls can be transferred out of China. This study is useful to understand about the secondary organic aerosol formation in the areas, the statistical analysis can provide information about the relationships between these carbonyls in atmosphere.

  10. Prevention of gastric mucosal lesions in rats by tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, S; Campagnoli, G; Borsa, M; Guidoboni, R; Tonon, G C

    1984-01-01

    Tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate given intragastrically to rats 60 min before administration of necrotizing agents such as 85% ethanol, 0.2 N sodium hydroxide or acidified indomethacin, reduced the formation of mucosal lesions dose-dependently. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2)-like material, determined by bioassay, was higher in the gastric mucosa of animals treated with bismuth subcitrate complex than in control animals.

  11. USSAERO version D computer program development using ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and DI-3000 graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The D version of the Unified Subsonic Supersonic Aerodynamic Analysis (USSAERO) program is the result of numerous modifications and enhancements to the B01 version. These changes include conversion to ANSI standard FORTRAN 77; use of the DI-3000 graphics package; removal of the overlay structure; a revised input format; the addition of an input data analysis routine; and increasing the number of aeronautical components allowed.

  12. DiAs User Interface: A Patient-Centric Interface for Mobile Artificial Pancreas Systems

    PubMed Central

    Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Guerlain, Stephanie; Mize, Benton; Hughes-Karvetski, Colleen; Khan, Momin; McElwee-Malloy, Molly; Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent in-hospital studies of artificial pancreas (AP) systems have shown promising results in improving glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The next logical step in AP development is to conduct transitional outpatient clinical trials with a mobile system that is controlled by the patient. In this article, we present the user interface (UI) of the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs), an experimental smartphone-based mobile AP system, and describe the reactions of a round of focus groups to the UI. This work is an initial inquiry involving a relatively small number of potential users, many of whom had never seen an AP system before, and the results should be understood in that light. Methods We began by considering how the UI of an AP system could be designed to make use of the familiar touch-based graphical UI of a consumer smartphone. After developing a working prototype UI, we enlisted a human factors specialist to perform a heuristic expert analysis. Next we conducted a formative evaluation of the UI through a series of three focus groups with N = 13 potential end users as participants. The UI was modified based upon the results of these studies, and the resulting DiAs system was used in transitional outpatient AP studies of adults in the United States and Europe. Results The DiAs UI was modified based on focus group feedback from potential users. The DiAs was subsequently used in JDRF- and AP@Home-sponsored transitional outpatient AP studies in the United States and Europe by 40 subjects for 2400 h with no adverse events. Conclusions Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are able to control an AP system successfully using a patient-centric UI on a commercial smartphone in a transitional outpatient environment. PMID:24351168

  13. Development and evaluation of systems for controlling parallel high di/dt thyratrons

    SciTech Connect

    Litton. A.; McDuff, G.

    1982-01-01

    Increasing numbers of high power, high repetition rate applications dictate the use or thyratrons in multiple of hard parallel configurations to achieve the required rate of current rise, di/dt. This in turn demands the development of systems to control parallel thyratron commutation with nanosecond accuracy. Such systems must be capable of real-time, fully-automated control in multi-kilohertz applications while still remaining cost effective. This paper describes the evolution of such a control methodology and system.

  14. Synergistic Physical Properties of Co-Cured Networks Formed from Di- and Tri-cyanate Esters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Guenthner , Josiah T. Reams, Kevin R. Lamison, Sean M. Ramirez David D. Swanson, Gregory R. Yandek, Christopher M. Sahagun Matthew C. Davis Joseph M...Co-Cured Networks Formed from Di- and Tri-cyanate Esters” Andrew J. Guenthner * 1 , Josiah T. Reams 2 , Kevin R. Lamison 2 , Sean M. Ramirez 2... Guenthner , A. J.; Groshens, T. J.; Reams, J. T.; Mabry, J. M., J. Polym. Sci. Part A, Polym. Chem. 2012, 50, 4127-4136. S2. Guenthner , A. J.; Davis, M

  15. Efficacy of quinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives in experimental tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Esther; Villar, Raquel; Burguete, Asunción; Solano, Beatriz; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Maddry, Joseph A; Lenaerts, Anne J; Franzblau, Scott G; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Monge, Antonio; Goldman, Robert C

    2008-09-01

    This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro efficacies of the 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has led to the discovery of a derivative with in vivo efficacy in the mouse model of tuberculosis. Quinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives were tested in vitro against a broad panel of single-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The susceptibilities of these strains to some compounds were comparable to those of strain H(37)Rv, as indicated by the ratios of MICs for resistant and nonresistant strains, supporting the premise that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives have a novel mode of action unrelated to those of the currently used antitubercular drugs. Specific derivatives were further evaluated in a series of in vivo assays, including evaluations of the maximum tolerated doses, the levels of oral bioavailability, and the efficacies in a low-dose aerosol model of tuberculosis in mice. One compound, ethyl 7-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-dioxide, was found to be (i) active in reducing CFU counts in both the lungs and spleens of infected mice following oral administration, (ii) active against PA-824-resistant Mycobacterium bovis, indicating that the pathway of bioreduction/activation is different from that of PA-824 (a bioreduced nitroimidazole that is in clinical trials), and (iii) very active against nonreplicating bacteria adapted to low-oxygen conditions. These data indicate that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalines hold promise for the treatment of tuberculosis.

  16. ParaDiS on Blue Gene/L: stepping up to the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hommes, G; Arsenlis, A; Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Cook, R; Hiratani, M; Oppestrup, T; Rhee, M; Tang, M

    2006-06-09

    This paper reports on the efforts to enable fully scalable simulations of Dislocation Line Dynamics (DLD) for direct calculations of strength of crystalline materials. DLD simulations are challenging and do not lend themselves naturally to parallel computing. Through a combinations of novel physical approaches, mathematical algorithms and computational science developments, a new DLD code ParaDiS is shown to take meaningful advantage of BG/L and, by doing so, to enable discovery class science by computation.

  17. [Adalberto Pazzini and the origins of the Istituto di Storia della Medicina].

    PubMed

    Conforti, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with the Italian tradition of medical history in the 1930s, when Adalberto Pazzini became the most successful medical historian in Italy. Its second part deals with the founding and renovation (1938 and 1954 respectively) of the Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University, with a description of the innovative--and largely utopian--planning of the Library and of the Museum and didactic collections by Pazzini.

  18. ParaDiS on BlueGene/L: scalable line dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Fier, J; Hiratani, M; Pierce, T; Tang, M; Rhee, M; Yates, R K; Arsenlis, A

    2004-04-29

    We describe an innovative highly parallel application program, ParaDiS, which computes the plastic strength of materials by tracing the evolution of dislocation lines over time. We discuss the issues of scaling the code to tens of thousands of processors, and present early scaling results of the code run on a prototype of the BlueGene/L supercomputer being developed by IBM in partnership with the US DOE's ASC program.

  19. Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura in partial DiGeorge syndrome: case presentation.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Nieto, Leticia; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio; Lieberman-Hernández, Esther; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva

    2011-08-01

    The absence of an appropriate central tolerance in primary immunodeficiencies favors proliferation of autoreactive lymphocyte clones, causing a greater incidence of autoimmunity. Del 22q11.2 syndrome presents an increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases. One of the most relevant and frequent immune manifestations is autoimmune thrombocytopenia. We present the case of a pediatric patient with autoimmune thrombocytopenia due to the immunological dysregulation observed in partial DiGeorge syndrome.

  20. Dermatological clues to the diagnosis of atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Kole, Lauren; Knapp, Charles; Fort, Prem; Kankirawatana, Suthida; Atkinson, T Prescott; McKay, Kristopher M; Theos, Amy

    2016-11-15

    Atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is an extremely rare congenital disease characterized by an eczematous dermatitis, lymphadenopathy, and an oligoclonal T-cell proliferation. Because its initial presentation may be confused with other types of eczematous dermatitis, diagnosis and treatment are usually delayed. We describe herein a case of an infant with atypical complete DGS to draw attention to the clinical and histopathological findings that lead us to the diagnosis.