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Sample records for iowa speaker joel

  1. Remembering Joel: A Story of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakiw, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Joel seemed blessed with remarkable talents, but they did not reveal themselves in any obvious way in a school or class setting. Although he had been given an IQ test, his exact score could not be calculated--but it was well over 160. On a test of musical ability, Joel had attained a perfect score on all four musical attributes--a first for the…

  2. Joel Stebbins and Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garstang, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    Joel Stebbins (1878 - 1966), Director of the Washburn Observatory of the University of Wisconsin, pioneered the use of photocells for astronomical brightness measurements. He seems to have been the first to use photocells to measure night sky brightnesses. He was a Research Associate of the Mount Wilson Observatory. During a visit to Pasadena in the winter of 1931-32 he measured the night sky brightness with a portable photometer on Palomar Mountain and at the Mount Wilson Observatory. The latter had begun to be affected by light pollution even at that early date. He does not seem to have published his results in detail, but reported them in a letter that he sent on 1932 October 5 to John A. Anderson, the Executive Officer of the Palomar Observatory Council. Donald Osterbrock recently found a copy of the letter in the Washburn Observatory archives, and kindly communicated the details to me for analysis. Stebbins' most important result was that the night sky near the North Pole at Mount Wilson was 0.38 magnitude brighter than the night sky at Palomar. He also stated that in the evening at Mount Wilson the sky at altitude 10 deg over Pasadena and Los Angeles could be as much as 5 times as bright as at the Pole. I have used my light pollution model to analyze these and other results of Stebbins. I estimate that the light emission of the cities in 1932 was about 220 lumens per capita. Using this emission I calculated the Mount Wilson sky brightness at 10 deg altitude over Pasadena and Los Angeles as about 5.4 times the brightness at the Pole, in excellent agreement with Stebbins. This light emission may be compared with 1000 lumens per capita that my earlier analyses indicated for 1970.

  3. Iowa Festivals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces young children to different aspects of Iowa history. Each issue contains articles to provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is "Iowa Festivals." Hard work, fun, and the opportunity to raise money for community projects are all a part of organizing a festival. The…

  4. Iowa's Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the changes in Iowa's environment. When Native Americans lived in Iowa hundreds of years ago, the land was rich in tall grasslands, fertile soil, wildlife, wetlands, and unpolluted waters. When European-American pioneers settled Iowa in 1833, they changed the environment in order to survive. The first article in this…

  5. Iowa Folklife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the "Goldfinch" is devoted to Iowa folklife. The first article explores what "folklife" is and provides several examples. The second article is about artwork and poetry done by Mesquakie Indian children from the Sac and Fox Settlement School near Tama, Iowa. Dome-shaped structures, called "wickiups," in which the Mesquakie Indians…

  6. Iowa Elderhostel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City.

    Elderhostel is a national network of one-week college-level courses offered in summer on the campuses of universities, colleges, and junior colleges. It is designed primarily for persons over 60 and their spouses. Begun as an experimental effort by five New Hampshire colleges in the summer of 1975, it has been operating in Iowa since 1977. Iowa…

  7. Imperfect Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Examines the art of professional verse speaking and suggests the creation of standards for the training of specialized speakers. Available from: Speech and Drama, Anthony Jackman, Editor, 205 Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leics LE11 3AD. Subscription Rates: non-members (USA) $6.00 p.a.; singles $2.50 surface post free. (MH)

  8. Newspapers in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on newspapers in Iowa's history. Articles address Iowa's pioneer press, a tiny newspaper published by a pair of Iowa brothers, and handwritten newspapers. Activities, fictional accounts, and nonfictional articles address the importance of newspapers in Iowa's past and…

  9. Exploring New Roles of Classroom Teachers in Iowa Communities Experiencing Rapid Ethnic Diversification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cindy R.

    2012-01-01

    Non-English speakers are currently the fastest growing population group in Iowa schools. Immigrant and refugee families are choosing in record numbers to make Iowa their home. Across the state, newcomers are added daily to classroom rosters, and teachers are challenged to meet the unique social, emotional, and educational needs of students. The…

  10. 4-H and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on Iowa's role in the historical development of the 4-H youth program. "Roots in Iowa" and "Jessie Field Shambaugh: The Mother of 4-H" (J. Friedel) describes the rural Iowan roots of the 4-H program, which today is located in 80 different countries, and give the story of its founder. Jessie Shambaugh, a rural Iowa teacher and…

  11. Iowa Core Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    One central component of a great school system is a clear set of expectations, or standards, that educators help all students reach. In Iowa, that effort is known as the Iowa Core. The Iowa Core represents the statewide academic standards, which describe what students should know and be able to do in math, science, English language arts, and…

  12. Joel C. Wordekemper Greeted By Astronauts and MSFC Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    West Point, Nebraska high school student, Joel C. Wordekemper, is greeted by (left to right): Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, and Owen K. Garriott; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Skylab Program Manager, Leland Belew; and MSFC Director of Administration and Technical Services, David Newby, during a tour of MSFC. Wordekemper was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  13. Health in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Prepared for middle school students, this magazine provides a historical overview of 150 years of medicine in Iowa. Focusing on practitioners, early medicinal practices, and common ailments, the articles include: (1) "Health in Iowa"; (2) "Horse and Buggy Doctors"; (3)"Dandy Home Remedies" (P. Stolt); (4) "Doctors Wanted: Women Need Not Apply" (S.…

  14. Peace--Iowa's Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This theme journal issue is devoted to an exploration of peace and its history in Iowa. The features and activities include: Iowa's Peace Tradition; A Global View; World Map; A Mesquakie Tale; Swords into Plowshares; Make a Peace Crane; Student Protest; Goldfinch Patriotism Debate; Peace Meal; A Short Story; and Work It Out. (DB)

  15. Digging into Prehistoric Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Ginalie, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A theme issue of the Iowa State Historical Department magazine focuses on elementary readings and activities about prehistoric Iowa. The issue contains a total of 16 articles. In "History Makers," a ten-year-old recounts his family's discovery of a mammoth bone on their farm. "Imagine a Camping Trip Long Ago" looks at how the first people in Iowa…

  16. Music in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on music as an art using sound in time to express ideas and emotions and contains articles featuring appreciations of some of Iowa's renowned musical artists. The first article gives an overview of music in Iowa's history. The next article describes Antonin Dvorak's summer sojourn in Spillville where he…

  17. Iowa Communications Network Enhancing Education in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanovic, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Iowa Communications Network, a statewide fiber optic network capable of transporting interactive, two-way audio, video, voice, and data signals. Topics include statewide cooperation among educational and state organizations; classroom design, including interactive classrooms; access to the Internet; and use by noneducational…

  18. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  19. Iowa State Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the "Goldfinch" focuses on the Iowa state fair. The magazine begins with a map of the fair as it looks today. The article explains that the first Iowa state fair was held in 1854. After traveling from town to town for several years, the fair settled in the capital city of Des Moines in 1878. Eight years later, in 1886, the first fair…

  20. A New Way of Thinking about Technology: An Interview with Futurists Joel Barker and Scott Erickson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Barker, Joel; Erickson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Editor-in-chief James Morrison interviews Joel Barker and Scott Erickson, co-authors of the book "Five Regions of the Future: A New Way to Think about Technology". In their book, the authors propose an ecological model that classifies technology according to different clusters or regions, each of which entails its own perspective of technology and…

  1. An Interview with Joel McIntosh: Reflections on Gifted Education and the History of "JOAA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Joel McIntosh, the publisher at Prufrock Press, whose publications reach more than 50,000 individuals and libraries. McIntosh started Prufrock in 1988 with a vision of making a powerful difference in the lives of gifted and talented children by striving to provide quality materials and cutting-edge research…

  2. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  3. Orphan Trains in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa history. Each issue contains articles that provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is orphan trains in Iowa it introduces readers to some of the people heroes of modern history who rode the trains west between 1854 and 1929 in…

  4. Is Iowa Educationally Competitive? Children and Iowa's Economic Future. Iowa Kids Count Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Charles; Crawford, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In 1991, the Child and Family Policy Center (CFPC) titled its first Iowa Kids Count Data Book "World-Class Futures." That year, Iowa ranked eighth among states in the national Kids Count Data Book, and the report warned against complacence. "World-Class Futures" drew comparisons between Iowa's child outcomes and those for some of America's major…

  5. Standards for Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, William D.

    1981-01-01

    Enumerates criteria for the selection of audio system speaker equipment for archivists interested in achieving sound reproduction fidelity, noting frequency response, flat response, intermodulation distortion, arrival time, and placement of equipment. Illustrative materials and three references are provided. (EJS)

  6. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  7. [Where is Iowa History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on Iowa history. The booklet is divided into two sections. Section 1, "Features," contains the following: (1) "Looking for History"; (2) "Talking History"; (3) "Climbing the Family Tree"; (4) "Tribal Storytelling"; (5) "News About You"; (6) "History Hangouts"; (7) "Documenting History"; (8) "Textiles Tell the…

  8. Iowa's Kid Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of "Goldfinch" focuses on the definition of 'hero' and uses examples from Iowa's history to demonstrate the definition. Heroes of all ages have appeared in legends and real life, facing different challenges in the circumstances of life. The heroes profiled are ordinary people who have done extraordinary things. Those heroes…

  9. Reflecting on Native Speaker Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The issues surrounding native speakers (NSs) and nonnative speakers (NNSs) as teachers (NESTs and NNESTs, respectively) in the field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) are a current topic of interest. In many contexts, the native speaker of English is viewed as the model teacher, thus putting the NEST into a position of…

  10. Condition of Iowa Community Colleges, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Iowa's 15 Community Colleges offer thousands of credit and non-credit courses. The 2005 "Condition of Iowa Community Colleges" report will review Iowa Community College programs and related services. The report is supported by Management Information System (MIS) data, as reported by Iowa Community Colleges to the Iowa Department of Education,…

  11. Eastern Iowa, Northwestern Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view of the Mississippi and Iowa River Valleys (41.5N, 90.5W) shows the rich agricultural region of the upper midwest. Most of the farms occupy one statute mile squares bounded by roads that coincide with the section lines used in the township and range system of surveying practiced in the U.S. central plains, the heart of the great corn belt. Other crops grown in the region include oats, soybeans, hay and alfalfa.

  12. Amoralist rationalism? A response to Joel Marks: commentary on "Animal abolitionism meets moral abolitionism: cutting the Gordian knot of applied ethics" by Joel Marks.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar

    2014-06-01

    In a recent article, Joel Marks presents the amoralist argument against vivisection, or animal laboratory experimentation. He argues that ethical theories that seek to uncover some universal morality are in fact useless and unnecessary for ethical deliberations meant to determine what constitutes an appropriate action in a specific circumstance. I agree with Marks' conclusion. I too believe that vivisection is indefensible, both from a scientific and philosophical perspective. I also believe that we should become vegan (unfortunately, like the two philosophers mentioned by Marks, I too am still struggling to reduce my meat and dairy consumption). However, I am in the dark as to Marks' vision of normative deliberations in the spirit of amoralism and desirism.

  13. Life on the Iowa Prairies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Ginalie, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A theme issue of the Iowa State Historical Department magazine ("The Goldfinch") focuses on elementary readings and activities about Iowa prairie life. A total of 13 articles is included. In "History Makers," eight letters recount student and teacher prairie experiences. "The Prairie: Problems or Paradise?" recounts the trials and successes of…

  14. Taking on Inquiry in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Cheryl; Lampe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Over the last year, "School Library Monthly" ("SLM") has challenged school librarians to "nudge toward inquiry" through the "SLM" blog-driven submissions compiled by Kristin Fontichiaro. Iowa took up the challenge! This article describes how teacher librarians across Iowa teamed with classroom teachers to create inquiry-based learning plans for a…

  15. One Room Schools in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on one-room school houses in Iowa. At one time, almost 14,000 one-room schools dotted Iowa's rural landscape. Articles explore Native American schools of the past and present, segregation of black students, and Amish schools. An article remembering one-room schools describes the early schools from 1830 to 1858, township schools…

  16. Iowa Distance Education Alliance. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Chris; Sweeney, Jan

    This document describes the accomplishments of the Iowa Distance Education Alliance (IDEA). The Iowa Distance Education Alliance (IDEA) is a partnership involving educational institutions across Iowa that received funding from the federal Star Schools Program to demonstrate the use of the Iowa Communication Network's (ICN) fiber optic technology…

  17. Bedrock topography of northwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.; Runkle, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) generally is overlain by deposits of glacial drive and alluvium. The drift, consisting of glacial till and glacial outwash, ranges in thickness from zero to more than 500 feet in western Iowa; the alluvium in stream valleys ranges in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 70 feet. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses that were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion. This map, for a 12 county area in west-central Iowa, is the eighth in a series of nine reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedriock topography of Iowa

  18. Bedrock topography of central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) generally is ovelain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium. The drift, comprised of glacial till and glacial outwash, varies in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 400 feet; the alluvium in central Iowa varies in thickness from less than 1 foot to about 60 feet. The configuration of the bedrock suface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses which were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. This map, for a 10 county area in central Iowa, is the seventh of a series of 9 reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedrock surface of Iowa

  19. Iowa's Indians Come of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Ronald L.; Weinstein, Jay A.

    1975-01-01

    An account of the role and participation of the Mesquakie Indians of Iowa in a district primary election and their impact on the outcome as well as the consequences for their own internal organization and culture. (EH)

  20. Cholinesterase risk for Iowa farmers.

    PubMed

    Helmers, S; Dykstra, J; Kemp, B

    1990-02-01

    Exposure to organophosphate insecticides may pose a significant risk in rural populations. The study involved 71 Iowa farmers and 28 agribusiness workers who underwent serial measurements of serum cholinesterase levels prior to and following exposure to organophosphate containing pesticides.

  1. Native Speaker-Nonnative Speaker Interaction among Academic Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaies, Stephen J.

    The study investigates whether input and interaction features which previous research has identified as characteristic of native speaker (NS) - nonnative speaker (NNS) speech (features which occur more frequently in NS-NNS speech than in speech between NSs) will occur with equal frequency in NS-NNS speech settings in which the NNSs have…

  2. The speaker as listener.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, S; Greer, R D

    1989-05-01

    This study reports the results of an experiment with 4 female 5-year-old children, in which the verbal behavior of the children (talking to themselves) was studied under two conditions-an anthropomorphic toy condition and a nonanthropomorphic toy condition. The anthropomorphic condition consisted of three-dimensional toys such as dolls, stuffed animals, and figurines. The nonanthropomorphic toy condition consisted of two-dimensional materials such as puzzles, coloring books, and story books. The independent variables were the toy conditions. The dependent variables were verbal-behavior units; these included mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, and conversational units. The conditions were compared using a multiple schedule design. The results showed that more total units occurred in the anthropomorphic toy condition than in the nonanthropomorphic toy condition and that conversational units occurred in the anthropomorphic condition only. Consistent with Skinner's (1957) hypothesis, the children acted as both speaker and listener when emitting verbal behavior to themselves in the anthropomorphic condition. PMID:16812582

  3. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  4. Iowa Kids Count 2008: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This new Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2008: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," is the latest annually produced book containing data on 18 different indicators of child and family well-being for the United States, Iowa and its 99 counties. The 18 indicators provide a wealth of health, education, welfare and economic data…

  5. Iowa Kids Count 2011: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This most recent Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2011: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," provides data on 20 different indicators of child and family well-being at the United States, Iowa, substate and county level. The annually produced data book presents health, education, welfare and economic data including infant…

  6. Iowa Kids Count 2010: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This most recent Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2010: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," provides data on 20 different indicators of child and family well-being at the United States, Iowa, substate and county level. The annually produced data book presents health, education, welfare and economic data including infant…

  7. Pesticides in Iowa precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nations, B.K.; Hallberg, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Rainfall was sampled for pesticides to assess their occurrence in precipitation and potential impacts on water resources. Three areas in Iowa were sampled; two localities were in rural settings, and a third in an urban area. Fourteen pesticides, including ten herbicides and four insecticides, were detected from October 1987 through September 1990. Atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor were the most commonly detected, with one or more of these four herbicides found in almost every rainfall sample during the growing season. Concentrations of individual pesticides ranged from 0.1 ??g L-1 to 40.0 ??g L-1, with most detections under 1.0 ??g L-1. Pesticide detections in rainfall began in April and ended in July or August, probably related to the timing of chemical application and greater volatilization rates during warmer weather. Samples from the urban site had detections of the same agricultural chemicals found at the rural sites, but in lesser quantities. In addition to the commonly detected herbicides, three of the four insecticides detected in rainfall were only found in urban samples. Two of these have urban as well as agricultural uses. Some variation of pesticide detections were seen at the three sampling localities, related to regional and local use patterns. Concentrations were greater at sampling sites near fields where pesticides are applied, suggesting that local volatilization and distance of transport affect the concentrations in rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were highest at the beginning of a rainfall event with concentrations becoming lower in samples taken later in the event.

  8. Libraries in Iowa: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/iowa.html Libraries in Iowa To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Cedar Rapids Kirkwood Community College Library 6301 Kirkwood Blvd SW Box 2068 Cedar Rapids, ...

  9. Discovering Historic Iowa. American Revolution Bicentennial Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, LeRoy G.

    Prepared in recognition of the Bicentennial, this historic guide of Iowa is intended to supplement materials prepared by the Iowa Curriculum Division. It provides, in one convenient reference, information for use by teachers, students, tourists, and others interested in Iowa's history. Up-to-date information is given on historical societies,…

  10. More than Fiber: Distance Education in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Describes distance education programs in Iowa, including the Iowa Distance Education Alliance developed through the Department of Education's Star Schools Program; the use of fiber optic technology; and the Iowa Communications Network that links colleges, universities, and secondary schools with public television. (LRW)

  11. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  12. Colleges and Schools: Partners for Iowa's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreier, William H.

    The normal school began in Iowa in 1849, developed early partnerships with local districts, and evolved into the current situation of 29 teacher education institutions (TEIs). By 1980, 42.5% of Iowa's population was rural; a 1981-1982 study showed 37.5% of Iowa's students were in rural districts. A follow-up placement study of the University of…

  13. The High Fidelity Plasma Speaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGall, James

    2014-10-01

    A plasma speaker is a device that uses ionized gas as the driving source of sound production, rather than the traditional magnetic coil and membrane setup found on a standard speaker. Similar to how lightning produces sound, or even a small static shock, a plasma speaker uses a modulating electric arc between two electrodes to produce sound. An electric circuit is built that allows the variance of the high voltage electric potential to be controlled by a 3.5 mm standard audio headphone jack, allowing sound energy to be transferred from the plasma to the air by means of pulse width modulation. For my summer project I have built two different models of plasma speakers and am working on a third. The speaker benefits from having a nearly massless driver, and I hypothesize that it should show a response rate faster than that of a traditional speaker and a decreased impulse response while having the drawbacks of inefficiency and a low maximum decibel output. The speakers are currently being optimized with magnetic stabilization of the plasma and will be tested soon for impulse response, frequency generation, efficiency, and audio coloration. Bridges for SUCCESS Grant at Salisbury University under Ph.D. Matthew Bailey.

  14. Baseline water quality of Iowa's coal region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, Larry J.

    1979-01-01

    To assist the Iowa Department of Environmental Quality in determining the effects that coal mining and attendant activities will have on the water quality of Iowa streams, the U.S. Geological Survey collected three sets of water-quality samples (representative of high, average, and low streamflow) in the White Breast, English,aand Cedar Creek basins in south-central Iowa. These samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey Central Laboratory at Denver, Colorado, and by the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory (Iowa City and Des Moines). The report presents the data collected from May to November 1978 at 15 stations in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Iowa Community Colleges Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation.

    This document describes account classifications and definitions for the accounting system of the Iowa community colleges. In view of the objectives of the accounting system, it is necessary to segregate the assets of the community college according to its source and intended use. Additionally, the accounting system should provide for accounting by…

  16. Key for Trees of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coder, Kim D.; Wray, Paul H.

    This key is designed to help identify the most common trees found in Iowa. It is based on vegetative characteristics such as leaves, fruits, and bark and is illustrated with black and white line drawings. Since vegetative characteristics vary due to climate, age, soil fertility, and other conditions, the numerical sizes listed, such as length and…

  17. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  18. Law-Focused Education: Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. Malcolm Price Lab. School.

    This law-focused resource booklet is intended to help secondary level students learn about the civil law portion of Iowa's judicial system. The materials are designed to help students understand how to deal with conflict in a peaceful and orderly manner and how to cope with decision making in personal law situations as related to the family, the…

  19. Speaker identification utilizing noncontemporary speech.

    PubMed

    Hollien, H; Schwartz, R

    2001-01-01

    The noncontemporariness of speech is important to both of the two general approaches to speaker identification. Ear-witness identification is one of them; in that instance, the time at which the identification is made is noncontemporary. A substantial amount of research has been carried out on this relationship and it now is well established that an auditor's memory for a voice decays sharply over time. It is the second approach to speaker identification which is of present interest. In this case, samples of a speaker's utterances are obtained at different points in time. For example, a threat call will be recorded and then sometime later (often very much later), a suspect' s exemplar recording will be obtained. In this instance, it is the speech samples that are noncontemporary and they are the materials that are subjected to some form of speaker identification. Prevailing opinion is that noncontemporary speech itself poses just as difficult a challenge to the identification process as does the listener's memory decay in earwitness identification. Accordingly, series of aural-perceptual speaker identification projects were carried out on noncontemporary speech: first, two with latencies of 4 and 8 weeks followed by 4 and 32 weeks plus two more with the pairs separated by 6 and 20 years. Mean correct noncontemporary identification initially dropped to 75-80% at week 4 and this general level was sustained for up to six years. It was only after 20 years had elapsed that a significant drop (to 33%) was noted. It can be concluded that a listener's competency in identifying noncontemporary speech samples will show only modest decay over rather substantial periods of time and, hence, this factor should have only a minimal negative effect on the speaker identification process.

  20. IJEMS: Iowa Joint Experiment in Microgravity Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendle, John R.; Mashl, Steven J.; Hardin, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    The Iowa Joint Experiment in Microgravity Solidification (IJEMS) is a cooperative effort between Iowa State University and the University of Iowa to study the formation of metal-matrix composites in a microgravity environment. Of particular interest is the interaction between the solid/liquid interface and the particles in suspension. The experiment is scheduled to fly on STS-69, Space Shuttle Endeavor on August 3, 1995. This project is unique in its heavy student participation and cooperation between the universities involved.

  1. Bedrock topography of northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) is generally overlain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium, which range in thickness from less than 1 foot (0.3 m) to more than 400 ft (18 m), respectively. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses when were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. 

  2. Bedrock topography of southeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa is covered nearly everywhere by unconsolidated deposits of glacial drift and alluvium, which range in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 400 feet, and from less than 1 foot to about 60 feet, respectively. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses which were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intesne periods of interglacial erosion. 

  3. Racializing the Nonnative English Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuck, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some discursive processes by which White, middle-class, native-English-speaking, U.S.-born college students draw on a monolingualist ideology and position themselves and others within a language-race-nationality matrix. These processes construct the speakers' Whiteness and nativeness in English as unmarked and normal; mark…

  4. The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Fahnestock, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program (AVS) is a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) and funded by the National Science Foundation. AVS provides small grants to researchers and other Arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. The program aims to: initiate and encourage arctic science education in communities with little exposure to arctic research; increase collaboration among the arctic research community; nurture communication between arctic researchers and community residents; and foster arctic science education at the local level. Individuals, community organizations, and academic organizations can apply to host a speaker. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Preference is given to tours that reach broad and varied audiences, especially those targeted to underserved populations. Between October 2000 and July 2013, AVS supported 114 tours spanning 9 different countries, including tours in 23 U.S. states. Tours over the past three and a half years have connected Arctic experts with over 6,600 audience members. Post-tour evaluations show that AVS consistently rates high for broadening interest and understanding of arctic issues. AVS provides a case study for how face-to-face interactions between arctic scientists and general audiences can produce high-impact results. Further information can be found at: http://www.arcus.org/arctic-visiting-speakers.

  5. Video classification using speaker identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nilesh V.; Sethi, Ishwar K.

    1997-01-01

    Video content characterization is a challenging problem in video databases. The aim of such characterization is to generate indices that can describe a video clip in terms of objects and their actions in the clip. Generally, such indices are extracted by performing image analysis on the video clips. Many such indices can also be generated by analyzing the embedded audio information of video clips. Indices pertaining to context, scene emotion, and actors or characters present in a video clip appear especially suitable for generation via audio analysis techniques of keyword spotting, and speech and speaker recognition. In this paper, we examine the potential of speaker identification techniques for characterizing video clips in terms of actors present in them. We describe a three-stage processing system consisting of a shot boundary detection stage, an audio classification stage, and a speaker identification stage to determine the presence of different actors in isolated shots. Experimental results using the movie A Few Good Men are presented to show the efficacy of speaker identification for labeling video clips in terms of persons present in them.

  6. A semi-centennial report on the participants depicted in Joel Babb's portrait, 'the first successful kidney transplantation'.

    PubMed

    Desai, S P; Desai, M S; Wood, D N; Maddi, R; Leeson, S; Tilney, N L

    2007-07-01

    Joseph Murray performed the first successful human kidney transplant on December 23, 1954. Forty-three years later, he along with participants Francis Moore and Leroy Vandam, commissioned a painting of the event from artist Joel Babb (1). To document this unique record of medical history, we identify all those present at the operation and depicted in the portrait, describe how the artist created the work, explain irregularities and inaccuracies in the painting, provide a 50-year follow-up on everyone involved, and comment on any influence this landmark event may have had on their subsequent careers. PMID:17532749

  7. The cooperative University of Iowa / Iowa State University MPH program.

    PubMed

    Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A; Aquilino, Mary L; Roth, James A

    2008-01-01

    Public health is an important component of veterinary medicine. In the last 10 years, there has been growing recognition of the need to increase the number of veterinarians trained in public health. The Center for Food Security and Public Health (CFSPH) at Iowa State University (ISU), College of Veterinary Medicine, received a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to support veterinarians working at CFSPH while pursuing the Master of Public Health degree. CFSPH and ISU administrators worked with the University of Iowa (UI) College of Public Health to establish three cooperative programs for veterinarians to earn the MPH degree. This article describes how these programs were developed and how they operate. (1) Between 2002 and 2005, CFSPH used funds provided by the CDC to support 15 veterinarians as they worked for CFSPH and toward the MPH degree. As the program grew, distance-education methods such as the Internet, Polycom videoconferencing, and the Iowa Communications Network (ICN) were incorporated. (2) A concurrent DVM/MPH degree is now offered; students can complete both degrees in four years. As of January 2008, three students have received their DVM and MPH degrees and 16 students are enrolled in the program. (3) In June 2007, the UI and ISU launched a distance MPH program for veterinarians working in private practice, industry, and government. Eight veterinarians are participating in the program, which includes two two-week, in-person summer sessions, with the remainder of the coursework taken at a distance via the Internet. PMID:18723798

  8. Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul

    The 1984 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll is summarized in this report. Responses from 1,585 randomly selected Iowa farm families showed that respondents opposed relaxing current state laws limiting foreign investors and non-farm corporations' ownership of farmland; had mixed feelings on absentee ownership, changing banking laws to allow banks to…

  9. 76 FR 64043 - Iowa Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Stewardship, Division of Soil Conservation (IDSC) sent us amendments to its Program under SMCRA (30 U.S.C... period on proposed amendment. SUMMARY: We, the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), are announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the Iowa regulatory program (Iowa program) under...

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Iowa, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Iowa for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Iowa had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. Trends at the proficient and advanced levels were…

  11. 76 FR 52042 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00035

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa Dated....

  12. 76 FR 27738 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa dated...

  13. 76 FR 66768 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa...

  14. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

  15. Speaker Identity Supports Phonetic Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Schneider, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Visual cues from the speaker's face, such as the discriminable mouth movements used to produce speech sounds, improve discrimination of these sounds by adults. The speaker's face, however, provides more information than just the mouth movements used to produce speech--it also provides a visual indexical cue of the identity of the speaker. The…

  16. Embodied Communication: Speakers' Gestures Affect Listeners' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular…

  17. Native Speakers' Perceptions of Nonnative Speakers: Related to Phonetic Errors and Spoken Grammatical Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ruth; Jenks, Frederick L.

    A study investigated the perceptions of native English-speakers concerning the spoken grammatical and phonetic (accent) errors of non-native speakers. Speech samples were collected from three non-native speakers of English of varied linguistic backgrounds (German, Spanish, and Arabic) and one speaker of North American English. Each of the four…

  18. Bedrock topography of southwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sendlein, Lyle V.A.; Gilmore, Jack L.

    1980-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) is generally overlain by unconsolidataed deposits consisting of glacial drift, alluvium, and loess. Loess deposits are most extensive in areas bordering the Missouri River flood plain, attaining a thickness of over 200ft in some places. The total thickness of the unconsolidated sediments ranges from less than 1 ft to more than 450 ft. The configuration of the underlying bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses that were developed during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. 

  19. Flood of June 8-9, 2008, Upper Iowa River, Northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Edward E.; Eash, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Major flooding occurred June 8-9, 2008, in the Upper Iowa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region. About 7 inches of rain were recorded for the 48-hour period ending 4 p.m., June 8, at Decorah, Iowa; more than 7 inches of rain were recorded for the 48-hour period ending 7 a.m., June 8, at Dorchester, Iowa, about 17 miles northeast of Decorah. The maximum peak discharge measured in the Upper Iowa River was 34,100 cubic feet per second at streamgage 05387500 Upper Iowa River at Decorah, Iowa. This discharge is the largest discharge recorded in the Upper Iowa River Basin since streamgaging operations began in the basin in 1914. The flood-probability range of the peak discharge is 0.2 to 1 percent. High-water marks were measured at 15 locations along the Upper Iowa River between State Highway 26 near the mouth at the Mississippi River and U.S. Highway 63 at Chester, Iowa, a distance of 124 river miles. The high-water marks were used to develop a flood profile.

  20. University of Iowa Flooding: The Expected and Unexpected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This past June, the Iowa River overflowed its banks and deluged 20 buildings on the University of Iowa's Iowa City campus. As the floodwaters finally receded, regents and administrators on the Iowa campus began dealing with all the ramifications and lessons of the flooding--including the key roles of testing emergency plans, nonstop communication,…

  1. The Consequence of Sustaining a Pathology: Scientific Stagnation--A Commentary on the Target Article "Is Psychometrics a Pathological Science?" by Joel Michell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paul

    2008-01-01

    For more than 20 years, Joel Michell has explicated the properties and requirements of quantitative measurement, in books, papers, conference papers, and workshops. In 1997, he published "Quantitative Science and the Definition of Measurement in Psychology." In his paper, Michell deals with facts about measurement. The author of this article…

  2. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  3. Bedrock topography of west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.; Runkle, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock in Iowa (Hershey 1969) generally is overlain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium. The drift, consisting of glacial till and glacial outwash, ranges in thickness from zero to more than 500 feet in western Iowa; the alluvium in stream valleys ranges in thickness from less than 1 to more than 70 feet. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. This map, for a 12-county area in west-central Iowa, is the eighth of a series of nine reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedrock topograhy of Iowa

  4. Iowa Central Quality Fuel Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Heach, Don; Bidieman, Julaine

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project is to finalize the creation of an independent quality fuel testing laboratory on the campus of Iowa Central Community College in Fort Dodge, Iowa that shall provide the exploding biofuels industry a timely and cost-effective centrally located laboratory to complete all state and federal fuel and related tests that are required. The recipient shall work with various state regulatory agencies, biofuel companies and state and national industry associations to ensure that training and testing needs of their members and American consumers are met. The recipient shall work with the Iowa Department of Ag and Land Stewardship on the development of an Iowa Biofuel Quality Standard along with the Development of a standard that can be used throughout industry.

  5. 76 FR 29284 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00031

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... State of Iowa (FEMA-1977- DR), dated 05/05/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/09/2011 through 04/10/2011. Effective Date: 05/05/2011. Physical...

  6. A Survey on Automatic Speaker Recognition Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquib, Zia; Salam, Nirmala; Nair, Rekha P.; Pandey, Nipun; Joshi, Akanksha

    Human listeners are capable of identifying a speaker, over the telephone or an entryway out of sight, by listening to the voice of the speaker. Achieving this intrinsic human specific capability is a major challenge for Voice Biometrics. Like human listeners, voice biometrics uses the features of a person's voice to ascertain the speaker's identity. The best-known commercialized forms of voice Biometrics is Speaker Recognition System (SRS). Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. This literature survey paper gives brief introduction on SRS, and then discusses general architecture of SRS, biometric standards relevant to voice/speech, typical applications of SRS, and current research in Speaker Recognition Systems. We have also surveyed various approaches for SRS.

  7. The Vienna Heritage of Iowa Orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    Strong traditions of basic research, clinical innovation, teaching and integrating science and evaluation of outcomes into clinical practice have characterized University of Iowa orthopaedics for ninety years. These traditions were brought to Iowa City from Vienna when Iowa City was a town of fewer than 10,000 people in a sparsely populated rural state. In the last third of the 19th century, surgeons at the University of Vienna, led by Theodore Billroth (1829-1894), helped transform the practice of surgery. They developed new more effective procedures, analyzed the results of their operations, promoted the emergence and growth of surgical specialties and sought understanding of tissue structure, physiology and pathophysiology. Their efforts made Vienna one of the world's most respected centers for operative treatment, basic and clinical research and surgical education. Two individuals who followed Billroth, Eduard Albert (1841-1900) and Adolf Lorenz (1854-1946) focused their research and clinical practice on orthopaedics. Their successes in the study and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders led one of their students, Arthur Steindler (1878-1959), a 1902 graduate of the Vienna Medical School, to pursue a career in orthopaedics. Following medical school, he worked in Lorenz's orthopaedic clinic until 1907 when he joined John Ridlon (1852-1936) at the Chicago Home for Crippled Children. In 1910, Steindler became Professor of Orthopaedics at the Drake Medical School in Des Moines, Iowa, and, in 1913, John G. Bowman, the President of the University of Iowa, recruited him to establish an orthopaedic clinical and academic program in Iowa City. For the next third of a century he guided the development of the University of Iowa Orthopaedics Department, helped establish the fields of orthopaedic biomechanics and kinesiology and tirelessly stressed the importance of physiology, pathology and assessment of the outcomes of operations. From the legacy of Billroth, Albert and

  8. Magnetic Fluids Deliver Better Speaker Sound Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, Glenn Research Center developed a magnetized fluid to draw rocket fuel into spacecraft engines while in space. Sony has incorporated the technology into its line of slim speakers by using the fluid as a liquid stand-in for the speaker's dampers, which prevent the speaker from blowing out while adding stability. The fluid helps to deliver more volume and hi-fidelity sound while reducing distortion.

  9. Is Iowa Educationally Competitive? Children and Iowa's Economic Future--March 2010 Update on NAEP Reading Scores. Iowa Kids Count Special Report Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In January, 2010, Iowa Kids Count produced a special report that showed long-term trends in Iowa student reading and mathematics scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the only source for comparative state information on student achievement. The January report showed a decline in Iowa's ranking since 1992, when the first…

  10. Flood-plain study of the Upper Iowa River in the vicinity of Decorah, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Eash, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The city of Decorah, Iowa, has experienced severe flooding from the Upper Iowa River resulting in property damage to homes and businesses. Streamflow data from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations, the Upper Iowa River at Decorah, Iowa (station number 05387500), located upstream from the College Drive bridge; and the Upper Iowa River near Decorah, Iowa (station number 05388000), at the Clay Hill Road bridge (locally known as the Freeport bridge) were used in the study. The three largest floods on the Upper Iowa River at Decorah occurred in 1941, 1961, and 1993, for which the estimated peak discharges were 27,200 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), 20,200 ft3/s, and 20,500 ft3/s, respectively. Flood-discharge information can be obtained from the World Wide Web at URL (uniform resource locator) http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/. In response to the need to provide the City of Decorah and other flood-plain managers with an assessment of the risks of flooding to properties and facilities along an 8.5-mile (mi) reach of the Upper Iowa River, the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Decorah, initiated a study to map 100- and 500-year flood-prone areas.

  11. A Regional Guide to Iowa Landforms. Iowa Geological Survey Educational Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jean Cutler

    Presented is a non-technical account of the geological appearance and history of the state of Iowa. Included are Iowa's landscape features, geologic events, and processes that shaped the landscape. Maps and numerous illustrations picture the events and landforms described. Each of the state's seven principal landform regions is discussed in…

  12. Dreams and Opportunities: Immigrant Families and Iowa's Future. Iowa Kid's Count Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle Stover

    2010-01-01

    The fact that there has been population growth in Iowa at all (about 100,000 growth per decade over the last 50 years) is due in large measure to an increased level of immigration into the state. This immigration has helped to stabilize Iowa's population and workforce. Immigrants bring diverse experiences and backgrounds with them. This report…

  13. Effects of Speaker Immersion on Independent Speaker Behavior of Preschool Children with Verbal Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Denise E.; Nuzzolo, Robin; Stolfi, Lauren; Natarelli, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Speaker immersion is a tactic that uses multiple establishing operations to increase speaker behavior for individuals with limited mand and tact repertoires. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of speaker immersion on the number of independent mands, tacts, and autoclitics emitted by young children with verbal delays. In the…

  14. The Nonnative Speaker and Literary Studies: Instruction, Scholarship, and Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesser, Carmen Chaves

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the terms "native speaker" and "near native speaker" in the foreign language teaching profession, and asks whether a heritage speaker is considered a native speaker of the language. Highlights results of a survey advertising a literature position for a near-native speaker of Spanish. The survey is appended. (Author/VWL)

  15. An Approach to Speaker Identification.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry

    2016-03-01

    This presentation will provide standards upon which any attempts to meet the challenge of identifying speakers by voice should be based. It is organized into a model based on (i) application of a rigorous research program validating the system, (ii) an upgrading of the organization of the SI area, and (iii) exploitation of new technology. The second part of the presentation will describe an illustrative speech/voice approach to SI development. This effort is also based on an extensive corpus of research. It is suggested that application of the cited standards, plus the illustrative model, will permit reasonable progress to be made. Finally, a number of procedural recommendations are made; they should enhance the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:27404606

  16. Quality of "Glottal" Stops in Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rossum, M. A.; van As-Brooks, C. J.; Hilgers, F. J. M.; Roozen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glottal stops are conveyed by an abrupt constriction at the level of the glottis. Tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers are known to have poor control over the new voice source (neoglottis), and this might influence the production of "glottal" stops. This study investigated how TE speakers realized "glottal" stops in abutting words that end and begin…

  17. The "Native Speaker" Issue: Problem or Pretext?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Herbert

    Problems posed by varying interpretations of the terms "native speaker" and "native language" in relation to discrimination in hiring foreign language teachers are discussed. The central question is whether there is an educational basis for giving hiring preference to a native speaker. One argument stresses that it is preferable for students to be…

  18. Native Speakers' Judgments of Second Language Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, J. N.; Quist, P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines native speakers' reactions to the second language Danish of young Bilingual Turkish-Danish school students. Respondents were asked to evaluate the quality of the Danish of these students on the basis of tape recorded excerpts. Overall, respondents evaluated all speakers more negatively when they considered them to be nonnative Danes, but…

  19. A Jesuit Approach to Campus Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the newly revised speakers policy in Boston College. The revised policy, defended by administrators as being consistent with past practice, differs in two important respects from the speakers policy it replaced. Lest the scope of this unfortunate policy be exaggerated, it is important to note that the policy…

  20. Embodied communication: speakers' gestures affect listeners' actions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2009-10-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular objects and the actions that they had previously used to solve the task. Speakers who solved the problem with real objects used more grasping handshapes and produced more curved trajectories during the explanation. Listeners who observed explanations from speakers who had previously solved the problem with real objects subsequently treated computer objects more like real objects; their mouse trajectories revealed that they lifted the objects in conjunction with moving them sideways, and this behavior was related to the particular gestures that were observed. These findings demonstrate that hand gestures are a reliable source of perceptual-motor information during human communication. PMID:19682672

  1. How do speakers avoid ambiguous linguistic expressions?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor S; Slevc, L Robert; Rogers, Erin S

    2005-07-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they did so equally regardless of whether they also were about to describe foils. This suggests that comprehension processes can sometimes detect linguistic-ambiguity before producing it. However, once produced, speakers consistently avoided using the same linguistically ambiguous expression again for a different meaning. This suggests that production processes can successfully detect linguistic-ambiguity after-the-fact. Speakers almost always avoided nonlinguistic-ambiguity. Thus, production processes are especially sensitive to nonlinguistic- but not linguistic-ambiguity, with the latter avoided consistently only once it is already articulated.

  2. Biosolids composting in Davenport, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, R.A.; Williams, T.; Plett, S.

    1996-09-01

    The City of Davenport, Iowa constructed an aerated static pile composting facility to process 28 dry tons per day of dewatered biosolids and 25,000 cubic yards per year of yard wastes. This is the first large totally enclosed aerated static pile biosolids composting facility to be built in several years in the US. Design of the facility was completed in March 1994, construction began in July 1994, with substantial completion of the facility in August 1995. This paper outlines the major operating systems and describes the major components of the facility. The facility processes all of the City`s anaerobically digested biosolids which is currently dewatered by belt filter presses to 20% solids. Yard wastes are used as the primary bulking agent supplemented by wood chips and shredded rubber tires to minimize O and M costs. A mechanized continuous feed mixing system consisting of hoppers, conveyors, and pugmill mixers is used to combine bulk agents with the dewatered biosolids to the desired ratio for composting. Composting and drying of these materials occurs in a totally enclosed pre-fabricated metal building for maximum environmental control and odor control. Multiple aeration stations provide both positive and negative aeration through pre-cast aeration trenches beneath compost piles.

  3. Iowa satellite project ISAT-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Satellite systems to date have been mainly scientific in nature. Only a few systems have been of direct use to the public such as for telephone or television transmission. Space enterprises have remained a mystery to the general public and beyond the reach of the small business community. The result is a less than supportive public when it comes to space activities. The purpose of the ISAT-1 program is to develop a small and relatively inexpensive satellite that will serve the State of Iowa, primarily for educational purposes. It will provide products, services, and activities that will be educational, practical, and useful for a large number for people. The emphasis is on public awareness, 'space literacy', and routine practical applications rather than high technology. The initial conceptual design phase was complete when the current team took over the project. Some areas of the conceptual design were taken a little farther, but for the most part this team started at the detailed design stage.

  4. 40 CFR 282.65 - Iowa State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Iowa obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... Program, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Wallace State Office Building, 900 East Grand, Des...

  5. 40 CFR 282.65 - Iowa State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Iowa obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... Program, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Wallace State Office Building, 900 East Grand, Des...

  6. 40 CFR 282.65 - Iowa State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Iowa obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... Program, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Wallace State Office Building, 900 East Grand, Des...

  7. 8. Photocopy of measured drawing (from the Iowa State University, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of measured drawing (from the Iowa State University, Physical Plant) Delineator unknown 1929; revised to 1943 MAINTENANCE PLANS, BASEMENT THROUGH THIRD FLOORS - Iowa State University, Morrill Hall, Morrill Road, Ames, Story County, IA

  8. HOME ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN A RURAL IOWA COUNTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    HOME ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN A RURAL IOWA COUNTY
    Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Allison L. Naleway*?, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*.
    *University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA RTP, NC ?Curre...

  9. Developing Teacher Leadership in Iowa: Saydel and Central Decatur Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Excellence in Teaching, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Iowa is working to provide teachers with more effective and relevant professional development that measurably increases their instructional skills and their students' learning growth. This is particularly important as new Iowa Core Standards with higher expectations for student learning are put in place. While the Iowa Core focuses on what…

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN
    Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*. * The University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA,RTP, NC ?Current: Colorado...

  11. 1. Photocopy of drawing (from newspaper clipping entitled 'Iowa State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of drawing (from newspaper clipping entitled 'Iowa State Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb,' located at Council Bluffs Free Library in scrapbook catalogued 'Iowa -- Deaf, School for the') Artist unknown approximately 1868-1887 MAIN FACADE - Iowa Institute for Education of the Deaf & Dumb, South Avenue & State Route 92 Vicinity, Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie County, IA

  12. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  13. 4. Photocopy of photograph (from: Iowa General Assembly, Legislative Documents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (from: Iowa General Assembly, Legislative Documents 1896, Vol. 2. Iowa Hospital for the Insane at Clarinda, Biennial Report, 1895. facing p. 16. ca. 1895 INTERIOR, SITTING ROOM FOR WOMEN - Iowa Hospital for the Insane, Main Building, West Main Street Vicinity, Clarinda, Page County, IA

  14. 3. Photocopy of photograph (from: Iowa General Assembly, Legislative Documents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph (from: Iowa General Assembly, Legislative Documents 1896, Vol. 2. Iowa Hospital for the Insane at Clarinda, Biennial Report, 1895. facing p. 33. ca. 1895 INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, HALL - Iowa Hospital for the Insane, Main Building, West Main Street Vicinity, Clarinda, Page County, IA

  15. 5. Photocopy of photograph (from: Iowa General Assembly, Legislative Documents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of photograph (from: Iowa General Assembly, Legislative Documents 1896, Vol. 2. Iowa Hospital for the Insane at Clarinda, Biennial Report, 1895. facing p. 16. ca. 1895 INTERIOR, DORMITORY FOR WOMEN - Iowa Hospital for the Insane, Main Building, West Main Street Vicinity, Clarinda, Page County, IA

  16. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. PMID:27297179

  17. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers.

  18. Holocene paleoenviroments of northwest Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.G.; Bettis, E.A. III; Schwert, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents the biotic, sedimentary, geomorphic, and climatic history of the upper part of the Roberts Creek Basin, northeastern Iowa for the late-glacial and Holocene, and compares these records with a C-O isotopic sequence from Coldwater Cave, 60 km northwest of Roberts Creek. the biotic record (pollen, vascular plant and bryophyte macrofossils, and insects) is preserved in floodplain alluvium that underlies three constructional surfaces separated by low scarps. Each surface is underlain by a lithologically and temporally distinct alluvial fill. The highest surface is underlain by the Gunder Member of the Deforest Formation, dating from 11,000 to 4000 yr BP; beneath the intermediate level is the Roberts Creek Member, dating from 4000 to 400 yr BP; and the lowest level is underlain by the Camp Creek Member, deposited during the last 380 yr. Pollen and plant macrofossils in the alluvial fill show that a typical late-glacial spruce forest was replaced by Quercus and Ulmus in the early Holocene. This early-to-middle Holocene forest became dominated by medic elements such as Acer saccharum, Tila americana, Ostyra virginiana, and Carpinus caroliniana as late as 5500 yr BP; in contrast, the closest sites to the west and north were at their warmest and driest were covered by prairie vegetation between 6500 and 5500 yr BP. After 5500 yr BP, the forest in the roberts Creek area was replaced by prairie, as indicated by a rich assemblage of plant macrofossils, although only Ambrosia and Poaceae became abundant in the pollen record. The return of Quercus {approx} 3000 BP (while nonarboreal pollen percentages remained relatively high) indicates the oak savanna prevailed with little change until settlement time. 83 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. 77 FR 3840 - Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.-Lease Exemption-Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.--Lease Exemption--Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY.... 10902 for Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd. (IAIS), a Class II rail carrier, to lease and operate 8.4...

  20. 77 FR 56910 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Iowa Traction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... milepost 10.4 at Clear Lake in Cerro Gordo County, Iowa (the Line). Iowa Railway states that the... in Control Exemption--Iowa Traction Ry., Docket No. FD 35671. The transaction may be consummated on... under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) may be filed at any time. The filing of a petition to revoke will...

  1. What the speaker means: the recognition of speakers plans in discourse

    SciTech Connect

    Sidner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Human conversational participants depend upon the ability of their partners to recognize their intentions, so that those partners may respond appropriately. In such interactions, the speaker encodes his intentions about the hearer's response in a variety of sentence types. Instead of telling the hearer what to do, the speaker may just state his goals, and expect a response that meets these goals at least part way. This paper presents a new model for recognizing the speaker's intended meaning in determining a response. It shows that this recognition makes use of the speaker's plan, his beliefs about the domain and about the hearer's relevant capacities. 12 references.

  2. 78 FR 48762 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  3. Iowa Family Day Care Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Dorothy; And Others

    The Iowa Family Day Care Handbook is designed as an aid for persons entering the business of providing home day care as well as for those persons already in the field. Topics include advantages and disadvantages of family day care for children, parents and providers; getting started in family day care; and a list and description of records that…

  4. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S.; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual…

  5. Cognitive Status and Change among Iowa Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margrett, Jennifer A.; Hsieh, Wen-Hua; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Equivocal evidence exists regarding the degree of cognitive stability and prevalence of cognitive impairment in very late life. The objective of the current study was to examine mental status performance and change over time within a sample of Iowa centenarians. The baseline sample consisted of 152 community-dwelling and institutionalized…

  6. 76 FR 54521 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major ] disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  7. 75 FR 53006 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only...

  8. 78 FR 28939 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  9. 76 FR 54522 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  10. 75 FR 47035 - Iowa Disaster # IA-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for...

  11. 75 FR 10329 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00022

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  12. 75 FR 11582 - IOWA Disaster # IA-00023

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION IOWA Disaster IA-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  13. 75 FR 45681 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  14. 78 FR 36010 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  15. 76 FR 55721 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  16. 78 FR 42147 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00054

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for...

  17. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  18. Iowa Cultivates Curriculum on Work and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jerelyn

    1989-01-01

    Iowa State University's curriculum guide, Balancing Work and Family, includes units on demographic trends, multiple roles, parental influences on life-style, long-range planning, sources of role conflict, time and money management, demands of careers, determinants of job satisfaction, public policy, influences on career choice, work attitudes, and…

  19. Iowa College Student Aid Commission Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to trace the policy production process of a state agency, the Iowa College Student Aid Commission (Commission), to its function today. This case study relied on a review of federal and state statutes, a news article search, biennium reports of the Commission, and information obtained from the…

  20. Holocene paleoenvironments of Northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.G.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Schwert, D.R.; Horton, D.G.; Chumbley, C.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Reagan, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the biotic. sedimentary, geomorphic, and climatic history of the upper part of the Roberts Creek Basin, northeastern Iowa for the late-glacial and Holocene, and compares these records with a C-O isotopic sequence from Coldwater Cave. 60 km northwest of Roberts Creek. The biotic record (pollen, vascular plant and bryophyle macrofossils. and insects) is preserved in floodplain alluvium that underlies three constructional surfaces separated by low scarps. Each surface is underlain by a lithologically and temporally distinct alluvial fill. The highest surface is underlain by the Gunder Member of the Deforest Formation, dating from 11 000 to 4000 yr BP; beneath the intermediate level is the Roberts Creek Member, dating from 4000 to 400 yr BP; and the lowest level is underlain by the Camp Creek Member, deposited during the last 380 yr. Pollen and plant macrofossils in the alluvial fill show that a typical late-glacial spruce forest was replaced by Quercus and Ulmus in the early Holocene. This early-to-middle Holocene forest became dominated by mesic elements such as Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Ostrya virginiana, and Carpinus caroliniana as late as 5500 yr BP; in contrast, the closest sites to the west and north were at their warmest and driest and were covered by prairie vegetation between 6500 and 5500 yr BP. After 5500 yr BP, the forest in the Roberts Creek area was replaced by prairie, as indicated by a rich assemblage of plant macrofossils, although only Ambrosia and Poaceae became abundant in the pollen record. The return of Quercus ??? 3000 BP (while nonarboreal pollen percentages remained relatively high) indicates that oak savanna prevailed with little change until settlement time. The bryophyte assemblages strongly support the vascular plant record. Rich fen species characteristic of boreal habitats occur only in the late-glacial. They are replaced by a number of deciduous-forest elements when early-to-middle Holocene forests were

  1. Multilingual Speakers' Problems in Decoding in a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldor, Susan; Shell, Ruth

    Through an experiment investigating the processes used by several speakers of Asian languages to decode passages by speakers of Australian English, this paper seeks to establish and categorize the types of problems encountered by multilingual speakers when decoding the speech of monolingual speakers in one of their (the multilinguals') second…

  2. Compliment Responses: Comparing American Learners of Japanese, Native Japanese Speakers, and American Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsumi, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that American learners of Japanese (AJs) tend to differ from native Japanese speakers in their compliment responses (CRs). Yokota (1986) and Shimizu (2009) have reported that AJs tend to respond more negatively than native Japanese speakers. It has also been reported that AJs' CRs tend to lack the use of avoidance or…

  3. Native Speaker and Nonnative Speaker Identities in Repair Practices of English Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Eun Young; Oh, Sun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Within the theoretical and methodological framework of Conversation Analysis, the present study explores the nature of the native speaker (NS) and nonnative speaker (NNS) identities in repair practices of English conversation. It has identified and analyzed in detail repair sequences in the data and has also conducted quantitative analyses in…

  4. "To the Uplift and Protection of Young Womanhood": African-American Women at Iowa's Private Colleges and the University of Iowa, 1878-1928

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breaux, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the college lives of two generations of Iowa's black college women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It focuses on the experiences of black women at Iowa's private colleges and the University of Iowa (UI) from 1878 to 1928. The experiences of black women in Iowa's colleges and universities are important for…

  5. Bedrock topography of south-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cagle, J.W.

    1973-01-01

    The bedrock surface in Iowa is covered nearly everywhere by unconsolidated deposits of glacial drift and alluvium which range in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 400 feet, and from less than 1 foot to about 60 feet, respectively. The bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses, which were developed during the long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion.

  6. The 1965 Mississippi River flood in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwob, Harian H.; Myers, Richard E.

    1965-01-01

    Flood data compiled for the part of the River along the eastern border include flood discharges, flood elevations, and the frequency of floods of varying magnitudes. They also include the daily or more frequent stage and discharge data for both the Mississippi River and the downstream gaging stations on Iowa tributaries for the period March-May 1965. Sufficient data are presented to permit studied for preparation of plans for protective works and plans for zoning or for flood plain regulation.

  7. Iowa ground-water-quality monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detroy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    More than 1,200 wells are available and acceptable for the network. From these and newly completed wells, 200 samples will be collected and analyzed annually. Analyses will be made for common anions and cations, trace metals, nutrients, and radionuclides. One out of ten samples will be analyzed for priority pollutants and pesticides. Data from this program will be published annually in Water Resources Data, Iowa, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report.

  8. Bedrock topography of north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) is generally overlain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium, which range in thickness from less than 1 ft to more than 400 ft, and from less than 1 ft to about 60 ft respectively. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses which were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but mroe intense, periods of interglacial erosion.

  9. Eleven-year trend in acetanilide pesticide degradates in the Iowa River, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Capel, Paul D.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in concentration and loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor and their ethanasulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OXA) acid degradates were studied from 1996 through 2006 in the main stem of the Iowa River, Iowa and in the South Fork Iowa River, a small tributary near the headwaters of the Iowa River. Concentration trends were determined using the parametric regression model SEAWAVE-Q, which accounts for seasonal and flow-related variability. Daily estimated concentrations generated from the model were used with daily streamflow to calculate daily and yearly loads. Acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and their ESA and OXA degradates were generally present in >50% of the samples collected from both sites throughout the study. Their concentrations generally decreased from 1996 through 2006, although the rate of decrease was slower after 2001. Concentrations of the ESA and OXA degradates decreased from 3 to about 23% yr-1. The concentration trend was related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period. Decreasing concentrations and constant runoff resulted in an average reduction of 10 to >3000 kg per year of alachlor and metolachlor ESA and OXA degradates being transported out of the Iowa River watershed. Transport of acetochlor and metolachlor parent compounds and their degradates from the Iowa River watershed ranged from <1% to about 6% of the annual application. These trends were related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period, but the year-to-year variability cannot explain changes in loads based on herbicide use alone. The trends were also affected by the timing and amount of precipitation. As expected, increased amounts of water moving through the watershed moved a greater percentage of the applied herbicides, especially the relatively soluble degradates, from the soils into the rivers through surface runoff, shallow groundwater inflow, and subsurface drainage.

  10. Eleven-year trend in acetanilide pesticide degradates in the Iowa River, Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J; Vecchia, Aldo V; Capel, Paul D; Meyer, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Trends in concentration and loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor and their ethanasulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OXA) acid degradates were studied from 1996 through 2006 in the main stem of the Iowa River, Iowa and in the South Fork Iowa River, a small tributary near the headwaters of the Iowa River. Concentration trends were determined using the parametric regression model SEAWAVE-Q, which accounts for seasonal and flow-related variability. Daily estimated concentrations generated from the model were used with daily streamflow to calculate daily and yearly loads. Acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and their ESA and OXA degradates were generally present in >50% of the samples collected from both sites throughout the study. Their concentrations generally decreased from 1996 through 2006, although the rate of decrease was slower after 2001. Concentrations of the ESA and OXA degradates decreased from 3 to about 23% yr. The concentration trend was related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period. Decreasing concentrations and constant runoff resulted in an average reduction of 10 to >3000 kg per year of alachlor and metolachlor ESA and OXA degradates being transported out of the Iowa River watershed. Transport of acetochlor and metolachlor parent compounds and their degradates from the Iowa River watershed ranged from <1% to about 6% of the annual application. These trends were related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period, but the year-to-year variability cannot explain changes in loads based on herbicide use alone. The trends were also affected by the timing and amount of precipitation. As expected, increased amounts of water moving through the watershed moved a greater percentage of the applied herbicides, especially the relatively soluble degradates, from the soils into the rivers through surface runoff, shallow groundwater inflow, and subsurface drainage. PMID:23099949

  11. Ban Outside Speakers? Not on Our Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jordan E.

    2007-01-01

    Since its founding, the American Association of University Professors has been concerned with infringements of academic freedom when colleges interfere with invited speakers. The first time the AAUP seems to have addressed the problem categorically, however, was through a resolution adopted fifty years ago by the annual meeting. The Association…

  12. Emblematic Gestures among Hebrew Speakers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann

    A field study conducted in Israel sought to identify emblematic gestures (body movements that convey specific messages) that are recognized and used by Hebrew speakers. Twenty-six gestures commonly used in classroom interaction were selected for testing, using Schneller's form, "Investigations of Interpersonal Communication in Israel." The 26…

  13. Speech-Song Interface of Chinese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Pitch is a psychoacoustic construct crucial in the production and perception of speech and songs. This article is an exploration of the interface of speech and song performance of Chinese speakers. Although parallels might be drawn from the prosodic and sound structures of the linguistic and musical systems, perceiving and producing speech and…

  14. Pronunciation Features of Thai Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes some of the pronunciation features of Thai speakers of English in New Zealand, based on the observation of Thai students during their language laboratory sessions in a pre-university English course. Regular pronunciation features and consistent patterns of sound replacement were observed, which seemed to be characteristic of,…

  15. The Nonstandard Speaker and "Standard" Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William H.

    Before teachers can decide how to teach writing to nonstandard dialect speakers, they should determine whether college students can in fact learn to command a second dialect (in this case, Standard English), as well as the most effective way to provide access to command of Standard English while educating the public about the values of nonstandard…

  16. The IRS and Your Politically Controversial Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heen, Mary L.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, administrators have sometimes cited the lack of balance represented by the invitation of a college or university group or the danger that a group's invitation might violate section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code as reasons for canceling or modifying otherwise legitimate invitations. In "Academic Freedom and Outside Speakers,"…

  17. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  18. Speaker normalization for chinese vowel recognition in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-07-01

    Because of the limited spectra-temporal resolution associated with cochlear implants, implant patients often have greater difficulty with multitalker speech recognition. The present study investigated whether multitalker speech recognition can be improved by applying speaker normalization techniques to cochlear implant speech processing. Multitalker Chinese vowel recognition was tested with normal-hearing Chinese-speaking subjects listening to a 4-channel cochlear implant simulation, with and without speaker normalization. For each subject, speaker normalization was referenced to the speaker that produced the best recognition performance under conditions without speaker normalization. To match the remaining speakers to this "optimal" output pattern, the overall frequency range of the analysis filter bank was adjusted for each speaker according to the ratio of the mean third formant frequency values between the specific speaker and the reference speaker. Results showed that speaker normalization provided a small but significant improvement in subjects' overall recognition performance. After speaker normalization, subjects' patterns of recognition performance across speakers changed, demonstrating the potential for speaker-dependent effects with the proposed normalization technique. PMID:16042003

  19. Speaker Recognition Through NLP and CWT Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Tucker, R.W.

    1999-06-16

    The objective of this research is to develop a system capable of identifying speakers on wiretaps from a large database (>500 speakers) with a short search time duration (<30 seconds), and with better than 90% accuracy. Much previous research in speaker recognition has led to algorithms that produced encouraging preliminary results, but were overwhelmed when applied to populations of more than a dozen or so different speakers. The authors are investigating a solution to the "large population" problem by seeking two completely different kinds of characterizing features. These features are he techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). NLP extracts precise neurological, verbal and non-verbal information, and assimilates the information into useful patterns. These patterns are based on specific cues demonstrated by each individual, and provide ways of determining congruency between verbal and non-verbal cues. The primary NLP modalities are characterized through word spotting (or verbal predicates cues, e.g., see, sound, feel, etc.) while the secondary modalities would be characterized through the speech transcription used by the individual. This has the practical effect of reducing the size of the search space, and greatly speeding up the process of identifying an unknown speaker. The wavelet-based line of investigation concentrates on using vowel phonemes and non-verbal cues, such as tempo. The rationale for concentrating on vowels is there are a limited number of vowels phonemes, and at least one of them usually appears in even the shortest of speech segments. Using the fast, CWT algorithm, the details of both the formant frequency and the glottal excitation characteristics can be easily extracted from voice waveforms. The differences in the glottal excitation waveforms as well as the formant frequency are evident in the CWT output. More significantly, the CWT reveals significant detail of the glottal excitation

  20. Speaker recognition through NLP and CWT modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, A.; Kercel, S. W.; Tucker, R. W.

    1999-06-23

    The objective of this research is to develop a system capable of identifying speakers on wiretaps from a large database (>500 speakers) with a short search time duration (<30 seconds), and with better than 90% accuracy. Much previous research in speaker recognition has led to algorithms that produced encouraging preliminary results, but were overwhelmed when applied to populations of more than a dozen or so different speakers. The authors are investigating a solution to the ''huge population'' problem by seeking two completely different kinds of characterizing features. These features are extracted using the techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). NLP extracts precise neurological, verbal and non-verbal information, and assimilates the information into useful patterns. These patterns are based on specific cues demonstrated by each individual, and provide ways of determining congruency between verbal and non-verbal cues. The primary NLP modalities are characterized through word spotting (or verbal predicates cues, e.g., see, sound, feel, etc.) while the secondary modalities would be characterized through the speech transcription used by the individual. This has the practical effect of reducing the size of the search space, and greatly speeding up the process of identifying an unknown speaker. The wavelet-based line of investigation concentrates on using vowel phonemes and non-verbal cues, such as tempo. The rationale for concentrating on vowels is there are a limited number of vowels phonemes, and at least one of them usually appears in even the shortest of speech segments. Using the fast, CWT algorithm, the details of both the formant frequency and the glottal excitation characteristics can be easily extracted from voice waveforms. The differences in the glottal excitation waveforms as well as the formant frequency are evident in the CWT output. More significantly, the CWT reveals significant detail of the

  1. Report of the Iowa Governor's Conference on Education Goals (Ames, Iowa, December 13, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Coll. of Education.

    The summary of a statewide conference on future directions for Iowa education in congruence with national education goals and the results of a follow-up survey are the topics of this report. Roundtable discussion participants assessed 10 educational goals and their associated indicators in relation to validity of the indicators, barriers to…

  2. Reaching ABE Students: Lessons from the Iowa Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1990-01-01

    An Iowa survey of 351 adult basic education participants uncovered 10 motivations for participation, which were used to develop a cluster-analysis market segmentation. Another Iowa study found 4 basic causes for nonparticipation: low perception of need, perceived difficulty, dislike of school, and situational barriers. (SK)

  3. Iowa Extension Program: Increasing Literacy Skills for Hispanic Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    The population of Spanish-speaking families in Iowa has increased dramatically over the last decade. Needs assessment activities identified the need to reach out to these families with Extension educational programs designed to increase parenting skills. Iowa State University Extension prepared family life specialists to implement such parent…

  4. State Action Plan for Iowa. "Marketing" Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omega Group, Inc., Haverford, PA.

    An Iowa project identified curriculum, program standards, and a framework for promoting marketing education programs. The mission for the state action plan for marketing education is to develop a strategy to revitalize Iowa's marketing education for the 21st century. Three goals support this mission: (1) create a community-wide awareness of the…

  5. Iowa Wavering on Medicaid: From Expansion to Modernization.

    PubMed

    Wright, Brad; Potter, Andrew J; Nattinger, Matthew C

    2016-04-01

    Iowa is one of six states to expand Medicaid through section 1115 waivers. Iowa's alternative approach to Medicaid expansion, known as the Iowa Health and Wellness Plan, was the result of a bipartisan compromise, motivated by the pending expiration of a preexisting section 1115 waiver that served sixty-five thousand Iowans. The Iowa Health and Wellness Plan emphasizes personal responsibility and private involvement. Key features include beneficiary premiums, incentives for healthy behaviors, and premium assistance for some beneficiaries to purchase insurance in the health insurance marketplace. However, Iowa has struggled to implement its expansion as initially envisioned, due largely to the lack of private insurers willing and able to insure new Medicaid enrollees in the marketplace. In 2016 Iowa will dramatically increase the role of managed care in Medicaid, with the vast majority of beneficiaries receiving almost all Medicaid services through a capitated managed care organization. This article highlights the local factors driving expansion, the interplay of the state and federal political landscape, the challenges of providing consumer choice within Iowa's marketplace, and the future of Iowa's Medicaid program under managed care. PMID:26732318

  6. In Iowa, a Life of the Mind, Heart, and Soul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jefery

    2005-01-01

    When Dr. Skorton was tapped as Iowa's president, in 2003, his appointment was widely favored by faculty and staff members. Unlike most academics who give up their day jobs when they become college presidents, Dr. David J. Skorton 55, kept his when he took the reins at Iowa two years ago. A cardiologist by training, he still sees patients with…

  7. Access to Local Records and Meetings in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutti, Marilyn

    Since opposition to media coverage of local government can be powerful, a reporter covering municipal and county affairs in Iowa should be familiar with access to information laws. Chapter 28A of the Iowa Code provides that "reasonable" public notice precede all governing board meetings and specifies that the time, date, place, and tentative…

  8. Life After Death (By Cheeseburger): An Iowa Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mary Peterson

    A survey polled high schools in Iowa to examine the following research questions: (1) Which high schools in Iowa do and do not publish a student newspaper?; (2) What is the frequency of publication?; (3) Which schools publish their newspaper as part of the local community paper?; (4) What changes have occurred in the profile of the average high…

  9. Synthetic Estimates of Iowa's Substate Adult Literacy Proficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    This document, which is designed to provide Iowa literacy service providers and funding agencies with information about the distribution of adult literacy proficiencies over various regions of Iowa, presents and discusses synthetic estimates of adult literacy proficiencies. First, the procedure that was used to develop synthetic literacy estimates…

  10. Technology, Teaching, and Learning in Iowa High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maushak, Nancy; Wigans, Lynn Manternach; Bender, Caryl

    This project was part of the program evaluation of the Iowa Distance Education Alliance, a Star Schools Project funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Thirty Iowa high schools were selected to represent the state. Interviews were conducted with students, faculty, and administration at each of these schools; results were transcribed and…

  11. Iowa's Clean Solid Waste Environmental Education Project (SWEEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eells, Jean Crim; And Others

    The Iowa Clean SWEEP program is designed to provide educators, K-12, with a series of activities focusing upon critical concepts related to Iowa's solid waste problem. This activity packet contains 19 activities for grades K-6, and 25 activities for grades 7-12. Key concepts addressed throughout the activity packet include: (1) an overview, the…

  12. Iowa Consumer Trends and Participation in Agritourism Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasers, Melissa S.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    As the agritourism industry grows and develops in Iowa, it is important to identify the knowledge and participation levels of prospective agritourism consumers. This article focuses on current consumer trends and participation levels in Iowa agritourism activities. The results revealed a majority of Iowans believe they have at least some…

  13. Iowa Physical Education Guidelines for Students Receiving Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This resource guide is intended to aid in the development of physical education programs to meet the motor, social, and recreational needs of students with disabilities. Two brief chapters on legislation review federal regulations, Iowa law, and Iowa rules for special education and special education administration. Next, the four steps in…

  14. The Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, Vladimir; Burroughs, Monte; Burrows, Barbara; St Clair, Eric; Farver, Kent; Harris, Alex; Nissen, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Since 1998, the Management Information System (MIS) group of the Division of Community Colleges has been responsible for compiling and publishing "The Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges," commonly known as the condition report. Primary data sources for the condition report are each of the 15 public community colleges in Iowa.…

  15. 6. Photocopy of photograph (from Iowa State University Library, Special ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (from Iowa State University Library, Special Collections) Photographer unknown post 1896 INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, ROOM TO RIGHT OF ENTRANCE, AS USED AS A STUDY BY DEAN C. F. CURTISS - Iowa State University, Farm House, Knoll Road Vicinity, Ames, Story County, IA

  16. Accent Attribution in Speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Jo; De Pauw, Guy; Pettinato, Michele; Hirson, Allen; Van Borsel, John; Marien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this experiment was to investigate the perception of Foreign Accent Syndrome in comparison to speakers with an authentic foreign accent. Method: Three groups of listeners attributed accents to conversational speech samples of 5 FAS speakers which were embedded amongst those of 5 speakers with a real foreign accent and 5…

  17. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  18. Speech Breathing in Speakers Who Use an Electrolarynx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnenkamp, Todd A.; Stowell, Talena; Hesse, Joy; Wright, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Speakers who use an electrolarynx following a total laryngectomy no longer require pulmonary support for speech. Subsequently, chest wall movements may be affected; however, chest wall movements in these speakers are not well defined. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx during…

  19. Speaker Reliability Guides Children's Inductive Inferences about Novel Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunae; Kalish, Charles W.; Harris, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Prior work shows that children can make inductive inferences about objects based on their labels rather than their appearance (Gelman, 2003). A separate line of research shows that children's trust in a speaker's label is selective. Children accept labels from a reliable speaker over an unreliable speaker (e.g., Koenig & Harris, 2005). In the…

  20. Young Children's Sensitivity to Speaker Gender When Learning from Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…

  1. Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa, Inc. v. Miller.

    PubMed

    1999-09-24

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit found an Iowa statute banning partial-birth abortions to be unconstitutional. Nonprofit corporations that operate abortion clinics, physicians who perform abortions, and medical professors who taught abortion methods, had challenged the constitutionality of Iowa's statute in a lower court. The lower court had held that Iowa's statute was unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and the U.S. Court of Appeals agreed. Although the Iowa statute was intended to ban the dilation and extraction procedure, it implicitly banned commonly used abortion procedures in the second trimester, such as suction-curettage and dilation and evacuation. The Court of Appeals ruled that the Iowa statute created an undue burden for women seeking pre-viability abortions. PMID:11648440

  2. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin, 1993-flood of June 29-September 18, 1993, in Iowa City and vicinity, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.; Harvey, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrologic investigations atlas shows the areas in and around Iowa City, Iowa, that were flooded by the Iowa River in 1993. This map also depicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 100-year flood boundaries. The drainage basin of the Iowa River at Iowa City received well over 100 percent of normal rainfall in June, July, and August, 1993. At the Cedar Rapids airport, located about 20 miles north-northwest of Iowa City, July rainfall was 414 percent of normal. The discharges at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the Iowa River upstream of Coralville Reservoir, just downstream from Coralville Reservoir, and at Iowa City are shown. A profile of the maximum water-surface elevations of the 1993 flood in Iowa City and vicinity is higher than the FEMA 100-year flood profile. The water-surface elevation of Coralville Reservoir is shown from June 29-September 18, 1993.

  3. Urban stormwater runoff study at Davenport, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    1995-01-01

    Urban storm water runoff is being investigated as a nonpoint source of pollution across the country as urban areas with populations over 100,000 conduct studies designed to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for their stormwater discharges. From 1991 through 1994, the City of Davenport, Iowa (fig. 1), and the U.S. Geological Survey cooperatively conducted a study designed to meet technical conditions of the permit application and to develop the criteria for ongoing monitoring during the term of the permit. 

  4. Iowa seeks to end electric fuel surcharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponczak, G.

    1985-09-02

    Iowa is abolishing the fuel cost adjustment credits for investor-owned electric utilities because of illegal utility charges that added non-fuel costs into the credit. Abolishing the energy adjustment credit (EAC) will force utilities to file a rate case in order to pass changes in fuel costs to their customers. Investor-owned and municipal utilities have filed opposing testimony for the September hearing. Opponents claim that there will have to be changes made in the way costs are recovered from cogenerated power purchases and that it will be more difficult to make annual fuel procurements.

  5. Physiological responses at short distances from a parametric speaker

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, parametric speakers have been used in various circumstances. In our previous studies, we verified that the physiological burden of the sound of parametric speaker set at 2.6 m from the subjects was lower than that of the general speaker. However, nothing has yet been demonstrated about the effects of the sound of a parametric speaker at the shorter distance between parametric speakers the human body. Therefore, we studied this effect on physiological functions and task performance. Nine male subjects participated in this study. They completed three consecutive sessions: a 20-minute quiet period as a baseline, a 30-minute mental task period with general speakers or parametric speakers, and a 20-minute recovery period. We measured electrocardiogram (ECG) photoplethysmogram (PTG), electroencephalogram (EEG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Four experiments, one with a speaker condition (general speaker and parametric speaker), the other with a distance condition (0.3 m and 1.0 m), were conducted respectively at the same time of day on separate days. To examine the effects of the speaker and distance, three-way repeated measures ANOVA (speaker factor x distance factor x time factor) were conducted. In conclusion, we found that the physiological responses were not significantly different between the speaker condition and the distance condition. Meanwhile, it was shown that the physiological burdens increased with progress in time independently of speaker condition and distance condition. In summary, the effects of the parametric speaker at the 2.6 m distance were not obtained at the distance of 1 m or less. PMID:22737994

  6. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  7. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  8. Assessment of laryngeal dysfunctions of dysarthric speakers.

    PubMed

    Surabhi, V; Vijayalakshmi, P; Steffina, Lily; Jayanthan, Ra V

    2009-01-01

    Dysarthria is a neuromotor impairment of speech that affects one or more of the speech sub-systems. It is reflected in the acoustic characteristics of the phonemes as deviations from their healthy counterparts. In the current work, the deviations associated with laryngeal dysfunctions are analysed in order to assess and quantify parameters that will help evaluate dysarthria. Perturbation measures, pitch period statistics and Pitch Variation Index (PVI) are computed for the assessment of laryngeal dysfunctions of dysarthric speakers. The assessments were performed on the Nemours database of dysarthric speech and compared with normal speakers available in the TIMIT speech corpus. The results were correlated with Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment (FDA) scores. The analysis resulted in a technique to predict the degree of severity of dysarthria and illustrate the multi-causal nature of the disorder. PMID:19965223

  9. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  10. Assessment of variation between and within speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2003-10-01

    While few individuals would argue that vocal cues can signal a person's identity, it is difficult to specify exactly which parameter(s) provide the most salient information for speaker identification. Previous literature has suggested that speaking fundamental frequency, long-term spectra, vowel formant frequencies, and speech tempo can provide speaker-specific information. However, investigations focused on automatic speaker identification have provided less than satisfactory results. These findings could be related to how each acoustic parameter is measured or, more probably, to the idea that these acoustic parameters interact in specific ways that may be more obvious in the perceptual realm and may vary across speaking situations. To further complicate matters, individuals may speak more than one language or use multiple dialects. Little is known about the effect of code switching on voice production and identification. The purpose of this presentation is to present some of the relevant literature on voice recognition and factors related to misidentification. The role of intraspeaker variability will be discussed with a special emphasis on bilingualism and bidialectalism. Implications for voice production in augmentative and alternative communication devices will be described.

  11. Climate Change and Maize Yield in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E.; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output from six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10–20% by the end of the 21st century. PMID:27219116

  12. Climate change and maize yield in Iowa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E.; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-05-24

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output frommore » six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Lastly, our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10-20% by the end of the 21st century.« less

  13. Climate Change and Maize Yield in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output from six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10-20% by the end of the 21st century.

  14. Speaker Verification in Realistic Noisy Environment in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Toshiaki; Minematsu, Nobuaki; Osanai, Takashi; Makinae, Hisanori; Tanimoto, Masumi

    In forensic voice telephony speaker verification, we may be requested to identify a speaker in a very noisy environment, unlike the conditions in general research. In a noisy environment, we process speech first by clarifying it. However, the previous study of speaker verification from clarified speech did not yield satisfactory results. In this study, we experimented on speaker verification with clarification of speech in a noisy environment, and we examined the relationship between improving acoustic quality and speaker verification results. Moreover, experiments with realistic noise such as a crime prevention alarm and power supply noise was conducted, and speaker verification accuracy in a realistic environment was examined. We confirmed the validity of speaker verification with clarification of speech in a realistic noisy environment.

  15. Speaker-Adaptive Speech Recognition Based on Surface Electromyography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wand, Michael; Schultz, Tanja

    We present our recent advances in silent speech interfaces using electromyographic signals that capture the movements of the human articulatory muscles at the skin surface for recognizing continuously spoken speech. Previous systems were limited to speaker- and session-dependent recognition tasks on small amounts of training and test data. In this article we present speaker-independent and speaker-adaptive training methods which allow us to use a large corpus of data from many speakers to train acoustic models more reliably. We use the speaker-dependent system as baseline, carefully tuning the data preprocessing and acoustic modeling. Then on our corpus we compare the performance of speaker-dependent and speaker-independent acoustic models and carry out model adaptation experiments.

  16. Relation of baseflow to row crop intensity in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing baseflow and baseflow percentage over the second half of the 20th century in Iowa has contributed to increasing nitrate-nitrogen concentrations measured in Iowa rivers because nitrate is primarily delivered to streams as baseflow and tile drainage. The relation of baseflow and baseflow percentage to row crop land use was evaluated for 11 Iowa rivers and their watersheds for their period of streamflow record (58-73 years period). Results indicated increasing baseflow in Iowa's rivers is significantly related to increasing row crop intensity. A 13-52% increase in row crop percentage in many Iowa watersheds has contributed to an increase of 33-135 mm increase in baseflow and 7-31% increase in baseflow percentage. Limited historical water quality data from two larger Iowa rivers (Cedar and Raccoon rivers) suggest that increasing row crop land use over the 20th century has produced more baseflow and contributed to increasing nitrate concentrations in Iowa's rivers. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Floods of May and June 2008 in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.; Eash, David A.

    2010-01-01

    An unusually wet winter and spring of 2007 to 2008 resulted in extremely wet antecedent conditions throughout most of Iowa. Rainfall of 5 to 15 inches was observed in eastern Iowa during May 2008, and an additional 5 to 15 inches of rain was observed throughout most of Iowa in June. Because of the severity of the May and June 2008 flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, has summarized the meteorological and hydrological conditions leading to the flooding, compiled flood-peak stages and discharges, and estimated revised flood probabilities for 62 selected streamgages. Record peak discharges or flood probabilities of 1 percent or smaller (100-year flooding or greater) occurred at more than 60 streamgage locations, particularly in eastern Iowa. Cedar Rapids, Decorah, Des Moines, Iowa City, Mason City, and Waterloo were among the larger urban areas affected by this flooding. High water and flooding in small, headwater streams in north-central and eastern Iowa, particularly in June, combined and accumulated in large, mainstem rivers and resulted in flooding of historic proportions in the Cedar and Iowa Rivers. Previous flood-peak discharges at many locations were exceeded by substantial amounts, in some cases nearly doubling the previous record peak discharge at locations where more than 100 years of streamflow record are available.

  18. Spelling and dialect: comparisons between speakers of African American vernacular English and White speakers.

    PubMed

    Treiman, Rebecca

    2004-04-01

    One characteristic of African American vernacular English (AAVE) is final obstruent devoicing, where the final consonant of a word like rigid is pronounced more like /t/ than /d/. To determine whether this dialect characteristic influences adults' spelling, African American and White college students spelled words such as rigid and ballot, pronounced by either a speaker of their own dialect or a speaker of the other dialect. African Americans, especially those who often devoiced final /d/, were more likely than Whites to confuse d and t. Both African American and White spellers made more d/t confusions when the words were spoken by an African American experimenter than by a White experimenter. Thus, the different phonological systems of AAVE and White speakers can cause them to make different types of spelling errors. Discussions of AAVE and literacy have focused on its syntax, but its phonology must also be considered.

  19. Herbicides and nitrates in the Iowa River alluvial aquifer prior to changing land use, Iowa County, Iowa, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Tobias, Jennifer L.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Birkenholtz, Trevor L.

    1997-01-01

    Four herbicides (alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor) and one nutrient (nitrate) were selected for study on the basis of frequent usage in Iowa and high detection rates in ground water (Detroy and Kuzniar, 1988). Alachlor was not detected at concentrations greater than the method detection limit (MDL). Atrazine was detected at concentrations greater than the MDL in samples from 48 percent of the 23 wells, cyanazine from 13 percent, metolachlor from 26 percent, and nitrate from 91 percent. None of the four herbicides were detected at concentrations greater than the respective U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water. Thirteen percent of the samples had nitrate concentrations above the USEPA's MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Relations between constituent concentration and well depth were observed for specific constituents at individual well nests.

  20. Results of the Radiological Survey of the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Middletown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.E.

    2001-07-17

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an indoor radiological survey of property at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP), Middletown, Iowa in June 2000. The purpose of the survey was to determine if radioactive residuals resulting from previous Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) activities were present inside selected Line 1 buildings at the IAAAP and conduct sampling in those areas of previous AEC operations that utilized radioactive components at some point during the manufacturing process, in order to evaluate any possible immediate health hazards and to collect sufficient information to determine the next type of survey. The AEC occupied portions of IAAAP from 1947 to 1975 to assemble nuclear weapons. The surveyed areas were identified through interviews with current and former IAAAP employees who had worked at the plant during AEC's tenure, and from AEC records.

  1. Estimated water use in Iowa, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Thamke, Joanna N.

    1988-01-01

    Periodic assessments of water use in Iowa are needed to understand and manage the demands for the available water resources. This report summarizes where, how much, and for what purposes water was used in Iowa during 1985. The data are presented for the following categories: agricultural, self-supplied commercial, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied industrial, irrigation, mining, power generation (excluding hydroelectric plants), and public-water supply. The water-use data are further categorized by county, hydrologic unit subregion, and major aquifer system. During 1985, a total of 1,010,000 million gallons was estimated to have been withdrawn from Iowa's surface- and ground-water resources. Of this, 76 percent was withdrawn from surface-water sources and 24 percent from ground-water sources. Power generation was the largest water-use category, withdrawing 66 percent of the total withdrawals; 99 percent was from surface-water sources. Public-water supply was the second largest water-use category and accounted for 13 percent of total withdrawals; 74 percent was from ground-water sources. Self-supplied industries withdrew 7 percent of the total water use and agricultural withdrawals were 6 percent of the total water use. The remaining 8 percent was accounted for by irrigation (3 percent), self-supplied domestic (2 percent), mining (2 percent), and self-supplied commercial (1 percent) water users. The largest estimated water use occurred in Woodbury County where 201,000 million gallons was withdrawn. Pottawattamie County had the second largest water use with 182,000 million gallons. Other counties with significant withdrawals were Allamakee (74,900 million gallons), Muscatine (63,900 million gallons), and Clinton (62,300 million gallons). Power generation plants are in each of these counties. Surface-water withdrawals were most intensive along the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. Nearly 80 percent of the surface water used in the State was by power generation

  2. Herbicide and nitrate variation in alluvium underlying a cornfield at a site in Iowa County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.; Detroy, M.G.; Cherryholmes, K.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to determine vertical and seasonal variation of atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and nitrate at one location and to relate the variation to ground-water movement in the Iowa River alluvium was conducted in Iowa County, Iowa, from March 1986 to December 1987. Water samples were collected at discrete intervals through the alluvial sequence from the soil zone to the base of the aquifer. Alachlor, atrazine, and cyanazine were detected most frequently in the soil zone but also were present in the upper part of the alluvial aquifer. Alachlor was detected sporadically, whereas, atrazine, cyanazine, and nitrate were present throughout the year. In the alluvial aquifer, the herbicides generally were not detected during 1986 and were present in detectable concentrations for only a short period of time in the upper 1.6 meters of the aquifer during 1987. Nitrate was present throughout the alluvium and was stratified in the alluvial aquifer. The largest nitrate concentrations were detected in the middle part of the aquifer. Nitrate concentrations were variable only in the upper 2 meters of the aquifer. Vertical movement of herbicides and nitrate in the soil correlated with precipitation and degree of saturation. A clay layer retarded vertical movement of atrazine but not nitrate from the soil layer to the aquifer. Vertical movement could not account for the chemical variation in the alluvial aquifer.

  3. 77 FR 61049 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Change in Operators Exemption-Rail Line of Backtrack, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Traction Railway Company--Change in Operators Exemption-- Rail Line of Backtrack, Inc. Iowa Traction Railway Company (Iowa Railway) \\1\\ has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iowa Traction Railroad Company (Iowa Railroad) to...

  4. The NASA GPM Iowa Flood Studies Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, W. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Wolff, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    The overarching objective of NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) integrated hydrologic ground validation (GV) is to provide a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the satellite products, in the context of hydrologic applications. Accordingly, the NASA GPM GV program recently completed the first of several hydrology-oriented field efforts: the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment. IFloodS was conducted in central Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. IFloodS science objectives focused on: a) The collection of reference multi-parameter radar, rain gauge, disdrometer, soil moisture, and hydrologic network measurements to quantify the physical character and space/time variability of rain (e.g., rates, drop size distributions, processes), land surface- state and hydrologic response; b) Application of the ground reference measurements to assessment of satellite-based rainfall estimation uncertainties; c) Propagation of both ground and satellite rainfall estimation uncertainties in coupled hydrologic prediction models to assess impacts on predictive skill; and d) Evaluation of rainfall properties such as rate and accumulation relative to basin hydrologic characteristics in modeled flood genesis. IFloodS observational objectives were achieved via deployments of the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars (operating in coordinated scanning modes), four University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, four Micro Rain Radars, a network of 25 paired rain gauge platforms with attendant soil moisture and temperature probes, a network of six 2D Video and 14 Parsivel disdrometers, and 15 USDA-ARS rain gauge and soil-moisture stations (collaboration with the USDA-ARS and NASA Soil Moisture Active-Passive mission). The aforementioned platforms complemented existing operational WSR-88D S-band polarimetric radar, USGS streamflow, and Iowa Flood Center-affiliated stream monitoring and rainfall measurements. Coincident

  5. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hall, James A; Sarrazin, Mary S Vaughan; Huber, Diane L; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I; Reedy, Amanda R; Jang, Mijin

    2009-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. METHOD: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual (TAU), or to a fourth condition of TAU only. All were assessed at intake and followed at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: Clients in all four conditions significantly decreased substance use by 3 months after intake and maintained most gains over time. However, the addition of ICM to TAU did not improve substance use outcomes. CONCLUSION: Overall, the addition of case management did not significantly improve drug treatment as hypothesized by both researchers and clinicians. Some results were mixed, possibly due to the heterogeneous sample, wide range of case management activities, or difficulty retaining participants over time.

  6. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hall, James A.; Sarrazin, Mary S. Vaughan; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual (TAU), or to a fourth condition of TAU only. All were assessed at intake and followed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Clients in all four conditions significantly decreased substance use by 3 months after intake and maintained most gains over time. However, the addition of ICM to TAU did not improve substance use outcomes. Conclusion Overall, the addition of case management did not significantly improve drug treatment as hypothesized by both researchers and clinicians. Some results were mixed, possibly due to the heterogeneous sample, wide range of case management activities, or difficulty retaining participants over time. PMID:22065018

  7. US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

  8. Permitted water use in Iowa, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Newman, J.L.; Shields, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes where, how much and for what purpose water is allocated for use in Iowa with permits issued by the Department of Water, Air and Waste Management. In Iowa, from a total permitted water use of 855,175.45 million gallons per year, about 58 percent is from surface-water sources and about 42 percent is from ground-water sources. Streams are 80.5 percent of the total surface-water use and wells make up 80.1 percent of the total ground-water use, with 65.4 percent of ground water coming from surficial aquifers. Power generation is the use category that is permitted the largest amount of total water use, 46.6 percent, with surface water being the source of 96.7 percent and 77.9 percent of the surface water is from streams. The public water suppliers' category is the next largest use type with 15.7 percent of the total permitted water. Ground water constitutes 74.4 percent of the public water supplier category with 51.7 percent from surficial aquifers. Surface water makes up 25.6 percent of this category with 83.0 percent of the surface water withdrawn from streams. Mining comprises 13.4 percent of the total water use and is the third largest water-use category. Ground water is the source of 63.3 percent of permitted mining water use with 94.3 percent of this from quarries and sand and gravel pits. Surface water is the source of 36.7 percent of the permitted mining water use with 97.6 percent from streams. Irrigation is the fourth largest permitted use type using 12.0 percent of the total water use. Eighty-eight percent of irrigation is from ground-water sources where surficial aquifers account for 94.7 percent. Streams are 81.1 percent of irrigational surface-water use. Self-supplied industrial users are permitted 10.6 percent of the total permitted water use with 85.5 percent of this from ground-water sources and 14.5 percent from surface-water sources. Of the self-supplied industrial ground-water use, 47.9 percent comes from surficial aquifers and

  9. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

  10. University of Iowa Cerenkov light test

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding requests beam time at Fermilab during the Winter 2005-2006 Meson Test Run to measure the signal size from various configurations of Cerenkov light generators and phototubes. The University of Iowa has pioneered in application of Cerenkov radiation for high-energy detectors. One of the results of this effort is the huge forward calorimeter for CMS (at the LHC) with a half million quartz fibers in iron. The laboratory plans to use this expertise to develop a variety of detectors making use of Cerenkov light and phototubes as the active elements in calorimeters for high-energy particles. There are three immediate applications related to forward angle calorimeters in CMS; ZDC, CASTOR, and the HE upgrade. The University of Iowa will make the detailed design for the Zero Degree Calorimeter. The proposed design uses tungsten plates interleaved with sheets of quartz fibers. In the EM part the plates are perpendicular to the beam, in the rear hadronic part they are at an angle of 45{sup o}. Because of the limited cross sectional area of the plates, there will be considerable leakage of shower particles out of the four sides. We plan to measure this leakage and compare the results with simulations. The leakage will be measured by placing a polished aluminum tank, 4 in wide, 20 in long and 8 in deep on top of absorber material made of blocks of tantalum and copper. The fluid in the tank, that generates the Ccrcnkov light, could be water; but ethylene glycol (antifreeze, but without the added color) would be better. Being non-polar, it is not corrosive like water, and it has a higher index of refraction, 1.42 vs. 1.33. The larger index of refraction would result in more Cerenkov light and better coupling to the PMT. The University of Iowa has been asked to design the light guides for CASTOR that take the light from the quartz plates, in which the light is produced, and carry it to the PMTs. These plates, interleaved with tungsten plates, are

  11. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This semi-annual report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, funded by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, for the period of July 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989. Nine graduate research projects and one undergraduate project are described in the areas of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, characterization and exploration, and fuel science. Although the graduate students are associated with several different academic departments and are pursuing master's and doctoral degrees in their respective disciplines, they are also all minoring in Mineral Resources. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the Third International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals, November 14--16, 1989, held in Ames, Iowa. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Iowa State Offers to Help JC Journalism Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, James

    1972-01-01

    The Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at Iowa State University assists junior college publications programs throughout the state by offering annual workshops, helping in program design, and publishing a Transfer Tip Sheet.'' (RN)

  13. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE RUINS AT LEFT CENTER AND SILVER LAKE MINE RUINS BEYOND NORTHWEST SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  14. 13. View of battleship USS IOWA in Dry Dock No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of battleship USS IOWA in Dry Dock No. 4, looking northeast (1945). Photographer unknown. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 40 CFR 282.65 - Iowa State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Iowa obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... registration of groundwater professionals; 135.3(4) insofar as it applies to farm or residential tanks of...

  16. 40 CFR 282.65 - Iowa State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Iowa obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... registration of groundwater professionals; 135.3(4) insofar as it applies to farm or residential tanks of...

  17. Coffee Can Speakers: Amazing Energy Transformers--Fifth-Grade Students Learn the Science behind Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Kevin; Haake, Monica

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe steps on how to develop a high-impact activity in which students build, test, and improve their own "coffee can" speakers to observe firsthand how loudspeakers work to convert electrical energy to sound. The activity is appropriate for students in grades three to six and lends itself best to students…

  18. Nonnative Speakers Do Not Take Competing Alternative Expressions into Account the Way Native Speakers Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robenalt, Clarice; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2016-01-01

    When native speakers judge the acceptability of novel sentences, they appear to implicitly take competing formulations into account, judging novel sentences with a readily available alternative formulation to be less acceptable than novel sentences with no competing alternative. Moreover, novel sentences with a competing alternative are more…

  19. Bringing Speakers Back in? Epistemological Reflections on Speaker-Oriented Explanations of Language Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deumert, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates ways speaker agency has been discussed by linguists over the last two decades and reviews the explanatory status of traditional "belief-desire" models of action in light of evolutionary, neuropsychological, and sociological contributions to the question of human agency. Considering the definition of language as a collective structure,…

  20. Speaker recognition: Example of execution of a phonic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desario, N.; Ibba, G.; Paoloni, A.; Saverione, B.; Federico, A.

    1982-12-01

    A phonic test carried out in realistic conditions was used to verify a speaker recognition method integrated by a semiautomatic recognition system validated by subjective hearing tests. A set of six telephone phonic samples were analyzed using standardized voice sample recordings of three speakers. Statistical computerized analysis reduced the samples from six to three, and permitted the identification of the corresponding speakers. A subjective test carried out by four specially trained analysts confirms the results.

  1. NASA Ambassadors: A Speaker Outreach Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Malcolm W.

    1998-01-01

    The work done on this project this summer has been geared toward setting up the necessary infrastructure and planning to support the operation of an effective speaker outreach program. The program has been given the name, NASA AMBASSADORS. Also, individuals who become participants in the program will be known as "NASA AMBASSADORS". This summer project has been conducted by the joint efforts of this author and those of Professor George Lebo who will be issuing a separate report. The description in this report will indicate that the NASA AMBASSADOR program operates largely on the contributions of volunteers, with the assistance of persons at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The volunteers include participants in the various summer programs hosted by MSFC as well as members of the NASA Alumni League. The MSFC summer participation programs include: the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program for college and university professors, the Science Teacher Enrichment Program for middle- and high-school teachers, and the NASA ACADEMY program for college and university students. The NASA Alumni League members are retired NASA employees, scientists, and engineers. The MSFC offices which will have roles in the operation of the NASA AMBASSADORS include the Educational Programs Office and the Public Affairs Office. It is possible that still other MSFC offices may become integrated into the operation of the program. The remainder of this report will establish the operational procedures which will be necessary to sustain the NASA AMBASSADOR speaker outreach program.

  2. Perceptual prothesis in native Spanish speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Schmidt, Anna M.

    2003-04-01

    Previous research suggests a perceptual bias exists for native phonotactics [D. Massaro and M. Cohen, Percept. Psychophys. 34, 338-348 (1983)] such that listeners report nonexistent segments when listening to stimuli that violate native phonotactics [E. Dupoux, K. Kakehi, Y. Hirose, C. Pallier, and J. Mehler, J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. This study investigated how native-language experience affects second language processing, focusing on how native Spanish speakers perceive the English clusters /st/, /sp/, and /sk/, which represent phonotactically illegal forms in Spanish. To preserve native phonotactics, Spanish speakers often produce prothetic vowels before English words beginning with /s/ clusters. Is the influence of native phonotactics also present in the perception of illegal clusters? A stimuli continuum ranging from no vowel (e.g., ``sku'') to a full vowel (e.g., ``esku'') before the cluster was used. Four final vowel contexts were used for each cluster, resulting in 12 sCV and 12 VsCV nonword endpoints. English and Spanish listeners were asked to discriminate between pairs differing in vowel duration and to identify the presence or absence of a vowel before the cluster. Results will be discussed in terms of implications for theories of second language speech perception.

  3. Listeners' impressions of speakers with lateral lisps.

    PubMed

    Silverman, E M

    1976-11-01

    This paper reports research conducted to determine whether the lateral lisp is a speech defect. The specific purpose of this research was to determine whether the lateral lisp calls adverse attention to the speaker. Two groups of broadcast communication students rates the concept "The Person Speaking" on a 49-scale semantic differential. One group performed the task after listening to a tape recording of a young woman reading contextual material with a simulated lateral lisp. The other group performed the task after listening to a recording of the same woman reading the material in a normal manner. Analyses of the scale values computed for the two conditions indicated that the lateral lisp called adverse attention to the speaker. A systematic replication was undertaken to assess the generality of this finding. The procedures of the original investigation were followed except that business administration students served as judges. The results replicated those of the original investigation. These data indicate that the lateral lisp is probably a speech defect and suggest that the practice of eliminating school speech services for children whose only speech difference is a lateral lisp should be reconsidered. PMID:994486

  4. Soil Science as a Field Discipline - Experiences in Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burras, C. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Effective field understanding of soils is crucial. This is true everywhere but especially so in Iowa, a 15 million hectare state in the central USA's "corn belt." Iowa is intensely farmed and almost exclusively privately owned. Many regions of Iowa have had over 90% of their land area in row crops for the past 60 years. In these regions two very common land management strategies are tile drainage (1.5 million km total) and high rates of fertilization (e.g., 200 kg N/ha-yr for cropland) Iowa also has problematic environmental issues including high rates of erosion, excessive sediment and nutrient pollution in water bodies and episodic catastrophic floods. Given the preceding the Agronomy, Environmental Science and Sustainable Agriculture programs at Iowa State University (ISU) offer a strong suite of soil science classes - undergraduate through graduate. The objective of this presentation is to review selected field based soil science courses offered by those programs. This review includes contrasting and comparing campus-based and immersion classes. Immersion classes include ones offered at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, as "soil judging" and internationally. Findings over the past 20 years are consistent. Students at all levels gain soil science knowledge, competency and confidence proportional to the amount of time spent in field activities. Furthermore their professional skepticism is sharpened. They are also preferentially hired even in career postings that do not require fieldwork. In other words, field learning results in better soil science professionals who have highly functional and sought after knowledge.

  5. The effects of feedback filtering on speaker intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Garber, S R; Siegel, G M; Pick, H L

    1980-07-01

    Subjects read intelligibility tests while hearing their voices low- or high-pass filtered. The tests were presented to listeners to assess speaker intelligibility. Feedback filtering had a variable effect on intelligibility. When speakers were permitted to increase their intensities in low-pass filtering conditions, their intelligibility also increased. Intelligibility did not increase when intensity was controlled. These results do not support the hypothesis that speakers modulate their voices in order to maintain intelligible communication with a presumed listener. IT is suggested instead that speakers alter their intensities in order to regulate the loudness of their voices in their own ears. PMID:7391264

  6. Objectively measured descriptors for perceptual characterization of speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necioglu, Burhan Fazil

    Speaker recognizability has long been identified as one component in the evaluation process of communications systems. Although the intelligibility and voice quality aspects of evaluation have taken relative precedence, with more widespread use of lower bit rate speech coders, speaker recognizability emerges as an additional major issue. Still, subjective testing of speaker recognizability is intricate, time consuming and very expensive; so potentially, using objectively measurable descriptors to augment the subjective speaker recognizability tests could result in increased efficiency and reliability. This thesis presents a variety of descriptors objectively extracted from the speech waveform that might be useful in characterizing and interpreting perceptual speaker differences. These descriptors belong to the three broad classes of prosodic, vocal tract and glottal properties of speech production, and include various measurements on pitch and energy contours, formant related statistics, average vocal tract length estimates, and glottal pulse parameters. To assess the potential for this large set of speech waveform descriptors, reliability, RMS measurement noise and strength of speaker clustering were estimated using sets of 86 male and 78 female TIMIT speakers. The actual speaker discrimination abilities of the descriptors were determined by maximum-likelihood same/different classification of speaker pairs using their utterance pair measurement distances, without the need to model individual speakers. Using pairs of utterances approximately 12 seconds in length, and combining the likelihood scores of ten descriptors from all three broad classes, it was possible to make zero same-speaker classification errors, while achieving a different-speaker classification error rate of less than 1%, on separate testing/training speaker sets. When utterance lengths were reduced by half, the average error rate stayed below 4%. The perceptual relevance of this set of descriptors

  7. Learning speaker-specific characteristics with a deep neural architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Salman, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Speech signals convey various yet mixed information ranging from linguistic to speaker-specific information. However, most of acoustic representations characterize all different kinds of information as whole, which could hinder either a speech or a speaker recognition (SR) system from producing a better performance. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural architecture (DNA) especially for learning speaker-specific characteristics from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, an acoustic representation commonly used in both speech recognition and SR, which results in a speaker-specific overcomplete representation. In order to learn intrinsic speaker-specific characteristics, we come up with an objective function consisting of contrastive losses in terms of speaker similarity/dissimilarity and data reconstruction losses used as regularization to normalize the interference of non-speaker-related information. Moreover, we employ a hybrid learning strategy for learning parameters of the deep neural networks: i.e., local yet greedy layerwise unsupervised pretraining for initialization and global supervised learning for the ultimate discriminative goal. With four Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) benchmarks and two non-English corpora, we demonstrate that our overcomplete representation is robust in characterizing various speakers, no matter whether their utterances have been used in training our DNA, and highly insensitive to text and languages spoken. Extensive comparative studies suggest that our approach yields favorite results in speaker verification and segmentation. Finally, we discuss several issues concerning our proposed approach. PMID:21954206

  8. Learning speaker-specific characteristics with a deep neural architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Salman, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Speech signals convey various yet mixed information ranging from linguistic to speaker-specific information. However, most of acoustic representations characterize all different kinds of information as whole, which could hinder either a speech or a speaker recognition (SR) system from producing a better performance. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural architecture (DNA) especially for learning speaker-specific characteristics from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, an acoustic representation commonly used in both speech recognition and SR, which results in a speaker-specific overcomplete representation. In order to learn intrinsic speaker-specific characteristics, we come up with an objective function consisting of contrastive losses in terms of speaker similarity/dissimilarity and data reconstruction losses used as regularization to normalize the interference of non-speaker-related information. Moreover, we employ a hybrid learning strategy for learning parameters of the deep neural networks: i.e., local yet greedy layerwise unsupervised pretraining for initialization and global supervised learning for the ultimate discriminative goal. With four Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) benchmarks and two non-English corpora, we demonstrate that our overcomplete representation is robust in characterizing various speakers, no matter whether their utterances have been used in training our DNA, and highly insensitive to text and languages spoken. Extensive comparative studies suggest that our approach yields favorite results in speaker verification and segmentation. Finally, we discuss several issues concerning our proposed approach.

  9. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins, Iowa and Minnesota, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    The water quality in rivers and streams and in selected aquifers in eastern Iowa and part of southern Minnesota is described and illustrated. Major ions, nitrogen and other nutrients, and pesticides and some of their breakdown compounds were analyzed in both surface and ground water. Biological communities that included fish, invertebrates, and algae, were described in relation to stream water quality. Volatile organic compounds that originate from fuels, solvent, and industry were analyzed from ground-water samples. Agricultural and urban land-use effects on shallow ground-water compared and contrasted.

  10. An Investigation of Syntactic Priming among German Speakers at Varying Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruf, Helena T.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates syntactic priming in second language (L2) development among three speaker populations: (1) less proficient L2 speakers; (2) advanced L2 speakers; and (3) LI speakers. Using confederate scripting this study examines how German speakers choose certain word orders in locative constructions (e.g., "Auf dem Tisch steht…

  11. Contrasting speakers focus on key issues.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Around 100 IHEEM Company Affiliate Members, their guests, and senior representatives from organisations including the Royal Academy of Engineering, IPEM, and CIBSE, as well as from the NHS and its associated construction and supply chains, attended a high-level IHEEM seminar titled Healthcare Estates 2020 in Westminster on 19 November Topics discussed ranged from how the healthcare estates sector is increasingly being asked to 'do more with less', to Lord Carter's team's initial findings on the 'productivity and efficiency' of NHS Trusts in England. The seminar was followed by a celebratory lunch at the House of Lords, where the keynote speaker was Royal Academy of Engineering CEO, Philip Greenish (see HEJ--January 2016). PMID:27017657

  12. Prosody in the hands of the speaker

    PubMed Central

    Guellaï, Bahia; Langus, Alan; Nespor, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, speech is accompanied by gestures. In the present study, two experiments tested the possibility that spontaneous gestures accompanying speech carry prosodic information. Experiment 1 showed that gestures provide prosodic information, as adults are able to perceive the congruency between low-pass filtered—thus unintelligible—speech and the gestures of the speaker. Experiment 2 shows that in the case of ambiguous sentences (i.e., sentences with two alternative meanings depending on their prosody) mismatched prosody and gestures lead participants to choose more often the meaning signaled by gestures. Our results demonstrate that the prosody that characterizes speech is not a modality specific phenomenon: it is also perceived in the spontaneous gestures that accompany speech. We draw the conclusion that spontaneous gestures and speech form a single communication system where the suprasegmental aspects of spoken language are mapped to the motor-programs responsible for the production of both speech sounds and hand gestures. PMID:25071666

  13. Contrasting speakers focus on key issues.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Around 100 IHEEM Company Affiliate Members, their guests, and senior representatives from organisations including the Royal Academy of Engineering, IPEM, and CIBSE, as well as from the NHS and its associated construction and supply chains, attended a high-level IHEEM seminar titled Healthcare Estates 2020 in Westminster on 19 November Topics discussed ranged from how the healthcare estates sector is increasingly being asked to 'do more with less', to Lord Carter's team's initial findings on the 'productivity and efficiency' of NHS Trusts in England. The seminar was followed by a celebratory lunch at the House of Lords, where the keynote speaker was Royal Academy of Engineering CEO, Philip Greenish (see HEJ--January 2016).

  14. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    PubMed

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research. PMID:23163422

  15. English and Thai Speakers' Perception of Mandarin Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…

  16. Pulitzer Prize Speakers Enhance Credibility of San Antonio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aradillas, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Describes a mass communications program at Texas's San Antonio College that invites Pulitzer Prize recipients to give guest lectures. Includes a list of the speakers who have lectured since the program's inception in 1978, a description of the speakers' accomplishments, and a description of program activities. (MAB)

  17. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  18. Prosodic Marking of Information Structure by Malaysian Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Ulrike; Pillai, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Various researchers have shown that second language (L2) speakers have difficulties with marking information structure in English prosodically: They deviate from native speakers not only in terms of pitch accent placement (Grosser, 1997; Gut, 2009; Ramírez Verdugo, 2002) and the type of pitch accent they produce (Wennerstrom, 1994, 1998) but also…

  19. Single-Word Intelligibility in Speakers with Repaired Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehill, Tara L.; Chau, Cynthia H.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Many speakers with repaired cleft palate have reduced intelligibility, but there are limitations with current procedures for assessing intelligibility. The aim of this study was to construct a single-word intelligibility test for speakers with cleft palate. The test used a multiple-choice identification format, and was based on phonetic contrasts…

  20. Dysprosody and Stimulus Effects in Cantonese Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Joan K.-Y.; Whitehill, Tara; Cheung, Katherine S.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dysprosody is a common feature in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria. However, speech prosody varies across different types of speech materials. This raises the question of what is the most appropriate speech material for the evaluation of dysprosody. Aims: To characterize the prosodic impairment in Cantonese speakers with…

  1. Optimization of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Voznak, Miroslav; Skapa, Jan; Uhrin, Dominik; Chmelikova, Zdenka

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses the impact of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker identification. The main task of speaker identification is to find a specific person in the known set of speakers. It means that the voice of an unknown speaker (wanted person) belongs to a group of reference speakers from the voice database. One of the requests was to develop the text-independent system, which means to classify wanted person regardless of content and language. Multilayer neural network has been used for speaker identification in this research. Artificial neural network (ANN) needs to set parameters like activation function of neurons, steepness of activation functions, learning rate, the maximum number of iterations and a number of neurons in the hidden and output layers. ANN accuracy and validation time are directly influenced by the parameter settings. Different roles require different settings. Identification accuracy and ANN validation time were evaluated with the same input data but different parameter settings. The goal was to find parameters for the neural network with the highest precision and shortest validation time. Input data of neural networks are a Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). These parameters describe the properties of the vocal tract. Audio samples were recorded for all speakers in a laboratory environment. Training, testing and validation data set were split into 70, 15 and 15 %. The result of the research described in this article is different parameter setting for the multilayer neural network for four speakers.

  2. Rationales for Indirect Speech: The Theory of the Strategic Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as "Would you like to see my etchings?" Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the "strategic speaker", who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or antagonistic. A…

  3. Toddlers Use Speech Disfluencies to Predict Speakers' Referential Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Celeste; White, Katherine S.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to infer the referential intentions of speakers is a crucial part of learning a language. Previous research has uncovered various contextual and social cues that children may use to do this. Here we provide the first evidence that children also use speech disfluencies to infer speaker intention. Disfluencies (e.g. filled pauses "uh"…

  4. Acoustic Markers of Syllabic Stress in Spanish Excellent Oesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, Maria Heliodora; Barrio, Marina M.; Anaya, Pablo; Establier, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore the use by Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers of acoustic cues to mark syllabic stress. The speech material has consisted of five pairs of disyllabic words which only differed in stress position. Total 44 oesophageal and 9 laryngeal speakers were recorded and a computerised designed "ad hoc"…

  5. Experimental study on GMM-based speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Wenxing; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Speaker recognition plays a very important role in the field of biometric security. In order to improve the recognition performance, many pattern recognition techniques have be explored in the literature. Among these techniques, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is proved to be an effective statistic model for speaker recognition and is used in most state-of-the-art speaker recognition systems. The GMM is used to represent the 'voice print' of a speaker through modeling the spectral characteristic of speech signals of the speaker. In this paper, we implement a speaker recognition system, which consists of preprocessing, Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCCs) based feature extraction, and GMM based classification. We test our system with TIDIGITS data set (325 speakers) and our own recordings of more than 200 speakers; our system achieves 100% correct recognition rate. Moreover, we also test our system under the scenario that training samples are from one language but test samples are from a different language; our system also achieves 100% correct recognition rate, which indicates that our system is language independent.

  6. Statistical Evaluation of Biometric Evidence in Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drygajlo, Andrzej

    Forensic speaker recognition is the process of determining if a specific individual (suspected speaker) is the source of a questioned voice recording (trace). This paper aims at presenting forensic automatic speaker recognition (FASR) methods that provide a coherent way of quantifying and presenting recorded voice as biometric evidence. In such methods, the biometric evidence consists of the quantified degree of similarity between speaker-dependent features extracted from the trace and speaker-dependent features extracted from recorded speech of a suspect. The interpretation of recorded voice as evidence in the forensic context presents particular challenges, including within-speaker (within-source) variability and between-speakers (between-sources) variability. Consequently, FASR methods must provide a statistical evaluation which gives the court an indication of the strength of the evidence given the estimated within-source and between-sources variabilities. This paper reports on the first ENFSI evaluation campaign through a fake case, organized by the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), as an example, where an automatic method using the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and the Bayesian interpretation (BI) framework were implemented for the forensic speaker recognition task.

  7. Revisiting Speech Rate and Utterance Length Manipulations in Stuttering Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomgren, Michael; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate stuttering frequency across a multidimensional (2 x 2) hierarchy of speech performance tasks. Specifically, this study examined the interaction between changes in length of utterance and levels of speech rate stability. Forty-four adult male speakers participated in the study (22 stuttering speakers and 22…

  8. Videotaped Presentations by Blind Speakers as Attitudinal Change Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Determined whether a videotaped presentation by a speaker who is blind would more positively influence attitude change and information retention than would a presentation by a sighted speaker. Findings suggested that there were no significant main effects for either presenter or pretest conditions on the measures. (Author/BL)

  9. Phase Asymmetries in Normophonic Speakers: Visual Judgments and Objective Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Gerlach, Terri Treman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the amount of phase asymmetry of the vocal fold vibration in normophonic speakers via visualization techniques and compare findings for habitual and pressed phonations. Method: Fifty-two normophonic speakers underwent stroboscopy and high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV). The HSV images were further processed into 4 visual…

  10. Guest Speakers in School-Based Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Madsen, Nikki; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    This study, using data from a statewide survey (n = 332), examined teachers' practices regarding the inclusion of guest speakers to cover sexuality content. More than half of teachers (58%) included guest speakers. In multivariate analyses, teachers who taught high school, had professional preparation in health education, or who received…

  11. Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

  12. Mismatch: Globalization and Native Speaker Models of Linguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Kevin Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although the paradigm shift towards English as an International Language (EIL) has been generally accepted within the academic community, a valorization of native speaker norms continues to be prevalent among many non-native speakers (NNSs). Through data drawn from a qualitative questionnaire and proficiency assessment results (TOEIC), this mixed…

  13. Speakers' Sensitivity to Rules of Frozen Word Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven; Birdsong, David

    1979-01-01

    Two studies elicited native speaker and nonnative speaker judgments regarding preferred word order of the idioms known as "freezes." The results support the notion that rules of frozen word order are psychologically real and reflect universal language rules. (Author/AM)

  14. Speaker recognition with temporal cues in acoustic and electric hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongphoe, Michael; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-08-01

    Natural spoken language processing includes not only speech recognition but also identification of the speaker's gender, age, emotional, and social status. Our purpose in this study is to evaluate whether temporal cues are sufficient to support both speech and speaker recognition. Ten cochlear-implant and six normal-hearing subjects were presented with vowel tokens spoken by three men, three women, two boys, and two girls. In one condition, the subject was asked to recognize the vowel. In the other condition, the subject was asked to identify the speaker. Extensive training was provided for the speaker recognition task. Normal-hearing subjects achieved nearly perfect performance in both tasks. Cochlear-implant subjects achieved good performance in vowel recognition but poor performance in speaker recognition. The level of the cochlear implant performance was functionally equivalent to normal performance with eight spectral bands for vowel recognition but only to one band for speaker recognition. These results show a disassociation between speech and speaker recognition with primarily temporal cues, highlighting the limitation of current speech processing strategies in cochlear implants. Several methods, including explicit encoding of fundamental frequency and frequency modulation, are proposed to improve speaker recognition for current cochlear implant users.

  15. The Denial of Ideology in Perceptions of "Nonnative Speaker" Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian; Aboshiha, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    There is now general acceptance that the traditional "nonnative speaker" label for teachers of English is problematic on sociolinguistic grounds and can be the source of employment discrimination. However, there continues to be disagreement regarding how far there is a prejudice against "nonnative speaker" teachers which is deep and sustained and…

  16. Some thoughts on the Native Speaker of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    No, Keum Sook; Park, Kyung-Ja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the concept of the native speaker of English in light of the heightened status of English as a global language. The broadening and acceptance of criteria regarding who is a native speaker is historically discussed and placed in a modern context. In particular, perceptions towards the English native…

  17. Speaking Japanese in Japan: Issues for English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Due to the global momentum of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), Anglophones may perceive that there is less urgency for them to learn other languages than for speakers of other languages to learn English. The monolingual expectations of English speakers are evidenced not only in Anglophone countries but also abroad. This study reports on the…

  18. Teaching Portuguese to Spanish Speakers: A Case for Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Ana M.; Freire, Juliana Luna; da Silva, Antonio J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Portuguese is the sixth-most-spoken native language in the world, with approximately 240,000,000 speakers. Within the United States, there is a growing demand for K-12 language programs to engage the community of Portuguese heritage speakers. According to the 2000 U.S. census, 85,000 school-age children speak Portuguese at home. As a result, more…

  19. Nonnative Speaker Teachers of Spanish: Insights from Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Fioramonte, Amy

    2012-01-01

    A sizable body of literature has been established surrounding native speaker teachers versus nonnative speaker teachers of English. Presently, a paucity of research exists related to teachers working with languages other than English. In an attempt to fill this research gap, this qualitative research study presents the experiences of novice…

  20. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  1. Cognitive status and change among Iowa centenarians.

    PubMed

    Margrett, Jennifer A; Hsieh, Wen-Hua; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Equivocal evidence exists regarding the degree of cognitive stability and prevalence of cognitive impairment in very late life. The objective of the current study was to examine mental status performance and change over time within a sample of Iowa centenarians. The baseline sample consisted of 152 community-dwelling and institutionalized centenarians. Twenty eight of these centenarians participated in the next phase of the study which involved up to four subsequent assessments conducted over a 6-month period. Centenarians' Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ; Pfeiffer, 1975) performance indicated that 40% of the baseline sample performed within the normal range while an additional 40% of centenarians' performed within the moderately or severely impaired range. Examination of individual-level change indicated four patterns of short-term longitudinal performance which depicted stability, enhancement, decrement, and variability in scores across the 8-month testing period. The degree of reliable change as assessed by standard error of measurement largely mirrored change as classified by the traditional scoring categories, however, the former approach appeared more sensitive to meaningful intraindividual change in later assessments.

  2. Preschoolers' credulity toward misinformation from ingroup versus outgroup speakers.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kyla P; Ma, Lili

    2016-08-01

    The current research examined preschoolers' credulity toward misinformation from ingroup versus outgroup speakers. Experiment 1 showed that when searching for a hidden toy, Caucasian English monolingual 4-year-olds were credulous toward the false testimony of a race-and-accent ingroup speaker, despite their firsthand observations of the hiding event, but were skeptical when the false testimony was provided by a race-and-accent outgroup speaker. In the same experiment, 3-year-olds were credulous toward the false testimony of both speakers. Experiment 2 showed that when the false testimony was provided by a same-race-only or same-accent-only speaker, 4-year-olds were not particularly credulous or skeptical. The findings are discussed in relation to how intergroup bias might contribute to the selective credulity in the 4-year-olds as well as the factors that might explain the indiscriminate credulity in the 3-year-olds. PMID:27135169

  3. Speakers of Different Languages Process the Visual World Differently

    PubMed Central

    Chabal, Sarah; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    Language and vision are highly interactive. Here we show that people activate language when they perceive the visual world, and that this language information impacts how speakers of different languages focus their attention. For example, when searching for an item (e.g., clock) in the same visual display, English and Spanish speakers look at different objects. Whereas English speakers searching for the clock also look at a cloud, Spanish speakers searching for the clock also look at a gift, because the Spanish names for gift (regalo) and clock (reloj) overlap phonologically. These different looking patterns emerge despite an absence of direct linguistic input, showing that language is automatically activated by visual scene processing. We conclude that the varying linguistic information available to speakers of different languages affects visual perception, leading to differences in how the visual world is processed. PMID:26030171

  4. Design of speaker recognition system based on artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanhong; Wang, Li; Lin, Han; Li, Jinlong

    2012-10-01

    Speaker recognition is to recognize speaker's identity from its voice which contains physiological and behavioral characteristics unique to each individual. In this paper, the artificial neural network model, which has very good capacity of non-linear division in characteristic space, is used for pattern matching. The speaker's sample characteristic domain is built for his mixed voice characteristic signals based on Kmeanlbg algorithm. Then the dimension of the inputting eigenvector is reduced, and the redundant information is got rid of. On this basis, BP neural network is used to divide capacity area for characteristic space nonlinearly, and the BP neural network acts as a classifier for the speaker. Finally, a speaker recognition system based on the neural network is realized and the experiment results validate the recognition performance and robustness of the system.

  5. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-092-1967, Iowa Industrial Hydraulics, Pocahontas, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Laubli, T.; Sinks, T.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at Iowa Industrial Hydraulics, Pocahontas, Iowa. About 140 production workers were employed in manufacturing hydraulic pumps. The major exposures investigated were to nine different types of cutting fluids with their biocides, the solvent-based floor cleaner Marvella, mineral spirits, two hand cleaners, oils used for the lubrication of machines, and metal chippings. Most machines were supplied with coolant from a central system. There was no mechanism in place to clean the coolant and no regular monitoring was conducted for coolant concentration, pH, or bacterial or fungal counts. Workers had experienced an outbreak of dermatitis in September 1986 at which time the coolant in most machines had become dense, brown, and had a foul odor. Sampling revealed the coolant to be ten times more concentrated than it should have been and contaminated with lubricating oils. Medical histories, patch tests, and questionnaires were used to obtain data from the workers. The report concludes that workers exposed to Lubrisyn-plus with its biocide Ducide-20, or Trim-sol, or to Marvella had a significantly higher risk of developing dermatitis. Specific measures for fluid maintenance, employee education, hazard communication, and personal protection are recommended.

  6. My Iowa Journey: The Life Story of the University of Iowa's First African American Professor. Singular Lives: The Iowa Series in North American Autobiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Philip G.

    This autobiography recounts the life story of an African American educator at the University of Iowa from 1965 to 1991, as its first African American professor and then as its first African American administrator. The book recounts his childhood and family relations, his student years at the university and his graduation as an electrical engineer,…

  7. Evaluation of Speakers with Foreign-Accented Speech in Japan: The Effect of Accent Produced by English Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-accented speakers are generally regarded as less educated, less reliable and less interesting than native speakers and tend to be associated with cultural stereotypes of their country of origin. This discrimination against foreign accents has, however, been discussed mainly using accented English in English-speaking countries. This study…

  8. Inconsistencies in Error Production by Non-Native English Speakers and in Error Gravity Judgment by Native Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arani, Mhmoud T.

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe differences in performance by non-native learners of English, when writing in different genres; (2) determine communicative value of grammatical errors as judged by a panel of native speakers; and (3) demonstrate inconsistencies in native speaker judgment of error gravity. Subjects were 20…

  9. Accounting for the listener: comparing the production of contrastive intonation in typically-developing speakers and speakers with autism.

    PubMed

    Kaland, Constantijn; Swerts, Marc; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-09-01

    The present research investigates what drives the prosodic marking of contrastive information. For example, a typically developing speaker of a Germanic language like Dutch generally refers to a pink car as a "PINK car" (accented words in capitals) when a previously mentioned car was red. The main question addressed in this paper is whether contrastive intonation is produced with respect to the speaker's or (also) the listener's perspective on the preceding discourse. Furthermore, this research investigates the production of contrastive intonation by typically developing speakers and speakers with autism. The latter group is investigated because people with autism are argued to have difficulties accounting for another person's mental state and exhibit difficulties in the production and perception of accentuation and pitch range. To this end, utterances with contrastive intonation are elicited from both groups and analyzed in terms of function and form of prosody using production and perception measures. Contrary to expectations, typically developing speakers and speakers with autism produce functionally similar contrastive intonation as both groups account for both their own and their listener's perspective. However, typically developing speakers use a larger pitch range and are perceived as speaking more dynamically than speakers with autism, suggesting differences in their use of prosodic form.

  10. Accounting for the listener: comparing the production of contrastive intonation in typically-developing speakers and speakers with autism.

    PubMed

    Kaland, Constantijn; Swerts, Marc; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-09-01

    The present research investigates what drives the prosodic marking of contrastive information. For example, a typically developing speaker of a Germanic language like Dutch generally refers to a pink car as a "PINK car" (accented words in capitals) when a previously mentioned car was red. The main question addressed in this paper is whether contrastive intonation is produced with respect to the speaker's or (also) the listener's perspective on the preceding discourse. Furthermore, this research investigates the production of contrastive intonation by typically developing speakers and speakers with autism. The latter group is investigated because people with autism are argued to have difficulties accounting for another person's mental state and exhibit difficulties in the production and perception of accentuation and pitch range. To this end, utterances with contrastive intonation are elicited from both groups and analyzed in terms of function and form of prosody using production and perception measures. Contrary to expectations, typically developing speakers and speakers with autism produce functionally similar contrastive intonation as both groups account for both their own and their listener's perspective. However, typically developing speakers use a larger pitch range and are perceived as speaking more dynamically than speakers with autism, suggesting differences in their use of prosodic form. PMID:23967948

  11. Revisiting the Issue of Native Speakerism: "I Don't Want to Speak Like a Native Speaker of English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Lee Jin

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of English Korean bilinguals explores the ways in which they legitimize themselves as "good" bilinguals in relation to the discourse of native-speakerism. I first survey the essentialist discourse of native speakerism still prevalent in the field of English language teaching and learning despite the growing…

  12. The Iowa Flood Center's River Stage Sensor Network—Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, W. F.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Mantilla, R.; Ceynar, D.; Goska, R.; Demir, I.; Fahim Rezaei, H.; Gaynor, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers, engineers, and students at the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) have designed, built, deployed, and maintained a network of river stage sensors. The network consists of 120+ (and growing) sensors deployed across Iowa. The impetus for this endeavor was the unprecedented and devastating floods Iowa experienced in 2008. The sensors measure river stage using a commercial ultrasonic distance module. The sensors are mounted on bridges, powered by solar panels, and make river stage measurements every 15 minutes, which are transmitted via cell phones to IFC servers on the internet. At the servers, the data are ingested into relational databases and made available to researchers and the general public in real-time via the IFC flood information system (IFIS). IFIS provides a very convenient map-based view of the river stage measurement along with a wealth of other relevant information. The Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) are keenly interested in the bridge-mounted sensors, and have helped fund their development and deployment. The sensors are relatively inexpensive and complement existing USGS discharge station measurements.

  13. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land....20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 17, 1982, effective March 28, 1983. Copies of...

  14. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land....20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 17, 1982, effective March 28, 1983. Copies of...

  15. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land....20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 17, 1982, effective March 28, 1983. Copies of...

  16. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land....20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 17, 1982, effective March 28, 1983. Copies of...

  17. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 915.25 Section 915.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is...

  18. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 915.25 Section 915.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is...

  19. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 915.25 Section 915.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is...

  20. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 915.25 Section 915.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is...

  1. Iowa College Student Aid Commission: Response to Statewide Disasters of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Keith R.

    2008-01-01

    In the Summer of 2008, the state of Iowa suffered from a series of disasters that left 84 of the state's 99 counties as declared disaster areas. The Iowa College Student Aid Commission and the Governor of Iowa responded to the disasters by providing special grants to individuals who were affected by tornadoes and floods of the summer. This report…

  2. Universal Preschool in Iowa: Steps Needed to Ensure Equity and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Charles; Discher, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Iowa established the Statewide Voluntary Preschool Program (SVPP) in 2007. It has grown to be the largest--although not the only--public preschool program in the state. It is available without regard to family income. Iowa also supports preschool for low-income children through its Shared Visions program and Early Childhood Iowa, the…

  3. Testing the Effectiveness of Professional Development for Integrating Technology in an Urban Iowa Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative one-group pretest-posttest design study was to test the effectiveness of professional development for integrating technology in the curriculum of an urban Iowa middle school. Iowa middle school teachers are expected to integrate technology, to comply with Iowa Core Curriculum standards, by 2014. The participants…

  4. In the (Not So) Distant Future: Fiber Optic Distance Learning at the University of Northern Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozik, Mary

    Currently every Area Education Agency, community college, and Regent University in Iowa is connected by a fiber optic system known as the Iowa Communications Network (ICN). Every semester, 7 to 13 college credit classes have been offered at the University of Northern Iowa (UNI) via the ICN since 1993. In the Spring of 1995 seven classes (six…

  5. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 17, 1982, effective March 28, 1983. Copies of the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine...

  6. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 915.25 Section 915.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  7. Advanced Standing Program: How Iowa Colleges and Universities will Deal with Students in 1966-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Richard

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for granting freshmen advanced standing in English at eight Iowa colleges and universities are briefly described. At Central College, Drake University, Mason City Junior College, State College of Iowa, University of Iowa, and Wartburg College, students who have participated in the high school Advanced Standing Program are automatically…

  8. Occurrence, distribution, and transport of nutrients in Eastern Iowa Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becher, Kent D.

    2001-01-01

    Total nitrogen loads contributed to the Mississippi River from the Eastern Iowa Basins during 1996, 1997, and 1998 were 97,000, 120,000, and 230,000 metric tons respectively. Total phosphorus loads contributed to the Mississippi River from the Eastern Iowa Basins during 1996, 1997, and 1998 were 6,900, 4,600, and 8,800 metric tons, respectively. The highest nitrogen and phosphorus yields typically occurred in streams draining small watersheds that were dominated by a single land use and geology. Sampling sites located in drainage basins with higher row-crop percentage typically had higher nitrogen and phosphorus yields. Sites that were located in the Des Moines Lobe and the Southern Iowa Drift Plain typically had higher phosphorus yields probably due to more erodible soils and steeper slopes.

  9. Host preferences of Aedes trivittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Iowa.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Rowley, W A

    1975-09-01

    The vertebrate host preferences of Aedes trivittatus mosquitoes were studied to gain an insight into the possible hosts of trivittatus (TVT) virus (California encephalitis group) in Iowa. Engorged mosquitoes were collected with a Malaise trap and Dry Ice-baited CDC miniature light traps. The origin of mosquito blood meals was determined by the capillary tube precipitin test. Of 600 A. trivittatus blood meals tested, 409 (68.2%) reacted positively with anti-rabbit serum. The incidences of mosquitoes feeding on other vertebrate species ranged from 0.2% to 2.5%. The vertebrate host preferences of A. trivittatus suggest a close association between this mosquito species and the eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) in central Iowa. Furthermore, the results indicate that the eastern cottontail rabbit may be an important host for TVT virus in Iowa.

  10. Contraction scour at a bridge over the Iowa River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    Flooding of the Iowa River during July and August 1993 caused extensive contraction scour at the State Highway 99 bridge over the Iowa River at Wapello, Iowa. At least 3.3 m of piling under the footing of the second pier from the right (west) abutment were exposed. The scoured streambed did not fill in again after the flood receded, and a bathymetric survey in November 1993 showed that the streambed had been scoured for a distance of about 500 m upstream from the bridge. The bridge was closed to traffic, first because of water over the roadway when a levee failed, and then remained closed because of the exposed piling. The bridge subsequently was reopened to traffic with a weight limit of 13.6 tons.

  11. NES++: number system for encryption based privacy preserving speaker verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Feng, Tao; Zhao, Xi; Shi, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    As speech based operation becomes a main hand-free interaction solution between human and mobile devices (i.e., smartphones, Google Glass), privacy preserving speaker verification receives much attention nowadays. Privacy preserving speaker verification can be achieved through many different ways, such as fuzzy vault and encryption. Encryption based solutions are promising as cryptography is based on solid mathematic foundations and the security properties can be easily analyzed in a well established framework. Most current asymmetric encryption schemes work on finite algebraic structures, such as finite group and finite fields. However, the encryption scheme for privacy preserving speaker verification must handle floating point numbers. This gap must be filled to make the overall scheme practical. In this paper, we propose a number system that meets the requirements of both speaker verification and the encryption scheme used in the process. It also supports addition homomorphic property of Pailliers encryption, which is crucial for privacy preserving speaker verification. As asymmetric encryption is expensive, we propose a method of packing several numbers into one plain-text and the computation overhead is greatly reduced. To evaluate the performance of this method, we implement Pailliers encryption scheme over proposed number system and the packing technique. Our findings show that the proposed solution can fulfill the gap between speaker verification and encryption scheme very well, and the packing technique improves the overall performance. Furthermore, our solution is a building block of encryption based privacy preserving speaker verification, the privacy protection and accuracy rate are not affected.

  12. A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L.; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that “Human voice recognition depends on language ability” [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002–1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one’s native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one’s native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the “other-race” effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

  13. When pitch Accents Encode Speaker Commitment: Evidence from French Intonation.

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Portes, Cristel; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies on a variety of languages have shown that a speaker's commitment to the propositional content of his or her utterance can be encoded, among other strategies, by pitch accent types. Since prior research mainly relied on lexical-stress languages, our understanding of how speakers of a non-lexical-stress language encode speaker commitment is limited. This paper explores the contribution of the last pitch accent of an intonation phrase to convey speaker commitment in French, a language that has stress at the phrasal level as well as a restricted set of pitch accents. In a production experiment, participants had to produce sentences in two pragmatic contexts: unbiased questions (the speaker had no particular belief with respect to the expected answer) and negatively biased questions (the speaker believed the proposition to be false). Results revealed that negatively biased questions consistently exhibited an additional unaccented F0 peak in the preaccentual syllable (an H+!H* pitch accent) while unbiased questions were often realized with a rising pattern across the accented syllable (an H* pitch accent). These results provide evidence that pitch accent types in French can signal the speaker's belief about the certainty of the proposition expressed in French. It also has implications for the phonological model of French intonation. PMID:27363256

  14. Multidimensional analyses of voicing offsets and onsets in female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Laura L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lucero, Jorge C.

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates cross-speaker differences in the factors that predict voicing thresholds during abduction-adduction gestures in six normal women. Measures of baseline airflow, pulse amplitude, subglottal pressure, and fundamental frequency were made at voicing offset and onset during intervocalic /h/, produced in varying vowel environments and at different loudness levels, and subjected to relational analyses to determine which factors were most strongly related to the timing of voicing cessation or initiation. The data indicate that (a) all speakers showed differences between voicing offsets and onsets, but the degree of this effect varied across speakers; (b) loudness and vowel environment have speaker-specific effects on the likelihood of devoicing during /h/; and (c) baseline flow measures significantly predicted times of voicing offset and onset in all participants, but other variables contributing to voice timing differed across speakers. Overall, the results suggest that individual speakers have unique methods of achieving phonatory goals during running speech. These data contribute to the literature on individual differences in laryngeal function, and serve as a means of evaluating how well laryngeal models can reproduce the range of voicing behavior used by speakers during running speech tasks.

  15. Evaluating Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doraiswamy, P. C.; Hunt, E. R.; McCarty, G. W.; Daughtry, C. S.; Izaurralde, C.

    2005-12-01

    The potential for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration through landuse and management of agricultural systems is of great interest worldwide. Agricultural soils can be a source of CO2 when not properly managed but can also be a sink for sequestering CO2 through proper soil and crop management. The EPIC-CENTURY biogeochemical model was used to simulate the baseline level of soil carbon from soil survey data and project changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) under different tillage and crop management practices for corn and soybean crops. The study was conducted in central Iowa (50 km x 100 km) to simulate changes in soil carbon over the next 50 years. The simulations were conducted in two phases; initially a 25-year period (1971-1995) was simulated using conventional tillage practices since there was a transition in new management after 1995. In the second 25-year period (1996-2020), four different modeling scenarios were applied namely; conventional tillage, mulch tillage, no-tillage and no-tillage with a rye cover crop over the winter. The model simulation results showed potential gains in soil carbon in the top layers of the soil for conservation tillage. The simulations were made at a spatial resolution of 1.6 km x 1.6 km and mapped for the study area. There was a mean reduction in soil organic carbon of 0.095 T/ha per year over the 25-year period starting with 1996 for the conventional tillage practice. However, for management practices of mulch tillage, no tillage and no tillage with cover crop there was an increase in soil organic carbon of 0.12, 0.202 and 0.263 T/ha respectively over the same 25-year period. These results are in general similar to studies conducted in this region.

  16. Quantification of Knickpoint Migration in Western Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. G.; Thomas, J. T.; Papanicolaou, T.; Elhakeem, M.

    2009-12-01

    Knickpoints threaten the stability of bridge structures in Western Iowa, thus the overarching goal of this research was to provide a predictive tool for knickpoint propagation. The study involved detailed field investigations over two years in order to monitor the upstream migration of a knickpoint on Mud Creek in Mills County, IA and identify the key mechanisms triggering knickpoint propagation. A state-of-the-art laser level system mounted on a movable truss provided continuous measurements of the knickpoint front for different flow conditions. A pressure transducer in proximity of the truss provided simultaneous flow depth measurements. The laser and pressure transducer measurements led to the identification of the conditions, at which the knickpoint migration commenced. It is suggested that negative pressures developed by the reverse roller flow near the toe of the knickpoint face triggered undercutting of the knickpoint at this location. The pressure differential between the negative pressure and the atmospheric pressure also pulled the impinging jet closer to the knickpoint face producing scour. In addition, the pressure differential may have induced suction of sediment from the face. Other contributing factors included slump failure, seepage effects, and local fluvial erosion due to the exerted fluid shear. The prevailing flow conditions and soil information along with the channel cross-sectional geometry and gradient were used as inputs to a transcritical, one dimensional, hydraulic/geomorphic numerical model, which was used to map the flow characteristics and shear stress conditions near the knickpoint. Such detailed flow calculations do not exist in the published literature. The coupling of field and modeling work resulted in the development of a blueprint methodology, which can be adopted in different parts of the country for evaluating knickpoint evolution. This information will assist local government agencies in better understanding the principal

  17. On how the brain decodes vocal cues about speaker confidence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2015-05-01

    In speech communication, listeners must accurately decode vocal cues that refer to the speaker's mental state, such as their confidence or 'feeling of knowing'. However, the time course and neural mechanisms associated with online inferences about speaker confidence are unclear. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the temporal neural dynamics underlying a listener's ability to infer speaker confidence from vocal cues during speech processing. We recorded listeners' real-time brain responses while they evaluated statements wherein the speaker's tone of voice conveyed one of three levels of confidence (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident) or were spoken in a neutral manner. Neural responses time-locked to event onset show that the perceived level of speaker confidence could be differentiated at distinct time points during speech processing: unconfident expressions elicited a weaker P2 than all other expressions of confidence (or neutral-intending utterances), whereas close-to-confident expressions elicited a reduced negative response in the 330-500 msec and 550-740 msec time window. Neutral-intending expressions, which were also perceived as relatively confident, elicited a more delayed, larger sustained positivity than all other expressions in the 980-1270 msec window for this task. These findings provide the first piece of evidence of how quickly the brain responds to vocal cues signifying the extent of a speaker's confidence during online speech comprehension; first, a rough dissociation between unconfident and confident voices occurs as early as 200 msec after speech onset. At a later stage, further differentiation of the exact level of speaker confidence (i.e., close-to-confident, very confident) is evaluated via an inferential system to determine the speaker's meaning under current task settings. These findings extend three-stage models of how vocal emotion cues are processed in speech comprehension (e.g., Schirmer & Kotz, 2006) by

  18. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  19. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  20. English vowel learning by speakers of Mandarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Ron I.

    2005-04-01

    One of the most influential models of second language (L2) speech perception and production [Flege, Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience (York, Baltimore, 1995) pp. 233-277] argues that during initial stages of L2 acquisition, perceptual categories sharing the same or nearly the same acoustic space as first language (L1) categories will be processed as members of that L1 category. Previous research has generally been limited to testing these claims on binary L2 contrasts, rather than larger portions of the perceptual space. This study examines the development of 10 English vowel categories by 20 Mandarin L1 learners of English. Imitation of English vowel stimuli by these learners, at 6 data collection points over the course of one year, were recorded. Using a statistical pattern recognition model, these productions were then assessed against native speaker norms. The degree to which the learners' perception/production shifted toward the target English vowels and the degree to which they matched L1 categories in ways predicted by theoretical models are discussed. The results of this experiment suggest that previous claims about perceptual assimilation of L2 categories to L1 categories may be too strong.

  1. Chemical and isotopic properties of kukersites from Iowa and Estonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Hower, J.C.; Lis, G.; Hatch, J.; Jacobson, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Kukersite samples from Estonia and Iowa were analyzed for elemental composition, functional group distribution, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios. The elemental and hydrogen isotope values, together with other analytical data, suggest a higher thermal maturity for the Iowa kukersite. The wide carbon isotopic range of 9.3??? among kukersites, with unusually negative ??13C values reaching -33.2???, indicates isotopically variable carbon sources for production of biomass, and thus major paleoceanographic differences between the environments supporting biosynthesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Remote sensing in Iowa agriculture: Identification and classification of Iowa crop lands using ERTS-1 and complimentary underflight imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahlstede, J. P.; Carlson, R. E.; Thomson, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of the continuing analysis of ERTS-1 imagery covering Iowa during 1972 and periods during 1973 are covered. Emphasis is placed on the identification and classification of major crop types at two test sites in Iowa. Standard photointerpretive methods were used in this analysis including the direct enlargement of black and white single-band products and additive color multi-band procedures using a miniadcol system. The use of sequential coverage during the crop growing season is emphasized as a means to improve the effectiveness of ERTS-1 photointerpretations of crop land acreage estimates in Iowa. Illustrative black and white and color prints of both ERTS-1 and underflight imagery are included. In addition, forest land inventories at one test site are reported. A new method for the inventory of forest lands using ERTS-1 imagery is reported and compared with estimates obtained using earlier underflight imagery.

  3. Environmental settings of the South Fork Iowa River basin, Iowa, and the Bogue Phalia basin, Mississippi, 2006-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Rose, Claire E.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in different environmental settings were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's Agricultural Chemicals Team (ACT) at seven sites across the Nation, including the South Fork Iowa River basin in central Iowa and the Bogue Phalia basin in northwestern Mississippi. The South Fork Iowa River basin is representative of midwestern agriculture, where corn and soybeans are the predominant crops and a large percentage of the cultivated land is underlain by artificial drainage. The Bogue Phalia basin is representative of corn, soybean, cotton, and rice cropping in the humid, subtropical southeastern United States. Details of the environmental settings of these basins and the data-collection activities conducted by the USGS ACT over the 2006-10 study period are described in this report.

  4. Agricultural chemicals in Iowa's ground water, 1982-95: What are the trends?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koplin, Dana W.; Hallberg, George; Sneck-Fahrer, D. A.; Libra, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Geological Survey Bureau: the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory; and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been working together to address this question. As part of the Iowa Ground-Water Monitoring Program (IGWM). water samples have been collected from selected Iowa municipal wells since 1982. An examination of this data identified two trends: (1) concentrations of atrazine in Iowa's ground water generally were decreasing over time, and (2) concentrations of metolachlor generally were increasing. Continuing ground-water sampling can determine if these trends represent long-term changes in chemical concentrations.

  5. Cost-sensitive learning for emotion robust speaker recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Yang, Yingchun; Dai, Weihui

    2014-01-01

    In the field of information security, voice is one of the most important parts in biometrics. Especially, with the development of voice communication through the Internet or telephone system, huge voice data resources are accessed. In speaker recognition, voiceprint can be applied as the unique password for the user to prove his/her identity. However, speech with various emotions can cause an unacceptably high error rate and aggravate the performance of speaker recognition system. This paper deals with this problem by introducing a cost-sensitive learning technology to reweight the probability of test affective utterances in the pitch envelop level, which can enhance the robustness in emotion-dependent speaker recognition effectively. Based on that technology, a new architecture of recognition system as well as its components is proposed in this paper. The experiment conducted on the Mandarin Affective Speech Corpus shows that an improvement of 8% identification rate over the traditional speaker recognition is achieved. PMID:24999492

  6. Acoustic markers of syllabic stress in Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, María Heliodora; Barrio, Marina M; Anaya, Pablo; Establier, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore the use by Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers of acoustic cues to mark syllabic stress. The speech material has consisted of five pairs of disyllabic words which only differed in stress position. Total 44 oesophageal and 9 laryngeal speakers were recorded and a computerised designed ad hoc perceptual test was run in order to assess the accurate realisation of stress. The items produced by eight excellent oesophageal speakers with highest accuracy levels in the perception experiment were analysed acoustically with Praat, to be compared with the laryngeal control group. Measures of duration, fundamental frequency, spectral balance and overall intensity were taken for each target vowel and syllable. Results revealed that Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers were able to retain appropriate acoustic relations between stressed and unstressed syllables. Although spectral balance revealed as a strong cue for syllabic stress in the two voicing modes, a different hierarchy of acoustic cues in each voicing mode was found.

  7. Adult Basic Education for Non-English Speakers: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupp, Emma Gonzalez, Comp.; Gage, Jennifer, Comp.

    This bibliography is a collection of 51 entries concerning adult basic education for non-English speakers. Each entry contains an abstract describing the contents of the material. Information is also provided regarding availability, as well as indexing terms. (AMH)

  8. Cost-Sensitive Learning for Emotion Robust Speaker Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongdong; Yang, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    In the field of information security, voice is one of the most important parts in biometrics. Especially, with the development of voice communication through the Internet or telephone system, huge voice data resources are accessed. In speaker recognition, voiceprint can be applied as the unique password for the user to prove his/her identity. However, speech with various emotions can cause an unacceptably high error rate and aggravate the performance of speaker recognition system. This paper deals with this problem by introducing a cost-sensitive learning technology to reweight the probability of test affective utterances in the pitch envelop level, which can enhance the robustness in emotion-dependent speaker recognition effectively. Based on that technology, a new architecture of recognition system as well as its components is proposed in this paper. The experiment conducted on the Mandarin Affective Speech Corpus shows that an improvement of 8% identification rate over the traditional speaker recognition is achieved. PMID:24999492

  9. Oral language skills of adult cleft palate speakers.

    PubMed

    Pannbacker, M

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated selected oral language skills and their relationship to speech intelligibility in forty cleft palate and normal adult speakers. Connected speech samples were analyzed to determine spoken language status which included response length, grammar or syntax, and vocabulary size. The subjects were judged for intelligibility by two groups of listeners: sophisticated and unsophisticated. It was concluded: (a) cleft palate speakers used shorter responses and were more consistent in their language usage; (b) there were no significant differnences in syntax and vocabulary; (c) for cleft palate speakers there was a relationship between intelligibility and language measures; (d) unsophisticated listiners were more consisitent in intelligibility judgements, and (e) sophisticated listeners rated cleft palate speakers poorer than unsophisticated listeners.

  10. Detail, south end of control console with speakers; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, south end of control console with speakers; looking southeast towards the TV control panel room - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  11. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    PubMed

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex. PMID:26441771

  12. ELECTRONIC TECHNICIAN PERSONNEL AND TRAINING NEEDS OF IOWA INDUSTRIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEEDE, GARY DEAN

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO PROVIDE DATA FOR USE IN DEVELOPING OR IMPROVING ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS. A POSTAL CARD QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 678 MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSING INDUSTRIES IN IOWA EMPLOYING MORE THAN 50 PERSONS AND ALL ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONIC, AND PRECISION INSTRUMENT MANUFACTURERS EMPLOYING FEWER THAN 50 PERSONS. DATA WERE…

  13. The University of Iowa Libraries' Undergraduate User Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clougherty, Leo; Forys, John; Lyles, Toby; Persson, Dorothy; Walters, Christine; Washington-Hoagland, Carlette

    1998-01-01

    A study of 656 undergraduates at the University of Iowa assessed resource and service needs, identified library-wide unmet needs, and engaged library users and librarians in proactive dialog. Recommends improving physical facilities and staff perceptions, increasing public service desk staffing and public awareness of services and resources, and…

  14. Iowa Handbook of Basic Computer Programs for Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bro, Ronald D., Ed.

    This teacher's guide contains computer programs, written in BASIC, for use in Iowa secondary school industrial arts programs. The programs were developed in two 2-week workshops by industrial arts teachers who had little or no previous experience with computers; the programs have been classroom tested and refined for publication. The programs are…

  15. The Undergraduate Biomechanics Experience at Iowa State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Peter R.

    This paper discusses the objectives of a program in biomechanics--the analysis of sports skills and movement--and the evolution of the biomechanics program at Iowa State University. The primary objective of such a course is to provide the student with the basic tools necessary for adequate analysis of human movement, with special emphasis upon…

  16. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... KGAN Licensee, LLC (``KGAN Licensee''), the licensee of KGAN(TV), channel 51, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, requesting the substitution of channel 29 for channel 51 at Cedar Rapids. While the Commission instituted a... rulemaking seeking to relocate from channel 51 pursuant to a voluntary relocation agreement with Lower...

  17. 78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Licensee, LLC (``KGAN Licensee''), the licensee of KGAN (TV), channel 51, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. KGAN Licensee requests the substitution of channel 29 for channel 51 at Cedar Rapids, explaining that the channel... the Lower 700 MHz A Block located adjacent to channel 51 at Cedar Rapids. The substitution of...

  18. Alchemy in Iowa: Arts Education at Harding Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Case study of an Iowa junior high school describes how the school and community identified their resources and used them to create successful arts education programs from ordinary resources. The article examines four types of commitment that shaped school practice, noting effective teaching practices and administrative policy. (SM)

  19. Iowa Teachers of the Year: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Joane Williams

    This case study was conducted to construct an in-depth description of the ethos, i.e., pattern of orientations and sentiments, of three Iowa teachers who have been selected as state winners in the Teacher of the Year program sponsored by the Council of Chief State School Officers, Encyclopedia Brittanica, and Good Housekeeping Maagazine. Using an…

  20. Public Supported Instruction in Animal Science in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Windol Lee

    This study was initiated to determine the content and emphasis in animal science instruction by local vocational agriculture departments, extension services, and post-secondary schools in Iowa and to investigate the effects of leaders' characteristics and the geographic and economic areas on the content. From a total population of 75 counties, 75…

  1. The Qualifying Examination in English at Iowa State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Raymond C.

    For 25 years Iowa State University has required undergraduate seniors and first-year graduate students to pass a qualifying examination in English consisting of a theme on an assigned topic. A student may repeat the examination till he passes, and he may meanwhile receive extra instruction from the writing clinic. Despite a rejection of one fifth…

  2. Exceptional Longevity: An Introduction to the Iowa Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Deshpande-Kamat, Neha; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Franke, Warren; Garasky, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of the Iowa Centenarian Study is to further our understanding of determinants of exceptional longevity above and beyond health outcomes, particularly in rural environments. This introductory article provides a general overview of the study, its methodology and basic descriptive results. One hundred and fifty-two centenarians…

  3. Intelligence, but Not Emotional Intelligence, Predicts Iowa Gambling Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaree, Heath A.; Burns, Kevin J.; DeDonno, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a famous and frequently-used neuropsychological task that is thought to reflect real-world decision-making. There has been some debate, however, about the degree to which the IGT involves cold (cognitive) versus hot (emotional) processing. The present study incorporated 68 healthy individuals and used measures of…

  4. Iowa Farm Women in the 1930s--A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Deborah; Schwieder, Dorothy

    Both economically and socially, Iowa farm women played important roles in supporting and maintaining the rural population during the 1930s. They continued their patterns of production for consumption and for income, and during the Depression this production constituted a larger and more significant part of the household economy. Women kept large…

  5. Education for Business in Iowa. Curriculum and Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls.

    This business education curriculum model contains elementary, middle/junior high, and high school business education courses for Iowa students in the following areas: accounting, basic business, information processing, marketing, and general topics. A curriculum model provides specific courses for different educational levels. Each area contains…

  6. Precipitation anomalies in Eastern-Central Iowa from 1640 - Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Trent W.

    2014-11-01

    The Midwest has experienced several extreme hydrologic events over the last few decades, including severe drought events in 1988, 1989 and most recently in 2012. The economic impact of drought on the Midwest, specifically on the state of Iowa, is particularly substantial because of the region's reliance on agriculture. The Midwest drought in 2012 lead to decreased crop yield across most of Iowa and record high temperatures throughout the growing season (April-October). However, the severity of this and other recent extreme hydrologic events are better understood when placed in the context of multiple centuries of Midwest hydroclimatic variability. In this study we combine a 350 year tree ring reconstruction of annual precipitation from 17 archives in Eastern-Central Iowa to a shorter-term instrumental record from 43 COOP precipitation stations. We analyze precipitation anomalies between 1640 and 2013 and report the return rates of specific drought and pluvial events. The results show that the last 20 years in Iowa have been the wettest 20-year period on record, including the only three years which are 3 or more standard deviations wetter than the (1640-2013) mean. The 1990-2013 period coincides with previously reported increases in annual precipitation and extreme precipitation events, along with decreases in drought severity and spatial extent. The 2012 drought was the driest anomaly over the last 20 years. However, the event was not anomalous with respect to the entire 373 year record and had a return period of approximately 6 years.

  7. Performance of Healthy Participants on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingroever, Helen; Wetzels, Ruud; Horstmann, Annette; Neumann, Jane; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994) is often used to assess decision-making deficits in clinical populations. The interpretation of the results hinges on 3 key assumptions: (a) healthy participants learn to prefer the good options over the bad options; (b) healthy participants show homogeneous choice behavior;…

  8. Iowa Annual Evaluation Report for Migrant Programs. Fiscal Year 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    Six migrant educational programs were conducted in Iowa during fiscal year 1981. In the 4 programs held during the regular school year, 9 teachers and 3 aides (all bilingual) served an enrollment of 224 children, 186 of whom were "Spanish dominate." During the 2 summer programs, 6 teachers and 6 aides (all bilingual) served 159 children, 95 of…

  9. Iowa Annual Evaluation Report for Migrant Programs. Fiscal Year 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    Six migrant educational programs were conducted in Iowa during fiscal year 1980. In the 4 programs held during the regular school year, 7 teachers and 3 aides (all bilingual) served an enrollment of 211 children, 187 of whom were Spanish dominate. During the 2 summer programs, 8 bilingual teachers and 6 bilingual aides served 154 children, 110 of…

  10. Iowa Journal of School Social Work, 1994-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, Cheryl, Ed.; Froyen, Gary, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This publication of the Iowa State School Workers' Association is dedicated to the enhancement of social work practice in schools. Within the social work profession, school social workers may find themselves on the cutting edge and forefront of issues affecting students. The articles in these journals attempt to provide comprehensive knowledge…

  11. Iowa Guidelines for Educationally Related Occupational Therapy Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Jean

    This guide provides background information to help interpret Iowa state and federal rules as they apply to occupational therapy (OT) for students with disabilities (birth to age 21) in educational settings. The first section is on personnel and provides definitions and statements of licensure for the positions of occupational therapist and…

  12. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2001-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  13. Tornado: Accounts of tornadoes in Iowa, second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Explains known facts about tornadoes in general and specifically in Iowa; provides safety guidelines to surviving a tornado; and discusses the history of tornadoes in the state along with experiences of Iowans who survived them. Includes 75 black-and-white photographs and a removable tornado safety reference card.

  14. 75 FR 57088 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  15. 76 FR 80446 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of...

  16. 75 FR 57996 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  17. 75 FR 59750 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  18. 75 FR 17178 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00023

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  19. 75 FR 65390 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of...

  20. 78 FR 53492 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only...

  1. 75 FR 58451 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of...

  2. 75 FR 57997 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of...

  3. 78 FR 38781 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  4. 75 FR 62897 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of...

  5. 75 FR 52048 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of...

  6. 75 FR 65390 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of...

  7. 78 FR 51262 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00054

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  8. 76 FR 56863 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  9. 75 FR 47611 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  10. 75 FR 47612 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  11. 78 FR 32415 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  12. Iowa observation well network; past, present, and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logel, John D.

    1980-01-01

    All present and past USGS observation wells for the State of Iowa since 1935 are listed and located on maps. It is recommended that improvement of the observation-well network by the addition of wells in specific areas should be undertaken as soon as possible.

  13. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Iowa. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and…

  14. Tax Increment Financing and Education Expenditures: The Case of Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to directly examine the relationship between tax increment financing (TIF) and education expenditures, using the state of Iowa as a case study. I find that greater use of TIF is associated with reduced education expenditures. I also find little evidence to support the commonly held proposition that school spending increases…

  15. Iowa Journal of School Social Work, 1993-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Sara A., Ed.; Froyen, Gary, Ed.; McCullagh, Cheryl, Ed.; Harrington, Danette, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This annual serial publication of the Iowa School Social Workers' Association is dedicated to extending knowledge and improving practice of social work in educational settings. Volume six contains the following articles: (1) "A Self-Report Questionnaire For Group Work: Monitoring the Outcome of Group Work Intervention with Special Education…

  16. Instructional Cues Modify Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balodis, Iris M.; MacDonald, Tara K.; Olmstead, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication produces impaired decision-making on tasks assessing ventromedial prefrontal (VMF) cortex functioning and impulsive responding. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a decision-making test targeting the VMF, and the Newman Perseveration Task (NT), a measure of…

  17. Foods from an Iowa Farm. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, Des Moines.

    Prepared for elementary and secondary teachers, this guide provides an annotated list of 72 instructional materials for teaching about farming and the products of Iowa farms. Entries, listed under the organization that provides the materials, state type of instructional material, major topics addressed, grades for which materials are appropriate,…

  18. Art History Interactive Videodisc Project at the University of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sustik, Joan M.

    A project which developed a retrieval system to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of an interactive computer and video display system over traditional methods for using a slide library is described in this publication. The art school slide library of the University of Iowa stores transparencies which are arranged alphabetically within…

  19. Development and Initial Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology. This instrument was developed in two large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales were then…

  20. 25 Years of Teamwork for Adult Education in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, W. H.

    This silver anniversary report reviews the history of the Iowa Adult Education Association (IAEA) since its founding on April 7, 1945. IAEA conferences, meetings, workshops, and publications are covered year by year, with particular reference to such activities and concerns as leadership training, professional continuing education, educational…

  1. 45. OVERALL VIEW OF 100 AND 200 BLOCKS OF IOWA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. OVERALL VIEW OF 100 AND 200 BLOCKS OF IOWA STREET WITH MCFADDEN SPICE AND COFFEE COMPANY FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE AT LEFT, DUBUQUE SEED COMPANY IN CENTER, AND DUBUQUE PAPER COMPANY WAREHOUSE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  2. Before Head Start: The Iowa Station and America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravens, Hamilton

    This book chronicles the evolution of the child welfare movement of the early 20th century into the science of child development, from both the national perspective and the perspective of the field's best-known research center, the University of Iowa's Child Welfare Research Station. The book first explores the child welfare movement as it evolved…

  3. Further Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffel, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of an expanded version of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI; Koffel & Watson, 2010) in 2 samples (219 college students and 200 psychiatric patients). The expanded ISDI includes the scales Sleep Paralysis and Sleep Hallucinations. These scales, along with the Nightmares scale, help define a…

  4. The Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges 2014: Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This group of tables are a companion to the report: "The Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges 2014." Information is provided here in tabulated format on the following broad subject areas: (1) Fall Enrollment; (2) Fiscal Year Credit Enrollment and Demographics; (3) Online Credit Enrollment and Demographics; (4) Joint Enrollment…

  5. First isolation of Mycoplasma iowae in grey partridge flocks.

    PubMed

    Catania, S; Gobbo, F; Rodio, S; Qualtieri, K; Santone, C; Nicholas, R A J

    2014-06-01

    Mycoplasma iowae, an occasional pathogen of turkeys, was isolated for the first time from captive grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Clinical signs including respiratory and intestinal disorder were seen in birds of all ages but mainly in those kept housed during rearing. Mortality rates averaged over 20% during the year. Treatment with antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs produced only a transient improvement in condition. The gross pathology findings included poor body growth, lack of development of the breast muscles, abnormalities in the keel development, and bone fragility. Some birds showed infraorbital sinusitis with serous or fibrinous exudates and catarrhal tracheitis, while others presented serofibrinous airsacculitis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed pure cultures of M. iowae in the gut as well as sinus and air sacs. While other organisms such as coccidia, Trichomonas, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Aspergillus spp. were detected, the similarity of the disease with that seen in turkeys infected with M. iowae strongly suggests that this mycoplasma may be the primary pathogen here. The presence of M. iowae in game birds commonly released into the wild could have serious implications particularly in areas where industrial poultry farms are concentrated. PMID:25055642

  6. Marketing and Branding the Agronomy Major at Iowa State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bradley A.

    2011-01-01

    The decline of enrollments in agronomy programs across the United States has been a concern for more than a decade. In an effort to reverse this trend, the Agronomy Department at Iowa State University (ISU) launched the "I'm An Agronomist" marketing campaign in 2006. This article reports on these efforts and the change in the undergraduate…

  7. Bridges to the Future: Library Service in Madison County, Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Jim; Rees, Larry

    This study of the public libraries in one county in central Iowa examines the workings of the Earlham, Truro, and Winterset libraries, and explores the elements in their respective communities which affect current library services and which have potential implications for future library planning. In addition to detailed profiles of the three…

  8. An Economic Analysis of the Iowa Rural Renewal Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…

  9. The Iowa Program Standards for Interventions in Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodac, David G., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents Iowa standards for special programs for students with behavioral disorders, describes interventions which appear appropriate for such students, and notes shortcomings with current practices that accentuate the need for these standards. Chapter titles and authors include: "Overview of Project" (Carl Smith and Dennis Dykstra);…

  10. U. of Iowa Writing Students Quash Planned Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    The University of Iowa has reversed course on a plan to make some students' theses freely available online, following protests from students in the university's writing programs. The students said the plan could have threatened the potential commercial value of their novels, plays, and other creative works. The controversy began in late winter,…

  11. Knowledge Gained from Good Agricultural Practices Courses for Iowa Growers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) educational courses provide produce growers with the fundamental information for producing and processing safe produce. To determine the effectiveness of the current 7-hour GAP course provided in Iowa, growers were surveyed before and 7-14 days after the course to determine changes in knowledge and opinions.…

  12. Perception of speaker size and sex of vowel sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are both related to speaker size and sex-however, it is unclear how they interact to determine our perception of speaker size and sex. Experiments were designed to measure the relative contribution of GPR and VTL to judgements of speaker size and sex. Vowels were scaled to represent people with different GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal population values. In a single interval, two response rating paradigm, listeners judged the size (using a 7-point scale) and sex/age of the speaker (man, woman, boy, or girl) of these scaled vowels. Results from the size-rating experiments show that VTL has a much greater influence upon judgements of speaker size than GPR. Results from the sex-categorization experiments show that judgements of speaker sex are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL for vowels with normal GPR and VTL values. For abnormal combinations of GPR and VTL, where low GPRs are combined with short VTLs, VTL has more influence than GPR in sex judgements. [Work supported by the UK MRC (G9901257) and the German Volkswagen Foundation (VWF 1/79 783).

  13. Understanding speaker attitudes from prosody by adults with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Monetta, Laura; Cheang, Henry S; Pell, Marc D

    2008-09-01

    The ability to interpret vocal (prosodic) cues during social interactions can be disrupted by Parkinson's disease, with notable effects on how emotions are understood from speech. This study investigated whether PD patients who have emotional prosody deficits exhibit further difficulties decoding the attitude of a speaker from prosody. Vocally inflected but semantically nonsensical 'pseudo-utterances' were presented to listener groups with and without PD in two separate rating tasks. Task I required participants to rate how confident a speaker sounded from their voice and Task 2 required listeners to rate how polite the speaker sounded for a comparable set of pseudo-utterances. The results showed that PD patients were significantly less able than HC participants to use prosodic cues to differentiate intended levels of speaker confidence in speech, although the patients could accurately detect the politelimpolite attitude of the speaker from prosody in most cases. Our data suggest that many PD patients fail to use vocal cues to effectively infer a speaker's emotions as well as certain attitudes in speech such as confidence, consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia play a role in the meaningful processing of prosodic sequences in spoken language (Pell & Leonard, 2003).

  14. Relationship between tongue positions and formant frequencies in female speakers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimin; Shaiman, Susan; Weismer, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship (1) between acoustic vowel space and the corresponding tongue kinematic vowel space and (2) between formant frequencies (F1 and F2) and tongue x-y coordinates for the same time sampling point. Thirteen healthy female adults participated in this study. Electromagnetic articulography and synchronized acoustic recordings were utilized to obtain vowel acoustic and tongue kinematic data across ten speech tasks. Intra-speaker analyses showed that for 10 of the 13 speakers the acoustic vowel space was moderately to highly correlated with tongue kinematic vowel space; much weaker correlations were obtained for inter-speaker analyses. Correlations of individual formants with tongue positions showed that F1 varied strongly with tongue position variations in the y dimension, whereas F2 was correlated in equal magnitude with variations in the x and y positions. For within-speaker analyses, the size of the acoustic vowel space is likely to provide a reasonable inference of size of the tongue working space for most speakers; unfortunately there is no a priori, obvious way to identify the speakers for whom the covariation is not significant. A second conclusion is that F1 variations reflect tongue height, but F2 is a much more complex reflection of tongue variation in both dimensions.

  15. Spectral moments analysis of stops in tracheoesophageal speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, Kimberly; Obert, Kerrie; Fox, Robert Allen

    2002-05-01

    Optimal speech intelligibility is naturally of primary concern for individuals who have had their larynxes removed due to cancer and are now using tracheoesophageal (TE) speech as their primary mode of communication. The current study examines the acoustic characteristics associated with the oral stops /pbtdkg/ produced by TE speakers as compared to normal speakers. Of particular interest are the acoustic differences between these two sets of speakers in oral stop bursts and in the aspiration frication for the voiceless stops. A set of utterances in which these six stops occur in both initial position (CV) and intervocalic position (VCV) before a wide range of English vowels were recorded for each set of speakers. Appropriate acoustic measurements were then made for each stop. These measurements included the spectral moments of the burst and aspiration, VOT, closure duration (for intervocalic stops), and the relative and normalized amplitude levels of the burst and aspiration. Acoustic differences obtained will be discussed as a function of speaker type, phonetic context and, in the case of the TE speaker, experience with the device.

  16. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  17. Intonation and gender perception: applications for transgender speakers.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne; Colton, Lindsey; Douglas, Fiacre

    2014-03-01

    Intonation is commonly addressed in voice and communication feminization therapy, yet empirical evidence of gender differences for intonation is scarce and rarely do studies examine how it relates to gender perception of transgender speakers. This study examined intonation of 12 males, 12 females, six female-to-male, and 14 male-to-female transgender speakers describing a Norman Rockwell image. Several intonation measures were compared between biological gender groups, between perceived gender groups, and between male-to-female (MTF) speakers who were perceived as male, female, or ambiguous gender. Speakers with a larger percentage of utterances with upward intonation and a larger utterance semitone range were perceived as female by listeners, despite no significant differences between the actual intonation of the four gender groups. MTF speakers who do not pass as female appear to use less upward and more downward intonations than female and passing MTF speakers. Intonation has potential for use in transgender communication therapy because it can influence perception to some degree.

  18. Variation in vowel duration among southern African American English speakers

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. This study examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South in order to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the two groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Method Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. Results AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Female vowels were significantly longer than male vowels for both AAE and WAE. Conclusions African Americans should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers. PMID:25951511

  19. Nominal Compounding in Native and Non-Native Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Donna L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the English native and nonnative speaker's creation and use of nominal compounds. A comparison between English speakers and Japanese native speakers indicates that not only must nonnative speakers acquire rules in order to effectively compound words in English, but that rules must indeed exist, indicating that…

  20. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  1. Effects of Speaker Variability on Learning Foreign-Accented English for EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yuan; Low, Renae; Jin, Putai; Sweller, John

    2013-01-01

    Using a cognitive load theory approach, we investigated the effects of speaker variability when individuals are learning to understand English as a foreign language (EFL) spoken by foreign-accented speakers. The use of multiple, Indian-accented speakers was compared to that of a single speaker for Chinese EFL learners with a higher or lower…

  2. 76 FR 19187 - City of Davenport, Iowa-Construction and Operation Exemption-in Scott County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... by the City in project design and in the rail alignment, OEA, the FHWA, the Iowa Department of... Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the lead Federal agency on this rail project, and the City issued... conditions to mitigate the impacts of the project. After the Board's Office of Environmental ] Analysis...

  3. Iowa CASAS Pilot Project Reports: An Initial Evaluation of CASAS Effectiveness in Iowa's Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Mary L.

    In fall 1992, the Iowa Department of Education began pilot tests of the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS), an assessment system evaluating reading, math, and problem solving in a life skills context for adult remedial programs. This document provides reports from the nine community colleges that served as test sites, describing…

  4. Planning an Effective Speakers Outreach Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Malcolm W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and, in particular, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have played pivotal roles in the advancement of space exploration and space-related science and discovery since the early 1960's. Many of the extraordinary accomplishments and advancements of NASA and MSFC have gone largely unheralded to the general public, though they often border on the miraculous. This lack of suitable and deserved announcement of these "miracles" seems to have occurred because NASA engineers and scientists are inclined to regard extraordinary accomplishment as a normal course of events. The goal in this project has been to determine an effective structure and mechanism for communicating to the general public the extent to which our investment in our US civilian space program, NASA, is, in fact, a very wise investment. The project has involved discerning important messages of truth which beg to be conveyed to the public. It also sought to identify MSFC personnel who are particularly effective as messengers or communicators. A third aspect of the project was to identify particular target audiences who would appreciate knowing the facts about their NASA investment. The intent is to incorporate the results into the formation of an effective, proactive MSFC speakers bureau. A corollary accomplishment for the summer was participation in the formation of an educational outreach program known as Nasa Ambassadors. Nasa Ambassadors are chosen from the participants in the various MSFC summer programs including: Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), Science Teacher Enrichment Program (STEP), Community College Enrichment Program (CCEP), Joint Venture (JOVE) program, and the NASA Academy program. NASA Ambassadors agree to make pre-packaged NASA-related presentations to non-academic audiences in their home communities. The packaged presentations were created by a small cadre of participants from the 1996 MSFC summer programs, volunteering

  5. Center for Catalysis at Iowa State University

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, George A.

    2006-10-17

    The overall objective of this proposal is to enable Iowa State University to establish a Center that enjoys world-class stature and eventually enhances the economy through the transfer of innovation from the laboratory to the marketplace. The funds have been used to support experimental proposals from interdisciplinary research teams in areas related to catalysis and green chemistry. Specific focus areas included: • Catalytic conversion of renewable natural resources to industrial materials • Development of new catalysts for the oxidation or reduction of commodity chemicals • Use of enzymes and microorganisms in biocatalysis • Development of new, environmentally friendly reactions of industrial importance These focus areas intersect with barriers from the MYTP draft document. Specifically, section 2.4.3.1 Processing and Conversion has a list of bulleted items under Improved Chemical Conversions that includes new hydrogenation catalysts, milder oxidation catalysts, new catalysts for dehydration and selective bond cleavage catalysts. Specifically, the four sections are: 1. Catalyst development (7.4.12.A) 2. Conversion of glycerol (7.4.12.B) 3. Conversion of biodiesel (7.4.12.C) 4. Glucose from starch (7.4.12.D) All funded projects are part of a soybean or corn biorefinery. Two funded projects that have made significant progress toward goals of the MYTP draft document are: Catalysts to convert feedstocks with high fatty acid content to biodiesel (Kraus, Lin, Verkade) and Conversion of Glycerol into 1,3-Propanediol (Lin, Kraus). Currently, biodiesel is prepared using homogeneous base catalysis. However, as producers look for feedstocks other than soybean oil, such as waste restaurant oils and rendered animal fats, they have observed a large amount of free fatty acids contained in the feedstocks. Free fatty acids cannot be converted into biodiesel using homogeneous base-mediated processes. The CCAT catalyst system offers an integrated and cooperative catalytic

  6. Neural responses towards a speaker's feeling of (un)knowing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2016-01-29

    During interpersonal communication, listeners must rapidly evaluate verbal and vocal cues to arrive at an integrated meaning about the utterance and about the speaker, including a representation of the speaker's 'feeling of knowing' (i.e., how confident they are in relation to the utterance). In this study, we investigated the time course and neural responses underlying a listener's ability to evaluate speaker confidence from combined verbal and vocal cues. We recorded real-time brain responses as listeners judged statements conveying three levels of confidence with the speaker's voice (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident), which were preceded by meaning-congruent lexical phrases (e.g. I am positive, Most likely, Perhaps). Event-related potentials to utterances with combined lexical and vocal cues about speaker confidence were compared to responses elicited by utterances without the verbal phrase in a previous study (Jiang and Pell, 2015). Utterances with combined cues about speaker confidence elicited reduced, N1, P2 and N400 responses when compared to corresponding utterances without the phrase. When compared to confident statements, close-to-confident and unconfident expressions elicited reduced N1 and P2 responses and a late positivity from 900 to 1250 ms; unconfident and close-to-confident expressions were differentiated later in the 1250-1600 ms time window. The effect of lexical phrases on confidence processing differed for male and female participants, with evidence that female listeners incorporated information from the verbal and vocal channels in a distinct manner. Individual differences in trait empathy and trait anxiety also moderated neural responses during confidence processing. Our findings showcase the cognitive processing mechanisms and individual factors governing how we infer a speaker's mental (knowledge) state from the speech signal.

  7. Neural responses towards a speaker's feeling of (un)knowing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2016-01-29

    During interpersonal communication, listeners must rapidly evaluate verbal and vocal cues to arrive at an integrated meaning about the utterance and about the speaker, including a representation of the speaker's 'feeling of knowing' (i.e., how confident they are in relation to the utterance). In this study, we investigated the time course and neural responses underlying a listener's ability to evaluate speaker confidence from combined verbal and vocal cues. We recorded real-time brain responses as listeners judged statements conveying three levels of confidence with the speaker's voice (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident), which were preceded by meaning-congruent lexical phrases (e.g. I am positive, Most likely, Perhaps). Event-related potentials to utterances with combined lexical and vocal cues about speaker confidence were compared to responses elicited by utterances without the verbal phrase in a previous study (Jiang and Pell, 2015). Utterances with combined cues about speaker confidence elicited reduced, N1, P2 and N400 responses when compared to corresponding utterances without the phrase. When compared to confident statements, close-to-confident and unconfident expressions elicited reduced N1 and P2 responses and a late positivity from 900 to 1250 ms; unconfident and close-to-confident expressions were differentiated later in the 1250-1600 ms time window. The effect of lexical phrases on confidence processing differed for male and female participants, with evidence that female listeners incorporated information from the verbal and vocal channels in a distinct manner. Individual differences in trait empathy and trait anxiety also moderated neural responses during confidence processing. Our findings showcase the cognitive processing mechanisms and individual factors governing how we infer a speaker's mental (knowledge) state from the speech signal. PMID:26700458

  8. A Master Agreement between the State of Iowa Board of Regents and the Uni-United Faculty of University of Northern Iowa, July 1, 1987-June 30, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Board of Regents, Des Moines.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the State of Iowa Board of Regents and the University of Northern Iowa Uni-United Faculty, an affiliate of the National Education Association, for the period July 1, 1987-June 30, 1989 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition; university facilities; faculty evaluation by…

  9. Ground-water quality in alluvial aquifers in the eastern Iowa basins, Iowa and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadorf, Eric M.; Linhart, S. Michael

    2000-01-01

    The effects of land use on ground-water quality also were examined. There was a positive correlation between percentage of land used for soybean production and concentrations of metolachlor, metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, and metolachlor oxanilic acid in ground-water samples.Data from this study and from previous studies in the Eastern Iowa Basins were compared statistically by well type (domestic, municipal, and monitoring wells). Well depths were significantly greater in domestic and municipal wells than in monitoring wells. pH, calcium, sulfate, chloride, and atrazine concentrations were significantly higher in municipal-well samples than in domestic-well samples. pH and sulfate concentrations were significantly higher in municipal-well samples than in monitoring-well samples. Ammonia was significantly higher in domestic-well samples than in monitoring-well samples, chloride was significantly higher in monitoring-well samples than in domestic-well samples, and fluoride was significantly higher in domestic-well samples than in municipal-well samples.

  10. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    PubMed

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  11. Neural Systems Involved When Attending to a Speaker.

    PubMed

    Kamourieh, Salwa; Braga, Rodrigo M; Leech, Robert; Newbould, Rexford D; Malhotra, Paresh; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-11-01

    Remembering what a speaker said depends on attention. During conversational speech, the emphasis is on working memory, but listening to a lecture encourages episodic memory encoding. With simultaneous interference from background speech, the need for auditory vigilance increases. We recreated these context-dependent demands on auditory attention in 2 ways. The first was to require participants to attend to one speaker in either the absence or presence of a distracting background speaker. The second was to alter the task demand, requiring either an immediate or delayed recall of the content of the attended speech. Across 2 fMRI studies, common activated regions associated with segregating attended from unattended speech were the right anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (aI/FOp), the left planum temporale, and the precuneus. In contrast, activity in a ventral right frontoparietal system was dependent on both the task demand and the presence of a competing speaker. Additional multivariate analyses identified other domain-general frontoparietal systems, where activity increased during attentive listening but was modulated little by the need for speech stream segregation in the presence of 2 speakers. These results make predictions about impairments in attentive listening in different communicative contexts following focal or diffuse brain pathology. PMID:25596592

  12. Noise Reduction with Microphone Arrays for Speaker Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Z

    2011-12-22

    Reducing acoustic noise in audio recordings is an ongoing problem that plagues many applications. This noise is hard to reduce because of interfering sources and non-stationary behavior of the overall background noise. Many single channel noise reduction algorithms exist but are limited in that the more the noise is reduced; the more the signal of interest is distorted due to the fact that the signal and noise overlap in frequency. Specifically acoustic background noise causes problems in the area of speaker identification. Recording a speaker in the presence of acoustic noise ultimately limits the performance and confidence of speaker identification algorithms. In situations where it is impossible to control the environment where the speech sample is taken, noise reduction filtering algorithms need to be developed to clean the recorded speech of background noise. Because single channel noise reduction algorithms would distort the speech signal, the overall challenge of this project was to see if spatial information provided by microphone arrays could be exploited to aid in speaker identification. The goals are: (1) Test the feasibility of using microphone arrays to reduce background noise in speech recordings; (2) Characterize and compare different multichannel noise reduction algorithms; (3) Provide recommendations for using these multichannel algorithms; and (4) Ultimately answer the question - Can the use of microphone arrays aid in speaker identification?

  13. Vowel reduction across tasks for male speakers of American English.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Christina; Weismer, Gary

    2016-07-01

    This study examined acoustic variation of vowels within speakers across speech tasks. The overarching goal of the study was to understand within-speaker variation as one index of the range of normal speech motor behavior for American English vowels. Ten male speakers of American English performed four speech tasks including citation form sentence reading with a clear-speech style (clear-speech), citation form sentence reading (citation), passage reading (reading), and conversational speech (conversation). Eight monophthong vowels in a variety of consonant contexts were studied. Clear-speech was operationally defined as the reference point for describing variation. Acoustic measures associated with the conventions of vowel targets were obtained and examined. These included temporal midpoint formant frequencies for the first three formants (F1, F2, and F3) and the derived Euclidean distances in the F1-F2 and F2-F3 planes. Results indicated that reduction toward the center of the F1-F2 and F2-F3 planes increased in magnitude across the tasks in the order of clear-speech, citation, reading, and conversation. The cross-task variation was comparable for all speakers despite fine-grained individual differences. The characteristics of systematic within-speaker acoustic variation across tasks have potential implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of speech motor control and motor speech disorders. PMID:27475161

  14. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá; Calbo, Lilian Reig

    2009-04-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers' subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found that in different rooms significant changes in the sound power produced by the speaker can be found. It is also found that these changes mainly have to do with the size of the room and to the gain produced by the room. To describe this quality, a new room acoustic quantity called "room gain" is proposed.

  15. Fluency profile: comparison between Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers.

    PubMed

    Castro, Blenda Stephanie Alves e; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Baptista, Ana Catarina; Celeste, Letícia Correa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the speech fluency of Brazilian Portuguese speakers with that of European Portuguese speakers. The study participants were 76 individuals of any ethnicity or skin color aged 18-29 years. Of the participants, 38 lived in Brazil and 38 in Portugal. Speech samples from all participants were obtained and analyzed according to the variables of typology and frequency of speech disruptions and speech rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the association between the fluency profile and linguistic variant variables. We found that the speech rate of European Portuguese speakers was higher than the speech rate of Brazilian Portuguese speakers in words per minute (p=0.004). The qualitative distribution of the typology of common dysfluencies (p<0.001) also discriminated between the linguistic variants. While a speech fluency profile of European Portuguese speakers is not available, speech therapists in Portugal can use the same speech fluency assessment as has been used in Brazil to establish a diagnosis of stuttering, especially in regard to typical and stuttering dysfluencies, with care taken when evaluating the speech rate.

  16. A modular and hybrid connectionist system for speaker identification.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Y

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a modular/hybrid connectionist system for speaker identification. Modularity has emerged as a powerful technique for reducing the complexity of connectionist systems, and allowing a priori knowledge to be incorporated into their design. Text-independent speaker identification is an inherently complex task where the amount of training data is often limited. It thus provides an ideal domain to test the validity of the modular/hybrid connectionist approach. To achieve such identification, we develop, in this paper, an architecture based upon the cooperation of several connectionist modules, and a Hidden Markov Model module. When tested on a population of 102 speakers extracted from the DARPA-TIMIT database, perfect identification was obtained.

  17. Analysis of vegetable oil production in central Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, P.W. II.; Colvin, T.S.; Marley, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as an emergency substitute for diesel fuel for farming applications. This paper is an economic and energy analysis for vegetable oil production on a 180-ha (450-acre) central Iowa farm. The following data are presented as the basis for the economic analysis: (1) the yields of four varieties of sunflowers at three planting dates; (2) the measured sunflower harvesting losses-preharvest, header, threshing, and separating and cleaning for each variety and date of planting; and (3) the quantities of sunflower oil yielded from the pressing operation. Based on the data presented, it was concluded that even though a farmer could satisfatorily produce sunflowers, the on-farm processed sunflower oil does not compete with current diesel fuel prices. On-farm processed soybean oil has more potential as a substitute fuel from an economic standpoint in central Iowa. 8 tables.

  18. Midwestern Holocene paleoenvironments revealed by floodplain deposits in northeastern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chumbley, C.A.; Baker, R.G.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    1990-01-01

    Pollen analysis of pond deposits in the upper reaches of a stream from northeastern Iowa, an area beyond the last glacial margin, provides a nearly complete record of vegetational changes during the last 12.5 thousand years. Sixty-one radiocarbon dates provide good chronological control. Spruce forest was replaced by deciduous forest before 9 1 thousand years ago, followed by prairie from 5.4 to 3.5 thousand years ago, and oak savanna from 3.5 thousand years ago until presettlement times. The prairie invasion was nearly 3 thousand years later here than at other sites in Iowa and Minnesota, documenting a late Holocene, rather than an early-middle Holocene, period of maximum warmth and dryness for the southern part of the upper Midwest.

  19. Midwestern holocene paleoenvironments revealed by floodplain deposits in northeastern iowa.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, C A; Baker, R G; Bettis, E A

    1990-07-20

    Pollen analysis of pond deposits in the upper reaches of a stream from northeastern Iowa, an area beyond the last glacial margin, provides a nearly complete record of vegetational changes during the last 12.5 thousand years. Sixty-one radiocarbon dates provide good chronological control. Spruce forest was replaced by deciduous forest before 9.1 thousand years ago, followed by prairie from 5.4 to 3.5 thousand years ago, and oak savanna from 3.5 thousand years ago until presettlement times. The prairie invasion was nearly 3 thousand years later here than at other sites in Iowa and Minnesota, documenting a late Holocene, rather than an early-middle Holocene, period of maximum warmth and dryness for the southern part of the upper Midwest.

  20. Collaborative study of speaker identiication by the voiceprint method.

    PubMed

    Smrkovski, L L

    1975-05-01

    In the voiceprint method known and unknown voices are compared to determine if they are the same speaker. An unknown voice is recorded over the telephone onto a quality recorder. The known voice is similarly recorded, repeating the questioned message verbatim. An examiner determines, by means of acoustic spectrography and aural analysis, the similarities or differences existing between the known and unknown speakers. A positive conclusion is based on at least 10 pairs of like sounds. Five decisions are available for the examiner to make: positive identification, positive elimination, probable identification, probable elimination, and unable to make a decision with the sample submitted. Seven collaborators, chosen from various parts of the United States, were given recordings of 4 unknown speakers, 2 male and 2 female, to compare with similar recordings of 6 known speakers, 3 male and 3 female. A total of 21 positive identifications and 63 positive eliminations was possible. Twenty correct identifications and 47 correct positive eliminations were made. In 16 tasks, all involving the same unknown sample, collaborators reported they could not make a determination due to the poor quality of the sample. No false identifications were made; however, a trainee examiner, with less than 2 years experience, eliminated a known speaker when in fact a match did exist, thereby falsely eliminating the speaker. Examiners with more than 2 years of experience correctly identified all existing matches. This study indicates that a trained examiner can make very reliable decisions, using the aural and visual methods of comparing known and unknown voices. The voiceprint method has been adopted as official first action.

  1. The Iowa Flood Center's River Stage Sensors—Technical Details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.; Ceynar, D.; Fahim Rezaei, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Center (IFC), along with support from the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) have developed a bridge-mounted river stage sensor. Each sensor consists of an ultrasonic distance measuring module, cellular modem, a GPS unit that provides accurate time and an embedded controller that orchestrates the sensors' operation. A sensor is powered by a battery and solar panel along with a solar charge controller. All the components are housed in/on a sturdy metal box that is then mounted on the side of a bridge. Additionally, each sensor incorporates a water-intrusion sensor and an internal temperature sensor. In operation, the microcontroller wakes, and turns on the electronics every 15 minutes and then measures the distance between the ultrasonic sensor and the water surface. Several measurements are averaged and transmitted along with system health information (battery voltage, state of water intrusion sensor, and internal temperature) via cellular modem to remote servers on the internet. The microcontroller then powers the electronics down and enters a sleep/power savings mode. The sensor's firmware allows the remote server to adjust the measurement rate to 5, 15, and 60 minutes. Further, sensors maintain a 24-day buffer of previous measurements. If a sensor could not successfully transmit its data because of cellular network connection problems, it will transmit the backlog on subsequent transmissions. We paid meticulous attention to all engineering aspects and sensors are very robust and have operated essentially continuously through two Iowa winters and summers, including the 2012 record-breaking warm summer.

  2. Multiobjective location planning for primary medical services in rural Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Hillsman, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Developing location plans for primary medical services is a multiobjective location problem. In rural regions, plans must consider both the ability of a location to retain needed health care professionals and the accessibility of service center locations to the rural population. Using township level population data and a model of physician attrition, these objectives were incorporated into a location-allocation model and applied to rural Iowa.

  3. Inferring word meanings by assuming that speakers are informative.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Goodman, Noah D

    2014-12-01

    Language comprehension is more than a process of decoding the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance. Instead, by making the assumption that speakers choose their words to be informative in context, listeners routinely make pragmatic inferences that go beyond the linguistic data. If language learners make these same assumptions, they should be able to infer word meanings in otherwise ambiguous situations. We use probabilistic tools to formalize these kinds of informativeness inferences-extending a model of pragmatic language comprehension to the acquisition setting-and present four experiments whose data suggest that preschool children can use informativeness to infer word meanings and that adult judgments track quantitatively with informativeness. PMID:25238461

  4. Status of the Topeka shiner in west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Clay; Bakevich, Bryan D.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The Topeka shiner Notropis topeka is a federally endangered fish species that is estimated to occupy only 20% of its historic range. In Iowa Topeka shiners have been in decline for decades. Our goal was to determine the present distribution of Topeka shiners in the west-central portion of their range in Iowa and to characterize the extent of its decline. We compared the current distribution to distributions generated from earlier collections. We found Topeka shiners in six of 22 watersheds where they occurred historically. Status of Topeka shiners was judged to be stable in 27% of the watersheds, at risk in 45% of the watersheds, and possibly extirpated in 27% of the watersheds. None were classified as increasing. Based on comparison of the historical distribution with more recent ones, Topeka shiners in west-central Iowa showed a 27% decline a decade ago and currently exhibits a 73% decline in their distribution. The collective evidence from four of five other states in the species’ range reveals similar declines. This study provides further information on the local distribution and extent of decline for this federally endangered species with a greatly reduced and fragmented overall distribution.

  5. Bathymetric Contour Maps of Lakes Surveyed in Iowa in 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linhart, S.M.; Lund, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, conducted bathymetric surveys on seven lakes in Iowa during 2005 (Arrowhead Pond, Central Park Lake, Lake Keomah, Manteno Park Pond, Lake Miami, Springbrook Lake, and Yellow Smoke Lake). The surveys were conducted to provide the Iowa Department of Natural Resources with information for the development of total maximum daily load limits, particularly for estimating sediment load and deposition rates. The bathymetric surveys provide a baseline for future work on sediment loads and deposition rates for these lakes. All of the lakes surveyed in 2005 are man-made lakes with fixed spillways. Bathymetric data were collected using boat-mounted, differential global positioning system, echo depth-sounding equipment, and computer software. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into a geographic information system for mapping and calculating area and volume. Lake volume estimates ranged from 47,784,000 cubic feet (1,100 acre-feet) at Lake Miami to 2,595,000 cubic feet (60 acre-feet) at Manteno Park Pond. Surface area estimates ranged from 5,454,000 square feet (125 acres) at Lake Miami to 558,000 square feet (13 acres) at Springbrook Lake.

  6. Antigenic heterogeneity in Mycoplasma iowae demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Panangala, V S; Gresham, M M; Morsy, M A

    1992-01-01

    Western blots of proteins of 14 Mycoplasma iowae strains and isolates resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were probed with three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), MI6, MI7, and MI8. MAb MI6 reacted with one or more antigens with apparent molecular weights of 60,000, 70,000, and 94,000. In three strains (N-PHN-D13, R-D2497, and K 1805), antigens located on a single peptide band were recognized, while in others additional epitopes at different molecular-weight positions were revealed. A similar pattern was observed with MAb MI7, although it reacted with fewer antigens than did MAb MI6 and failed to recognize antigens in strains N-PHN-D13 and R-D2497. MAb MI8 reacted with an antigen at an apparent molecular-weight position of 28,000 in four of the 14 strains and isolates. The diverse reaction patterns observed with the MAbs in the 14 M. iowae strains and isolates confirms the occurrence of antigenic variation within this species. Antigenic variation in M. iowae may be pivotal in determining host-parasite interactions, pathogenesis, and the outcome of disease. PMID:1373600

  7. Bathymetric Contour Maps for Lakes Surveyed in Iowa in 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linhart, S.M.; Lund, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, conducted bathymetric surveys on two lakes in Iowa during 2006 (Little Storm Lake and Silver Lake). The surveys were conducted to provide the Iowa Department of Natural Resources with information for the development of total maximum daily load limits, particularly for estimating sediment load and deposition rates. The bathymetric surveys can provide a baseline for future work on sediment loads and deposition rates for these lakes. Both of the lakes surveyed in 2006 are natural lakes. For Silver Lake, bathymetric data were collected using boat-mounted, differential global positioning system, echo depth-sounding equipment, and computer software. For Little Storm Lake, because of its shallow nature, bathymetric data were collected using manual depth measurements. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into a geographic information system for mapping and calculating area and volume. Lake volumes were estimated to be 7,547,000 cubic feet (173 acre-feet) at Little Storm Lake and 126,724,000 cubic feet (2,910 acre-feet) at Silver Lake. Surface areas were estimated to be 4,110,000 square feet (94 acres) at Little Storm Lake and 27,957,000 square feet (640 acres) at Silver Lake.

  8. Clastic rocks associated with the Midcontinent rift system in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Raymond R.; McKay, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) of North America is a failed rift that formed in response to region-wide stresses about 1,100 Ma. In Iowa, the MRS is buried beneath 2,200?3,500 ft of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and Quaternary glaciogenic deposits. An extremely large volume of sediments was deposited within basins associated with the rift at several stages during its development. Although the uplift of a rift-axial horst resulted in the erosional removal of most of these clastic rocks from the central region of the MRS in Iowa, thick sequences are preserved in a series of horst-bounding basins. Recent studies incorporating petrographic analysis, geophysical modeling, and other analytical procedures have led to the establishment of a preliminary stratigraphy for these clastic rocks and interpretations of basin geometries. This information has allowed the refinement of existing theories and history of MRS formation in Iowa. Additionally, drill samples previously interpreted as indicating the existence of early Paleozoic basins overlying the Proterozoic MRS basins were re-examined. Samples previously interpreted as deep-lying Paleozoic rocks are now known to have caved from upper levels of the drillhole and were out of stratigraphic position. No deep Paleozoic basins exist in this area. These investigations led to the development of petrographic parameters useful in differentiating the Proterozoic MRS Red clastics from Paleozoic clastic rocks having similar lithologies.

  9. Iowa Variant of Familial Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Rostagno, Agueda; Neubert, Thomas A.; Lu, Yun; Rebeck, G. William; Frangione, Blas; Greenberg, Steven M.; Ghiso, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Mutations within the amyloid-β (Aβ) sequence, especially those clustered at residues 21-23, which are linked to early onset familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are primarily associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The basis for this predominant vascular amyloid burden and the differential clinical phenotypes of cerebral hemorrhage/stroke in some patients and dementia in others remain unknown. The AβD23N Iowa mutation is associated with progressive AD-like dementia, often without clinically manifested intracerebral hemorrhage. Neuropathologically, the disease is characterized by predominant preamyloid deposits, severe CAA, and abundant neurofibrillary tangles in the presence of remarkably few mature plaques. Biochemical analyses using a combination of immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, amino acid sequence, and Western blot analysis performed after sequential tissue extractions to separately isolate soluble components, preamyloid, and fibrillar amyloid species indicated that the Iowa deposits are complex mixtures of mutated and nonmutated Aβ molecules. These molecules exhibited various degrees of solubility, were highly heterogeneous at both the N- and C-termini, and showed partial aspartate isomerization at positions 1, 7, and 23. This collection of Aβ species—the Iowa brain Aβ peptidome—contained clear imprints of amyloid clearance mechanisms yet highlighted the unique neuropathological features shared by a non-Aβ cerebral amyloidosis, familial Danish dementia, in which neurofibrillary tangles coexist with extensive pre-amyloid deposition in the virtual absence of fibrillar lesions. These data therefore challenge the importance of neuritic plaques as the sole contributors for the development of dementia. PMID:20228223

  10. Evaluation of Optimal Distribution of Wind Power Facilities in Iowa for 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Factor, T.; Milligan, M.

    1999-08-05

    By the end of June 1999, about 250 megawatts of wind generation will have been dedicated in the state of Iowa. This represents the beginning of what is likely to be significant wind capacity development during the next 20 years in the state, as a result of possible public and governmental mandates and consumers' desire for sustainable sources of energy. As the utility industry in the United States moves towards a new structure, renewable energy sources continue to be an important part of new resource development. In this paper, we consider the predicted trends in load growth in Iowa. After accounting for the retirement of nuclear and older fossil fuel facilities over the next 15 years, we estimate Iowa's potential renewable generating capacity through the year 2015 and anticipate the contribution of wind energy to Iowa's portfolio. The Iowa Wind Energy Institute (IWEI) has been monitoring the wind resource in Iowa since June 1994 to obtain wind speed averages at 10, 33 and 50 meters above ground at fourteen geographically dispersed potential wind farm sites. Winds in the Midwest are primarily generated by fronts moving through the region. The Northwest Buffalo Ridge area of Iowa typically has wind speed averages of 7-8 m/s. Central Iowa may have typical winds slightly below this mean value. However, as a front passes through the state, there will be times when a wind farm in Central Iowa will produce more energy than one on Buffalo Ridge.

  11. Environmental Assessment for US Department of Energy support of an Iowa State University Linear Accelerator Facility at Ames, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action is financial and technical support of construction and initial operation of an agricultural commodity irradiator (principally for meat), employing a dual mode electron beam generator capable of producing x-rays, at the Iowa State University Linear Accelerator located at Ames, Iowa. The planned pilot commercial-scale facility would be used for the following activities: conducting irradiation research on agricultural commodities, principally meats; in the future, after the pilot phase, as schedules permit, possibly conducting research on other, non-edible materials; evaluating effects of irradiation on nutritional and sensory quality of agricultural products; demonstrating the efficiency of the process to control or eliminate pathogens, and/or to prolong the commodities' post-harvest shelf-life via control or elimination of bacteria, fungi, and/or insects; providing information to the public on the benefits, safety and risks of irradiated agricultural commodities; determining consumer acceptability of the irradiated products; providing data for use by regulatory agencies in developing protocols for various treatments of Iowa agricultural commodities; and training operators, maintenance and quality control technicians, scientists, engineers, and staff of regulatory agencies in agricultural commodity irradiation technology. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Cantonese Speakers' Memory for English Sentences with Prosodic Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the nature and functions of prosody, and contrasts English and Cantonese for this feature of language as background for two experimental studies. Thirty Cantonese advanced speakers of English were tested for their recognition memory of English sentences in which prosody-cued meaning contrasts in otherwise identical sentence pairs. Results…

  13. Children's Understanding of Speaker Reliability between Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Macris, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing…

  14. Perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeon, Sang-Hee

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.

  15. Acquisition of English Verb Transitivity by Native Speakers of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the acquisition of English verb transitivity by native speakers of Japanese. Both a verb's semantic class (Levin, 1993; Pinker, 1989) and its frequency (Ambridge et al., 2008) have been proposed to influence the acquisition of verbs in L1. For example, verbs whose meaning entails change-of-location or…

  16. Keeping Track of Speaker's Perspective: The Role of Social Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senay, Ibrahim; Keysar, Boaz

    2009-01-01

    A long and narrow piece of wood is "a bat," "a stick," "a club," or "firewood." In fact, anything can be described from multiple perspectives, each suggesting a different conceptualization. People keep track of how speakers conceptualize things and expect them to describe them similarly in the future. This article demonstrates that these…

  17. Irish Speakers in Northern Ireland, and the Good Friday Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, M. Nic

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Irish language community in Northern Ireland, and questions the validity of the census results of 1991. Particular focus is on the concept of a mother tongue and its relevance for speakers of Irish in the United Kingdom. Discusses measures to improve the status of Irish as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. (Author/VWL)

  18. High fidelity microelectromechanical system electrodynamic micro-speaker characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtzer, E.; Shahosseini, I.; Pillonnet, G.; Lefeuvre, E.; Lemarquand, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the heterogeneous characterization of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electrodynamic micro-speaker. This MEMS micro-speaker consists of an optimized silicon structure based on a very light but very stiff membrane. The mobile part is suspended using soft suspension beams, also made of silicon, which enable large out-of-plane displacement. The electromagnetic motor is composed of a micro-assembly permanent ring magnet and of a deposit mobile planar coil fixed on the top of the silicon membrane. Previous publications have presented the MEMS as theoretically able to produce high fidelity and high efficiency over a wide bandwidth. The present study intends to validate the electrical, the mechanical, and the acoustic performance improvements. The characterization of the microfabricated micro-speaker showed that the electric impedance is flat over the entire audio bandwidth. Some results validates the performance improvements in terms of audio quality as compared to state of the art of the MEMS micro-speakers, such as the high out-of-plane membrane displacement over ±400 μm, the 80 dBSPL sound pressure level at 10 cm, the 2% maximal distortion level, and the useful bandwidth from 335 Hz to cutoff frequency.

  19. Multicompetence and Native Speaker Variation in Clausal Packaging in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Native speakers show systematic variation in a range of linguistic domains as a function of a variety of sociolinguistic variables. This article addresses native language variation in the context of multicompetence, i.e. knowledge of two languages in one mind (Cook, 1991). Descriptions of motion were elicited from functionally monolingual and…

  20. A Study of Cleft Palate Speakers with Marginal Velopharyngeal Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, M. A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study examined a previously hypothesized model for a subgroup of cleft palate speakers with marginal velopharyngeal competence during speech. Evaluation of 52 5- and 6-year-olds with appropriate lateral X-ray results indicated that most met fewer than three of the other five criteria required by the model. (Author/DB)

  1. Implicit Attitudes towards Native and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, R. Watson; Pojanapunya, Punjaporn

    2009-01-01

    The academic literature and educational principle suggest that native and non-native English speaking teachers should be treated equally, yet in many countries there is a broad social and commercial preference for native speaker teachers which may also involve racial issues. Attitudes towards native and non-native English speaking teachers have…

  2. Why Reference to the Past Is Difficult for Agrammatic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic…

  3. Voice Recognition Software Accuracy with Second Language Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the potential of the use of voice-recognition technology with second-language speakers of English. Involves the analysis of the output produced by a small group of very competent second-language subjects reading a text into the voice recognition software Dragon Systems "Dragon NaturallySpeaking." (Author/VWL)

  4. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  5. 24. AIRCONDITIONING DUCT, WINCH CONTROL BOX, AND SPEAKER AT STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AIR-CONDITIONING DUCT, WINCH CONTROL BOX, AND SPEAKER AT STATION 85.5 OF MST. FOLDED-UP PLATFORM ON RIGHT OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    A speaker’s gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., “sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins”). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  7. Acquired Dyslexia in a Turkish-English Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Ilhan; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2005-01-01

    The Turkish script is characterised by completely transparent bidirectional mappings between orthography and phonology. To date, there has been no reported evidence of acquired dyslexia in Turkish speakers leading to the naive view that reading and writing problems in Turkish are probably rare. We examined the extent to which phonological…

  8. The Elicited Production of Korean Relative Clauses by Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Ellis, Sunyoung

    2011-01-01

    In response to new theoretical claims and inconclusive empirical findings regarding relative clauses in East Asian languages, this study examined the factors relevant to relative clause production by Korean heritage speakers. Gap position (subject vs. object), animacy (plus or minus animate), and the topicality of head nouns (plus or minus…

  9. Segmentation of the Speaker's Face Region with Audiovisual Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuyu; Sato, Yoichi

    The ability to find the speaker's face region in a video is useful for various applications. In this work, we develop a novel technique to find this region within different time windows, which is robust against the changes of view, scale, and background. The main thrust of our technique is to integrate audiovisual correlation analysis into a video segmentation framework. We analyze the audiovisual correlation locally by computing quadratic mutual information between our audiovisual features. The computation of quadratic mutual information is based on the probability density functions estimated by kernel density estimation with adaptive kernel bandwidth. The results of this audiovisual correlation analysis are incorporated into graph cut-based video segmentation to resolve a globally optimum extraction of the speaker's face region. The setting of any heuristic threshold in this segmentation is avoided by learning the correlation distributions of speaker and background by expectation maximization. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can detect the speaker's face region accurately and robustly for different views, scales, and backgrounds.

  10. Agreement Reflexes of Emerging Optionality in Heritage Speaker Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual Cabo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to current trends of heritage speaker (HS) acquisition research by examining the syntax of psych-predicates in HS Spanish. Broadly defined, psych-predicates communicate states of emotions (e.g., to love) and have traditionally been categorized as belonging to one of three classes: class I--"temere" "to…

  11. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  12. Gesturing by Speakers with Aphasia: How Does It Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. Method: The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3…

  13. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  14. Non-Native Speakers: Problems of Language Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narain, Mona

    Writing teachers need to recognize the special circumstances of culturally displaced students. A specific category of such students are those from the Asian subcontinent, who are not exactly non-native speakers of English, but who do speak non-standard American English. These students occupy a subaltern (marginal) position: they can neither be…

  15. Do English and Mandarin Speakers Think about Time Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boroditsky, Lera; Fuhrman, Orly; McCormick, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Time is a fundamental domain of experience. In this paper we ask whether aspects of language and culture affect how people think about this domain. Specifically, we consider whether English and Mandarin speakers think about time differently. We review all of the available evidence both for and against this hypothesis, and report new data that…

  16. Perception and Production of English Lexical Stress by Thai Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jangjamras, Jirapat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…

  17. Psycholinguistic Approaches to Language Processing in Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick A.; Zapata, Gabriela C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dearth of language-processing research addressing Spanish heritage speakers in assimilationist communities. First, we review key offline work on this population, and we then summarize the few psycholinguistic (online) studies that have already been carried out. In an attempt to encourage more such research, in the next…

  18. The "Virtual" Panel: A Computerized Model for LGBT Speaker Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Christopher; Torres-Harding, Susan; Pedersen, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent societal trends indicate more tolerance for homosexuality, but prejudice remains on college campuses. Speaker panels are commonly used in classrooms as a way to educate students about sexual diversity and decrease negative attitudes toward sexual diversity. The advent of computer-delivered instruction presents a unique opportunity to…

  19. Espanol para el hispanolhablante (Spanish for the Spanish Speaker).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, George M.

    This guide provides Texas teachers and administrators with guidelines, goals, instructional strategies, and activities for teaching Spanish to secondary level native speakers. It is based on the principle that the Spanish speaking student is the strongest linguistic and cultural resource to Texas teachers of languages other than English, and one…

  20. Articulatory settings of French-English bilingual speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    The idea of a language-specific articulatory setting (AS), an underlying posture of the articulators during speech, has existed for centuries [Laver, Historiogr. Ling. 5 (1978)], but until recently it had eluded direct measurement. In an analysis of x-ray movies of French and English monolingual speakers, Gick et al. [Phonetica (in press)] link AS to inter-speech posture, allowing measurement of AS without interference from segmental targets during speech, and they give quantitative evidence showing AS to be language-specific. In the present study, ultrasound and Optotrak are used to investigate whether bilingual English-French speakers have two ASs, and whether this varies depending on the mode (monolingual or bilingual) these speakers are in. Specifically, for inter-speech posture of the lips, lip aperture and protrusion are measured using Optotrak. For inter-speech posture of the tongue, tongue root retraction, tongue body and tongue tip height are measured using optically-corrected ultrasound. Segmental context is balanced across the two languages ensuring that the sets of sounds before and after an inter-speech posture are consistent across languages. By testing bilingual speakers, vocal tract morphology across languages is controlled for. Results have implications for L2 acquisition, specifically the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation.

  1. Investigating Chinese Speakers' Acquisition of Telicity in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Bin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with Chinese speakers' acquisition of telicity in L2 English. Telicity is a semantic notion having to do with whether an event has an inherent endpoint or not. Most existing work on L2 telicity is conceptualized within an L1-transfer framework and examines learning situations where L1 and L2 differ on whether…

  2. Teaching the Native English Speaker How to Teach English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhuu, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks to teachers who have been paired with native speakers (NSs) who have never taught before, and the feelings of frustration, discouragement, and nervousness on the teacher's behalf that can occur as a result. In order to effectively tackle this situation, teachers need to work together with the NSs. Teachers in this scenario…

  3. Making Orators Interesting to Students: The Speaker Resume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kaylene A.; Stroup, Karen Bruner

    1983-01-01

    Describes a device, the speaker resume, which provides students with biographical information on an orator's education, achievements, historical impact, rhetorical skills, and personal data. Includes a sample resume of Daniel O'Connell, Irish orator. Useful to teachers and students for class discussion and further investigation. (PD)

  4. Social Cues in Multimedia Learning: Role of Speaker's Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Sobko, Kristina; Mautone, Patricia D.

    2003-01-01

    In 2 experiments, learners who were seated at a computer workstation received a narrated animation about lightning formation. Then, they took a retention test, a transfer test, and rated the speaker. The results are consistent with social agency theory, which posits that social cues in multimedia messages can encourage learners to interpret…

  5. Analysis of VOT in Turkish Speakers with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan; Mavis, Ilknur; Akyildiz, Didem

    2011-01-01

    Studies investigating voicing onset time (VOT) production by speakers with aphasia have shown that nonfluent aphasics show a deficit in the articulatory programming of speech sounds based on the range of VOT values produced by aphasic individuals. If the VOT value lies between the normal range of VOT for the voiced and voiceless categories, then…

  6. A Guide for Teaching Standard English to Black Dialect Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Theresa A.

    Strategies are suggested that can be used by teachers who are trying to get Black Dialect speaking students to speak and write the General Dialect. The approach takes into account the fact that all speakers are not on the same level. The need for careful pre-testing and determination of class rank is suggested, as are various ways of evaluating…

  7. Production of Syllable Stress in Speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Bianchi, Nancy; Augustyn, Amy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the ability to reproduce stress in a nonsense syllable imitation task by adolescent speakers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as compared to typically developing (TD) age-mates. Results are reported for both raters' judgments of the subjects' stress production, as well as acoustic measures of pitch range and…

  8. Spanish Native-Speaker Perception of Accentedness in Learner Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moranski, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Building upon current research in native-speaker (NS) perception of L2 learner phonology (Zielinski, 2008; Derwing & Munro, 2009), the present investigation analyzed multiple dimensions of NS speech perception in order to achieve a more complete understanding of the specific linguistic elements and attitudinal variables that contribute to…

  9. Sentence Comprehension in Swahili-English Bilingual Agrammatic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuom, Tom O.; Shah, Emmah; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    For this study, sentence comprehension was tested in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers. The sentences were controlled for four factors: (1) order of the arguments (base vs. derived); (2) embedding (declarative vs. relative sentences); (3) overt use of the relative pronoun "who"; (4) language (English and Swahili). Two theories were…

  10. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  11. The effect of LPC (Linear Predictive Coding) processing on the recognition of unfamiliar speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, A.; Stern, K. R.

    1985-09-01

    The effect of narrowband digital processing, using a linear predictive coding (LPC) algorithm at 2400 bits/s, on the recognition of previously unfamiliar speakers was investigated. Three sets of five speakers each (two sets of males differing in rated voice distinctiveness and one set of females) were tested for speaker recognition in two separate experiments using a familiarization-test procedure. In the first experiment three groups of listeners each heard a single set of speakers in both voice processing conditions, and in the second two groups of listeners each heard all three sets of speakers in a single voice processing condition. There were significant differences among speaker sets both with and without LPC processing, with the low distinctive males generally more poorly recognized than the other groups. There was also an interaction of speaker set and voice processing condition; the low distinctive males were no less recognizable over LPC than they were unprocessed, and one speaker in particular was actually better recognized over LPC. Although it seems that on the whole LPC processing reduces speaker recognition, the reverse may be the case for some speakers in some contexts. This suggests that one should be cautious about comparing speaker recognition for different voi ce systems of the basis of a single set of speakers. It also presents a serious obstacle to the development of a reliable standardized test of speaker recognizability.

  12. What makes speakers omit pitch accents? An experiment.

    PubMed

    Nooteboom, S G; Terken, J M

    1982-01-01

    The present paper reports on an experiment which was set up to examine whether we can make a speaker either accent or de-accent particular words by systematically varying the objective probability that a particular referent will be mentioned (and therewith the referent's predictability for speaker and listener). In the experiment each of 24 speakers was asked to watch a visual display, showing a very simple configuration of letter symbols, and to describe orally each change in the current configuration to a listener. By manipulating the letter configurations shown on the display, the objective probability that the speaker would mention a particular letter could be controlled. Letters could either move around on the screen (moving letters) or remain fixed and serve as spatial reference points (fixed letters). Objective probabilities were 0.5 and 1 for both moving letters and fixed letters. The main findings were the following: (1) When a referent is fully predictable to speaker and listener there is a high proportion of ellipsis, particularly for the moving letter, which was always referred to from subject position. (2) The probability that a word referring to a letter will be accented appears not to be immediately controlled by the predictability of the referent. The controlling factor is rather the preceding linguistic context. More specifically, the probability of accenting, being close to 1 the first time a specific referent is mentioned, sharply decreases when the same referent is mentioned for the second time in a row, and decreases again when this same referent is mentioned three or more times in a row. However, as soon as the competing referent is mentioned once, in the same role (moving or fixed letter), the probability of accenting jumps up again. (3) The probability of accenting is systematically lower for the moving letters in subject position (average 0.32) than for the fixed letters in predicate position (average 0.52). In view of these findings, de

  13. Morphological or Syntactic Deficits in Near-Native Speakers? An Assessment of Some Current Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franceschina, Florencia

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes claims made in three studies that adopt a morphological approach to nonnative speaker-native speaker divergence. Examines these claims in terms of the morphological and syntactic theories presupposed and points to a number of problems. (Author/VWL)

  14. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  15. The Performance of Native Speakers of English and ESL Speakers on the Computer-based TOEFL and GRE General Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…

  16. New and Not so New Horizons: Brief Encounters between UK Undergraduate Native-Speaker and Non-Native-Speaker Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the apparent contradiction between the valuing and promoting of diverse literacies in most UK HEIs, and the discursive construction of spoken native-speaker English as the medium of good grades and prestige academic knowledge. During group interviews on their experiences of university internationalisation, 38 undergraduate…

  17. Native and Non-Native English Speakers' Current Usage of "Can" and "May" in Requesting Permission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan M.

    A study investigated patterns of usage of "can" and "may" (e.g., "May/Can I go to the bathroom?") among native speakers and non-native speakers of English. A questionnaire was administered to 25 native English-speakers, most aged 19-26 and the remainder over age 45, and 56 non-native speakers taking advanced English-as-a-Second-Language classes.…

  18. Agriculture in Iowa: Curriculum Guide for Grades 4-5-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Susan F.; And Others

    A resource/curriculum guide developed for teachers of grades 4-6 is intended to help Iowa students learn about agriculture in Iowa: its importance as the state's major industry, its role as a source of employment and careers, and its role in meeting basic human needs for nutrition, clothing, and shelter. The guide recommends that, wherever…

  19. Iowa School-to-Work Employer Participation Ideas. Developing a Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa School-to-Work Office, Des Moines.

    This document, which is intended for Iowa employers and elementary and secondary educators, outlines 11 activities through which employers can participate in school-to-work (STW) programs in Iowa's elementary and secondary schools. The document begins with a definition of work-based learning and a brief overview of information and other resources…

  20. Door to the World: Iowa Libraries and the Electronic Information Highway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Library, Des Moines.

    This document examines the roles, issues, and needs of Iowa libraries in the age of the electronic information highway based on the responses of library practitioners to a request from the State Library of Iowa to briefly address these concerns. The report begins with brief discussions of traditional library services; electronic library services;…

  1. Iowa Vocational Assessment System. Final Report for FY 90-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames.

    The Iowa Vocational Assessment System (IVAS) conducted extensive research and developed an assessment model appropriate for use by local education agencies to assess competency-based curriculum. Two school districts requested and administered the Iowa Career Education Inventory with IVAS assistance in administration, scoring, and interpretation of…

  2. Work Life Balance and Job Satisfaction among Faculty at Iowa State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhtar, Farah

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized the existing database from the Iowa State University 2009-2010 COACHE Tenure-Track Job Satisfaction Survey Report to explore faculty work life balance and job satisfaction among academic disciplines at Iowa State University. The articulation of work and life, cast as work life balance, has become a key feature of much current…

  3. School District Reorganization in Iowa: Considerations for Administrators, School Boards, and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    The problem. To consider reorganization of two or more Iowa school districts in light of declining enrollment, dwindling financial resources, the end of the state budget guarantee program and pressure to provide the most rigorous and relevant education possible to Iowa's students. Specifically, the problem is to determine what two or more school…

  4. Shaping the Future: A Five-Year Plan for Iowa's System of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges.

    This document is a 5-year plan designed to improve the overall service and performance of Iowa community colleges. The plan emphasizes how the Iowa system values maintaining an open-door policy, responding quickly to students, the community, and industry needs, and collaborating with different educational and business sectors. Four major strategic…

  5. Needs and Interests of Iowa State University Alumni in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Gerald Edward

    A study was made of a random sample of 934 Iowa State University alumni, who graduated between 1926 and 1965 and lived in Iowa, the purpose being to determine: their feelings of need and commitment to continuing education; their present participation; the content, type, and locations of programs they prefer; and where they think responsibility for…

  6. An Analysis of Iowa Superintendents' Opinions Concerning Marking Systems for the Student Teaching Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskel, Thomas J.

    This study was designed to ascertain a) the distribution of student teaching letter grades in 29 Iowa teacher education institutions from 1967-70; b) the predictive value of student teaching letter grades held by superintendents; and c) the preference of Iowa superintendents concerning the present letter grade and recommendation system versus the…

  7. Community College Nursing and Allied Health Education Programs, and Iowa's Healthcare Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    As the nation's population ages and the Baby Boom generation nears retirement, the need for skilled healthcare workers in Iowa and across the nation grows. Healthcare is one of the fastest growing sectors of the U.S. economy, and one of the top industries for job growth and job creation in Iowa. The increase in the number of healthcare positions…

  8. Early Schools in Two Townships of Black Hawk County, Iowa, USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreier, William H.

    This paper provides a history of early public schools in two Iowa townships. Townships are six by six mile areas of land that were established as the result of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. The civil townships of Bennington and Cedar Falls were part of 17 townships located in Black Hawk County, Iowa. The Northwest Ordinance specified that the…

  9. Aim for Excellence: A Plan for Making Arts Education Basic in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Karen, Ed.; Penney, Rita, Ed.

    Art instruction in Iowa schools lacks cohesiveness and continuity. This may be due in part to the state government's commitment to local autonomy. The Iowa Department of Education does not mandate what schools must do; it only suggests and encourages. In 1986, the department published a five-year plan for the achievement of educational goals,…

  10. Educating Iowa's English Language Learners (ELLs): A Handbook for Administrators and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This handbook for Iowa school districts was first published many years ago. Since that time, several significant sociopolitical and educational changes have occurred. For example, there has been an increase in the number of languages and cultures represented both in Iowa and in the political arenas of the nation. Immigrants and refugees from…

  11. Iowa Chiropractic Students Outlook for Practitioners and Need for State-Funded Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Keith

    This state-mandated study examined the needs of Iowa chiropractic students and the Iowa demand for chiropractic health care in order to determine the feasibility of establishing a chiropractic forgivable loan program. The project used financial aid data and repayment rate data to evaluate the need for financial aid for chiropractic students;…

  12. Vision Screening Practices in Central Iowa: A Follow-Up Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper; Gustafson, Jeri K.; Kinne, Marilyn J.; Little, Donita

    2003-01-01

    In response to data from the initial survey published in October 2001, interventions were developed to increase vision screening knowledge and promote use of the "Iowa Vision Screening Program Guidelines" (Iowa Department of Education [IDE], 1997). The purpose of this evaluation was to measure differences in practice after interventions, including…

  13. 75 FR 7289 - Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuge, NE; Hamden Slough National Wildlife Refuge, MN; and Iowa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Refuge, MN; and Iowa Wetland Management District, IA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... documents for the Boyer Chute and Hamden Slough National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) and the Iowa Wetland... Wildlife Refuge, 26624 N. Tower Road, Detroit Lakes, MN 56501; 3. Attention: Refuge Manager, Iowa...

  14. 78 FR 20101 - Free Flow Power Iowa 1, LLC; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Mississippi Lock and Dam 12 Water Power Project (Mississippi L+D 12 Project or project) to be located at the... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Iowa 1, LLC; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit... January 2, 2013, Free Flow Power Iowa 1, LLC (FFP Iowa) filed an application for a preliminary...

  15. A summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa, fiscal year 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes: (1) the organization of the Iowa District; (2) the hydrologic data-collection programs; and (3) the local, statewide, regional, or national hydrologic investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa during fiscal year 1994. The report also lists reports published or released by the Iowa District since 1984.

  16. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  17. Race in Conflict with Heritage: "Black" Heritage Language Speaker of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Kumagai, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    "Heritage language speaker" is a relatively new term to denote minority language speakers who grew up in a household where the language was used or those who have a family, ancestral, or racial connection to the minority language. In research on heritage language speakers, overlap between these 2 definitions is often assumed--that is,…

  18. Fundamental Frequency and Gender Identification in Standard Esophageal and Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellandese, Mary H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between fundamental frequency (Fo) and gender identification in standard esophageal (ES) or tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers. Twenty-three male and 20 female ES and TE speakers participated in this study. Recordings of these speakers reading the Rainbow Passage were played to 48…

  19. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker's native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich…

  20. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  1. A Respirometric Technique to Evaluate Velopharyngeal Function in Speakers with Cleft Palate, with and without Prostheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Harvey R.; Ferrand, Carole T.

    1987-01-01

    Respirometric quotients (RQ), the ratio of oral air volume expended to total volume expended, were obtained from the productions of oral and nasal airflow of 10 speakers with cleft palate, with and without their prosthetic appliances, and 10 normal speakers. Cleft palate speakers without their appliances exhibited the lowest RQ values. (Author/DB)

  2. What's Learned Together Stays Together: Speakers' Choice of Referring Expression Reflects Shared Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Kristen S.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney; Marsh, Chelsea R.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    When referring to named objects, speakers can choose either a name ("mbira") or a description ("that gourd-like instrument with metal strips"); whether the name provides useful information depends on whether the speaker's knowledge of the name is shared with the addressee. But, how do speakers determine what is shared? In 2…

  3. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  4. Prevalence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in certain central Iowa.

    PubMed

    Farrington, D O; Jorgenson, R D

    1976-10-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from 6 of 13 short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 1 of 47 house sparrows (Passer domesticus) trapped in the vicinity of a swine Bordetella rhinitis experimental area. The organism was found in four of 50 foxes (Vulpes fulva), 2 of 36 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) and 1 of 37 raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped in the Ames, Iowa area. This bacterium was not culturally isolated from 14 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), 64 house mice (Mus Musculus), 10 masked shrews (Sorex cinereus) and 54 starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). PMID:16502690

  5. Routine environmental audit of Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains the findings identified during the routine environmental audit of Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa, conducted September 12--23, 1994. The audit included a review of all Ames Laboratory operations and facilities supporting DOE-sponsored activities. The audit`s objective is to advise the Secretary of Energy, through the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, as to the adequacy of the environmental protection programs established at Ames Laboratory to ensure the protection of the environment, and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE requirements.

  6. Scour at a bridge over the Weldon River, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Edward E.

    1993-01-01

    Contraction scour at the State Highway 2 bridge over the Weldon River in south-central Iowa was caused by a flood of record proportions on September 14 and 15, 1992. The peak discharge was 1, 930 cubic meters per second,which was 4 times the probable 100-year flood used to design the bridge, and resulted in road overflow. Contraction scour exposed the pier footings, but a subsurface layer of glacial clay apparently resisted additional vertical scour and caused the scouring process to move laterally. The embankment at the left abutment was eroded away, exposing 3 m of vertical abutment piling.

  7. Successes and Challenges in Implementation of Radon Control Activities in Iowa, 2010–2015

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Anne L.; Miller, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radon gas has recently become more prominent in discussions of lung cancer prevention nationally and in Iowa. A review in 2013 of cancer plans in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program found that 42% of cancer plans, including Iowa’s, had terminology on radon. Plans included awareness activities, home testing, remediation, policy, and policy evaluation. Community Context Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the United States; 70% of homes have radon concentrations above the Environmental Protection Agency’s action levels. Radon control activities in Iowa are led by the Iowa Cancer Consortium, the Iowa Department of Public Health, and the Iowa Radon Coalition. Methods A collaborative approach was used to increase levels of awareness, testing, and (if necessary) mitigation, and to introduce a comprehensive radon control policy in Iowa by engaging partners and stakeholders across the state. Outcome The multipronged approach and collaborative work in Iowa appears to have been successful in increasing awareness: the number of radon tests completed in Iowa increased by 20% from 19,600 in 2009 to 23,500 in 2014, and the number of mitigations completed by certified mitigators increased by 108% from 2,600 to more than 5,400. Interpretation Through collaboration, Iowa communities are engaged in activities that led to increases in awareness, testing, mitigation, and policy. States interested in establishing a similar program should consider a multipronged approach involving multiple entities and stakeholders with different interests and abilities. Improvements in data collection and analysis are necessary to assess impact. PMID:27079648

  8. Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh

    A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.

  9. Flood-plain and channel aggradation of selected bridge sites in the Iowa and Skunk River basins, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Flood-plain and channel-aggradation rates were estimated at 10 bridge sites on the Iowa River upstream of Coralville Lake and at two bridge sites in the central part of the Skunk River Basin. Four measurement methods were used to quantify aggradation rates: (1) a dendrogeomorphic method that used tree-age data and sediment-deposition depths, (2) a bridge-opening cross-section method that compared historic and recent cross sections of bridge openings, (3) a stage-discharge rating-curve method that compared historic and recent stages for the 5-year flood discharge and the average discharge, and (4) nine sediment pads that were installed on the Iowa River flood plain at three bridge sites in the vicinity of Marshalltown. The sediment pads were installed prior to overbank flooding in 1993. Sediments deposited on the pads as a result of the 1993 flood ranged in depth from 0.004 to 2.95 feet. Measurement periods used to estimate average aggradation rates ranged from 1 to 98 years and varied among methods and sites. The highest aggradation rates calculated for the Iowa River Basin using the dendrogeomorphic and rating- curve measurement methods were for the State Highway 14 crossing at Marshalltown, where these highest rates were 0.045 and 0.124 feet per year, respectively. The highest aggradation rates calculated for the Skunk River Basin were for the U.S. Highway 63 crossing of the South Skunk River near Oskaloosa, where these highest rates were 0.051 and 0.298 feet per year, respectively.

  10. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING [VAB] & TOPPING OFF CEREMONIES SPEAKER DR. DEBUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. Kurt H. Debus, KSC's first director, was a major speaker at the ceremonies ''topping off'' the Vehicle Assembly Building on April 14, 1965. A crawler-transporter is at the right. At the time of its completion, the 129 million cubic foot structure was the largest building in the world. Originally designed and built to accommodate the Saturn V/Apollo used in Project Apollo, the VAB was later modified for its role in the Space Shuttle program.

  11. On Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, Carol J., Ed.

    The papers in this volume, read at the second national TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) conference, are grouped by general subject as follows: (1) TESOL as a Professional Field--C.H. Prator, J.M. Cowan, T.W. Russell, J.E. Alatis; (2) Reports on Special Programs--H. Thompson, A.D. Nance, D. Pantell, P. Rojas, R.F. Robinett,…

  12. On Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Series I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Virginia French, Ed.

    The contents of this volume, a compilation of papers read at the first conference of TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages), are grouped according to general subject and authors: (1) TESOL as a Professional Field--A.H. Marckwardt, F.J. Colligan, W.F. Marquardt; (2) Reports on Special Programs--J.E. Officer, R.B. Long, M.C.…

  13. Identifying the Attended Speaker Using Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Signals

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, K.; Brunner, P.; Gunduz, A.; Coon, W.; Ritaccio, A.L.; Farquhar, J.; Schalk, G.

    2015-01-01

    People affected by severe neuro-degenerative diseases (e.g., late-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or locked-in syndrome) eventually lose all muscular control. Thus, they cannot use traditional assistive communication devices that depend on muscle control, or brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that depend on the ability to control gaze. While auditory and tactile BCIs can provide communication to such individuals, their use typically entails an artificial mapping between the stimulus and the communication intent. This makes these BCIs difficult to learn and use. In this study, we investigated the use of selective auditory attention to natural speech as an avenue for BCI communication. In this approach, the user communicates by directing his/her attention to one of two simultaneously presented speakers. We used electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals in the gamma band (70–170 Hz) to infer the identity of attended speaker, thereby removing the need to learn such an artificial mapping. Our results from twelve human subjects show that a single cortical location over superior temporal gyrus or pre-motor cortex is typically sufficient to identify the attended speaker within 10 s and with 77% accuracy (50% accuracy due to chance). These results lay the groundwork for future studies that may determine the real-time performance of BCIs based on selective auditory attention to speech. PMID:26949710

  14. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker.

    PubMed

    Druks, Judit; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The convergence hypothesis [Green, D. W. (2003). The neural basis of the lexicon and the grammar in L2 acquisition: The convergence hypothesis. In R. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken, & R. Towell (Eds.), The interface between syntax and the lexicon in second language acquisition (pp. 197-218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins] assumes that the neural substrates of language representations are shared between the languages of a bilingual speaker. One prediction of this hypothesis is that neurodegenerative disease should produce parallel deterioration to lexical and grammatical processing in bilingual aphasia. We tested this prediction with a late bilingual Hungarian (first language, L1)-English (second language, L2) speaker J.B. who had nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA). J.B. had acquired L2 in adolescence but was premorbidly proficient and used English as his dominant language throughout adult life. Our investigations showed comparable deterioration to lexical and grammatical knowledge in both languages during a one-year period. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker with NFPA challenges the assumption that L1 and L2 rely on different brain mechanisms as assumed in some theories of bilingual language processing [Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122]. PMID:24527801

  15. Rationales for indirect speech: the theory of the strategic speaker.

    PubMed

    Lee, James J; Pinker, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as Would you like to see my etchings? Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the strategic speaker, who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or antagonistic. A paradigm case is bribing a policeman who may be corrupt or honest: A veiled bribe may be accepted by the former and ignored by the latter. Everyday social interactions can have a similar payoff structure (with emotional rather than legal penalties) whenever a request is implicitly forbidden by the relational model holding between speaker and hearer (e.g., bribing an honest maitre d', where the reciprocity of the bribe clashes with his authority). Even when a hearer's willingness is known, indirect speech offers higher-order plausible deniability by preempting certainty, gossip, and common knowledge of the request. In supporting experiments, participants judged the intentions and reactions of characters in scenarios that involved fraught requests varying in politeness and directness. PMID:20658853

  16. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    PubMed

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use.

  17. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker.

    PubMed

    Druks, Judit; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The convergence hypothesis [Green, D. W. (2003). The neural basis of the lexicon and the grammar in L2 acquisition: The convergence hypothesis. In R. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken, & R. Towell (Eds.), The interface between syntax and the lexicon in second language acquisition (pp. 197-218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins] assumes that the neural substrates of language representations are shared between the languages of a bilingual speaker. One prediction of this hypothesis is that neurodegenerative disease should produce parallel deterioration to lexical and grammatical processing in bilingual aphasia. We tested this prediction with a late bilingual Hungarian (first language, L1)-English (second language, L2) speaker J.B. who had nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA). J.B. had acquired L2 in adolescence but was premorbidly proficient and used English as his dominant language throughout adult life. Our investigations showed comparable deterioration to lexical and grammatical knowledge in both languages during a one-year period. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker with NFPA challenges the assumption that L1 and L2 rely on different brain mechanisms as assumed in some theories of bilingual language processing [Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122].

  18. Speakers urge a unified approach to mitigating natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    On November 3, while wildfires consumed acres of coastal land in California, the U.S. Natural Hazards Symposium in Washington, D.C., addressed the threat of natural hazards in the United States, disaster mitigation and recovery, and the need to consider natural hazards in land development plans. Several of the scheduled speakers were unable to participate because they were called to California to investigate the fires, including keynote speaker James Witt, the new director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).Substitute keynote speaker Harvey Ryland, Witt's senior adviser at FEMA, emphasized that “we must sell mitigation as an effective means of protecting people and property.” He discussed FEMA's new “National Mitigation Strategy,” which will serve as the basis for its emergency management program. The strategy is expected to be in place by January 1995. As part of the approach, FEMA will establish a mitigation directorate to organize various disaster mitigation efforts in one office. Ryland also discussed the idea of creating risk reduction enterprise zones, designated high risk areas that would offer incentives to property owners who take proper mitigation measures. “Such incentives would be offset by reduced disaster assistance costs,” Ryland added.

  19. Modeling groundwater nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David C; Nolan, Bernard T; Flory, Abigail R; DellaValle, Curt T; Ward, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is a growing problem in many agricultural areas of the country. Ingested nitrate can lead to the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, potent carcinogens. We developed a predictive model for nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa. Using 34,084 measurements of nitrate in private wells, we trained and tested random forest models to predict log nitrate levels by systematically assessing the predictive performance of 179 variables in 36 thematic groups (well depth, distance to sinkholes, location, land use, soil characteristics, nitrogen inputs, meteorology, and other factors). The final model contained 66 variables in 17 groups. Some of the most important variables were well depth, slope length within 1 km of the well, year of sample, and distance to nearest animal feeding operation. The correlation between observed and estimated nitrate concentrations was excellent in the training set (r-square=0.77) and was acceptable in the testing set (r-square=0.38). The random forest model had substantially better predictive performance than a traditional linear regression model or a regression tree. Our model will be used to investigate the association between nitrate levels in drinking water and cancer risk in the Iowa participants of the Agricultural Health Study cohort.

  20. Modeling groundwater nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David C; Nolan, Bernard T; Flory, Abigail R; DellaValle, Curt T; Ward, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is a growing problem in many agricultural areas of the country. Ingested nitrate can lead to the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, potent carcinogens. We developed a predictive model for nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa. Using 34,084 measurements of nitrate in private wells, we trained and tested random forest models to predict log nitrate levels by systematically assessing the predictive performance of 179 variables in 36 thematic groups (well depth, distance to sinkholes, location, land use, soil characteristics, nitrogen inputs, meteorology, and other factors). The final model contained 66 variables in 17 groups. Some of the most important variables were well depth, slope length within 1 km of the well, year of sample, and distance to nearest animal feeding operation. The correlation between observed and estimated nitrate concentrations was excellent in the training set (r-square=0.77) and was acceptable in the testing set (r-square=0.38). The random forest model had substantially better predictive performance than a traditional linear regression model or a regression tree. Our model will be used to investigate the association between nitrate levels in drinking water and cancer risk in the Iowa participants of the Agricultural Health Study cohort. PMID:26232757