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Sample records for ir multiple-photon excitation

  1. Multiple-photon excitation and dissociation of polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book is Volume 35 in Springer's Topics in Current Physics series designed to provide the interested reader perspective on a rapidly developing research field by gathering together review articles by major players. The editor has accurately highlighted the major results of the multiple-photon excitation (MPE) shock wave of research activity that propagated through the gas-phase chemical physics community during the 1970's. Throughout this period three questions intrigued the photochemists: (1) how is it possible that virtually any polyatomic molecule can efficiently absorb scores of infrared photons from a pulsed CO/sub 2/ TEA laser to achieve bond fission. (2) can insight into the dissociation dynamic be gained from this process, and in particular can bonds be made to break selectively. (3) could MPE be used to separate heavy isotopes. The answers to the first two questions are thoroughly examined and answered in the excellent review by Y.T. Lee et al., which itself is worth the price of the book. The question of isotope separation is discussed in two articles, one by Ambartzumian and the other by Cantrell. However, the recent glut of cheap uranium on world energy markets and the decision of DOE to develop atomic multiphoton ionization as the process of choice have resulted in a rapid deflation of interest in MPE separation schemes.

  2. Chaos and incoherence in a classical rotation-vibration model of infrared multiple-photon excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerhalt, J.R.; Milonni, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    By including rotations in a previously developed generic vibrational model of ir multiple-photon excitation (MPE) (Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1259 (1983) and Phys. Rev. A 34, 1211 (1986)) it is found that the combination of chaotic dynamics and rotational averaging leads to fluence-dependent absorption and removes the sensitivity of the results to model-dependent parameters. Therefore, a complete propagation calculation through a molecular medium of this type would show a Beer's law absorption of photons consistent with the vast majority of MPE experiments performed to date, a result which previously was attributed to rate-equation dynamics in the molecular quasicontinuum. In addition, the classical rotation-vibration dynamics observed in this model correlate very well with one's quantum intuition based on a molecule's P-, Q-, and R-branch structure and on the red shift of the vibrational absorption feature with excitation.

  3. Intensity-resolved IR multiple photon ionization and fragmentation of C60.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Joost M; Lapoutre, Vivike J F; Redlich, Britta; Oomens, Jos; Sartakov, Boris G; Fielicke, André; von Helden, Gert; Meijer, Gerard; van der Meer, Alexander F G

    2010-02-21

    The sequential absorption of multiple infrared (IR) photons by isolated gas-phase species can lead to their dissociation and/or ionization. Using the newly constructed "Free-Electron Laser for IntraCavity Experiments" (FELICE) beam line at the FELIX facility, neutral C(60) molecules have been exposed to an extremely high number (approximately 10(23)) of photons/cm(2) for a total time duration of up to 5 micros. At wavelengths around 20 microm, resonant with allowed IR transitions of C(60), ionization and extensive fragmentation of the fullerenes are observed. The resulting photofragment distributions are attributed to absorption in fragmentation products formed once C(60) is excited to internal energies at which fragmentation or ionization takes place within the duration of the laser pulse. The high IR intensities available combined with the large interaction volume permit spatially resolved detection of the ions inside the laser beam, thereby disentangling the contributions from different IR intensities. The use of spatial imaging reveals intensity dependent mass distributions that are substantially narrower than what has been observed previously, indicating rather narrow energy distributions. A simple rate-equation modeling of the excitation process supports the experimental observations.

  4. Multiple-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wokosin, David L.; Centonze, Victoria F.; White, John G.; Hird, Steven N.; Sepsenwol, S.; Malcolm, Graeme P. A.; Maker, Gareth T.; Ferguson, Allister I.

    1996-05-01

    Two-photon excitation imaging is a recently described optical sectioning technique where fluorophore excitation is confined to--and therefore defines--the optical section being observed. This characteristic offers a significant advantage over laser-scanning confocal microscopy; the volume of fluorophore excited in the minimum necessary for imaging, thereby minimizing the destructive effects of fluorophore excitation in living tissues. In addition, a confocal pinhole is not required for optical scattering--thus further reducing the excitation needed for efficient photon collection. We have set up a two-photon excitation imaging system which uses an all-solid-state, short-pulse, long-wavelength laser as an excitation source. The source is a diode-pumped, mode-locked Nd:YLF laser operating in the infrared (1047 nm). This laser is small, has modest power requirements, and has proven reliable and stable in operation. The short laser pulses from the laser are affected by the system optical path; this has been investigated with second harmonic generation derived from a nonlinear crystal. The system has been specifically designed for the study of live biological specimens. Two cell types especially sensitive to high-energy illumination, the developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryo and the crawling sperm of the nematode, Ascaris, were used to demonstrate the dramatic increase in viability when fluorescence is generated by two-photon excitation. The system has the capability of switching between two-photon and confocal imaging modes to facilitate direct comparison of theory of these two optical sectioning techniques on the same specimen. A heavily stained zebra fish embryo was used to demonstrate the increase in sectioning depth when fluorescence is generated by infrared two- photon excitation. Two-photon excitation with the 1047 nm laser produces bright images with a variety of red emitting fluorophores, and some green emitting fluorophores, commonly used in biological

  5. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Jensen, Reed J.; Lyman, John L.; Aldridge, III, Jack P.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, in the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  6. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Rockwood, S.D.; Jensen, R.J.; Lyman, J.L.; Aldridge, J.P. III.

    1987-04-07

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO[sub 2] laser light may be used to highly enrich [sup 34]S in natural SF[sub 6] and [sup 11]B in natural BCl[sub 3]. 8 figs.

  7. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Jensen, Reed J.; Lyman, John L.; Aldridge, III, Jack P.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  8. CO excitation in four IR luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, Simon J. E.; Solomon, P. M.; Downes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The correlation between the CO and far infrared luminosities of spiral galaxies is well established. The luminosity ration, L sub FIR/L sub CO in IR luminous active galaxies is, however, systematically five to ten times higher than in ordinary spirals and molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Furthermore, the masses of molecular hydrogen in luminous galaxies are large, M (H2) approx. equals 10(exp 10) solar magnitude, which indicates the observed luminosity ratios are due to an excess of infrared output, rather than a deficiency of molecular gas. These large amounts of molecular gas may fuel luminous galaxies through either star formation or nuclear activity. This interpretation rests on applying the M (H2)/L sub CO ratio calibrated in our Galaxy to galaxies with strikingly different luminosity ratios. But are the physical conditions of the molecular gas different in galaxies with different luminosity ratios. And, if so, does the proportionality between CO and H2 also vary among galaxies. To investigate these questions researchers observed CO (2 to 1) and (1 to 0) emission from four luminous galaxies with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Researchers conclude that most of the CO emission from these Arp 193, Arp 220, and Mrk 231 arises in regions with moderate ambient densities similar to the clouds in the Milky Way molecular ring. The emission is neither from dense hot cloud cores nor from the cold low density gas characteristic of the envelopes of dark clouds.

  9. Neuron absorption study and mid-IR optical excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Vadala, Shilpa; Leach, Jennie; Kostov, Yordan; Bewley, William W.; Kim, Chul-Soo; Kim, Mijin; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Merritt, Charles D.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2012-02-01

    Neuronal optical excitation can provide non-contacting tools to explore brain circuitry and a durable stimulation interface for cardiac pacing and visual as well as auditory sensory neuronal stimulation. To obtain accurate absorption spectra, we scan the transmission of neurons in cell culture medium, and normalize it by subtracting out the absorption spectrum of the medium alone. The resulting spectra show that the main neuronal absorption peaks are in the 3000- 6000nm band, although there is a smaller peak near 1450nm. By coupling the output of a 3μm interband cascade laser (ICL) into a mid-IR fluorozirconate fiber, we can effectively deliver more than 1J/cm2 photon intensity to the excitation site for neuronal stimulation.

  10. A combined IR/IR and IR/UV spectroscopy study on the proton transfer coordinate of isolated 3-hydroxychromone in the electronic ground and excited state.

    PubMed

    Stamm, A; Weiler, M; Brächer, A; Schwing, K; Gerhards, M

    2014-10-21

    In this paper the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) of isolated 3-hydroxychromone (3-HC), the prototype of the flavonols, is investigated for the first time by combined IR/UV spectroscopy in molecular beam experiments. The IR/UV investigations are performed both for the electronically excited and electronic ground state indicating a spectral overlap of transitions of the 3-HC monomer and clusters with water in the electronic ground state, whereas in the excited state only the IR frequencies of the proton-transferred monomer structure are observed. Due to the loss of isomer and species selectivity with respect to the UV excitations IR/IR techniques are applied in order to figure out the assignment of the vibrational transitions in the S0 state. In this context the quadruple resonance IR/UV/IR/UV technique (originally developed to distinguish different isomers in the electronically excited state) could be applied to identify the OH stretching vibration of the monomer in the electronic ground state. In agreement with calculations the OH stretching frequency differs significantly from the corresponding values of substituted hydroxychromones.

  11. Anisotropic softening of magnetic excitations in lightly electron-doped Sr2IrO4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Meng, Z. Y.; Upton, M. H.; Qi, T.; Gog, T.; Cao, Y.; Lin, J. Q.; Meyers, D.; Ding, H.; et al

    2016-06-10

    The magnetic excitations in electron doped (Sr1-xLax)2IrO4 with x = 0:03 were measured using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at the Ir L3-edge. Although much broadened, well defined dispersive magnetic excitations were observed. Comparing with the magnetic dispersion from the undoped compound, the evolution of the magnetic excitations upon doping is highly anisotropic. Along the anti-nodal direction, the dispersion is almost intact. On the other hand, the magnetic excitations along the nodal direction show significant softening. These results establish the presence of strong magnetic correlations in electron doped (Sr1-xLax)2IrO4 with close analogies to the hole doped cuprates, further motivating the searchmore » for high temperature superconductivity in this system.« less

  12. Optical detection of photoproducts using a pulsed supersonic molecular beam: Application to intramolecular V ⇆ E coupling in IR laser excited polyatomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, T. A.; Mangir, M.; Wittig, C.; Levy, Martin R.

    1981-12-01

    It is well established that electronic emission often accompanies the IR multiple photon excitation of polyatomic species in the presence of a strong electromagnetic field. We have used a pulsed supersonic molecular beam arrangement to study this phenomenon for the case when propenenitrile is irradiated with the focused output from a TEA CO2 laser. Electronically excited species prepared in this way have long spontaneous emission lifetimes and can therefore be detected, via their emission, downstream from the intersection of the laser and molecular beam axes. By measuring time of flight and angular distributions, we can obtain the center-of-mass recoil velocity distribution of the emitting species. For the case of propenenitrile, the recoil velocity distribution is peaked at 250 m s-1 with a width of approximately 200 m s-1. Details of the multistep dissociation process are discussed, and we conclude that H2 molecular elimination precedes formation of the emitting species, which is either C2HCN or C2CN.

  13. Communication: IR spectroscopy of neutral transition metal clusters through thermionic emission.

    PubMed

    Lapoutre, Vivike J F; Haertelt, Marko; Meijer, Gerard; Fielicke, André; Bakker, Joost M

    2013-09-28

    The resonant multiple photon excitation of neutral niobium clusters using tunable infrared (IR) radiation leads to thermionic emission. By measuring the mass-resolved ionization yield as a function of IR wavenumber species selective IR spectra are obtained for Nb(n) (n = 5-20) over the 200-350 cm(-1) spectral range. The IR resonance-enhanced multiple photon ionization spectra obtained this way are in good agreement with those measured using IR photodissociation of neutral Nb(n)-Ar clusters. An investigation of the factors determining the applicability of this technique identifies the internal energy threshold towards thermionic emission in combination with a minimum required photon flux that rapidly grows as a function of excitation wavelength.

  14. Transitions between the 4 f -core-excited states in Ir16+, Ir17+, and Ir18+ ions for clock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Flambaum, V. V.; Safronova, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    Iridium ions near 4 f - 5 s level crossings are the leading candidates for a new type of atomic clocks with a high projected accuracy and a very high sensitivity to the temporal variation of the fine structure constant α. To identify spectra of these ions in experiment accurate calculations of the spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities should be performed. Properties of the 4 f -core-excited states in Ir16+, Ir17+, and Ir18+ ions are evaluated using relativistic many-body perturbation theory and Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method (COWAN code). We evaluate excitation energies, wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates. Our large-scale calculations included the following set of configurations: 4f14 5 s , 4f14 5 p , 4f13 5s2 , 4f13 5p2 , 4f13 5 s 5 p , 4f12 5s2 5 p , and 4f12 5 s 5p2 in Pm-like Ir16+ ; 4f14 , 4f13 5 s , 4f13 5 p , 4f12 5s2 , 4f12 5 s 5 p , and 4f12 5p2 in Nd-like Ir17+; and 4f13 , 4f12 5 s , 4f12 5 p , 4f11 5s2 , and 4f11 5 s 5 p in Pr-like Ir18+. The 5 s - 5 p transitions are illustrated by the synthetic spectra in the 180 - 200 Å range. Large contributions of magnetic-dipole transitions to lifetimes of low-lying states in the region 2.5 Ry.

  15. Conformality or confinement: (IR)relevance of topological excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    What distinguishes two asymptotically-free non-abelian gauge theories on R{sup 4}, one of which is just below the conformal window boundary and confines, while the other is slightly above the boundary and flows to an infrared conformal field theory? In this work, we aim to answer this question for non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories with fermions in arbitrary chiral or vectorlike representations. We use the presence or absence of mass gap for gauge fluctuations as an identifier of the infrared behavior. With the present-day understanding of such gauge theories, the mass gap for gauge fluctuations cannot be computed on R{sup 4}. However, recent progress allows its non-perturbative computation on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1} by using either the twisted partition function or deformation theory, for a range of sizes of S{sup 1} depending on the theory. For small number of fermions, N{sub f}, we show that the mass gap increases with increasing radius, due to the non-dilution of monopoles and bions - the topological excitations relevant for confinement on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1}. For sufficiently large N{sub f}, we show that the mass gap decreases with increasing radius. In a class of theories, we claim that the decompactification limit can be taken while remaining within the region of validity of semiclassical techniques, giving the first examples of semiclassically solvable Yang-Mills theories at any size S{sup 1}. For general non-supersymmetric vectorlike or chiral theories, we conjecture that the change in the behavior of the mass gap on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1} as a function of the radius occurs near the lower boundary of the conformal window and give non-perturbative estimates of its value. For vectorlike theories, we compare our estimates of the conformal window with existing lattice results, truncations of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, NSVZ beta function-inspired estimates, and degree of freedom counting criteria. For multi-generation chiral gauge theories, to the best of our

  16. Vortexlike excitations in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeIrIn5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yongkang; Rosa, P. F. S.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    We report a systematic study of temperature- and field-dependent charge (ρ ) and entropy (S ) transport in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeIrIn5. Its large positive thermopower Sx x is typical of Ce-based Kondo lattice systems, and strong electronic correlations play an important role in enhancing the Nernst signal Sx y. By separating the off-diagonal Peltier coefficient αx y from Sx y, we find that αx y becomes positive and greatly enhanced at temperatures well above the bulk Tc. Compared with the nonmagnetic analog LaIrIn5, these results suggest vortexlike excitations in a precursor state to unconventional superconductivity in CeIrIn5. This study sheds light on the similarity of heavy-fermion and cuprate superconductors and on the possibility of states not characterized by the amplitude of an order parameter.

  17. Vortexlike excitations in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeIrIn5

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Luo, Yongkang; Rosa, P. F. S.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2016-05-05

    Here, we report a systematic study of temperature- and field-dependent charge (ρ) and entropy (S) transport in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeIrIn5. Its large positive thermopower Sxx is typical of Ce-based Kondo lattice systems, and strong electronic correlations play an important role in enhancing the Nernst signal Sxy. By separating the off-diagonal Peltier coefficient αxy from Sxy, we find that αxy becomes positive and greatly enhanced at temperatures well above the bulk Tc. Compared with the nonmagnetic analog LaIrIn5, these results suggest vortexlike excitations in a precursor state to unconventional superconductivity in CeIrIn5. This study sheds light on the similarity ofmore » heavy-fermion and cuprate superconductors and on the possibility of states not characterized by the amplitude of an order parameter.« less

  18. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-02-18

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components.

  19. Infrared FEL photochemistry: Multiple-photon dissociation of Freon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Newnam, B.E.; Early, J.W.; Lyman, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wavelength tunability, synchrotron sidebands, and picosecond pulse structure are inherent FEL characteristics that should be advantageous for photochemistry involving infrared multiple-photon photodissociation. Tuned to an absorption resonance, the FEL sideband structure will overlap the broad, excited-state spectral absorption and should lead to enhanced dissociation. The Los Alamos APEX FEL was operated with and without sidebands to test this hypothesis on CFCl{sub 3} (Freon 11), an inert chlorofluorocarbon widely used in refrigeration systems and one of the gases implicated as depleting the ozone in the Earth`s stratospheric layer. The FEL wavelength was set at the C-Cl stretch absorption resonance at 11.8-{mu}m, the oscillator cavity length was detuned first to minimize and then to maximize the spectral bandwidth, and the beam was focused through a pair of test cells (1.0 Torr Freon+1.7 Torr air). Comparison of final and initial absorbance spectra indicated the CFCl{sub 3} photodissociation yield was 1.2% for the cell exposed with sideband spectra (3% FWHM) and 9-ns micropulse separation. Negligible effect was seen without sidebands, albeit at lower total beam fluence. Although the result of this single experiment is not large enough to be conclusive, it does provide a basis for optimizing the FEL temporal and spectral parameters to attain higher photodissociation yield in future tests.

  20. IR excitation of contaminant water by oxygen for the space shuttle at low Earth orbit altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, D. K.; Pendleton, W. R., Jr.; Bingham, G. E.; Thompson, D. C.; Raitt, W. J.; Nadile, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    As the water outgas of a space shuttle passes through the rarefied atmosphere at orbital altitude, collisions occur between the gases with sufficient energy to excite infrared-active water molecules to various vibrational and rotational states. An infrared contaminant model (IR model) has been developed to study the shuttle-induced excitation and emission of water molecules outgassed from the space shuttle. The focus of the first application of the model is translation-to-vibration (T-V) energy transfer since estimates suggest that this process should dominate the production of vibrationally excited H2O under typical low Earth orbit conditions. Using the velocity and position distribution functions of interacting neutral gases obtained from a neutral gases interaction model, the spatial distributions of excitation and IR radiation from contaminant water are computed, and typical results are presented. Infrared spectral data (450 - 2500/cm), measured by the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) sensor on STS-39 (April 28 to May 6, 1991) at an altitude near 265 km, are used to test model predictions. The dependence of the radiant emission structure and brightness on outgassing rates and altitudes is discussed. The time history of the contaminant water outgassing rate is inferred for STS-39, and it is compared with the mass-spectrometer-based results for STS-4 (June 26 to July 4, 1982). Also, estimates of H2O column density at mission elapsed time (MET) 50 hours are compared for missions STS-2, STS-3, STS-4, and STS-39.

  1. Resonant Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy of Anionic Nucleotide Monophosphate Clusters.

    PubMed

    Ligare, Marshall R; Rijs, Anouk M; Berden, Giel; Kabeláč, Martin; Nachtigallova, Dana; Oomens, Jos; de Vries, Mattanjah S

    2015-06-25

    We report mid-infrared spectra and potential energy surfaces of four anionic, 2'-deoxynucleotide-5'-monophosphates (dNMPs) and the ionic DNA pairs [dGMP-dCMP-H](1-), [dAMP-dTMP-H](1-) with a total charge of the complex equal to -1. We recorded IR action spectra by resonant IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) using the FELIX free electron laser. The potential energy surface study employed an on-the-fly molecular dynamics quenching method (MD/Q), using a semiempirical AM1 method, followed by an optimization of the most stable structures using density functional theory. By employing infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in combination with high-level computational methods, we aim at a better understanding of the hydrogen bonding competition between the phosphate moieties and the nucleobases. We find that, unlike in multimer double stranded DNA structures, the hydrogen bonds in these isolated nucleotide pairs are predominantly formed between the phosphate groups. This intermolecular interaction appears to exceed the stabilization energy resulting from base pairing and directs the overall cluster structure and alignment.

  2. Photo-redox activated drug delivery systems operating under two photon excitation in the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M.; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Vabre, Jean-Marie; Pecorelli, Travis A.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2014-04-01

    We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by ``snap-top'' caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the ``snap-top'' release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy.We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by ``snap-top'' caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the ``snap-top'' release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ssNMR, UV-vis spectra of 2PNT, pXRD, synthesis of 2PNT. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06155h

  3. Chemical reactions between CF2HCl and NH3 induced by IR double-beam excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigüenza, C. L.; Simeonov, S. A.; Díaz, L.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    1993-06-01

    Infrared multiphoton dissociation experiments with two wavelengths in different mixtures of chlorodifluoromethane and ammonia have been carried out. It is shown that the presence of ammonia in the sample induces a decrease in the chlorodifluoromethane dissociation yield. It has been observed that the distinct chemical reaction channels are differently activated as the time delay between the two laser pulses is varied. The ratio of the obtained products in the infrared multiphoton dissociation changes with the composition of the initial mixture and are not compatible with the mechanism suggested by Sugita and Arai for this reaction in single IR wavelength excitation if it is assumed to be the only contributing mechanism other than that for direct CF2HCl dissociation and subsequent C2F4 formation from the resulting CF2 radicals. It appears that, although for simultaneous two-wavelength irradiation the presence of an accumulated solid NH4Cl deposit does not significantly influence the reaction, this is no longer the case when time delays are introduced between the two beams.

  4. Assignments of Lowest Triplet State in Ir Complexes by Observation of Phosphorescence Excitation Spectra at 6 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodate, Satoshi; Suzuka, Isamu

    2006-01-01

    We tried the assignment of the origin of phosphorescent bands in Ir complexes. It is important to elucidate the luminescent mechanism in order to design organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) besed on new materials. The Stokes shift between the phosphorescence and phosphorescence excitation spectra of Ir complexes such as fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)3], fac-tris(2-(2-thienyl)pyridine) iridium(III) [Ir(thpy)3], bis(2-phenylpyridine) iridium(III)benzo[h]quinoline [Ir(ppy)2bzq], fac-tris(benzo[h]quinoline) iridium(III) [Ir(bzq)3] and bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato](picolinato) iridium(III) [FIrpic] was measured in a solution and (phenyl)4Sn at 6 K. The amount of Stokes shift corresponds to the nature of the lowest triplet state. We discovered that the amount of Stokes shift clearly differs depending on whether the lowest triplet state of each Ir complex is triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) or 3π-π*. Namely, the case of 3MLCT shows a large shift, while the case of 3π-π* shows a small shift. We also present the resolved phosphorescence and phosphorescence excitation spectra of Ir complexes in (phenyl)4Sn. The sharp bands were assigned to the 3π-π* transition, and the broad bands were assigned to the 3MLCT state. The nature of the lowest triplet state is also discussed on the basis of resolved spectra.

  5. Magnetic excitations and lattice distortions in highly-doped (Sr1-xLax)3 Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tom; Upton, Mary; Wang, Xiaoping; Wilson, Stephen

    (Sr1-xLa,SUBx)3Ir2O7 has been shown to undergo a first-order phase transition from a localized antiferromagnetic insulating state to a correlated metal. We discuss the further characterization of these correlations by examining the excitation spectra of a highly-doped sample. These reveal evidence of a dispersive feature associated with an over-damped magnon mode, similar to the behavior of the undoped parent compound, as well as a higher energy excitation. The nature of the lattice distortion brought on by La-doping will also be discussed.

  6. Prediction and identification of multiple-photon resonant ionization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.; Donohue, D.L.

    1988-08-01

    Many single-color, multiple-photon transitions leading to ionization are observed for lanthanide and actinide elements in experiments using resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). It is desirable both to identify the energy levels involved in observed transitions and to be able to predict in advance their location. A computer code, ETRANS, has been written to perform these functions. Examples of both types of operation are given.

  7. On the biphoton excitation of the fluorescence of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules of purple photosynthetic bacteria by powerful near IR femto-picosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, A. Yu.

    2011-11-15

    The authors of a number of experimental works detected nonresonance biphoton excitation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which represent the main pigment in the light-absorbing natural 'antenna' complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm). They believe that IR quanta excite hypothetic forbidden levels of the pigments of these bacteria in the double frequency range 625-750 nm. We propose and ground an alternative triplet mechanism to describe this phenomenon. According to our hypothesis, the mechanism of biphoton excitation of molecules by IR quanta can manifest itself specifically, through high triplet levels of molecules in the high fields induced by femtosecond-picosecond laser pulses.

  8. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Jaouen, N.; Nicolaou, A.; Yin, W. G.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Ramesh, R.; Ding, H.; et al

    2015-04-28

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr₂IrO₄, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edgemore » RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.« less

  9. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Jaouen, N.; Nicolaou, A.; Yin, W. G.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Ramesh, R.; Ding, H.; Hill, J. P.

    2015-04-28

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr₂IrO₄, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.

  10. Strategic modulation of the photonic properties of conjugated organometallic Pt-Ir polymers exhibiting hybrid CT-excited states.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Zysman-Colman, Eli; Harvey, Pierre D

    2015-04-01

    Polymer 6, ([trans-Pt(PBu3 )2 (C≡C)2 ]-[Ir(dFMeppy)2 (N^N)](PF6 ))n , (([Pt]-[Ir](PF6 ))n ; N^N = 5,5'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridyl; dFMeppy = 2-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-5-methylpyridine) is prepared along with model compounds. These complexes are investigated by absorption and emission spectroscopy and their photophysical and electrochemical properties are measured and compared with their corresponding non fluorinated complexes. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT computations corroborate the nature of the excited state as being a hybrid between the metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((1,3) MLCT) for the trans-Pt(PBu3 )2 (C≡CAr)2 unit, [Pt] and the metal-to-ligand/ligand-to-ligand' charge transfer ((1,3) ML'CT/LL'CT) for [Ir] with L = dFMeppy. Overall, the fluorination of the phenylpyridine group expectedly does not change the nature of the excited state but desirably induces a small blue shift of the absorption and emission bands along a slight decrease in emission quantum yields and lifetimes.

  11. Understanding THz and IR signals beneath time-resolved fluorescence from excited-state ab initio dynamics.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Alessio; Donati, Greta; Caruso, Pasquale; Rega, Nadia

    2014-10-22

    The detailed interpretation of time-resolved spectroscopic signals in terms of the molecular rearrangement during a photoreaction or a photophysical event is one of the most important challenges of both experimental and theoretical chemistry. Here we simulate a time-resolved fluorescence spectrum of a dye in aqueous solution, the N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine, and analyze it in terms of far IR and THz frequency contributions, providing a direct connection to specific molecular motions. To obtain this result, we build up an innovative and general approach based on excited state ab-initio molecular dynamics and a wavelet-based time-dependent frequency analysis of nonstationary signals. We obtain a nice agreement with key parameters of the solvent dynamics, such as the total Stokes shift and the Stokes shift relaxation times. As an important finding, we observe a strong change of specific solute-solvent interactions upon the electronic excitation, with the migration of about 1.5 water molecules from the first solvation shell toward the bulk. In spite of this event, the Stokes shift dynamics is ruled by collective solvent motions in the THz and far IR, which guide and modulate the strong rearrangement of the dye microsolvation. By the relaxation of THz and IR contributions to the emission signal, we can follow and understand in detail the molecularity of the process. The protocol presented here is, in principle, transferable to other time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. PMID:25243826

  12. Photonics of a conjugated organometallic Pt-Ir polymer and its model compounds exhibiting hybrid CT excited states.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Fortin, Daniel; Zysman-Colman, Eli; Harvey, Pierre D

    2012-04-13

    Trans- dichlorobis(tri-n-butylphosphine)platinum(II) reacts with bis(2- phenylpyridinato)-(5,5'-diethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(III) hexafluorophosphate to form the luminescent conjugated polymer poly[trans-[(5,5'-ethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine)bis(2- phenylpyridinato)-iridium(III)]bis(tri-n-butylphosphine)platinum(II)] hexafluorophosphate ([Pt]-[Ir])n. Gel permeation chromatography indicates a degree of polymerization of 9 inferring the presence of an oligomer. Comparison of the absorption and emission band positions and their temperature dependence, emission quantum yields, and lifetimes with those for models containing only the [Pt] or the [Ir] units indicates hybrid excited states including features from both chromophores.

  13. Ultrafast IR spectroscopy of the short-lived transients formed by UV excitation of cytosine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Susan; Doorley, Gerard W; Watson, Graeme W; Cowan, Alexander J; George, Michael W; Parker, Anthony W; Ronayne, Kate L; Towrie, Michael; Kelly, John M

    2007-06-01

    A strong infrared band at 1574 cm(-1) is observed following 267 nm excitation of 2'-deoxycytidine (tau = 37 +/- 4 ps) or 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate (tau = 33 +/- 4 ps); this band is provisionally attributed to an 1n(N)pi* state and is absent for cytosine.

  14. Middle UV to near-IR spectrum of electron-excited SO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ajello, J.M.; Aguilar, A.; Mangina, R.S.; James, G.K.; Geissler, P.; Trafton, L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the electron impact–induced fluorescence spectrum of SO2 to provide excitation cross sections for modeling Io's emission spectrum and analyzing Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem observations. The electron-excited middle-ultraviolet visible optical near-infrared (VOIR) emission spectrum of SO2 gas was generated in the laboratory and studied from 2000 to 11,000 Å at a resolution of Δλ ∼ 2.5 Å full width at half maximum (FWHM). The VOIR laboratory spectrum longward of 6000 Å consists entirely of S I, II and O I, II multiplets for electron impact energies above ∼15 eV. Between 2000 and 6000 Å, we find previously identified molecular bands from both SO and SO2. This work represents a significant improvement in spectral resolution over our earlier work done at 18 Å FWHM. From a measurement of the medium-resolution spectrum, we provide detailed 25- and 100-eV emission cross sections for spectral features from 2000 to 11,000 Å. On the basis of these data, we suggest future ground-based and satellite telescopic observations in the VOIR that are of promise for understanding Io's atmosphere.

  15. Single photon infrared emission spectroscopy: a study of IR emission from UV laser excited PAHs between 3 and 15 micrometers.

    PubMed

    Cook, D J; Schlemmer, S; Balucani, N; Wagner, D R; Harrison, J A; Steiner, B; Saykally, R J

    1998-02-26

    Single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy (SPIRES) has been used to measure emission spectra from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A supersonic free-jet expansion has been used to provide emission spectra of rotationally cold and vibrationally excited naphthalene and benzene. Under these conditions, the observed width of the 3.3-micrometers (C-H stretch) band resembles the bandwidths observed in experiments in which emission is observed from naphthalene with higher rotational energy. To obtain complete coverage of IR wavelengths relevant to the unidentified infrared bands (UIRs), UV laser-induced desorption was used to generate gas-phase highly excited PAHs. Lorentzian band shapes were convoluted with the monochromator-slit function in order to determine the widths of PAH emission bands under astrophysically relevant conditions. Bandwidths were also extracted from bands consisting of multiple normal modes blended together. These parameters are grouped according to the functional groups mostly involved in the vibration, and mean bandwidths are obtained. These bandwidths are larger than the widths of the corresponding UIR bands. However, when the comparison is limited to the largest PAHs studied, the bandwidths are slightly smaller than the corresponding UIR bands. These parameters can be used to model emission spectra from PAH cations and cations of larger PAHs, which are better candidate carriers of the UIRs.

  16. Single photon infrared emission spectroscopy: a study of IR emission from UV laser excited PAHs between 3 and 15 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, D. J.; Schlemmer, S.; Balucani, N.; Wagner, D. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Steiner, B.; Saykally, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy (SPIRES) has been used to measure emission spectra from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A supersonic free-jet expansion has been used to provide emission spectra of rotationally cold and vibrationally excited naphthalene and benzene. Under these conditions, the observed width of the 3.3-micrometers (C-H stretch) band resembles the bandwidths observed in experiments in which emission is observed from naphthalene with higher rotational energy. To obtain complete coverage of IR wavelengths relevant to the unidentified infrared bands (UIRs), UV laser-induced desorption was used to generate gas-phase highly excited PAHs. Lorentzian band shapes were convoluted with the monochromator-slit function in order to determine the widths of PAH emission bands under astrophysically relevant conditions. Bandwidths were also extracted from bands consisting of multiple normal modes blended together. These parameters are grouped according to the functional groups mostly involved in the vibration, and mean bandwidths are obtained. These bandwidths are larger than the widths of the corresponding UIR bands. However, when the comparison is limited to the largest PAHs studied, the bandwidths are slightly smaller than the corresponding UIR bands. These parameters can be used to model emission spectra from PAH cations and cations of larger PAHs, which are better candidate carriers of the UIRs.

  17. Optical Emission Studies of Copper Plasma Induced Using Infrared Transversely Excited Atmospheric (IR TEA) Carbon Dioxide Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Momcilovic, Milos; Kuzmanovic, Miroslav; Rankovic, Dragan; Ciganovic, Jovan; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Savovic, Jelena; Trtica, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Spatially resolved, time-integrated optical emission spectroscopy was applied for investigation of copper plasma produced by a nanosecond infrared (IR) transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser, operating at 10.6 μm. The effect of surrounding air pressure, in the pressure range 0.1 to 1013 mbar, on plasma formation and its characteristics was investigated. A linear dependence of intensity threshold for plasma formation on logarithm of air pressure was found. Lowering of the air pressure reduces the extent of gas breakdown, enabling better laser-target coupling and thus increases ablation. Optimum air pressure for target plasma formation was 0.1 mbar. Under that pressure, the induced plasma consisted of two clearly distinguished and spatially separated regions. The maximum intensity of emission, with sharp and well-resolved spectral lines and negligibly low background emission, was obtained from a plasma zone 8 mm from the target surface. The estimated excitation temperature in this zone was around 7000 K. The favorable signal to background ratio obtained in this plasma region indicates possible analytical application of TEA CO2 laser produced copper plasma. Detection limits of trace elements present in the Cu sample were on the order of 10 ppm (parts per million). Time-resolved measurements of spatially selected plasma zones were used to find a correlation between the observed spatial position and time delay. PMID:25741748

  18. Near-IR excitation transfer and electron transfer in a BF2-chelated dipyrromethane-azadipyrromethane dyad and triad.

    PubMed

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Amin, Anu N; Zandler, Melvin E; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-04-23

    A molecular dyad and triad, comprised of a known photosensitizer, BF(2)-chelated dipyrromethane (BDP), covalently linked to its structural analog and near-IR emitting sensitizer, BF(2)-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethane (ADP), have been newly synthesized and the photoinduced energy and electron transfer were examined by femtosecond and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. The structural integrity of the newly synthesized compounds has been established by spectroscopic, electrochemical, and computational methods. The DFT calculations revealed a molecular-clip-type structure for the triad, in which the BDP and ADP entities are separated by about 14 Å with a dihedral angle between the fluorophores of around 70°. Differential pulse voltammetry studies have revealed the redox states, allowing estimation of the energies of the charge-separated states. Such calculations revealed a charge separation from the singlet excited BDP ((1)BDP*) to ADP (BDP(.+)-ADP(.-)) to be energetically favorable in nonpolar toluene and in polar benzonitrile. In addition, the excitation transfer from the singlet BDP to ADP is also envisioned due to good spectral overlap of the BDP emission and ADP absorption spectra. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis studies provided concrete evidence for the occurrence of energy transfer from (1)BDP* to ADP (in benzonitrile and toluene) and electron transfer from BDP to (1)ADP* (in benzonitrile, but not in toluene). The kinetic study of energy transfer was measured by monitoring the rise of the ADP emission and revealed fast energy transfer (ca. 10(11) s(-1)) in these molecular systems. The kinetics of electron transfer via (1)ADP*, measured by monitoring the decay of the singlet ADP at λ=820 nm, revealed a relatively fast charge-separation process from BDP to (1)ADP*. These findings suggest the potential of the examined ADP-BDP molecules to be efficient photosynthetic antenna and reaction center models. PMID:22416038

  19. Raman spectroscopic signature of fractionalized excitations in the harmonic-honeycomb iridates β- and γ-Li2IrO3.

    PubMed

    Glamazda, A; Lemmens, P; Do, S-H; Choi, Y S; Choi, K-Y

    2016-01-01

    The fractionalization of elementary excitations in quantum spin systems is a central theme in current condensed matter physics. The Kitaev honeycomb spin model provides a prominent example of exotic fractionalized quasiparticles, composed of itinerant Majorana fermions and gapped gauge fluxes. However, identification of the Majorana fermions in a three-dimensional honeycomb lattice remains elusive. Here we report spectroscopic signatures of fractional excitations in the harmonic-honeycomb iridates β- and γ-Li2IrO3. Using polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy, we find that the dynamical Raman response of β- and γ-Li2IrO3 features a broad scattering continuum with distinct polarization and composition dependence. The temperature dependence of the Raman spectral weight is dominated by the thermal damping of fermionic excitations. These results suggest the emergence of Majorana fermions from spin fractionalization in a three-dimensional Kitaev-Heisenberg system. PMID:27457278

  20. Raman spectroscopic signature of fractionalized excitations in the harmonic-honeycomb iridates β- and γ-Li2IrO3

    PubMed Central

    Glamazda, A.; Lemmens, P.; Do, S. -H.; Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. -Y.

    2016-01-01

    The fractionalization of elementary excitations in quantum spin systems is a central theme in current condensed matter physics. The Kitaev honeycomb spin model provides a prominent example of exotic fractionalized quasiparticles, composed of itinerant Majorana fermions and gapped gauge fluxes. However, identification of the Majorana fermions in a three-dimensional honeycomb lattice remains elusive. Here we report spectroscopic signatures of fractional excitations in the harmonic-honeycomb iridates β- and γ-Li2IrO3. Using polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy, we find that the dynamical Raman response of β- and γ-Li2IrO3 features a broad scattering continuum with distinct polarization and composition dependence. The temperature dependence of the Raman spectral weight is dominated by the thermal damping of fermionic excitations. These results suggest the emergence of Majorana fermions from spin fractionalization in a three-dimensional Kitaev–Heisenberg system. PMID:27457278

  1. A cyclometallated fluorenyl Ir(iii) complex as a potential sensitiser for two-photon excited photodynamic therapy (2PE-PDT).

    PubMed

    Boreham, Elizabeth M; Jones, Lucy; Swinburne, Adam N; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Hugues, Vincent; Terryn, Christine; Miomandre, Fabien; Lemercier, Gilles; Natrajan, Louise S

    2015-09-28

    A new Ir(iii) cyclometallated complex bearing a fluorenyl 5-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline ligand ([Ir(ppy)2()][PF6], ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) is presented which exhibits enhanced triplet oxygen sensing properties. The efficacy of this complex to act as a photosensitiser for altering the morphology of C6 Glioma cells that represent malignant nervous tumours has been evaluated. The increased heavy metal effect and related spin-orbit coupling parameters on the photophysical properties of this complex are evidenced by comparison with Ru(ii) analogues. The complex [Ir(ppy)2()][PF6] is shown to exhibit relatively high two-photon absorption efficiencies for the lowest energy MLCT electronic transitions with two-photon absorption cross sections that range from 50 to 80 Goeppert-Mayer units between 750 to 800 nm. Quantum yields for the complex were measured up to 23% and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV was determined to be 40 bar(-1) in acetonitrile solution, confirming the high efficiency of the complex as a triplet oxygen sensitiser. Preliminary in vitro experiments with C6 Glioma cells treated with [Ir(ppy)2()][PF6], show that the complex is an efficient sensitizer for triplet oxygen, producing cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) by two-photon excitation at 740 nm resulting in photodynamic effects that lead to localised cell damage and death.

  2. A cyclometallated fluorenyl Ir(iii) complex as a potential sensitiser for two-photon excited photodynamic therapy (2PE-PDT).

    PubMed

    Boreham, Elizabeth M; Jones, Lucy; Swinburne, Adam N; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Hugues, Vincent; Terryn, Christine; Miomandre, Fabien; Lemercier, Gilles; Natrajan, Louise S

    2015-09-28

    A new Ir(iii) cyclometallated complex bearing a fluorenyl 5-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline ligand ([Ir(ppy)2()][PF6], ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) is presented which exhibits enhanced triplet oxygen sensing properties. The efficacy of this complex to act as a photosensitiser for altering the morphology of C6 Glioma cells that represent malignant nervous tumours has been evaluated. The increased heavy metal effect and related spin-orbit coupling parameters on the photophysical properties of this complex are evidenced by comparison with Ru(ii) analogues. The complex [Ir(ppy)2()][PF6] is shown to exhibit relatively high two-photon absorption efficiencies for the lowest energy MLCT electronic transitions with two-photon absorption cross sections that range from 50 to 80 Goeppert-Mayer units between 750 to 800 nm. Quantum yields for the complex were measured up to 23% and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV was determined to be 40 bar(-1) in acetonitrile solution, confirming the high efficiency of the complex as a triplet oxygen sensitiser. Preliminary in vitro experiments with C6 Glioma cells treated with [Ir(ppy)2()][PF6], show that the complex is an efficient sensitizer for triplet oxygen, producing cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) by two-photon excitation at 740 nm resulting in photodynamic effects that lead to localised cell damage and death. PMID:26289593

  3. Anti-Stokes luminescence in bismuth-doped aluminoand phosphosilicate fibres under two-step IR excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstov, S. V.; Riumkin, K. E.; Khopin, V. F.; Alyshev, S. V.; Firstova, E. G.; Mel'kumov, M. A.; Gur'yanov, A. N.; Dianov, E. M.

    2016-07-01

    We have studied the luminescence properties of optical fibres with a bismuth-doped alumino- and phosphosilicate glass core under two-step excitation and obtained new experimental data on the properties of luminescence centres in such fibres.

  4. Long-lived room-temperature deep-red-emissive intraligand triplet excited state of naphthalimide in cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes and its application in triplet-triplet annihilation-based upconversion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jifu; Wu, Wanhua; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2012-06-25

    Cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes with acetylide ppy and bpy ligands were prepared (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) in which naphthal (Ir-2) and naphthalimide (NI) were attached onto the ppy (Ir-3) and bpy ligands (Ir-4) through acetylide bonds. [Ir(ppy)(3)] (Ir-1) was also prepared as a model complex. Room-temperature phosphorescence was observed for the complexes; both neutral and cationic complexes Ir-3 and Ir-4 showed strong absorption in the visible range (ε=39,600  M(-1)  cm(-1) at 402 nm and ε=25,100  M(-1)  cm(-1) at 404 nm, respectively), long-lived triplet excited states (τ(T)=9.30 μs and 16.45 μs) and room-temperature red emission (λ(em)=640 nm, Φ(p)=1.4 % and λ(em)=627 nm, Φ(p)=0.3 %; cf. Ir-1: ε=16,600  M(-1)  cm(-1) at 382 nm, τ(em)=1.16 μs, Φ(p)=72.6 %). Ir-3 was strongly phosphorescent in non-polar solvent (i.e., toluene), but the emission was completely quenched in polar solvents (MeCN). Ir-4 gave an opposite response to the solvent polarity, that is, stronger phosphorescence in polar solvents than in non-polar solvents. Emission of Ir-1 and Ir-2 was not solvent-polarity-dependent. The T(1) excited states of Ir-2, Ir-3, and Ir-4 were identified as mainly intraligand triplet excited states ((3)IL) by their small thermally induced Stokes shifts (ΔE(s)), nanosecond time-resolved transient difference absorption spectroscopy, and spin-density analysis. The complexes were used as triplet photosensitizers for triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion and quantum yields of 7.1 % and 14.4 % were observed for Ir-2 and Ir-3, respectively, whereas the upconversion was negligible for Ir-1 and Ir-4. These results will be useful for designing visible-light-harvesting transition-metal complexes and for their applications as triplet photosensitizers for photocatalysis, photovoltaics, TTA upconversion, etc.

  5. The near-IR spectrum of NO(X˜ 2Π )-Ne detected through excitation into the Östate continuum: A joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłos, J.; Zhang, S. G.; Meyer, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present new measurements of the near IR spectrum of NO-Ne in the region of the first NO overtone transition. The IR absorption is detected by exciting the vibrationally excited complex to the A ˜ -state dissociation continuum. The resulting NO(A) fragment is subsequently ionized in the same laser pulse. Spectra of the two lowest bands, A and B, are recorded. The spectra are compared with calculated spectra based on bound states derived from a new set of high level ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs). For the calculation, the PESs are used with either fixed NO intermolecular distance or averaged for the vibrational states of NO (X ˜ , v = 0 or 2). Spectra based on the new PESs reproduce the experimental spectra better than theoretical spectra based on the older PESs of M. H. Alexander et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5588 (2001)]. Especially, spectra based on the two different vibrationally averaged PESs show a marked improvement in comparison to the one based on the fixed internuclear NO-distance. A fitted set of spectroscopic constants allows to reproduce most of the finer details of the measured spectra. Monitoring simultaneously the NO fragment ion and the parent ion channels while scanning the UV wavelength through the NO A-X hot-band region enabled us to confirm the NO-Ne A ˜ -state dissociation limit of 44233 ± 5 cm-1. These measurements also confirm the absence of a structured NO-Ne spectrum involving the A ˜ -state.

  6. Clues and criteria for designing a Kitaev spin liquid revealed by thermal and spin excitations of the honeycomb iridate Na2IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Youhei; Suzuki, Takafumi; Yamada, Takuto; Suga, Sei-ichiro; Kawashima, Naoki; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Contrary to the original expectation, Na2IrO3 is not a Kitaev's quantum spin liquid (QSL) but shows a zigzag-type antiferromagnetic order in experiments. Here, we propose experimental clues and criteria to measure how a material in hand is close to the Kitaev's QSL state. For this purpose, we systematically study thermal and spin excitations of a generalized Kitaev-Heisenberg model studied by Chaloupka et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 097204 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.097204 and an effective ab initio Hamiltonian for Na2IrO3 proposed by Yamaji et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 107201 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.107201, by employing a numerical diagonalization method. We reveal that closeness to the Kitaev's QSL is characterized by the following properties, besides trivial criteria such as reduction of magnetic ordered moments and Néel temperatures. (1) Two peaks in the temperature dependence of specific heat at Tℓ and Th caused by the fractionalization of spin to two types of Majorana fermions. (2) In between the double peak, a prominent plateau or shoulder pinned at R/2 ln2 in the temperature dependence of entropy, where R is the gas constant. (3) Failure of the linear spin wave approximation at the low-lying excitations of dynamical structure factors. (4) Small ratio Tℓ/Th close to or less than 0.03. According to the proposed criteria, Na2IrO3 is categorized to a compound close to the Kitaev's QSL, and is proven to be a promising candidate for the realization of the QSL if the relevant material parameters can further be tuned by making thin film of Na2IrO3 on various substrates or applying axial pressure perpendicular to the honeycomb networks of iridium ions. Applications of these characterization to (Na1-xLix) 2IrO3 and other related materials are also discussed.

  7. High resolution IR diode laser study of collisional energy transfer between highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene and CO2: the effect of donor fluorination on strong collision energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kilyoung; Johnson, Alan M; Powell, Amber L; Mitchell, Deborah G; Sevy, Eric T

    2014-12-21

    Collisional energy transfer between vibrational ground state CO2 and highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene (MFB) was studied using narrow bandwidth (0.0003 cm(-1)) IR diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Highly vibrationally excited MFB with E' = ∼41,000 cm(-1) was prepared by 248 nm UV excitation followed by rapid radiationless internal conversion to the electronic ground state (S1→S0*). The amount of vibrational energy transferred from hot MFB into rotations and translations of CO2 via collisions was measured by probing the scattered CO2 using the IR diode laser. The absolute state specific energy transfer rate constants and scattering probabilities for single collisions between hot MFB and CO2 were measured and used to determine the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E'), in the large ΔE region. P(E,E') was then fit to a bi-exponential function and extrapolated to the low ΔE region. P(E,E') and the biexponential fit data were used to determine the partitioning between weak and strong collisions as well as investigate molecular properties responsible for large collisional energy transfer events. Fermi's Golden rule was used to model the shape of P(E,E') and identify which donor vibrational motions are primarily responsible for energy transfer. In general, the results suggest that low-frequency MFB vibrational modes are primarily responsible for strong collisions, and govern the shape and magnitude of P(E,E'). Where deviations from this general trend occur, vibrational modes with large negative anharmonicity constants are more efficient energy gateways than modes with similar frequency, while vibrational modes with large positive anharmonicity constants are less efficient at energy transfer than modes of similar frequency.

  8. Electronic excitations and structure of Li{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} thin films grown on ZrO{sub 2}:Y (001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Jenderka, Marcus Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius; Lorenz, Michael

    2015-01-14

    Thin films are a prerequisite for application of the emergent exotic ground states in iridates that result from the interplay of strong spin-orbit coupling and electronic correlations. We report on pulsed laser deposition of Li{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} films on ZrO{sub 2}:Y (001) single crystalline substrates. X-ray diffraction confirms preferential (001) and (10-1) out-of-plane crystalline orientations with well defined in-plane orientation. Resistivity between 35 and 300 K is dominated by a three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. The dielectric function is determined by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and, complemented by Fourier transform infrared transmission spectroscopy, reveals a small optical gap of ≈300 meV, a splitting of the 5d-t{sub 2g} manifold, and several in-gap excitations attributed to phonons and possibly magnons.

  9. The near-IR spectrum of NO(X˜ 2Π )-He detected through excitation into the A ˜ -state continuum: A joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutner, V.; Zhang, S. G.; Meyer, H.; Kłos, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first measurement of a bound-state spectrum of the NO-He complex. The recorded spectrum is associated with the first overtone transition of the NO moiety. The IR absorption is detected by exciting the vibrationally excited complex to the A ˜ -state dissociation continuum. The resulting NO(A) fragment is subsequently ionized in the same laser pulse. We recorded two bands centered around the NO monomer rotational lines, Q11(0.5) and R11(0.5), consistent with an almost free rotation of the NO fragment within the complex. The origin of the spectrum is found at 3724.06 cm-1 blue shifted by 0.21 cm-1 from the corresponding NO monomer origin. The rotational structures of the spectrum are found to be in very good agreement with calculated spectra based on bound states derived from a set of high level ab initio potential energy surfaces [Kłos et al. J. Chem. Phys. 112, 2195 (2000)].

  10. Ethynyl-linked push-pull porphyrin hetero-dimers for near-IR dye-sensitized solar cells: photovoltaic performances versus excited-state dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhu; Lin, Hong; Li, Jianbao; Dy, Joanne Ting; Tamaki, Koichi; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Nakayama, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Chie; Uchida, Satoshi; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2012-12-28

    Ethynyl-linked porphyrin hetero-dimers substituted by a series of electron donors, namely, bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino (BMPA), bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amino (BTBPA) and 3,6-di-tert-butylcarbazol-9-yl (DTBC) as well as a reference dimer with a non-donor moiety (3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl, DTBP) have been synthesized to systematically investigate the influence of donor introduction on the photovoltaic performances of near-IR dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with these sensitizers incorporated. Despite the expected bathochromic shift and intensification of long-wavelength absorption bands as well as elevated LUMO levels and thus increased electron injection driving forces, the substitution of diphenylamino groups (BMPA and BTBPA) with stronger electron-donating abilities gave rise to surprising mediocrity in the short-circuit photocurrent densities (J(sc)), leading to overall energy conversion efficiencies in the order BMPA (3.94%) < DTBP (4.57%) < BTBPA (4.83%) < DTBC (5.21%). A study of the in situ fluorescent behavior of these sensitizers revealed that for all the sensitizers, excited-state lifetimes were significantly shortened in the simulated DSC environment compared to those in a free solution. BMPA showed the shortest intrinsic in situ lifetime while DTBC showed the longest one. These results were correlated with the photovoltaic performances, which is required for a better understanding and further design of porphyrin array sensitizers.

  11. Multiple-photon disambiguation on stripline-anode Micro-Channel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocher, Glenn R.; Wetstein, Matthew J.; Adams, Bernhard; Nishimura, Kurtis; Usman, Shawn M.

    2016-06-01

    Large-Area Picosecond Photo-Detectors (LAPPDs) show great potential for expanding the performance envelope of Micro-Channel Plates (MCPs) to areas of up to 20×20 cm and larger. Such scaling introduces new challenges, including how to meet the electronics readout burden of ever larger area MCPs. One solution is to replace the traditional grid anode used for readout with a microwave stripline anode, thus allowing the channel count to scale with MCP width rather than area. However, stripline anodes introduce new issues not commonly dealt with in grid-anodes, especially as their length increases. One of these issues is the near simultaneous arrival of multiple photons on the detector, creating possible confusion about how to reconstruct their arrival times and positions. We propose a maximum a posteriori solution to the problem and verify its performance in simulated scintillator and water-Cherenkov detectors.

  12. Evaluation of Hybrid Theoretical Approaches for Structural Determination of a Glycine-Linked Cisplatin Derivative via Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation (IRMPD) Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, C C; Kimutai, B; Bao, X; Hamlow, L; Zhu, Y; Strobehn, S F; Gao, J; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Chow, C S; Rodgers, M T

    2015-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the binding mechanism and assist in the optimization of chemical probing and drug design applications, experimental and theoretical studies of a series of amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives are being pursued. Glyplatin (glycine-linked cisplatin) was chosen for its structural simplicity and to enable backbone effects to be separated from side-chain effects on the structure and reactivity of ornithine- and lysine-linked cisplatin (Ornplatin and Lysplatin, respectively). Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments were performed on Glyplatin to characterize its structure and guide the selection of the most effective hybrid theoretical approach for determining its structure and IR spectrum. The simplicity of the Glyplatin system allows a wide variety of density functionals, treatments of the Pt center including the use of all-electron basis sets vs valence basis sets combined with an effective core potential (ECP), and basis sets for all other atoms to be evaluated at a reasonable computational cost. The results for Glyplatin provide the foundation for calculations of more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives such as Ornplatin and Lysplatin. Present results suggest that the B3LYP/mDZP/def2-TZVP hybrid method can be effectively employed for structural and IR characterization of more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin complexes and their nucleic acid derivatives.

  13. Herschel-PACS Observations of Far-IR CO Line Emission in NGC 1068: Highly Excited Molecular Gas in the Circumnuclear Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Sturm, E.; Fischer, J.; Sternberg, A.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Davies, R.; González-Alfonso, E.; Mark, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.; Verma, A.; de Jong, J. A.

    2012-08-01

    We report the detection of far-IR CO rotational emission from the prototypical Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. Using Herschel-PACS, we have detected 11 transitions in the J upper = 14-30 (E upper/kB = 580-2565 K) range, all of which are consistent with arising from within the central 10'' (700 pc). The detected transitions are modeled as arising from two different components: a moderate-excitation (ME) component close to the galaxy systemic velocity and a high-excitation (HE) component that is blueshifted by ~80 km s-1. We employ a large velocity gradient model and derive n H2 ~ 105.6 cm-3, T kin ~ 170 K, and M H2 ~ 106.7 M ⊙ for the ME component and n H2 ~ 106.4 cm-3, T kin ~ 570 K, and M H2 ~ 105.6 M ⊙ for the HE component, although for both components the uncertainties in the density and mass are ±(0.6-0.9) dex. Both components arise from denser and possibly warmer gas than traced by low-J CO transitions, and the ME component likely makes a significant contribution to the mass budget in the nuclear region. We compare the CO line profiles with those of other molecular tracers observed at higher spatial and spectral resolution and find that the ME transitions are consistent with these lines arising in the ~200 pc diameter ring of material traced by H2 1-0 S(1) observations. The blueshift of the HE lines may also be consistent with the bluest regions of this H2 ring, but a better kinematic match is found with a clump of infalling gas ~40 pc north of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). We consider potential heating mechanisms and conclude that X-ray- or shock heating of both components is viable, while far-UV heating is unlikely. We discuss the prospects of placing the HE component near the AGN and conclude that while the moderate thermal pressure precludes an association with the ~1 pc radius H2O maser disk, the HE component could potentially be located only a few parsecs more distant from the AGN and might then provide the N H ~ 1025 cm-2 column obscuring the

  14. HERSCHEL-PACS OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-IR CO LINE EMISSION IN NGC 1068: HIGHLY EXCITED MOLECULAR GAS IN THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Sturm, E.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Davies, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L.; De Jong, J. A.; Fischer, J.; Sternberg, A.; Mark, D.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Veilleux, S.; Verma, A.

    2012-08-10

    We report the detection of far-IR CO rotational emission from the prototypical Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. Using Herschel-PACS, we have detected 11 transitions in the J{sub upper} = 14-30 (E{sub upper}/k{sub B} = 580-2565 K) range, all of which are consistent with arising from within the central 10'' (700 pc). The detected transitions are modeled as arising from two different components: a moderate-excitation (ME) component close to the galaxy systemic velocity and a high-excitation (HE) component that is blueshifted by {approx}80 km s{sup -1}. We employ a large velocity gradient model and derive n{sub H2} {approx} 10{sup 5.6} cm{sup -3}, T{sub kin} {approx} 170 K, and M{sub H2} {approx} 10{sup 6.7} M{sub Sun} for the ME component and n{sub H2} {approx} 10{sup 6.4} cm{sup -3}, T{sub kin} {approx} 570 K, and M{sub H2} {approx} 10{sup 5.6} M{sub Sun} for the HE component, although for both components the uncertainties in the density and mass are {+-}(0.6-0.9) dex. Both components arise from denser and possibly warmer gas than traced by low-J CO transitions, and the ME component likely makes a significant contribution to the mass budget in the nuclear region. We compare the CO line profiles with those of other molecular tracers observed at higher spatial and spectral resolution and find that the ME transitions are consistent with these lines arising in the {approx}200 pc diameter ring of material traced by H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) observations. The blueshift of the HE lines may also be consistent with the bluest regions of this H{sub 2} ring, but a better kinematic match is found with a clump of infalling gas {approx}40 pc north of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). We consider potential heating mechanisms and conclude that X-ray- or shock heating of both components is viable, while far-UV heating is unlikely. We discuss the prospects of placing the HE component near the AGN and conclude that while the moderate thermal pressure precludes an association with the {approx}1 pc

  15. Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation spectroscopy of group II metal complexes with salicylate

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan P. Dain; Gary Gresham; Gary S. Groenewold; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens; Michael J. van Stipdonk

    2011-07-01

    Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation, and the combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to characterize singly-charged, 1:1 complexes of Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ with salicylate. For each metal-salicylate complex, the CID pathways are: (a) elimination of CO2 and (b) formation of [MOH]+ where M=Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+. DFT calculations predict three minima for the cation-salicylate complexes which differ in the mode of metal binding. In the first, the metal ion is coordinated by O atoms of the (neutral) phenol and carboxylate groups of salicylate. In the second, the cation is coordinated by phenoxide and (neutral) carboxylic acid groups. The third mode involves coordination by the carboxylate group alone. The infrared spectrum for the metal-salicylate complexes contains a number of absorptions between 1000 – 1650 cm-1, and the best correlation between theoretical and experimental spectra for the structure that features coordination of the metal ion by phenoxide and the carbonyl group of the carboxylic acid group, consistent with calculated energies for the respective species.

  16. A 2.8 K cryogen-free cryostat with compact optical geometry for multiple photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Verdier, M.-A.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; De Jesus, M.; Vanzetto, S.

    2009-04-15

    Interest in solid scintillators down to liquid helium temperature and below has grown recently, fuelled by searches for exotic processes in particle physics. We describe a closed-cycle optical cryostat with a 2.8 K base temperature and a compact optical geometry for multiple photon counting. The large numerical aperture achieved, of the order of 0.79 from the optical center to each of the two windows and amounting to 40% of the total solid angle, allows a significant gain in the efficiency of photon collection. This and the relatively big sample size that can be used facilitate the study of scintillators under {gamma} irradiation. These features should be an asset for multiple photon counting techniques at low temperatures.

  17. Structure Determination of Cisplatin-Amino Acid Analogues by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Action Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenchen; Bao, Xun; Zhu, Yanlong; Strobehn, Stephen; Kimutai, Bett; Nei, Y.-W.; Chow, C. S.; Rodgers, M. T.; Gao, Juehan; Oomens, J.

    2015-06-01

    To gain a better understanding of the binding mechanism and assist in the optimization of relevant drug and chemical probe design, both experimental and theoretical studies were performed on a series of amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, including glycine-, lysine-, and ornithine-linked cisplatin, Gplatin, Kplatin, and Oplatin, respectively. Cisplatin, the first FDA-approved platinum-based anticancer drug, has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Its pharmacological mechanism has been identified as its ability to coordinate to genomic DNA, and guanine is its major target. In previous reports, cisplatin was successfully utilized as a chemical probe to detect solvent accessible sites in ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Among the amino-acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, Oplatin exhibits preference for adenine over guanine. The mechanism behind its different selectivity compared to cisplatin may relate to its potential of forming a hydrogen bond between the carboxylate group in Pt (II) complex and the 6-amino moiety of adenosine stabilizes A-Oplatin products. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis also indicates that different coordination sites of Oplatin on adenosine affect glycosidic bond stability. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments were performed on all three amino acid-linked cisplatin to characterize their structures. An extensive theoretical study has been performed on Gplatin to guide the selection of the most effective theory and basis set based on its geometric information. The results for Gplatin provide the foundation for characterization of the more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, Oplatin and Kplatin. Structural and energetic information elucidated for these compounds, particularly Oplatin reveal the reason for its alternative selectivity compared to cisplatin.

  18. Structure Determination of Ornithine-Linked Cisplatin by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Action Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenchen; Kimutai, Bett; Hamlow, Lucas; Roy, Harrison; Nei, Y.-W.; Bao, Xun; Gao, Juehan; Martens, Jonathan K.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Maitre, Philippe; Steinmetz, Vincent; McNary, Christopher P.; Armentrout, Peter B.; Chow, C. S.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    Cisplatin [(NH_3)_2PtCl_2], the first FDA-approved platinum-based anticancer drug, has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Its pharmacological mechanism has been identified as its ability to coordinate to genomic DNA with guanine as its major target. Amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives are being investigated as alternatives for cisplatin that may exhibit altered binding selectivity such as that found for ornithine-linked cisplatin (Ornplatin, [(Orn)PtCl_2]), which exhibits a preference for adenine over guanine in RNA. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments and complementary electronic structure calculations are performed on a series of Ornplatin complexes to elucidate the nature of binding of the Orn amino acid to the Pt center and how that binding is influenced by the local environment. The complexes examined in the work include: [(Orn-H)PtCl_2]-, [(Orn)PtCl]+, [(Orn)Pt(H_2O)Cl]+, and [(Orn)PtCl_2+Na]+. In contrast to that found previously for the glycine-linked cisplatin complex (Glyplatin), which binds via the backbone amino and carboxylate groups, binding of Orn in these complexes is found to involve both the backbone and sidechain amino groups. Extensive broadening of the IRMPD spectrum for the [(Orn)Pt(H_2O)Cl]+ complex suggests that either multiple structures are contributing to the measured spectrum or strong intra-molecular hydrogen-binding interactions are present. The results for Ornplatin lead to an interesting discussion about the differences in selectivity and reactivity versus cisplatin.

  19. Cross-polarized optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes probed by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, UV-Vis-IR and polarized Raman Scatterings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    2008-03-01

    Because of the depolarization effect, or so-called antenna effect, optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is weak when excited by light polarized perpendicular to the nanotube axis. However, in photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectra of isolated SWNTs, PL peaks due to cross-polarized excitation can be clearly identified. By decomposing the cross-polarized component, the optical transition energy of E12 or E21 can be? measured, and the smaller exciton binding energy for perpendicular excitations is concluded [1]. Cross-polarized absorption is dominant in the absorption of a vertically aligned film of SWNTs [2] when excited from the top of the film. In our previous study, a pi-plasmon absorption at 5.25 eV was revealed in contrast to 4.5 eV for parallel excitation [3]. Resonant Raman scattering from such a film is also influenced by the cross-polarized excitation [4]. Even though a Kataura plot for the E33 and E44 range has been proposed by using such a vertically aligned film [5], polarized Raman scattering spectra reveal more complicated features in the system because of the small bundle size, typically 5-8 nanotubes [6]. References: [1] Y. Miyauchi, M. Oba, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006) 205440. [2] Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385 (2004) 298. [3] Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 087402. [4] Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 085403. [5] P. T. Araujo, S. K. Doorn, S. Kilina, S. Tretiak, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Chacham, M. A. Pimenta, A. Jorio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2007) 067401. [6] E. Einarsson, H. Shiozawa, C. Kramberger, M. H. Ruemmeli, A. Gruneis, T. Pichler, S. Maruyama, J. Phys. Chem. C (2007) published on Web.

  20. High resolution IR diode laser study of collisional energy transfer between highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene and CO{sub 2}: The effect of donor fluorination on strong collision energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kilyoung; Johnson, Alan M.; Powell, Amber L.; Mitchell, Deborah G.; Sevy, Eric T.

    2014-12-21

    Collisional energy transfer between vibrational ground state CO{sub 2} and highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene (MFB) was studied using narrow bandwidth (0.0003 cm{sup −1}) IR diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Highly vibrationally excited MFB with E′ = ∼41 000 cm{sup −1} was prepared by 248 nm UV excitation followed by rapid radiationless internal conversion to the electronic ground state (S{sub 1}→S{sub 0}*). The amount of vibrational energy transferred from hot MFB into rotations and translations of CO{sub 2} via collisions was measured by probing the scattered CO{sub 2} using the IR diode laser. The absolute state specific energy transfer rate constants and scattering probabilities for single collisions between hot MFB and CO{sub 2} were measured and used to determine the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E′), in the large ΔE region. P(E,E′) was then fit to a bi-exponential function and extrapolated to the low ΔE region. P(E,E′) and the biexponential fit data were used to determine the partitioning between weak and strong collisions as well as investigate molecular properties responsible for large collisional energy transfer events. Fermi's Golden rule was used to model the shape of P(E,E′) and identify which donor vibrational motions are primarily responsible for energy transfer. In general, the results suggest that low-frequency MFB vibrational modes are primarily responsible for strong collisions, and govern the shape and magnitude of P(E,E′). Where deviations from this general trend occur, vibrational modes with large negative anharmonicity constants are more efficient energy gateways than modes with similar frequency, while vibrational modes with large positive anharmonicity constants are less efficient at energy transfer than modes of similar frequency.

  1. Reliable source of conditional states from single-mode pulsed thermal fields by multiple-photon subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Allevi, A.; Andreoni, A.; Bondani, M.; Genoni, M. G.; Olivares, S.

    2010-07-15

    We demonstrate the effect of multiple-photon subtraction on the generation of conditional states in the pulsed regime. Our experimental scheme relies on a beam splitter (BS) and a pair of linear photodetectors that are able to resolve up to tens of photons. We use a single-mode thermal field at the input port of the BS to test the reliability of our scheme, and we show good agreement with the theory by fully characterizing the conditional outgoing states in terms of photon-number statistics and non-Gaussianity.

  2. Photon statistics of atomic fluorescence after {pi}-pulse excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Koshino, Kazuki

    2010-09-15

    The photon statistics of atomic fluorescence after {pi}-pulse excitation is investigated in a system in which the input and output ports are connected to an atom. Since spontaneous decay during input pulse excitation occurs, the output pulse generally contains a multiphoton component with a certain probability. We quantitatively evaluate the probability of the output pulse containing multiple photons and determine the conditions for ideal single-photon generation.

  3. Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) cationized serine complexes: infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory investigations.

    PubMed

    Coates, Rebecca A; Boles, Georgia C; McNary, Christopher P; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Armentrout, P B

    2016-08-10

    The gas-phase structures of zinc and cadmium dications bound to serine (Ser) are investigated by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy using the free electron laser FELIX, in combination with ab initio calculations. To identify the structures of the experimentally observed species, [Zn(Ser-H)CH3CN](+) and CdCl(+)(Ser), the measured action spectra are compared to linear absorption spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level for Zn(2+) containing complexes and B3LYP/def2-TZVP levels for Cd(2+) containing complexes. Good agreement between the observed IRMPD spectra and the predicted spectra allows identification of the isomers present. The intact amino acid interacting with cadmium chloride adopts a tridentate chelation involving the amino acid backbone amine and carbonyl groups as well as the hydroxyl group of the side-chain, [N,CO,OH]. The presence of two low-energy conformers is observed for the deprotonated serine-zinc complex, with the same tridentate coordination as for the cadmium complex but proton loss occurs at both the hydroxyl side-chain, [N,CO,O(-)], and the carboxylic acid of the amino acid backbone, [N,CO(-),OH]. These results are profitably compared with the analogous results previously obtained for comparable complexes with cysteine. PMID:27465924

  4. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of cationized methionine: effects of alkali-metal cation size on gas-phase conformation.

    PubMed

    Carl, Damon R; Cooper, Theresa E; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeff D; Armentrout, P B

    2010-04-14

    The gas-phase structures of alkali-metal cation complexes of the amino acid methionine (Met) as well as protonated methionine are investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser. Spectra of Li(+)(Met) and Na(+)(Met) are similar and relatively simple, whereas the spectra of K(+)(Met), Rb(+)(Met), and Cs(+)(Met) include distinctive new bands. Measured IRMPD spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory to identify the conformations present in the experimental studies. For Li(+) and Na(+) complexes, the only conformation present is a charge-solvated, tridentate structure that binds the metal cation to the amine and carbonyl groups of the amino acid backbone and the sulfur atom of the side chain, [N,CO,S]. In addition to the [N,CO,S] conformer, bands corresponding to alkali-metal cation binding to a bidentate zwitterionic structure, [CO(2)(-)], are clearly present for the K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) complexes. Theoretical calculations of the lowest energy conformations of Rb(+) and Cs(+) complexes suggest that the experimental spectra could also include contributions from two additional charge-solvated structures, tridentate [COOH,S] and bidentate [COOH]. For H(+)(Met), the IRMPD action spectrum is reproduced by multiple low-energy [N,CO,S] conformers, in which the protonated amine group hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfur atom of the amino acid side chain. These [N,CO,S] conformers only differ in their side-chain orientations.

  5. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy of a Gas-Phase Oxo-Molybdenum Complex with 1,2-Dithiolene Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative ion mode was used to create anionic, gas-phase oxo-molybdenum complexes with dithiolene ligands. By varying ESI and ion transfer conditions, both doubly and singly charged forms of the complex, with identical formulas, could be observed. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dianion generated exclusively the monoanion, while fragmentation of the monoanion involved decomposition of the dithiolene ligands. The intrinsic structure of the monoanion and the dianion were determined by using wavelength-selective infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The IRMPD spectrum for the dianion exhibits absorptions that can be assigned to (ligand) C=C, C–S, C—C≡N, and Mo=O stretches. Comparison of the IRMPD spectrum to spectra predicted for various possible conformations allows assignment of a pseudo square pyramidal structure with C2v symmetry, equatorial coordination of MoO2+ by the S atoms of the dithiolene ligands, and a singlet spin state. A single absorption was observed for the oxidized complex. When the same scaling factor employed for the dianion is used for the oxidized version, theoretical spectra suggest that the absorption is the Mo=O stretch for a distorted square pyramidal structure and doublet spin state. A predicted change in conformation upon oxidation of the dianion is consistent with a proposed bonding scheme for the bent-metallocene dithiolene compounds [Lauher, J. W.; Hoffmann, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1976, 98, 1729−1742], where a large folding of the dithiolene moiety along the S···S vector is dependent on the occupancy of the in-plane metal d-orbital. PMID:24988369

  6. IR Asterisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Adam

    2010-09-01

    Observing asterisms for photometric calibration provides a "happy medium" between observing single stars which areobservable from the ground but lack statistics, and star clusters which have excellent statistics but are too crowded to observe from the ground.Asterisms in the IR for calibration have been less available than in the optical, e.g., Landolt's standard fields.While ad-hoc asterisms for calibration could be formed from 2MASS calibration, the photometric precision of 2MASSis relatively low, 0.02-0.05, for the fainter stars, m=9-13, that can still be observed without saturation in WFC3-IR.However, IR monitoring of variable phenomena {e.g., AGN SNe, stellar variables} from the ground has produced calibration of stars in asterisms with m=9-13 with a relative uncertainty of 0.001 to 0.01 mag due to the high frequency of monitoring. We have selected 4 such asterisms to observe. Because the stars are bright we need to use subarrays of 64x64 or 128x128 to get read out short enough to avoid saturation. The observations are obtained in pairs of 3 close stars, i.e., 2x3=6 stars per orbit in F125W and F160W as well as a F555W full frame to verify astrometry. In all we expect to measure 24 stars with m=9 to 14. The goal is to provide 2 calibrations, an independent zeropoint and its uncertainty as well as a measure of count rate non linearity. For the latter, an expected CRNL over 2 dex {5 mag} is expected tobe 0.02 mag.

  7. IR Windstreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    This infrared image shows windstreaks in the region between Gordii Dorsum and Amazonis Mensa.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -15.8, Longitude 215 East (145 West). 97 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. From Ultrafast Structure Determination to Steering Reactions: Mixed IR/Non-IR Multidimensional Vibrational Spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-09-28

    Ultrafast multidimensional infrared spectroscopy is a powerful method for resolving features of molecular structure and dynamics that are difficult or impossible to address with linear spectroscopy. Augmenting the IR pulse sequences by resonant or nonresonant UV, Vis, or NIR pulses considerably extends the range of application and creates techniques with possibilities far beyond a pure multidimensional IR experiment. These include surface-specific 2D-IR spectroscopy with sub-monolayer sensitivity, ultrafast structure determination in non-equilibrium systems, triggered exchange spectroscopy to correlate reactant and product bands, exploring the interplay of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom, investigation of interactions between Raman- and IR-active modes, imaging with chemical contrast, sub-ensemble-selective photochemistry, and even steering a reaction by selective IR excitation. We give an overview of useful mixed IR/non-IR pulse sequences, discuss their differences, and illustrate their application potential. PMID:26394274

  9. Changes of the local magnetic properties of the optically excited Nd3+ ions and their manifestation in the near IR spectra of the Nd0.5Gd0.5Fe3(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhovskii, A. V.; Gnatchenko, S. L.; Kachur, I. S.; Piryatinskaya, V. G.; Temerov, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    Polarized absorption spectra of f-f transitions 4I9/2 → 4F3/2 and (2H9/2 + 4F5/2) in the Nd3+ ion in the Nd0.5Gd0.5Fe3(BO3)4 single crystal were studied as a function of temperature in the range of 2-40 K and as a function of magnetic field in the range of 0-65 kOe at 2 K. It was found out that the selection rules for f-f electron transitions substantially changed in the magnetically ordered state of the crystal, and they strongly depended on the orientation of the Fe and Nd ions magnetic moments relative to the light polarization. The splitting of the ground and excited states of the Nd3+ ion in the exchange field of the Fe sublattice were determined. It was revealed that the value of the exchange splitting (the exchange interaction) in the excited states did not correlate with the theoretical Landé factors. The Landé factors of the excited states were experimentally found. In general, the local magnetic properties in the vicinity of the excited ion depend substantially on its electron state. In particular: (1) in one of the excited states a weak ferromagnetic moment appears, (2) the changes of type of the local magnetic anisotropy take place in some excited states, and (3) in some excited states the energetically favorable orientation of the Nd3+ ion magnetic moment is opposite to that in the ground state. In some excited states the nonequivalent Nd3+ centers were found out.

  10. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    PubMed Central

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H.; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions. PMID:26733106

  11. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization.

    PubMed

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bharati; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H; Granitzka, Patrick W; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions. PMID:26733106

  12. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; et al

    2016-01-06

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset andmore » at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. As a result, our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.« less

  13. Structures and Energetics of Protonated Clusters of Methylamine with Phenylalanine Analogs, Characterized by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Calculations.

    PubMed

    Kleisath, Elizabeth; Marta, Rick A; Martens, Sabrina; Martens, Jon; McMahon, Terry

    2015-06-25

    Gas-phase clusters of protonated methylamine and phenylalanine (Phe) derivatives have been studied using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in combination with electronic structure calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Experiments were performed on several Phe derivatives including 4-chloro-l-phenylalanine (4Chloro-Phe), 4-nitro-l-phenylalanine (4Nitro-Phe), 3-cyano-l-phenylalanine (3Cyano-Phe), and 3-trifluoromethyl-l-phenylalanine (3CF3-Phe). Through comparisons between experimental IRMPD spectra and stimulated spectra obtained by electronic structure calculations, charge-solvated structures were found to be prevalent in both 4Chloro-Phe and 4Nitro-Phe, whereas 3Cyano-Phe favored zwitterionic structures and 3-CF3-Phe likely have both zwitterionic and charge-solvated structures present.

  14. Cryogenic exciter

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, James William; Garces, Luis Jose

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  15. IR Variability of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2007-02-01

    Every 5.5 years, η Carinae experiences a dramatic ``spectroscopic event'' when high-excitation lines in its UV, optical, and IR spectrum disappear, and its hard X-ray and radio continuum flux crash. This periodicity has been attributed to an eccentric binary system with a shell ejection occurring at periastron. In addition, η Car shows long term changes as it is still recovering from its giant 19th century outburst. Both types of variability are directly linked to the current mass-loss rate and dust formation in its wind. Mid-IR images and spectra with T-ReCS provide a direct measure of changes in the current bolometric luminosity and trace dust formation episodes. This will provide a direct measurement of the mass ejected. Near-IR emission lines trace related changes in the post-event wind and ionization changes in the circumstellar environment needed to test specific models for the cause of η Car's variability as it recovers from its recent ``event''. High resolution near-IR spectra with GNIRS will continue the important work of HST/STIS, investigating changes in the direct and reflected spectrum of the stellar wind, and ionization changes in the nebula.

  16. IR Variability of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2008-02-01

    Every 5.5 years, η Carinae experiences a dramatic ``spectroscopic event'' when high-excitation lines in its UV, optical, and IR spectrum disappear, and its hard X-ray and radio continuum flux crash. This periodicity has been attributed to an eccentric binary system with a shell ejection occurring at periastron, and the next periastron event will occur at the very end of 2008. In addition, η Car shows long term changes as it is still recovering from its giant 19th century outburst. Both types of variability are directly linked to the current mass-loss rate and dust formation in its wind. Mid-IR images and spectra with T-ReCS provide a direct measure of changes in the current bolometric luminosity and a direct measure of the massw in dust formation episodes that may occur at periastron in the colliding wind shock. Near-IR emission lines trace related changes in the post-event wind and ionization changes in the circumstellar environment needed to test specific models for the cause of η Car's variability as it recovers from its recent ``event''. High resolution near-IR spectra with Phoenix will continue the important work of HST/STIS, investigating changes in the direct and reflected spectrum of the stellar wind, and ionization changes in the nebula.

  17. Long-lived room temperature deep-red/near-IR emissive intraligand triplet excited state (3IL) of naphthalimide in cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes and its application in upconversion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenting; Guo, Huimin; Wu, Wanhua; Ji, Shaomin; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2011-11-21

    [C(^)NPt(acac)] (C(^)N = cyclometalating ligand; acac = acetylacetonato) complexes in which the naphthalimide (NI) moiety is directly cyclometalated (NI as the C donor of the C-Pt bond) were synthesized. With 4-pyrazolylnaphthalimide, isomers with five-membered (Pt-2) and six-membered (Pt-3) chelate rings were obtained. With 4-pyridinylnaphthalimide, only the complex with a five-membered chelate ring (Pt-4) was isolated. A model complex with 1-phenylpyrazole as the C(^)N ligand was prepared (Pt-1). Strong absorption of visible light (ε = 21,900 M(-1) cm(-1) at 443 nm for Pt-3) and room temperature (RT) phosphorescence at 630 nm (Pt-2 and Pt-3) or 674 nm (Pt-4) were observed. Long-lived phosphorescences were observed for Pt-2 (τ(P) = 12.8 μs) and Pt-3 (τ(P) = 61.9 μs). Pt-1 is nonphosphorescent at RT in solution because of the acac-localized T(1) excited state [based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations and spin density analysis], but a structured emission band centered at 415 nm was observed at 77 K. Time-resolved transient absorption spectra and spin density analysis indicated a NI-localized intraligand triplet excited state ((3)IL) for complexes Pt-2, Pt-3, and Pt-4. DFT calculations on the transient absorption spectra (T(1) → T(n) transitions, n > 1) also support the (3)IL assignment of the T(1) excited states of Pt-2, Pt-3, and Pt-4. The complexes were used as triplet sensitizers for triplet-triplet-annihilation (TTA) based upconversion, and the results show that Pt-3 is an efficient sensitizer with an upconversion quantum yield of up to 14.1%, despite its low phosphorescence quantum yield of 5.2%. Thus, we propose that the sensitizer molecules at the triplet excited state that are otherwise nonphosphorescent were involved in the TTA upconversion process, indicating that weakly phosphorescent or nonphosphorescent transition-metal complexes can be used as triplet sensitizers for TTA upconversion.

  18. Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyuz, Kerim; Stedwell, Corey N.; Wang Da; Polfer, Nick C.

    2011-05-15

    We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources, an electrospray ionization source, as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection, a reduced pressure ({approx}10{sup -5} Torr) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) for OPO irradiation, and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay, the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study, we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan, TrpH{sup +}, as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid [W. K. Mino, Jr., K. Gulyuz, D. Wang, C. N. Stedwell, and N. C. Polfer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 299 (2011)]. Here, we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

  19. Calculating singlet excited states: Comparison with fast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of coumarins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Wriglesworth, Alisdair; Uroos, Maliha; Calladine, James A.; Murphy, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Michelle; Clark, Ian P.; Towrie, Michael; Dowden, James; Besley, Nicholas A.; George, Michael W.

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to the ground state, the calculation of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy of molecular singlet excited states represents a substantial challenge. Here, we use the structural IR fingerprint of the singlet excited states of a range of coumarin dyes to assess the accuracy of density functional theory based methods for the calculation of excited state IR spectroscopy. It is shown that excited state Kohn-Sham density functional theory provides a high level of accuracy and represents an alternative approach to time-dependent density functional theory for simulating the IR spectroscopy of singlet excited states.

  20. Calculating singlet excited states: Comparison with fast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of coumarins.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Wriglesworth, Alisdair; Uroos, Maliha; Calladine, James A; Murphy, Thomas S; Hamilton, Michelle; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; Dowden, James; Besley, Nicholas A; George, Michael W

    2015-04-21

    In contrast to the ground state, the calculation of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy of molecular singlet excited states represents a substantial challenge. Here, we use the structural IR fingerprint of the singlet excited states of a range of coumarin dyes to assess the accuracy of density functional theory based methods for the calculation of excited state IR spectroscopy. It is shown that excited state Kohn-Sham density functional theory provides a high level of accuracy and represents an alternative approach to time-dependent density functional theory for simulating the IR spectroscopy of singlet excited states.

  1. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  2. Enhanced photophysics from self-assembled cyclometalated Ir(iii) complexes in water.

    PubMed

    McGoorty, Michelle M; Khnayzer, Rony S; Castellano, Felix N

    2016-06-14

    Two water-soluble anionic cyclometalated Ir(iii) complexes, Ir(ppy)2BPS [] and Ir(F-mppy)2BPS [] have been synthesized and display clear evidence of self-assembly in water. Concentration-induced aggregation enhances the excited-state properties of both complexes, blue-shifting the photoluminescence emission energies as well as increasing the corresponding excited state lifetimes and quantum yields up to a factor of 5. PMID:27240481

  3. IR laser chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quack, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Recent progress in IR laser chemistry is reviewed with stress on the conceptual background and experimental advances from our research group. In particular we discuss various experimental schemes in laser chemistry as related to thermal reactions and ordinary photochemistry, and new results in time and frequency resolved kinetic IR spectroscopy at the limit defined by the uncertainty relation. The recent detection of hyperfine effects in IR laser chemistry is reviewed as well as nonlinear intensity dependence over many orders of magnitude including observations of nonlinear intensity fall-off and IR laser ionization of molecules. An outlook is presented on different time scales for intramolecular processes and the resulting future possibilities of IR laser chemical reaction control.

  4. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  5. Excited Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Asia; Ahern, Terence L.; Henderson, Sean O.

    2011-01-01

    Excited (or agitated) delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. PMID:21691475

  6. Luminescent cyanometallates based on phenylpyridine-Ir(III) units: solvatochromism, metallochromism, and energy-transfer in Ir/Ln and Ir/Re complexes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Noorshida Mohd; MacLeod, Voirrey L; Jennison, Petter; Sazanovich, Igor V; Hunter, Christopher A; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D

    2012-02-28

    [Ir(ppy)(2)(CN)(2)](-) (ppy = anion of 2-phenylpyridine) and some substituted derivatives have been investigated for their ability to interact with additional metal cations, both in solution and the solid state, via the externally-directed cyanide lone pairs, and to act as energy-donors in the resulting assemblies. [Ir(ppy)(2)(CN)(2)](-) is slightly solvatochromic, showing a blue-shift of the lowest energy absorption manifold in water compared to organic solvents, and the solubilised (t)Bu-substituted analogue [Ir((t)Buppy)(2)(CN)(2)](-) [(t)Buppy = anion of 2-(4-(t)Bu-phenyl)pyridine] is also metallochromic with coordination of the cyanide lone pairs to two M(II) cations in MeCN (M = Ba, Zn) resulting in blue-shifts of the lowest-energy absorption and emission maxima. These effects are however modest because of (i) the presence of only two cyanide groups, and (ii) the fact that the lowest-energy excited state has a substantial (3)LC component and is therefore not purely charge-transfer in nature. Crystallisation of [Ir(ppy)(2)(CN)(2)](-) as its (PPN)(+) salt in the presence of excess of lanthanide(III) salts leads to formation of assemblies based on Ir-CN-Ln bonds, which generate in the solid state either Ir(2)Ln(2)(μ-CN)(4) square assemblies or linear trinuclear species with Ir-CN-Ln-NC-Ir cores. In the Ir(2)Eu(2)(μ-CN)(4) and Ir(2)Nd(2)(μ-CN)(4) complexes the Ir-based emission is substantially quenched due to energy-transfer to lower-lying f-f states of these lanthanide ions. In addition reaction of [Ir(F(2)ppy)(2)(CN)(2)](-) [F(2)ppy = cyclometallating anion of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine] with [Re(phen)(CO)(3)(MeCN)][PF(6)] in solution affords dinuclear IrRe and trinuclear IrRe(2) species in which {Re(phen)(CO)(3)} units are attached to the N-donor termini of one or both of the cyanide groups; these complexes have been structurally characterised and display quantitative Ir→Re energy-transfer, showing luminescence only from the Re(I) terminus on

  7. Excited baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  8. Fourier transform Raman and IR spectra of snake skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, B. W.; Williams, A. C.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    1993-06-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) Raman and IR spectra of the shed dorsal skin of the snake Elaphe obsoleta (American black rat snake) are reported. Vibrational spectroscopic assignments are proposed for the first time. Although good quality Raman spectra were obtained from the hinge regions using an FT Raman microscope, the dorsal scale regions fluoresced even with 1064 nm IR excitation. This was ascribed to pigmentation markings on the scales.

  9. Microcavity array IR photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Esman, A K; Kuleshov, V K; Zykov, G L

    2009-12-31

    An original microcavity array IR photodetector is proposed and the sensitivity and response time of its pixels are calculated. A photosensitive element represents a composite silicon microcavity made of two optically coupled closed waveguides on a dielectric substrate whose resonance wave depends on its temperature. This dependence is used to detect IR radiation which heats an absorbing element and the composite microcavity thermally coupled with this element. It is shown that for a spatial resolution of 45 {mu}m, the time response is 30 ms and the sensitivity is 10{sup -3} K at the IR radiation power of {approx} 4.7 x 10{sup -8} W element{sup -1}. (photodetectors)

  10. Simulation of Wakefield Effect in ILC IR Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, S; Seryi, A.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; /SLAC

    2008-06-26

    To achieve super high luminosity, high current beams with very short bunch length are needed, which carry high intensity EM fields. For ILC, two bunch trains with bunch length of 300 {micro}m and bunch charge of 3.2nC are needed to collide at the IR to achieve the ILC luminosity goals. When the 300 {micro}m bunches pass through the IR chamber, wakefields will be excited, which will cause HOM power flowing through the IR chamber beam pipe to the final doublets due to the high frequency characteristic of the induced wakefields. Since superconducting technology is adopted for the final doublets of ILC BDS, whose operation stability might be affected by the HOM power produced at the IR chamber, quench might happen. In this paper, we did some analytical estimation and numerical simulation on the wakefield effects in ILC IR chamber.

  11. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior. PMID:949223

  12. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  13. Multicolor IR emissive pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannon, J.; Grego, S.; Solomon, S.

    2007-04-01

    We have evaluated several methods for generating multi-color emission for IR scene projector applications. The baseline requirements we employed were the ability to simulate color temperatures in the range 300-3000 K, minimum radiance levels consistent with existing IR sensor requirements, 1000 Hz frame rates and manufacturability. The analysis led us to down select two independent approaches that are capable of meeting HWIL multicolor requirements. We describe and discuss each of the approaches, their expected performance as well as their limitations.

  14. Luminescence properties of IR-emitting bismuth centres in SiO{sub 2}-based glasses in the UV to near-IR spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Firstova, E G; Vel'miskin, V V; Firstov, S V; Dianov, E M; Bufetov, I A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, A N; Bufetova, G A; Nishchev, K N

    2015-01-31

    We have studied UV excitation spectra of IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses of various compositions and obtained energy level diagrams of IR-emitting bismuth-related active centres (BACs) associated with silicon and germanium atoms up to ∼5.2 eV over the ground level. A possible energy level diagram of the BACs in phosphosilicate glass has been proposed. The UV excitation peaks for the IR luminescence of the BACs in the glasses have been shown to considerably overlap with absorption bands of the Bi{sup 3+} ion, suggesting that Bi{sup 3+} may participate in BAC formation. (optical fibres)

  15. Nuclear IRS-1 and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Krzysztof; Valle, Luis Del; Lassak, Adam; Trojanek, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The family of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) consists of four proteins (IRS-1 - IRS-4), which were initially characterized as typical cytosolic adaptor proteins involved in insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling. The first cloned and characterized member of the IRS family, IRS-1, has predicted molecular weight of 132 kDa, however, as a result of its extensive serine phosphorylation it separates on a SDS gel as a band of approximately 160–185 kDa. In addition to its metabolic and growth-promoting functions, IRS-1 is also suspected to play a role in malignant transformation. The mechanism by which IRS-1 supports tumor growth is not fully understood, and the argument that IRS-1 merely amplifies the signal from the IGF-1R and/or IR requires further investigation. Almost a decade ago, we reported the presence of nuclear IRS-1 in medulloblastoma clinical samples, which express viral oncoprotein, large T-antigen of human polyomavirus JC (JCV T-antigen). This first demonstration of nuclear IRS-1 was confirmed in several other laboratories. The nuclear IRS-1 was also detected by cells expressing the SV40 T-antigen, v-Src, in immortalized fibroblasts stimulated with IGF-I, in hepatocytes, 32D cells, and in an osteosarcoma cell line. More recently, nuclear IRS-1 was detected in breast cancer cells in association with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and in JC virus negative medulloblastoma cells expressing ERβ, further implicating nuclear IRS-1 in cellular transformation. Here, we discuss how nuclear IRS-1 acting on DNA repair fidelity, transcriptional activity, and cell growth can support tumor development and progression. PMID:22454254

  16. HWIL IR imaging testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinson, R. J.; Passwater, R. D.

    1981-03-01

    The Army simulator facilities are presently configured to conduct hardware-in-the-loop mission tasks on the HELLFIRE and COPPERHEAD missile systems. These systems presently use a LASER seeker. The facility is an ideal candidate to be converted to include infrared (IR) seekers used on the TGSM system. This study investigates the possibility and impact of a facility update. This report documents the feasibility of developing a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) hybrid simulation incorporating infrared IR seekers used for the Assault Breaker program. Other hardware to be considered are the autopilot, signal conditioning, signal processing, and actuators which may be integrated into the system simulation. Considerations are given to replacing all or elements of hardware while substituting math models in the system simulation.

  17. Application of sonic IR imaging in civil structure health assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qi; Han, Xiaoyan

    2012-05-01

    Sonic Infrared (Sonic IR) Imaging is a novel NDE technology. It employs an ultrasonic transducer to excite samples with a short pulse of 15 - 40 kHz sound. This short pulse of high power sound will excite the crack and cause the crack surfaces to rub and generate heat. An Infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change caused by the friction heating and therefore 'sees' the crack. We have seen promising results with Sonic IR imaging on both metal and composite structures including turbine discs, turbine blades and airplane fuselage panels. We have also explored new applications with Sonic IR technology. In this paper, the authors present the results of Sonic IR imaging technology applied on large size civil engineering structures. Results from multiple experiments have also shown the potential of Sonic IR technology as a future tool of structure health monitoring (SHM). With further development, Sonic IR could play an important role as a SHM tool for civil infrastructure health assurance [1].

  18. Nighttime IR Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Today's crater is slightly older than one shown yesterday. The ballistically emplaced ejecta is now a uniform gray tone in this nighttime IR image. With time dust will cover young surfaces and control the IR image tone. This crater is located east of Huygens Crater.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -10.6, Longitude 64.3 East (295.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. IR nanoscale spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Eamonn; Yarrow, Fiona; Rice, James H.

    2011-10-01

    Sub diffraction limited infrared absorption imaging was applied to hemoglobin by coupling IR optics with an atomic force microscope. Comparisons between the AFM topography and IR absorption images of micron sized hemoglobin features are presented, along with nanoscale IR spectroscopic analysis of the metalloprotein.

  20. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    PubMed

    White, M F

    1994-02-01

    IRS-1 is a principal substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. It undergoes multi-site tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates the insulin signal by associating with various signaling molecules containing Src homology 2 domains. Interleukin-4 also stimulates IRS-1 phosphorylation, and it is suspected that a few more growth factors or cytokines will be added to form a select group of receptors that utilize the IRS-1 signaling pathway. More IRS-1-like adapter molecules, such as 4PS (IRS-2), may remain to be found.

  1. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, datamore » analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.« less

  2. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, data analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.

  3. Tumor diagnostics using fiber optical IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Harald; Bindig, Uwe; Waesche, Wolfgang; Liebold, K.; Roggan, Andre; Frege, P.; Gross, U. M.; Mueller, G.

    1999-04-01

    Aim of the project is the development of an in vivo endoscopic method to differentiate between cancerous from healthy tissue. The method is based on IR spectra in which each diseased state of the tissue has its own characteristic pattern as already shown in previous experiments. Two regions (1245 - 1195) cm-1 and (1045 - 995) cm-1 within the fingerprint (less than 1500 cm-1) region were selected for analysis. This paper will present the technical design of the laboratory set up and outcome of the development as well as the experiments. Two lead-salt diode lasers were used as excitation sources. The IR-radiation was transmitted via silverhalide fibers to the tissue to be investigated. On the detection side another IR fiber was used to transmit the signal to an MCT-detector (Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride). Measurement modes are Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and diffuse Reflection/Remission. Spatial resolution was 100 X 100 micrometer2. The tissue used for these experiments was human colon carcinoma under humidity conditions. Samples were mapped using a stepper motor powered x/y/z-translation stage with a resolution of 1 micrometer. Results were compared with measurements carried out using a FTIR-interferometer and an FTIR-microscope in the region from 4000 - 900 cm-1. Soft- and Hardware control of the experiment is done using Labwindows/CVI (National Instruments, USA).

  4. Spectroscopy and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, H.L.

    1993-12-01

    Spectroscopy, energy transfer and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules are studied through a combination of laser-based excitation techniques and efficient detection of emission from the energized molecules with frequency and time resolution. Specifically, a Time-resolved Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy technique has been developed for detecting dispersed laser-induced fluorescence in the IR, visible and UV regions. The structure and spectroscopy of the excited vibrational levels in the electronic ground state, as well as energy relaxation and reactions induced by specific vibronic excitations of a transient molecule can be characterized from time-resolved dispersed fluorescence in the visible and UV region. IR emissions from highly vibrational excited levels, on the other hand, reveal the pathways and rates of collision induced vibrational energy transfer.

  5. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    PubMed

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  6. SERS, FT-Raman and FT-IR studies of dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylrajan, M.

    1995-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of dimethyl and diehtyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC and DEDTC) ions were obtained with different wavelength excitations in citrate reduced silver sol and compared with FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra. The red wavelength excitation shows large enhancement compared to green excitation. SERS spectra were compared with normal Raman spectra in both solid and solution form and assignments were made.

  7. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  8. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490

  9. Collective Autoionization in Multiply-Excited Systems: A novel ionization process observed in Helium Nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    LaForge, A. C.; Drabbels, M.; Brauer, N. B.; Coreno, M.; Devetta, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Finetti, P.; Grazioli, C.; Katzy, R.; Lyamayev, V.; Mazza, T.; Mudrich, M.; O'Keeffe, P.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Piseri, P.; Plekan, O.; Prince, K. C.; Richter, R.; Stranges, S.; Callegari, C.; Möller, T.; Stienkemeier, F.

    2014-01-01

    Free electron lasers (FELs) offer the unprecedented capability to study reaction dynamics and image the structure of complex systems. When multiple photons are absorbed in complex systems, a plasma-like state is formed where many atoms are ionized on a femtosecond timescale. If multiphoton absorption is resonantly-enhanced, the system becomes electronically-excited prior to plasma formation, with subsequent decay paths which have been scarcely investigated to date. Here, we show using helium nanodroplets as an example that these systems can decay by a new type of process, named collective autoionization. In addition, we show that this process is surprisingly efficient, leading to ion abundances much greater than that of direct single-photon ionization. This novel collective ionization process is expected to be important in many other complex systems, e.g. macromolecules and nanoparticles, exposed to high intensity radiation fields. PMID:24406316

  10. Optical/IR from ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Stephen; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Wolff, Sidney; Ahearn, Michael F.; Angel, J. Roger; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Carney, Bruce W.; Conti, Peter S.; Edwards, Suzan; Grasdalen, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Optical/infrared (O/IR) astronomy in the 1990's is reviewed. The following subject areas are included: research environment; science opportunities; technical development of the 1980's and opportunities for the 1990's; and ground-based O/IR astronomy outside the U.S. Recommendations are presented for: (1) large scale programs (Priority 1: a coordinated program for large O/IR telescopes); (2) medium scale programs (Priority 1: a coordinated program for high angular resolution; Priority 2: a new generation of 4-m class telescopes); (3) small scale programs (Priority 1: near-IR and optical all-sky surveys; Priority 2: a National Astrometric Facility); and (4) infrastructure issues (develop, purchase, and distribute optical CCDs and infrared arrays; a program to support large optics technology; a new generation of large filled aperture telescopes; a program to archive and disseminate astronomical databases; and a program for training new instrumentalists)

  11. Results of IR working group

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D. |

    1992-03-01

    The IP luminosity at the Eloisatron will direct very large fluxes of hadronic debris into the IR quads. For instance at 1.10{sup 35} cm{sup 2}/sec the flux corresponds to 180 kilowatts. Already at the SSC fluxes in the neighborhood of 2 kilowatts are expected to require special handling. Scaling from SSC design experience we propose a configuration for the first IR quads at the Eloisatron capable of handling the heat load and radiation problems.

  12. Acoustically excited heated jets. 1: Internal excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Ahuja, K. K.; Brown, W. H.; Salikuddin, M.; Morris, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of relatively strong upstream acoustic excitation on the mixing of heated jets with the surrounding air are investigated. To determine the extent of the available information on experiments and theories dealing with acoustically excited heated jets, an extensive literature survey was carried out. The experimental program consisted of flow visualization and flowfield velocity and temperature measurements for a broad range of jet operating and flow excitation conditions. A 50.8-mm-diam nozzle was used for this purpose. Parallel to the experimental study, an existing theoretical model of excited jets was refined to include the region downstream of the jet potential core. Excellent agreement was found between theory and experiment in moderately heated jets. However, the theory has not yet been confirmed for highly heated jets. It was found that the sensitivity of heated jets to upstream acoustic excitation varies strongly with the jet operating conditions and that the threshold excitation level increases with increasing jet temperature. Furthermore, the preferential Strouhal number is found not to change significantly with a change of the jet operating conditions. Finally, the effects of the nozzle exit boundary layer thickness appear to be similar for both heated and unheated jets at low Mach numbers.

  13. WFC3 UVIS & IR photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana

    2013-10-01

    This program's goals are : A} Monitor the photometric throughput in all WFC3 UVIS and IR filters during Cycle 21 GO programs, measure zeropoints and determine color term corrections. The data provide a monitor of the UVIS/IR flux stability as a function of time, wavelength and source brightness. This is a continuation of Program 13089.B} Monitor effects of contamination in all WFC3 IR filters. This is a continuation of Cy17-Cy20 contamination monitor programs. WFC3 UVIS:Observations of stars GD153 and P330E are obtained in subarrays at each of the four corners of the UVIS imager to monitor changes in the filter transmission in all the UV filters and to provide a monitor for the zeropoints, and color transformation terms2 stars, Amps B & CWFC3 IR: Observations of GD153 and P330E are obtained in subarray mode for all IR filters 2 stars, subarray mode, 1 orbit each, interleaved with observations of GRW+70Observations of GRW+70 are obtained in subarray mode for all IR filters1 star, subarray mode, 2 orbits separated by 6 months.Orbits required: 17 orbits for zeropoints, 2 orbits for contamination monitor.

  14. Anisotropic interactions opposing magnetocrystalline anisotropy in Sr3NiIrO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrançois, E.; Pradipto, A.-M.; Moretti Sala, M.; Chapon, L. C.; Simonet, V.; Picozzi, S.; Lejay, P.; Petit, S.; Ballou, R.

    2016-06-01

    We report our investigation of the electronic and magnetic excitations of Sr3NiIrO6 by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the Ir L3 edge. The intra-t2 g electronic transitions are analyzed using an atomic model, including spin-orbit coupling and trigonal distortion of the IrO6 octahedron, confronted with ab initio quantum chemistry calculations. The Ir spin-orbital entanglement is quantified and its implications for the magnetic properties, in particular in inducing highly anisotropic magnetic interactions, are highlighted. These are included in the spin-wave model proposed to account for the dispersionless magnetic excitation that we observe at 90 m e V . By counterbalancing the strong Ni2 + easy-plane anisotropy that manifests itself at high temperature, the anisotropy of the interactions finally leads to the remarkable easy-axis magnetism reported in this material at low temperature.

  15. Excited state dependent electron transfer of a rhenium-dipyridophenazine complex intercalated between the base pairs of DNA: a time-resolved UV-visible and IR absorption investigation into the photophysics of fac-[Re(CO)3(F2dppz)(py)]+ bound to either [poly(dA-dT)]2 or [poly(dG-dC)]2.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian; Creely, Caitriona M; Davies, E Stephen; Dyer, Joanne; Easun, Timothy L; Grills, David C; McGovern, David A; McMaster, Jonathan; Pitchford, Jonathan; Smith, Jayden A; Sun, Xue-Zhong; Kelly, John M; George, Michael W

    2011-08-01

    The transient species formed following excitation of fac-[Re(CO)(3)(F(2)dppz)(py)](+) (F(2)dppz = 11,12-difluorodipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) bound to double-stranded polynucleotides [poly(dA-dT)](2) or [poly(dG-dC)](2) have been studied by transient visible and infra-red spectroscopy in both the picosecond and nanosecond time domains. The latter technique has been used to monitor both the metal complex and the DNA by monitoring the regions 1900-2100 and 1500-1750 cm(-1) respectively. These data provide direct evidence for electron transfer from guanine to the excited state of the metal complex, which proceeds both on a sub-picosecond time scale and with a lifetime of 35 ps, possibly due to the involvement of two excited states. No electron transfer is found for the [poly(dA-dT)](2) complex, although characteristic changes are seen in the DNA-region TRIR consistent with changes in the binding of the bases in the intercalation site upon excitation of the dppz-complex.

  16. IR fiber sources for scene projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, L. B.; Sanghera, J. S.; Aggarwal, I. D.

    2007-04-01

    Naval Research Laboratory has developed IR transmitting fiber and IR fiber sources which can be used for HWIL testing. IR transmitting fiber is capable of broad transmission from near IR to LWIR and can be formed into bundles for imaging. IR fiber sources are based on rare earth doped glass or nonlinear processes in the glass and are cable of high brightness IR emission. Recently, NRL developed a four emitter MWIR fiber source which is capable of high temperature simulation, high dynamic range, and fast response. New broadband fiber sources based upon IR supercontinuum generation in IR fibers are also being developed. In this paper, we will report on these technologies.

  17. Single photon excimer laser photodissociation of highly vibrationally excited polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Tiee, J.J.; Wampler, F.B.; Rice, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    The ir + uv photodissociation of SF/sub 6/ has been performed using CO/sub 2/ and ArF lasers. The two-color photolysis significantly enhances the photodissociation process over ArF irradiation alone and is found to preserve the initial isotopic specificity of the ir excitation process.

  18. Infrared/ultraviolet quadruple resonance spectroscopy to investigate structures of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, M.; Bartl, K.; Gerhards, M.

    2012-03-21

    Molecular beam investigations in combination with IR/UV spectroscopy offer the possibility to obtain structural information on isolated molecules and clusters. One of the demanding tasks is the discrimination of different isomers, e.g., by the use of isomer specific UV excitations. If this discrimination fails due to overlaying UV spectra of different isomers, IR/IR methods offer another possibility. Here, we present a new IR/UV/IR/UV quadruple resonance technique to distinguish between different isomers especially in the electronically excited state. Due to the IR spectra, structural changes and photochemical pathways in excited states can be assigned and identified. The method is applied to the dihydrated cluster of 3-hydroxyflavone which has been investigated as photochemically relevant system and proton wire model in the S{sub 1} state. By applying the new IR/UV/IR/UV technique, we are able to show experimentally that both in the electronic ground (S{sub 0}) and the electronically excited state (S{sub 1}) two isomers have to be assigned.

  19. Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.

  20. Performance of a high-resolution mid-IR optical-parametric-oscillator transient absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Echebiri, Geraldine O; Smarte, Matthew D; Walters, Wendell W; Mullin, Amy S

    2014-06-16

    We report on a mid-IR optical parametric oscillator (OPO)-based high resolution transient absorption spectrometer for state-resolved collisional energy transfer. Transient Doppler-broadened line profiles at λ = 3.3 μm are reported for HCl R7 transitions following gas-phase collisions with vibrationally excited pyrazine. The instrument noise, analyzed as a function of IR wavelength across the absorption line, is as much as 10 times smaller than in diode laser-based measurements. The reduced noise is attributed to larger intensity IR light that has greater intensity stability, which in turn leads to reduced detector noise and better frequency locking for the OPO.

  1. Disordered dimer state in electron-doped Sr3Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tom; Dally, Rebecca; Upton, Mary; Clancy, J. P.; Finkelstein, Kenneth; Kim, Young-June; Graf, M. J.; Wilson, Stephen D.

    2016-09-01

    Spin excitations are explored in the electron-doped spin-orbit Mott insulator (Sr1-xLax) 3Ir2O7 . As this bilayer square lattice system is doped into the metallic regime, long-range antiferromagnetism vanishes, yet a spectrum of gapped spin excitation remains. Excitation lifetimes are strongly damped with increasing carrier concentration, and the energy-integrated spectral weight becomes nearly momentum independent as static spin order is suppressed. Local magnetic moments, absent in the parent system, grow in metallic samples and approach values consistent with one J =1/2 impurity per electron doped. Our combined data suggest that the magnetic spectra of metallic (Sr1-xLax) 3Ir2O7 are best described by excitations out of a disordered dimer state.

  2. Dealing confidently with IRS, Part I: Preparing for IRS audits.

    PubMed

    Holub, S F; Walker, S R

    1978-10-01

    With the IRS apparently making health care institutions the focus of a nationwide audit emphasis, hospital administrators will want to prepare themselves for confident handling of audits. Four types of audit procedures are explained, suggestions are made for getting a hospital ready for an audit, and strategies are suggested for maintaining control over the audit's progress.

  3. Detection of IR target by fusing multispectral IR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liya; Qi, Meng; Gao, Xuhui

    2011-08-01

    Detection of the small target in clutter, usually regarded as singular points in the infrared image, is an important issue in infrared searching and tracking (IRST) system. Because of the far range of the target to the sensor, the stealth technology, the effects of inherent sensor noise and the phenomena of nature, the target is more difficult to be detected. Multispectral sensor system has been proved it could greatly improve detection of the small, hard-to-find targets by multispectral processing techniques (such as sensor or image fusion). Aiming at the problem of multispectral IR Target Detection, a kind method of the multispectral IR target detection is proposed, based on the existed detection systems. In this method, the image registration is done firstly to make the different sensors have a same scene. Then, a fusion rule, named as adaptive weighted voting theory, is developed to combine the target detection results from the different spectral sensors. The adaptive weighted voting theory can give the different weights, based on the different spectral IR characteristics, and these weights decide the detected target is identified as real target or background. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the detection uncertainty and improve the detection performance. Compared with the single spectral detection results and the others fusion detection methods, it can decrease the lost alarm rate and the false alarm rate effectively. The proposed method has been employed in our IR surveillance system, and it is easy to be used in the various circumstances.

  4. New IR detectors pig-tailed with IR fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artiouchenko, Viatcheslav G.; Chekanova, Galina V.; Lartsev, Ivan Y.; Lobachev, Vladimir A.; Nikitine, Mikhail S.

    2003-09-01

    New generation of Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) high performance infrared radiation (IR) detectors with IR-fiber input has been developed and fabricated. This new product is originated from 25 years experience in MCT detectors and IR fiber optics technologies. Range of products includes single- and multi-element detectors designed for registration of optical signals in spectral range from 2 to 18 μm. Detectors design is integrated or modular and includes package, sensitive element, cooling system, operating temperature sensor, optical components such as narrow band-pass filter and/or lens and/or different kind of optical window, optical connection unit and fiber pig-tail or fiber cable. Cooling system options include thermoelectric cooler, long-holding time dewar filled with liquid nitrogen, Joule-Thomson micro-liquidizer and Stirling-cycle cooler. Registered infrared radiation is delivered to sensitive area of detector through either Polycrystalline InfraRed (PIR-) Fiber (4 - 18 μm) or Chalcogenide IR-glass (CIR-) Fiber (2 - 6 μm). Unique feature intrinsic to Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT) alloys to form continuous series of alloy compositions "x" with proportionally changed energy gap Eg(x,T) allows to tune spectral responsivity of detector sensitive element with ordered spectral range and hence to use every time the highest sensitive detector.

  5. Localized excitations in hydrogen-bonded molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Krumhansl, J. A.

    1986-05-01

    Localized excitations analogous to the small Holstein polaron, to localized modes in alkali halides, and to localized excitonic states, are postulated for a set of internal vibrational modes in crystalline acetanilide. The theoretical framework in which one can describe the characteristics of the ir and Raman spectroscopy peaks associated with these localized states is adequately provided by the Davydov model (formally equivalent to the Holstein polaron model). The possible low-lying excitations arising from this model are determined using a variational approach. Hence, the contribution to the spectral function due to each type of excitation can be calculated. The internal modes of chief concern here are the amide-I (CO stretch) and the N-H stretch modes for which we demonstrate consistency of the theoretical model with the available ir data. Past theoretical approaches will be discussed and reasons why one should prefer one description over another will be examined.

  6. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  7. The triplet excited state of Bodipy: formation, modulation and application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianzhang; Xu, Kejing; Yang, Wenbo; Wang, Zhijia; Zhong, Fangfang

    2015-12-21

    Boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) is one of the most extensively investigated organic chromophores. Most of the investigations are focused on the singlet excited state of Bodipy, such as fluorescence. In stark contrast, the study of the triplet excited state of Bodipy is limited, but it is an emerging area, since the triplet state of Bodipy is tremendously important for several areas, such as the fundamental photochemistry study, photodynamic therapy (PDT), photocatalysis and triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion. The recent developments in the study of the production, modulation and application of the triplet excited state of Bodipy are discussed in this review article. The formation of the triplet state of Bodipy upon photoexcitation, via the well known approach such as the heavy atom effect (including I, Br, Ru, Ir, etc.), and the new methods, such as using a spin converter (e.g. C60), charge recombination, exciton coupling and the doubly substituted excited state, are summarized. All the Bodipy-based triplet photosensitizers show strong absorption of visible or near IR light and the long-lived triplet excited state, which are important for the application of the triplet excited state in PDT or photocatalysis. Moreover, the methods for switching (or modulation) of the triplet excited state of Bodipy were discussed, such as those based on the photo-induced electron transfer (PET), by controlling the competing Förster-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET), or the intermolecular charge transfer (ICT). Controlling the triplet excited state will give functional molecules such as activatable PDT reagents or molecular devices. It is worth noting that switching of the singlet excited state and the triplet state of Bodipy may follow different principles. Application of the triplet excited state of Bodipy in PDT, hydrogen (H2) production, photoredox catalytic organic reactions and TTA upconversion were discussed. The challenges and the opportunities in these areas were

  8. Concealing compensation from the IRS.

    PubMed

    Burda, D; Greene, J

    1991-01-28

    Tougher reporting requirements from the Internal Revenue Service are prompting some not-for-profit hospitals to seek ways to hide compensation arrangements from the public and the media. Critics believe those tactics could get hospitals in hot water with the law, especially now that the IRS has launched a new, aggressive auditing offensive.

  9. Pirmoji ir antroji kauno trianguliacijos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girkus, Romualdas; Urbanavičius, Valdas

    2010-01-01

    Miesto planų sudarymo reikmėms atramos punktų tinklas tarpukariu Europos valstybėse buvo formuojamas trianguliacijos metodu. Kauno pirmą kartą 1924 m. jis buvo suprojektuotas iš 36 punktų, fiksuotas vietovėje ir išmatuotas inž. Z. Bačelio. Sudarytas trianguliacijos tinklas apėmė tuometinę Vilijampolės, Aleksoto, Žaliakalnio, Naujamiesčio ir Žemųjų Šančių teritoriją. Kaunas, tapęs laikinąja sostine, sparčiai augo, dėl to pirmoji trianguliacija netenkino poreikių: dauguma punktų vietovėje nebuvo išsaugoti, miestas dvigubai išsiplėtė, dėl naudotų geodezinių prietaisų nepakankamas buvo punktų tikslumas. Naujas tinklas buvo suprojektuotas taip, kad vienam punktui vidutini\\vskai tektų vienas kvadratinis kilometras miesto ploto ir būtų užtikrintas įtvirtintų punktų 10 cm ribinis tikslumas. Kauno antrosios trianguliacijos realizavimo nuopelnai priskirtini Kauno savivaldybės Matavimų dalies specialistams - vedėjui J. Deksniui ir jo pavaduotojui J. Ašmonui.

  10. IR Variability During a Shell Ejection of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2006-02-01

    Every 5.5 years, η Carinae experiences a dramatic ``spectroscopic event'' when high-excitation lines in its UV, optical, and IR spectrum disappear, and its hard X-ray and radio continuum flux crash. This periodicity has been attributed to a very eccentric binary system with a shell ejection occurring at periastron. Mid-IR images and spectra with T-ReCS are needed to measure changes in the current bolometric luminosity and to trace dust formation episodes. This will provide a direct estimate of the mass ejected. Near-IR emission lines trace related changes in the post-event wind and ionization changes in the circumstellar environment needed to test specific models for the cause of η Car's variability as it recovers from its recent ``event''. High resolution near-IR spectra with GNIRS will continue the important work of HST/STIS, investigating changes in the direct and reflected spectrum of the stellar wind, and ionization changes in the nebula. The complex kinematic structure of η Car's ejecta also holds important clues to its mass ejection history, and is essential for interpreting other data. Phoenix can provide a unique kinematic map of the complex density and time-variable ionization structure of η Car's nebula, which is our best example of the pre-explosion environment of very massive stars.

  11. Two-Step Processes and IR Recording in Photorefractive Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzig, Eckhard; Buse, Karsten

    Two-step excitation processes have been used for hologram storage in photorefractive crystals. By this means the interference pattern can be formed with red or near-IR light and nondestructive readout of information is possible. Often shallow levels are involved in the holographic recording process in photorefractive crystals. The shallow levels can be populated by illumination with visible or UV pulses forming states with relatively long lifetimes, thus sensitizing the crystals for holographic recording with IR pulses. In LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 the most important shallow levels have been identified. They result from NbLi^5+ and TaLi^5+ antisite defects (Nb5+ or Ta5+ on Li+ site). The crystals can also be pre-illuminated with visible light from a cw argon laser or a xenon lamp and holograms can be recorded with red light from a laser diode. The sensitization process is possible for other photorefractive crystals, too. The holograms can be read nondestructively with IR light and can be erased with green light. The hologram lifetime is limited by electron tunneling or by an ionic conductivity. Lifetimes up to years can be achieved. Recording of components for telecommunication applications with IR light allows one to create reconfigurable and thus more versatile devices.

  12. The excitation of O2 in auroras.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W.

    1972-01-01

    Newly measured electron impact cross sections for excitation of the a super 1 Delta sub g and b super 1 Sigma (plus) sub g electronic states of O2 have been employed to predict the absolute volume emission rates from these states under auroral conditions. A secondary electron flux typical of an IBC II nighttime aurora was used, and the most important quenching processes were included in the calculations. The new excitation cross sections for the a super 1 Delta sub g and b super 1 Sigma (plus) sub g states are more than an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates and lead to correspondingly greater intensities in the atmospheric and IR atmospheric band systems. The calculated intensity ratios of the volume emission rates of 7621 A and 1.27 micron to that for 3914 A are smaller than those obtained from aircraft observations and recent rocket experiments.

  13. IR OPTICS MEASUREMENT WITH LINEAR COUPLING'S ACTION-ANGLE PARAMETERIZATION.

    SciTech Connect

    LUO, Y.; BAI, M.; PILAT, R.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2005-05-16

    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics.

  14. 8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER No. 2., AND GENERATOR UNITS BEHIND EXCITER No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. EXCITER No. 1 GENERATOR HAS A COVER OVER TOP HALF OF COMMUTATOR ELEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. Dust processing in photodissociation regions. Mid-IR emission modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compiègne, M.; Abergel, A.; Verstraete, L.; Habart, E.

    2008-12-01

    Context: Mid-infrared spectroscopy of dense illuminated ridges (or photodissociation regions, PDRs) suggests dust evolution. Such evolution must be reflected in the gas physical properties through processes like photo-electric heating or H2 formation. Aims: With Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and ISOCAM data, we study the mid-IR emission of closeby, well known PDRs. Focusing on the band and continuum dust emissions, we follow their relative contributions and analyze their variations in terms of abundance of dust populations. Methods: In order to disentangle dust evolution and excitation effects, we use a dust emission model that we couple to radiative transfer. Our dust model reproduces extinction and emission of the standard interstellar medium that we represent with diffuse high galactic latitude clouds called Cirrus. We take the properties of dust in Cirrus as a reference to which we compare the dust emission from more excited regions, namely the Horsehead and the reflection nebula NGC 2023 North. Results: We show that in both regions, radiative transfer effects cannot account for the observed spectral variations. We interpret these variations in term of changes of the relative abundance between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mid-IR band carriers) and very small grains (VSGs, mid-IR continuum carriers). Conclusions: We conclude that the PAH/VSG abundance ratio is 2.4 times smaller at the peak emission of the Horsehead nebula than in the Cirrus case. For NGC 2023 North where spectral evolution is observed across the northern PDR, we conclude that this ratio is ~5 times lower in the dense, cold zones of the PDR than in its diffuse illuminated part where dust properties seem to be the same as in Cirrus. We conclude that dust in PDRs seems to evolve from “dense” to “diffuse” properties at the small spatial scale of the dense illuminated ridge.

  16. Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles for minimizing Ir utilization in oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jinkyu; Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Chanyeon; Roh, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-04-25

    Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained bimetallic nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Ir mass activity and durability compared with Ir nanoparticles. PMID:27034092

  17. 16. EXCITERS, AND SYNCHROSCOPE GAUGE ON WALL. ACTIVE ELECTRIC EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EXCITERS, AND SYNCHROSCOPE GAUGE ON WALL. ACTIVE ELECTRIC EXCITER AT REAR; UNUSED WATER-DRIVEN EXCITER IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. Ir/IrSi3/Si Schottky-Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1991-01-01

    Quantum efficiency increased. Proposed Schottky-barrier infrared detector has double metallic layer of Ir and IrSi3 instead of single metallic layer of Ir, IrSi, or IrSi3. Offers advantages of both relatively high infrared absorption in thin film of Ir and stability and reproducibility of layer of IrSi3 in contact with Si. Also serves as barrier to chemical reactions between Ir overlayer and Si substrate. Detectors used to form focal-plane array integrated with charge-coupled-device-addressing and image-processing circuitry.

  19. IRS memorandum limits joint ventures.

    PubMed

    Herman, A W

    1992-08-01

    Based on a new memorandum, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will be looking at joint hospital/physician activities with greater attention to the nuances of public versus private benefit. As a result, hospitals face greater risk of losing their tax-exempt status in the maze of joint ventures, physician recruitment, and practice acquisition. To be successful, ventures will have to be backed by sound reasoning and thorough documentation.

  20. High temperature Ir segregation in Ir-B ceramics: Effect of oxygen presence on stability of IrB2 and other Ir-B phases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xie, Zhilin; Terracciano, Anthony C.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina

    2015-05-13

    The formation of IrB2, IrB1.35, IrB1.1 and IrB monoboride phases in the Ir–B ceramic nanopowder was confirmed during mechanochemical reaction between metallic Ir and elemental B powders. The Ir–B phases were analysed after 90 h of high energy ball milling and after annealing of the powder for 72 h at 1050°C in vacuo. The iridium monoboride (IrB) orthorhombic phase was synthesised experimentally for the first time and identified by powder X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the ReB2 type IrB2 hexagonal phase was also produced for the first time and identified by high resolution transmission electron microscope. Ir segregation along disordered domains ofmore » the boron lattice was found to occur during high temperature annealing. Furthermore, these nanodomains may have useful catalytic properties.« less

  1. Efficient enhancement of the visible-light absorption of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes triplet photosensitizers with Bodipy and applications in photooxidation and triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jifu; Zhong, Fangfang; Yi, Xiuyu; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2013-06-01

    We report molecular designing strategies to enhance the effective visible-light absorption of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes. Cationic cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes were prepared in which boron-dipyrromethene (Bodipy) units were attached to the 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligand via -C≡C- bonds at either the meso-phenyl (Ir-2) or 2 position of the π core of Bodipy (Ir-3). For the first time the effect of π conjugating (Ir-3) or tethering (Ir-2) of a light-harvesting chromophore to the coordination center on the photophysical properties was compared in detail. Ir(ppy)2(bpy) (Ir-1; ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) was used as model complex, which gives the typical weak absorption in visible range (ε < 4790 M(-1) cm(-1) in region > 400 nm). Ir-2 and Ir-3 showed much stronger absorption in the visible range (ε = 71,400 M(-1) cm(-1) at 499 nm and 83,000 M(-1) cm(-1) at 527 nm, respectively). Room-temperature phosphorescence was only observed for Ir-1 (λ(em) = 590 nm) and Ir-3 (λ(em) = 742 nm). Ir-3 gives RT phosphorescence of the Bodipy unit. On the basis of the 77 K emission spectra, nanosecond transient absorption spectra, and spin density analysis, we proposed that Bodipy-localized long-lived triplet excited states were populated for Ir-2 (τT = 23.7 μs) and Ir-3 (87.2 μs). Ir-1 gives a much shorter triplet-state lifetime (0.35 μs). Complexes were used as singlet oxygen ((1)O2) photosensitizers in photooxidation. The (1)O2 quantum yield of Ir-3 (ΦΔ = 0.97) is ca. 2-fold of Ir-2 (ΦΔ = 0.52). Complexes were also used as triplet photosensitizer for TTA upconversion; upconversion quantum yields of 1.2% and 2.8% were observed for Ir-2 and Ir-3, respectively. Our results proved that the strong absorption of visible light of Ir-2 failed to enhance production of a triplet excited state. These results are useful for designing transition metal complexes that show effective strong visible-light absorption and long-lived triplet excited states, which can be used as ideal

  2. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M 17 UC1 - IRS5 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nürnberger, Dieter E. A.; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact H ii region M 17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Methods: We use diffraction-limited near-IR (VLT/NACO) and mid-IR (VLT/VISIR) images to reveal the different morphologies at various wavelengths. Likewise, we investigate the stellar and nebular content of the region with VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy with a resolution R ˜ 1500 at H + K bands. Results: Five of the seven point sources in this region show L-band excess emission. A geometric match is found between the H2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H2 emission is typical for dense photodissociation regions (PDRs), which are initially far-ultraviolet pumped and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity LIR in the range 1-20 μm is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0 × 103 L⊙ for IRS5A, 13 L⊙ for IRS5C, and 10 L⊙ for B273A. Conclusions: IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (˜9 M⊙, ˜1 × 105 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedback from stellar activities (radiation pressure, outflow) and the expanding H ii region of M 17. The object UC1 might also have terminated accretion because of the expanding hypercompact H ii region, which it ionizes. The disk clearing process of the low-mass young stellar objects in this region might be accelerated by the expanding H ii region. The outflows driven by UC1 are running south-north with its northeastern side suppressed by the expanding ionization front of M 17; the blue-shifted outflow lobe of IRS5A is seen in two types of tracers along the same line of sight in the form of H2 emission

  3. A COMPARATIVE ASTROCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE HIGH-MASS PROTOSTELLAR OBJECTS NGC 7538 IRS 9 AND IRS 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barentine, John C.; Lacy, John H.

    2012-10-01

    We report the results of a spectroscopic study of the high-mass protostellar object NGC 7538 IRS 9 and compare our observations to published data on the nearby object NGC 7538 IRS 1. Both objects originated in the same molecular cloud and appear to be at different points in their evolutionary histories, offering an unusual opportunity to study the temporal evolution of envelope chemistry in objects sharing a presumably identical starting composition. Observations were made with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph, a sensitive, high spectral resolution (R {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx_equal} 100,000) mid-infrared grating spectrometer. Forty-six individual lines in vibrational modes of the molecules C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCN, NH{sub 3}, and CO were detected, including two isotopologues ({sup 13}CO, {sup 12}C{sup 18}O) and one combination mode ({nu}{sub 4} + {nu}{sub 5} C{sub 2}H{sub 2}). Fitting synthetic spectra to the data yielded the Doppler shift, excitation temperature, Doppler b parameter, column density, and covering factor for each molecule observed; we also computed column density upper limits for lines and species not detected, such as HNCO and OCS. We find differences among spectra of the two objects likely attributable to their differing radiation and thermal environments. Temperatures and column densities for the two objects are generally consistent, while the larger line widths toward IRS 9 result in less saturated lines than those toward IRS 1. Finally, we compute an upper limit on the size of the continuum-emitting region ({approx}2000 AU) and use this constraint and our spectroscopy results to construct a schematic model of IRS 9.

  4. A Comparative Astrochemical Study of the High-mass Protostellar Objects NGC 7538 IRS 9 and IRS 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, John C.; Lacy, John H.

    2012-10-01

    We report the results of a spectroscopic study of the high-mass protostellar object NGC 7538 IRS 9 and compare our observations to published data on the nearby object NGC 7538 IRS 1. Both objects originated in the same molecular cloud and appear to be at different points in their evolutionary histories, offering an unusual opportunity to study the temporal evolution of envelope chemistry in objects sharing a presumably identical starting composition. Observations were made with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph, a sensitive, high spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ ~= 100,000) mid-infrared grating spectrometer. Forty-six individual lines in vibrational modes of the molecules C2H2, CH4, HCN, NH3, and CO were detected, including two isotopologues (13CO, 12C18O) and one combination mode (ν4 + ν5 C2H2). Fitting synthetic spectra to the data yielded the Doppler shift, excitation temperature, Doppler b parameter, column density, and covering factor for each molecule observed; we also computed column density upper limits for lines and species not detected, such as HNCO and OCS. We find differences among spectra of the two objects likely attributable to their differing radiation and thermal environments. Temperatures and column densities for the two objects are generally consistent, while the larger line widths toward IRS 9 result in less saturated lines than those toward IRS 1. Finally, we compute an upper limit on the size of the continuum-emitting region (~2000 AU) and use this constraint and our spectroscopy results to construct a schematic model of IRS 9.

  5. Develop algorithms to improve detectability of defects in Sonic IR imaging NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2016-02-01

    Sonic Infrared (IR) technology is relative new in the NDE family. It is a fast, wide area imaging method. It combines ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging while the former to apply ultrasound energy thus induce friction heating in defects and the latter to capture the IR emission from the target. This technology can detect both surface and subsurface defects such as cracks and disbands/delaminations in various materials, metal/metal alloy or composites. However, certain defects may results in only very small IR signature be buried in noise or heating patterns. In such cases, to effectively extract the defect signals becomes critical in identifying the defects. In this paper, we will present algorithms which are developed to improve the detectability of defects in Sonic IR.

  6. IR susceptibility of naval ships using ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitekunas, David A.

    2010-04-01

    Methods of analysing the signature and susceptibility of naval platforms to infrared detection are described. An unclassified ShipIR destroyer model is used to illustrate the primary sources of infrared signature and detection: the exhaust system, solar-heating, and operating climate. The basic detection algorithm used by the Naval Threat Countermeasure Simulator (NTCS) component of ShipIR is described and used to analyse the effectiveness of various stealth technologies: stack suppression, low solar absorptive (LSA) paints, and Active Hull Cooling (AHC). Standard marine climate statistics are used to determine a minimum (5%), average (50%) and maximum (95%) signature condition for each operating region. The change in detection range of two wave-band sensors (3-5μm, 8-12 μm) operating at different altitudes (10m, 270m) in each of four climatic conditions is used to assess the effectiveness of each stealth solution, providing a more integral approach to infrared stealth design. These tools and methods form the basis on which future platform designs are being evaluated.

  7. Excited states in DNA strands investigated by ultrafast laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinquan; Zhang, Yuyuan; Kohler, Bern

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser experiments on carefully selected DNA model compounds probe the effects of base stacking, base pairing, and structural disorder on excited electronic states formed by UV absorption in single and double DNA strands. Direct π-orbital overlap between two stacked bases in a dinucleotide or in a longer single strand creates new excited states that decay orders of magnitude more slowly than the generally subpicosecond excited states of monomeric bases. Half or more of all excited states in single strands decay in this manner. Ultrafast mid-IR transient absorption experiments reveal that the long-lived excited states in a number of model compounds are charge transfer states formed by interbase electron transfer, which subsequently decay by charge recombination. The lifetimes of the charge transfer states are surprisingly independent of how the stacked bases are oriented, but disruption of π-stacking, either by elevating temperature or by adding a denaturing co-solvent, completely eliminates this decay channel. Time-resolved emission measurements support the conclusion that these states are populated very rapidly from initial excitons. These experiments also reveal the existence of populations of emissive excited states that decay on the nanosecond time scale. The quantum yield of these states is very small for UVB/UVC excitation, but increases at UVA wavelengths. In double strands, hydrogen bonding between bases perturbs, but does not quench, the long-lived excited states. Kinetic isotope effects on the excited-state dynamics suggest that intrastrand electron transfer may couple to interstrand proton transfer. By revealing how structure and non-covalent interactions affect excited-state dynamics, on-going experimental and theoretical studies of excited states in DNA strands can advance understanding of fundamental photophysics in other nanoscale systems.

  8. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  9. Pyrene Fluorescence in Nanoaggregates Irradiated by IR Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclas, Hartmut; Komarov, Viacheslav V.; Popova, Anna M.; Schmidt, Lothar

    2014-12-01

    Pyrene fluorescence of a molecular donor-acceptor nanoaggregate induced by infrared (IR) radiation with λ =16 - 18 μm considered.We assume that this nanoaggregate consists of two molecules, exchanging energy by dipole-dipole interaction. The energy acceptor is an aromatic molecule. The other molecule, the energy donor, is assumed to contain a substructure CnH2n which serves as antenna for IR radiation. The antenna can accumulate collective vibrational excitations and transmit them to the acceptor molecule. Acceptor fluorescence is possible if the amount of transmitted energy is equal to the energy of its excited state in the visible part of the absorption spectrum. We analyse the fluorescence of a nanoaggregate consisting of a donor with a C5H10 substructure and pyrene molecules or pyrene dimers as acceptors. A method is proposed for determination of the `critical micelle concentration' (CMC), i. e. concentration of a dissolved polymer, for which the polymer molecules are beginning to aggregate.

  10. IR Variability of Eta Carinae: The 2009 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2008-08-01

    Every 5.5 years, η Carinae experiences a dramatic ``spectroscopic event'' when high-excitation lines in its UV, optical, and IR spectrum disappear, and its hard X-ray and radio continuum flux crash. This periodicity has been attributed to an eccentric binary system with a shell ejection occurring at periastron, and the next periastron event will occur in January 2009. The last event in June/July 2003 was poorly observed because the star was very low in the sky, but this next event is perfectly suited for an intense ground-based monitoring campaign. Mid-IR images and spectra with T-ReCS provide a direct measure of changes in the current bolometric luminosity and a direct measure of the mass in dust formation episodes that may occur at periastron in the colliding wind shock. Near-IR emission lines trace related changes in the post-event wind and ionization changes in the circumstellar environment needed to test specific models for the cause of η Car's variability as it recovers from its recent ``event''. Because the nebular geometry is known very well from previous observations in this program, monitoring the changes in nebular ionization will yield a 3-D map of the changing asymmetric UV radiation field geometry in the binary system, and the first estimate of the orientation of its orbit.

  11. Gold-black as IR Absorber and Solar Cell Enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peale, Robert E.; Cleary, Justin W.; Ishimaru, Manabu; Smith, C. W.; Baillie, K.; Colwell, J. E.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Joly, Alan G.; Edwards, Oliver; Fredricksen, C. J.

    2010-03-01

    Infrared absorbance and visible/near-IR excited plasmon resonances are investigated in gold-black, a porous nano-structured conducting film. A two level full factorial optimization study with evaporation-chamber pressure, boat current, substrate temperature, and degree of polymer infusion (for hardening) was performed. Polymer infusion was found generally to reduce absorbance in the long wave IR but has little effect at THz wavelengths, although for samples with the highest absorbance there is a slight improvement in the absorbance figure of merit (FOM) in both wavelength regimes. The characteristic length scales of the structured films vary considerably as a function of deposition parameters, but the IR FOM is found to be only weakly correlated with these distributions, which are determined by wavelet analysis of scanning electron micrographs images. Initial investigations of gold-black by photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) reveal plasmon resonances, which have potential to enhance the efficiency of thin film solar cells. For films with different characteristic length scales, the plasmon resonances appear in portions of the film with similar length scales.

  12. Resonance IR: a coherent multidimensional analogue of resonance Raman.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Erin S; Neff-Mallon, Nathan A; Handali, Jonathan D; Wright, John C

    2014-05-01

    This work demonstrates the use of triply resonant sum frequency (TRSF) spectroscopy as a "resonance IR" analogue to resonance Raman spectroscopy. TRSF is a four-wave-mixing process where three lasers with independent frequencies interact coherently with a sample to generate an output at their triple summation frequency. The first two lasers are in the infrared and result in two vibrational excitations, while the third laser is visible and induces a two-quantum anti-Stokes resonance Raman transition. The signal intensity grows when the laser frequencies are all in resonance with coupled vibrational and electronic states. The method therefore provides electronic enhancement of IR-active vibrational modes. These modes may be buried beneath solvent in the IR spectrum and also be Raman-inactive and therefore inaccessible by other techniques. The method is presented on the centrosymmetric complex copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate. In this study, the two vibrational frequencies were scanned across ring-breathing modes, while the visible frequency was left in resonance with the copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate Q band, resulting in a two-dimensional infrared plot that also reveals coupling between vibrational states. TRSF has the potential to be a very useful probe of structurally similar biological motifs such as hemes, as well as synthetic transition-metal complexes. PMID:24707979

  13. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. M-M bond-stretching energy landscapes for M2(dimen)4(2+) (M = Rh, Ir; dimen = 1,8-diisocyanomenthane) complexes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Bryan M; Villahermosa, Randy M; Exstrom, Christopher L; Hill, Michael G; Mann, Kent R; Gray, Harry B

    2012-06-18

    Isomers of Ir(2)(dimen)(4)(2+) (dimen = 1,8-diisocyanomenthane) exhibit different Ir-Ir bond distances in a 2:1 MTHF/EtCN solution (MTHF = 2-methyltetrahydrofuran). Variable-temperature absorption data suggest that the isomer with the shorter Ir-Ir distance is favored at room temperature [K = ∼8; ΔH° = -0.8 kcal/mol; ΔS° = 1.44 cal mol(-1) K(-1)]. We report calculations that shed light on M(2)(dimen)(4)(2+) (M = Rh, Ir) structural differences: (1) metal-metal interaction favors short distances; (2) ligand deformational-strain energy favors long distances; (3) out-of-plane (A(2u)) distortion promotes twisting of the ligand backbone at short metal-metal separations. Calculated potential-energy surfaces reveal a double minimum for Ir(2)(dimen)(4)(2+) (∼4.1 Å Ir-Ir with 0° twist angle and ∼3.6 Å Ir-Ir with ±12° twist angle) but not for the rhodium analogue (∼4.5 Å Rh-Rh with no twisting). Because both the ligand strain and A(2u) distortional energy are virtually identical for the two complexes, the strength of the metal-metal interaction is the determining factor. On the basis of the magnitude of this interaction, we obtain the following results: (1) a single-minimum (along the Ir-Ir coordinate), harmonic potential-energy surface for the triplet electronic excited state of Ir(2)(dimen)(4)(2+) (R(e,Ir-Ir) = 2.87 Å; F(Ir-Ir) = 0.99 mdyn Å(-1)); (2) a single-minimum, anharmonic surface for the ground state of Rh(2)(dimen)(4)(2+) (R(e,Rh-Rh) = 3.23 Å; F(Rh-Rh) = 0.09 mdyn Å(-1)); (3) a double-minimum (along the Ir-Ir coordinate) surface for the ground state of Ir(2)(dimen)(4)(2+) (R(e,Ir-Ir) = 3.23 Å; F(Ir-Ir) = 0.16 mdyn Å(-1)).

  16. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  17. Near-infrared spark source excitation for fluorescence lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, D. J. S.; Hungerford, G.; Imhof, R. E.

    1991-10-01

    We have extended the range of excitation wavelengths from spark sources used in single photon timing fluorometry into the near infrared by means of the all-metal coaxial flashlamp filled with an argon-hydrogen gas mixture. At 750 nm this mixture gives ˜15 times the intensity available from pure hydrogen for a comparable pulse duration. Measurements are demonstrated by using the laser dye IR-140 in acetone, for which a fluorescence lifetime of 1.20 ns is recorded.

  18. Decoherence at constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. M.; Sadurní, E.; Seligman, T. H.

    2012-02-01

    We present a simple exactly solvable extension of the Jaynes-Cummings model by adding dissipation. This is done such that the total number of excitations is conserved. The Liouville operator in the resulting master equation can be reduced to blocks of 4×4 matrices.

  19. Excited states in hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this brief review we first summarize some pertinent features of the photophysical properties of excited states of hydrocarbons and the mechanisms by which they transfer energy to solutes and then review their yields and their behavior under fast-electron irradiation conditions. 33 refs.

  20. Positron excitation of neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  1. Proton Transfer in Neutral Peptides Examined by Conformational Specific IR and UV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeqx, Sander; Oomens, Jos; Rijs, Anouk M.

    2012-06-01

    The combination of UV and IR spectroscopy offers a powerful probe to study molecular structure and intramolecular interactions. With resonance enhanced multi photon ionization (REMPI), the electronically excited state of biomolecules can be probed. As different conformations have different excited state energies, peaks in the REMPI spectrum can be attributed to different conformations. This allows us to perform conformation specific IR absorption spectroscopy using IR-UV ion-dip spectroscopy (IR-IDS) in the 1800-1000 cm-1 region by employing the free electron laser FELIX. IR-IDS in combination with DFT calculations allows us to determine the gas phase conformations of biomolecules. Here, we used these techniques on Z-Glu-OH and Z-Arg-OH to reveal their conformational structure and the possible presence of proton transfer. There is an ongoing debate on the gas phase structure of arginine. Proton transfer has been suggested to occur from the C-terminal COOH group to the guanidium side chain of arginine to form a zwitterion. Moreover, there can be two tautomers of canonical arginine. Here, we will elucidate the gas phase structure of arginine. In order to promote intramolecular proton transfer, we designed a peptide which contains both the most acid (Glu) as well as the most basic residue (Arg): Z-Glu-Arg-NHMe and Z-Glu-Ala_n-Arg-NHMe. Here, the occurrence of proton transfer will be probed via the carboxylic acid C=O stretch vibration.

  2. Dust Content in Compact HII Regions (NGC 7538 -- IRS 1, IRS 2, and IRS 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akabane, K.; Kuno, N.

    The luminosity of the central star in compact HII regions was estimated from the solid angle of the nearby IR sources subtended at the central star, to be 5 ˜ 10 times as intense as that of the IR sources. The luminosity gives the stellar UV photon rate, Nu(*)(s-1), under the assumption of a single star approximation. For gas of standard dust content, Nu(*) and the observed electron density, ne, provide the dust opacity of the ionizing photons, τSdn, along the optical path to the Strömgren sphere of radius rs. The ionizing photon opacity over the same optical path but with the actual dust content, τSdi, is also derived from Nu(*) and the observed emission measure, ne2(4 π/3)ri3, with ri of the radius of the ionized sphere. A relationship γNu(*)/(4 π ri2)1/2˜= 1.3 × 109 (s-1/2m-1) with γ= τSdi/ τSdn was obtained as an observational trend for the 4 compact HII regions of NGC7538(N). Fourteen selected compact HII regions from the data catalogued by VLA observations were examined for this trend, and a similar result was shown. A confined area within 1050 >= Nu (s-1, radio) >= 1044 and 15 >= γ >= 0.1 was proposed for the location of compact HII regions in their (ne - D) diagram.

  3. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju

    2012-04-01

    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  4. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging of human tissue sections towards improving pathology.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K; Nguyen, Peter L; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis.

  5. Invited Article: Multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2016-08-01

    Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR, and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal is pumped in the mid-IR. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed. The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS2 pumped in the 3-4 μm range with 85 fs 50 μJ pulse energy, with the broadest supercontinuum covering 1.6-7.0 μm. We measured up 30 μJ energy in the supercontinuum, and the energy promises to scale favorably with an increased pump energy. Other mid-IR crystals can readily be used as well to cover other pump wavelengths and target other supercontinuum wavelength ranges.

  6. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  7. Photonic crystals and Bragg gratings for the mid-IR and terahertz spectral ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Usikova, A. A. Il’inskaya, N. D.; Matveev, B. A.; Shubina, T. V.; Kop’ev, P. S.

    2013-12-15

    A method for the fabrication of 2D periodic structures by contact optical photolithography with image inversion is reported. The optical properties of photonic crystals and Bragg gratings for mid-IR and terahertz emitters are considered. The possibility of raising the integral emission intensity of light-emitting diodes for the mid-IR spectral range is demonstrated. The requirements to gratings for the output of terahertz emission generated by surface plasmons excited in layers of narrow-gap degenerate semiconductors with an accumulation layer are determined.

  8. IR properties of AGN and SB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talezade Lari, M. H.; Davoudifar, P.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Through multi-wavelength flux ratios it is possible to detect AGN and Star-burst Galaxies. Techniques of detecting extragalactic objects as well as AGN are studied in different wavelengths (X-Ray, Radio and IR). Specification of AGN as IR and radio sources is discussed. IR catalogues of 2MASS and WISE were used to study the interrelationship between interactions/merging, starburst and AGN phenomena.

  9. Fragmentation mechanism of UV-excited peptides in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabuga, Aleksandra V.; Kamrath, Michael Z.; Boyarkin, Oleg V.; Rizzo, Thomas R.

    2014-10-01

    We present evidence that following near-UV excitation, protonated tyrosine- or phenylalanine-containing peptides undergo intersystem crossing to produce a triplet species. This pathway competes with direct dissociation from the excited electronic state and with dissociation from the electronic ground state subsequent to internal conversion. We employ UV-IR double-resonance photofragment spectroscopy to record conformer-specific vibrational spectra of cold peptides pre-excited to their S1 electronic state. The absorption of tunable IR light by these electronically excited peptides leads to a drastic increase in fragmentation, selectively enhancing the loss of neutral phenylalanine or tyrosine side-chain, which are not the lowest dissociation channels in the ground electronic state. The recorded IR spectra evolve upon increasing the time delay between the UV and IR pulses, reflecting the dynamics of the intersystem crossing on a timescale of ˜80 ns and <10 ns for phenylalanine- and tyrosine-containing peptides, respectively. Once in the triplet state, phenylalanine-containing peptides may live for more than 100 ms, unless they absorb IR photons and undergo dissociation by the loss of an aromatic side-chain. We discuss the mechanism of this fragmentation channel and its possible implications for photofragment spectroscopy and peptide photostability.

  10. Fragmentation mechanism of UV-excited peptides in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Zabuga, Aleksandra V. Kamrath, Michael Z.; Boyarkin, Oleg V.; Rizzo, Thomas R.

    2014-10-21

    We present evidence that following near-UV excitation, protonated tyrosine- or phenylalanine–containing peptides undergo intersystem crossing to produce a triplet species. This pathway competes with direct dissociation from the excited electronic state and with dissociation from the electronic ground state subsequent to internal conversion. We employ UV-IR double-resonance photofragment spectroscopy to record conformer-specific vibrational spectra of cold peptides pre-excited to their S{sub 1} electronic state. The absorption of tunable IR light by these electronically excited peptides leads to a drastic increase in fragmentation, selectively enhancing the loss of neutral phenylalanine or tyrosine side-chain, which are not the lowest dissociation channels in the ground electronic state. The recorded IR spectra evolve upon increasing the time delay between the UV and IR pulses, reflecting the dynamics of the intersystem crossing on a timescale of ∼80 ns and <10 ns for phenylalanine- and tyrosine-containing peptides, respectively. Once in the triplet state, phenylalanine-containing peptides may live for more than 100 ms, unless they absorb IR photons and undergo dissociation by the loss of an aromatic side-chain. We discuss the mechanism of this fragmentation channel and its possible implications for photofragment spectroscopy and peptide photostability.

  11. STIRAP on helium: Excitation to Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Deqian

    Research in optically induced transitions between dierent atomic levels has a long history. For transitions between states driven by a coherent optical eld, the theoretical eciency could be ideally high as 100% but there could be many factors preventing this. In the three state helium atom excitation process, i.e. 23S→33P→nL , the stimulated emission from intermediate state makes it hard to achieve ecient population transfer to the nal state through an intuitive excitation order. One technique to achieve a higher eciency is Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) which is being studied and under research in our lab. Unlike traditional three level excitation processes, STIRAP actually uses a counter intuitive pulsed laser beams timing arrangement. The excitation objects are metastable helium atoms traveling in a vacuum system with a longitudinal velocity of ~ 1070 m/s. We are using a 389 nm UV laser to connect the 23S and the 33P state and a frequency tunable ~790 nm IR laser to connect the 33P state and the dierent Rydberg states. A third 1083 nm wavelength laser beam drives the 23S → 23P transition to transversely separate the residual metastable atoms and the Rydberg atoms for eciency measurements. The data is taken by a stainless steel detector in the vacuum system. As the Rydberg atoms will get ionized by blackbody radiation under room temperature, we can utilize this for their detection. An ion detector sitting on the eld plate is capable to collect the ion signals of the Rydberg atoms for detection. So far the whole system has not been ready for data collection and measurement, so here we are using data and results from previous theses for discussions. The highest transition frequency that has ever been achieved in our lab is around 70% after corrections.

  12. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  13. Chemical composition of high-excitation planetaries.

    PubMed

    Aller, L H; Czyzak, S J

    1981-09-01

    Nebular spectral line intensities measured mostly in the optical region, but also in the IR and satellite UV (where possible), are used to derive plasma diagnostics and ionic concentrations n (X(i))/n(H(+)). Then, we use theoretical nebular models to represent as closely as possible certain excitation-sensitive line ratios of HeII/HeI, [OIII]/[OII], and [NeIII]/[NeV]. Also, we try to reproduce the line intensities themselves. These models are used as devices to allow for unobserved ionization stages. Although He, C, and N show significant variations among different nebulae, heavier elements such as O, and probably Ne, S, Cl, and Ar are more nearly constant, suggesting that progenitor stars underwent nuclear transformations in their interiors that affected C and N but not heavier elements. PMID:16593076

  14. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.

    1985-08-06

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

  15. Aperture excited dielectric antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.; Mason, V. B.; Tai, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the effect of placing dielectric objects over the aperture of waveguide antennas are presented. Experimental measurements of the radiation patterns, gain, impedance, near-field amplitude, and pattern and impedance coupling between pairs of antennas are given for various Plexiglas shapes, including the sphere and the cube, excited by rectangular, circular, and square waveguide feed apertures. The waveguide excitation of a dielectric sphere is modeled using the Huygens' source, and expressions for the resulting electric fields, directivity, and efficiency are derived. Calculations using this model show good overall agreement with experimental patterns and directivity measurements. The waveguide under an infinite dielectric slab is used as an impedance model. Calculations using this model agree qualitatively with the measured impedance data. It is concluded that dielectric loaded antennas such as the waveguide excited sphere, cube, or sphere-cylinder can produce directivities in excess of that obtained by a uniformly illuminated aperture of the same cross section, particularly for dielectric objects with dimensions of 2 wavelengths or less. It is also shown that for certain configurations coupling between two antennas of this type is less than that for the same antennas without dielectric loading.

  16. The Ionotropic Receptors IR21a and IR25a mediate cool sensing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lina; Klein, Mason; Svec, Kathryn V; Budelli, Gonzalo; Chang, Elaine C; Ferrer, Anggie J; Benton, Richard; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Garrity, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on highly sensitive thermoreceptors to seek out optimal temperatures, but the molecular mechanisms of thermosensing are not well understood. The Dorsal Organ Cool Cells (DOCCs) of the Drosophila larva are a set of exceptionally thermosensitive neurons critical for larval cool avoidance. Here, we show that DOCC cool-sensing is mediated by Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), a family of sensory receptors widely studied in invertebrate chemical sensing. We find that two IRs, IR21a and IR25a, are required to mediate DOCC responses to cooling and are required for cool avoidance behavior. Furthermore, we find that ectopic expression of IR21a can confer cool-responsiveness in an Ir25a-dependent manner, suggesting an instructive role for IR21a in thermosensing. Together, these data show that IR family receptors can function together to mediate thermosensation of exquisite sensitivity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13254.001 PMID:27126188

  17. Northern Polar Spring in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  18. Observations of the 6 cm Lines of OH in Evolved (OH/IR) Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Zschaechner, Laura K.; Sjouwerman, Loránt O.; Pihlström, Ylva M.; Claussen, Mark J.

    2006-12-01

    Recent observational and theoretical advances have called into question traditional OH maser pumping models in evolved (OH/IR) stars. The detection of excited-state OH lines would provide additional constraints to discriminate among these theoretical models. In this Letter, we report on VLA observations of the 4750 and 4765 MHz lines of OH toward 45 sources, mostly evolved stars. We detect 4765 MHz emission in the star-forming regions Mon R2 and LDN 1084, but we do not detect excited-state emission in any evolved stars. The flux density and velocity of the 4765 MHz detection in Mon R2 suggest that a new flaring event has begun.

  19. Multi-spectral IR reflectography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Bencini, Davide; Carcagnì, Pierluigi; Greco, Marinella; Mastroianni, Maria; Materazzi, Marzia; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca

    2007-07-01

    A variety of scientific investigation methods applied to paintings are, by now, an integral part of the repair process, both to plan the restoration intervention and to monitor its various phases. Optical techniques are widely diffused and extremely well received in the field of painting diagnostics because of their effectiveness and safety. Among them infrared reflectography is traditionally employed in non-destructive diagnostics of ancient paintings to reveal features underlying the pictorial layer thanks to transparency characteristics to NIR radiation of the materials composing the paints. High-resolution reflectography was introduced in the 90s at the Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, where a prototype of an innovative scanner was developed, working in the 900-1700 nm spectral range. This technique was recently improved with the introduction of an optical head, able to acquire simultaneously the reflectogram and the color image, perfectly superimposing. In this work we present a scanning device for multi-spectral IR reflectography, based on contact-less and single-point measurement of the reflectance of painted surfaces. The back-scattered radiation is focused on square-shaped fiber bundle that carries the light to an array of 14 photodiodes equipped with pass-band filters so to cover the NIR spectral range from 800 to 2500 nm

  20. Morphological Typology of Languages for IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirkola, Ari

    2001-01-01

    Presents a morphological classification of languages from the information retrieval (IR) perspective. Discusses differences in inflection, derivation, and compounding; index of synthesis and index of fusion; cross-language retrieval research; the need for semantic and syntactic typologies; and the effects of morphology and stemming in IR.…

  1. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  2. High temperature Ir segregation in Ir-B ceramics: Effect of oxygen presence on stability of IrB2 and other Ir-B phases

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Terracciano, Anthony C.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina

    2015-05-13

    The formation of IrB2, IrB1.35, IrB1.1 and IrB monoboride phases in the Ir–B ceramic nanopowder was confirmed during mechanochemical reaction between metallic Ir and elemental B powders. The Ir–B phases were analysed after 90 h of high energy ball milling and after annealing of the powder for 72 h at 1050°C in vacuo. The iridium monoboride (IrB) orthorhombic phase was synthesised experimentally for the first time and identified by powder X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the ReB2 type IrB2 hexagonal phase was also produced for the first time and identified by high resolution transmission electron microscope. Ir segregation along disordered domains of the boron lattice was found to occur during high temperature annealing. Furthermore, these nanodomains may have useful catalytic properties.

  3. Hydrogen intercalation under graphene on Ir(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grånäs, Elin; Gerber, Timm; Schröder, Ulrike A.; Schulte, Karina; Andersen, Jesper N.; Michely, Thomas; Knudsen, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy we study the intercalation of hydrogen under graphene/Ir(111). The hydrogen intercalated graphene is characterized by a component in C 1s that is shifted -0.10 to -0.18 eV with respect to pristine graphene and a component in Ir 4f at 60.54 eV. The position of this Ir 4f component is identical to that of the Ir(111) surface layer with hydrogen atoms adsorbed, indicating that the atomic hydrogen adsorption site on bare Ir(111) and beneath graphene is the same. Based on co-existence of fully- and non-intercalated graphene, and the inability to intercalate a closed graphene film covering the entire Ir(111) surface, we conclude that hydrogen dissociatively adsorbs at bare Ir(111) patches, and subsequently diffuses rapidly under graphene. A likely entry point for the intercalating hydrogen atoms is identified to be where graphene crosses an underlying Ir(111) step.

  4. Texaphyrin sensitized near-IR-to-visible photon upconversion.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fan; Sun, Wenfang; Castellano, Felix N

    2014-05-01

    Near-IR (NIR) absorption from a Cd(ii) texaphyrin (TXP) has been successfully coupled with rubrene triplet acceptors/annihilators in vacuum degassed dichloromethane to upconvert NIR (670-800 nm) incident photons into yellow fluorescence through sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation. Stern-Volmer analysis of dynamic energy transfer quenching of TXP by rubrene using transient absorption spectroscopy revealed Stern-Volmer and bimolecular quenching constants of 21,000 M(-1) and 5.7 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) respectively, for the triplet-triplet energy transfer process. The upconverted emission intensity with respect to the incident excitation power density at 750 nm was shown to vary between quadratic and linear, illustrating the expected kinetic limits for the light producing photochemistry under continuous wave illumination. Furthermore, with increasing TXP sensitizer concentration, the characteristic quadratic-to-linear crossover point shifted to lower incident photon power density. This is consistent with the notion that stronger photon capture in the sensitizer leads to experimental conditions promoting upconversion under milder excitation conditions. The maximum quantum yield of the TXP-sensitized rubrene upconverted fluorescence was 1.54 ± 0.04% under dilute conditions determined relative to [Os(phen)3](PF6)2 under continuous wave excitation conditions. This saturating quantum efficiency was realized when the incident light power dependence reached the quadratic-to-linear crossover point and was constant over the region where the composition displayed linear response to incident light power density. In pulsed laser experiments at higher sensitizer concentrations, the triplet-triplet annihilation quantum yield was determined to saturate at approximately 13%, corresponding to an upconversion yield of ∼10%, suggesting that the dichloromethane solvent either lowers the T2 state of the rubrene acceptor or is somehow attenuating the annihilation reaction between

  5. Texaphyrin sensitized near-IR-to-visible photon upconversion.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fan; Sun, Wenfang; Castellano, Felix N

    2014-05-01

    Near-IR (NIR) absorption from a Cd(ii) texaphyrin (TXP) has been successfully coupled with rubrene triplet acceptors/annihilators in vacuum degassed dichloromethane to upconvert NIR (670-800 nm) incident photons into yellow fluorescence through sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation. Stern-Volmer analysis of dynamic energy transfer quenching of TXP by rubrene using transient absorption spectroscopy revealed Stern-Volmer and bimolecular quenching constants of 21,000 M(-1) and 5.7 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) respectively, for the triplet-triplet energy transfer process. The upconverted emission intensity with respect to the incident excitation power density at 750 nm was shown to vary between quadratic and linear, illustrating the expected kinetic limits for the light producing photochemistry under continuous wave illumination. Furthermore, with increasing TXP sensitizer concentration, the characteristic quadratic-to-linear crossover point shifted to lower incident photon power density. This is consistent with the notion that stronger photon capture in the sensitizer leads to experimental conditions promoting upconversion under milder excitation conditions. The maximum quantum yield of the TXP-sensitized rubrene upconverted fluorescence was 1.54 ± 0.04% under dilute conditions determined relative to [Os(phen)3](PF6)2 under continuous wave excitation conditions. This saturating quantum efficiency was realized when the incident light power dependence reached the quadratic-to-linear crossover point and was constant over the region where the composition displayed linear response to incident light power density. In pulsed laser experiments at higher sensitizer concentrations, the triplet-triplet annihilation quantum yield was determined to saturate at approximately 13%, corresponding to an upconversion yield of ∼10%, suggesting that the dichloromethane solvent either lowers the T2 state of the rubrene acceptor or is somehow attenuating the annihilation reaction between

  6. Frustrated Ising chains on the triangular lattice in Sr3NiIrO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, S.; Wu, W.; Adroja, D. T.; Rayaprol, S.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

    2016-05-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering study on the spin-chain compound Sr3NiIrO6 reveals gapped quasi-1D magnetic excitations. The observed one-magnon band between 29.5 and 39 meV consists of magnon modes of the Ni2 + ions. The fitting of the spin wave spectrum reveals strongly coupled Ising-like chains along the c axis that are weakly coupled into a frustrated triangular lattice in the a b plane. The magnetic excitations survive up to 200 K well above the magnetic ordering temperature of TN˜75 K, also indicating a quasi-1D nature of the magnetic interactions in Sr3NiIrO6 . Our microscopic model is in agreement with ab initio electronic structure calculations and explains the giant spin-flip field observed in bulk magnetization measurements.

  7. SHOCK-EXCITED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.

    1957-12-17

    S> A shock-excited quartz crystal oscillator is described. The circuit was specifically designed for application in micro-time measuring work to provide an oscillator which immediately goes into oscillation upon receipt of a trigger pulse and abruptly ceases oscillation when a second pulse is received. To achieve the instant action, the crystal has a prestressing voltage applied across it. A monostable multivibrator receives the on and off trigger pulses and discharges a pulse through the crystal to initiate or terminate oscillation instantly.

  8. Search for Gluonic Excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Eugenio

    2007-10-01

    Studies of meson spectra via strong decays provide insight regarding QCD at the confinement scale. These studies have led to phenomenological models for QCD such as the constituent quark model. However, QCD allows for a much richer spectrum of meson states which include extra states such as exotics, hybrids, multi-quarks, and glueballs. First discussion of the status of exotic meson searches is given followed by a discussion of plans at Jefferson Lab to double the energy of the machine to 12 GeV, which will allow us to access photoproduction of mesons in search for gluonic excited states.

  9. Search for Gluonic Excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Eugenio, Paul

    2007-10-26

    Studies of meson spectra via strong decays provide insight regarding QCD at the confinement scale. These studies have led to phenomenological models for QCD such as the constituent quark model. However, QCD allows for a much richer spectrum of meson states which include extra states such as exotics, hybrids, multi-quarks, and glueballs. First discussion of the status of exotic meson searches is given followed by a discussion of plans at Jefferson Lab to double the energy of the machine to 12 GeV, which will allow us to access photoproduction of mesons in search for gluonic excited states.

  10. Inter-Valence-Subband/Conduction-Band-Transport IR Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) detectors characterized by a combination of (1) high-quantum-efficiency photoexcitation of inter-valence-subband transitions of charge carriers and (2) high-mobility conduction- band transport of the thus-excited charge carriers have been proposed in an effort to develop focal-plane arrays of such devices for infrared imaging. Like many prior quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), the proposed devices would be made from semiconductor heterostructures. In order to obtain the combination of characteristics mentioned above, the proposed devices would be designed and fabricated in novel InAs/GaSb superlattice configurations that would exploit a phenomenon known in the semiconductor art as type-II broken-gap band offset.

  11. Picosecond ir hole-burning spectroscopy on HDO ice Ih

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, G.; Weidlich, K.; Graener, H.

    1997-12-01

    Transient hole-burning experiments using picosecond ir pulses in the region of the OH stretching vibration of crystalline HDO (in D2O) ice are reported; holes with a minimum width of 26 cm-1 are measured, proving the OH band to be inhomogeneously broadened. The inhomogeneous distribution having a half width of approximately 25 cm-1 can be related to structural disorder in ice. A vibrational lifetime of 0.5 ps<=T1<=2 ps is found for the OH stretching mode. Additional features in the transient data are attributed to the dissipation of excess energy; particularly microscopic energy flow in the immediate surroundings of primarily excited OH groups can be monitored.

  12. Near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy in surgery and medicine: ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Shuming; Yu, Nai-Teng; Ren, Qiushi

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the application of a recently developed spectroscopic technique, near- infrared-excited Fourier transform Raman scattering (abbreviated as near-IR FT-Raman) in the molecular-level characterization of normal and pathological human ocular tissues. The near-IR FT-Raman technique was shown to be particularly well-suited for the noninvasive analysis of intact ophthalmic samples because it exhibits such attractive features as complete fluorescence elimination, great sampling flexibility, high data acquisition speed, and measurement accuracy. For both intact human lenses and corneas, systematic FT-Raman studies were carried out in order to probe detailed molecular changes involved in cataract formation and cornea diseases. FT-Raman measurement was also made for synthetic biomaterials that can be attached to the corneal surface for laser refractive surgery. The technique of near-IR FT- Raman spectroscopy is potentially a nondestructive, non-invasive fingerprinting modality for monitoring lens aging, cataract formation, and corneal disease development.

  13. Near-IR fluorescence and reflectance confocal microscopy for imaging of quantum dots in mammalian skin

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Luke J.; Glazowski, Christopher E.; Zavislan, James M.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the skin penetration of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important concern due to the increasing presence of NPs in consumer products, including cosmetics. Technical challenges have slowed progress in evaluating skin barrier and NP factors that contribute to skin penetration risk. To limit sampling error and other problems associated with histological processing, many researchers are implementing whole tissue confocal or multiphoton microscopies. This work introduces a fluorescence and reflectance confocal microscopy system that utilizes near-IR excitation and emission to detect near-IR lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) through ex vivo human epidermis. We provide a detailed prediction and experimental analysis of QD detection sensitivity and demonstrate detection of QD skin penetration in a barrier disrupted model. The unique properties of near-IR lead-based QDs will enable future studies that examine the impact of further barrier-disrupting agents on skin penetration of QDs and elucidate mechanistic insight into QD tissue interactions at the cellular level. PMID:21698023

  14. Mid IR pulsed light source for laser ultrasonic testing of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, H.; Watanabe, M.; Kitamura, K.; Naito, M.; Yamawaki, H.; Slater, R.

    2015-09-01

    A quasi-phase-matched (QPM) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was developed using a periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystal to generate mid-IR light for excitation of laser ultrasound in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). The ultrasound generation efficiency was measured at the three different wavelengths that emanate from the OPO: 1.064 μm, 1.59/1.57 μm, and 3.23/3.30 μm. The measurements indicate that mid-IR 3.2-3.3 μm light generates the most efficient ultrasonic waves in CFRP with the least laser damage. We used mid-IR light in conjunction with a laser interferometer to demonstrate the detection of flaws/defects in CFRP such as the existence of air gaps that mimic delamination and voids in CFRP, and the inhomogeneous adhesion of CFRP material to a metal plate was also clearly detected.

  15. Evidence for strong mixing between the LC and MLCT excited states in Bis(2-phenylpyridinato-C[sup 2], N')(2, 2'-bipyridine)iridium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, M.G.; Hauser, A.; Guedel, H.U. )

    1993-07-07

    The well-resolved absorption, excitation, and luminescence spectra of [Ir(ppy)[sub 2]bpy][sup +] (ppyH = 2-phenylpyridine, bpy = 2, 2'-bipyridine) in different media at cryogenic temperatures are presented. In solutions and glasses at ambient temperature the lowest energy excited state corresponds to an Ir [yields] bpy charge-transfer excitation whereas in the crystalline host lattice [Rh(ppy)[sub 2]bpy]PF[sub 6] the lowest excited state at 21,450 cm[sup [minus]1] is assigned to a [sup 3][pi]-[pi]* excitation localized on the cyclometalating ppy[minus] ligands. The next higher excited Ir [yields] bpy charge-transfer state has shifted to 21,820 cm[sup [minus]1], only 300 cm[sup [minus]1] above the [sup 3]LC excited state. The close proximity of the [sup 3]LC and [sup 3]MLCT excited states and the large spin-orbit coupling constant of Ir[sup 3+] induce a strong mixing of charge-transfer character into the [sup 3]LC lowest excited states, resulting in increased oscillator strengths, reduced lifetimes, short axis polarized transitions, and a large zero-field splitting of 10-15 cm[sup [minus]1].

  16. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  17. Quantifying Flaw Characteristics from IR NDE Data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W; Philips, N R; Burke, M W; Robbins, C L

    2003-02-14

    Work is presented which allows flaw characteristics to be quantified from the transient IR NDE signature. The goal of this effort was to accurately determine the type, size and depth of flaws revealed with IR NDE, using sonic IR as the example IR NDE technique. Typically an IR NDE experiment will result in a positive qualitative indication of a flaw such as a cold or hot spot in the image, but will not provide quantitative data thereby leaving the practitioner to make educated guesses as to the source of the signal. The technique presented here relies on comparing the transient IR signature to exact heat transfer analytical results for prototypical flaws, using the flaw characteristics as unknown fitting parameters. A nonlinear least squares algorithm is used to evaluate the fitting parameters, which then provide a direct measure of the flaw characteristics that can be mapped to the imaged surface for visual reference. The method uses temperature data for the heat transfer analysis, so radiometric calibration of the IR signal is required. The method provides quantitative data with a single thermal event (e.g. acoustic pulse or flash), as compared to phase-lock techniques that require many events. The work has been tested with numerical data but remains to be validated by experimental data, and that effort is underway.

  18. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  19. Collisional quenching dynamics and reactivity of highly vibrationally excited molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingnan

    Highly excited molecules are of great importance in many areas of chemistry including photochemistry. The dynamics of highly excited molecules are affected by the intermolecular and intramolecular energy flow between many different kinds of motions. This thesis reports investigations of the collisional quenching and reactivity of highly excited molecules aimed at understanding the dynamics of highly excited molecules. There are several important questions that are addressed. How do molecules behave in collisions with a bath gas? How do the energy distributions evolve in time? How is the energy partitioned for both the donor and bath molecules after collisions? How do molecule structure, molecule state density and intermolecular potential play the role during collisional energy transfer? To answer these questions, collisional quenching dynamics and reactivity of highly vibrationally excited azabenzene molecules have been studied using high resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy. The first study shows that the alkylated pyridine molecules that have been excited with Evib˜38,800 cm-1 impart less rotational and translational energy to CO2 than pyridine does. Comparison between the alkylated donors shows that the strong collisions are reduced for donors with longer alkyl chains by lowering the average energy per mode but longer alkyl chain have increased flexibility and higher state densities that enhance energy loss via strong collisions. In the second study, the role of hydrogen bonding interactions is explored in collision of vibrationally excited pyridines with H2O. Substantial difference in the rotational energy of H 2O is correlated with the structure of the global energy minimum. A torque-inducing mechanism is proposed that involves directed movement of H 2O between sigma and pi-hydrogen bonding interactions with the pyridine donors. In the third study the dynamics of strong and weak collisions for highly vibrationally excited methylated pyridine

  20. FT-IR standoff detection of thermally excited emissions of trinitrotoluene (TNT) deposited on aluminum substrates.

    PubMed

    Castro-Suarez, John R; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C; Vélez-Reyes, Miguel; Diem, Max; Tague, Thomas J; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P

    2013-02-01

    A standoff detection system was assembled by coupling a reflecting telescope to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with a cryo-cooled mercury cadmium telluride detector and used for detection of solid-phase samples deposited on substrates. Samples of highly energetic materials were deposited on aluminum substrates and detected at several collector-target distances by performing passive-mode, remote, infrared detection measurements on the heated analytes. Aluminum plates were used as support material, and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) was used as the target. For standoff detection experiments, the samples were placed at different distances (4 to 55 m). Several target surface temperatures were investigated. Partial least squares regression analysis was applied to the analysis of the intensities of the spectra obtained. Overall, standoff detection in passive mode was useful for quantifying TNT deposited on the aluminum plates with high confidence up to target-collector distances of 55 m.

  1. Basaltic Crater in Color IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 6, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image near Nili Fosse in the the Isidis region of Mars. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations. In many cases craters trap sand in their topographic depressions, interrupting the sand's migration across the Martian surface. This image is particularly interesting because there appears to be more than 1 type of sand in the bottom of this crater and in the hummocky terrain near the bottom of the image. The pink/magenta areas are characteristic of a basaltic composition, but there are also orange areas that are likely caused by the presence of andesite. These two compositions, basalt and andesite, are some of the most common found on Mars.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 24, Longitude 80.7 East (297.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  2. Gale Crater in IR Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 4, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image of Gale Crater. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    In the bottom of the crater, surrounding the central mound, there are extensive basaltic sand deposits. The basaltic sand spectral signature combined with the warm surface (due to the low albedo of basaltic sand) produces a very strong pink/magenta color. This color signature contrasts with the green/yellow color of soil and dust in the top of the image, and the cyan color due to the presence of water ice clouds at the bottom of the image. This migrating sand may be producing the erosional features seen on the central mound.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 137.4 East (222.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University

  3. Atmospheric Effects in IR Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 3, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering parts of Ius Chasma and Oudemans Crater. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    This image is dominated by atmospheric effects. The pink/magenta colors inside the canyon show areas with a large amount of atmospheric dust. In the bottom half of the image, the patchy blue/cyan colors indicate the presence of water ice clouds out on the plains. Water ice clouds and high amounts of dust do not generally occur at the same place and time on Mars because the dust absorbs sunlight and heats the atmosphere. The more dust that is present, the warmer the atmosphere becomes, sublimating the water ice into water vapor and dissipating any clouds.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 267.9 East (92.1.West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  4. Excited-state properties of a triply ortho-metalated iridium(III) complex

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.A.; Spellane, P.J.; Watts, R.J.

    1985-03-06

    The characterization of the ground and luminescent excited states of a triply ortho-metalated complex of ppy, fac-Ir(ppy)/sub 3/ (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) is effected. This complex, which is the first triply ortho-metalated ppy species to be characterized, is one of the strongest transition-metal photoreductants thus far reported. 20 references, 2 figures.

  5. Irs2 and Irs4 synergize in non-LepRb neurons to control energy balance and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Dong, X Charlie; Myers, Martin G; White, Morris F

    2014-02-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (Irs1, 2, 3 and Irs4) mediate the actions of insulin/IGF1 signaling. They have similar structure, but distinctly regulate development, growth, and metabolic homeostasis. Irs2 contributes to central metabolic sensing, partially by acting in leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons. Although Irs4 is largely restricted to the hypothalamus, its contribution to metabolic regulation is unclear because Irs4-null mice barely distinguishable from controls. We postulated that Irs2 and Irs4 synergize and complement each other in the brain. To examine this possibility, we investigated the metabolism of whole body Irs4(-/y) mice that lacked Irs2 in the CNS (bIrs2(-/-)·Irs4(-/y)) or only in LepRb-neurons (Lepr (∆Irs2) ·Irs4 (-/y) ). bIrs2(-/-)·Irs4(-/y) mice developed severe obesity and decreased energy expenditure, along with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, the body weight and fed blood glucose levels of Lepr (∆Irs2) ·Irs4 (-/y) mice were not different from Lepr (∆Irs2) mice, suggesting that the functions of Irs2 and Irs4 converge upon neurons that are distinct from those expressing LepRb.

  6. Irs2 and Irs4 synergize in non-LepRb neurons to control energy balance and glucose homeostasis★

    PubMed Central

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Dong, X. Charlie; Myers, Martin G.; White, Morris F.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (Irs1, 2, 3 and Irs4) mediate the actions of insulin/IGF1 signaling. They have similar structure, but distinctly regulate development, growth, and metabolic homeostasis. Irs2 contributes to central metabolic sensing, partially by acting in leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons. Although Irs4 is largely restricted to the hypothalamus, its contribution to metabolic regulation is unclear because Irs4-null mice barely distinguishable from controls. We postulated that Irs2 and Irs4 synergize and complement each other in the brain. To examine this possibility, we investigated the metabolism of whole body Irs4−/y mice that lacked Irs2 in the CNS (bIrs2−/−·Irs4−/y) or only in LepRb-neurons (Lepr∆IrsIrs4−/y). bIrs2−/−·Irs4−/y mice developed severe obesity and decreased energy expenditure, along with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, the body weight and fed blood glucose levels of Lepr∆IrsIrs4−/y mice were not different from Lepr∆Irs2 mice, suggesting that the functions of Irs2 and Irs4 converge upon neurons that are distinct from those expressing LepRb. PMID:24567904

  7. PKC{delta}-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Michael W. . E-mail: michael.greene@bassett.org; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-10-27

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKC{delta} on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKC{delta}-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKC{delta} catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1.

  8. Characterizing the deformational isomers of bimetallic Ir2(dimen)4(2+) (dimen = 1,8-diisocyano-p-menthane) with vibrational wavepacket dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hartsock, Robert W; Zhang, Wenkai; Hill, Michael G; Sabat, Bridgett; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2011-04-14

    We studied the Ir(2)(dimen)(4)(2+) complex with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory and concluded that it possesses two singlet ground state isomers in room temperature solution. The molecule can adopt either a paddle wheel or a propeller conformation in solution, where the paddle wheel structure possesses a metal-metal bond of 4.4 Å and a dihedral angle between the quasi-C(4v) planes of 0° and the propeller structure has a metal-metal bond of 3.6 Å and a dihedral angle of 17° when crystallized. Each conformation has a distinct absorption in the visible attributed to a (1)(dσ(z)* → pσ(z)) excitation, with the long eclipsed structure absorbing at 475 nm and the short twisted structure absorbing at 585 nm. We independently pumped at each of these visible transitions to form vibrational wavepackets on the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces, which modulated the ground state bleach and stimulated emission signals, respectively. We found that the ground state wavepacket oscillates with a frequency of 48 cm(-1) when pumping the red peak and 11 cm(-1) when pumping the blue peak. We assign these frequencies to the Ir-Ir symmetric stretch, with the variation in frequency reflecting the variation in metal-metal bond strength in support of our assignment of the blue peak to the longer Ir-Ir bond length conformer and the red peak to the shorter Ir-Ir bond length conformer. When pumping the red peak, we found two modes with frequencies of 80 and 119 cm(-1) in the stimulated emission and only one mode at 75 cm(-1) when pumping the blue peak. We assign the 75-80 cm(-1) frequency to the Ir-Ir stretch and the 119 cm(-1) vibration to the dihedral angle twist in the excited state. The variation in the excited state dynamics does not result from the excitation of different electronic states, but rather from excitation to different Franck-Condon regions of the same electronic excited state potential energy surface. This

  9. The repopulation of electronic states upon vibrational excitation of niobium carbide clusters.

    PubMed

    Chernyy, V; Logemann, R; Bakker, J M; Kirilyuk, A

    2016-07-14

    We study the infrared (IR) resonant heating of neutral niobium carbide clusters probed through ultraviolet photoionization spectroscopy. The IR excitation not only changes the photoionization spectra for the photon energies above the ionization threshold, but also modulates ion yield for energies significantly below it. An attempt to describe the experimental spectra using either Fowler's theory or thermally populated vibrational states was not successful. However, the data can be fully modeled by vibrationally and rotationally broadened discrete electronic levels obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The application of this method to spectra with different IR pulse energies not only yields information about the excited electronic states in the vicinity of the HOMO level, populated by manipulation of the vibrational coordinates of a cluster, but also can serve as an extra indicator for the cluster isomeric structure and corresponding DFT-calculated electronic levels.

  10. The repopulation of electronic states upon vibrational excitation of niobium carbide clusters.

    PubMed

    Chernyy, V; Logemann, R; Bakker, J M; Kirilyuk, A

    2016-07-14

    We study the infrared (IR) resonant heating of neutral niobium carbide clusters probed through ultraviolet photoionization spectroscopy. The IR excitation not only changes the photoionization spectra for the photon energies above the ionization threshold, but also modulates ion yield for energies significantly below it. An attempt to describe the experimental spectra using either Fowler's theory or thermally populated vibrational states was not successful. However, the data can be fully modeled by vibrationally and rotationally broadened discrete electronic levels obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The application of this method to spectra with different IR pulse energies not only yields information about the excited electronic states in the vicinity of the HOMO level, populated by manipulation of the vibrational coordinates of a cluster, but also can serve as an extra indicator for the cluster isomeric structure and corresponding DFT-calculated electronic levels. PMID:27421411

  11. The repopulation of electronic states upon vibrational excitation of niobium carbide clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyy, V.; Logemann, R.; Bakker, J. M.; Kirilyuk, A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the infrared (IR) resonant heating of neutral niobium carbide clusters probed through ultraviolet photoionization spectroscopy. The IR excitation not only changes the photoionization spectra for the photon energies above the ionization threshold, but also modulates ion yield for energies significantly below it. An attempt to describe the experimental spectra using either Fowler's theory or thermally populated vibrational states was not successful. However, the data can be fully modeled by vibrationally and rotationally broadened discrete electronic levels obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The application of this method to spectra with different IR pulse energies not only yields information about the excited electronic states in the vicinity of the HOMO level, populated by manipulation of the vibrational coordinates of a cluster, but also can serve as an extra indicator for the cluster isomeric structure and corresponding DFT-calculated electronic levels.

  12. Hydrological excitation of polar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastula, Y.; Kolaczek, B.

    2006-08-01

    Hydrological excitation of the polar motion (HAM) were computed from the available recently hydrological data series (NCEP, ECMWF, CPC water storage and LaD World simulations of global continental water) and compared. Time variable seasonal spectra of these hydrological excitation functions and of the geodetic excitation function of polar motion computed from the polar motion COMB03 data were compared showing big differences in their temporal characteristics and the necessity of the further improvement of the HAM models. Seasonal oscillations of the global geophysical excitation functions (AAM + OAM + HAM) and their time variations were compared also. These hydrological excitation functions do not close the budget of the global geophysical excitation function of polar motion.

  13. Neural Excitability and Singular Bifurcations.

    PubMed

    De Maesschalck, Peter; Wechselberger, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the notion of excitability in 2D slow/fast neural models from a geometric singular perturbation theory point of view. We focus on the inherent singular nature of slow/fast neural models and define excitability via singular bifurcations. In particular, we show that type I excitability is associated with a novel singular Bogdanov-Takens/SNIC bifurcation while type II excitability is associated with a singular Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. In both cases, canards play an important role in the understanding of the unfolding of these singular bifurcation structures. We also explain the transition between the two excitability types and highlight all bifurcations involved, thus providing a complete analysis of excitability based on geometric singular perturbation theory.

  14. WFC3 IR Image Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The IR imaging performance over the detector will be assessed periodically {every 4 months} in two passbands to check for image stability. The field around star 58 in the open cluster NGC188 is the chosen target because it is sufficiently dense to provide good sampling over the FOV while providing enough isolated stars to permit accurate PSF {point spread function} measurement. It is available year-round and used previously for ACS image quality assessment. The field is astrometric, and astrometric guide stars will be used, so that the plate scale and image orientation may also be determined if necessary {as in SMOV proposals 11437 and 11443}. Full frame images will be obtained at each of 4 POSTARG offset positions designed to improve sampling over the detector in F098M, F105W, and F160W. The PSFs will be sampled at 4 positions with subpixel shifts in filters F164N and F127M.This proposal is a periodic repeat {once every 4 months} of the visits in SMOV proposal 11437 {activity ID WFC3-24}. The data will be analyzed using the code and techniques described in ISR WFC3 2008-41 {Hartig}. Profiles of encircled energy will be monitored and presented in an ISR. If an update to the SIAF is needed, {V2,V3} locations of stars will be obtained from the Flight Ops Sensors and Calibrations group at GSFC, the {V2,V3} of the reference pixel and the orientation of the detector will be determined by the WFC3 group, and the Telescopes group will update and deliver the SIAF to the PRDB branch.The specific PSF metrics to be examined are encircled energy for aperture diameter 0.25, 0.37, and 0.60 arcsec, FWHM, and sharpness. {See ISR WFC3 2008-41 tables 2 and 3 and preceding text.} 20 stars distributed over the detector will be measured in each exposure for each filter. The mean, rms, and rms of the mean will be determined for each metric. The values determined from each of the 4 exposures per filter within a visit will be compared to each other to see to what extent they are affected

  15. Transient 2D IR spectroscopy of charge injection in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline thin films.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Laaser, Jennifer E; Paoprasert, Peerasak; Franking, Ryan A; Hamers, Robert J; Gopalan, Padma; Zanni, Martin T

    2009-12-23

    We use nonlinear 2D IR spectroscopy to study TiO(2) nanocrystalline thin films sensitized with a Re dye. We find that the free electron signal, which often obscures the vibrational features in the transient absorption spectrum, is not observed in the 2D IR spectra. Its absence allows the vibrational features of the dye to be much better resolved than with the typical IR absorption probe. We observe multiple absorption bands but no cross peaks in the 2D IR spectra, which indicates that the dyes have at least three conformations. Furthermore, by using a pulse sequence in which we initiate electron transfer in the middle of the infrared pulse train, we are able to assign the excited state features by correlating them to the ground state vibrational modes and determine that the three conformations have different time scales and cross sections for electron injection. 2D IR spectroscopy is proving to be very useful in disentangling overlapping structural distributions in biological and chemical physics processes. These experiments demonstrate that nonlinear infrared probes are also a powerful new tool for studying charge transfer at interfaces.

  16. Low cost molded optics for IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; DiFilippo, Vincent; Li, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Infrared sensors play a critical role in detection, guidance, and targeting in today's military systems and warfighter equipment, ranging from man-portable to space-borne. Although significant progress is being made in the development of IR imagers, another important component of IR sensors has not evolved significantly-the optics. Current IR lenses are primarily made of expensive single-crystal germanium with tedious mechanical fabrication operations that include grinding, polishing, and edging. There is an industry wide need for lower cost and higher performance IR lenses. Agiltron has developed a technology to directly mold IR lenses to net-shape without additional finishing operations. This manufacturing technology produces optics with many-fold reductions in cost, size, weight, and fabrication time. The ability to reproducibly manufacture aspheric optics with complex net-shapes reduces the number of lenses traditionally required for imaging systems, providing aberration correction as well as system weight and size reductions. Additionally, anti-reflective surfaces can be molded into the glass, eliminating the need for expensive AR coatings. This technology utilizes a new chalcogenide glass material that reduces temperature induced index of refraction changes to near zero, and has a thermal expansion coefficient similar to aluminum. The result is a new generation of low cost, high performance and thermally robust IR lens systems.

  17. Isolated gramicidin peptides probed by IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rijs, Anouk M; Kabeláč, Martin; Abo-Riziq, Ali; Hobza, Pavel; de Vries, Mattanjah S

    2011-07-11

    We report double-resonant IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy of neutral gramicidin peptides in the gas phase. The IR spectra of gramicidin A and C, recorded in both the 1000 cm(-1) to 1800 cm(-1) and the 2700 to 3750 cm(-1) region, allow structural analysis. By studying this broad IR range, various local intramolecular interactions are probed, and complementary IR modes can be accessed. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations are used to support the interpretation of the experimental IR spectra. The comparison of the calculated frequencies with the experimental IR spectrum probed via the strong infrared absorptions of all the amide groups (NH stretch, C=O stretch and NH bend), shows evidence for a helical structure in the gas phase, which is similar to that in the condensed phase. Additionally, we show that to improve the spectral resolution when studying large neutral molecular structures of the size of gramicidin, the use of heavier carrier gas could be advantageous.

  18. Competing reaction channels in IR-laser-induced unimolecular reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The competing reaction channels in the unimolecular decomposition of two molecules, formaldehyde and tetralin were studied. A TEA CO/sub 2/ laser was used as the excitation source in all experiments. The dissociation of D/sub 2/CO was studied by infrared multiphoton dissociation (MPD) and the small-molecule nature of formaldehyde with regard to MPD was explored. The effect of collisions in MPD were probed by the pressure dependence of the MPD yield and ir fluorescence from multiphoton excited D/sub 2/CO. MPD yield shows a near cubic dependence in pure D/sub 2/CO which is reduced to a 1.7 power dependence when 15 torr of NO is added. The peak amplitude of 5 ..mu..m ir fluorescence from D/sub 2/CO is proportional to the square of the D/sub 2/CO pressure in pure D/sub 2/CO or in the presence of 50 torr of Ar. Results are explained in terms of bottlenecks to excitation at the v = 1 level which are overcome by a combination of vibrational energy transfer and rotational relaxation. The radical/molecule branching ratio in D/sub 2/CO MPD was 0.10 +- 0.02 at a fluence of 125 J/cm/sup 2/ at 946.0 cm/sup -1/. The barrier height to molecular dissociation was calculated to be 3.6 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 85.0 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state of D/sub 2/CO. In H/sub 2/CO, this corresponds to 2.5 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 83.8 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state. Comparison with uv data indicate that RRKM theory is an acceptable description of formaldehyde dissociation in the 5 to 10 torr pressure range. The unimolecular decomposition of tetralin was studied by MPD and SiF/sub 4/ - sensitized pyrolysis. Both techniques induce decomposition without the interference of catalytic surfaces. Ethylene loss is identified as the lowest energy reaction channel. Dehydrogenation is found to result from step-wise H atom loss. Isomerization via disproportionation is also identified as a primary reaction channel.

  19. Pattern Formation in Excitable Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, William Nash

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of excitability is observed in a wide variety of physical and biological systems. In this work, spatially extended excitable systems are examined from several different perspectives. First, a pedagogical introduction is used to motivate the derivation of the dynamics of one dimensional excitable pulses. In the second part, coupled map techniques for numerical simulation of excitable media and other interfacial systems are described. Examples are given for both excitable media and crystal growth. The third chapter addresses the phenomenon of spiral formation in excitable media. Exact rotating solutions are found for a class of models of excitable media. The solutions consist of two regions: an outer region, consisting of the spiral proper, which exhibits a singularity at its tip, and the core region, obtained by rescaling space in the vicinity of the tip. The tip singularity is resolved in the core region, leading to a consistent solution in all of space. The stability of both the spiral and the core is investigated, with the result that the spiral is found to be stable, and the core unstable. Finally, the stability of excitable waves of the chemical cAMP traveling over aggregating colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is examined by coupling the excitable dynamics of the cAMP signalling system to a simple model of chemotaxis, with result that cellular motion is found to destabilize the waves, causing the initially uniform field of cells to break up into streams.

  20. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  1. Mapping Ultrafast Dynamics of Highly Excited H2by Attosecond VUV-Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Thorsten; Sturm, Felix; Wright, Travis; Ray, Dipanwita; Shivaram, Niranjan; Slaughter, Daniel; Bocharova, Irina; Ranitovic, Predrag; Belkacem, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We show how attosecond vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and femtosecond infrared (IR) radiation can be used to excite and map dynamics of a highly excited neutral hydrogen molecule. By using time-delayed, strong laser pulses and ion imaging, we map the dynamics of highly-excited, bound states of hydrogen molecules. Due to the large stretching amplitude of the B electronic state, excited by the 9th harmonic of the fundamental laser frequency, the effective ionization potential of the hydrogen molecular ion changes substantially as the nuclear wave packet (NWP) vibrates in the bound, B potential energy curve. Therefore, the probability of ionizing the neutrally-excited hydrogen molecule by the IR probe pulse changes as the NWP evolves in the B potential. We probe this dynamics by ionizing the vibrating molecule by means of time-delayed IR radiation, and identify the dissociation channels with 3D-momentum ion imaging. Supported by DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  2. Hyperhoneycomb iridate beta-Li2 IrO3 as a platform for Kitaev spin liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Tomohiro

    Realization of quantum spin liquid has been a long-sought dream in condensed matter physics, where exotic excitations and unconventional superconductivity upon doping are expected. Honeycomb iridates recently emerged as a possible materialization of Kitaev spin liquid with frustrated `` bond - dependent ferromagnetic interaction ''. However, the real materials, α-Na2IrO3 and α-Li2IrO3, undergo antiferromagnetic ordering likely due to the presence of other dominant magnetic interactions and lattice distortion. We discovered a new form of Li2IrO3, β-Li2IrO3, which comprises a three-dimensional analogue of honeycomb lattice dubbed as ''hyperhoneycomb''. Each Ir4+ ion of the hyperhoneycomb lattice has three neighboring like ions rotated by 120° and thus the local structure is identical with 2D honeycomb, indicating that the hyperhoneycomb lattice is a new platform for Kitaev physics. β-Li2IrO3 diplays a spiral magnetic order below 38 K, which likely originates from dominance of ferromagnetic Kitaev interaction. We argure that β-Li2IrO3 locates in a close proximity to Kitaev spin liquid. We also discuss the spin liquid behavior observed in a new honeycomb iridate obtained by chemical modulation.

  3. Coulomb excitation of 31Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidlitz, M.; Mücher, D.; Reiter, P.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Bruyneel, B.; Cederkäll, J.; Clement, E.; Davinson, T.; Van Duppen, P.; Ekström, A.; Finke, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Geibel, K.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Holler, A.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Jolie, J.; Kalkühler, M.; Kotthaus, T.; Krücken, R.; Lutter, R.; Piselli, E.; Scheit, H.; Stefanescu, I.; Van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.

    2011-06-01

    The ground state properties of 31Mg indicate a change of nuclear shape at N = 19 with a deformed Jπ = 1 /2+ intruder state as a ground state, implying that 31Mg is part of the "island of inversion". The collective properties of excited states were the subject of a Coulomb excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, employing a radioactive 31Mg beam. De-excitation γ-rays were detected by the MINIBALL γ-spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a segmented Si-detector. The level scheme of 31Mg was extended. Spin and parity assignment of the 945 keV state yielded 5 /2+ and its de-excitation is dominated by a strong collective M1 transition. Comparison of the transition probabilities of 30,31,32Mg establishes that for the N = 19 magnesium isotope not only the ground state but also excited states are largely dominated by a deformed pf intruder configuration.

  4. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  5. Compact hybrid IR/UV biological sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Donald A.; Shaw, James F.; Smith, Christopher; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.; Neilson, Norm; Scofield, Russ; Carlisle, Sylvie A.; Warren, Russell E.; Cooper, David E.

    1999-01-01

    The sensor is a hybrid IR/UV lidar system that maps aerosol clouds, measures cloud wind speed and direction, and determines whether the cloud fluoresces. It is being developed by EOO, Inc. and SRI International under a DARPA SBIR. The hybrid IR/UV lidar system was conceived to operate from a small UAV platform for tactical battlefield missions. The IR sensor can detect and map aerosol clouds out to ranges of several kilometers. After detection, the UAV can close to within several hundred meters of the cloud and interrogate it with the UV sensor to identify whether the UV cloud fluoresces. Both sensors use the same basic IR laser source that is non-linearly shifted to the appropriate UV wavelength. The IR sensor also provides wind speed using edge-filter Doppler information. Parametric studies during the Phase I SBIR provided performance vs. form/fit trade-off for various platforms. The tactical UAV was chosen as the platform to guide the Phase II brassboard development. Other airborne and ground-based platforms suitable for surveillance or intelligence can be used. The paper will describe the brassboard system and the sensor performance as validated by test data.

  6. Vibrational excitation induces double reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Lim, Tingbin; Ning, Zhanyu; Polanyi, John C

    2014-12-23

    Electron-induced reaction at metal surfaces is currently the subject of extensive study. Here, we broaden the range of experimentation to a comparison of vibrational excitation with electronic excitation, for reaction of the same molecule at the same clean metal surface. In a previous study of electron-induced reaction by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we examined the dynamics of the concurrent breaking of the two C-I bonds of ortho-diiodobenzene physisorbed on Cu(110). The energy of the incident electron was near the electronic excitation threshold of E0=1.0 eV required to induce this single-electron process. STM has been employed in the present work to study the reaction dynamics at the substantially lower incident electron energies of 0.3 eV, well below the electronic excitation threshold. The observed increase in reaction rate with current was found to be fourth-order, indicative of multistep reagent vibrational excitation, in contrast to the first-order rate dependence found earlier for electronic excitation. The change in mode of excitation was accompanied by altered reaction dynamics, evidenced by a different pattern of binding of the chemisorbed products to the copper surface. We have modeled these altered reaction dynamics by exciting normal modes of vibration that distort the C-I bonds of the physisorbed reagent. Using the same ab initio ground potential-energy surface as in the prior work on electronic excitation, but with only vibrational excitation of the physisorbed reagent in the asymmetric stretch mode of C-I bonds, we obtained the observed alteration in reaction dynamics.

  7. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

    PubMed

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses.

  8. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca2+ imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25–1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm2 resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca2+] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca2+ involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca2+]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca2+ release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. PMID:24920028

  9. The mid-IR and near-IR interferometry of AGNs: key results and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, M.

    2015-09-01

    Infrared interferometry has been very productive in directly probing the structure of AGNs at sub-pc scales. With tens of objects already probed in the mid-IR and near-IR, I will summarize the key results and im- plications from this direct exploration. The Keck interferometry in the near-IR and VLTI in the mid-IR shaped the luminosity dependence of the torus size and structure, while the latter also revealed an equatorial structure at several Rsub (dust sublimation radius), and a polar-elongated region at a few tens of Rsub. Notably, this polar component seems to dominate the compact mid-IR flux. This component can persuasively be attributed to a polar outflow. However, interferometry, through emissivity estimations, also indicates that it is not a UV-optically-thin cloud but participating in the obscuration of the nucleus. I will discuss how to accommodate all these facts to build a consistent picture.

  10. Ir-induced activation of Au towards CO adsorption: Ir films deposited on Au{111}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Driver, Stephen M.; Pratt, Stephanie J.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; King, David A.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the interaction of CO with Ir/Au{111} bimetallic surfaces, and the influence of morphology changes as Ir moves sub-surface into the Au bulk, using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). The presence of Ir stabilises CO on exposed regions of the Au surface at temperatures up to around 200 K: we attribute this to low-coordinated Au sites, probably associated with lifting of the clean-surface 'herringbone' reconstruction by Ir deposition. The highest density of active Au sites is obtained after annealing the bimetallic surface to 500-600 K: we attribute this to morphology changes associated with the movement of Ir into bulk Au.

  11. IR signature management for the modern navy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitekunas, David A.; Kim, Yoonsik

    2013-06-01

    A methodology for analysing the infrared (IR) signature and susceptibility of naval platforms using ShipIR/NTCS was presented by Vaitekunas (2010). This paper provides three key improvements: use of a larger climatic data set (N=100), a new target sub-image algorithm eliminating false detections from pixel-aliasing at the horizon, and a new seeker model interfacing with a line-by-line background clutter model. Existing commercial stealth technologies (exhaust stack suppression, low solar absorptive paints, extended hull film-cooling) are re-analysed using the new models and methods to produce a more rigorous and comprehensive analysis of their effectiveness based on the statistics of reduction in IR susceptibility. These methods and results combined with the cost of each stealth option should allow platform managers to select an appropriate level of infrared suppression and establish the design criteria for a new ship.

  12. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  13. Fiber Delivery of mid-IR lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, James P.

    2011-08-24

    Fiber optics for the visible to near infrared (NIR) wavelength regimes (i.e. = 0.42 {mu}m) have proven to be extremely useful for a myriad of applications such as telecommunications, illumination, and sensors because they enable convenient, compact, and remote delivery of laser beams. Similarly, there is a need for fiber optics operating at longer wavelengths. For example, systems operating in the mid-IR regime (i.e., = 314 {mu}m) are being developed to detect trace molecular species with far-reaching applications, such as detecting explosives on surfaces, pollutants in the environment, and biomarkers in the breath of a patient. Furthermore, with the increasing availability of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) which are semiconductor lasers that operate in the mid-IR regime additional uses are rapidly being developed. Here, we describe the development of hollow-core fibers for delivery of high-quality mid-IR laser beams across a broad spectral range.

  14. Buckled silicene formation on Ir(111).

    PubMed

    Meng, Lei; Wang, Yeliang; Zhang, Lizhi; Du, Shixuan; Wu, Rongting; Li, Linfei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Geng; Zhou, Haitao; Hofer, Werner A; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2013-02-13

    Silicene, a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structure similar to graphene, has been successfully fabricated on an Ir(111) substrate. It is characterized as a (√7×√7) superstructure with respect to the substrate lattice, as revealed by low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. Such a superstructure coincides with the (√3×√3) superlattice of silicene. First-principles calculations confirm that this is a (√3×√3)silicene/(√7×√7)Ir(111) configuration and that it has a buckled conformation. Importantly, the calculated electron localization function shows that the silicon adlayer on the Ir(111) substrate has 2D continuity. This work provides a method to fabricate high-quality silicene and an explanation for the formation of the buckled silicene sheet.

  15. IR laser manipulation of cis{r_reversible}trans isomerization of 2-naphthol and its hydrogen-bonded clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kouyama, Kyouko; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Mikami, Naohiko; Ebata, Takayuki

    2006-02-07

    The cis{r_reversible}trans isomerization reaction has been carried out for 2-naphthol and its hydrogen (H) bonded clusters by infrared (IR) laser in the electronic excited state (S{sub 1}) in supersonic jets. A specific isomer in the jet was pumped to the X-H stretching vibration in the S{sub 1} state, where X refers to C, O, or N atom, by using a stepwise UV-IR excitation, and the dispersed emission spectra of the excited species or generated fragments were observed. It was found that the isomerization occurs only in the H-bonded clusters but a bare molecule does not exhibit the isomerization in the examined energy region of E{sub v}{<=}3610 cm{sup -1}, indicating a reduction of the isomerization barrier height upon the H bonding. The relative yield of the isomerization was observed as a function of internal energy. The isomerization yield was found to be very high at the low IR frequency excitation, and was rapidly reduced with the IR frequency due to the competition of the dissociation of the H bond within the isomer. Density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations were performed for estimating the barrier height of the isomerization for bare 2-naphthol and its cluster for electronic ground and excited states. The calculation showed that the isomerization barrier height is highly dependent on the electronic states. However, the reduction of the height upon the hydrogen bonding was not suggested at the level of our calculation.

  16. Collapse of the Mott Gap and Emergence of a Nodal Liquid in Lightly Doped Sr(2)IrO(4).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; McKeown Walker, S; Bruno, F Y; Riccó, S; Wang, Z; Gutierrez Lezama, I; Scheerer, G; Giriat, G; Jaccard, D; Berthod, C; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Hunter, E C; Perry, R S; Tamai, A; Baumberger, F

    2015-10-23

    We report angle resolved photoemission experiments on the electron doped Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Sr(1-x)La(x))(2)IrO(4). For a doping level of x=0.05, we find an unusual metallic state with coherent nodal excitations and an antinodal pseudogap bearing strong similarities with underdoped cuprates. This state emerges from a rapid collapse of the Mott gap with doping resulting in a large underlying Fermi surface that is backfolded by a (π,π) reciprocal lattice vector which we attribute to the intrinsic structural distortion of Sr(2)IrO(4). PMID:26551128

  17. Collapse of the Mott Gap and Emergence of a Nodal Liquid in Lightly Doped Sr(2)IrO(4).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; McKeown Walker, S; Bruno, F Y; Riccó, S; Wang, Z; Gutierrez Lezama, I; Scheerer, G; Giriat, G; Jaccard, D; Berthod, C; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Hunter, E C; Perry, R S; Tamai, A; Baumberger, F

    2015-10-23

    We report angle resolved photoemission experiments on the electron doped Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Sr(1-x)La(x))(2)IrO(4). For a doping level of x=0.05, we find an unusual metallic state with coherent nodal excitations and an antinodal pseudogap bearing strong similarities with underdoped cuprates. This state emerges from a rapid collapse of the Mott gap with doping resulting in a large underlying Fermi surface that is backfolded by a (π,π) reciprocal lattice vector which we attribute to the intrinsic structural distortion of Sr(2)IrO(4).

  18. Persistent Paramagnons Deep in the Metallic Phase of Sr2 -xLaxIrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretarsson, H.; Sung, N. H.; Porras, J.; Bertinshaw, J.; Dietl, C.; Bruin, Jan A. N.; Bangura, A. F.; Kim, Y. K.; Dinnebier, R.; Kim, Jungho; Al-Zein, A.; Moretti Sala, M.; Krisch, M.; Le Tacon, M.; Keimer, B.; Kim, B. J.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the magnetic excitations of electron-doped Sr2 -xLax IrO4 (0 ≤x ≤0.10 ) using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the Ir L3 edge. The long-range magnetic order is rapidly lost with increasing x , but two-dimensional short-range order (SRO) and dispersive magnon excitations with nearly undiminished spectral weight persist well into the metallic part of the phase diagram. The magnons in the SRO phase are heavily damped and exhibit anisotropic softening. Their dispersions are well described by a pseudospin-1 /2 Heisenberg model with exchange interactions whose spatial range increases with doping. We also find a doping-independent high-energy magnetic continuum, which is not described by this model. The spin-orbit excitons arising from the pseudospin-3 /2 manifold of the Ir ions broaden substantially in the SRO phase, but remain largely separated from the low-energy magnons. Pseudospin-1 /2 models are therefore a good starting point for the theoretical description of the low-energy magnetic dynamics of doped iridates.

  19. Electronically Excited C2 from Laser Photodissociated C60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Scott, Carl D.; Nikolaev, Pavel; Smalley, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    Spectral and transient emission measurements are made of radiation from products of laser excitation of buckminsterfullerene (C60) vapor diluted in argon at 973 K. The principal radiation is from the Swan band system of C2 and, at early times, also from a black body continuum. The C2 radiation is observed only when C60 is excited by green (532 nm) and not with IR (1064 nm) laser radiation at energy densities of about 1.5 J/square cm. Transient measurements indicate that there are two characteristic periods of decay of radiation. The first period, lasting about 2 micro seconds, has a characteristic decay time of about 0.3 micro seconds. The second period, lasting at least 50 micro seconds, has a characteristic decay time of about 5 micro seconds. These characteristic times are thought to be associated with cooling of C60 molecules or nanosized carbon particles during the early period; and with electronically excited C2 that is a decomposition product of laser excited C60, C58, ... molecules during the later period.

  20. Independent contractor arrangements and IRS audits.

    PubMed

    Pelfrey, S; Theisen, B A

    1995-01-01

    As government auditors begin their challenges, nurse executives need to review their operations to remove any potential audit risks. Although a common practice for many institutions, the use of independent contractor arrangements may be ruled inappropriate. As a result, many individuals may be reclassified as employees, leading to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) assessments of penalties and back payroll taxes. It always is prudent to anticipate IRS actions and shore up any areas that may lead to tax assessments before they are imposed on the institution.

  1. WFC3 SS IR Internal Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    2012-10-01

    Part of side switch activities.Flat field ramps will be acquired through each of the IR channel's 15 filters. Sample sequences and exposure times are dictated by the Tungsten lamp flux levels observed in Thermal Vacuum testing. The order in which the filters are used within each Visit and from Visit to Visit was optimized to allow the observations to fit within 30 minute orbits, and also in order to investigate and track any persistence effects resulting from the varying illumination levels on the IR detector.ID: WF20

  2. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  3. Compressive sensing in the EO/IR.

    PubMed

    Gehm, M E; Brady, D J

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the utility of compressive sensing (CS) to electro-optic and infrared (EO/IR) applications. We introduce the field through a discussion of historical antecedents and the development of the modern CS framework. Basic economic arguments (in the broadest sense) are presented regarding the applicability of CS to the EO/IR and used to draw conclusions regarding application areas where CS would be most viable. A number of experimental success stories are presented to demonstrate the overall feasibility of the approaches, and we conclude with a discussion of open challenges to practical adoption of CS methods.

  4. Coulomb excitation of 107In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiJulio, D. D.; Cederkall, J.; Fahlander, C.; Ekström, A.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Albers, M.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Darby, I.; Davinson, T.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Fransen, Ch.; Geibel, K.; Gernhäuser, R.; Görgen, A.; Hess, H.; Heyde, K.; Iwanicki, J.; Lutter, R.; Reiter, P.; Scheck, M.; Seidlitz, M.; Siem, S.; Taprogge, J.; Tveten, G. M.; Van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive isotope 107In was studied using sub-barrier Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Two γ rays were observed during the experiment, corresponding to the low-lying 11/2+ and 3/2- states. The reduced transition probability of the 11/2+ state was determined with the semiclassical Coulomb excitation code gosia2. The result is discussed in comparison to large-scale shell-model calculations, previous unified-model calculations, and earlier Coulomb excitation measurements in the odd-mass In isotopes.

  5. Photodissociation of Peroxynitric Acid in the Near-IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roehl, Coleen M.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Zhang, Hui; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature-dependent near-IR photodissociation spectra were obtained for several vibrational overtone transitions of peroxynitric acid (HNO4) with a tunable OPO photolysis/OH laser-induced-fluorescence system. Band-integrated photodissociation cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub diss)), determined relative to that for the 3nu(sub 1), OH stretching overtone, were measured for three dissociative bands. Assuming unit quantum efficiency for photodissociation of 3nu(sub 1), we find 2nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 3)(8242/cm) = (1.21 x 10(exp -20) (independent of temperature), 2nu(sub 1) (6900/cm) = 4.09 x 10(exp 18) * e(sup (-826,5/T)) (295 K greater than T greater than 224 K), and nu(sub 1) + 2nu(sub 3) (6252/cm) = 1.87 x 10(exp -19) * e(sup (- 1410.7/T)) (278 K greater than T greater than 240 K) sq cm/molecule cm. The photodissociation cross-sections are independent of pressure over the range 2 to 40 Torr. Temperature-dependent quantum yields (phi) for these transitions were obtained using integrated absorption cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub abs)) of HNO4 overtone vibrations measured with a FTIR spectrometer. In the atmosphere, photodissociation in the infrared is dominated by excitation of the first overtone of the OH stretching vibration (2nu((sub 1)). Inclusion of all dissociative HNO4 overtone and combination transitions yields a daytime IR photolysis rate of approximately 1 x 10(esp -1)/s. This process significantly shortens the estimated lifetime of HNO4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  6. High Contrast Reflectance Imaging of Simulated Lesions on Tooth Occlusal Surfaces at Near-IR Wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Fried, William A.; Fried, Daniel; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that high contrast images of tooth demineralization can be acquired in the near-infrared (near-IR) without the interference of stain. The purpose of this study is to compare the lesion contrast in reflectance at near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption with those in the visible, the near-IR at 1,300 nm and with fluorescence measurements for early lesions in occlusal surfaces. Methods Twenty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 × 4 mm window in the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the exposed windows after 1- and 2-day exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Lesions were imaged using near-IR reflectance at three wavelengths, 1,300, 1,460, and 1,600 nm using a high definition InGaAs camera. Visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405 nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500 nm were also used to acquire images for comparison. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Results The contrast of both the 1- and 2-day lesions were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for near-IR reflectance imaging at 1,460 and 1,600 nm than it was for near-IR reflectance imaging at 1,300 nm, visible reflectance imaging, and fluorescence. Conclusion The markedly higher contrast at 1,460 and 1,600 nm wavelengths, coincident with higher water absorption, suggest that these wavelengths are better suited than 1,300 nm for imaging early/shallow demineralization on tooth surfaces. PMID:23857066

  7. Visible-light-excited and europium-emissive nanoparticles for highly-luminescent bioimaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongquan; Shi, Mei; Zhao, Lingzhi; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou; Huang, Chunhui

    2014-07-01

    Europium(III)-based material showing special milliseconds photoluminescence lifetime has been considered as an ideal time-gated luminescence probe for bioimaging, but is still limited in application in luminescent small-animal bioimaging in vivo. Here, a water-soluble, stable, highly-luminescent nanosystem, Ir-Eu-MSN (MSN = mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Ir-Eu = [Ir(dfppy)2(pic-OH)]3Eu·2H2O, dfppy = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine, pic-OH = 3-hydroxy-2-carboxypyridine), was developed by an in situ coordination reaction to form an insoluble dinuclear iridium(III) complex-sensitized-europium(III) emissive complex within mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) which had high loading efficiency. Compared with the usual approach of physical adsorption, this in-situ reaction strategy provided 20-fold the loading efficiency (43.2%) of the insoluble Ir-Eu complex in MSNs. These nanoparticles in solid state showed bright red luminescence with high quantum yield of 55.2%, and the excitation window extended up to 470 nm. These Ir-Eu-MSN nanoparticles were used for luminescence imaging in living cells under excitation at 458 nm with confocal microscopy, which was confirmed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the Ir-Eu-MSN nanoparticles were successfully applied into high-contrast luminescent lymphatic imaging in vivo under low power density excitation of 5 mW cm(-2). This synthetic method provides a universal strategy of combining hydrophobic complexes with hydrophilic MSNs for in vivo bioimaging.

  8. Fluorescent excitation of interstellar H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, John H.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared emission spectrum of H2 excited by ultraviolet absorption, followed by fluorescence, was investigated using comprehensive models of interstellar clouds for computing the spectrum and to assess the effects on the intensity to various cloud properties, such as density, size, temperature, and the intensity of the UV radiation field. It is shown that the absolute H2 IR line intensities depend primarily on the density of the cloud and the strength of the incident UV radiation, and to a much lesser exent on the temperature of the gas, the total thickness of the cloud, and the optical properties of the grains. A variety of recent observational results are discussed with reference to theoretical models. It is shown that the rich H2 emission spectrum of the reflection nebula NGC 2023 can be reproduced by a model with density of about 10,000/cu cm, temperature of about 80 K, and UV flux approximately 300 times that of the Galactic background starlight.

  9. Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Allan C. G.; Zemansky, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Physical and chemical effects connected with resonance radiation; 3. Absorption lines and measurements of the lifetime of the resonance state; 4. Collision processes involving excited atoms; 5. The polarization of resonance radiation; Appendix; Index.

  10. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  11. IR laser-induced protein crystal transformation.

    PubMed

    Kiefersauer, Reiner; Grandl, Brigitte; Krapp, Stephan; Huber, Robert

    2014-05-01

    A method and the design of instrumentation, and its preliminary practical realisation, including test experiments, with the object of inducing phase changes of biomolecular crystals by controlled dehydration through heating with infrared (IR) light are described. The aim is to generate and select crystalline phases through transformation in the solid state which have improved order (higher resolution in X-ray diffraction experiments) and reduced mosaic spread (more uniformly aligned mosaic blocks) for diffraction data collection and analysis. The crystal is heated by pulsed and/or constant IR laser irradiation. Loss of crystal water following heating and its reabsorption through equilibration with the environment is measured optically by a video system. Heating proved superior to traditional controlled dehydration by humidity change for the test cases CODH (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase) and CLK2 (a protein kinase). Heating with IR light is experimentally simple and offers an exploration of a much broader parameter space than the traditional method, as it allows the option of varying the rate of phase changes through modification of the IR pulse strength, width and repeat frequency. It impacts the crystal instantaneously, isotropically and homogeneously, and is therefore expected to cause less mechanical stress.

  12. IR laser-induced protein crystal transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefersauer, Reiner Grandl, Brigitte; Krapp, Stephan; Huber, Robert

    2014-05-01

    A novel method and the associated instrumentation for improving crystalline order (higher resolution of X-ray diffraction and reduced mosaicity) of protein crystals by precisely controlled heating is demonstrated. Crystal transformation is optically controlled by a video system. A method and the design of instrumentation, and its preliminary practical realisation, including test experiments, with the object of inducing phase changes of biomolecular crystals by controlled dehydration through heating with infrared (IR) light are described. The aim is to generate and select crystalline phases through transformation in the solid state which have improved order (higher resolution in X-ray diffraction experiments) and reduced mosaic spread (more uniformly aligned mosaic blocks) for diffraction data collection and analysis. The crystal is heated by pulsed and/or constant IR laser irradiation. Loss of crystal water following heating and its reabsorption through equilibration with the environment is measured optically by a video system. Heating proved superior to traditional controlled dehydration by humidity change for the test cases CODH (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase) and CLK2 (a protein kinase). Heating with IR light is experimentally simple and offers an exploration of a much broader parameter space than the traditional method, as it allows the option of varying the rate of phase changes through modification of the IR pulse strength, width and repeat frequency. It impacts the crystal instantaneously, isotropically and homogeneously, and is therefore expected to cause less mechanical stress.

  13. Synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy: chemistry of living cells.

    PubMed

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Bechtel, Hans A; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C

    2010-11-01

    Advanced analytical capabilities of synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy meet the demands of modern biological research for studying molecular reactions in individual living cells. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  14. IR "Snowballs": Long-Term Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, M. J.; Bourque, M.; Baggett, S.

    2015-03-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the properties of the WFC3/IR anomalies known as "snowballs", using all in- ight WFC3/IR data through July 2014. The source of snowballs is unclear at present, but is hypothesized to be radionuclides in the detector or bonding material. Nearly 7400 unique snowball events have been identied from the search of 5 years of WFC3/IR images (over 6200 hours of exposure time), translating to a mean rate of about 1.2 snowballs per hour of IR exposure time. Typical snowballs a ect about 10 pixels and saturate 2-5 of those, and deposit about 200,000 to 500,000 electrons on the detector. We nd no trend over 5 years in the rates of snowball occurrences, consistent with the hypothesis that the uranium-238 decay chain is the source of snowballs. We also publish a table of all hitherto identied snowballs, available at http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/insperformance/anomalies/irsnowballtable.txt.

  15. Collisional excitation of interstellar formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.; Garrison, B. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.; Miller, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous calculations for rates of excitation of ortho-H2CO by collisions with He have been extended to higher rotational levels and kinetic temperatures to 80 K. Rates for para-H2CO have also been computed. Pressure-broadening widths for several spectral lines have been obtained from these calculations and are found to agree with recent data within the experimental uncertainty of 10%. Excitation of formaldehyde by collisions with H2 molecules is also discussed.

  16. Excitations of strange bottom baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woloshyn, R. M.

    2016-09-01

    The ground-state and first-excited-state masses of Ωb and Ω_{bb} baryons are calculated in lattice QCD using dynamical 2 + 1 flavour gauge fields. A set of baryon operators employing different combinations of smeared quark fields was used in the framework of the variational method. Results for radial excitation energies were confirmed by carrying out a supplementary multiexponential fitting analysis. Comparison is made with quark model calculations.

  17. Exciting Polaritons with Quantum Light.

    PubMed

    López Carreño, J C; Sánchez Muñoz, C; Sanvitto, D; del Valle, E; Laussy, F P

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the excitation of polaritons-strongly coupled states of light and matter-by quantum light, instead of the usual laser or thermal excitation. As one illustration of the new horizons thus opened, we introduce "Mollow spectroscopy"-a theoretical concept for a spectroscopic technique that consists of scanning the output of resonance fluorescence onto an optical target-from which weak nonlinearities can be read with high precision even in strongly dissipative environments. PMID:26588401

  18. IR sensors and imagers in networked operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    "Network-centric Warfare" is a common slogan describing an overall concept of networked operation of sensors, information and weapons to gain command and control superiority. Referring to IR sensors, integration and fusion of different channels like day/night or SAR images or the ability to spread image data among various users are typical requirements. Looking for concrete implementations the German Army future infantryman IdZ is an example where a group of ten soldiers build a unit with every soldier equipped with a personal digital assistant (PDA) for information display, day photo camera and a high performance thermal imager for every unit. The challenge to allow networked operation among such a unit is bringing information together and distribution over a capable network. So also AIM's thermal reconnaissance and targeting sight HuntIR which was selected for the IdZ program provides this capabilities by an optional wireless interface. Besides the global approach of Network-centric Warfare network technology can also be an interesting solution for digital image data distribution and signal processing behind the FPA replacing analog video networks or specific point to point interfaces. The resulting architecture can provide capabilities of data fusion from e.g. IR dual-band or IR multicolor sensors. AIM has participated in a German/UK collaboration program to produce a demonstrator for day/IR video distribution via Gigabit Ethernet for vehicle applications. In this study Ethernet technology was chosen for network implementation and a set of electronics was developed for capturing video data of IR and day imagers and Gigabit Ethernet video distribution. The demonstrator setup follows the requirements of current and future vehicles having a set of day and night imager cameras and a crew station with several members. Replacing the analog video path by a digital video network also makes it easy to implement embedded training by simply feeding the network with

  19. Growth and termination of a rutile IrO2(100) layer on Ir(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Rahul; Li, Tao; Liang, Zhu; Kim, Minkyu; Asthagiri, Aravind; Weaver, Jason F.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the oxidation of Ir(111) by gas-phase oxygen atoms at temperatures between 500 and 625 K using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that a well-ordered surface oxide with (√ 3 × √ 3)R30° periodicity relative to Ir(111) develops prior to the formation of a rutile IrO2(100) layer. The IrO2(100) layer reaches a saturation thickness of about four oxide layers under the oxidation conditions employed, and decomposes during TPD to produce a single, sharp O2 desorption peak at ~ 770 K. Favorable lattice matching at the oxide-metal interface is likely responsible for the preferential growth of the IrO2(100) facet during the initial oxidation of Ir(111), with the resulting coincidence lattice generating a clear (6 × 1) moiré pattern in LEED. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) experiments reveal that CO and H2O molecules bind only weakly on the IrO2(100) surface and LEISS measurements show that the oxide surface is highly enriched in O-atoms. These characteristics provide strong evidence that the rutile IrO2(100) layer is oxygen-terminated, and thus lacks reactive Ir atoms that can strongly bind molecular adsorbates. Oxygen binding energies predicted by DFT suggest that on-top O-atoms will remain adsorbed on IrO2(100) at temperatures up to ~ 625 K, thus supporting the conclusion that the rutile IrO2 layer grown in our experiments is oxygen-terminated. As such, the appearance of only a single O2 TPD peak indicates that the singly coordinate, on-top O-atoms remain stable on the IrO2(100) surface up to temperatures at which the oxide layer begins to thermally decompose.

  20. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Redox Control of Cardiac Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Nitin T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with various human diseases, and considerable attention has been paid to investigate their physiological effects. Various ROS are synthesized in the mitochondria and accumulate in the cytoplasm if the cellular antioxidant defense mechanism fails. The critical balance of this ROS synthesis and antioxidant defense systems is termed the redox system of the cell. Various cardiovascular diseases have also been affected by redox to different degrees. ROS have been indicated as both detrimental and protective, via different cellular pathways, for cardiac myocyte functions, electrophysiology, and pharmacology. Mostly, the ROS functions depend on the type and amount of ROS synthesized. While the literature clearly indicates ROS effects on cardiac contractility, their effects on cardiac excitability are relatively under appreciated. Cardiac excitability depends on the functions of various cardiac sarcolemal or mitochondrial ion channels carrying various depolarizing or repolarizing currents that also maintain cellular ionic homeostasis. ROS alter the functions of these ion channels to various degrees to determine excitability by affecting the cellular resting potential and the morphology of the cardiac action potential. Thus, redox balance regulates cardiac excitability, and under pathological regulation, may alter action potential propagation to cause arrhythmia. Understanding how redox affects cellular excitability may lead to potential prophylaxis or treatment for various arrhythmias. This review will focus on the studies of redox and cardiac excitation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 432–468. PMID:22897788

  2. The Path to a UV/optical/IR Flagship: ATLAST and Its Predecessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Oegerle, William; Postman, Marc; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The recently completed study for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) was the culmination of three years of work that built upon earlier engineering designs, science objectives, and sustained recommendations for technology investments. Since the mid-1980s, multiple teams of astronomers, technologists, and engineers have developed concepts for a large-aperture UV/optical/IR space observatory to follow the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Especially over the past decade, technology advances and exciting scientific results has led to growing support for development in the 2020s of a large UVOIR space observatory. Here we summarize the history of major mission designs, scientific goals, key technology recommendations, community workshops and conferences, and recommendations to NASA for a major UV/optical/IR observatory to follow HST. We conclude with a capsule summary of the ATLAST reference design developed over the past three years.

  3. Revised and extended level scheme of the doubly-odd nucleus {sup 188}Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Jungclaus, A.; Modamio, V.; Egido, J. L.; Fernandez, M. A.; Schwengner, R.; Algora, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Lenzi, S.; Marginean, N.; Ur, C. A.; Escrig, D.; Fraile, L. M.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    High-spin states in the doubly odd Z=77 nucleus {sup 188}Ir were studied using the reaction {sup 186}W({sup 7}Li, 5n) at 59 MeV and the GASP spectrometer for {gamma}-ray detection. The level structures recently suggested to be built on the known 4.1(3) ms isomeric state of this nucleus have been considerably revised and extended and an isomer with a lifetime of 17.7(2) ns has been identified within the main decay sequence. In addition two rotational bands built on low spin states below the ms isomer have been observed for the first time. The basic features of the excitation scheme of {sup 188}Ir are discussed within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory within the Lipkin-Nogami approach with the finite-range density-dependent Gogny force.

  4. Analysis of the emitting states of an Ir(III) complex with strong blue emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Jane Y.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.; Krausz, Elmars R.; Hall, Jeremy D.; Moore, Evan G.; Riley, Mark J.

    2015-11-01

    Temperature dependent luminescence, lifetimes and magnetic circularly polarised luminescence (MCPL) are reported between 1.7 and 80 K and in magnetic fields of 0-5 T for [Ir(ptz)3]. Data analysis reveals the temperature and field dependent behaviour is due to the sublevel structure of the emitting state. We have determined energy separations of ΔEII,I = 10 cm-1 and ΔEIII,I = 45 cm-1 between three triplet sublevels, with intrinsic luminescence lifetimes of τI = 160 μs, τII = 10 μs and τIII = 800 ns. We compare these with values for the green emitter, [Ir(ppy)3] and discuss implications for the excited state geometries.

  5. Gap Measurement of Na2IrO3 with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansary, Armin; Nichols, John; Cao, Gang; Ng, Kwok-Wai

    2015-03-01

    5d transition metal oxides such as iridates have recently stimulated substantial interest. Many exciting new phases can be found in this class of materials because of the comparable strength between spin-orbit coupling and the Coulomb interaction. In particular, we have studied high quality single crystal Na2IrO3 with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Na2IrO3 has a layered structure with a honeycomb lattice. The gap is measured to be about 400 meV according to the dI/dV curve, which is consistent with optical measurements. We will show topographic images and discuss the evolution of the density of states and the behavior of the gap from room temperature down to 100 K. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DMR-1265162.

  6. Two-color two-photon excitation using femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Quentmeier, Stefan; Denicke, Stefan; Ehlers, Jan-Eric; Niesner, Raluca A; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    2008-05-01

    The use of two-color two-photon (2c2p) excitation easily extends the wavelength range of Ti:sapphire lasers to the UV, widening the scope of its applications especially in biological sciences. We report observation of 2c2p excitation fluorescence of p-terphenyl (PTP), 2-methyl-5-t-butyl-p-quaterphenyl (DMQ) and tryptophan upon excitation with 400 and 800 nm wavelengths using the second harmonic and fundamental wavelength of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. This excitation is energetically equivalent to a one-photon excitation wavelength at 266 nm. The fluorescence signal is observed only when both wavelengths are spatially and temporally overlapping. Adjustment of the relative delay of the two laser pulses renders a cross correlation curve which is in good agreement with the pulse width of our laser. The fluorescence signal is linearly dependent on the intensity of each of the two colors but quadratically on the total incident illumination power of both colors. In fluorescence microscopy, the use of a combination of intense IR and low-intensity blue light as a substitute for UV light for excitation can have numerous advantages. Additionally, the effect of differently polarized excitation photons relative to each other is demonstrated. This offers information about different transition symmetries and yields deeper insight into the two-photon excitation process. PMID:18407711

  7. Biological oxygen sensing via two-photon absorption by an Ir(III) complex using a femtosecond fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Hiroki; Fujii, Akinari; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Kawamata, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Near-infrared two-photon absorption of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complex (2,4-pentanedionato-κO 2,κO 4)bis[2-(6-phenanthridinyl-κN)benzo[b]thien-3-yl-κC]iridium (BTPHSA) was characterized. It exhibited a 800-1200 nm two-photon absorption band, and thus could be electronically excited by 1030-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Yb-doped fiber lasers. By using BTPHSA, oxygen concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were imaged. These results demonstrate two-photon oxygen sensing of live tissues via easily operable excitation sources.

  8. Biological oxygen sensing via two-photon absorption by an Ir(III) complex using a femtosecond fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Hiroki; Fujii, Akinari; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Kawamata, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Near-infrared two-photon absorption of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complex (2,4-pentanedionato-κO 2,κO 4)bis[2-(6-phenanthridinyl-κN)benzo[b]thien-3-yl-κC]iridium (BTPHSA) was characterized. It exhibited a 800–1200 nm two-photon absorption band, and thus could be electronically excited by 1030-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Yb-doped fiber lasers. By using BTPHSA, oxygen concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were imaged. These results demonstrate two-photon oxygen sensing of live tissues via easily operable excitation sources.

  9. Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near infrared excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petricevic, V.; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on laser action in chromium-doped forsterite (Cr:Mg2SiO4) for 1064-nm excitation of the crystal's double-hump absorption band spanning the 850-1200-nm wavelength range. The cavity arrangement used for obtaining laser action in Cr:Mg2SiO2 was similar to that described by Petricevic et al. (1988). The fundamental and second harmonic emissions from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at a 10-Hz repetition rate were used for excitation of the NIR and visible bands, respectively. Pulsed laser action was readily observed for both the 1064-nm and 532-nm pumping at or above the respective thresholds. The laser parameters of the 532-nm and 1064-nm excitations were similar, indicating that the IR band is responsible for laser action for both excitations.

  10. Dealing confidently with IRS, Part II: IRS audit and postaudit procedures.

    PubMed

    Holub, S F; Walker, S R

    1978-11-01

    Preparation enables an administrator to control the hospital's participation in IRS audit procedures, to fulfill the requirements essential to the institution's tax-exempt status, and to choose the most appropriate alternative at the postaudit conference.

  11. Magnetic ordering in Gd5Ir2Bi and Gd5Ir2Sb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D. H.; Mas, Nadejda; Rejali, Rasa; Miller, T.; Gerke, Birgit; Heying, Birgit; Pöttgen, Rainer; Flacau, Roxana

    2016-05-01

    155Gd Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron powder diffraction have been used to study magnetic ordering in Gd5Ir2Bi and Gd5Ir2Sb. Despite the hyperfine fields (Bhf) at the two Gd sites differing by more than a factor of two for both compounds, the moments derived from neutron diffraction are essentially equal in Gd5Ir2Bi. This implies an unusual departure from the commonly assumed scaling between B hf G d and μGd. Neutron powder diffraction shows that Gd5Ir2Bi is a c-axis ferromagnet at 3.6 K. We find no evidence for a FM → AF transition.

  12. Tax-deferred annuity plans: meeting the IRS audit challenge.

    PubMed

    Schussler, M

    1997-01-01

    A growing number of nonprofit organizations are being fined for violations of IRS regulations following IRS audits of their tax-deferred annuity (TDA) plans. To ensure that their organizations can withstand the scrutiny of an IRS audit, TDA plan administrators must ensure that plans meet IRS regulations and be prepared for IRS audits. Documentation--particularly of the TDA plan itself, and procedures related to salary reduction programs, compensation limits, excess deferrals and other excess contributions, loans, and distributions--must be comprehensive and in compliance with IRS regulations.

  13. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  14. Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics calculation of the νO-H IR spectra for acetic acid cyclic dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amine Benmalti, Mohamed; Krallafa, Abdelghani; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Both ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach calculations and a quantum theoretical model are used in order to study the IR spectrum of the acetic acid dimer in the gas phase. The theoretical model is taking into account the strong anharmonic coupling, Davydov coupling, multiple Fermi resonances between the first harmonics of some bending modes and the first excited state of the symmetric combination of the two vO-H modes and the quantum direct and indirect relaxation. The IR spectra obtained from DFT-based molecular dynamics is compared with our theoretical lineshape and with experiment. Note that in a previous work we have shown that our approach reproduces satisfactorily the main futures of the IR experimental lineshapes of the acetic acid dimer [Mohamed el Amine Benmalti, Paul Blaise, H. T. Flakus, Olivier Henri-Rousseau, Chem Phys, 320(2006) 267-274.].

  15. Infrared Measurements of Possible IR Filter Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Koller,D.; Ediss, G.; Mihaly, L.; Carr, G.

    2006-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTS) was used to obtain the transmission spectra of candidate materials for use as infrared (IR) filters in cryogenic receivers. The data cover the range from 50 cm-1 ({approx}1.5 THz), well below the peak of the 300 K black body spectrum, to 5000 cm-1 ({approx}150 THz), Z-cut quartz, Gore-Tex, Zitex G and Zitex A, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Teflon (PTFE), Fluorogold and Black Polyethylene were measured. The relative effectiveness of each material as a filter is determined by integrating the transmission spectrum multiplied by the Planck distribution to obtain a normalized attenuation for the mid-IR band. Measurements at both room temperature and 8 K are compared.

  16. Mineralogy of an OH/IR superwind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombaert, R.; de Vries, B. L.; Hillen, M.

    2016-07-01

    The mineralogy of the dense, dusty superwind of OH/IR stars can provide important constraints for understanding the dust formation process as well as the acceleration of the wind. We aim to model the ISO-SWS spectrum of the OH/IR star OH 30.1-0.7 in detail by reproducing the slope of the spectral energy distribution in the continuum regions between 3 and 8 μm and 12 and 15 μm. In addition to metallic Fe, we find that larger amorphous olivine grains of size on the order of 1 μm may also contribute to the continuum emission. We report here on the preliminary model results and discuss their validity given the important assumption of a 1D spherically symmetric stellar wind.

  17. Automated IR-weld seam control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balle, Michel

    1990-03-01

    In 1975 the concept of visualizing, measuring and studying the thermal condition of welded seams was investigated by a laboratory of the French ministry of defense (at the request of a metal constructor). Gilbert Gaussorgues, the founding father of the company HGH was at the time in charge of the infrared laboratory in question, a department of the general administration of Armament in Toulon, France. His idea was to apply military IR-Technology to above mentioned welding application. Having developed a prototype, tests readily confirmed the validity of using IR-emission from the weld seam close to the actual moment of welding as an indicator of the quality of the fmal assembly. Nearly ten years later, in 1984, HGH decided, due to an increasing demand, to develop above preliminary tests to a complete product/application package designed specifically for welding process-control. The inspection oftubing and of the integrity welds of barrels with hazardous content, were the first applications.

  18. Novel EO/IR sensor technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-10-01

    The requirements for advanced EO/IR sensor technologies are discussed in the context of evolving military operations, with significant emphasis on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. The Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing (EMRS DTC) was established in 2003 to provide a centre of excellence in sensor research and development, supporting new capabilities in key military areas such as precision attack, battlespace manoeuvre and information superiority. In the area of advanced electro-optic technology, the DTC has supported work on discriminative imaging, advanced detectors, laser components/technologies, and novel optical techniques. This paper provides a summary of some of the EO/IR technologies explored by the DTC.

  19. Theoretical IR spectra of ionized naphthalene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauzat, F.; Talbi, D.; Miller, M. D.; DeFrees, D. J.; Ellinger, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We report the results of a theoretical study of the effect of ionization on the IR spectrum of naphthalene, using ab initio molecular orbital theory. For that purpose we determined the structures, band frequencies, and intensities of neutral and positively ionized naphthalene. The calculated frequencies and intensities allowed an assignment of the most important bands appearing in the newly reported experimental spectrum of the positive ion. Agreement with the experimental spectrum is satisfactory enough to take into consideration the unexpected and important result that ionization significantly affects the intensities of most vibrations. A possible consequence on the interpretation of the IR interstellar emission, generally supposed to originate from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is briefly presented.

  20. Cooling and Infrared Emission due to Molecular Collisional Excitation in Astrophysical Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Phillip

    2011-06-01

    Non-thermal popluations of molecules in a variety of astronomical environments, including photodissociation regions, X-ray dominated regions, and protoplanetary disks, are controlled by collisional excitation and quenching of their rovibrational levels. The important colliders are the dominant neutral species: H, He, and H2. Resulting emission lines are primary cooling transitions and can be observed by current and upcoming IR/submillimeter observatories including Spitzer, Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. Modeling these environments, however, requires large-scale computation of collisional excitation processes. The status, needs, and astrophysical applications for important molecular targets will be reviewed including H2, HD, CO, H2O, and NH3.

  1. Damage threshold study of sonic IR imaging on carbon-fiber reinforced laminated composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoyan; He, Qi; Zhang, Ding; Ashbaugh, Mike; Favro, Lawrence D.; Newaz, Golam; Thomas, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Infrared Imaging, as a young NDE technology, has drawn a lot of attentions due to it's fast, wide-area evaluation capability, and due to its broad applications in different materials such as metal/metal alloy, composites and detection of various types of defects: surface, subsurface, cracks, delaminations/disbonds. Sonic IR Imaging combines pulsed ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging to detect defects in materials. The sound pulse causes rubbing due to non-unison motion between faces of defects, and infrared sensors image the temperature map over the target to identify defects. However, concerns have also been brought up about possible damages which might occur at the contact spots between the ultrasound transducer from the external excitation source and the target materials. In this paper, we present our results from a series of systematically designed experiments on carbon-fiber reinforced laminated composite panels to address the concerns.

  2. CUBISM: CUbe Builder for IRS Spectra Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sings Irs Team; Smith, J. D.; Armus, Lee; Bot, Caroline; Buckalew, Brent; Dale, Danny; Helou, George; Jarrett, Tom; Roussel, Helene; Sheth, Kartik

    2011-11-01

    CUBISM, written in IDL, is a tool for constructing spectral cubes, maps, and arbitrary aperture 1D spectral extractions from sets of mapping mode spectra taken with Spitzer's IRS spectrograph. CUBISM is optimized for non-sparse maps of extended objects, e.g. the nearby galaxy sample of SINGS, but can be used with data from any spectral mapping AOR (primarily validated for maps which are designed as suggested by the mapping HOWTO).

  3. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  4. Observations of the 6 Centimeter Lines of OH in OH/IR Stars and Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschaechner, Laura K.; Fish, V. L.; Sjouwerman, L. O.; Pihlstrom, Y. M.; Claussen, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Recent observational and theoretical advances have given rise to ambiguities regarding the model for OH maser pumping in OH/IR stars. While ground-state OH lines have already been observed, the detection of excited-state OH lines would provide additional constraints on theoretical pumping models. To date, the only positive detections of excited-state OH emission in OH/IR stars have been a 4750 MHz maser in AU Gem and 6035 MHz maser emission in NML Cyg. We report on Very Large Array observations of the 4750 and 4765 MHz OH lines toward 45 sources, most of which are OH/IR stars. All of the sources have previously exhibited ground-state maser emission. We do not detect excited-state emission in any evolved star at the 100 mJy level (5 σ). However, masers in the 4765 MHz transition are detected toward two star forming regions: Mon R2 and LDN 1084. Masers in each of these sources have been previously detected and have shown significant variability in the past. the 4765 MHz maser in Mon R2, which had exhibited two distinct flares, one of which surpassed 75 Jy before disappearing in 1998 December, appears to be undergoing a new flaring event. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. L. K. Z. acknowledges support from the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates program.

  5. SXGA resolution IR sensor: STAIRS C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Stewart; Mcdonald, John P.; Glass, Adrian W.; Dennis, Peter N. J.

    2002-07-01

    In engagement scenarios increasing battlefield emphasis on the trade-off between long stand-off ranges, adverse weather capability and high probability target identification has resulted in the need for an SXGA resolution IR Sensor. Leading on from previous collaborative work with QinetiQ (formerly the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency) the UK MoD has awarded a contract, the STAIRS C programme, to Thales Optronics to develop to production such an IR Sensor thus ensuring this leading technology is available to meet the needs of advanced weapon systems and platforms of the future. A UK industry team has been formed to implement an optimisation programme for the productionisation and future applications of STAIRS C modules and the first of a number of UK MoD programmes has selected STAIRS C for a major Air Defence role. The STAIRS C programme has set the demanding requirement of doubling the target identification range of current in-service IR sensors whilst maintaining or improving the situational awareness (Field of View). The programme, technical specification and imaging capability achieved are reviewed in the paper.

  6. An uncooled capacitive sensor for IR detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebke, Georg; Gerngroß, Kathrin; Holik, Peter; Schmitz, Sam; Rohloff, Markus; Tätzner, Simon; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2014-06-01

    The beetle Melanophila acuminata detects forest fires from distances as far as 80 miles away. To accomplish this, the beetle uses highly specific IR receptors with a diameter of approximately 15 μm. These receptors are mechanoreceptors that detect deformations induced by the absorption of radiation. Although the detection mechanism is understood in principle, it is still unclear how the beetle reaches such high sensitivity. In this work, we present the biomimetic approach of an uncooled IR sensor based on the beetle's receptors. This sensor is based on a fluid-filled pressure cell and operates at room temperature. Upon absorbing IR radiation, the fluid heats up and expands. The expanding fluid deflects one electrode of a plate capacitor. By measuring the change in capacitance, the volume increase and the absorbed energy can be inferred. To prevent the risk of damage at high energy absorption, a compensation mechanism is presented in this work. The mechanism prevents large but slow volume changes inside the pressure cell by a microfluidic connection of the pressure cell with a compensation chamber. The channel and the compensation chamber act as a microfluidic low-pass filter and do not affect the overall sensitivity above an appropriate cut-off frequency. Using MEMS technology, we are able to incorporate the complete system into a silicon chip with an area of a few mm2. Here, we show a proof-of-concept and first measurements of the sensor.

  7. Kinematic structure of OH/IR stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Kwok, S.

    1987-10-01

    A kinematic model is constructed for 1612 MHz OH maser emssion in OH/IR stars. The spatial distributions of OH maser intensity are calculated from a model of spherically-symmetric uniformly-expanding circumstellar shell. By comparing VLA/VLBI maps of OH/IR stars with model results, the acceptable range of combination of physical parameters M/Ve, (nH2)max, (nH2)min, fOH = [nOH]/[nH2] are derived. The theoretical relations between OH shell radius R0 and mass loss rate Mand between OH maser luminosity LOH and Mare also obtained. These relations are in good agreement with empirical relations established by Bowers et al. (1983) and Baud et al. (1983). The ranges of (nH2)max and (nOH)min under different Mrequired for operating saturated 1612 MHz OH masers are also discussed. The authors find that the OH emission phase can last over 1000 years after the termination of the asymptotic giant branch and many protoplanetary nebulae may have the characteristics of OH/IR stars.

  8. Choices for Tissue Visualization with IR Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gough,K.; Rak, M.; Bookatz, A.; Del Bigio, M.; Mai, S.; Westaway, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we address some of the issues associated with infrared (IR) imaging, with reference to our work on brain tissue from the TgCRND8 mouse, a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is the most common cause of dementia in the aging population. One of the characteristic hallmarks of this chronic neurodegenerative disorder is the accumulation of plaques in the brain, usually visualized with histochemistry and immunostaining. Although these methods are extremely useful, they illustrate only certain aspects of the sample, require a great amount of tissue processing, and are highly dependent on experimental protocols and reagent quality. IR imaging provides information on multiple components, with a minimal amount of sample processing. However, in order to interpret the data successfully, the issues of spectral acquisition parameters, pre-processing, and spectral artifacts need to be considered. The methods commonly used to process the data, such as uni- and bi-variate spectral analysis, and multivariate methods, such as hierarchical cluster analysis, and some issues concerning the use of second derivatives of IR spectra are discussed.

  9. Recurrent Excitation in Neocortical Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Rodney J.; Koch, Christof; Mahowald, Misha; Martin, Kevan A. C.; Suarez, Humbert H.

    1995-08-01

    The majority of synapses in the mammalian cortex originate from cortical neurons. Indeed, the largest input to cortical cells comes from neighboring excitatory cells. However, most models of cortical development and processing do not reflect the anatomy and physiology of feedback excitation and are restricted to serial feedforward excitation. This report describes how populations of neurons in cat visual cortex can use excitatory feedback, characterized as an effective "network conductance," to amplify their feedforward input signals and demonstrates how neuronal discharge can be kept proportional to stimulus strength despite strong, recurrent connections that threaten to cause runaway excitation. These principles are incorporated into models of cortical direction and orientation selectivity that emphasize the basic design principles of cortical architectures.

  10. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, Matthew T; Bewley, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  11. Pair Excitations in Fermi Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Helga M.; Krotscheck, Eckhard; Schörkhuber, Karl; Springer, Josef

    2006-09-01

    We present a theory of multi-pair excitations in strongly interacting Fermi systems. Based on an equations-of-motion approach for time-dependent pair correlations it leads to a qualitatively new structure of the density-density response function. Our theory reduces to both, i) the "correlated" random-phase approximation (RPA) for fermions if the two-pair excitations are ignored, and ii) the correlated Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory for bosons in the appropriate limit. The theory preserves the two first energy-weighted sum rules. A familiar problem of the standard RPA is that its zero-sound mode is energetically much higher than found in experiments. The popular cure of introducing an average effective mass in the Lindhard function violates sum rules and describes the physics incorrectly. We demonstrate that the inclusion of correlated pair excitations gives the correct dispersion. As in 4He, a modification of the effective mass is unnecessary also in 3He.

  12. Calculation of molecular excitation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, George

    1993-01-01

    State-to-state collisional excitation rates for interstellar molecules observed by radio astronomers continue to be required to interpret observed line intensities in terms of local temperatures and densities. A problem of particular interest is collisional excitation of water which is important for modeling the observed interstellar masers. In earlier work supported by a different NASA Grant, excitation of water in collisions with He atoms was studied; after many years of successively more refined calculations that problem now seems to be well understood, and discrepancies with earlier experimental data for related (pressure broadening) phenomena are believed to reflect experimental errors. Because of interstellar abundances, excitation by H2, the dominant interstellar species, is much more important than excitation by He, although it has been argued that rates for excitation by these are similar. Under the current grant theoretical study of this problem has begun which is greatly complicated by the additional degrees of freedom which must be included both in determining the interaction potential and also in the molecular scattering calculation. We have now computed the interaction forces for nearly a thousand molecular geometries and are close to having an acceptable global fit to these points which is necessary for the molecular dynamics calculations. Also, extensive modifications have been made to the molecular scattering code, MOLSCAT. These included coding the rotational basis sets and coupling matrix elements required for collisions of an asymmetric top with a linear rotor. A new method for numerical solution of the coupled equations has been incorporated. Because of the long-ranged nature of the water-hydrogen interaction it is necessary to integrate the equations to rather large intermolecular separations, and the integration methods previously available in MOLSCAT are not ideal for such cases. However, the method used by Alexander in his HIBRIDON code is

  13. Stimulus responsive nanogel with innate near IR fluorescent capability for drug delivery and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vineeth M; Shenoy, Sachin J; Victor, Sunita P; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2016-10-01

    A brighter, non toxic and biocompatible optical imaging agent is one of the major quests of biomedical research. Here in, we report a photoluminescent comacromer [PEG-poly(propylene fumarate)-citric acid-glycine] and novel stimulus (pH) responsive nanogel endowed with excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence (EDF) for combined drug delivery and bioimaging applications. The comacromer when excited at different wavelengths in visible region from 400nm to 640nm exhibits fluorescent emissions from 510nm to 718nm in aqueous condition. It has high Stokes shift (120nm), fluorescent lifetime (7 nanoseconds) and quantum yield (50%). The nanogel, C-PLM-NG, prepared with this photoluminescent comacromer and N,N-dimethyl amino ethylmethacrylate (DMEMA) has spherical morphology with particle size around 100nm and 180nm at pH 7.4 (physiological) and 5.5 (intracellular acidic condition of cancer cells) respectively. The studies on fluorescence characteristics of C-PLM NG in aqueous condition reveal large red-shift with emissions from 523nm to 700nm for excitations from 460nm to 600nm ascertaining the EDF characteristics. Imaging the near IR emission with excitation at 535nm was accomplished using cut-off filters. The nanogel undergoes pH responsive swelling and releases around 50% doxorubicin (DOX) at pH 5.5 in comparison with 15% observed at pH 7.4. The studies on in vitro cytotoxicity with MTT assay and hemolysis revealed that the present nanogel is non-toxic. The DOX-loaded C-PLM-NG encapsulated in Hela cells induces lysis of cancer cells. The inherent EDF characteristics associated with C-PLM NG enable cellular imaging of Hela cells. The studies on biodistribution and clearance mechanism of C-PLM-NG from the body of mice reveal bioimaging capability and safety of the present nanogel. This is the first report on a polymeric nanogel with innate near IR emissions for bioimaging applications.

  14. STATUS OF FAST IR ORBIT FEEDBACK AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG, C.; CUPOLO, J.; GLENN, J.; LITVINENKO, V.; MARUSIC, A.; MENG, W.; MICHNOFF, R.; ROSER, T.; SCHULTHEISS, C.; TUOZZOLO, J.

    2006-06-26

    To compensate modulated beam-beam offsets caused by mechanical vibrations of IR triplet quadrupoles at frequencies around 10 Hz, a fast IR orbit feedback system has been developed. We report design considerations and recent status of the system.

  15. Magnetically induced pulser laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.S.; Leopold, K.E.

    1985-02-15

    A novel excitation scheme has been developed for excimer discharge lasers. The technique uses pulse transformer technology to induce a fast, high voltage pulse directly onto a ground potential laser electrode resulting in the breakdown of the laser gas mix. Saturation of the pulse transformer core inductance then permits efficient energy transfer from the main energy storage circuit into the discharge. When this excitation technique was used in a XeCl laser an output energy density of 2.5 J/l and an overall electrical to optical efficiency of 2% were obtained. The technique appears promising for the development of high energy, high average power excimer lasers.

  16. Autoresonant excitation of antiproton plasmas.

    PubMed

    Andresen, G B; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2011-01-14

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  17. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Carpenter, P. T.; Hurt, J. L.; Robicheaux, F.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-01-14

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  18. Directional excitation without breaking reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Hamidreza; Dubois, Marc; Wang, Yuan; Shen, Y. Ron; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    We propose a mechanism for directional excitation without breaking reciprocity. This is achieved by embedding an impedance matched parity-time symmetric potential in a three-port system. The amplitude distribution within the gain and loss regions is strongly influenced by the direction of the incoming field. Consequently, the excitation of the third port is contingent on the direction of incidence while transmission in the main channel is immune. Our design improves the four-port directional coupler scheme, as there is no need to implement an anechoic termination to one of the ports.

  19. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must...

  20. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must...

  1. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must...

  2. Structure and elementary properties of the new Ir hollandite Rb{sub 0.17}IrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Schoop, Leslie M.; Krizan, Jason W.; Gibson, Quinn D.; Cava, R.J.

    2014-01-15

    We report the synthesis and structural characterization of the new Ir holladite, Rb{sub 0.17}IrO{sub 2}. Rb{sub 0.17}IrO{sub 2} crystallizes in the tetragonal hollandite structure. In contrast to the previously reported monoclinic Ir hollandite K{sub 0.25}IrO{sub 2}, we do not observe a difference in Ir–O bond lengths in Rb{sub 0.17}IrO{sub 2} and thus find Ir in an average oxidation state of + 3.83. We also report and compare the electronic and magnetic properties of Rb{sub 0.17}IrO{sub 2} and K{sub 0.25}IrO{sub 2}, finding that they are both metallic and Pauli paramagnets further supporting that the electrons are delocalized in the Ir 5d states. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Rb{sub 0.17}IrO{sub 2} (right), and the SEM image of Rb{sub 0.17}IrO{sub 2}, showing the growth of thin needles (left). Display Omitted - Highlights: • New iridium hollandite. • Naturally grows in very thin wires. • Elementary physical properties of Ir holladites reported for the first time metallic conductor and paramagnetic.

  3. Direct two-photon excitation of Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Tb.DOTA-, and Tb.propargylDO3A in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Blackburn, Octavia A.; Tropiano, Manuel; Faulkner, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    We have observed direct two-photon excitation of samarium, europium and terbium ions in solution upon near IR excitation using a tuneable pulsed light source, and have also studied two-photon processes in a pair of related terbium complexes, namely [Tb.DOTA]- and Tb.propargylDO3A. Direct two-photon excitation of lanthanides is observed in simple systems in the absence of sensitizing chromophores. Where even simple chromophores such as a triple bond are present in the complex, then single and two-photon excitation of chromophore excited states competes with direct two-photon excitation of the ions and is the dominant pathway for sensitizing formation of the lanthanide excited state.

  4. Nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects in stratospheric HF by collisional energy transfer from electronically excited O2 and implications for infrared remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, Jack A.

    1989-01-01

    A possible nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) effect involving stratospheric HF arising from the direct photochemical excitation of vibrationally excited HF by collisional energy transfer from electronically excited O2 is presented. Although this non-LTE effect is smaller that one associated with the direct solar excitation of both HF(nv = 1) and HF(nv = 2), calculations show that inclusion of the mechanism into retrieval algorithms is necessary if correct daytime upper stratosphere HF profiles are to be inferred in future IR thermal emission measurements.

  5. Arbitrage Rebate Compliance: Recent IRS Scrutiny of School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Lynda K.; Gurrola, George E.; Richardson, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes rules and procedures school districts must follow to comply with IRS arbitrage and rebate rules and exceptions on profits derived from investing yields of tax-exempt bonds in a higher yielding account. Describes consequences of noncompliance and seven ways to be prepared for an IRS audit--for example, answering the IRS promptly. (PKP)

  6. Production of 199Ir via Exotic Nucleon Transfer Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kui; J, S. Lilley; P, V. Drumm; D, D. Warner; R, A. Cunningham; J, N. Mo

    1993-05-01

    A new nucleus 199Ir has been produced using the exotic transfer reaction 198Pt(18O, 17F)199Ir at 140 MeV. The mass of 199Ir has been measured by the determination of the reaction Q value. Its mass excess is -24.424 ± 0.034 MeV.

  7. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  8. Si/IrSi3 Schottky-Barrier Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1991-01-01

    Si/IrSi or Si/IrSi3 Schottky-barrier detector fabricated by stoichiometric codeposition of Ir and Si on p Si substrate. Includes p+ substrate contact, silicide electrode, and n Si guard ring, which suppresses leakage around periphery of silicide electrode. Part of continuing effort to develop imaging arrays of Schottky-barrier detectors operating at far-infrared wavelengths.

  9. 7 CFR 1403.19 - Reporting discharged debts to IRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting discharged debts to IRS. 1403.19 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES DEBT SETTLEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 1403.19 Reporting discharged debts to IRS. (a) In accordance with IRS regulations, CCC...

  10. 7 CFR 792.20 - Reporting discharged debts to IRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting discharged debts to IRS. 792.20 Section 792..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM DEBT SETTLEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 792.20 Reporting discharged debts to IRS. (a) In accordance with IRS regulations, FSA may report...

  11. 7 CFR 792.20 - Reporting discharged debts to IRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting discharged debts to IRS. 792.20 Section 792..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM DEBT SETTLEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 792.20 Reporting discharged debts to IRS. (a) In accordance with IRS regulations, FSA may report...

  12. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xu; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2015-12-01

    A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (NIr/NPd = 0.1), the activity of PdIr0.1/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd-Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir.

  13. Elementary Excitations in Quantum Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, David

    1981-01-01

    Discusses elementary excitations and their role in condensed matter physics, focusing on quantum plasma, helium liquids, and superconductors. Considers research primarily conducted in the 1950s and concludes with a brief survey of some closely related further developments. (Author/JN)

  14. Communicating the Excitement of Science

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Turner

    2016-07-12

    In this talk (which will include some exciting science) I will discuss some lessons I have learned about communicating science to scientists (in my own field and others), students, the public, the press, and policy makers in giving 500+ colloquia and seminars, 300+ public lectures and many informal presentations (including cocktail parties).

  15. Collisional excitation of interstellar water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palma, Amedeo; Green, Sheldon; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Rates for rotational excitation of water molecules in collisions with He atoms have been obtained from a new, accurate theoretical interaction potential. Rates among the lowest 40 ortho levels are given for kinetic temperatures to 1400 K and among the lowest 29 para levels for kinetic temperatures to 800 K.

  16. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  17. Pseudorandom selective excitation in NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Jamie D.; Coomes, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    In this work, average Hamiltonian theory is used to study selective excitation under a series of small flip-angle θ-pulses θ ≪ {π}/{3} applied either periodically [corresponding to the DANTE pulse sequence] or aperiodically to a spin-1/2 system. First, an average Hamiltonian description of the DANTE pulse sequence is developed that is valid for frequencies either at or very far from integer multiples of {1}/{τ}, where τ is the interpulse delay. For aperiodic excitation, a single resonance, νsel, can be selectively excited if the θ-pulse phases are modulated in concert with the interpulse delays. The conditions where average Hamiltonian theory can be accurately applied to describe the dynamics under aperiodic selective pulses, which are referred to as pseudorandom-DANTE or p-DANTE sequences, are similar to those found for the DANTE sequence. Signal averaging over different p-DANTE sequences improves the apparent selectivity at νsel by reducing the excitations at other frequencies. Experimental demonstrations of p-DANTE sequences and comparisons with the theory are presented.

  18. Communicating the Excitement of Science

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Turner

    2009-06-05

    In this talk (which will include some exciting science) I will discuss some lessons I have learned about communicating science to scientists (in my own field and others), students, the public, the press, and policy makers in giving 500+ colloquia and seminars, 300+ public lectures and many informal presentations (including cocktail parties).

  19. Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

  20. Near-IR imaging toward a puzzling young stellar object precessing jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Fariña, C.; Ortega, M. E.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: The study of jets that are related to stellar objects in formation is important because it enables us to understand the history of how the stars have built up their mass. Many studies currently examine jets towards low-mass young stellar objects, while equivalent studies toward massive or intermediate-mass young stellar objects are rare. In a previous study, based on 12CO J = 3-2 and public near-IR data, we found highly misaligned molecular outflows toward the infrared point source UGPS J185808.46+010041.8 (IRS) and some infrared features suggesting the existence of a precessing jet. Methods: Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the JHKs broad- and narrowbands centered on the emission lines of [FeII], H2 1-0 S(1), H2 2-1 S(1), Brγ, and CO 2-0 (bh), we studied the circumstellar environment of IRS with an angular resolution between 0.̋35 and 0.̋45. Results: The emission in the JHKs broadbands shows in great detail a cone-shaped nebula extending to the north-northeast of the point source, which appears to be attached to it by a jet-like structure. In the three bands the nebula is resolved in a twisted-shaped feature composed of two arc-like features and a bow-shock-like structure seen mainly in the Ks band, which strongly suggests the presence of a precessing jet. An analysis of proper motions based on our Gemini observations and UKIDSS data additionally supports the precession scenario. We present one of the best-resolved cone-like nebula that is most likely related to a precessing jet up to date. The analysis of the observed near-IR lines shows that the H2 is collisionally excited, and the spatially coincidence of the [FeII] and H2 emissions in the closer arc-like feature suggests that this region is affected by a J shock. The second arc-like feature presents H2 emission without [FeII], which suggests a nondissociated C shock or a less energetic J shock. The H2 1-0 S(1) continuum-subtracted image reveals several knots and filaments at a larger

  1. Optical alignment and testing of the Diffuse IR Background Experiment IR cryogenic telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    1989-01-01

    Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) optical alignment and testing methods are discussed. Using strobe videography, vibration and performance testing of a 32 hz tuning-fork chopper was carried out. The Cosmic Background explorer satellite provides improved microwave and IR all-sky maps of the cosmic background radiation from a polar orbit. A liquid helium cryostat houses the DIRBE and the Far IR Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instruments at a temperature of 2 K. Differential MicRowave Radiometers (DMRs) provide large scale maps of anisotropy of the 3 K background at wavelengths of 3.3, 5.7, and 9.6 mm. The DIRBE telescope is an IR photometric instrument with 10 wavelength bands between 1 and 300 microns, designed to measure radiation from the epoch of galaxy formation. Stringent stray light requirements mean that the DIRBE flight instrument has to be built and tested in a class 100 environment.

  2. IR Spectroscopic signs of malignant neoplasms in the thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    We use Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to study thyroid tumor tissues which were removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the tissues with pathological foci are compared with data from histologic examination. In the region of N-H, C-H, and C = O stretching vibrations, the IR spectra of the tissues for thyroid cancer are different from the IR spectra of tissues without malignant formations. We identify the spectral signs of thyroid cancer. We show that IR analysis is promising for identification of thyroid pathology at the molecular level.

  3. High-fidelity synthetic IR imaging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Michael; Drake, Richard

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a High Fidelity Synthetic IR Imaging Model which attempts to generate accurate static images as would be seen by a defined IR sensor given the target type and the atmospheric conditions. The model attempts to be quite general in its accommodation of physical processes yet maintain radiometric accuracy. Its main application are to assist in the validation of real-time IR scene generation software, and as a tool which can be used for range performance studies of electro-optical systems. The software model allows facet modeling of targets including temperature profiles and material properties. LOWTRAN/MODTRAN is used to provide atmospheric data for transmittance and self-radiation. Optical systems are described in terms of their transmittance and point spread function, both as functions of wavelength, and a self radiation term having temperature and material properties. At each wavelength desired the model generates descriptions of the flux distribution falling on the focal plane of the sensor system. The flux from different sources is added together to form the total flux distribution on the focal plane. Pixels on the focal plane are modeled by groups of facets with associated material properties allowing the shape and wavelength sensitivity to be expressed. The raw pixel output is obtained by integrating the flux distribution over the component facets and across wavelengths. Following non-uniformity modeling a convolution is applied which models readout smearing. Bandlimited noise is then added. The model is also able to generate and apply a matched filter to the output image. The model is designed to use common commercial software tools such as Multigen for target modeling and Open GL for the rendering. The model currently executes on Silicon Graphics hardware.

  4. Band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Liam E-mail: liq1@ORNL.gov; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei; Li, Qian E-mail: liq1@ORNL.gov

    2015-03-09

    A multifrequency open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach utilizing photothermal as opposed to electrical excitation is developed. Photothermal band excitation (PthBE)-KPFM is implemented here in a grid mode on a model test sample comprising a metal-insulator junction with local charge-patterned regions. Unlike the previously described open loop BE-KPFM, which relies on capacitive actuation of the cantilever, photothermal actuation is shown to be highly sensitive to the electrostatic force gradient even at biases close to the contact potential difference (CPD). PthBE-KPFM is further shown to provide a more localized measurement of true CPD in comparison to the gold standard ambient KPFM approach, amplitude modulated KPFM. Finally, PthBE-KPFM data contain information relating to local dielectric properties and electronic dissipation between tip and sample unattainable using conventional single frequency KPFM approaches.

  5. A three-field IR telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    High performance confidence is now obtainable in thermal imaging telescopes with complex optomechanical layouts, in virtue of recent advancements in germanium surfaces' diamond turning and computer-aided mechanical design. Attention is presently given to the specifications, optical configuration and mechanical design features of a three-field IR telescope employing aspheric surfaces, which would be suitable for parent vehicle guidance, target acquisition, and target identification tasks. Dramatic weight and cost reductions are noted to be achievable through the use of mechanical modelling to ensure the most essential application of metalworking operations.

  6. Standoff imaging of chemicals using IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George; Morales Rodriguez, Marissa E

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on a standoff spectroscopic technique for identifying chemical residues on surfaces. A hand-held infrared camera was used in conjunction with a wavelength tunable mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) to create hyperspectral image arrays of a target with an explosive residue on its surface. Spectral signatures of the explosive residue (RDX) were extracted from the hyperspectral image arrays and compared with a reference spectrum. Identification of RDX was achieved for residue concentrations of 20 g per cm2 at a distance of 1.5 m, and for 5 g per cm2 at a distance of 15 cm.

  7. Superconductivity in Pd, Ir, and Pt chalcogenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yoon Seok; Yang, Junjie; Choi, Y. J.; Hogan, A.; Horibe, Y.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2012-02-01

    Large spin-orbit coupling in materials with heavy chalcogens can result in unique quantum states or functional properties such as topological insulator, giant thermoelectric power, and superconductivity. When materials contain heavy cations in addition to heavy chalcogens, spin-orbit coupling can be further enhanced. For these reasons, we have studied the superconductivity of Pd, Ir, and Pt tellurides and selenides. In the exploration of these chalcogenides, we have focused on the competition between superconductivity and charge density wave that is associated with superlattice reflections.

  8. Low Power Polysilicon Sources for IR Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, N. C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

    1998-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated polysilicon thin film infrared (IR) sources by micromachining technology. These sources are made with a lightly doped middle region for light emission and heavy doping of the supporting legs. The sources are fabricated on a 10 mm thick, low temperature process parameters in the fabrication of these silicon dioxide layer. Different doping levels were used to achieve various source resistances. From the power requirement to reach the required light emission versus source resistance curve it is seen that there exists a resistance value which minimizes the necessary input power.

  9. IR beamline at the Swiss Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ph, Lerch; L, Quaroni; J, Wambach; J, Schneider; B, Armstrong D.; D, Rossetti; L, Mueller F.; P, Peier; V, Schlott; L, Carroll; P, Friedli; H, Sigg; S, Stutz; M, Tran

    2012-05-01

    The infrared beamline at the Swiss light source uses dipole radiation and is designed to transport light to four experimental stations, A, B, C, D. Branch A is dedicated to far IR work in vacuum; branch B is a micro-spectrometer; branch C is dedicated to high resolution spectroscopy in the gas phase; branch D is a pump and probe set-up. This contribution describes the optical layout and provides a brief survey of currently available experimental stations. The beamline is in regular user operation since 2009.

  10. Dedicated IR imaging fire sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, Hans-Peter; Jahn, Herbert; Briess, Klaus; Lorenz, Eckehard; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Walter, Ingo; Oertel, Dieter

    2000-07-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and its industrial partners are working on two new spaceborne fire missions: (1) the Bi-spectral IR Detection small satellite mission (BIRD) to be launched in autumn 2000, and (2) the Innovative Infrared Sensor System FOCUS to be flown as an early external payload of the International Space Station. Both BIRD and FOCUS will use MIR/TIR solid state pushbroom imagers with real time digital signal processing providing an adaptive and very high dynamic range in radiometry. Promising results are obtained with the BIRD Airborne Simulator which has been flown at DLR in several airborne campaigns since 1997.

  11. Gated IR Images of Shocked Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Lutz; W. D. Turley; P. M. Rightley; L. E. Primas

    2001-06-01

    Gated infrared (IR) images have been taken of a series of shocked surface geometries in tin. Metal coupons machined with steps and flats were mounted directly to the high explosive. The explosive was point-initiated and 500-ns to 1-microsecond-wide gated images of the target were taken immediately following shock breakout using a Santa Barbara Focalplane InSb camera (SBF-134). Spatial distributions of surface radiance were extracted from the images of the shocked samples and found to be non-single-valued. Several geometries were modeled using CTH, a two-dimensional Eulerian hydrocode.

  12. Superfluid Performance of Tevatron IR Quad Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1996-12-12

    A collaborative team from the two laboratories measured the performance of a Tevatron Interaction region (IR) quadrupole at temperatures from 1.8 K to 4.4 K. These studies included measurement of their performance as a function of temperature as well as measurement of the effectiveness of the protection heaters. Heater diffusion times were measured for various temperatures, current levels, and power densities. These results and their implications on the design of magnet protection systems and magnet design operating in this temperature range will be discussed.

  13. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  14. Gated IR Images of Shocked Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Stephen S.; Turley, W. Dale; Rightley, Paul M.; Primas, Lori E.

    2002-07-01

    Gated infrared (IR) images have been taken of a series of shocked surface geometries in tin. Metal coupons machined with steps and flats were mounted directly to the high explosive. The explosive was point-initiated and 500-ns to 1-microsecond-wide gated images of the target were taken immediately following shock breakout using a Santa Barbara Focalplane InSb camera (SBF-134). Spatial distributions of surface radiance were extracted from the images of the shocked samples and found to be non-single-valued. Several surfaces were modeled using CTH, a 2- or 3-dimensional Eulerian hydrocode.

  15. Gated IR images of shocked surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, S. S.; Turley, W. D.; Rightley, P. M.; Primas, L. E.

    2001-01-01

    Gated infrared (IR) images have been taken of a series of shocked surface geometries in tin. Metal coupons machined with steps and flats were mounted directly to the high explosive. The explosive was point-initiated and 500-ns to 1-microsecond-wide gated images of the target were taken immediately following shock breakout using a Santa Barbara Focalplane InSb camera (SBF-134). Spatial distributions of surface radiance were extracted from the images of the shocked samples and found to be non-single-valued. Several geometries were modeled using CTH, a two-dimensional Eulerian hydrocode.

  16. C-H Hot Bands in the Near-IR Emission Spectra of Leonids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F. T.; Scoville, J.; Holm, R.; Seelemann, R.; Freund, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    The reported infrared (IR) emission spectra from 1999 Leonid fireballs show a 3.4 micron C-H emission band and unidentified bands at longer wavelengths. Upon atmospheric entry, the Leonid meteorites were flash-heated to temperatures around 2400K, which would destroy any organics on the surface of the meteorite grains. We propose that the nu(sub )CH emission band in the Leonid emission spectra arises from matrix-embedded C(sub n)-H-O entities that are protected from instant pyrolysis. Our model is based on IR absorption nu(sub )CH bands, which we observed in laboratory-grown MgO and natural olivine single crystals, where they arise from C(sub n)-H-O units imbedded in the mineral matrix, indicative of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 organics. Instead of being pyrolyzed, the C(sub n)-H-O entities in the Leonid trails become vibrationally excited to higher levels n = 1, 2, 3 etc. During de-excitation they emit at 3.4 microns, due to the (0 => 1) transition, and at longer wavelengths, due to hot bands. As a first step toward verifying this hypothesis we measured the C-H vibrational manifold of hexane (C6H14). The calculated positions of the (2 => l ) , (3 => 2), and possibly (4 => 3) hot bands agree with the Leonid emission bands at 3.5, 3.8 and 4.l microns.

  17. Compact mid-IR sources east of Galactic Center source IRS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perger, M.; Moultaka, J.; Eckart, A.; Viehmann, T.; Schödel, R.; Muzic, K.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:Mid-infrared observations of the Galactic Center show among the extended mini-spiral a number of compact sources. Their nature is of interest because they represent an interaction of luminous stars with the mini-spiral material or mass losing sources that are enshrouded in dust and gas shells. Characterizing their nature is necessary to obtain a complete picture of the different stellar populations and the star formation history of the cental stellar cluster in general. Prominent compact MIR sources in the Galactic Center are either clearly offset from the mini-spiral (e.g. the M2 super-giant IRS 7 and the bright dust enshrouded IRS 3) or have been identified earlier with bright bow shock sources (e.g. IRS 21, 1W, 10W and IRS 5). There are, however, four less prominent compact sources east of IRS 5, the natures of which were unclear until now. Methods: We present near-infrared K-band long slit spectroscopy of the four sources east of IRS 5 obtained with the ISAAC spectrograph at the ESO VLT in July 2005. We interpret the data in combination with high angular resolution NIR and MIR images obtained with ISAAC and NACO at the ESO VLT. Results: The K'-band images and proper motions show that the sources are multiple. For all but one source we find dominant contributions from late type stars with best overall fits to template stars with temperatures below 5000 K. Conclusions: The brightest sources contained in IRS 5NE, 5E and 5S may be asymptotic giant branch stars and a part of the MIR excess may be due to dust shells produced by the individual sources. However, in all cases an interaction with the mini-spiral cannot be excluded and their broad band infrared SEDs indicate that they could be lower luminosity counterparts of the identified bow shock sources. In fact, IRS 5SE is associated with a faint bow shock and its spectrum shows contributions from a hotter early type star which supports such a classification.

  18. Tracing black hole accretion with SED decomposition and IR lines: from local galaxies to the high-z Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruppioni, C.; Berta, S.; Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Pozzi, F.; Andreani, P.; Bonato, M.; De Zotti, G.; Malkan, M.; Negrello, M.; Vallini, L.; Vignali, C.

    2016-06-01

    We present new estimates of AGN accretion and star formation (SF) luminosity in galaxies obtained for the local 12 μm sample of Seyfert galaxies (12MGS), by performing a detailed broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) decomposition including the emission of stars, dust heated by SF and a possible AGN dusty torus. Thanks to the availability of data from the X-rays to the sub-millimetre, we constrain and test the contribution of the stellar, AGN and SF components to the SEDs. The availability of Spitzer-InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra is crucial to constrain the dusty torus component at its peak wavelengths. The results of SED fitting are also tested against the available information in other bands: the reconstructed AGN bolometric luminosity is compared to those derived from X-rays and from the high excitation IR lines tracing AGN activity like [Ne V] and [O IV]. The IR luminosity due to SF and the intrinsic AGN bolometric luminosity are shown to be strongly related to the IR line luminosity. Variations of these relations with different AGN fractions are investigated, showing that the relation dispersions are mainly due to different AGN relative contribution within the galaxy. Extrapolating these local relations between line and SF or AGN luminosities to higher redshifts, by means of recent Herschel galaxy evolution results, we then obtain mid- and far-IR line luminosity functions useful to estimate how many star-forming galaxies and AGN we expect to detect in the different lines at different redshifts and luminosities with future IR facilities (e.g. JWST, SPICA).

  19. Excited state absorption properties of Pt(II) terpyridyl complexes bearing π-conjugated arylacetylides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianghuai; Goeb, Sébastien; Ji, Zhiqiang; Castellano, Felix N

    2010-11-18

    The synthesis, photophysics, and excited state absorption properties of three platinum(II) terpyridyl acetylide charge transfer (CT) complexes possessing a lone ancillary ligand systematically varied in phenylacetylide (PA) π-conjugation length, [Pt((t)Bu(3)tpy)([C≡C-C(6)H(4)](n)-H)]ClO(4) (n = 1, 2, 3), are described. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed on the ground states of complexes 1, 2, and 3 reveal that their HOMOs reside mainly on the ancillary π-conjugated PA moiety, ranging from 86 to 97%, with LUMOs predominantly centered on the terpyridyl acceptor ligand (91-92%). This electronic structure leads to the production of a triplet ligand-to-ligand CT ((3)LLCT) excited state upon visible light excitation with minor contributions from the corresponding triplet metal-to-ligand CT ((3)MLCT) excited state. Unusually strong red-to-near-IR transient absorptions are produced in the excited states of these molecules following selective long wavelength visible excitation of the low energy CT bands that do not emanate from the terpyridyl radical anion produced in the CT excited state or from an arylacetylide-based triplet intraligand ((3)IL) excited state. The extinction coefficients of these low energy absorption transients were determined using the energy transfer method with anthracene serving as the triplet acceptor. A detailed theoretical investigation using DFT and TDDFT methods reveals that these intense near-IR transient absorptions involve transitions resulting from transient oxidation of the PA subunit. In essence, the production of the (3)LLCT excited state transiently oxidizes the PA moiety by one electron, producing the corresponding highly absorbing radical cation-like species, analogous to that experienced in related intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer reactions. The computational work successfully predicts the oscillator strength and peak wavelength of the measured excited state absorption transients across this series

  20. Femtosecond IR supercontinuum generation in condensed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, Victor G.; Krylov, Vitaly N.; Seyfang, Georg; Staselko, Dmitry I.; Kozlov, Sergei A.; Shpolyansky, Yury A.; Rebane, Aleksander

    2001-04-01

    We report experimental and theoretical investigation of supercontinuum generation in broad spectral range from 500 nm to 2500 nm induced in water and bulk fused silica by 1mJ 150-fs pulses at 780 nm excitation wavelength. We find that experiments may be modeled theoretically by considering Raman- and Kerr-type nonlinearities such as transient stimulated Raman scattering, parametric four-photon mixing, self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation.

  1. Spin-liquid behavior and weak static magnetism in pyrochlore Pr2Ir2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, R H; Maclaughlin, D E; Nakatsuji, S; Machida, Y

    2008-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation experiments have been performed in powder samples of the pyrochlore iridate Pr{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7} for temperatures in the range 0.02-250 K. Two-component muon spin relaxation functions are observed up to {approx}> 150 K, indicating static magnetism with a freezing temperature T{sub f} of this value or higher. The static muon spin relaxation rate {Delta}. suggests weak-moment freezing ({approx} 10{sup -1} {micro}{sub B} at T = 0), probably due to Ir{sup 4+} spin ordering as in isostructural Y{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The temperature dependence of {Delta} is highly unusual, decreasing smoothly by orders of magnitude but remaining nonzero for T < T{sub f}. The smoothness of {Delta}(T) suggests that Pr{sup 3+} moments do not order down to 0.025 K. The dynamic relaxation rate {Lambda} increases markedly below {approx}20 K, indicating a shift of spin fluctuation noise power to low frequencies in the spin-liquid state. At low temperatures {Lambda} is strong and temperature-independent, indicative of numerous low-lying spin excitations as is common in frustrated antiferromagnets.

  2. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir4+ ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4 and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory and Madelung potential analyses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gordon, Elijah E.; Xiang, Hongjun; Koehler, Jurgen; Whangbo, Myung -Hwan

    2016-03-01

    The spins of the low-spin Ir4+ (S = 1/2, d5) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4 and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of DFT calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3,more » both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir4+ spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axes directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir4+ ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir4+ ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. As a result, the spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir4+ is not as strong as has been assumed lately.« less

  3. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir(4+) ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory, and Madelung potential analyses.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elijah E; Xiang, Hongjun; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2016-03-21

    The spins of the low-spin Ir(4+) (S = 1/2, d(5)) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3, both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir(4+) spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axis directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir(4+) ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir(4+) ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. The spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir(4+) is not as strong as has been assumed.

  4. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles B.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 – 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light fluence uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method. PMID:25995987

  5. Wafer level test solutions for IR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessmann, Sebastian; Werner, Frank-Michael

    2014-05-01

    Wafer probers provide an established platform for performing electrical measurements at wafer level for CMOS and similar process technologies. For testing IR sensors, the requirements are beyond the standard prober capabilities. This presentation will give an overview about state of the art IR sensor probing systems reaching from flexible engineering solutions to automated production needs. Cooled sensors typically need to be tested at a target temperature below 80 K. Not only is the device temperature important but also the surrounding environment is required to prevent background radiation from reaching the device under test. To achieve that, a cryogenic shield is protecting the movable chuck. By operating that shield to attract residual gases inside the chamber, a completely contamination-free test environment can be guaranteed. The use of special black coatings are furthermore supporting the removal of stray light. Typically, probe card needles are operating at ambient (room) temperature when connecting to the wafer. To avoid the entrance of heat, which can result in distorted measurements, the probe card is fully embedded into the cryogenic shield. A shutter system, located above the probe field, is designed to switch between the microscope view to align the sensor under the needles and the test relevant setup. This includes a completely closed position to take dark current measurements. Another position holds a possible filter glass with the required aperture opening. The necessary infrared sources to stimulate the device are located above.

  6. IR DIAGNOSTICS FOR DYNAMIC FAILURE OF MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, M; DeTeresa, S

    2006-02-13

    This project explores the thermodynamics of dynamic deformation and failure of materials using high-speed spatially-resolved infrared (IR) measurements of temperature. During deformation mechanical work is converted to different forms of energy depending on the deformation processes. For example, it can be dissipated as heat in purely plastic deformation, stored as strain energy in dislocations in metals and in oriented polymeric molecular structures, and expended during the generation of new surfaces during damage and fracture. The problem of how this work is converted into these various forms is not well understood. In fact, there exists a controversy for the relatively simple case regarding the amount of work dissipated as heat during uniform plastic deformation. The goals of this work are to develop dynamic IR temperature measurement techniques and then apply them to gain a better understanding of the dynamic failure processes in both metals and polymeric composite materials. The experimental results will be compared against predictions of existing constitutive models and guide the development of higher fidelity models if needed.

  7. Passive ranging using a single IR sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, W.; Gobel, R.W.; Draper, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    As current defense system architectures change and downsize there is a need to accomplish more with each sensors capability. Desert Storm`s missile to aircraft and missile to missile engagements elevated the need to better cope with early and stealthy assessment of the adversaries location while providing minimal compromise to the operator. The use of stealth vehicles introduces a requirement to deploy sensors that silently assess tactical and theater issues [battle damage assessment (BDA) and theater missile defense (TMD)] without preengagement detection. IR sensor system development and high speed, parallel, distributed processing make practical the implementation of compact passive ranging packages aboard satellites and aircraft. Here, single IR Sensor Passive Ranging from an observer to a target embedded in the atmosphere exploits the effect of atmospheric attenuation of the signal. By judicious choice of wavebands the range and altitude to a target can be determined passively with a single observer. This result will be shown to be relatively insensitive to assumed atmospheric models or precise source spectral content. A detailed closed-form solution relating range (and altitude) to observed target intensities will be presented. Previous studies of this type have required either detailed knowledge of the source spectra or spectral resolution of individual rotational lines. The single sensor passive ranging methodology requires no such detailed information.

  8. Qualification tests for 192Ir sealed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iancso, Georgeta; Iliescu, Elena; Iancu, Rodica

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the results of qualification tests for 192Ir sealed sources, available in Testing and Nuclear Expertise Laboratory of National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering "Horia Hulubei" (I.F.I.N.-HH), Romania. These sources had to be produced in I.F.I.N.-HH and were tested in order to obtain the authorization from The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). The sources are used for gammagraphy procedures or in gammadefectoscopy equipments. Tests, measurement methods and equipments used, comply with CNCAN, AIEA and International Quality Standards and regulations. The qualification tests are: 1. Radiological tests and measurements: dose equivalent rate at 1 m; tightness; dose equivalent rate at the surface of the transport and storage container; external unfixed contamination of the container surface. 2. Mechanical and climatic tests: thermal shock; external pressure; mechanic shock; vibrations; boring; thermal conditions for storage and transportation. Passing all tests, it was obtained the Radiological Security Authorization for producing the 192Ir sealed sources. Now IFIN-HH can meet many demands for this sealed sources, as the only manufacturer in Romania.

  9. Perception range prediction for IR pilot sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A. Robert; Großmann, Peter; Repasi, Endre; Ritt, Gunnar; Wittenstein, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    The increasing use of IR pilot sight in helicopters calls for a reliable prediction of perception ranges for a variety of objects, especially those needed for orientation and those posing as a potential hazard, like power poles, masts, isolated trees etc. Since the visibility of objects in the IR depends mainly on the temperature differences between those objects and a given background and only marginally on illumination, range prediction techniques used for the visual range or light-amplified vision are only of very limited use. While range predictions based on the Johnson criterion do offer some insight into expected ranges, the inherently nominal nature of distance estimates thus obtained hampers their use for an actual field-deployable pre-flight consulting procedure. In order to overcome those limitations, long-term simultaneous measurements of relevant objects and background temperatures and weather data were carried out and used for temperature prediction from prevalent weather conditions. Together with a perception model derived from extensive observer experiments based on synthetic images of the UH Tiger Pilot Sight Unit we developed a perception range prediction package which is currently evaluated by the weather service of the Bundeswehr. We will present results from the observer experiments together with the derived perception models. These are then compared to actual perception ranges as obtained from flight experiments.

  10. Spitzer IRS Observations of ``Mature'' Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Woodward, C. E.; Evans, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Lynch, D. L.; Rudy, R.; Schwarz, G. J.; Vanlandingham, K.; Spitzer Nova Team

    2009-01-01

    Many facets of astrophysics are captured in classical nova (CN) eruptions, making them unique laboratories in which we may observe several poorly understood astrophysical processes including mass transfer, thermonuclear runaway, optically thick winds, common envelope evolution, molecule and grain formation, coronal line emission, and gas cooling by fine structure lines. Many of these phenomena evolve in real time. Therefore, a better understanding of CNe has far-reaching applications and underpins several related and important areas of astrophysics. Here we present preliminary results of our Cycle 5 Spitzer IRS study of ``mature'' novae (several 100s of days post-outburst), complemented by extensive multi-wavelength data from other facilities. We present data on V2361 Cyg, V2467 Cyg and V378 Ser. In particular, V2361 Cyg displays a strong dust continuum with possible Aromatic Emission Features (AEF) superimposed, the first dusty CN observed to do so since 1993 and the first to be observed spectroscopically in the far IR. This object presents us with an outstanding opportunity to investigate how the dust is processed by the UV radiation from the stellar remnant. Support for this work was provided in part by NASA through Spitzer contracts issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Minnesota.

  11. MEMS-based IR-sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Sebastian; Steinbach, Bastian; Biermann, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    The series JSIR350 sources are MEMS based infrared emitters. These IR sources are characterized by a high radiation output. Thus, they are excellent for NDIR gas analysis and are ideally suited for using with our pyro-electric or thermopile detectors. The MEMS chips used in Micro-Hybrid's infrared emitters consist of nano-amorphous carbon (NAC). The MEMS chips are produced in the USA. All Micro-Hybrid Emitter are designed and specified to operate up to 850°C. The improvements we have made in the source's packaging enable us to provide IR sources with the best performance on the market. This new technology enables us to seal the housings of infrared radiation sources with soldered infrared filters or windows and thus cause the parts to be impenetrable to gases. Micro-Hybrid provide various ways of adapting our MEMS based infrared emitter JSIR350 to customer specifications, like specific burn-in parameters/characteristic, different industrial standard housings, producible with customized cap, reflector or pin-out.

  12. Dipole excitations in 96Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, A.; Fransen, C.; Gorska, M.; Jolie, J.; Kneissl, U.; Knoch, P.; Mücher, D.; Pitz, H. H.; Scheck, M.; Scholl, C.; Brentano, P. Von

    2005-12-01

    Candidates for the two-phonon quadrupole-octupole 1- state and the two-phonon mixed-symmetry 1+ms state have been identified in the N=52 isotope 96Ru using the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique at the bremsstrahlung facility of the Stuttgart Dynamitron accelerator. Detailed information on energies, spins, branching ratios, and transition strengths of four new dipole excitations in 96Ru have been obtained. The observed dipole excitations are nearly at the same energies as in 94Mo, and the transition probabilities are comparable to those for the decay of the (2+1⊗3-1)1- and the (2+1⊗2+ms)1+ms states in 94Mo.

  13. Excitation energies from ensemble DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgoo, Alex; Teale, Andy M.; Helgaker, Trygve

    2015-12-01

    We study the evaluation of the Gross-Oliveira-Kohn expression for excitation energies E1-E0=ɛ1-ɛ0+∂E/xc,w[ρ] ∂w | ρ =ρ0. This expression gives the difference between an excitation energy E1 - E0 and the corresponding Kohn-Sham orbital energy difference ɛ1 - ɛ0 as a partial derivative of the exchange-correlation energy of an ensemble of states Exc,w[ρ]. Through Lieb maximisation, on input full-CI density functions, the exchange-correlation energy is evaluated accurately and the partial derivative is evaluated numerically using finite difference. The equality is studied numerically for different geometries of the H2 molecule and different ensemble weights. We explore the adiabatic connection for the ensemble exchange-correlation energy. The latter may prove useful when modelling the unknown weight dependence of the exchange-correlation energy.

  14. IrBurst Modeling and Performance Evaluation for Large Data Block Exchange over High-Speed IrDA Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammad Shah; Shawkat, Shamim Ara; Kitazumi, Gontaro; Matsumoto, Mitsuji

    IrBurst, recently proposed by IrDA, is a high speed information transmission protocol. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed which leads to derivation of the IrBurst throughput over the IrDA protocol stack. Based on this model, we compare the performance of IrBurst and existing OBEX protocol in order to investigate the suitability of IrBurst protocol for exchange of large data blocks over high-speed IrDA links. Furthermore, the model allows the evaluation of the impact of the link layer parameters, such as window size and frame length, and physical layer parameters, such as minimum turnaround time, on system through-put for high-speed IrDA links and in the presence of transmission errors. Consequently, an effective Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) scheme is proposed at link layer to maximize the throughput efficiency for IrBurst protocol as well as for next generation high speed IrDA links. Simulation result indicates that employment of our proposed ARQ scheme results in significant improvement of IrBurst throughput efficiency at high bit error rates.

  15. Collisional excitation of interstellar cyclopropenylidene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical rotational excitation rates were computed for C3H2 in collisions with He atoms at temperatures from 30 to 120 K. The intermolecular forces were obtained from accurate self-consistent field and perturbation theory calculations, and collision dynamics were treated within the infinite-order sudden approximation. The accuracy of the latter was examined by comparing with the more exact coupled states approximation.

  16. Excitation rates of heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, C. A.; Santangelo, E. M.; Ducati, M. B.

    1985-06-01

    We obtain the production rates for c, b, and t quarks in deep-inelastic neutrino- (antineutrino-) nucleon interactions, in the standard six-quark model with left-handed couplings. The results are obtained with the most recent mixing parameters and we include a comparison between quark parametrizations. The excitations are calculated separately for each flavor, allowing the understanding of the role of threshold effects when considered through different rescaling variables.

  17. Phonon excitations and related thermal properties of aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Nipko, J.C.; Loong, C.

    1998-05-01

    The phonon density of states of aluminum nitride was determined by time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy using a polycrystalline sample. The observed phonon excitation spectrum consists of a broadband centered at about 35 meV, a small gap in the 75{endash}80 meV region, and two sharp bands at approximately 85 and 92 meV. A rigid-ion model was applied to the interpretation of the data. After optimization, the model provided a satisfactory description of the neutron results as well as the Raman and IR data, sound-velocity measurements, and the lattice specific heat reported in the literature. The partial and total DOS and the phonon-dispersion curves along major symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone were calculated, and the contribution of phonons to the Debye behavior of the low-temperature thermal conductivity was discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Photonics of laser-excited symmetric cationic polymethine dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlichnyi, Valerii A; Maier, G V; Lapin, I N; Kopylova, T N; Derevyanko, Nadezhda A; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A

    2007-02-28

    Efficient lasing is obtained in the visible and near-IR spectral regions in solutions of symmetric polymethine dyes of the indolenine series (indocyanines) pumped by the second harmonic of a Nd{sup 3+}:YAG laser at 532 nm and an exciplex XeCl* laser at 308 nm into the first (long-wavelength) and higher-lying electronic absorption bands. The quantum lasing efficiency upon UV excitation achieves 37%. It is shown that these dyes can also limit the radiation power of these lasers. Polymethine dyes limit especially efficiently the second-harmonic power, their attenuation factor for the radiation power density of 100 MW cm{sup -2} achieving 14. The nanosecond flash-photolysis study of transient absorption spectra showed that the radiation power is limited by the mechanism of reverse saturated singlet-singlet absorption. It is established that the limiting ability of polymethines strongly depends on their structure. (active media)

  19. Wedding ring shaped excitation coil

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency.

  20. Local Optical Excitations in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Laurence Kay Doon

    Core spectra of p('6) (--->) p('5)s excitations of rare gas, halogen, and alkali impurities located on the surface and in the bulk of host alkali and Mg metals are presented. The data were obtained by means of differential reflectance spectroscopy in the energy range 5-20 eV using synchrotron radiation. In striking contrast to the absorption profiles of the pure alkalis, linear redshifted profiles are observed at dilution for rare gas adsorbates on alkali surfaces, for Cs adsorbed on Mg, and for Cs dispersed in bulk Na as an alloy. When Cs is dispersed in bulk K the sharp edge characteristic of the pure alkalis is observed. The spectra of Cs and Rb adsorbates on alkali surfaces mirror these same trends, but retain a distinct atomic character. A central result of the present research is that the linear profile may be associated with strong coupling of the excitation to the conduction electrons. A criterion for strong coupling is given which depends on the degree to which the excited impurity level mixes with the host conduction band. There is not at present any theory which can explain these observations. Spectra of halogen adsorbates on alkali and Mg surfaces are also presented; it is found that the ground configuration of isolated halogen atoms on these surfaces is ionic. All the impurity-metal complexes are studied at high concentration when impurity-impurity interactions are important.

  1. Entanglement entropy of electronic excitations.

    PubMed

    Plasser, Felix

    2016-05-21

    A new perspective into correlation effects in electronically excited states is provided through quantum information theory. The entanglement between the electron and hole quasiparticles is examined, and it is shown that the related entanglement entropy can be computed from the eigenvalue spectrum of the well-known natural transition orbital (NTO) decomposition. Non-vanishing entanglement is obtained whenever more than one NTO pair is involved, i.e., in the case of a multiconfigurational or collective excitation. An important implication is that in the case of entanglement it is not possible to gain a complete description of the state character from the orbitals alone, but more specific analysis methods are required to decode the mutual information between the electron and hole. Moreover, the newly introduced number of entangled states is an important property by itself giving information about excitonic structure. The utility of the formalism is illustrated in the cases of the excited states of two interacting ethylene molecules, the conjugated polymer para-phenylene vinylene, and the naphthalene molecule.

  2. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  3. Synaptic Control of Motoneuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Rekling, Jens C.; Funk, Gregory D.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Feldman, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentials generated by motoneurons. The processes that determine the firing behavior of motoneurons are therefore important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization, and membrane properties, both passive and active. We then describe the general anatomical organization of synaptic input to motoneurons, followed by a description of the major transmitter systems that affect motoneuronal excitability, including ligands, receptor distribution, pre- and postsynaptic actions, signal transduction, and functional role. Glutamate is the main excitatory, and GABA and glycine are the main inhibitory transmitters acting through ionotropic receptors. These amino acids signal the principal motor commands from peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal structures. Amines, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, and neuropeptides, as well as the glutamate and GABA acting at metabotropic receptors, modulate motoneuronal excitability through pre- and postsynaptic actions. Acting principally via second messenger systems, their actions converge on common effectors, e.g., leak K+ current, cationic inward current, hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ca2+ channels, or presynaptic release processes. Together, these numerous inputs mediate and modify incoming motor commands, ultimately generating the coordinated firing patterns that underlie muscle contractions during motor behavior. PMID:10747207

  4. Entanglement entropy of electronic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plasser, Felix

    2016-05-01

    A new perspective into correlation effects in electronically excited states is provided through quantum information theory. The entanglement between the electron and hole quasiparticles is examined, and it is shown that the related entanglement entropy can be computed from the eigenvalue spectrum of the well-known natural transition orbital (NTO) decomposition. Non-vanishing entanglement is obtained whenever more than one NTO pair is involved, i.e., in the case of a multiconfigurational or collective excitation. An important implication is that in the case of entanglement it is not possible to gain a complete description of the state character from the orbitals alone, but more specific analysis methods are required to decode the mutual information between the electron and hole. Moreover, the newly introduced number of entangled states is an important property by itself giving information about excitonic structure. The utility of the formalism is illustrated in the cases of the excited states of two interacting ethylene molecules, the conjugated polymer para-phenylene vinylene, and the naphthalene molecule.

  5. Convective Excitation of Internal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoanet, Daniel; Le Bars, Michael; Burns, Keaton; Vasil, Geoffrey; Quataert, Eliot; Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    We will present a joint experimental & computational study of internal wave generation by convection. First we describe an experiment using the peculiar property of water that its density maximum is at 4° C . A tank of water cooled from below and heated from above develops a cold, convective layer near 4° C at the bottom of the tank, adjacent to a hot stably stratified layer at the top of the tank. We simulate this setup in 2D using the open-source Dedalus code (dedalus-project.org). Our simulations show that waves are excited from within the convection zone, opposed to at the interface between the convective and stably stratified regions. Finally, we will present 3D simulations of internal wave excitation by convection in a fully compressible atmosphere with multiple density scaleheights. These simulations provide greater freedom in choosing the thermal equilibrium of the system, and are run at higher Rayleigh number. The simulated waves are then compared to analytic predictions of the bulk excitation model.

  6. Self-excited multifractal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, V.; Sornette, D.

    2011-05-01

    We introduce the self-excited multifractal (SEMF) model, defined such that the amplitudes of the increments of the process are expressed as exponentials of a long memory of past increments. The principal novel feature of the model lies in the self-excitation mechanism combined with exponential nonlinearity, i.e. the explicit dependence of future values of the process on past ones. The self-excitation captures the microscopic origin of the emergent endogenous self-organization properties, such as the energy cascade in turbulent flows, the triggering of aftershocks by previous earthquakes and the "reflexive" interactions of financial markets. The SEMF process has all the standard stylized facts found in financial time series, which are robust to the specification of the parameters and the shape of the memory kernel: multifractality, heavy tails of the distribution of increments with intermediate asymptotics, zero correlation of the signed increments and long-range correlation of the squared increments, the asymmetry (called "leverage" effect) of the correlation between increments and absolute value of the increments and statistical asymmetry under time reversal.

  7. IR camera temperature resolution enhancing using computer processing of IR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2016-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the IR camera for the security problems is very promising way. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possility of viewing the temperature trace on a human body skin, caused by temperature changing inside the human body due to water drinking. We use new approach, based on usung a correlation function, for computer processing of IR images. Its application results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments were made with measurements of a body temperature covered by shirt. We try to see a human body temperature changing in physical experiments under consideration. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, cancelled under clothes or inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  8. Organic/IR-Semiconductor heterojunctions for low-cost, high temperature IR arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Colin E.

    1992-08-01

    This program evaluated a new technology for producing infrared photo-diodes in HgCdTe and InSb using evaporated organic heterojunctions. High quantum-efficiency IR detectors were demonstrated with the organic process comparable to commercial IR detectors. The organic photodiodes at room temperature were better than commercial detectors. They had lower leakage currents and higher resistance-area products (RoAs). Detector arrays made with the organics can operate at higher temperatures than the current detectors. Initial data at low temperatures were poorer than commercial detectors with lower RoAs and slightly higher 1/f noise. This comparison at low temperature may change with further optimization of the organic process. The organic diode process is very simple, low cost and non-damaging to the HgCdTe or InSb. It involves thermal evaporation of the organic onto the HgCdTe or InSb followed by evaporation of metal contacts through a shadow mask. Phase 1 demonstrated organic/HaCdTe IR detectors with quantum efficiencies similar to commercial devices operating at higher temperatures. The technology is ready for a Phase 2 to further optimize the processing for IR arrays and to increase yields.

  9. Electronic structure, local magnetism, and spin-orbit effects of Ir(IV)-, Ir(V)-, and Ir(VI)-based compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Kayser, P.; Alonso, J. A.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Choi, Y.; Haskel, D.

    2015-06-01

    Element- and orbital-selective x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Ir 5 d electronic states in double perovskite Sr2MIrO 6 (M = Mg , Ca, Sc, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, In) and La2NiIrO6 compounds. All the studied systems present a significant influence of spin-orbit interactions in the electronic ground state. In addition, we find that the Ir 5 d local magnetic moment shows different character depending on the oxidation state despite the net magnetization being similar for all the compounds. Ir carries an orbital contribution comparable to the spin contribution for Ir4 + (5 d5) and Ir5 + (5 d4) oxides, whereas the orbital contribution is quenched for Ir6 + (5 d3) samples. Incorporation of a magnetic 3 d atom allows getting insight into the magnetic coupling between 5 d and 3 d transition metals. Together with previous susceptibility and neutron diffraction measurements, the results indicate that Ir carries a significant local magnetic moment even in samples without a 3 d metal. The size of the (small) net magnetization of these compounds is a result of predominant antiferromagnetic interactions between local moments coupled with structural details of each perovskite structure.

  10. Spurious Excitations in Semiclassical Scattering Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, D. H. E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Shows how through proper handling of the nonuniform motion of semiclassical coordinates spurious excitation terms are eliminated. An application to the problem of nuclear Coulomb excitation is presented as an example. (HM)

  11. MMW, IR, and SAM signature collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichstetter, Fred; Ward, Mary E.

    2002-08-01

    During the development of smart weapon's seeker/sensors, it is imperative to collect high quality signatures of the targets the system is intended to engage. These signatures are used to support algorithm development so the system can find and engage the targets of interest in the specific kill area on the target. Englin AFB FL is the AF development center for munitions; and in support of the development effort, the 46th Test Wing (46 TW) has initiated significant improvements in collection capabilities for signatures in the MMW, Infrared and Seismic, Acoustic and Magnetic (SAM) spectrum. Additionally, the Joint Munitions Test and Evaluation program office maintains a fleet of foreign ground vehicle targets used for such signature collection including items such as tanks, SCUD missile launchers, air defense units such as SA-06, SA-8, SA-13, and associated ground support trucks and general purpose vehicles. The major test facility includes a 300 ft tower used for mounting the instrumentation suite that currently includes, 10, 35 and 94 GHz MMW and 2-5(mu) and 8-12(mu) IR instrumentation systems. This facility has undergone major improvements in terms of background signature reduction, construction of a high bay building to house the turntable on which the targets are mounted, and an additional in- ground stationary turntable primarily for IR signature collection. Our experience using this facility to collect signatures for the smart weapons development community has confirmed a significant improvement in quality and efficiency. The need for the stationary turntable signature collection capability was driven by the requirements of the IR community who are interested in collecting signatures in clutter. This tends to be contrary to the MMW community that desires minimum background clutter. The resulting location, adjacent to the MMW tower, allows variations in the type and amount of clutter background that could be incorporated and also provides maximum utilization of

  12. X-rays From The Exciting Region Of Cepheus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdo, Steven; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2009-09-01

    We report an observation of X-ray emission from the exciting region of Cepheus A with the Chandra/ACIS instrument. What had been an unresolved X-ray source comprising the putative power sources is now resolved into at least 3 point-like sources, each with similar X-ray properties and differing radio and submillimeter properties. They each have inferred X-ray luminosities ≥ 10^{31} erg s^{-1} with hard spectra, T ≥ 10^7 K, and high low-energy absorption equivalent to tens to as much as a hundred magnitudes of visual absorption. The star usually assumed to be the most massive and energetic, HW2, is not detected with an upper limit about 7 times lower than the detections. The X-rays may arise via thermal bremsstrahlung in diffuse emission regions associated with a gyrosynchrotron source for the radio emission, or they could arise from powerful stellar winds. We also analyzed the Spitzer/IRAC mid-IR observation from this star-formation region and present the X-ray results and mid-IR classifications of the nearby stars. The X-ray emission from HH 168 is confirmed and it is not as underluminous in X-rays as previously believed. Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  13. Feeding of the 1 1/2- isomers in stable Ir and Au isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Nelson, Ronald O; Devlin, Matthew; Holloway, Shannon T; Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Chadwick, Mark B; Becker, John A; Garrett, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    Excited states were studied and absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections were measured using the ({eta}, {eta}'{gamma}) reaction in {sup 191}Ir, {sup 193}Ir and {sup 197}Au. A Compton-suppressed germanium-detector array (GEANIE) for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and the broad-spectrum pulsed neutron source of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's WNR facility were used for the measurement. The energy of the incident neutrons was determined using the time-of-flight technique. Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections were measured up to incident neutron energy of 20 MeV for several transitions feeding directly the 1 1/2- isomers and ground states in {sup 191}Ir, {sup 193}Ir and {sup 197}Au. The feeding of the 1 1/2- isomers, which originate from the odd proton occupying the h{sub 1 1/2} orbital, was found for the three targets to be very similar and increasing relative to the feeding of the corresponding ground state with increasing neutron energy up to E{sub n} {approx} 10 MeV. Above this neutron energy the opening of the (n, 2{sub n}) reaction channel strongly affects the population of the isomers and leads to a decrease of their relative population compared to the population of the ground states. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions from the GNASH reaction model calculation implementing a version of the spin distribution for the pre-equilibrium reaction piece with either a compound nucleus spin distribution (CN-GNASH) or a Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK-GNASH) quantum mechanical spin distribution. The effects of the spin cutoff parameter values on the population of states are examined. Evidence is presented that FKK-GNASH provides a description of the experimental data that mitigates the need for adjustment of the level density parameter to fit the data.

  14. IRS Spectral Maps of Photoevaporative Columns in M16, Carina, and the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotera, Angela; Healy, Kevin; Hester, Jeff; Sellgren, Kris; Simpson, Janet; Stolovy, Susan

    2008-03-01

    Photoevaporated columns of dust and gas - also called elephant trunks, pillars or fingers - are found in the periphery of H II regions, and have been observed within the Galaxy, the SMC and the LMC. These features are sites of current star formation, but the question remains whether the columns persist because stars formed in the denser regions prior to interactions with the UV radiation and stellar winds of nearby massive stars, or because of core collapse resulting from these interactions. Mapping the distribution of the physical states of the dust and gas in these columns is a necessary step towards understanding the possible star formation mechanisms within these dynamic objects. We propose to obtain IRS spectral maps of columns within M 16, the Carina nebula, and the Galactic center (GC) to understand the effects on these pillars from different stellar populations and initial conditions, and to better understand star formation in the GC. Within the spectral range of the high resolution IRS modes (9.9-37.2 micron) there are a wealth of molecular, atomic and PAH emission lines that will enable us to determine the excitation state, dust and gas temperatures, and probe the shock characteristics within the columns. Using the IRS spectral mapping mode, in conjunction with the CUBISM tool and the CLOUDY H II region model code, we will be able to construct detailed maps of the accessible emission lines and derived parameters for each column. IRS mapping of elephant trunks has not been done to date, yet provides a wealth of information unobtainable for the foreseeable future once Cycle 5 is completed.

  15. Discovering work excitement among navy nurses.

    PubMed

    Savage, S; Simms, L M; Williams, R A; Erbin-Roesemann, M

    1993-01-01

    An interest in what makes work exciting among Navy Nurse Corps officers led to the use of Simms' work excitement data collection protocol in Navy Medical Centers. Significant levels of work excitement were found among Navy nurses when compared to civilian nurses in non-military settings. Overall, results indicated that Navy nurses are excited about the variety, the leadership/management experiences, and the opportunities for teaching and learning--elements that are the very essence of Navy nursing practice. PMID:8345880

  16. Raman scattering of IrTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alexander; Thorsmolle, Verner; Artyukhin, Sergey; Yang, Jun; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Blumberg, Girsh

    2014-03-01

    IrTe2 presents a layered compound with a triangular lattice. It is known to exhibit a first order structural phase transition at approximately 260 K which is of a first order, corresponding to a formation of a superstructure with a period of five unit cells. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy we have studied the temperature dependence of 14 observed Raman allowed phononic modes. These phonons couple strongly to this transition and one additional first order transition at approximately 170 K. In the high-temperature phase only 3 modes are observed, while below approximately 280 K all 14 modes become visible. Below approximately 170 K only 11 modes are observed. Our results shed light on the possible mechanism driving the transitions. ACL, VKT and GB acknowledge support by NSF DMR-1104884.

  17. IR temperature measurements in microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Berardi, P. G.; Carfagna, R.; Pierro, V.

    2002-06-01

    In this paper a technique for the evaluation of the dielectric constant of a sample placed inside a microwave oven and confined in a cylindrical box is proposed. The box acts as a waveguide so that a simple model for the propagating wave can be assumed. Since traditional techniques for temperature measurements cannot be applied in microwave heating, the IR thermography shows to be an useful tool for measuring the sample surface temperature. The measure of the surface temperature evolution in the sample along with application of a simple analytical model allows to obtain the dielectric constant of the sample as a function of chemical composition, temperature and frequency. Preliminary results are presented and discussed with reference to pure water.

  18. Gated IR Imaging of Shocked Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Stephen; Turley, Dale; Rightley, Paul; Primas, Lori

    2001-06-01

    Gated IR images have been taken of a series of shocked surface geometries in tin and copper. Metal coupons machined with grooves, steps, and flats with various surface finishes, were mounted directly to high explosive. The HE was point initiated and 500 ns to 1 microsecond wide gated images of the target were taken immediately following shock breakout using a Santa Barbara Focalplane InSb CID camera (SB-134). Raw camera radiance data was temperature calibrated assuming plausible material emissivity. The spatial distribution of temperature was estimated from the images of the shocked flats and found not to be single valued. Several of the geometries were modeled using CTH, a two dimensional Eulerian hydrocode, and comparisons were made to observed results.

  19. Far-Ir Action Spectroscopy of Aminophenol and Ethylvanillin: Experiment and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyna, Vasyl; Feifel, Raimund; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Bakker, Daniël; Rijs, Anouk

    2015-06-01

    Investigations of molecular structure and conformational isomerism are at the forefront of today's biophysics and biochemistry. In particular, vibrations excited by far-IR radiation can be highly sensitive to the molecular 3D structure as they are delocalized over large parts of the molecule. Current theoretical predictions of vibrational frequencies in the far-IR range are not accurate enough because of the non-local character and anharmonicity of these vibrations. Therefore experimental studies in the far-IR are vital to guide theory towards improved methodology. In this work we present the conformer-specific far-IR spectra of aminophenol and ethylvanillin molecules in the range of 220-800 wn utilizing ion-dip action spectroscopy carried out at the free electron laser FELIX in Nijmegen, Netherlands. The systems studied are aromatic molecules with important functional groups such as the hydroxyl (OH) and amino (NH_2) groups in aminophenol, and the hydroxyl, ethoxy (OCH_2CH_3) and formyl (CHO) groups in ethylvanillin. The experimental spectra show well resolved conformer-specific vibrational bands. In the case of ethylvanillin only two planar conformers have been observed under supersonic jet expansion conditions. Despite the fact that these conformers differ only in the position of oxygen of the formyl group with respect to ethoxy group, they are well distinguishable in far-IR spectra. The capability of numerical methods based on density functional theory (DFT) for predicting vibrational frequencies in this spectral region within the harmonic approximation has been investigated by using several hybrid-functionals such as B3LYP, PBE0, B2PLYP and CAM-B3LYP. An anharmonic correction based on vibrational second order perturbation theory approach was also applied. We have found that the methods we considered are well suited for the assignment of far-IR vibrational features except the modes which are strongly anharmonic, like the NH_2 wagging mode in aminophenol which

  20. Two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Meshalkin, Yu P; Alfimov, E E; Makukha, V K; Vasil'ev, N E; Denisov, A N; Ogirenko, A P

    1999-12-31

    A demonstration is given of the feasibility of two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanine and of the pharmaceutical preparation 'Fotosens', used in photodynamic therapy. The excitation source was an Nd:YAG laser emitting at the 1064 nm wavelength. The spectra of the two-photon-excited luminescence were obtained and the two-photon absorption cross sections were determined. (lasers in medicine)

  1. Resource Paper: Molecular Excited State Relaxation Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, William

    1979-01-01

    Develops the concept of oscillatory v dissipative limits as it applies to electronic excited state processes in molecular systems. Main emphasis is placed on the radiative and nonradiative dynamics of the excited state of a molecule prepared by interaction with light or some other excitation source. (BT)

  2. Nature of the magnetic correlations in photo-doped and chemically-doped spin-orbit Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Mark P. M.

    In the iridates, competition between spin-orbit coupling, crystal field, and electronic correlation has lead to the observation of several novel states. Particularly notable is the spin-orbit Mott insulating state in Sr2IrO4 which has close analogies to the high temperature superconducting cuprates. This talk will describe the nature of the magnetic correlations in Sr2IrO4 and how the magnetic correlations can be modified by two different doping schemes. I will first describe doping via photo-excitation in which we use femtosecond infrared pulses to excite carriers across the Mott gap. After excitation, we probe the resulting magnetic state as a function of time delay using the first implementation of magnetic resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at a free electron laser. We find that the non-equilibrium state 2 ps after the excitation has strongly suppressed long-range magnetic order, but hosts photo-carriers that induce strong, non-thermal magnetic correlations. The magnetism recovers its two-dimensional in-plane Néel correlations on a timescale of a few ps, while the three-dimensional long range magnetic order is restored over a far longer, fluence-dependent timescale of a few 100 ps. In the second part of the talk I will describe chemical doping via Ir-Ru substitution. In this situation, we find that with increased Ru concentration, the dispersive magnetic excitations in the parent compound become almost momentum-independent, opening a magnetic gap > 150 meV. We attribute this gap to the combined effects of disorder and Ir-Ru interactions. Work performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy, Division of Materials Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  3. IGF-IR and its inhibitors in gastrointestinal carcinomas (Review)

    PubMed Central

    BAO, XIAO HONG; NAOMOTO, YOSHIO; HAO, HUI FANG; WATANABE, NOBUYUKI; SAKURAMA, KAZUFUMI; NOMA, KAZUHIRO; MOTOKI, TAKAYUKI; TOMONO, YASUKO; FUKAZAWA, TAKUYA; SHIRAKAWA, YASUHIRO; YAMATSUJI, TOMOKI; MATSUOKA, JUNJI; TAKAOKA, MUNENORI

    2010-01-01

    The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and its associated signaling system play a significant role in tumorigenesis, tumor survival and progression, and cancer therapeutic resistance, and thus has provoked great interest as a promising target for cancer treatment. In this report we present the role of IGF-IR in gastrointestinal carcinomas whose pathology has been identified as tightly correlated with an abnormal expression and activation of IGF-IR. Reported data from experimental studies suggest the feasibility of targeted IGF-IR therapy in gastrointestinal carcinomas. Many types of inhibitors against IGF-IR have been developed. Inhibitors with anti-IGF-IR monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors currently undergoing preclinical and clinical evolution are also reviewed. PMID:22966282

  4. The low-spin states in the doubly odd 182Ir nucleus and the influence of the proton-neutron interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, J.; Hojman, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Roussière, B.; Kilcher, P.; Le Blanc, F.; Oms, J.; Libert, J.; Isocele Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Low-spin states of 182Ir populated through the {β +}/{EC} decay of 182Pt were studied using the ISOCELE facility. A low-spin level scheme has been established. Using a semi-microscopic rotor-plus-two-quasiparticle model developed in the context of the HF + BCS approximation, the influence of the Vpn interaction on the relative energy location of excited states has been studied and the low-spin states located at low energy in 182Ir have been identified. The α-decay energy of 186Au has been corrected to 4907 ± 16 keV.

  5. Fermi surface reconstruction in e-doped cuprates: IR Hall measurements in underdoped Pr2-xCexCuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmadel, D. C.; Jenkins, G. S.; Drew, H. D.; Greene, R. L.; Fournier, P.

    2009-03-01

    The complex IR Hall angle is measured in PCCO at doping levels ranging from 10% to 15% at low optical excitation energy (10 meV). A precipitous decrease in Hall mass with a decrease in doping level in the underdoped regime is strong evidence of Fermi surface reconstruction and pocket formation, an observation consistent with ARPES and optical spectroscopy measurements. The data over the entire underdoped region is consistent with the predicted IR Hall response based upon ARPES data and Boltzmann theory. The temperature dependence of the Hall mass indicate a gradual roll-over from small pockets to the large unreconstructed Fermi surface expected in overdoped PCCO.

  6. Persistent Paramagnons Deep in the Metallic Phase of Sr_{2-x}La_{x}IrO_{4}.

    PubMed

    Gretarsson, H; Sung, N H; Porras, J; Bertinshaw, J; Dietl, C; Bruin, Jan A N; Bangura, A F; Kim, Y K; Dinnebier, R; Kim, Jungho; Al-Zein, A; Moretti Sala, M; Krisch, M; Le Tacon, M; Keimer, B; Kim, B J

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the magnetic excitations of electron-doped Sr_{2-x}La_{x}IrO_{4} (0≤x≤0.10) using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the Ir L_{3} edge. The long-range magnetic order is rapidly lost with increasing x, but two-dimensional short-range order (SRO) and dispersive magnon excitations with nearly undiminished spectral weight persist well into the metallic part of the phase diagram. The magnons in the SRO phase are heavily damped and exhibit anisotropic softening. Their dispersions are well described by a pseudospin-1/2 Heisenberg model with exchange interactions whose spatial range increases with doping. We also find a doping-independent high-energy magnetic continuum, which is not described by this model. The spin-orbit excitons arising from the pseudospin-3/2 manifold of the Ir ions broaden substantially in the SRO phase, but remain largely separated from the low-energy magnons. Pseudospin-1/2 models are therefore a good starting point for the theoretical description of the low-energy magnetic dynamics of doped iridates. PMID:27636488

  7. Quantum well intersubband lifetimes measured by mid-IR pump-probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, G.L.; Sung, B.; Proctor, M.

    1995-12-31

    Semiconductor quantum wells exhibit quantum-confined electronic energy levels, or subbands, that are similar to one-dimensional {open_quotes}particle in a box{close_quotes} wavefunctions. The light effective mass of electrons allows large spatial extents of the wavefunctions and concomitantly large dipole overlaps between states. These large dipoles have been exploited in a variety of experiments including nonlinear frequency conversion, infrared photodetection, and lasing. A key parameter for many devices is the upper state lifetime. The decay of carriers in the upper state is believed to be dominated by optical phonon scattering and lifetimes on-the order of 1ps are expected. While Raman and saturation measurements have shown good agreement with theory, direct pump-probe measurements have reported longer lifetimes, partially due to carrier heating. In this paper, we discuss our mid-IR (5{mu}m) pump-probe measurements of intersubband lifetimes, performed at the Stanford Picosecond Free Electron Laser Center. At low excitation densities we observe lifetimes of about 1.5 ps, in good agreement with phonon theory. At high excitation densities the lifetime increases to 3.5 ps, demonstrating the transition from the low- to high-excitation agree.

  8. The Orion Fingers: Near-IR Spectral Imaging of an Explosive Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngblood, Allison; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John

    2016-06-01

    We present near-IR (1.1-2.4 μm) position-position-velocity cubes of the 500 year old Orion BN/KL explosive outflow with spatial resolution 1″ and spectral resolution 86 km s-1. We construct integrated intensity maps free of continuum sources of 15 H2 and [Fe ii] lines while preserving kinematic information of individual outflow features. Included in the detected H2 lines are the 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 Q(3) transitions, allowing extinction measurements across the outflow. Additionally, we present dereddened flux ratios for over two dozen outflow features to allow for the characterization of the true excitation conditions of the BN/KL outflow. All of the ratios show the dominance of the shock excitation of the H2 emission, although some features exhibit signs of fluorescent excitation from stellar radiation or J-type shocks. We also detect tracers of the PDR/ionization front north of the Trapezium stars in [O i] and [Fe ii] and analyze other observed outflows not associated with the BN/KL outflow.

  9. [Study on the IR and UV dual-spectrum radiation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Zhu, Q; Xu, S; Wan, S

    2000-06-01

    The article gives a method to produce dual spectrum radiation in IR and UV. Relying on theoretical analysis, the relative data are computed, some atomic materials are selected and added to a double-base propellants. When the UV pyrotechnics is ignited together with traditional IR pyrotechnics, the spectrum of IR and UV is emitted at the same time. The final measuring curves show that all results are satisfying.

  10. Turbulent swirling jets with excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi, Rahmat; Farokhi, Saeed

    1988-01-01

    An existing cold-jet facility at NASA Lewis Research Center was modified to produce swirling flows with controllable initial tangential velocity distribution. Two extreme swirl profiles, i.e., one with solid-body rotation and the other predominated by a free-vortex distribution, were produced at identical swirl number of 0.48. Mean centerline velocity decay characteristics of the solid-body rotation jet flow exhibited classical decay features of a swirling jet with S - 0.48 reported in the literature. However, the predominantly free-vortex distribution case was on the verge of vortex breakdown, a phenomenon associated with the rotating flows of significantly higher swirl numbers, i.e., S sub crit greater than or equal to 0.06. This remarkable result leads to the conclusion that the integrated swirl effect, reflected in the swirl number, is inadequate in describing the mean swirling jet behavior in the near field. The relative size (i.e., diameter) of the vortex core emerging from the nozzle and the corresponding tangential velocity distribution are also controlling factors. Excitability of swirling jets is also investigated by exciting a flow with a swirl number of 0.35 by plane acoustic waves at a constant sound pressure level and at various frequencies. It is observed that the cold swirling jet is excitable by plane waves, and that the instability waves grow about 50 percent less in peak r.m.s. amplitude and saturate further upstream compared to corresponding waves in a jet without swirl having the same axial mass flux. The preferred Strouhal number based on the mass-averaged axial velocity and nozzle exit diameter for both swirling and nonswirling flows is 0.4.

  11. Terahertz-to-infrared emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in metal films with porous nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Zhao, Ji; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, X-C

    2015-06-29

    We report on the investigation of terahertz-to-infrared (THz-to-IR) thermal emission that relies on the excitation of surface plasmons in metal films deposited on a substrate with randomly ordered nanoscale pore arrays. The THz-to-IR radiation was observed both in the direction of laser beam propagation and the reverse direction. The intensity ratio between backward and forward radiation is exponentially dependent on the nominal thickness of the porous metal films. The findings are discussed in view of the proposed generation mechanism based on propagating surface plasmon polaritons on both air/metal and metal/substrate interfaces.

  12. Terahertz-to-infrared emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in metal films with porous nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Zhao, Ji; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, X-C

    2015-06-29

    We report on the investigation of terahertz-to-infrared (THz-to-IR) thermal emission that relies on the excitation of surface plasmons in metal films deposited on a substrate with randomly ordered nanoscale pore arrays. The THz-to-IR radiation was observed both in the direction of laser beam propagation and the reverse direction. The intensity ratio between backward and forward radiation is exponentially dependent on the nominal thickness of the porous metal films. The findings are discussed in view of the proposed generation mechanism based on propagating surface plasmon polaritons on both air/metal and metal/substrate interfaces. PMID:26191727

  13. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, David C.; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported. PMID:27363565

  14. Multiarmed Spirals in Excitable Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiev, Bakthier; Siegert, Florian; Weijer, Cornelis

    1997-03-01

    Numerical studies of the properties of multiarmed spirals show that they can form spontaneously in low excitability media. The maximum number of arms in a multiarmed spiral is proportional to the ratio of the single spiral period to the refractoriness of the medium. Multiarmed spirals are formed due to attraction of single spirals if these spirals rotate in the same direction and their tips are less than one wavelength apart, i.e., a spiral broken not far from its tip can evolve into a 2-armed spiral. We propose this mechanism to be responsible for the formation of multiarmed spirals in mounds of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  15. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    Variations of Earth rotation on sub-daily to secular timescales are caused by mass redistributions in the Earth system as a consequence of geophysical processes and gravitational influences. Forced oscillations of polar motion are superposed by free oscillations of the Earth, i.e. the Chandler wobble and the free core nutation. In order to study the interactions between externally induced polar motion and the Earth's free oscillations, a non-linear gyroscopic model has been developed. In most of the former investigations on polar motion, the Chandler wobble is introduced as a damped oscillation with predetermined frequency and amplitude. However, as the effect of rotational deformation is a backcoupling mechanism of polar motion on the Earth's rotational dynamics, both period and amplitude of the Chandler wobble are time-dependent when regarding additional excitations from, e.g., atmospheric or oceanic mass redistributions. The gyroscopic model is free of any explicit information concerning amplitude, phase, and period of free oscillations. The characteristics of the Earth's free oscillation is reproduced by the model from rheological and geometrical parameters and rotational deformation is taken into account. This enables to study the time variable Chandler oscillation when the gyro is forced with atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum from the global atmospheric ECHAM3-T21 general circulation model together with the ocean model for circulation and tides OMCT driven by ECHAM including surface pressure. Besides, mass redistributions in the Earth's body due to gravitational and loading deformations are regarded and external torques exerted by Moon and Sun are considered. The numerical results of the gyro are significantly related with the geodetically observed time series of polar motion published by the IERS. It is shown that the consistent excitation is capable to counteract the damping and thus to maintain the Chandler amplitude. Spectral analyses of the ECHAM

  16. Nucleon resonance excitation with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    R. De Vita; CLAS Collaboration

    2004-09-01

    The study of the baryon spectrum is a fundamental part of the scientific program in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. The so called N* program indeed concerns the measurement of the electromagnetic production of exclusive hadronic final states, with the purpose of extracting information on baryon excited states. CLAS, the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, is explicitly designed for conducting a broad experimental program in hadronic physics, using the continuous electron beam provided by the laboratory. An overview of the most recent results is presented.

  17. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation.

    PubMed

    Schedl, David C; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported. PMID:27363565

  18. Mechanically-Excited Sessile Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2010-11-01

    The volume and contact-line mobility of a sessile drop determine the frequency response of the drop to mechanical excitation. A useful signature of the drop is its response to a sweep of frequency. At particular frequencies the drop exhibits standing wave patterns of different mode numbers and/or azimuthal, spinning motion. We report observations of the spectrum of standing wave patterns and compare to predictions of a linear stability theory. On the side of application, the results suggest how to tune the pinning-unpinning of a sessile drop in order to maximize its translation.

  19. [Neurosteroids. Neuromodulators of cerebral excitability].

    PubMed

    Calixto González, E; Brailowsky, S

    1998-01-01

    Steroids which are produced by the brain are called neurosteroids, and they are able to modulate neurotransmissions: GABAergic; glutamatergic; glycinergic, and cholinergic (nicotine receptor). These effects are of short latency and duration, and do not implicate the cellular genome. The interaction of these neurosteroids with membrane receptors contribute to the regulation of neuronal excitability, and their study has allowed a better understanding of cognitive, hormonal, and epileptic phenomena as well as the development of new drugs with anxiolytic, antidepressive, anesthetic and anti-epileptic effects. PMID:9658699

  20. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation.

    PubMed

    Schedl, David C; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported.

  1. [Neurosteroids. Neuromodulators of cerebral excitability].

    PubMed

    Calixto González, E; Brailowsky, S

    1998-01-01

    Steroids which are produced by the brain are called neurosteroids, and they are able to modulate neurotransmissions: GABAergic; glutamatergic; glycinergic, and cholinergic (nicotine receptor). These effects are of short latency and duration, and do not implicate the cellular genome. The interaction of these neurosteroids with membrane receptors contribute to the regulation of neuronal excitability, and their study has allowed a better understanding of cognitive, hormonal, and epileptic phenomena as well as the development of new drugs with anxiolytic, antidepressive, anesthetic and anti-epileptic effects.

  2. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schedl, David C.; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported.

  3. Ultrafast Photochemistry of Copper(II) Monochlorocomplexes in Methanol and Acetonitrile by Broadband Deep-UV-to-Near-IR Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mereshchenko, Andrey S; Olshin, Pavel K; Myasnikova, Olesya S; Panov, Maxim S; Kochemirovsky, Vladimir A; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu; Moroz, Pavel N; Zamkov, Mikhail; Tarnovsky, Alexander N

    2016-03-24

    Photochemistry of copper(II) monochlorocomplexes in methanol and acetonitrile solutions is studied by UV-pump/broadband deep-UV-to-near-IR probe femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon 255 and 266 nm excitation, the complexes in acetonitrile and methanol, respectively, are promoted to the excited ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) state, which has a short (sub-250 fs) lifetime. From the LMCT state, the complexes decay via internal conversion to lower-lying ligand field (LF) d-d excited states or the vibrationally hot ground electronic state. A minor fraction of the excited complexes relaxes to the LF electronic excited states, which are relatively long-lived with lifetimes >1 ns. Also, in methanol solutions, about 3% of the LMCT-excited copper(II) monochlorocomplexes dissociate forming copper(I) solvatocomplexes and chlorine atoms, which then further react forming long-lived photoproducts. In acetonitrile, about 50% of the LMCT-excited copper(II) monochlorocomplexes dissociate forming radical and ionic products in a ratio of 3:2. Another minor process observed following excitation only in methanol solutions is the re-equilibration between several forms of the copper(II) ground-state complexes present in solutions. This re-equilibration occurs on a time scale from sub-nanoseconds to nanoseconds.

  4. Role of IRS-2 in insulin and cytokine signalling.

    PubMed

    Sun, X J; Wang, L M; Zhang, Y; Yenush, L; Myers, M G; Glasheen, E; Lane, W S; Pierce, J H; White, M F

    1995-09-14

    The protein IRS-1 acts as an interface between signalling proteins with Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) and the receptors for insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL-4, IL-9, IL-13) and other cytokines. It regulates gene expression and stimulates mitogenesis, and appears to mediate insulin/IGF-1-stimulated glucose transport. Thus, survival of the IRS-1-/- mouse with only mild resistance to insulin was surprising. This dilemma is provisionally resolved with our discovery of a second IRS-signalling protein. We purified and cloned a likely candidate called 4PS from myeloid progenitor cells and, because of its resemblance to IRS-1, we designate it IRS-2. Alignment of the sequences of IRS-2 and IRS-1 revealed a highly conserved amino terminus containing a pleckstrin-homology domain and a phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and a poorly conserved carboxy terminus containing several tyrosine phosphorylation motifs. IRS-2 is expressed in many cells, including tissues from IRS-1-/- mice, and may be essential for signalling by several receptor systems.

  5. Gene circuit designs for noisy excitable dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rué, Pau; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    Certain cellular processes take the form of activity pulses that can be interpreted in terms of noise-driven excitable dynamics. Here we present an overview of different gene circuit architectures that exhibit excitable pulses of protein expression, when subject to molecular noise. Different types of excitable dynamics can occur depending on the bifurcation structure leading to the specific excitable phase-space topology. The bifurcation structure is not, however, linked to a particular circuit architecture. Thus a given gene circuit design can sustain different classes of excitable dynamics depending on the system parameters.

  6. Theoretical studies of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Besley, Nicholas A.

    2014-10-06

    Time-dependent density functional theory is the most widely used quantum chemical method for studying molecules in electronically excited states. However, excited states can also be computed within Kohn-Sham density functional theory by exploiting methods that converge the self-consistent field equations to give excited state solutions. The usefulness of single reference self-consistent field based approaches for studying excited states is demonstrated by considering the calculation of several types of spectroscopy including the infrared spectroscopy of molecules in an electronically excited state, the rovibrational spectrum of the NO-Ar complex, core electron binding energies and the emission spectroscopy of BODIPY in water.

  7. Peculiarities of collisional excitation transfer with excited screened energy levels of atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, V. A.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Pavlinskiy, A. V.

    2007-09-15

    We report an experimental discovery of deviations from the known regularities in collisional excitation transfer processes for metal atoms. The collisional excitation transfer with excited screened energy levels of thulium and dysprosium atoms is studied. The selecting role of the screening 6s shell in collisional excitation transfer is shown.

  8. Pseudospin transport in the Jeff = 1/2 antiferromagnet Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, F.; Matsumoto, A.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Büchner, B.; Hess, C.

    2016-06-01

    Spin transport by itinerant electrons and collective excitations of localized spins with small relaxation rates is of eminent interest for both fundamental research and applications. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is not only considered a crucial origin for spin relaxation in spin transport, it recently emerged as the source of novel quantum phases such as topological insulators or SOC-induced Mott insulators with J eff = 1/2 pseudospins. Here we show that emergent pseudospin excitations in Sr2IrO4 give rise to significant heat transport despite this compound being a strong SOC-induced Mott insulator. The analysis of the heat conductivity reveals boundary-limited relaxation of the pseudospin excitations at low temperature. However, the relaxation rate dramatically increases upon heating towards room temperature due to thermally activated scattering off phonons. The comparison of this result with findings for cuprate analogs with S = 1/2 spin excitations suggests a radically stronger coupling of the J eff = 1/2 pseudospin excitations to the lattice.

  9. Dual excitation multiphase electrostatic drive

    SciTech Connect

    Niino, Toshiki; Higuchi, Toshiro |; Egawa, Saku

    1995-12-31

    A novel electrostatic drive technology named Dual Excitation Multiphase Electrostatic Drive (DEMED) was presented. A basic DEMED consisted of two plastic films in which 3-phase parallel electrodes were embedded and was driven by a 3-phase ac excitation to the electrodes. Static characteristics of DEMED were calculated and tested and the results agreed very well. Three prototype motors of DEMED were fabricated using commercially available technique. The first prototype consisted of a single slider and stator and generated a linear motion with a slider`s motion range of about 5mm. It weighed 7g and generated a power of 1.6W and a thrust force of 4.4N. The second prototype consisted of 50 layer stack of linear motors, summing their outputs. It weighed 3.6kg and generated a propulsive force of 310N being powered with boosted commercial 3-phase electricity. The third prototype consisted of a rotor and a stator in which electrodes were arranged radially and generated rotational motion. The maximum power of 36mW was generated by the prototype weighing only 260mg for its rotor and stator. From the results of the numerical calculation, a practical design methodology for the motor was determined. An optimal design for a motor employing currently available material and fabrication techniques is provided as an example. Analyses predict that force generation over the interfacial area between the slider and stator of this motor would be 3,900N/m{sup 2}.

  10. Coulomb excitation of Ga73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diriken, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Balabanski, D.; Blasi, N.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Cederkäll, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Eberth, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Georgiev, G.; Gladnishki, K.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Kröll, Th.; Krücken, R.; Köster, U.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lo Bianco, G.; Maierbeck, P.; Marsh, B. A.; Napiorkowski, P.; Patronis, N.; Pauwels, D.; Reiter, P.; Seliverstov, M.; Sletten, G.; van de Walle, J.; van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Walters, W. B.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wrzosek, K.

    2010-12-01

    The B(E2;Ii→If) values for transitions in 3171Ga40 and 3173Ga42 were deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment at the safe energy of 2.95 MeV/nucleon using post-accelerated beams of Ga71,73 at the REX-ISOLDE on-line isotope mass separator facility. The emitted γ rays were detected by the MINIBALL γ-detector array, and B(E2;Ii→If) values were obtained from the yields normalized to the known strength of the 2+→0+ transition in the Sn120 target. The comparison of these new results with the data of less neutron-rich gallium isotopes shows a shift of the E2 collectivity toward lower excitation energy when adding neutrons beyond N=40. This supports conclusions from previous studies of the gallium isotopes, which indicated a structural change in this isotopic chain between N=40 and 42. Combined with recent measurements from collinear laser spectroscopy showing a 1/2- spin and parity for the ground state, the extracted results revealed evidence for a 1/2-,3/2- doublet near the ground state in 3173Ga42 differing by at most 0.8 keV in energy.

  11. Transient IR Spectroscopic Observation of Singlet and Triplet States of 2-Nitrofluorene: Revisiting the Photophysics of Nitroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martin A B; Thøgersen, Jan; Stephansen, Anne B; Peon, Jorge; Sølling, Theis I; Keiding, Søren R

    2016-01-14

    The dynamics of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) in deuterated acetonitrile is studied using UV pump, IR probe femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon excitation to the vibrationally excited S1 state, the excited-state population of 2-NF branches into two different relaxation pathways. One route leads to intersystem crossing (ISC) to the triplet manifold within a few hundred femtoseconds and the other to internal conversion (IC) to the ground state. The experiments indicate that after relaxation to the energetic minimum on S1, 2-NF undergoes internal conversion to the ground state in about 15 ps. IC within the triplet manifold is also observed as the initially populated triplet state relaxes to T1 in about 6 ps. Rotational anisotropy measurements corroborate the assignment of the transient IR frequencies and indicate a rotational diffusion time of 2-NF in the solvent of about 14 ps. The combined set of results provides a unified picture of the dynamics in photoexcited 2-NF. This to our knowledge is the first example using femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy for the study of the fundamental photoinduced processes in nitroaromatic compounds. PMID:26669456

  12. Calculation of vibrational and electronic excited state absorption spectra of arsenic-water complexes using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Lambrakos, S. G.; Shabaev, A.; Massa, L.

    2016-05-01

    Calculations are presented of vibrational and electronic excited-state absorption spectra for As-H2O complexes using density function theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). DFT and TD-DFT can provide interpretation of absorption spectra with respect to molecular structure for excitation by electromagnetic waves at frequencies within the IR and UV-visible ranges. The absorption spectrum corresponding to excitation states of As-H2O complexes consisting of relatively small numbers of water molecules should be associated with response features that are intermediate between that of isolated molecules and that of a bulk system. DFT and TD-DFT calculated absorption spectra represent quantitative estimates that can be correlated with additional information obtained from laboratory measurements and other types of theory based calculations. The DFT software GAUSSIAN was used for the calculations of excitation states presented here.

  13. A New Far-IR (THz) and IR Spectrometer for the Study of Astrochemical Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allodi, Marco A.; Ioppolo, Sergio; McGuire, Brett A.; Kelley, Matthew J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2013-06-01

    Far-IR (THz) spectroscopy provides a powerful technique capable of identifying solid phase molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM). Thus, laboratory data of ices in the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum have the potential to support astronomical observations in the identification of complex organic molecules in the solid phase. In addition to providing a spectral fingerprint, THz spectroscopy probes the phonon modes of a solid. As such, the absorptions of ices in the THz region give insights into the structural dynamics of species in the solid phase. This work will describe a new instrument capable of investigating ices in both the THz and Mid-IR. THz light is generated via plasma filamentation and detected via electro-optic sampling. The ability to collect spectra of ices in the Mid-IR using a commercial FTIR spectrometer allows us to compare the ices we create in the lab to the existing body of literature while building up a database of THz spectra of ices to aid in astronomical observations.

  14. New Insights in 4f(12)5d(1) Excited States of Tm(2+) through Excited State Excitation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mathijs; Biner, Daniel; Krämer, Karl W; Barandiarán, Zoila; Seijo, Luis; Meijerink, Andries

    2016-07-21

    Optical excitation of ions or molecules typically leads to an expansion of the equilibrium bond lengths in the excited electronic state. However, for 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states in lanthanide ions both expansion and contraction relative to the 4f(n) ground state have been reported, depending on the crystal field and nature of the 5d state. To probe the equilibrium distance offset between different 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states, we report excited state excitation (ESE) spectra for Tm(2+) doped in CsCaBr3 and CsCaCl3 using two-color excited state excitation spectroscopy. The ESE spectra reveal sharp lines at low energies, confirming a similar distance offset for 4f(n-1)5d(t2g)(1) states. At higher energies, broader bands are observed, which indicate the presence of excited states with a different offset. On the basis of ab initio embedded-cluster calculations, the broad bands are assigned to two-photon d-d absorption from the excited state. In this work, we demonstrate that ESE is a powerful spectroscopic tool, giving access to information which cannot be obtained through regular one-photon spectroscopy. PMID:27347766

  15. New Insights in 4f(12)5d(1) Excited States of Tm(2+) through Excited State Excitation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mathijs; Biner, Daniel; Krämer, Karl W; Barandiarán, Zoila; Seijo, Luis; Meijerink, Andries

    2016-07-21

    Optical excitation of ions or molecules typically leads to an expansion of the equilibrium bond lengths in the excited electronic state. However, for 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states in lanthanide ions both expansion and contraction relative to the 4f(n) ground state have been reported, depending on the crystal field and nature of the 5d state. To probe the equilibrium distance offset between different 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states, we report excited state excitation (ESE) spectra for Tm(2+) doped in CsCaBr3 and CsCaCl3 using two-color excited state excitation spectroscopy. The ESE spectra reveal sharp lines at low energies, confirming a similar distance offset for 4f(n-1)5d(t2g)(1) states. At higher energies, broader bands are observed, which indicate the presence of excited states with a different offset. On the basis of ab initio embedded-cluster calculations, the broad bands are assigned to two-photon d-d absorption from the excited state. In this work, we demonstrate that ESE is a powerful spectroscopic tool, giving access to information which cannot be obtained through regular one-photon spectroscopy.

  16. Combination of transient 2D-IR experiments and ab initio computations sheds light on the formation of the charge-transfer state in photoexcited carbonyl carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Mariangela; Segado Centellas, Mireia; Lapini, Andrea; Lima, Manuela; Avila, Francisco; Santoro, Fabrizio; Cappelli, Chiara; Righini, Roberto

    2014-08-14

    The excited state dynamics of carbonyl carotenoids is very complex because of the coupling of single- and doubly excited states and the possible involvement of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) states. In this contribution we employ ultrafast infrared spectroscopy and theoretical computations to investigate the relaxation dynamics of trans-8'-apo-β-carotenal occurring on the picosecond time scale, after excitation in the S2 state. In a (slightly) polar solvent like chloroform, one-dimensional (T1D-IR) and two-dimensional (T2D-IR) transient infrared spectroscopy reveal spectral components with characteristic frequencies and lifetimes that are not observed in nonpolar solvents (cyclohexane). Combining experimental evidence with an analysis of CASPT2//CASSCF ground and excited state minima and energy profiles, complemented with TDDFT calculations in gas phase and in solvent, we propose a photochemical decay mechanism for this system where only the bright single-excited 1Bu(+) and the dark double-excited 2Ag(-) states are involved. Specifically, the initially populated 1Bu(+) relaxes toward 2Ag(-) in 200 fs. In a nonpolar solvent 2Ag(-) decays to the ground state (GS) in 25 ps. In polar solvents, distortions along twisting modes of the chain promote a repopulation of the 1Bu(+) state which then quickly relaxes to the GS (18 ps in chloroform). The 1Bu(+) state has a high electric dipole and is the main contributor to the charge-transfer state involved in the dynamics in polar solvents. The 2Ag(-) → 1Bu(+) population transfer is evidenced by a cross peak on the T2D-IR map revealing that the motions along the same stretching of the conjugated chain on the 2Ag(-) and 1Bu(+) states are coupled.

  17. More on molecular excitations: Dark matter detection in ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Va'vra, J.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we investigate di-atomic molecules embedded in ice crystals under strain. In this environment coherent vibrations of many OH-bonds may be generated by one WIMP collision. The detection of such multiple-photon signals may provide a signature of a 100 GeV/c2 WIMP. To do a proper lab test of "WIMP-induced" multi-photon emission is very difficult. We suggest that Ice Cube make a search for multi-photon events, and investigate whether the rate of such events exhibits yearly modulation.

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope IRS Spectral Mapping of Photoionized Columns in M16 and the Carina HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotera, Angela; Simpson, J. P.; Sellgren, K.; Stolovy, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Photoevaporated columns of dust and gas - also called elephant trunks, pillars or fingers - are found in the periphery of many H II regions. They have been observed within the Galaxy, the SMC and the LMC. These features are thought to be sites of current star formation, but the question remains whether the columns persist because stars formed in the denser regions prior to interactions with the UV radiation and stellar winds of nearby massive stars, or because of core collapse resulting from these interactions. We have obtained Spitzer IRS spectral maps of three columns within M 16 and three columns within the Carina nebula, to test our understanding of the impact on these transitory features of differing stellar populations and initial conditions. We use the wealth of molecular, atomic and PAH emission lines located within the spectral range of the high resolution IRS modes (9.9-37.2 micron) to determine the excitation state, dust and gas temperatures, and probe the shock characteristics within the columns as a function of location. Using the IRS spectral mapping mode, in conjunction with the CUBISM tool and the CLOUDY H II region model code, we have constructed detailed maps of the accessible emission lines and derived parameters for each column. Mapping the distribution of the physical states of the dust and gas in these columns is enhancing our understanding of the competing processes within these dynamic objects. The data presented here represent the only IRS spectral maps of photoionized pillars.

  19. Electron dynamics and prompt ablation of aluminum surface excited by intense femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Makarov, S. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Thin aluminum film homogeneously heated by intense IR femtosecond laser pulses exhibits on the excitation timescale consequent fluence-dependent rise and drop of the IR-pump self-reflectivity, followed by its final saturation at higher fluences F > 0.3 J/cm2. This prompt optical dynamics correlates with the initial monotonic increase in the accompanying laser-induced electron emission, which is succeeded by its non-linear (three-photon) increase for F > 0.3 J/cm2. The underlying electronic dynamics is related to the initial saturation of IR resonant interband transitions in this material, followed by its strong instantaneous electronic heating via intraband transitions during the pump pulse resulting in thermionic emission. Above the threshold fluence of 0.3 J/cm2, the surface electronic heating is balanced during the pump pulse by simultaneous cooling via intense plasma removal (prompt ablation). The relationship between the deposited volume energy density in the film and its prompt electronic temperature derived from the self-reflection measurements using a Drude model, demonstrates a kind of electron "liquid-vapor" phase transition, driven by strong cubic optical non-linearity of the photo-excited aluminum.

  20. Förster and Dexter energy-transfer processes in fluorescent BAlq thin films doped with phosphorescent Ir(ppy)3 molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Tabata, Yuichiro; Tokito, Shizuo

    2006-04-01

    We studied the photoluminescence proprieties of bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)-4-phenylphenolate aluminum (BAlq) thin films doped with fac tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy)3] over a wide temperature range from 8 to 295 K. The efficient Förster and Dexter energy transfers between the fluorescent BAlq molecule and the phosphorescent Ir(ppy)3 one enabled us to observe strong yellow phosphorescence from BAlq, where Ir(ppy)3 plays an important role as a phosphorescent sensitizer for BAlq. It was found that BAlq acts not only as a donor but also as an acceptor in the energy transfer between BAlq and Ir(ppy)3. The triplet energy of BAlq was estimated to be 2.18 eV from the highest energy peak of the phosphorescence spectra, and the phosphorescence lifetime was 16 ms at 8 K. Furthermore, it was revealed from the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence intensity that the triplet-excited states in BAlq are in thermal equilibrium with those in Ir(ppy)3 at temperatures above ~200 K in the BAlq:Ir(ppy)3 system.

  1. Implementation of time-resolved step-scan fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using a kHz repetition rate pump laser.

    PubMed

    Magana, Donny; Parul, Dzmitry; Dyer, R Brian; Shreve, Andrew P

    2011-05-01

    Time-resolved step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been shown to be invaluable for studying excited-state structures and dynamics in both biological and inorganic systems. Despite the established utility of this method, technical challenges continue to limit the data quality and more wide ranging applications. A critical problem has been the low laser repetition rate and interferometer stepping rate (both are typically 10 Hz) used for data acquisition. Here we demonstrate significant improvement in the quality of time-resolved spectra through the use of a kHz repetition rate laser to achieve kHz excitation and data collection rates while stepping the spectrometer at 200 Hz. We have studied the metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state of Ru(bipyridine)(3)Cl(2) in deuterated acetonitrile to test and optimize high repetition rate data collection. Comparison of different interferometer stepping rates reveals an optimum rate of 200 Hz due to minimization of long-term baseline drift. With the improved collection efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio, better assignments of the MLCT excited-state bands can be made. Using optimized parameters, carbonmonoxy myoglobin in deuterated buffer is also studied by observing the infrared signatures of carbon monoxide photolysis upon excitation of the heme. We conclude from these studies that a substantial increase in performance of ss-FT-IR instrumentation is achieved by coupling commercial infrared benches with kHz repetition rate lasers.

  2. All-in-all-Out Magnetic Order and Propagating Spin Waves in Sm_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7}.

    PubMed

    Donnerer, C; Rahn, M C; Sala, M Moretti; Vale, J G; Pincini, D; Strempfer, J; Krisch, M; Prabhakaran, D; Boothroyd, A T; McMorrow, D F

    2016-07-15

    Using resonant magnetic x-ray scattering we address the unresolved nature of the magnetic ground state and the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of Sm_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7}, a prototypical pyrochlore iridate with a finite temperature metal-insulator transition. Through a combination of elastic and inelastic measurements, we show that the magnetic ground state is an all-in-all-out (AIAO) antiferromagnet. The magnon dispersion indicates significant electronic correlations and can be well described by a minimal Hamiltonian that includes Heisenberg exchange [J=27.3(6)  meV] and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions [D=4.9(3)  meV], which provides a consistent description of the magnetic order and excitations. In establishing that Sm_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7} has the requisite inversion symmetry preserving AIAO magnetic ground state, our results support the notion that pyrochlore iridates may host correlated Weyl semimetals. PMID:27472131

  3. All-in-all-Out Magnetic Order and Propagating Spin Waves in Sm2Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnerer, C.; Rahn, M. C.; Sala, M. Moretti; Vale, J. G.; Pincini, D.; Strempfer, J.; Krisch, M.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.; McMorrow, D. F.

    2016-07-01

    Using resonant magnetic x-ray scattering we address the unresolved nature of the magnetic ground state and the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of Sm2 Ir2 O7 , a prototypical pyrochlore iridate with a finite temperature metal-insulator transition. Through a combination of elastic and inelastic measurements, we show that the magnetic ground state is an all-in-all-out (AIAO) antiferromagnet. The magnon dispersion indicates significant electronic correlations and can be well described by a minimal Hamiltonian that includes Heisenberg exchange [J =27.3 (6 ) meV ] and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions [D =4.9 (3 ) meV ], which provides a consistent description of the magnetic order and excitations. In establishing that Sm2 Ir2 O7 has the requisite inversion symmetry preserving AIAO magnetic ground state, our results support the notion that pyrochlore iridates may host correlated Weyl semimetals.

  4. All-in-all-Out Magnetic Order and Propagating Spin Waves in Sm_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7}.

    PubMed

    Donnerer, C; Rahn, M C; Sala, M Moretti; Vale, J G; Pincini, D; Strempfer, J; Krisch, M; Prabhakaran, D; Boothroyd, A T; McMorrow, D F

    2016-07-15

    Using resonant magnetic x-ray scattering we address the unresolved nature of the magnetic ground state and the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of Sm_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7}, a prototypical pyrochlore iridate with a finite temperature metal-insulator transition. Through a combination of elastic and inelastic measurements, we show that the magnetic ground state is an all-in-all-out (AIAO) antiferromagnet. The magnon dispersion indicates significant electronic correlations and can be well described by a minimal Hamiltonian that includes Heisenberg exchange [J=27.3(6)  meV] and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions [D=4.9(3)  meV], which provides a consistent description of the magnetic order and excitations. In establishing that Sm_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7} has the requisite inversion symmetry preserving AIAO magnetic ground state, our results support the notion that pyrochlore iridates may host correlated Weyl semimetals.

  5. Evaluating uniformity of IR reference sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Catherine; Violleau, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    Infrared reference sources such as blackbodies are used to calibrate and test IR sensors and cameras.. Applications requiring a high thermal uniformity over the emissive surface become more and more frequent compared to the past applications. Among these applications are non uniformity correction of infrared cameras focused at short distance and simultaneous calibration of a set of sensor facing a large area blackbody. Facing these demanding applications requires to accurately measuring thee thermal radiation of each point of the emissive surface of the reference source. The use of an infrared camera for this purpose turns out to be absolutely inefficient since the uniformity off response of this camera is usually worse than the uniformity of thee source to bee measured. Consequently, HGH has developed a testing bench for accurate measurement of uniformity of infrared sources based on a low noise radiometer mounted of translating stages and using an exclusive drift correction method. This bench delivers a reliable thermal map of any kind of infrared reference source.

  6. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaiwen; Emadi, Arvin; de Graaf, Ger; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2010-04-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as possible pitch, which is limited by processing constraints. The large aspect ratio of the TE elements implies a large cross-sectional area between adjacent elements within the array and results in a relatively large lateral heat exchange between micromachined elements by thermal diffusion. This thermal cross-talk is about 10% in case of a gap spacing of 10 μm between elements. Therefore, the detector array should be packaged (and operated) in vacuum in order to reduce the cross-talk due to the air conduction through the gap. Thin film packaging is a solution to achieve an operating air pressure at1.3 mBar, which reduces the cross-talk to 0.4%. An absorber based on an optical interference filter design is also designed and fabricated as an IC compatible post-process on top the detector array. The combination of the use of CMOS compatible materials and processing with high absorbance in 1.5 - 5 μm wavelength range makes a complete on-chip microspectrometer possible.

  7. Polarized IR microscopic imaging of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Xia, Yang; Bidthanapally, Aruna

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this spectroscopic imaging study is to understand the anisotropic behavior of articular cartilage under polarized infrared radiation at 6.25 microm pixel resolution. Paraffin embedded canine humeral cartilage-bone blocks were used to obtain 6 microm thick tissue sections. Two wire grid polarizers were used to manipulate the polarization states of IR radiation by setting them for various polarizer/analyzer angles. The characteristics of the major chemical components (amide I, amide II, amide III and sugar) of articular cartilage were investigated using (a) a polarizer and (b) a combination of a polarizer and an analyzer. These results were compared to those obtained using only an analyzer. The infrared anisotropy (variation in infrared absorption as a function of polarization angles) of amide I, amide II and amide III bands correlates with the orientation of collagen fibrils along the tissue depth in different histological zones. An 'anisotropic flipping' region of amide profiles indicates the possibility of using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to determine the histological zones in cartilage. Cross-polarization experiment indicates the resolution of overlapping peaks of collagen triple helix and/or proteoglycan in articular cartilage.

  8. Activities in Electric Propulsion Development at IRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdrich, Georg; Bauder, Uwe; Bock, Dagmar; Eichhorn, Christoph; Haag, Daniel; Lau, Matthias; Schönherr, Tony; Stindl, Torsten; Fertig, Markus; Löhle, Stefan; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Röser, Hans-Peter

    More than three decades of experience have been gained in the field of electric propulsion at the Institute of Space Systems (Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme = IRS). Recent developments within the field of electric propulsion are summarized and foremost results are highlighted. The various types of electric propulsion systems are not considered as to be competitive. Here, system analysis shows that optimum parameter such as the required exhaust velocity or specific impulse result taking into account both the mission profile and system related sizes such as the power conditioner efficiency, the thrust efficiency and the specific mass of the corresponding power unit. Correspondingly, ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, thermal arcjets, or magnetoplasmadynamics (MPD) thrusters are preferable depending on the mission. Among the described electric propulsion systems are recent developments in the field of applied field MPD but also from high power hybrid thrusters. In addition, new concepts such as the hybrid systems Thermal-Inductively heated Hybrid-Thruster of the University of Stuttgart (TIHTUS) and the so-called Coupled Tether/Ion Engine Propulsion (CETEP) are analysed.

  9. Spitzer IRS Observations of FU Orionis Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. D.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Watson, D. M.; Ibrahimov, M.; Furlan, E.; Sargent, B.; Forrest, W. J.

    2006-09-01

    We present 5-35 μm spectra, taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, of five FU Orionis objects: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, BBW 76, and V346 Nor. All but V346 Nor reveal amorphous silicate grains in emission at 10 and 20 μm, and show water-vapor absorption bands at 5.8 and 6.8 μm and SiO or possibly methane absorption at 8 μm. These absorption features closely match these bands in model stellar photospheres-signs of the gaseous photospheres of the inner regions of these objects' accretion disks. The continuum emission at 5-8 μm is also consistent with such disks, and, for FU Orionis and BBW 76, longer wavelength emission may be fit by a model that includes moderate disk flaring. V1057 Cyg and V1515 Cyg have much more emission at longer wavelengths than the others, perhaps evidence of a substantial remnant of their natal, infalling envelopes.

  10. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  11. Polarized IR microscopic imaging of articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Xia, Yang; Bidthanapally, Aruna

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this spectroscopic imaging study is to understand the anisotropic behavior of articular cartilage under polarized infrared radiation at 6.25 µm pixel resolution. Paraffin embedded canine humeral cartilage-bone blocks were used to obtain 6 µm thick tissue sections. Two wire grid polarizers were used to manipulate the polarization states of IR radiation by setting them for various polarizer/analyzer angles. The characteristics of the major chemical components (amide I, amide II, amide III and sugar) of articular cartilage were investigated using (a) a polarizer and (b) a combination of a polarizer and an analyzer. These results were compared to those obtained using only an analyzer. The infrared anisotropy (variation in infrared absorption as a function of polarization angles) of amide I, amide II and amide III bands correlates with the orientation of collagen fibrils along the tissue depth in different histological zones. An 'anisotropic flipping' region of amide profiles indicates the possibility of using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to determine the histological zones in cartilage. Cross-polarization experiment indicates the resolution of overlapping peaks of collagen triple helix and/or proteoglycan in articular cartilage.

  12. A Simulation Program for Dynamic Infrared (IR) Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoerb, Matthew C.; Harris, Charles B.

    2013-01-01

    A free program for the simulation of dynamic infrared (IR) spectra is presented. The program simulates the spectrum of two exchanging IR peaks based on simple input parameters. Larger systems can be simulated with minor modifications. The program is available as an executable program for PCs or can be run in MATLAB on any operating system. Source…

  13. New Directions for IR, the DQP, and Tuning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowski, Natasha A.; Marshall, David W.

    2015-01-01

    This concluding essay provides a glimpse to the future and alerts IR professionals to related initiatives as well as provides an update to ongoing work with DQP and Tuning. Pulling from the prior chapters it provides some implications for IR offices to consider, not only in their work with the DQP and Tuning, but in terms of general decision…

  14. Testing a Model of IR Radiative Losses: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Vignola, F.; Long, C. N.; Reda, I.

    2009-08-01

    Thermopile pyranometers exhibit IR radiative losses that affect global and diffuse shortwave measurements made with first class thermopile based instruments. Pyrgeometers can be used to measure the sky temperature and are used to calculate the pyranometer?s IR radiative losses.

  15. IR keeps coal miners safe and reduces downtime

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, L.G.

    2009-01-15

    Infrared (IR) cameras can inspect the direct current trolley system that powers mantrips and locomotives that transport men and supplies to an underground mine. If trolley insulators become shorted or electrically leaky they can heat the roof and cause a fire or cave-in. The article explains how IR inspection works and describes typical problems that can be identified by thermograms. 8 figs.

  16. Microwave Excitation In ECRIS plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.; Mascali, D.; Tumino, L.

    2007-09-28

    A number of phenomena related to the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) has been better understood recently by means of the improvement of comprehension of the coupling mechanism between microwave generators and ECR plasma. In particular, the two frequency heating and the frequency tuning effect, that permit a remarkable increase of the current for the highest charge states ions, can be explained in terms of modes excitation in the cylindrical cavity of the plasma chamber. Calculations based on this theoretical approach have been performed, and the major results will be presented. It will be shown that the electric field pattern completely changes for a few MHz frequency variations and the changes in ECRIS performances can be correlated to the efficiency of the power transfer between electromagnetic field and plasma.

  17. Coulomb excitation of 107Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiJulio, D. D.; Cederkall, J.; Fahlander, C.; Ekström, A.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Albers, M.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Darby, I.; Davinson, T.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Fransen, Ch.; Geibel, K.; Gernhäuser, R.; Görgen, A.; Hess, H.; Iwanicki, J.; Lutter, R.; Reiter, P.; Scheck, M.; Seidlitz, M.; Siem, S.; Taprogge, J.; Tveten, G. M.; Van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.

    2012-07-01

    The radioactive isotope 107Sn was studied using Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. This is the lightest odd-Sn nucleus examined using this technique. The reduced transition probability of the lowest-lying 3/2+ state was measured and is compared to shell-model predictions based on several sets of single-neutron energies relative to 100Sn . Similar to the transition probabilities for the 2+ states in the neutron-deficient even-even Sn nuclei, the measured value is underestimated by shell-model calculations. Part of the strength may be recovered by considering the ordering of the d_{5/2} and g_{7/2} single-neutron states.

  18. Collective excitations of supersymmetric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Czajka, Alina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2011-02-15

    Collective excitations of N=1 supersymmetric electromagnetic plasma are studied. Since the Keldysh-Schwinger approach is used, not only equilibrium but also nonequilibrium plasma, which is assumed to be ultrarelativistic, is under consideration. The dispersion equations of photon, photino, electron, and selectron modes are written down and the self-energies, which enter the equations, are computed in the hard loop approximation. The self-energies are discussed in the context of effective action which is also given. The photon modes and electron ones appear to be the same as in the usual ultrarelativistic plasma of electrons, positrons, and photons. The photino modes coincide with the electron ones and the selectron modes are as of a free relativistic massive particle.

  19. Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-11-08

    The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

  20. Statistical dynamo theory: Mode excitation.

    PubMed

    Hoyng, P

    2009-04-01

    We compute statistical properties of the lowest-order multipole coefficients of the magnetic field generated by a dynamo of arbitrary shape. To this end we expand the field in a complete biorthogonal set of base functions, viz. B= summation operator_{k}a;{k}(t)b;{k}(r) . The properties of these biorthogonal function sets are treated in detail. We consider a linear problem and the statistical properties of the fluid flow are supposed to be given. The turbulent convection may have an arbitrary distribution of spatial scales. The time evolution of the expansion coefficients a;{k} is governed by a stochastic differential equation from which we infer their averages a;{k} , autocorrelation functions a;{k}(t)a;{k *}(t+tau) , and an equation for the cross correlations a;{k}a;{l *} . The eigenfunctions of the dynamo equation (with eigenvalues lambda_{k} ) turn out to be a preferred set in terms of which our results assume their simplest form. The magnetic field of the dynamo is shown to consist of transiently excited eigenmodes whose frequency and coherence time is given by Ilambda_{k} and -1/Rlambda_{k} , respectively. The relative rms excitation level of the eigenmodes, and hence the distribution of magnetic energy over spatial scales, is determined by linear theory. An expression is derived for |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} in case the fundamental mode b;{0} has a dominant amplitude, and we outline how this expression may be evaluated. It is estimated that |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} approximately 1/N , where N is the number of convective cells in the dynamo. We show that the old problem of a short correlation time (or first-order smoothing approximation) has been partially eliminated. Finally we prove that for a simple statistically steady dynamo with finite resistivity all eigenvalues obey Rlambda_{k}<0 .

  1. Excitation of interstellar hydrogen chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufild, David A.; Green, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    We have computed new rate coefficients for the collisional excitation of HCl by He, in the close-coupled formalism and using an interaction potential determined recently by Willey, Choong, & DeLucia. Results have been obtained for temperatures between 10 K and 300 K. With the use of the infinite order sudden approximation, we have derived approximate expressions of general applicability which may be used to estimate how the rate constant for a transition (J to J prime) is apportioned among the various hyperfine states F prime of the final state J prime. Using these new rate coefficients, we have obtained predictions for the HCl rotational line strengths expected from a dense clump of interstellar gas, as a function of the HCl fractional abundance. Over a wide range of HCl abundances, we have found that the line luminosities are proportional to abundance(exp 2/3), a general result which can be explained using a simple analytical approximation. Our model for the excitation of HCl within a dense molecular cloud core indicates that the J = 1 goes to 0 line strengths measured by Blake, Keene, & Phillips toward the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) imply a fractional abundance n(HCl)/n(H2) approximately 2 x 10(exp -9), a value which amounts to only approximately 0.3% of the cosmic abundance of chlorine nuclei. Given a fractional abundance of 2 x 10(exp -9), the contribution of HCl emission to the total radiative cooling of a dense clump is small. For Orion, we predict a flux approximately 10(exp -19) W/sq cm for the HCl J = 3 goes to 2 line near 159.8 micrometers, suggesting that the strength of this line could be measured using the Infrared Space Observatory.

  2. An Inexpensive Demountalbe IR Cell Fitted with Glass Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Keiichi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Tanaka, Haruhiko

    1997-08-01

    An inexpensive demountable IR cell fitted with glass windows is proposed for studying hydrogen bonding in solutions. The IR cell consists of commercially available stainless steel liquid cell holders, rubber o-rings, 24 x 24 mm cover glass windows, and a Teflon spacer with two inlet holes. The IR cell has no problem with deterioration of the windows, because the cover glass is commercially available, inexpensive, and insoluble in water. The Teflon spacers with any desired thickness are easily made of a Teflon rod (diameter 3 cm). The low-wavenumber limit of the IR cell with glass windows is about 1600 cm-1. This cell is also useful for measurements of IR spectra of water-containing solutions.

  3. Simultaneous multi-beam planar array IR (pair) spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Elmore, Douglas L.; Rabolt, John F.; Tsao, Mei-Wei

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method capable of providing spatially multiplexed IR spectral information simultaneously in real-time for multiple samples or multiple spatial areas of one sample using IR absorption phenomena requires no moving parts or Fourier Transform during operation, and self-compensates for background spectra and degradation of component performance over time. IR spectral information and chemical analysis of the samples is determined by using one or more IR sources, sampling accessories for positioning the samples, optically dispersive elements, a focal plane array (FPA) arranged to detect the dispersed light beams, and a processor and display to control the FPA, and display an IR spectrograph. Fiber-optic coupling can be used to allow remote sensing. Portability, reliability, and ruggedness is enhanced due to the no-moving part construction. Applications include determining time-resolved orientation and characteristics of materials, including polymer monolayers. Orthogonal polarizers may be used to determine certain material characteristics.

  4. Interplay between low-energy optical phonon modes and structural transition in PrT2Zn20 (T=Ru and Ir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakiya, K.; Onimaru, T.; Tsutsui, S.; Matsumoto, K. T.; Nagasawa, N.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Hasegawa, T.; Ogita, N.; Udagawa, M.; Takabatake, T.

    2015-03-01

    Atomic dynamics of PrT2Zn20 for T=Ru with a structural transition at Ts=138 K and T=Ir without such a transition have been studied by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements. The IXS spectra for T=Ru reveal an optical phonon excitation at 3 meV. We assign it to low-energy vibration of the Zn atom at the 16c site by taking account of the first principles calculation [Hasegawa et al. 2012 J. Phys.: Conf. Proc. 391 012016]. For T=Ir, on the other hand, the optical excitation at 3 meV was not observed. The contrasting results indicate that the low-energy optical phonon mode has a role in the structural transition in PrRu2Zn20 and isostructural La counterparts.

  5. Molecular structure, vibrational spectral assignments (FT-IR and FT-RAMAN), NMR, NBO, HOMO-LUMO and NLO properties of O-methoxybenzaldehyde based on DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennila, P.; Govindaraju, M.; Venkatesh, G.; Kamal, C.

    2016-05-01

    Fourier transform - Infra red (FT-IR) and Fourier transform - Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques have been carried out to analyze O-methoxy benzaldehyde (OMB) molecule. The fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of vibrational bands were evaluated using density functional theory (DFT). The vibrational analysis of stable isomer of OMB has been carried out by FT-IR and FT-Raman in combination with theoretical method simultaneously. The first-order hyperpolarizability and the anisotropy polarizability invariant were computed by DFT method. The atomic charges, hardness, softness, ionization potential, electronegativity, HOMO-LUMO energies, and electrophilicity index have been calculated. The 13C and 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have also been obtained by GIAO method. Molecular electronic potential (MEP) has been calculated by the DFT calculation method. Electronic excitation energies, oscillator strength and excited states characteristics were computed by the closed-shell singlet calculation method.

  6. Stimulus responsive nanogel with innate near IR fluorescent capability for drug delivery and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vineeth M; Shenoy, Sachin J; Victor, Sunita P; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2016-10-01

    A brighter, non toxic and biocompatible optical imaging agent is one of the major quests of biomedical research. Here in, we report a photoluminescent comacromer [PEG-poly(propylene fumarate)-citric acid-glycine] and novel stimulus (pH) responsive nanogel endowed with excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence (EDF) for combined drug delivery and bioimaging applications. The comacromer when excited at different wavelengths in visible region from 400nm to 640nm exhibits fluorescent emissions from 510nm to 718nm in aqueous condition. It has high Stokes shift (120nm), fluorescent lifetime (7 nanoseconds) and quantum yield (50%). The nanogel, C-PLM-NG, prepared with this photoluminescent comacromer and N,N-dimethyl amino ethylmethacrylate (DMEMA) has spherical morphology with particle size around 100nm and 180nm at pH 7.4 (physiological) and 5.5 (intracellular acidic condition of cancer cells) respectively. The studies on fluorescence characteristics of C-PLM NG in aqueous condition reveal large red-shift with emissions from 523nm to 700nm for excitations from 460nm to 600nm ascertaining the EDF characteristics. Imaging the near IR emission with excitation at 535nm was accomplished using cut-off filters. The nanogel undergoes pH responsive swelling and releases around 50% doxorubicin (DOX) at pH 5.5 in comparison with 15% observed at pH 7.4. The studies on in vitro cytotoxicity with MTT assay and hemolysis revealed that the present nanogel is non-toxic. The DOX-loaded C-PLM-NG encapsulated in Hela cells induces lysis of cancer cells. The inherent EDF characteristics associated with C-PLM NG enable cellular imaging of Hela cells. The studies on biodistribution and clearance mechanism of C-PLM-NG from the body of mice reveal bioimaging capability and safety of the present nanogel. This is the first report on a polymeric nanogel with innate near IR emissions for bioimaging applications. PMID:27262258

  7. Structural deformation of a ring-shaped Re(I) diimine dinuclear complex in the excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sei'ichi; Matsubara, Yoshitaka; Asatani, Tsuyoshi; Morimoto, Tatsuki; Ishitani, Osamu; Onda, Ken

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the excited state of a ring-shaped dinuclear Re(I) diimine bis-carbonyl complex that shows promise with regard to efficient photosensitized reactions and multi-electron storage, using time-resolved infrared (TR-IR) vibrational spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Anomalous peaks in the CO stretching region of the TR-IR spectrum were well reproduced by the calculations. It was found that metal-to-ligand charge transfer occurs only in one of the Re complex units, and that the excited state geometry is deformed relative to the ground state in order to relax the associated steric tension. This structural deformation generates the unique photophysical properties of the complex.

  8. Atmospheric Trace Gas Abundances and Stable Isotope Ratios via IR-LIF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose to develop new technologies with support provided by PIDDP that will enable the in situ measurements of abundances and stable isotope ratios in important radiatively and biogenically active gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, methane, nitrous oxide, and hydrogen sulfide to very high precision (0.1 per mil or better for the isotopic ratios, for example). Such measurements, impossible at present, could provide pivotal new constraints on the global (bio)geochemical budgets of these critical species, and could also be used to examine the dynamics of atmospheric transport on Mars, Titan, and other solar system bodies. We believe the combination of solid state light sources with imaging of the IR laser induced fluorescence (IR-LIF) via newly available detector arrays will make such in situ measurements possible for the first time. Even under ambient terrestrial conditions, the LIF yield from vibrational excitation of species such as water and carbon dioxide should produce emission measures well in excess of ten billion photons/sec from samples volumes of order 1 c.c. These count rates can, in principle, yield detection limits into the sub-ppt range that are required for the in situ isotopic study of atmospheric trace gases. While promising, such technologies are relatively immature, but developing rapidly, and there are a great many uncertainties regarding their applicability to in situ IR-LIF planetary studies. We therefore feel PIDDP support will be critical to developing these new tools, and propose a three-year program to combine microchip near-IR lasers with low background detection axes and state-of-the-art HgCdTe detectors developed for astronomical spectroscopy to investigate the sensitivity of IR-LIF under realistic planetary conditions, to optimize the optical pumping and filtering schemes for important species, and to apply the spectrometer to the non-destructive measurement of stable isotopes in a variety of test samples. These

  9. Circadian regulation of human cortical excitability

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Julien Q. M.; Gaggioni, Giulia; Chellappa, Sarah L.; Papachilleos, Soterios; Brzozowski, Alexandre; Borsu, Chloé; Rosanova, Mario; Sarasso, Simone; Middleton, Benita; Luxen, André; Archer, Simon N.; Phillips, Christophe; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Maquet, Pierre; Massimini, Marcello; Vandewalle, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness alters cortical excitability, which is essential for proper brain function and cognition. However, besides prior wakefulness, brain function and cognition are also affected by circadian rhythmicity. Whether the regulation of cognition involves a circadian impact on cortical excitability is unknown. Here, we assessed cortical excitability from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in 22 participants during 29 h of wakefulness under constant conditions. Data reveal robust circadian dynamics of cortical excitability that are strongest in those individuals with highest endocrine markers of circadian amplitude. In addition, the time course of cortical excitability correlates with changes in EEG synchronization and cognitive performance. These results demonstrate that the crucial factor for cortical excitability, and basic brain function in general, is the balance between circadian rhythmicity and sleep need, rather than sleep homoeostasis alone. These findings have implications for clinical applications such as non-invasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation. PMID:27339884

  10. Circadian regulation of human cortical excitability.

    PubMed

    Ly, Julien Q M; Gaggioni, Giulia; Chellappa, Sarah L; Papachilleos, Soterios; Brzozowski, Alexandre; Borsu, Chloé; Rosanova, Mario; Sarasso, Simone; Middleton, Benita; Luxen, André; Archer, Simon N; Phillips, Christophe; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Maquet, Pierre; Massimini, Marcello; Vandewalle, Gilles

    2016-06-24

    Prolonged wakefulness alters cortical excitability, which is essential for proper brain function and cognition. However, besides prior wakefulness, brain function and cognition are also affected by circadian rhythmicity. Whether the regulation of cognition involves a circadian impact on cortical excitability is unknown. Here, we assessed cortical excitability from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in 22 participants during 29 h of wakefulness under constant conditions. Data reveal robust circadian dynamics of cortical excitability that are strongest in those individuals with highest endocrine markers of circadian amplitude. In addition, the time course of cortical excitability correlates with changes in EEG synchronization and cognitive performance. These results demonstrate that the crucial factor for cortical excitability, and basic brain function in general, is the balance between circadian rhythmicity and sleep need, rather than sleep homoeostasis alone. These findings have implications for clinical applications such as non-invasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation.

  11. 3.3 micron emission from ultraviolet excitation of some aromatic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Jun; Suton, Masako; Lee, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared emissions are observed from photoexcitation of benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, and their methyl derivatives in the gas phase at 193 nm using an ArF laser as a light source. An emission band with peak at 3.3 microns is observed from all the molecules studied. This band is attributed to the aromatic C-H stretching vibrational modes. In addition to the 3.3-microns band, an emission band at 3.4-3.6 microns is observed from photoexcitation of the methyl derivatives, which is attributed to the C-H stretching vibrational modes of the CH3 group. The observed spectra are compared with the IR emission bands observed in many astronomical objects. The current laboratory data lend support to a model in which PAH molecules are responsible for the 'unidentified' interstellar IR emissions. IR emissions from the 193-nm excitation of several interstellar molecules other than PAHs are also observed, but they are quite different from the interstellar IR bands.

  12. Photochemistry of (η(6)-arene)Cr(CO)3 (arene = methylbenzoate, naphthalene, or phenanthrene) in n-heptane solution: population of two excited states following 400 nm excitation as detected by picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian P; George, Michael W; Greetham, Gregory M; Harvey, Emma C; Long, Conor; Manton, Jennifer C; Pryce, Mary T

    2011-04-14

    The photochemistry of (η(6)-methylbenzoate)Cr(CO)(3), (η(6)-naphthalene)Cr(CO)(3), and (η(6)-phenanthrene)Cr(CO)(3) in n-heptane solution was investigated by picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR). The observation of two transient IR features in the organic carbonyl region at 1681 and 1724 cm(-1) following 400 nm excitation of (η(6)-methylbenzoate)Cr(CO)(3) confirms formation of two excited states which are classified as metal-to-arene charge transfer (MACT) and metal-to-CO charge transfer (MCCT), respectively. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations have been used to support these assignments. Population of the MCCT excited state results in a slow (150 ps) expulsion of one CO ligand. Excitation of (η(6)-naphthalene)Cr(CO)(3) or (η(6)-phenanthrene)Cr(CO)(3) at either 400 or 345 nm produced two excited states: the MCCT state results in CO loss, while the MACT excited state results in a change to the coordination mode of the polyaromatic ligands before relaxing to the parent complex. A comparison of the infrared absorptions observed following the population of the MACT excited state with those calculated for nonplanar polyaromatic intermediates provides a model for the reduced hapticity species.

  13. The IR emission features - Emission from PAH molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for the assessment of the importance of the various forms of PAHs, and recent infrared observations concerning the PAH problem, are considered. Spectroscopic data suggest that the observed interstellar spectrum is due to both free molecule-sized PAHs producing the narrow features, and amorphous carbon particles contributing to the broad underlying components. Explanations for the multicomponent emission spectrum are discussed. A model of the emission mechanism for the example of chrysene is presented, and an exact treatment of the IR fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules shows that species containing 20-30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra more closely resemble those of amorphous carbon particles. It is suggested that future emphasis should be placed on the spatial characteristics of the component spectra.

  14. The IR emission features - Emission from PAH molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Given the current understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the spectroscopic data suggest that are at least two components which contribute to the interstellar emission spectrum: (1) free molecule-sized PAHs producing the narrow features and (2) amorphous carbon particles (which are primarily composed of an irregular 'lattice' of PAHs) contributing to the broad underlying components. An exact treatment of the IR fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules demonstrates that species containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra match more closely with the spectra of amorphous carbon particles. It is concluded that, since little is known about the spectroscopic properties of free PAHs and PAH clusters, much laboratory work is required along with an observational program focusing on the spatial characteristics of the spectra.

  15. Near-IR Two-Photon Fluorescent Sensor for K(+) Imaging in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Sui, Binglin; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D

    2015-08-19

    A new two-photon excited fluorescent K(+) sensor is reported. The sensor comprises three moieties, a highly selective K(+) chelator as the K(+) recognition unit, a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivative modified with phenylethynyl groups as the fluorophore, and two polyethylene glycol chains to afford water solubility. The sensor displays very high selectivity (>52-fold) in detecting K(+) over other physiological metal cations. Upon binding K(+), the sensor switches from nonfluorescent to highly fluorescent, emitting red to near-IR (NIR) fluorescence. The sensor exhibited a good two-photon absorption cross section, 500 GM at 940 nm. Moreover, it is not sensitive to pH in the physiological pH range. Time-dependent cell imaging studies via both one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the sensor is suitable for dynamic K(+) sensing in living cells. PMID:26258885

  16. Detection of no and S-Nitrosocompounds Using Mid-Ir Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stsiapura, Vitali; Shuali, Vincent K.; Ziegler, Angela; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic reactions of S-nitrosothiols have received much attention in biochemistry and medicine since S-nitrosocompounds can act not only as donors of nitric oxide (NO) in an organism but can themselves be involved in signal transduction. In the past few decades, the primary means of detecting S-nitrosocompounds in biological media has been through chemiluminescence detection of NO, a technique that limits the sensitivity to ppb levels and is not able to trace isotopologues of NO. Here we present a cw-CRD instrument for detection of NO isotopologues released from S-nitrosocompounds with a sensitivity of 27 pptv of NO in 100 torr He (after averaging of ˜400 ringdowns). A mid-IR ec-QCL laser (Daylight Solutions) is used to excite the ringdown cavity of finesse ˜10000 and probe the NO fundamental ro-vibrational band in the 5.2 - 5.3 μm range.

  17. Near-IR Two-Photon Fluorescent Sensor for K(+) Imaging in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Sui, Binglin; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D

    2015-08-19

    A new two-photon excited fluorescent K(+) sensor is reported. The sensor comprises three moieties, a highly selective K(+) chelator as the K(+) recognition unit, a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivative modified with phenylethynyl groups as the fluorophore, and two polyethylene glycol chains to afford water solubility. The sensor displays very high selectivity (>52-fold) in detecting K(+) over other physiological metal cations. Upon binding K(+), the sensor switches from nonfluorescent to highly fluorescent, emitting red to near-IR (NIR) fluorescence. The sensor exhibited a good two-photon absorption cross section, 500 GM at 940 nm. Moreover, it is not sensitive to pH in the physiological pH range. Time-dependent cell imaging studies via both one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the sensor is suitable for dynamic K(+) sensing in living cells.

  18. Striking differences in properties of geometric isomers of [Ir(tpy)(ppy)H](+): Experimental and computational studies on their hydricities, interaction with CO2, and photochemistry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garg, Komal; Fujita, Etsuko; Matsubara, Yasuo; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Lewandowska-Andralojc, Anna; Sato, Shunsuke; Szalda, David J.; Muckerman, James T.

    2015-11-16

    Here, we prepared two geometric isomers of [Ir(tpy)(ppy)H]+, previously proposed as a key intermediate in the photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO, and characterized their notably different ground- and excited-state interactions with CO2 and their hydricities using experimental and computational methods. Only one isomer, C-trans-[Ir(tpy)(ppy)H]+, reacts with CO2 to generate the formato complex in the ground state, consistent with its calculated hydricity. Under photocatalytic conditions in CH3CN/TEOA, a common reactive C-trans-[Ir(tpy)(ppy)]0 species, irrespective of the starting isomer or monodentate ligand (such as hydride or Cl), reacts with CO2 and produces CO with the same catalytic efficiency.

  19. Striking Differences in Properties of Geometric Isomers of [Ir(tpy)(ppy)H](+): Experimental and Computational Studies of their Hydricities, Interaction with CO2, and Photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Garg, Komal; Matsubara, Yasuo; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Lewandowska-Andralojc, Anna; Sato, Shunsuke; Szalda, David J; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko

    2015-11-16

    We prepared two geometric isomers of [Ir(tpy)(ppy)H](+), previously proposed as a key intermediate in the photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO, and characterized their notably different ground- and excited-state interactions with CO2 and their hydricities using experimental and computational methods. Only one isomer, C-trans-[Ir(tpy)(ppy)H](+), reacts with CO2 to generate the formato complex in the ground state, consistent with its calculated hydricity. Under photocatalytic conditions in CH3CN/TEOA, a common reactive C-trans-[Ir(tpy)(ppy)](0) species, irrespective of the starting isomer or monodentate ligand (such as hydride or Cl), reacts with CO2 and produces CO with the same catalytic efficiency.

  20. Monitoring the intramolecular charge transfer process in the Z907 solar cell sensitizer: a transient Vis and IR spectroscopy and ab initio investigation.

    PubMed

    Azzaroli, Nicolò; Lobello, Maria Grazia; Lapini, Andrea; Iagatti, Alessandro; Bussotti, Laura; Di Donato, Mariangela; Calogero, Giuseppe; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo; Foggi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We have analyzed the excited state dynamics of the heteroleptic [(NCS)2Ru(bpy-(COOH)2)(bpy-(C6H13)2)] Z907 solar cell sensitizer in solution and when adsorbed onto thin TiO2 films, by combining transient visible and infrared (IR) spectroscopies with ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-Dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. Upon excitation with ultra-short pulses in ethanol and dimethyl-sulphoxide solutions, the visible spectra show the appearance of a positive signal around 650 nm, within the instrumental time resolution (<100 fs), which in ethanol undergoes a red-shift in about 20 ps. Measurements in the IR indicate that, upon excitation, both the CN and CO marker bands, associated with the NCS and COOH groups, downshift in frequency, in response to intramolecular ligand + metal (Ru-NCS) to ligand' (bpy-COOH2) charge transfer (LML'CT). Vibrational cooling is observed in both solvents; in ethanol it is overtaken by the hydrogen bond dynamics. On the basis of DFT/TDDFT calculations, explicitly modeling the interaction of the NCS and COOH groups with solvent (ethanol) molecules, we rationalize the observed IR and visible spectral evolution as arising from the change in the hydrogen-bond network, which accompanies the transition to the lowest-energy triplet state. This interpretation provides a consistent explanation of what is also observed in the transient visible spectra. Transient IR measurements repeated for molecules adsorbed on TiO2 and ZrO2 films, allow us to identify the structural changes signaling the dye triplet excited state formation and evidence multiexponential electron injection rates into the semiconductor TiO2 film. PMID:26220307

  1. A Hamiltonian approach to the parametric excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, V.; Bacri, J.-C.; Hocquet, T.; Devaud, M.

    2006-05-01

    We propose a solution of the parametrically excited oscillator problem using the Hamiltonian formalism introduced by Glauber. The main advantage is that, within the framework of this formalism, the different possible approximations appear much more naturally than in the standard textbook presentation. Experiments on adiabatic and resonant parametric excitations of a pendulum are presented as an illustration, with particular attention being paid to the role played by the phase of the excitation.

  2. The Dynamics of Small Excitable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Peter; Shuai, Jian-Wei

    2005-03-01

    We consider clusters of sodium ion channels similar as found in the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated neurons. The cluster behaves like excitable systems in the limit of large numbers of ion channels. Small clusters of channels, i.e. small excitable systems, exhibit spontaneous action potentials. We show that small excitable systems exhibit maxima of the spontaneous firing rate and of the response to external stimuli at multiple specific cluster sizes that are universally determined by arithmetic properties of small numbers.

  3. Automatic temperature computation for realistic IR simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Alain; Kersaudy, Philippe; Latger, Jean; Cathala, Thierry; Stolte, Nilo; Barillot, Philippe

    2000-07-01

    Polygon temperature computation in 3D virtual scenes is fundamental for IR image simulation. This article describes in detail the temperature calculation software and its current extensions, briefly presented in [1]. This software, called MURET, is used by the simulation workshop CHORALE of the French DGA. MURET is a one-dimensional thermal software, which accurately takes into account the material thermal attributes of three-dimensional scene and the variation of the environment characteristics (atmosphere) as a function of the time. Concerning the environment, absorbed incident fluxes are computed wavelength by wavelength, for each half an hour, druing 24 hours before the time of the simulation. For each polygon, incident fluxes are compsed of: direct solar fluxes, sky illumination (including diffuse solar fluxes). Concerning the materials, classical thermal attributes are associated to several layers, such as conductivity, absorption, spectral emissivity, density, specific heat, thickness and convection coefficients are taken into account. In the future, MURET will be able to simulate permeable natural materials (water influence) and vegetation natural materials (woods). This model of thermal attributes induces a very accurate polygon temperature computation for the complex 3D databases often found in CHORALE simulations. The kernel of MUET consists of an efficient ray tracer allowing to compute the history (over 24 hours) of the shadowed parts of the 3D scene and a library, responsible for the thermal computations. The great originality concerns the way the heating fluxes are computed. Using ray tracing, the flux received in each 3D point of the scene accurately takes into account the masking (hidden surfaces) between objects. By the way, this library supplies other thermal modules such as a thermal shows computation tool.

  4. The sequence measurement system of the IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Ai-hui; Han, Hong-xia; Zhang, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Currently, the IR cameras are broadly used in the optic-electronic tracking, optic-electronic measuring, fire control and optic-electronic countermeasure field, but the output sequence of the most presently applied IR cameras in the project is complex and the giving sequence documents from the leave factory are not detailed. Aiming at the requirement that the continuous image transmission and image procession system need the detailed sequence of the IR cameras, the sequence measurement system of the IR camera is designed, and the detailed sequence measurement way of the applied IR camera is carried out. The FPGA programming combined with the SignalTap online observation way has been applied in the sequence measurement system, and the precise sequence of the IR camera's output signal has been achieved, the detailed document of the IR camera has been supplied to the continuous image transmission system, image processing system and etc. The sequence measurement system of the IR camera includes CameraLink input interface part, LVDS input interface part, FPGA part, CameraLink output interface part and etc, thereinto the FPGA part is the key composed part in the sequence measurement system. Both the video signal of the CmaeraLink style and the video signal of LVDS style can be accepted by the sequence measurement system, and because the image processing card and image memory card always use the CameraLink interface as its input interface style, the output signal style of the sequence measurement system has been designed into CameraLink interface. The sequence measurement system does the IR camera's sequence measurement work and meanwhile does the interface transmission work to some cameras. Inside the FPGA of the sequence measurement system, the sequence measurement program, the pixel clock modification, the SignalTap file configuration and the SignalTap online observation has been integrated to realize the precise measurement to the IR camera. Te sequence measurement

  5. β-Isocyanoalanine as an IR probe: comparison of vibrational dynamics between isonitrile and nitrile-derivatized IR probes.

    PubMed

    Maj, Michał; Ahn, Changwoo; Kossowska, Dorota; Park, Kwanghee; Kwak, Kyungwon; Han, Hogyu; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-05-01

    An infrared (IR) probe based on isonitrile (NC)-derivatized alanine 1 was synthesized and the vibrational properties of its NC stretching mode were investigated using FTIR and femtosecond IR pump-probe spectroscopy. It is found that the NC stretching mode is very sensitive to the hydrogen-bonding ability of solvent molecules. Moreover, its transition dipole strength is larger than that of nitrile (CN) in nitrile-derivatized IR probe 2. The vibrational lifetime of the NC stretching mode is found to be 5.5 ± 0.2 ps in both D2O and DMF solvents, which is several times longer than that of the azido (N3) stretching mode in azido-derivatized IR probe 3. Altogether these properties suggest that the NC group can be a very promising sensing moiety of IR probes for studying the solvation structure and dynamics of biomolecules.

  6. Doubly Excited States in Be III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T.; Bentzen, S. M.; Poulsen, O.

    1980-01-01

    The triplet spectrum of doubly excited Be III has been studied in the wavelength region of 75-5000 Å in order to test the validity of the theoretical term values reported by Lipsky et al. The beam-foil excitation technique was applied to effectively populate the doubly excited states. The identified lower-lying, doubly excited states 2p2 3P, 2pnp 3P, or 3D, and 2pnd 3P, or 3D (n = 3, 4) show that the theoretical term values should be slightly modified.

  7. Two-photon excitation fluorescence bioassays.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, Pekka; Soukka, Jori; Soini, Juhani T

    2008-01-01

    Application of two-photon excitation of fluorescence in microscopy is one of the major discoveries of the "renaissance" of light microscopy that started in the 1980s. The technique derives its advantages from the biologically "smooth" wavelength of the excitation light and the confinement of the excitation. Difficult, and seemingly nontransparent, samples may be imaged with the technique with good resolution. Although the bioresearch has been concentrating mostly on the positive properties of the technique for imaging, the same properties may be applied successfully to nonimaging bioassays. This article focuses on the development path of two-photon excitation-based assay system. PMID:18596366

  8. Laser Excited Fluorescence Studies Of Black Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of black liquor was investigated as a possible monitoring technique for pulping processes. A nitrogen pumped dye laser was used to examine the fluorescence spectrum of black liquor solutions. Various excitation wavelengths were used between 290 and 403 nm. Black liquor fluorescence spectra were found to vary with both excitation wavelength and black liquor concentration. Laser excited fluorescence was found to be a sensitive technique for measurement of black liquor with good detection limits and linear response over a large dynamic range.

  9. The potential of vibrational spectroscopy in the early detection of cervical cancer: an exciting emerging field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Faolain, Eoghan; Hunter, Mary B.; Byrne, Joe M.; Kelehan, Peter; Byrne, Hugh J.; Lyng, Fiona M.

    2005-06-01

    The application of vibrational spectroscopy to disease diagnosis is a relatively new, rapidly evolving scientific field. Techniques such as Raman and infrared spectroscopy have shown great promise in this regard over the past number of years. This study directly compared Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron infrared (SR-IR) spectroscopy on parallel cervical cancer samples. Both frozen and dewaxed formalin fixed paraffin preserved tissue sections were examined. Both tissue types produced good quality Raman and SR-IR spectra, although the lesser processed, frozen tissue sections displayed the most detailed spectra. Spectroscopy was shown capable of discriminating between different cell types in normal cervical tissue. Spectra recorded from invasive carcinoma showed a marked difference from those recorded from normal cervical epithelial cells. Spectral differences identified with the onset of carcinogenesis include increased nucleic acid contributions and decreased glycogen levels. These investigations pave the way for an enlarged study into this exciting new diagnostic field.

  10. Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation.

    PubMed

    Engholm, M; Norin, L; Aberg, D

    2007-11-15

    A broad visible luminescence band and characteristic IR luminescence of Yb(3+) ions are observed under UV excitation in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass. Samples made under both oxidizing and reducing conditions are analyzed. A strong charge-transfer absorption band in the UV range is observed for glass samples containing ytterbium. Additional absorption bands are observed for the sample made under reducing conditions, which are associated with f-d transitions of divalent ytterbium. The visible luminescence band is attributed to 5d-4f emission from Yb(2+) ions, and the IR luminescence is concluded to originate from a relaxed charge-transfer transition. The findings are important to explain induced optical losses (photodarkening) in high-power fiber lasers. PMID:18026305

  11. Graphitic carbon nitride C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl: Characterisation by UV and near-IR FT Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Paul F.; Lees, Victoria; Quirico, Eric; Sella, Andrea; Reynard, Bruno; Simon, Patrick; Bailey, Edward; Deifallah, Malek; Cora, Furio

    2009-10-15

    The graphitic layered compound C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl was prepared by reaction between melamine and cyanuric chloride under high pressure-high temperature conditions in a piston cylinder apparatus and characterised using SEM, powder X-ray diffraction, UV Raman and near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy with near-IR excitation. Theoretical calculations using density functional methods permitted evaluation of the mode of attachment of H atoms to nitrogen sites in the structure and a better understanding of the X-ray diffraction pattern. Broadening in the UV and near-IR FT Raman spectra indicate possible disordering of the void sites within the graphitic layers or it could be due to electron-phonon coupling effects. - Graphical abstract: The graphitic layered compound C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl was prepared by reaction between melamine and cyanuric chloride under high pressure-high temperature conditions in a piston cylinder apparatus and characterised using SEM, powder X-ray diffraction, UV Raman and near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using near-IR excitation. Theoretical calculations using density functional methods permitted evaluation of the mode of attachment of H atoms to nitrogen sites around the C{sub 12}N{sub 12} voids within the layered structure and also led to better understanding of the X-ray diffraction pattern. Sharp peaks in the UV Raman spectra are due to C{sub 3}N{sub 3} triazine ring units in the structure, that may be enhanced by resonance Raman effects. Broadening in the UV and near-IR FT Raman spectra indicate possible disordering within the graphitic layers or electron-phonon coupling effects.

  12. The ir emission features: Emission from PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    SciTech Connect

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    PAHs can have several forms in the interstellar medium. To assess the importance of each requires the availability of a collection of high quality, complete mid-ir interstellar emission spectra, a collection of laboratory spectra of PAH samples prepared under realistic conditions and a firm understanding of the microscopic emission mechanism. Given what we currently know about PAHs, the spectroscopic data suggests that there are at least two components which contribute to the interstellar emission spectrum: free molecule sized PAHs producing the narrow features and amorphous carbon particles (which are primarily made up of an irregular ''lattice'' of PAHs) contributing to the broad underlying components. An exact treatment of the ir fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules shows that species containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra match more closely with the spectra of amorphous carbon particles. Since little is known about the spectroscopic properties of free PAHs and PAH clusters, much laboratory work is called for in conjunction with an observational program which focuses on the spatial characteristics of the spectra. In this way the distribution and evolution of carbon from molecule to particle can be traced. 38 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Thermoplasmonic Study of a Triple Band Optical Nanoantenna Strongly Coupled to Mid IR Molecular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Dihan; Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chunsheng; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-02-01

    We report the first thermal study of a triple band plasmonic nanoantenna strongly coupled to a molecular mode at mid IR wavelength (MW IR). The hybrid plasmonic structure supports three spatially and spectrally variant resonances of which two are magnetic and one is dipolar in nature. A hybridized mode is excited by coupling the structure’s plasmonic mode with the vibrational mode of PMMA at 5.79 μm. Qualitative agreement between the spectral changes in simulation and experiment clearly indicates that resistive heating is the dominant mechanisms behind the intensity changes of the dipolar and magnetic peaks. The study also unveils the thermal insensitivity of the coupled mode intensity as the temperature is increased. We propose a mechanism to reduce the relative intensity change of the coupled mode at elevated temperature by mode detuning and surface current engineering and demonstrate less than 9% intensity variation. Later, we perform a temperature cycling test and investigate into the degradation of the Au-PMMA composite device. The failure condition is identified to be primarily associated with the surface chemistry of the material interface rather than the deformation of the nanopatterns. The study reveals the robustness of the strongly coupled hybridized mode even under multiple cycling.

  14. Electrochemistry and spectroscopy of ortho-metalated complexes of Ir(III) and Rh(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsawa, Y.; Sprouse, S.; King, K.A.; DeArmond, M.K.; Hanck, K.W.; Watts, R.J.

    1987-02-26

    The electrochemical and UV-visible spectroscopic properties of Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes of the ortho-metalating (NC) ligands, 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) and benzo(h)quinone (bzq), have been studied. Cyclic voltammetric studies of several of the dimeric species, (M(NC)/sub 2/Cl)/sub 2/, indicate metal-centered oxidation occurs at moderate potentials. Cationic monomers of the type M(NC)/sub 2/(NN)/sup +/ where (NN) = 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline have been prepared by reaction of the chelating ligands with the parent dimers. Cyclic voltammetric studies of these monomers indicate that several reversible ligand-centered reductions are generally observed and that the chelating ligand is more easily reduced than is the ortho-metalating ligand. Spectroscopic studies of the mixed ligand monomers indicate that dual emissions from MLCT states associated with the ortho-metalating and chelating ligands occur in the Ir(III) complexes whereas a single emission from a ligand-localized excited state is observed in the Rh(III) complexes. These results are discussed in terms of electronic and nuclear coupling factors analogous to those encountered in descriptions of bimolecular energy and electron-transfer processes.

  15. Thermoplasmonic Study of a Triple Band Optical Nanoantenna Strongly Coupled to Mid IR Molecular Mode

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Dihan; Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chunsheng; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-01-01

    We report the first thermal study of a triple band plasmonic nanoantenna strongly coupled to a molecular mode at mid IR wavelength (MW IR). The hybrid plasmonic structure supports three spatially and spectrally variant resonances of which two are magnetic and one is dipolar in nature. A hybridized mode is excited by coupling the structure’s plasmonic mode with the vibrational mode of PMMA at 5.79 μm. Qualitative agreement between the spectral changes in simulation and experiment clearly indicates that resistive heating is the dominant mechanisms behind the intensity changes of the dipolar and magnetic peaks. The study also unveils the thermal insensitivity of the coupled mode intensity as the temperature is increased. We propose a mechanism to reduce the relative intensity change of the coupled mode at elevated temperature by mode detuning and surface current engineering and demonstrate less than 9% intensity variation. Later, we perform a temperature cycling test and investigate into the degradation of the Au-PMMA composite device. The failure condition is identified to be primarily associated with the surface chemistry of the material interface rather than the deformation of the nanopatterns. The study reveals the robustness of the strongly coupled hybridized mode even under multiple cycling. PMID:26916549

  16. Effects of dynamical couplings in IR spectra of the hydrogen bond in N-phenylacrylamide crystals.

    PubMed

    Flakus, Henryk T; Michta, Anna; Nowak, Maria; Kusz, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    This article presents the investigation results of the polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond in N-phenylacrylamide crystals measured in the frequency range of the proton and deuteron, ν(N-H) and ν(N-D), stretching vibration bands. The basic spectral properties of the crystals were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the "strong-coupling" theory. The proposed model of the centrosymmetric dimer of hydrogen bonds facilitated the explanation of the well-developed, two-branch structure of the ν(N-H) and ν(N-D) bands as well as the isotopic dilution effects in the spectra. The vibronic mechanism of the generation of the long-wave branch of the ν(N-H) band ascribed to the excitation of the totally symmetric proton vibration was elucidated. The complex fine structure pattern of ν(N-H) and ν(N-D) bands in N-phenylacrylamide spectra in comparison with the spectra of other secondary amide crystals (e.g., N-methylacetamide and acetanilide) can be accounted for in terms of the vibronic model for the forbidden transition breaking in the dimers. On the basis of the linear dichroic and temperature effects in the polarized IR spectra of N-phenylacrylamide crystals, the H/D isotopic "self-organization" effects were revealed. PMID:21469720

  17. Manifestation of Nonadiabatic Effects in the IR Spectrum of Para-Benzoquinone Radical Cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piech, Krzysztof; Bally, Thomas; Ichino, Takatoshi; Stanton, John F.

    2013-06-01

    X-irradiation of an Ar matrix doped with p-benzoquinone (PBQ) at 10 K leads to formation of the PBQ radical cation (PBQ^{bullet +}) and radical anion (PBQ^{bullet -}). The IR spectrum of PBQ^{bullet +} exhibits broad and dense absorption bands in the 2000 cm^{-1} and higher energy region. Another characteristic of the spectrum is the presence of three intense peaks in the lower energy region. Equation-of-motion coupled-cluster calculations have been performed to analyze the spectrum with the quasi-diabatic model Hamiltonian technique. A spectral simulation based on the model Hamiltonian reproduces the observed IR spectrum very well, revealing that the electronic transition to the low-lying excited state, {˜ A} ^2B_{2u} ← {˜ X} ^2B_{3g}, is severely affected by nonadiabatic interaction of the two states, to which the aforementioned features are attributed. In particular, three b_{1u} fundamental peaks for {˜ X} ^2B_{3g} PBQ^{bullet +} gain large intensities from the electronic transition through the vibronic coupling. On the other hand, transition to another b_{1u} fundamental level (anti-symmetric CO stretch) in the {˜ X} state has a diminished intensity due to cancellation of the electronic contribution and the usual dipole derivative contribution. Furthermore, this b_{1u} level is significantly scrambled with nearby vibronic states of b_{2u} symmetry, which accounts for the weak broad band experimentally observed in the 1560-1600 cm^{-1} region.

  18. Thermoplasmonic Study of a Triple Band Optical Nanoantenna Strongly Coupled to Mid IR Molecular Mode.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Dihan; Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chunsheng; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-01-01

    We report the first thermal study of a triple band plasmonic nanoantenna strongly coupled to a molecular mode at mid IR wavelength (MW IR). The hybrid plasmonic structure supports three spatially and spectrally variant resonances of which two are magnetic and one is dipolar in nature. A hybridized mode is excited by coupling the structure's plasmonic mode with the vibrational mode of PMMA at 5.79 μm. Qualitative agreement between the spectral changes in simulation and experiment clearly indicates that resistive heating is the dominant mechanisms behind the intensity changes of the dipolar and magnetic peaks. The study also unveils the thermal insensitivity of the coupled mode intensity as the temperature is increased. We propose a mechanism to reduce the relative intensity change of the coupled mode at elevated temperature by mode detuning and surface current engineering and demonstrate less than 9% intensity variation. Later, we perform a temperature cycling test and investigate into the degradation of the Au-PMMA composite device. The failure condition is identified to be primarily associated with the surface chemistry of the material interface rather than the deformation of the nanopatterns. The study reveals the robustness of the strongly coupled hybridized mode even under multiple cycling. PMID:26916549

  19. The impact of IRS-mandated employee reclassification.

    PubMed

    Theisen, B A; Pelfrey, S

    1997-04-01

    The IRS requires healthcare organizations to properly classify their workers as either independent contractors or organizational employees. In order to protect their organizations from IRS-imposed monetary fines, healthcare financial managers must understand how the IRS evaluates employment status and the consequences their organizations will face if they misclassify employees. Changes involving the status of independent contractors and organizational employees instituted by the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 are favorable to employers and clarify safehaven provisions under section 530 of the 1978 Revenue Act. Significant changes include requiring the IRS to notify employers of section 530's relief provisions when an audit begins, expanding section 530 relief, clarifying industry practice relief provisions, and shifting the burden of proof to the IRS. In addition to Federal legislation, the IRS introduced administrative initiatives, such as those contained in Announcement 96-13, to clarify worker reclassification issues. In Announcement 96-13, the IRS implemented a three-part plan that includes a test classification settlement program, an appeals process, and a training manual to clarify these issues.

  20. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum near-IR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using near-IR reflectance and near-IR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1500 – 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for comparison. The highest contrast for near-IR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 – 1700 nm. These near-IR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either co-polarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500-1700-nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for near-IR reflectance measurements. PMID:24817807

  1. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum near-IR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using near-IR reflectance and near-IR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1500 - 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for comparison. The highest contrast for near- IR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 - 1700 nm. These near-IR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either co-polarization or crosspolarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500-1700-nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for near-IR reflectance measurements.

  2. Near-IR imaging of occlusal dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Christopher M.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains and pigmentation. Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  3. Oxygen orders differently under graphene: new superstructures on Ir(111).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Galera, A J; Schröder, U A; Huttmann, F; Jolie, W; Craes, F; Busse, C; Caciuc, V; Atodiresei, N; Blügel, S; Michely, T

    2016-01-28

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the oxygen adsorbate superstructures on bare Ir(111) are identified and compared to the ones formed by intercalation in between graphene and the Ir(111) substrate. For bare Ir(111) we observe O-(2 × 2) and O-(2 × 1) structures, thereby clarifying a persistent uncertainty about the existence of these structures and the role of defects for their stability. For the case of graphene-covered Ir(111), oxygen intercalation superstructures can be imaged through the graphene monolayer by choosing proper tunneling conditions. Depending on the pressure, temperature and duration of O2 exposure as well as on the graphene morphology, O-(2 × 2), O-(√3×√3)-R30°, O-(2 × 1) and O-(2√3 × 2√3)-R30° superstructures with respect to Ir(111) are observed under the graphene cover. Two of these structures, the O-(√3 × √3)-R30° and the (2√3 × 2√3)-R30° structure are only observed when the graphene layer is on top. Phase coexistence and formation conditions of the intercalation structures between graphene and Ir(111) are analyzed. The experimental results are compared to density functional theory calculations including dispersive forces. The existence of these phases under graphene and their absence on bare Ir(111) are discussed in terms of possible changes in the adsorbate-substrate interaction due to the presence of the graphene cover. PMID:26426949

  4. Plant Sunscreens in Nature: UV and IR Spectroscopy of Sinapate Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Jacob C.; Walsh, Patrick S.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Allais, Florent

    2013-06-01

    Plants are exposed to prolonged amounts of UV radiation, with elevated levels of UV-B (280-320 nm) as the ozone layer is depleted. When UV-B radiation penetrates the leaf epidermis, substantial oxidative damage can occur to plant tissues and plant growth can be inhibited. Sinapate esters, particularly sinapoyl malate, have been shown to efficiently prevent such damaging effects. By studying a series of molecules in this unique class under the isolated, cold conditions of a supersonic expansion, the fundamental UV-spectroscopic properties and photophysical aspects following UV absorption can be interrogated in detail. Sinapic acid and neutral sinapoyl malate were brought into the gas phase by laser desorption and detected via resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI). IR-UV double resonance methods were employed to obtain single-conformation UV and IR spectra. As the UV chromophore of interest is the sinapoyl moiety, sinapic acid served as the simplest model to compare directly to the more functionalized sinapoyl malate. It has a spectrum much like most aromatics, with a strong {ππ}^* origin, and well-resolved vibronic structure. By contrast, the spectrum for sinapoyl malate displays a large, broad absorption with little resolved vibronic structure, reflecting its role in nature as a pivotal and efficient UV protectant for plants, serving as the plant's sunscreen. Using conformer-specific IR spectroscopy, the individual conformations of both species were assigned and used as the basis for further ab initio calculations of the excited states that give rise to the observed behavior. Landry, L.G.; Chapple, C.S.; Last, R.L. Plant Physiol. {1995}, 109, 1159-1166.

  5. d→f Energy Transfer in Ir(III)/Eu(III) Dyads: Use of a Naphthyl Spacer as a Spatial and Energetic “Stepping Stone”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A series of luminescent complexes based on {Ir(phpy)2} (phpy = cyclometallating anion of 2-phenylpyridine) or {Ir(F2phpy)2} [F2phpy = cyclometallating anion of 2-(2′,4′-difluorophenyl)pyridine] units, with an additional 3-(2-pyridyl)-pyrazole (pypz) ligand, have been prepared; fluorination of the phenylpyridine ligands results in a blue-shift of the usual 3MLCT/3LC luminescence of the Ir unit from 477 to 455 nm. These complexes have pendant from the coordinated pyrazolyl ring an additional chelating 3-(2-pyridyl)-pyrazole unit, separated via a flexible chain containing a naphthalene-1,4-diyl or naphthalene-1,5-diyl spacer. Crystal structures show that the flexibility of the pendant chain allows the naphthyl group to lie close to the Ir core and participate in a π-stacking interaction with a coordinated phpy or F2phpy ligand. Luminescence spectra show that, whereas the {Ir(phpy)2(pypz)} complexes show typical Ir-based emission—albeit with lengthened lifetimes because of interaction with the stacked naphthyl group—the {Ir(F2phpy)2(pypz)} complexes are nearly quenched. This is because the higher energy of the Ir-based 3MLCT/3LC excited state can now be quenched by the adjacent naphthyl group to form a long-lived naphthyl-centered triplet (3nap) state which is detectable by transient absorption. Coordination of an {Eu(hfac)3} unit (hfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate) to the pendant pypz binding site affords Ir–naphthyl–Eu triads. For the triads containing a {Ir(phpy)2} core, the unavailability of the 3nap state (not populated by the Ir-based excited state which is too low in energy) means that direct Ir→Eu energy-transfer occurs in the same way as in other flexible Ir/Eu complexes. However for the triads based on the{Ir(F2phpy)2} core, the initial Ir→3nap energy-transfer step is followed by a second, slower, 3nap→Eu energy-transfer step: transient absorption measurements clearly show the 3nap state being sensitized by the Ir center

  6. Attosecond XUV absorption spectroscopy of doubly excited states in helium atoms dressed by a time-delayed femtosecond infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. Q.; Ye, D. F.; Ding, Thomas; Pfeifer, Thomas; Fu, L. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy of doubly excited states of helium atoms by solving the time-dependent two-electron Schrödinger equation numerically based on a one-dimensional model. The helium atoms are subjected to an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse and a time-delayed infrared (IR) few-cycle laser pulse. A superposition of doubly excited states populated by the XUV pulse is identified, which interferes with the direct ionization pathway leading to Fano resonance profiles in the photoabsorption spectrum. In the presence of an IR laser, however, the Fano line profiles are strongly modified: A shifting, splitting, and broadening of the original absorption lines is observed when the XUV attosecond pulse and infrared few-cycle laser pulse overlap in time, which is in good agreement with recent experimental results. At certain time delays, we observe symmetric Lorentz, inverted Fano profiles, and even negative absorption cross sections indicating that the XUV light can be amplified during the interaction with atoms. We further prove that the above pictures are general for different doubly excited states by suitably varying the frequency of the IR field to coherently couple the corresponding states.

  7. Suppression of Star Formation in the Hosts of Low-excitation Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir

    2016-02-01

    The feedback from radio-loud active galactic nuclei (R-AGNs) may help maintain low star-formation (SF) rates in their early-type hosts, but the observational evidence for this mechanism has been inconclusive. We study systematic differences of aggregate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of various subsets of ∼4000 low-redshift R-AGNs from Best & Heckman with respect to (currently) inactive control samples selected to have matching redshift, stellar mass, population age, axis ratio, and environment. Aggregate SEDs, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 22 μm), were constructed using a Bayesian method that eliminates biases from non-detections in Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. We study rare high-excitation sources separately from low-excitation ones, which we split by environment and host properties. We find that both the UV and mid-IR emission of non-cluster R-AGNs (80% of sample) are suppressed by ∼0.2 dex relative to that of the control group, especially for moderately massive galaxies (log M* ≲ 11). The difference disappears for high-mass R-AGNs and for R-AGNs in clusters, where other, non-AGN quenching/maintenance mechanisms may dominate, or where the suppression of SF due to AGNs may persist between active phases of the central engine, perhaps because of the presence of a hot gaseous halo storing AGN energy. High-excitation (high accretion rate) sources, which make up 2% of the R-AGN sample, do not show any evidence of SF suppression (their UV is the same as in controls), but they exhibit a strong mid-IR excess due to AGN dust heating.

  8. Multi-photon excitation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments. PMID:16756664

  9. Multi-photon excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments.

  10. Multi-photon excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments. PMID:16756664

  11. UV-Enhanced IR Raman System for Identifying Biohazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirbl, Robert; Moynihan, Philip; Lane, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    An instrumentation system that would include an ultraviolet (UV) laser or light-emitting diode, an infrared (IR) laser, and the equivalent of an IR Raman spectrometer has been proposed to enable noncontact identification of hazardous biological agents and chemicals. In prior research, IR Raman scattering had shown promise as a means of such identification, except that the Raman-scattered light was often found to be too weak to be detected or to enable unambiguous identification in practical applications. The proposed system would utilize UV illumination as part of a two-level optical-pumping scheme to intensify the Raman signal sufficiently to enable positive identification.

  12. Patient Safety in Interventional Radiology: A CIRSE IR Checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M. J.; Fanelli, F.; Haage, P.; Hausegger, K.; Lienden, K. P. Van

    2012-04-15

    Interventional radiology (IR) is an invasive speciality with the potential for complications as with other invasive specialities. The World Health Organization (WHO) produced a surgical safety checklist to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery. The Cardiovascular and Interventional Society of Europe (CIRSE) set up a task force to produce a checklist for IR. Use of the checklist will, we hope, reduce the incidence of complications after IR procedures. It has been modified from the WHO surgical safety checklist and the RAD PASS from Holland.

  13. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  14. Small pixel pitch MCT IR-modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, H.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Rutzinger, S.; Wendler, J.

    2016-05-01

    It is only some years ago, since VGA format detectors in 15μm pitch, manufactured with AIM's MCT n-on-p LPE standard technology, have been introduced to replace TV/4 format detector arrays as a system upgrade. In recent years a rapid increase in the demand for higher resolution, while preserving high thermal resolution, compactness and low power budget is observed. To satisfy these needs AIM has realized first prototypes of MWIR XGA format (1024x768) detector arrays in 10μm pitch. They fit in the same compact dewar as 640x512, 15μm pitch detector arrays. Therefore, they are best suited for system upgrade purposes to benefit from higher spatial resolution and keep cost on system level low. By combining pitch size reduction with recent development progress in the fields of miniature cryocoolers, short dewars and high operating temperatures the way ahead to ultra-compact high performance MWIR-modules is prepared. For cost reduction MBE grown MCT on commercially available GaAs substrates is introduced at AIM. Recently, 640x512, 15μm pitch FPAs, grown with MBE have successfully passed long-term high temperature storage tests as a crucial step towards serial production readiness level for use in future products. Pitch size reduction is not limited to arrays sensitive in the MWIR, but is of great interest for high performance LWIR or 3rd Gen solutions. Some applications such as rotorcraft pilotage require superior spatial resolution in a compact design to master severe weather conditions or degraded visual environment such as brown-out. For these applications AIM is developing both LWIR as well as dual band detector arrays in HD-format (1280x720) with 12μm pitch. This paper will present latest results in the development of detector arrays with small pitch sizes of 10μm and 12μm at AIM, together with their usage to realize compact cooled IR-modules.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of carbazolide-based iridium PNP pincer complexes. Mechanistic and computational investigation of alkene hydrogenation: evidence for an Ir(III)/Ir(V)/Ir(III) catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Kim, Bong Gon; Guironnet, Damien; Brookhart, Maurice; Guan, Changjian; Wang, David Y; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S

    2014-05-01

    New carbazolide-based iridium pincer complexes ((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4), 3a, and ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)2, 3b, have been prepared and characterized. The dihydride, 3b, reacts with ethylene to yield the cis-dihydride ethylene complex cis-((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4)(H)2. Under ethylene this complex reacts slowly at 70 °C to yield ethane and the ethylene complex, 3a. Kinetic analysis establishes that the reaction rate is dependent on ethylene concentration and labeling studies show reversible migratory insertion to form an ethyl hydride complex prior to formation of 3a. Exposure of cis-((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4)(H)2 to hydrogen results in very rapid formation of ethane and dihydride, 3b. DFT analysis suggests that ethane elimination from the ethyl hydride complex is assisted by ethylene through formation of ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)(Et)(C2H4) and by H2 through formation of ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)(Et)(H2). Elimination of ethane from Ir(III) complex ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)(Et)(H2) is calculated to proceed through an Ir(V) complex ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)3(Et) which reductively eliminates ethane with a very low barrier to return to the Ir(III) dihydride, 3b. Under catalytic hydrogenation conditions (C2H4/H2), cis-((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4)(H)2 is the catalyst resting state, and the catalysis proceeds via an Ir(III)/Ir(V)/Ir(III) cycle. This is in sharp contrast to isoelectronic (PCP)Ir systems in which hydrogenation proceeds through an Ir(III)/Ir(I)/Ir(III) cycle. The basis for this remarkable difference is discussed. PMID:24746026

  16. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Receptor (IGF-IR) Translocates to Nucleus and Autoregulates IGF-IR Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarfstein, Rive; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Yeheskel, Adva; Edry, Liat; Shomron, Noam; Warman, Naama; Wertheimer, Efrat; Maor, Sharon; Shochat, Lea; Werner, Haim

    2012-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in mammary gland biology as well as in the etiology of breast cancer. The IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), which mediates the biological actions of IGF-I and IGF-II, has emerged in recent years as a promising therapeutic target. The IGF and estrogen signaling pathways act in a synergistic manner in breast epithelial cells. The present study was aimed at investigating 1) the putative translocation of IGF-IR and the related insulin receptor (IR) to the nucleus in breast cancer cells, 2) the impact of IGF-IR and IR levels on IGF-IR biosynthesis in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-depleted breast cancer cells, and 3) the potential transcription factor role of IGF-IR in the specific context of IGF-IR gene regulation. We describe here a novel mechanism of autoregulation of IGF-IR gene expression by cellular IGF-IR, which is seemingly dependent on ER status. Regulation of the IGF-IR gene by IGF-IR protein is mediated at the level of transcription, as demonstrated by 1) binding assays (DNA affinity chromatography and ChIP) showing specific IGF-IR binding to IGF-IR promoter DNA and 2) transient transfection assays showing transactivation of the IGF-IR promoter by exogenous IGF-IR. The IR is also capable of translocating to the nucleus and binding the IGF-IR promoter in ER-depleted, but not in ER-positive, cells. However, transcription factors IGF-IR and IR display diametrically opposite activities in the context of IGF-IR gene regulation. Thus, whereas IGF-IR stimulated IGF-IR gene expression, IR inhibited IGF-IR promoter activity. In summary, we have identified a novel mechanism of IGF-IR gene autoregulation in breast cancer cells. The clinical implications of these findings and, in particular, the impact of IGF-IR/IR nuclear localization on targeted therapy require further investigation. PMID:22128190

  17. Magnetic order and spin excitations in layered Heisenberg antiferromagnets with compass-model anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, A. A.; Ihle, D.; Plakida, N. M.

    2015-02-01

    The spin-wave excitation spectrum, magnetization, and Néel temperature for the quasi-two-dimensional spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with the compass-model interaction in the plane proposed for iridates are calculated in the random phase approximation. The spin-wave spectrum agrees well with data of Lanczos diagonalization. We find that the Néel temperature is enhanced by the compass-model interaction and is close to the experimental value for Ba2IrO4.

  18. Nanophotonics and nanochemistry: controlling the excitation dynamics for frequency up- and down-conversion in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanying; Yang, Chunhui; Prasad, Paras N

    2013-07-16

    Nanophotonics is an emerging science dealing with the interaction of light and matter on a nanometer scale and holds promise to produce new generation nanophosphors with highly efficient frequency conversion of infrared (IR) light. Scientists can control the excitation dynamics by using nanochemistry to produce hierarchically built nanostructures and tailor their interfaces. These nanophosphors can either perform frequency up-conversion from IR to visible or ultraviolet (UV) or down-conversion, which results in the IR light being further red shifted. Nanophotonics and nanochemistry open up numerous opportunities for these photon converters, including in high contrast bioimaging, photodynamic therapy, drug release and gene delivery, nanothermometry, and solar cells. Applications of these nanophosphors in these directions derive from three main stimuli. Light excitation and emission within the near-infrared (NIR) "optical transparency window" of tissues is ideal for high contrast in vitro and in vivo imaging. This is due to low natural florescence, reduced scattering background, and deep penetration in tissues. Secondly, the naked eye is highly sensitive in the visible range, but it has no response to IR light. Therefore, many scientists have interest in the frequency up-conversion of IR wavelengths for security and display applications. Lastly, frequency up-conversion can convert IR photons to higher energy photons, which can then readily be absorbed by solar materials. Current solar devices do not use abundant IR light that comprises almost half of solar energy. In this Account, we present our recent work on nanophotonic control of frequency up- and down-conversion in fluoride nanophosphors, and their biophotonic and nanophotonic applications. Through nanoscopic control of phonon dynamics, electronic energy transfer, local crystal field, and surface-induced non-radiative processes, we were able to produce new generation nanophosphors with highly efficient frequency

  19. Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N.

    1995-08-01

    The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.

  20. The Excited State Spectrum of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2010-08-01

    The determination of the highly excited state spectrum of baryons within QCD is a major theoretical and experimental challenge. I will present recent results from lattice QCD that give some indications on the structure of these highly excited states, and outline on-going and future work needed for a full determination of the spectrum, including strong decays.